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REVISTA CONSTRUCIA DE MAINI

Anul 59, Nr. 4/ 2007

ISSN 0573 7419 Din sumar


EDITOR: ICTCM CITAf - OID.ICM

041303 Bucuresti TRANSFER TEHNOLOGIC


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DEZVOLTARE DE PRODUS
Redactor: Elena Baican
CAD / CAM / CAE
Responsabil editor: Irina Rdulescu

Responsabil marketing: Mariana TEHNOLOGII INOVATIVE


Craciunoiu

Tehnoredactor: Mihaela Neagu


FABRICATIE VIRTUALA

Coperta: TRIBOLOGIE
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ANUL 59 / 2007 NR. 4

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV

REVISTA CONSTRUCIA DE MAINI

COMITET TIINIFIC
Octavian BOLOGA - Universitatea Lucian Blaga din Sibiu
Olivier BONNEAU Universitatea din Poitiers, Frana
Ion BOSTAN Universitatea Tehnic a Moldovei
K.D. BOUZAKIS Aristoteles University of Thessaloniki, Grecia
Doug BRANHAM - Lubrication Systems Company, Houston, Texas, USA
Dan BRNDAU - Universitatea Lucian Blaga din Sibiu
Mircea CIOBANU - Universitatea tefan cel Mare din Suceava
George DRGHICI - Universitatea Politehnica din Timioara
Valeriu DULGHERU Universitatea Tehnic a Moldovei
Igor FESENKO - Institute for Superhard Materials , National Academy of Sciences, Ukraine
Dan FILIPOIU - Universitatea POLITEHNICA din Bucureti
Michel FILLON Universitatea din Poitiers, Frana
Mohamed HAJJAM Universitatea din Poitiers, Frana
Tudor ICLNZAN - Universitatea Politehnica din Timioara
Nicolae Valentin IVAN - Universitatea TRANSILVANIA din Braov
Branko IVKOVIC Universitatea din Kragujevac, Serbia
Gheorghe MOGAN Universitatea TRANSILVANIA din Braov
Ilie MUSC - Universitatea tefan cel Mare din Suceava
Nicolae OANCEA - Universitatea Dunrea de Jos din Galai
Dumitru OLARU - Universitatea Tehnic Gheorghe Asachi din Iai
Juozas PADGURSKAS Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Lithuania
Tudor PRISCARU - Universitatea POLITEHNICA din Bucureti
Vasile PUIU - Universitatea din Bacu
Stanisaw PYTKO - University of Science and Technology, Krakw, Poland
R. Raghavendra RAO - University College of Engineering, India
Alexandru RDULESCU - Universitatea POLITEHNICA din Bucureti
Minodora RP - Universitatea Dunrea de Jos din Galai
Lucian TUDOSE - Universitatea din Cluj
Thami ZEGHLOUL Universitatea din Poitiers, Frana

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007


COMITET ONORIFIC
Gheorghe AMZA - Universitatea POLITEHNICA din Bucureti
Niculae Napoleon ANTONESCU Universitatea Petrol i Gaze din Ploieti
Traian AURITE - Universitatea POLITEHNICA din Bucureti
Gavril CALEFARIU - Universitatea TRANSILVANIA din Braov
Mircea COZMNC - Universitatea Tehnic Gheorghe Asachi din Iai
Emanuel DIACONESCU Universitatea tefan cel Mare din Suceava
Marian GHEORGHE - Universitatea POLITEHNICA din Bucureti
Constantin ISPAS - Universitatea POLITEHNICA din Bucureti
Valeriu JINESCU - Universitatea POLITEHNICA din Bucureti
Aurel JULA - Universitatea TRANSILVANIA din Braov
Constantin MINCIU - Universitatea POLITEHNICA din Bucureti
Eugen PAY - Universitatea de Nord din Baia Mare
Iulian POPESCU - Universitatea din Craiova
Aurelian VLASE - Universitatea POLITEHNICA din Bucureti
Ioan VOICA - Universitatea POLITEHNICA din Bucureti

EDITOR
Oficiul de Informare Documentar pentru Industrie, Cercetare, Management
din cadrul
Centrului Incubator Tehnologic de Afaceri
S.C. ICTCM S.A. BUCURETI

RESPONSABIL EDITOR
Irina Rdulescu

REDACTOR
Irina Rdulescu

TEHNOREDACTOR
Mihaela Neagu

GRAFICA
Ioana Dorobanu ID Print

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007


CUPRINS

TRANSFER TEHNOLOGIC SI INOVARE


1. TRANSFER TEHNOLOGIC SI INOVARE IN DOMENIUL CONSTRUCTIEI DE MASINI
AGRICOLE pag. 5
Muraru-Ionel Cornelia, Muraru Virgil Marian, Chesaru Mihaela, Dumitrascu Cristina
SC MAT SA Craiova

2. THE ALTRAN FOUNDATION FOR INNOVATION IS DUE TO LAUNCH ITS 2008 AWARD
ON THE THEME: REDUCING CO2 LEVELS IN THE ATMOSPHERE: OUR TECHNOLOGICAL
CHALLENGE!.
The Artificial Retina project from Pr. Jos Sahel - Laureate of the Altran Foundation
2007 Award pag. 9
Baptiste Pavy
Altran Foundation

DEZVOLTARE DE PRODUS
3. DEZVOLTAREA DE PRODUS ORIENTAT ASUPRA COSTURILOR
PE NTREG CICLU DE VIA AL ECHIPAMENTELOR pag. 13
Ioan Dan Filipoiu*, Stephan Mller**, Alexandra Mller ***
*
Universitatea POLITEHNICA Bucureti, Romnia,
**
EMC2 Computer Systems AG Zrich, Elveia,
***
Credit Suisse Zrich, Elveia

CAD / CAM / CAE


4. CERCETRI PRIVIND MODELAREA SI SIMULAREA PROCESULUI DE NANOFINISARE
A SUPRAFETELOR COMPLEXE PRIN CURGERE ABRAZIV
CU MEDII DE LUCRU REOPECTICE pag. 19
Valeriu Avramescu1, Nicolae Ionescu2, Norvegia Elena Avramescu3,Constantin Dogariu4,Gheorghe Orasanu1,
Aurelian Visan2, Adrian Dimon3, Roxana Grejdanescu1, Loredana Theodora Paun1, Catalin Horia Orasanu1
1
SC ICTCM Institutul de Cercetare si Proiecatre Tehnologica pentru Constructii Masini SA Bucuresti;
2
Universitatea Politehnica Centrul de cercetare, Consulting si Asistenta Tehnica in Ingineria Materialelor si Sudura
CAMIS, Bucuresti;
3
Institutul de Cercetare Dezvoltare pentru Sectoare Calde INTEC Bucuresti;
4
SC Tehnicom Group-D SRL Bucuresti

TEHNOLOGII INOVATIVE
5. ESTABLISHING ASSEMBLING TYPE BETWEEN THE BODIES FROM
METALLIC CARBIDES AND THE TAMPING TOOLS pag. 31
Cristinel Beleag1, Sorin George Badea1, Dumitru Dan Dragoi2
1
S.C. IMCF S.A. Bucureti, 2University of Bacau

6. THE HARD PASTE ASSEMBLING BETWEEN THE BODIES FROM


METALLIC CARBIDES AND THE TAMPING TOOLS pag. 39
S.G.Badea1, C. Beleag1 , D.D.Dragoi2
1
S.C. IMCF S.A. Bucureti, 2University of Bacau

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 2


7. ANALIZA CARACTERISTICILOR MECANO-ELASTICE I ELECTRICE
ALE ALIAJELOR ECOLOGICE CUATERNARE pag. 45
Vasilescu Dan Dragos1, Constantin Baciu2, Petrica Corabieru3, Anisoara Corabieru3, Mihai Lozovan4,
Viorel Dobrea4
1
SC PROCOMIMPEX Iasi, 2 UNIVERSITATEA TEHNICA GH. ASACHI Iasi,
3
SC PRESUM PROIECT SA Iasi, 4 INCDFT Iasi

8. ETUDE DOPTIMISATION ET DE ROBUSTESSE POUR LE PROCESSUS DE SEPARATION


ELECTROSTATIQUE pag. 49
Alexandra Dogaru* , Lucian Dascalescu** , Alexandru Radulescu*, Sorin Cananau*
*
Universit POLITEHNICA Bucarest, ROUMANIE,**Universit de Poitiers IUT Angoulme, FRANCE

9. SPLIT SPHERICAL ROLLER BEARINGS AN ECOLOGICAL SOLUTION


FOR REDUCING THE COSTS pag. 55
Luminita Madalina Draganus *, Alexandru Radulescu*, Mircea Despa**
*
University POLITEHNICA Bucharest, ROMANIA, **CN Industrial Group Bucharest, ROMANIA

10. CERCETRI PRIVIND REALIZAREA MEDIILOR DE LUCRU LA NANOFINISAREA


PRIN CURGERE ABRAZIV CU MEDII DE LUCRU REOPECTICE pag. 59
Valeriu Avramescu, Ctlin Horia Oranu ICTCM
Norvegia Elena Avramescu, Adrian Dimon - INTEC

11. SISTEME SUPERFLEXIBILE ROBOTIZATE NOI CONCEPTE pag. 65


Trygve Thomessen Productive Programming Metods As, Trondheim, Norvegia,
Vladimir Cardei, Valeriu Avramescu, Loredana Pun, Roxana Grejdnescu ICTCM

12. ASPECTE PRIVIND FUNCIONAREA UNEI INSTALAII EXPERIMENTALE BAZAT


PE EFECTUL DE SEPARARE ENERGETIC A UNUI CURENT TURBIONAR DE AER pag. 69
Rducanu Petre1, Barbu Valentin2, Popescu Anghel2
1
Universitatea Politehnica din Bucureti, 2 SC ICTCM SA Bucureti

13. CONCEPTIA MODULARA IN CONSTRUCTIA DE MASINI-UNELTE pag. 73


Gheorghe Marin1, Aurel Costea2, Nicoleta Rachieru2
1
SC ICTCM Institutul de Cercetare si Proiecatre Tehnologica pentru Constructii Masini SA Bucuresti
2
SC APLAST Campulung Muscel

14. POWER LOSSES ESTIMATION IN PRECESSIONAL GEAR pag. 77


Ion Bostan, Valeriu Dulgheru, Ion Bodnariuc
Technical University of Moldova, Dept. Theory of Machines and Machine Parts, Republic of Moldova

15. SERVICIU DE DIAGNOSTICARE PRIN VIBRATII


A MASINILOR SI ECHIPAMENTELOR INDUSTRIALE REALIZAT IN SPRIJINUL IMM pag. 81
Miron Zapciu
Universitatea POLITEHNICA din Bucureti

FABRICATIE VIRTUALA
16. NEW APPROACHES REGARDING THE CREATION OF VIRTUAL ENTERPRISES
IN THE NATIONAL NETWORK pag. 87
Marian Topologeanu
SC ICTCM SA Bucuresti

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 3


17. ASPECTE PRIVIND FABRICAIA VIRTUAL INTELIGENT A PROCESELOR
CU GRAD RIDICAT DE RISC DIN INDUSTRIA CONSTRUCTOARE DE MAINI
N VEDEREA REDUCERII VULNERABILITII I COMBATEREA
CONSECINELOR ACCIDENTELOR INDUSTRIALE pag. 93
Avramescu Valeriu, Grejdnescu Roxana,Pun Loredana Theodora
S.C. ICTCM S.A. Bucuresti

TRIBOLOGIE
18. THE BEHAVIOR OF THE PISTON-CYLINDER TRIBOSYSTEMS pag. 97
Gheorghe Potaru1, Andrei Potaru2, Victor Ceban3
Technical University of Moldova

19. WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF ALUMINA AND AISI 52100 STEEL AGAINST


MOLYBDENIUM BORIDE COATED AISI D2 STEEL pag. 105
Ugur Sen, H Unal, A Mimaroglu, S.Yilmaz, S Sen
Sakarya University, Sakarya-Turkey

20. ELASTO-HYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION ANALYSIS


OF PARTIAL ARC BEARINGS USING CFD & FSI pag. 109
Praveen Bhat, Satish Shenoy B, and R. Pai
Dept. of Mech. & Mfg. Engg., Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal, India.

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 4


TRANSFER TEHNOLOGIC SI INOVARE IN DOMENIUL
CONSTRUCTIEI DE MASINI AGRICOLE
Muraru-Ionel Cornelia, Muraru Virgil Marian, Chesaru Mihaela, Dumitrascu Cristina

SC MAT SA Craiova, cmuraru@inma-ita.ro

ABSTRACT: MAT Craiova is currently one of the biggest companies in Romania,


specialized in the production of agricultural and industrial tractors, agricultural
machinery, equipments, installations and tools, specifical equipment for the
agricultural farms, and also big tractors for construction and land improvement
works. Through its competitive product gamma, MAT Craiova is striving to satisfy
the needs of every customer, by offering an excellent price-performance ratio,
professionalism of our employees and the servicing provided.

KEYWORDS: competitiveness, price-performance ratio, innovation.

1. INTRODUCERE
In evolutia lor masinile pentru lucrarile
Compania MAT Craiova a fost fondata in anul 1878 solului au suferit o serie de modificari si perfectionari.
prin infiintarea primului atelier de fabricat si reparat Treptat constructia acestora a largit domeniul lor de
masini agricole, sucursala a firmei Clayton- utilizare si a usurat deservirea si comanda acestora.
Shussliworth din Anglia.
In anul 1893, o data cu asocierea cu compania austro-
ungara "Richard Graepel", productia si cifra de afaceri
au crescut rapid, ca urmare, in anul 1910 au fost
create noi ateliere pentru a sustine dezvoltarea
productiei.
O data cu terminarea lucrarilor de constructie a
actualui amplasament, in anul 1974, s-au introdus in
productie primele tipuri de tractoare universale
agricole si a fost diversificata semnificativ gama de
produse a companiei.
Astazi, MAT Craiova, avand in spate peste 128 de ani
de experienta in producerea de tehnica agricola si
dispunand de capacitati moderne de productie, vine in
intampinarea clientilor proprii cu solutii performante
in domeniu. La MAT Craiova productia de pluguri este structurata
Compania este situata pe cea mai mare platforma astfel:
industriala a municipiului Craiova, avand o suprafata - pluguri universale
de peste 16,5 hectare, compusa din hale industriale, - pluguri universale cu discuri
cladiri administrative si alte constructii sau terenuri. - pluguri pentru vie.
In plus, compania are acces direct la magistralele
feroviare si drumurile nationale si europene. Fluxul de fabricatie actual

Productia de pluguri in SC MAT SA In prezent fluxul de fabricatie necesar


Craiova executiei plugurilor se realizeaza pe linii de
fabricatie care au in componenta lor utilaje clasice,
Unul din obiectivele de activitate in MAT universale, in sectii de productie diferite, amplasate in
SA Craiova este si proiectarea de masini agricole locatii diferite, folosind tehnologia de grup.
pentru lucrarile solului.

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 5


Fluxurile tehnologice de fabricatie au un In viitor startegia firmei, serviciile oferite de
circuit mare si greoi, drum critic neoptimizat, cu INMA-ITA, suportul tehnic oferit de specialistii din
multe intretaieri, ingustari ale circuitului, cu tacte cadrul INMA, realizarea proiectului de servicii
multiple, timpi interoperationali de lunga durata, specializate din cadrul programului INFRATECH,
executie pe loturi. reprezinta premise favorabile pentru realizarea
Utilajele din fluxurile tehnologice sunt echipate cu obiectivelor prezentate si pentru castigarea unui nou
dispozitive specifie produsului respectiv, au o segment de piata considerabil.
productivitate scazuta si sunt depasite moral si fizic. Avantajele si dezavantajele principale ale
produselor SC MAT SA sunt:
Fluxul de fabricatie modernizat Avantaje:
potentialul productiv important in
Pentru realizarea unor produse performante domeniu, oferta diversificata, o calitate
se impune modernizarea fluxurilor tehnologice prin deosebita a produselor, peste nivelul
achizitionarea de utilaje noi care sa realizeze produse concurentei interne, raport pret/calitate
la un nivel tehnic calitativ superior si la un pret de atractiv, cresterea volumului la export,
cost cat mai mic. incadrarea in standarde, imbunatatirea
Prin produsele oferite, MAT Craiova designului, modalitati diverse de
urmareste satisfacerea in totalitate a cerintelor achizitionare si plata, garantie si
cumparatorilor, in primul rand prin oferirea unui postgarantie, service.
raport pret-performanta extrem de competitiv, printr-o Dezavantaje:
gama de produse diversificata, prin inaltul imaginea nu tocmai favorabila a
profesionalism de care personalul da dovada si prin produselor romanesti, lipsa promovarii
serviciile aditionale oferite. unor programe nationale clare, costuri
relativ mari, un design uneori perimat,
2. PREMISE FAVORABILE inglobarea in produse a unor colaborari
ce nu au fiabilitatea scontata.
TRANSFERULUI TEHNOLOGIC
MAT Craiova este dotata cu aparatura de
ultima generatie, linii de productie automate, un
departament propriu de cercetare-proiectare si un
personal profesionist, cu un inalt nivel de
calificare.Gama de produse fabricate de MAT Craiova
este in conformitate cu standardele europene in
domeniu, fiind adaptata si diversificata in functie de
cerintele pietei.
Sistemul propriu de Management al
Asigurarii Calitatii este aliniat la nivel european, fiind
certificat in conformitate cu cerintele standardului
ISO 9001:2000 de catre SGS/UKAS.
Avand in vedere utilajele moderne, de ultima
generatie de care MAT Craiova dispune, societatea
are capacitatea de a oferi urmatoarele servicii:
Prelucrare prin aschiere, in serie mare
Debitare cu laser
Deformari plastice la rece
Deformari plastice la cald
Constructii metalice sudate
Acoperiri metalice
Tratamente termice
Incubarea afacerii in cadrul INMA-ITA creaza
premisele realizarii de linii tehnologice dotate cu
utilaje corespunzatoare, la nivelul calitativ si de
securitate cerut de Piata Unica europeana.

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 6


3. STRATEGIE SI TRANSFER In prezent firma SC MAT Craiova SA are o
TEHNOLOGIC evolutie buna, este intr-un proces de modernizare si
dezvoltare a produselor proprii si liniilor de fabricatie,
Strategia SC MAT SA Craiova in domeniul exista un portofoliu substantial de cereri de oferta.
transferului tehnologic si incubarii este de a dezvolta Reteaua de distributie MAT Craiova
fluxurile tehnologice de fabricatie pentru produse cuprinde 40 de dealeri autorizati, dispusi pe intreg
inovative - Plug purtat cu latime de lucu variabila sau teritoriul Romaniei, dar si o echipa proprie de agenti
fixa, pentru tractor de mare putere (brevet de inventie de vanzari care se pot deplasa in toate colturile tarii,
nr.113920C1/30.05.2000). pentru a fi mai aproape de fiecare client.
In acest sens MAT CRAIOVA a infiintat un Grupurile tinta carora li se adreseaza
punct de lucru in cadrul Incubatorului Tehnologic si serviciile SC MAT SA Craiova sunt:
de Afaceri INMA-ITA utilitatile fiind asigurate de - persoane fizice care presteaza sevicii in
acesta conform Contractului de incubare nr. agricultura;
02/01.09.2006, pentru a avea acces rapid la tehnologia - persoane juridice care presteaza lucrari in
si produsele inovative aflata in portofoliul Institutului agricultura, atat pentru piata interna cat si
National de Cercetare Dezvoltare pentru Masini si externa.
Instalatii Destinate Agriculturii si Industriei Punctele tari ale ratei de succes inalte estimate
Alimentare INMA. de catre firma SC MAT SA Craiova sunt:
Intr-o prima etapa se realizeaza transferal - capacitatea de munc si de productie
tehnologic pentru produsul inovativ, marketingul modernizata
pentru acest produs se va realiza la punctual de lucru - cunotine tehnologice in domeniul CNC
de la INMA-ITA. - cunotine de pia reale si aprofundate
Fluxurile de fabricatie aplicate acestui produs vor - capital disponibil pentru actiuni de
fi dotate cu echipamente tehnice corespunztoare dezvoltare
nivelului calitativ i de securitate cerut de Piata Unica - relaii in toate mediile agricole
Europeana, in scopul realizarii produselor inovative in - produsul este nou, valorifica un brevet de
conditiile utilizarii de tehnologii performante, inclusiv inventie INMA si rezultatele cercetarii in
echipamente tehnice care inglobeaza Know-How. cadrul unui proiect finantat
Printre acestea se numara urmatoarele utilaje - exista piata si potentiali clienti
performante achizitionate in cadrul proiectului: - produsele se utilizeaza pentru agricultura pe
- masina de debitat oxigaz (1 cap plasma + 1 mari suprafete, economica, eficienta, pentru
cap oxigaz) culturile tehnice care au din ce in ce mai
- centru de strunjire si frezare multifunctional multa utilizare
- convertizor sudura - procesele nu afecteaza mediul inconjurator,
- masina de sudat CO2 emisiile in aer, sol si apa fiind in parametrii
- cuptor cementare normali aliniati la Programul de conformare
- masina de prereglat scule pentru utilaje cu stabilit cu Agentia de Mediu Dolj.
comanda numerica
- cuantovac 4. CONCLUZII
- masina de ascutit scule pentru comanda
numerica Rata de success a transferului tehnologic a
- cabina sablare cu rezervor sub presiune. produsului inovativ Plug purtat cu latime de lucu
variabila sau fixa, pentru tractor de mare putere , cu
Fiind executat in tara pretul produsului va fi brevetul inventie nr.113920C1/30.05.2000, este
accesibil, la o calitate aliniata la cerinte si la standarde asigurata de:
europene. Se va asigura service in garantie si - derularea transferului tehnologic prin
postgarantie precum si piesele de schimb necesare intermediul unui incubator tehnologic si
intretinerii si repararii, respectandu-se normele de afaceri inovativ;
europene de securitate,calitate si de mediu. - experienta tehnologica deosebita a
Calitatea produselor MAT Craiova este in beneficiarului transferului tehnologic;
deplina conformitate cu standardele europene, fiind - capacitatea de cercetare, dezvoltare si
garantata si de principalii partenerii ai companiei inovare a titularului brevetului;
printre care amintim: Deutz, Agrocelli. - calitatea produsului precum si
Tehnologia moderna folosita precum si respectarea conditiilor de mediu.
testele riguroase la care sunt supuse produsele ofera o
garantie suplimentara asupra calitatii. BIBLIOGRAFIE
In plus, gama cuprinzatoare de produse
oferita si raportul deosebit de avantajos pret- 1. http://www.matcraiova.ro/
2. Plan de afaceri SC MAT CRAIOVA SA
performanta asigura fiecarui client garantia ca va gasi
produsele de care are nevoie.

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 7


Quick Info

The heavy-duty CXP III and CXA III belts also


include an aramide reinforced polychloroprene
elastomer tooth profile coated with a polyamide fabric
for maximum durability. Its suitability to high-torque
or high-speed applications is claimed to result in a
300 per cent extended life, reduced noise levels and
high resistance to abrasion.

The maintenance-free timing belt does not require


lubrication or retensioning, is anti-static to ISO 9563
and is also partially resistant to oils. The high-torque
CXP III version can achieve the same power rating
with a 20 per cent narrower belt width when
Double-sided timing belts in range of compared to the standard version.
variants
Conti Synchrotwin double-sided timing belts are
offered in HTD and STD tooth profiles in 5, 8, and
Transdev is adding the Conti Synchrotwin double-
14mm pitches, in lengths to 2310mm. The standard
sided timing belt to its already wide range of power
version is also available with the H 12.7mm (1/2inch)
transmission products.
pitch trapezoidal tooth profile.
Aimed at multiple synchronous drive applications
Application areas for this range include printing,
where space and weight are at a premium, the double-
packaging and textile machinery, office automation
sided timing belt can power same-direction or
equipment, heavy-duty roller conveyors, machine
opposing-direction rotary systems with force
tools, compressors and chain drive replacements.
distributed on both sides - and with efficiency to 98
per cent.
(http://www.engineerlive.com/news)
The range is offered with a choice of tooth profiles
and with materials and construction technologies to
suit heavy-duty, high-torque or high-stress/high-speed
drives. A standard version is also available for
economic low- to mid-power performance.

The Conti Synchrotwin double-sided timing belt


range utilises a polychloroprene backing with aramide
or glass cord tension members.

In particular, the aramide tension member maintains a


constant belt length with maximum resistance to tooth
deformation that is especially advantageous under
rapid direction reversal conditions.

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 8


THE ALTRAN FOUNDATION FOR INNOVATION
IS DUE TO LAUNCH ITS 2008 AWARD ON THE THEME:
REDUCING CO2 LEVELS IN THE ATMOSPHERE:
OUR TECHNOLOGICAL CHALLENGE!
Baptiste Pavy,
In Charge of Marketing, Communication and Knowledge Management, Altran Foundation
baptiste.pavy@altran.com

The Altran Foundation for Innovation launches its 9 Reducing energy consumption
2008 Award to get onto the issue of reducing CO2
concentration in the atmosphere. Today, climate 9 Reducing CO2 production and improving
warming is accepted as a major issue by the energy efficiency through process
international community and we have no choice but optimization
to try and tackle it, and tackle it quickly. As we know,
global warming is due to rising CO2 levels in the 9 Improving CO2 capture technologies
atmosphere, and many now accept that this increase is
caused by our own day-to-day activities. 9 Improving CO2 storage technologies

During the last century, emissions of greenhouse 9 Recycling through development of CO2
gases have increased by 50% 1 reaching conversion techniques
unprecedented heights. Mankind is now living on an
endangered planet where CO2 concentration means A UNIQUE AND ORIGINAL GRANT
greenhouse gases and global warming This A scientific and technological support that
situation disrupts climates and ecological balances. In
this context, what can we do to stop this disaster? could value up to 1 million!
As every year, the award winner will be offered a
WHAT IF TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION financial grant of 16.000 plus one year of
WERE THE SOLUTION? technological and personalised support, for use in
the furtherance of the project. More precisely, the
As with previous years, the Altran Foundation has winner benefits from the unique expertise and know-
focussed on key issues that have wide ranging effect how of the 17.000 international consultants and
on everyday lives. This year is no different, and the managers at Altran, in terms of research and
theme for 2008 is: Reducing CO2 levels in the scientific innovation: technological development,
atmosphere: our technological challenge! design, industrialisation, cost optimisation, project
The Award is open to international project leaders management, market studies, marketing, partnership
working on this theme and coming from environment, searches, fund raising, communication, multimedia,
energy, transport, building, manufacturing industry, corporate strategy, etc.
or aeronautics
An international jury composed of independent SOME KEY FIGURES
specialists is responsible for the selection of the best
projects and the final Laureate.
Atmospheric CO2 continue to increase: up by
This international competition will reward an
more than 20% in 50 years (Source: ONF -
innovative technology-related project that takes into
National Office of Forests)
account one of the following issues:
Emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) from human
activity have increased from an insignificant
level two centuries ago to over 25 billion tons
worldwide today. (Source: US department of
1
Energy )
Source CO2 solidaire : www.co2solidaire.org

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 9


CO2 consumption increases every year. Even if About Altran
this growth is arrested now, our consumption will
rise by 70% between 2000 and 2030. (Source: Altran is the European leader in innovation consulting
IEA - International Energy Agency) and high technology. The Groups 17,000
consultants, operating worldwide, cover the entire
If nothing is done to fight against greenhouse range of engineering specialities, including
gases emissions, temperatures are predicted to electronics, information technology, quality and
increase 1.4 to 5.8 degrees (2.5210.44F) by organisation. Altran offers its clients ongoing
2100. (Source: CEA - Commissariat lEnergie support throughout the innovation cycle, from
Atomique) technology watch, applied basic research and
management consulting to industrial systems
CO2 emissions caused by fossil fuels have engineering and information systems. The Group
accelerated much faster than expected: by 1.1% provides services to most industries, including the
per year in the 1990s and 3% per year between automotive, aeronautics, space and
2000 and 2005. (Source: IPCC - telecommunications sectors.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change).
Founded in 1982, Altran operates in 20 countries.
About the Altran Foundation In 2006, it generated a turnover of 1,495.4 million.
(www.altran-foundation.org)
Since it was created in 1996, the Altran Foundation
has been intended to support and promote innovation
for the general good, in several areas of application.
Altran wishes to be socially committed by mobilizing
and uniting the groups strengths around strong
values such as creativity, innovation, independence,
etc. The Foundation Award is international, with
candidate projects coming from some twenty
European countries as well as the United States and
Brazil.

The jury that decides who deserves the Foundations


Innovation Award each year is totally independent
from Altran. It consists of international experts
chosen for their reputation and skill in the fields
encompassed by the theme specific to the year. The
members of the jury base their decision on several
selection criteria. These include the response to the
problem posed by the theme, the general interest of
the project, its innovative nature, viability and the
motives and competence of the project owner.

A pioneer in the field of sponsoring competence, the


Altran Foundation experience has been widely
recognized, as evidenced by the 2006 Award of
Admical (a corporate philanthropy association) -
Fondation de France, which rewards the originality
and durability of the Altran Foundation actions.
Moreover, it won the 2002 Special Jury Prize. These
awards recognize philanthropic and sponsorship
programmes in all fields.

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 10


The Artificial Retina project from
Pr. Jos Sahel
Laureate of the Altran Foundation
2007 Award

Press release

On Monday October 1st, the Award Ceremony took


place at the Maison de la Chimie in Paris. On this
occasion the name of the 2007Altran Foundation
Award Laureate on the theme Mending the human
body, through technological innovation was
revealed. The Award went to the Artificial
Retinaproject from Pr. Jos Sahel. After auditing
the 6 finalists on September 7th, the jury headed by
Pierre Tambourin - Chief Executive of Genopole - A UNIQUE AND ORIGINAL GRANT
decided to reward the exceptional innovation
supported by Pr. Sahel and his team.
A SCIENTIFIC AND
TECHNOLOGICAL SUPPORT THAT
AN ARTIFICIAL RETINA THAT ENABLES COULD VALUE UP TO 1 MILLION!
BLIND PEOPLE TO PARTLY RECOVER VISION
As every year, the award winner will be offered a
financial grant of 16.000 plus one year of
Nowadays, 1.5 million people in the world suffer
technological and personalised support, for use in
from retinal photoreceptor degeneration and this
the furtherance of the project. More precisely, the
number is constantly increasing because of the
winner benefits from the unique expertise and know-
extension of life expectancy. Professor Sahel and his
how of the 17.000 international consultants and
team at the Vision Institute from the Quinze-Vingts
managers at Altran, in terms of research and
hospital in Paris have set up an artificial retina. This
scientific innovation: technological development,
project aims at enabling visually impaired and blind
design, industrialisation, cost optimisation, project
people to read big characters and to move in a limited
management, market studies, marketing, partnership
space.
searches, fund raising, communication, multimedia,
corporate strategy, ...
The retinal prosthesis will be introduced at the
original position of the photoreceptor to stimulate
An audit of the laureate project will be conducted
the remaining retinal cell layers and thus produce
soon in order to define the objectives of our
visual images. The current prototypes underline the
collaboration.
need for a technological step at the tissue/implant
interface. A multidisciplinary consortium - composed
of physicians, ophthalmologists, chemists, micro-
electricians, biologists, patients - has therefore SOME FIGURES ON THE 2007 AWARD
been constituted to produce retinal implants, new
biocompatible diamond structures and highly This year again, the Altran Foundation Award has
photosensitive materials. been a huge success.
More than 500 people downloaded the application
Industrial partners will soon be involved with the form on www.altran-foundation.org and finally 137
project to handle production constraints regarding the project leaders applied.
prototypes realisation planned in 2009. The first During the different selection steps, the best 40
artificial retina is intended to be available in 2011. projects had been short listed in Mai and last June the
6 finalists were chosen.

(www.altran-foundation.org)

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 11


Mission and action

The mission A recognized humankind commitment


In 1996, the Altran group created the Altran
The Foundation has gained a wealth of experience
Foundation for Innovation with a sole aim of :
over the past 11 years.
Promoting technological innovation for This experience has been widely recognized, as
the benefit of all. evidenced by the 2006 Admical* - Fondation de
France Award,, rewarding the originality and
This mission is in accordance with Altrans policy to durability of the Altran Foundations actions.
create and develop Technological Innovation
Consulting. Since its creation in 1982, the Group has Furthermore, the Altran Foundation has also been
taken part in major innovations that have emerged steadily supported by the European Commission.
over the last years and contributes to tomorrows
innovations. Renewable energies, road safety, *Association pour le Dveloppement du Mcnat
sustainable development are wide rang of subjects we Industriel et Commercial - a corporate philanthropy
tackle besides our clients. association.

As the European leader in Innovation Consulting, The reward


Altran has, naturally decided to make available its
collaborators skills to all in order to: Involving Altran's consultants and managers, this
support is adapted to the laureates needs and covers
to promote the development of creative ideas all the areas of Altran know-how, in terms of research
help and ensure project development and scientific innovation:
and finally guarantee achievement of these technologies development
ideas design
industrialisation
Our action costs optimisation
project management optimisation
an international scientific competition market studies, marketing
partnerships researches, fund raising
To accomplish this mission, the Altran Foundation communication, multimedia
organizes every year an international scientific corporate strategy
competition on a specific theme, which rewards the ...
most innovative project.
A personalized support
11 years of technological innovation for the interest
of all: The support process starts with an audit of the
winning project by Altran to identify its strengths,
- 1997 : Memory and heritage its weaknesses, its opportunities and its risks.
- 1998 : Pain and physical handicap
- 1999 : Water quality and water access Then, with the laureates, the Altran team defines the
- 2000 : Food quality and safety objectives to reach during the year of support and
- 2001 : Improving living conditions in urban areas the subsequent action plan.
- 2002 : Developing countries A team of expert consultants in their field is put in
- 2003 : Early childhood place. It can gather up to ten consultants, meaning its
- 2004 : Discovering, understanding and enjoying total value can reach 1 million euros.
Science through innovation
- 2005 : Overcoming social exclusion through After set-up phase, the consulting support can start.
scientific and technological innovation A real synergy builds up and final results are
- 2006 : Technological innovation and energy remarkable.
- 2007 : Mending the human body through (www.altran-foundation.org)
technological innovation

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 12


DEZVOLTAREA DE PRODUS ORIENTAT
ASUPRA COSTURILOR PE NTREG CICLU
DE VIA AL ECHIPAMENTELOR
Ioan Dan Filipoiu*, Stephan Mller**, Alexandra Mller ***
*
Universitatea POLITEHNICA Bucureti, Romnia, e-mail: filipoiu@amcsit.ro
**
EMC2 Computer Systems AG Zrich, Elveia, e-mail: mueller_stephan@emc.com
***
Credit Suisse Zrich, Elveia, e-mail: alexandra.d.mueller@credit-suisse.com

REZUMAT
Pentru a optimiza din punct de vedere economic echipamentele de producie, adiional costului
de achiziie, n decizia de cumprare, trebuie s se ia n considerare acolo unde performana
echipamentelor variaz diferite costuri i venituri specifice diverselor etape din ciclul de
via al produsului. Necesitatea productorilor de a ine cont de costul ciclului de via al
echipamentului n faza de dezvoltare de noi produse devine important, deoarece tot mai muli
clieni decid s cumpere bazndu-se pe analiza costurilor ciclului de via i cer informaii
legate de LCC de la productori. Scopul acestei lucrri este pe de-o parte de a sprijini
utilizatorul n selectarea variantei optime dintre mai multe alternative, iar pe de alt parte
ofer productorilor metodologii aplicabile n dezvoltarea de produs pentru obinerea unor
configuraii inovative de echipamente de producie, raportate la calculul costului ciclului de
via.

ABSTRACT
In order to optimise procurement of production equipment from an economic point of view, in
addition to acquisition cost, the procurement decision must also take into consideration such
costs and where performance of the production equipment varies yields which result from
the various life cycles of the investment good. The necessity of taking life cycle costs into
account in the development of new machines and systems by the manufacturer becomes all the
more urgent, the more customers make their procurement decisions on the basis of an LCC
from the manufacturer. The goals of this paper are, on the one hand, supporting the operator
in making a selection between various and on other hand for manufacturers provides a
methodical framework for the development of innovative configurations of production
equipment against the background of life cycle costs calculation.

KEY WORDS: Life Cycle Costing; Optimised design; Product development;


Manufacturer; Operator.

1. INTRODUCERE Configuraia i funcionalitatea unui sistem


tehnic, la fel ca i materialele utilizate n procesul de
Metoda Costului Ciclului de Via (Life Cycle fabricaie, componentele cumprate i procese de
Costing LCC) a fost dezvoltat n SUA, n producie folosite, sunt toate stabilite n primele etape
managementul proiectelor complexe de dezvoltare de ale ciclului de via al produsului. n diverse studii se
produs, pentru calculul fezabilitii economice a unor arat c 70% pn la 85% din costurile totale ale unui
noi produse aflate n faza de concepie [4]. Aceast nou produs sunt stabilite prin decizii luate n faza de
idee iniial formulat din punctul de vedere al concepie. Oricum, costurile care rezult n urma
utilizatorilor mainilor i sistemelor, productorii au deciziilor luate n dezvoltarea de produs i de
fost sftuii s o foloseasc i ei, pentru a putea fabricaie curent au implicaii majore n faza de
calcula costul total al produsului pe ntreg ciclul de utilizare i exploatare a echipamentului. Din punctul
via din motive de politic a creterii vnzrilor, iar de vedere al productorului asta nseamn c o
apoi pentru a folosi aceste date n dezvoltarea main sau un sistem poate fi optimizat n termenii
produselor viitoare. Necesitatea productorilor de a costului total, dac performanele i costurile
ine cont de costul total al ciclului de via (LCC) n presupuse pe termen lung pot fi estimate i luate n
faza de dezvoltare a mainilor i echipamentelor noi considerare. Devine clar faptul c determinarea
devine important, deoarece tot mai muli clieni iau costului ciclului de via al unui produs poate fi fcut
decizia de cumprare bazndu-se pe analiza LCC i att din perspectiva productorului, ct i a
cer informaii legate de LCC de la productori. utilizatorului, a clientului. Trebuie fcut o distincie
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 13
ntre cele dou puncte de vedere: clientul este interesat s produs i cuprinde totalitatea activitilor desfurate
fac o selecie ntre diversele oferte existente pe pia, iar n mod tiinific, prin aplicarea de legi, reguli i
productorul trebuie s realizeze produse care s-i aduc principii tiinifice specifice, pornindu-se de la ideea
profit i s fie competitive. Drept urmare este necesar ca de realizare a unui nou produs, clarificarea i
utilizatorul i productorul s dezvolte i s aplice elucidarea temei i ncheindu-se cu omologarea i
mpreun, metode i modele cu care n funcie de certificarea acestuia cu scopul introducerii n
condiiile specifice de aplicare costurile pe de o parte i fabricaie. n dezvoltarea de produs, activitile
performanele i beneficiile pe de alt parte, pot fi luate n specifice, sunt ntr-o interaciune continu cu nivelul
considerare pe ntreg ciclu de via al produsului. de cunotine anterioare i colaterale.
Pe de alt parte, activitile desfurate n
2. DEZVOLTAREA DE PRODUS dezvoltarea de produs se realizeaz pe baza unor
procese specifice care au caracter metodic.
n multe domenii ale ingineriei desfurarea Cel mai adesea, metodologia aplicat n
activitilor i proceselor reprezint rezultatul unei desfurarea proceselor cuprinde pai secveniali.
evoluii istorice, care a marcat de-a lungul timpului Trebuie remarcat c metodologia include implicit
aplicarea de legi i principii tiinifice n desfurarea latura tiinific prin: aplicarea de legi, reguli i
celor mai multe procese ale activitii umane. Se principii tiinifice specifice, la care se adaug adesea
poate spune c inginerul lucreaz cu legi i principii principii (reguli) ergonomice i estetice.
n realizarea activitilor sale, ntre care este inclus i Este relevant faptul c metodologia proceselor
dezvoltarea de produs. Rezult, de aici, componenta specifice dezvoltrii de produs se bazeaz pe
tiinific a dezvoltrii de produs. experien n domeniu. Spiritul creativ, intuiia i
experiena echipei de lucru sunt hotrtoare sub
aspectul calitii produsului dezvoltat chiar n
Dezvoltarea de produs reprezint una din contextul aplicrii principiilor tiinifice.
etapele semnificative ale ciclului de via al unui
Pia-client Mediu
(cerine social economice) (resurse, protecie, condiii)

PRODUS NOU
Ideea de produs

Organizaie
(resurse, int scop)

ETAPE ACTIVITI

Ideea i tema pentru un nou produs


Clarificarea i elucidarea temei

Elaborare concepte, studii, metode, proceduri,


Cercetare industrial analize tehnico-economice,
(aplicativ)
Dezvoltarea de produs

Elaborare planuri, scheme, documentaii privind


produsele i tehnologiile. Elaborare referenial iniial

Dezvoltare experimental Proiectare, realizare, experimentare model experimental, model


(tehnologic) funcional, prototip/ Instalaie pilot. Definitivare referenial.
Certificare prototip / Instalaie pilot.

Consultan i asisten tehnic. Elaborare documentaie de analiz


Transfer tehnologic
tehnico-economic. Transfer de cunotine. Diseminare informaii.

Valorificarea rezultatelor Proiectare serie zero. Pregtire de fabricaie.


la ageni economici Execuie, experimentare i certificate serie zero. Punere n fabricaie.
Fabricaie

Fig. 1. Etapele i activitile specifice dezvoltrii de produs

Practic, experiena membrilor echipei este asociat cu obinerea unui nou produs, n timpul impus, avnd
aplicarea de legi i principii tiinifice n cursa pentru soluii performante cerute de pia, la costuri minime

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 14


pe durata ciclului de via, astfel nct s fie - decizii asupra proceselor de producie
ndeplinite n totalitate exigenele clientului. alternativ;
Aplicarea metodic a cunoaterii, bazate pe - decizii asupra conceptelor de producie
experien, este determinant pentru calitatea alternativ (de exemplu: producie
produsului dezvoltat i pentru creterea valorii de continu sau discontinu, numrul de linii
ntrebuinare a acestuia. Pornind de la ideea de de producie etc.);
realizare a unui nou produs etapele i activitile - decizii asupra conceptelor de mentenan i
specifice dezvoltrii de produs sunt prezentate n logistic alternative.
figura 1 [1], [2]. Din punctul de vedere al productorului prin:
- decizii asupra configuraiilor alternative
3. COSTUL CICLULUI DE VIA ale echipamentelor de producie (de
exemplu: sisteme complementare de
diagnoz, de automatizare pentru
Costul Ciclului de Via definete totalul
monitorizarea calitii componentelor
costurilor generate de un sistem n timpul duratei sale
individuale i a funciilor automate i
de funcionare, din punctul de vedere al utilizatorului.
manuale);
Aceast metod intete optimizarea costului total i
- decizii asupra procedeelor alternative de
vizeaz ntregul sistem, dar i activitile i procesele
refolosire i reciclare a materialelor
conexe ce se desfoar pe durata de funcionare a
componente ale echipamentului realizat;
echipamentului [3]. Metoda are n vedere:
- decizii privind alegerea furnizorilor,
Prognoza: Costul ciclului de via, ca i
respectiv a surselor alternative de achiziii.
urmrirea efectelor deciziilor alternative ce
n Figura 2 sunt ilustrate diferite perspective ale
nu pot fi cuantificate n bani, trebuie s fie
productorilor i utilizatorilor cu privire la costurile
prevzute. Aceasta permite o evaluare
echipamentelor de producie pe ntreaga durat de
comparativ a alternativelor.
via [2], [6]. Practica industrial arat c achiziia
Reprezentarea: Factorii ce urmeaz a fi
echipamentelor de producie este adesea caracterizat
calculai trebuie reprezentai n aa fel nct
de opiniile divergente ale personalului din cadrul
s ofere un sprijin real procesului decizional.
departamentelor: comercial, de producie i tehnic.
Explicarea: Relaia ntre costuri i producie Cu toate c specificaiile echipamentelor sunt
trebuie nu doar s fie recunoscut, ci s fie publicate cu detalii tehnice i chestiuni legate de
explicat, pentru c doar aa se poate performan, acestea nu sunt suficiente pentru a lua o
influena n mod activ costul i calitatea. hotrre privitoare la achiziie, pe baza costurilor
Design-ul: De la nceputul procesului totale. n mod deosebit, acele caracteristici care
decizional, opiunile variate de design conduc la costuri diferite n etapa de utilizare i deci
optimizat i influena acestuia asupra care au o influen substanial asupra profitabilitii,
costului trebuie recunoscut, iar potenialul de sunt comunicate pe cale verbal, ceea ce nu este
scdere a costului trebuie valorificat. suficient.
Domeniile de aplicare ale Costului Ciclului de
Via sunt foarte variate i pot fi abordate astfel:
Din punctul de vedere al utilizatorului prin:
cost dezmembrare
productor utilizator
Cost

Costul ciclului de via

transfer vnzare produs


cost operare

preul int de vnzare a produsului cost mentenan


cost de producie
preul de cumprare valoarea investiiei
cost pentru dezvoltare produs

dezvoltare timp
iniiere planificare
realizare
dezvoltare de produs i fabricaie durata de utilizare a produsului la dup
durata de realizare a produsului beneficiar utilizare

Fig. 2. Reprezentarea grafic a Costului pe ntreg ciclul de via al produsului

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 15


Procese de achiziie i aprovizionare
Caiet de Depunere Analiza naintarea Acceptarea
sarcini de oferte ofertelor comenzii

1. Decizia pentru LCC

3. Stabilirea strategiei 2. Identificarea echipamentelor 4. Condiii de funcionare /


de mentenan alternative de producie durata de via

5. Identificarea factorilor
relevani pentru LCC

6. nregistrarea costurilor
i a rezultatelor

7. Evaluarea documentelor
obinute

8. Luarea deciziei i implementarea


deciziei

Fig. 3. Influena LCC asupra proceselor de aprovizionare

Costurile totale ale echipamentelor alternative Dac la aceste ntrebri se rspunde mai mult cu
de producie pe durata ciclului de via, asigur faptul da, atunci se poate presupune c este util aplicarea
c, n afar de cerine de performan, calitate i LCC. Trebuie notat faptul c respectivele rspunsuri
aspecte legate de fiabilitate, la fel ca i costurile ce depind de discreia subiectiv a celui ce ia decizia, i
rezult din operare i mentenan, pot fi luate n deci, poate fi folosit n special pentru a aduce
considerare n decizia de cumprare. argumente mpotriva utilizrii LCC. Obiective clasice
Doar prin intensa colaborare a prilor pentru care se aplic LCC n urma rspunsurilor
implicate, informaiile necesare pot fi obinute. n pozitive la ntrebrile de mai sus sunt: sisteme mari,
aceste condiii, variantele alternative sunt identificate echipamente de producie, cldiri, infrastructur
i evaluate prin: procesarea informaiilor i o analiz pentru transport sau vehicule.
amnunit a documentelor elaborate. Figura 3 arat Timpul i efortul depus pentru achiziia si
cum LCC se ncadreaz n ciclul de achiziie. evaluarea de date erau destul de mari n trecut, dar pe
Factorii ce trebuie luai n considerare variaz n msur ce se folosete din ce n ce mai mult tehnica
funcie de echipamentul de producie ce urmeaz a fi modern de calcul, acest aspect nu mai este relevant
achiziionat. n paragrafele urmtoare sunt explicai n multe dintre cazuri. Chiar i din punctul de vedere
paii individuali ce trebuiesc fcui pentru achiziie, al productorului, accesul la informaii relevante a
reprezentai schematic n figura 3. Completrile ofer devenit mult mai facil, datorit orientrii ctre client.
ajutor pentru implementarea practic a lor. Din acest motiv, aplicarea LCC devine fezabil din
Pentru a putea decide dac trebuie aplicat punct de vedere economic pentru o gam larg de
metoda LCC, trebuie rspuns la urmtoarele ntrebri: echipamente de producie.
Va genera echipamentul de producie costuri Exemplu:
recurente mari i costuri ulterioare relative la Se explic criteriile pentru aplicarea LCC
costurile de achiziie? pentru produsul motostivuitor.
Echipamentul de producie are o durat de Costul mentenanei pentru benzile transportoare
folosire ndelungat? (peste 16% din costul total) este foarte ridicat n
Costurile ulterioare achiziiei devin comparaie cu alte echipamente de producie. De
semnificative pe msura trecerii timpului? aceea, n multe cazuri merit ca n procesul de
Echipamentul de producie necesit cheltuieli achiziie s se fac o comparaie ntre un
mari dup ce este scos din folosin? motostivuitor care ar lucra n mod frecvent la
Exist vre-un potenial de reducere a capacitatea de ncrcare maxim, i unul care are
costurilor care s poat fi identificat prin capacitate de ncrcare mai mare.
aplicarea LCC? Chiar dac motostivuitoarele mai puternice necesit
n general o investiie mai mare, vehiculele care
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 16
lucreaz n mod constant la capacitatea maxim tind alternative de producie se potrivesc cu cerinele,
s se defecteze mai des. n practic, s-a observat c analiza LCC poate s contribuie la gsirea alternativei
atunci cnd costul total pe durata ciclului de via este optime din punct de vedere economic.
luat n calcul, versiunea mai puternic este de multe Pentru a putea face o prognoz despre costurile
ori mai economic. de mentenan, trebuie stabilit o strategie de analiz
n general, folosirea LCC, din punctul de vedere a mentenanei printr-o colaborare ntre productor i
al utilizatorului, servete ca ajutor n luarea unei utilizator. Strategia de mentenan se stabilete n
decizii cu privire la echipamentele alternative de funcie de principiile de baz ce vor fi aplicate
producie. Pentru acest scop, echipamentul de procesului de mentenan, aa cum se arat n figura 4
producie aflat pe pia, care corespunde cerinelor, [5]. O gam variat de factori de influen trebuie
trebuie identificat. Este obligatoriu ndeplinirea luai n considerare pentru aceast decizie. O
cerinelor din caietul de sarcini privitoare la importan deosebit o au:
performan i calitate, pentru a fi eligibil ntr-o - disponibilitatea tehnic convenit ntre pri;
analiz ulterioar. Aceast prim selecie adesea se - operaiile de service se vor face de
face pe baza datelor legate de performan. Dac personalul propriu, sau aceste sarcini se
datele despre performanele echipamentelor externalizeaz.

Strategia de mentenan

Strategia de mentenan corectiv Strategia de mentenan preventiv

Eliminarea defectelor cnd apar Mentenan planificat periodic

Mentenan difereniat Mentenan n funcie de condiii

Utilizarea sistemelor redundante Mentenan predictiv

Fig. 4. Strategia privind mentenana produsului

Rezultatele variatelor consideraii asupra Costurile de mentenan pot fi previzionate pe


strategiei de mentenan trebuie aplicate i luate n baza cerinelor de mentenan specifice. Descrierea
considerare pas cu pas. Strategiile alternative de condiiilor de funcionare este de asemenea necesar
mentenan pot fi i ele analizate cu ajutorul LCC. pentru a previziona cheltuielile de operare, ca i
Pe lng specificaiile tehnice i datele legate de ctigurile din diversele stadii de via a produsului.
performan, mai trebuie specificate condiiile de Pentru a simplifica aplicarea LCC se poate presupune
funcionare sub care sistemul va fi folosit i durata de c, condiiile de funcionare rmn constante de-a lungul
funcionare a acestuia. De aici rezult mai multe duratei de funcionare. Cu toate acestea, nu este o
interdependene, care vor fi explicate pe scurt n cele condiie n sine ci doar ridic semne de ntrebare cu
ce urmeaz. privire la timpul i efortul ce trebuiesc depuse.
Condiiile de funcionare specifice pot fi caracterizate Durata de funcionare planificat este principala
prin: frecventa utilizrii, intensitatea utilizrii, mediul referin legat de timp pentru o aplicaie LCC i un
de lucru, i condiiile ambientale. Acetia sunt factori factor decisiv cnd vine vorba de a opta ntre ofertele
cu influen puternic asupra fiabilitii unui sistem. diverilor productori de echipamente de producie.
Asta nseamn c, condiiile de funcionare specifice Acest factor care intervine n planificare, determin
n care lucreaz echipamentul de producie, de exemplu, dac un echipament de producie cu un
influeneaz n mod direct operaiunile de pre de achiziie mai mare, dar cu costuri mai mici de
mentenan, si deci costul mentenanei i produciei. operare, ntreinere i casare, reprezint o alternativ
Condiiile de funcionare relevante pentru viabil din punct de vedere economic fa de
mentenan pot fi descrise n concordan cu procurarea unui echipament la pre iniial mai redus,
standardul VDI 2885 [7]. Informaiile din fia tehnic dar cu costuri de ntreinere mai mari. Determinarea
i specificaiile productorului pot fi folosite pentru duratei de via planificate a echipamentelor de
determinarea condiiilor de funcionare. Descrierea producie este influenat de o gam larg de factori,
condiiilor de funcionare trebuie privite de ctre cum ar fi: pronosticul de marketing i vnzare,
cumprtor ca un service preliminar, care permite avantaje tehnologice, sau decizii strategice.
productorului s furnizeze date concrete despre Din aceast cauz, determinarea duratei de
cerinele de mentenan. n prezent, un productor funcionare trebuie acceptat ca un criteriu de
competent, orientat spre client, poate s furnizeze comparaie. Cum numeroi factori intervin n
aceste date. determinarea duratei de funcionare planificat a
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 17
echipamentelor de producie, este recomandat ca toi Pentru creterea pe viitor a fiabilitii metodei
factorii de decizie relevani dintr-o companie s fie LCC, se poate face o analiz a sensibilitii. Scopul
implicai n estimarea duratei de funcionare analizei sensibilitii este de a demonstra cum sunt
planificate. interconectai parametrii folosii n analiza LCC i
Trebuie luat o decizie individual n cazul rezultatele realizate.
fiecrei achiziii cu privire la costuri i ali factori ce nu
pot fi cuantificai n termeni monetari de care trebuie s 4. CONCLUZII
se in cont n evaluarea alternativelor. Costurile
relevante i restul factorilor trebuie determinate n Creterea performanelor echipamentelor de
comun de ctre departamentele comerciale i tehnice producie impun att productorilor ct i
implicate n procesul de achiziie. utilizatorilor analiza Costului Ciclului de Via al
Cum timpul i efortul necesare pentru stabilirea produselor pentru eficientizarea activitilor la nivelul
unui LCC n general cresc cu numrul tipului de agenilor economici.
costuri i de criterii de care trebuie s se in cont, n dezvoltarea de produs cel care concepe un nou
aceste costuri i factori n special trebuie s fie adui echipament de producie trebuie s ia n calcul nu
n atenie numai dac sunt cu adevrat relevani, adic numai costul de producie i preului de vnzare, ci i
dac au cu adevrat o influen substanial la costul a costul total pe ntreg ciclu de via. El trebuie s fie
total estimat i deci dac au un rol n diferenierea orientat asupra pieei, a potenialilor clieni, a
diverselor variante posibile. condiiilor ecologice i a implicaiilor utilizrii
Evaluarea echipamentelor de producie produsului asupra mediului
alternative este bazat n principal pe compararea Utilizatorul n procesele de achiziie i
costurilor i veniturilor anticipate pentru ntregul aprovizionare trebuie s fac o analiz a Costului
ciclu de via. Metodele statice de analiz sunt Ciclului de Via pentru variantele alternative de
folosite frecvent n practica industrial datorit echipamente de producie existente pe pia n
modului simplu de aplicare; totui exist opinii condiiile globalizrii i a tehnologiei informatice
contradictorii despre avantajele lor. Aceast abordare existente. El trebuie s aib n vedere nu numai costul
conduce la o situaie n care numai veniturile i de cumprare, aprovizionare, de transport, ci i
cheltuielile care intervin pe durata ciclului de via cheltuielile de punere n funciune, de pregtire a
sunt luate n considerare. n realitate, veniturile i personalului, de exploatare, de protecie a mediului,
cheltuielile nu sunt uniform distribuite pe perioada de de meninere n bun funcionare, de ntreinere i
via, astfel nct va trebui luat n calcul o perioad reparaii, de scoatere din funcionare, de
medie. Aceast perioad medie nu ofer concluzii dezmembrare i de dezafectare.
despre plile pe durata de funcionare. n metodele
statice, dobnda i lichiditile rezultate n urma
plilor i veniturilor sunt ignorate, deoarece aceste BIBLIOGRAFIE
metode nu iau n considerare factorul de timp.
n contrast cu metodele statice, metodele 1. Filipoiu I.D., Transferul tehnologic strategie promovat de
Programul RELANSIN, n Transferul tehnologic prin
dinamice se bazeaz pe observarea duratei de utilizare Programul RELANSIN proiecte realizate vol.1, Bucureti,
totale. Aceast abordare corespunde unei viziuni largi 2006, pag. 9 11.
a metodei Costului Ciclului de Via, deoarece timpul 2. Filipoiu I.D., Meier M., Kunz A., Mler St., - Tehnologii i
total de funcionare este luat drept baz. utilaje tehnologice * Fabricaie i costuri, ed. PRINTEH
Bucureti, 2003.
Factorii calitativi, cum ar fi timpul de livrare, 3. Gnther, T., Life Cycle Costing, WISU Das
poziionarea productorului pe pia, certificarea Wirtschaftsstudium, 10/1997, pp. 900-912.
furnizorilor, trebuie aplicate n alte metode de evaluare. 4. Kremin-Buch, B., Strategisches Kostmanagement
Pentru evaluarea factorilor calitativi, literatura de Grundlagen und moderne Instrumente. Wiesbaden,
Gabler Verlag, 1998.
specialitate descrie metode de exemplu analiza 5. * * *DIN EN 13306:2001 09 Begriffe der
beneficilor care i-au demonstrat utilitatea n practica Instandhaltung, Dreisprachige Fassung EN13306:2001
industrial. Este de notat faptul c, prin comparaie cu (Maintenance terminology, Trilingual version EN
analiza LCC, evaluarea factorilor calitativi trebuie fcut 13306:2001),Berlin, Beuth Verlag.
6. * * *VDI 2884:2005 Beschaffung, Betrieb und
pe baza unui consens ntre prile implicate. Instandhaltung von Produktionsmitteln unter
Evaluarea fcut reprezint o baz n luarea Anwendung von Life Cycle Costing (LCC), Berlin,
unei decizii pentru alternativa de achiziie potrivit. Beuth Verlag.
Decizia de a cumpra un echipament de 7. * * * VDI 2885:2003-12, Einheitliche Daten fr die
Instandhaltungsplanung und Ermittlung von
producie se bazeaz pe un pronostic, i de aceea o Instandhaltungskosten Daten und Datenermitlung, Berlin,
contribuie important o are managementul riscului. Beuth Verlag.
Modelul de analiz prezentat este potrivit pentru a
reduce gradul de incertitudine, i pentru a lua n
considerare aspectele importante legate de
mentenan.

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 18


CERCETARI PRIVIND MODELAREA SI SIMULAREA
PROCESULUI DE NANOFINISARE A SUPRAFETELOR
COMPLEXE PRIN CURGERE ABRAZIVA
CU MEDII DE LUCRU REOPECTICE
Valeriu Avramescu1, Nicolae Ionescu2, Norvegia Elena Avramescu3,
Constantin Dogariu4, Gheorghe Orasanu1, Aurelian Visan2, Adrian Dimon3,
Roxana Grejdanescu1, Loredana Theodora Paun1, Catalin Horia Orasanu1
1
SC ICTCM Institutul de Cercetare si Proiecatre Tehnologica pentru Constructii
Masini SA Bucuresti; vavramescu@ ictcm.ro
2
Universitatea Politehnica Centrul de cercetare, Consulting si Asistenta Tehnica
in Ingineria Materialelor si Sudura CAMIS, Bucuresti;
3
Institutul de Cercetare Dezvoltare pentru Sectoare Calde INTEC Bucuresti;
4
SC Tehnicom Group-D SRL Bucuresti

REZUMAT
Prezenta lucrare are la baza dezvoltarea unui concept integrator de nanoprelucrare
AFM, in special nanofinisare prin medii ce utilizeaza nanomateriale, realizarea unei
tehnologii si a unui echipament de nanofinisare a suprafetelor complexe folosind
medii de lucru reopectice.

CUVINTE CHEIE : modelare, simulare, nanofinisare, suprafete complexe, curgere


abraziva, medii de lucru reopectice

ABSTRACT
This paper presents a new integrator concept about nanoprocessing AFM, specially
nanofinishing, using nanomaterials medium and using technologies and equipment
for nanofinishing complex surfaces with rheopectics mediums.

KEY WORDS : modelling, simulation, nanofinishing, complex surfaces, abrasive flow,


rheopectics mediums

. 2. PROCEDEUL DE NANOFINISARE
1. INTRODUCERE A SUPRAFETELOR COMPLEXE
Prezenta lucrare are la baza dezvoltarea unui PRN CURGERE ABRAZIVA
concept integrator de nanoprelucrare, in special CU MEDIU DE LUCRU REOPECTICE
nanofinisare prin medii ce utilizeaza nanomateriale,
realizarea unei tehnologii si a unui echipament de Exist, pe plan mondial, un efort constant de reducere
nanofinisare a suprafetelor complexe folosind a costurilor produciei n paralel cu ridicarea nivelului
medii de lucru reopectice, care sa asigure o calitativ al produselor. Procedeele de nanoprelucrare sunt
productivitate superioara celei obtinute prin nc n faz de cunoatere din lipsa unor concepte clare
aplicarea tehnologiei actuale si sa fie o tehnologie corelate cu o baz tehnico-tiinific corespunztoare.
perfect ecologica, comparativ cu tehnologiile Procedeul de Prelucrare prin Curgere Abraziv
similare de pe plan mondial. Proiectul este relevant (Abrasive Flow Machining - A.F.M), utilizeaz un mediu
pentru dezvoltarea premiselor unei tehnologii de lucru reopectic care, conform denumirii, are drept
specifice fabricatiei pieselor cu suprafete complexe proprietate fundamental creterea vscozitii la aciunea
care necesita nanofinisarea in industrii precum cea unor fore de compresiune.
alimentara, electronica, realizarea de stante si Prin procedeul AFM pot fi finisate suprafee i
matrite, farmacie, medicina etc. muchii prin extrudarea unui mediu abraziv cu
vscozitate variabil, dependent de presiunea la care
este supus, direcionat corespunztor pe zonele n care
se dorete realizarea finisrii. Procesul de finisare prin
abraziune se produce numai n poriunile n care mediul

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 19


de lucru este direcionat i forat s curg prin Cu ajutorul programului Catia v 5, editia 16, mai
seciunea mai mic a suprafeei care se prelucreaz, precis cu ajutorul modulului Analysis & Simulation,
fr a fi afectate alte suprafee. Generative Structural Analysis, s-a realizat o analiza
In principiu, pentru o slefuire cu un mediu structurala a sasiului, incercand sa se obtina o imagine
reopectic, de o anumita consistenta, este nevoie ca precisa a fortelor principale la care acesta este supus
acesta din urma sa fie directionat, printr-un ajutaj, pe precum si comportamentul in timpul prelucrarii. Aceasta
suprafata piesei ce se doreste a fi finisata. In functie de analiza cu element finit este necesara pentru a gasi
proprietatile materialului din care este confectionata metoda cea mai buna de fabricare a elementului
piesa ale carei suprafete vor fi slefuite, de principal de rezistenta sau de a gasi solutii care sa
caracteristicile mediului reopectic si de calitatea ce se contracareze efectele deformarilor ce apar in sistem,
doreste a fi obtinuta in urma operatiei, se vor deoarece o rezistenta scazuta si implicit o deformare a
determina numarul de cicluri corespunzatoare. Astfel, sasiului, poate conduce la o prelucrare cu randament
cu ajutorul acestui mediu reopectic, se pot obtine scazut prin scaderea presiunii de extrudare a mediului
finisari chiar si in zona nano. reopectic, la o prelucrare nedorita a unor susprafete,
Mediul de lucru folosit pentru realizarea precum si la cedarea sistemului in timp ca urmare a
prelucrarilor este un mediu reopectic si consta intr- solicitarilor la oboseala.
un polimer in care se afla in dispersie particule Pe sasiul masinii sunt montati cilindrii care creaza
abrazive intr-o anumita concentratie. preziunea si imping mediul de lucru prin orificiile piesei
Granulele utilizate la prelucrarea prin curgere de prelucrat, tijele cu ajutorul carora se transmite
abraziva sunt din cele utilizate in mod frecvent: miscarea catre cilindrii, piesa de prelucrat precum si alte
granule din carbura de siliciu, carbura de bor sau elemente care fac posibila realizarea ansamblului.
oxid de aluminiu si diamant. Cunoscand solicitarile care apar in sistem precum si
Obiectivele principale urmarite sunt: constrangerile intre elemente, softul realizeaza reteaua de
sa asigure o nanofinisare-curatare de analiza formata din noduri si elemente, obtinandu-e o
calitate ridicata; structura optimizata a modelului pentru a oferi, la final,
sa permita realizarea unui grad marit date vizuale asupra evolutiei eforturilor precum si date
de flexibilitate in organizarea numerice cu ajutorul carora se pot trage concluzii
tehnologica; functionale.
fiabilitate mare si pret de cost redus; Prin reducerea modelului la o retea de elemente
ecologizarea procesului, unitare programul ofera informatii despre tensiunile la care
protectia operatorilor umani. este solicitat fiecare nod de retea, precum si o valoare
Dintre avantajele aplicarii acestei tehnologii se maxima a acestora cu localizarea exacta a nodului in care
pot enumera: sunt exercitate.
obtinerea unei suprafete cu rugozitate Primul pas al analizei a constat in realizarea
foarte mica; modelului CAD si importarea acestuia in modulul
Analysis & Simulation, urmand apoi algoritmul
productivitate mare obtinuta prin
propriu-zis. Pasul urmaror a fost realizat prin aplicarea
automatizarea intergrala a operatiei;
asupra modelului a constrangerilor si legaturilor dintre
flexibilitate mare prin aplicarea unei
elemente pentru a-i preciza programului gradele de
game dimensionale diverse de piese
libertate admise si natura legaturilor care fac posibila
cu investitii minime;
constructia, considerand placa de baza a sasiului ca fiind
tehnologie nepoluanta cu respectarea
incastrata deoarece, in realizate, aceasta este rigida, fara
normelor de protectie a mediului.
grade de libertate.
In Figura 1 este prezentata reteaua cu noduri si
3. ELEMENTE CONSTRUCTIVE elemente si zonele de solicitare extrema ale sasiului, iar
SI METODE DE ANALIZA in Figura 2 sunt prezentate rezultatele aplicarii fortei
STRUCTURALA A asupra sasiului.
COMPONENTELOR PRINCIPALE Avand in vedere rezultatele obtinute in urma
analizei celor doua solutii constructive, se observa ca in
Sasiul echipamentului de prelucrat prin curgere zona de imbinare ale celor doua elemente principale
abraziva se comporta ca un batiu pentru sistem, pe care alcatuiesc sasiul, nodurile si elementele retelei sunt
acesta asezandu-se celelalte elemente ale masinii, cel mai mult solicitate, exprimand in realitate o
determinand astfel orientarea piesei de prelucrat solicitare extrema a materialului in acele zone; in acelasi
precum si rezistenta sistemului in fata fortelor care timp, alte zone raman nesolicitate; exista astfel riscul
apar in proces, sasiul reprezentand elementul unei ruperi la oboseala in zona de imbinare sau o
fundamental de rezistenta a sistemului. comportare neadecvata a sasiului, ceea ce poate duce la
o functionare incorecta.

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 20


Astfel se constata nevoia unei solutii care sa anularea fortelor din sistem.
faca posibila reducerea solicitarii materialului sau

Figura 1. Reteua de noduri si zonele de solicitare extrema

Figura 2. Rezultatele aplicarii fortelor de vascozitate

4. MODELARE I SIMULARE simulrii depinde foarte mult de definirea corect a


PROCESE TEHNOLOGICE caracteristicilor materialului reopectic.
Suspensia de particule solide foarte fine este dificil
SPECIFICE DE NANOFINISARE de modelat.
CU MEDII REOPECTICE Pentru o cat mai bun corelare cu rezultatele
experimentale, modelul teoretic iniial a fost
Simularea proceselor de nanofinisare utiliznd realizat ca model 3D al sistemului experimental,
medii reopectice reprezint un domeniu nou n figura 3, astfel nct rezultatele teoretice s poat fi
inginerie. Mediul fluid este o structura complex de comparate cu cele experimentale.
diverse fluide n combinaie cu particule solide de
foarte mici dimensiuni. Corectitudinea rezultatelor

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 21


Figura 3. Model dispozitiv pentru nanofinisare AFM. Componente
1 Piesa de prelucrat;
2 Caseta pentru fixarea piesei format din dou piese;
3 Corp dispozitiv cu dou flane;
4 Cilindri pneumatici (reprezentai simplificat);
5 Nipluri de legtur ale cilindrilor pneumatici cu corpul dispozitivului;
6 Fluid reopectic.

Principiul de lucru al dispozitivului const n presiune i cu o anumit vitez. Presiunea fluidului


vehicularea fluidului prin alezajul piesei, de ctre va da apsarea nanoparticulelor pe suprafaa
pistoanele celor doi cilindri acionai pneumatic. n prelucrat, iar viteza va determina gradul de
funcie de presiunea i de debitul aerului din cei doi
cilindri, mediul reopectic va trece prin alezaj cu o finisare.
anumit

Figura 4. Modele simplificate ale dispozitivului de nanofinisare AFM

Pozitia 1 reprezint mediul reopectic, 2 sunt n cea de-a doua imagine se prezinta si modelul
pistoanele din cilindrii pneumatici care vehiculeaz simplificat al dispozitivului de nanofonisare.
fluidul reopectic, iar 3 reprezint modelul aerului Analiza procesului de nanofonisare s-a fcut
din cei doi cilindri. utiliznd sistemul de analiz ANSYS CFD, iar
modelul discretizat al mediului reopectic este
reprezentat in figura 5.

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 22


Figura 5. Modelul discretizat al mediului reopectic

n figurile urmtoare este reprezentat programului pn la atingerea convergenei


variaia unor parametri pe timpul rulrii soluiilor.

Figura 6. Media maselor i momentelor Figura 7. Variatia vscozitii cu viteza

Figura 8. Transferul de cldur Figura 9. Turbulene


(Disipare Eddy i Energie cinetic)

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 23


Toate acestea au fost obinute doar ntr-o modificarea parametrilor de intrare se poate deduce
singur analiz. La fiecare modificare, diagramele cum acetia influeneaz procesul de nanofinisare,
se schimb n funcie de parametrii procesului de ceea ce se prezinta in detaliu in cele ce urmeaza.
lucru. S-a efectuat o simulare a procesului luandu-se
n urma analizei prin metoda elementelor finite ca presiune de lucru, pentru aer, o valoare de 6 bari
se determin variaiile presiunii, variaiile vitezei (asupra pistonului care mpinge) i o contra-
precum i turbulenele ce apar n orice punct al
presiune de 1,5 bari asupra celuilalt piston. De
domeniului analizat. Prin interpretarea acestor
rezultate se poate vedea dac procesul de acest culpu de presiuni depinde foarte mult
nanofinisare se desfoar n bune condiii. Prin desfurarea procesului.

Figura 10. Variaia presiunii in masa de fluid Figura 11. Detaliu variaie presiune n zona piesei
reopectic de finisat

Figura 12. Apsarea exercitat asupra pereilor alezajului de ctre fluidul reopectic

In figurile 10 si 11 se poate observa ca variatia potential de uzura a anumitor suprafete ale


presiunii in masa de fluid reopectic este uniform dispozitivului cu repercursiuni asupra parametrilor
distribuita insa, in zona suprafetei de prelucrat apar procesului care nu mai pot fi controlati.
turbulente care modifica presiunea si efectul Situatia nu este acceptabila impunandu-se
acesteia trebuie luat in considerare. In figura 12 se conditii specifice de constructie a dispozitivului si
observ c n zona piesei apasarea este mult mai omogenitate a mediului.
mare dect in celelalte zone ale dispozitivului, iar O analiza a variaiilor vitezei fluidului de lucru
maximul are orientare in jos. n diferite zone ale dispozitivului va da mai multe
O analiza primara a fenomenului simulat arata informatii asupra solutiilor constructive ce trebuie
ca exista posibilitatea unei prelucrari neuniforme a adoptate. In figura 13 se prezinta variatia vitezei
suprafetei alezajului, ceea ce aduce prejudicii fluidului de lucru.
asupra prelucrarii propriu-zise dar, exista si un

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 24


Figura 13. Variatia vitezei in zona de diametru minim (vmax =12,73 m/sec)

In figurile 13a si 13b sunt detaliate zonele de lucreze eficient n acele zone. Se recomand
viteza interesante. Se constata c n zonele de col creterea contrapresiunii, ceea ce simularea a
suprafeele nu sunt bine acoperite de fluid, iar confirmat).
particulele abrazive pentru finisare nu ajung s

Figura 13a. Detaliu a Figura 13b. Detaliu b

Variatia vitezelor liniilor de curent ale fluidului In figurile 13c si 13d se prezinta detalii
de lucru are caracter de neregularitate si neliniaritate in mai pronuntate privind zona cea mai ingusta a
zonele in care diametrul curgerii se micsoreaza. ajutajului de curgere, chiar din zona de intrare-
Teoretic s-ar putea presupune ca exista iesire in ajutajul piesei de prelucrat, o bucsa in
aglomerari de particule, neomogenitati ale mediului, acest caz. Se poate observa o curgere nelaminara in
comportament neliniar al curgerii, constrangeri zona de prelucrare a piesei iar suprafata reala
constructive prin ingustare rapida a ajutajului, prelucrata are mici neregularitati observabile la
parametrii de lucru necorelati cu parametrii de proces, microscop (vezi figura 13c). In figura 13d sunt
aparitia de fenomene suplimentare neluate in calcul observabile liniile de viteza specifice curgerii, cu o
precum variatia necontrolata a vascozitatii si aglomerare centrala si rarefiere sau chiar lipsa
comportamentul real al mediului reopectic. locala pe diametrul exterior.
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 25
Figura 13c. Detaliu c Figura 13d. Detaliu d

In figura 13e sunt mai bine detaliate curbele distributie a particulelor abrazive in zona centrala
de viteza, observandu-se zone de aglomerare a ceea ce indica o neomogenitate a mediului de lucru.
acestora. Interesant este faptul ca in zonele unde In aceeasi unitate de timp, unele particule parcurg o
curbele de viteza sunt mai multe exista si o distanta mai mare decat altele, ceea ce induce ideea
incalzire locala a mediului de lucru. ca prelucrarea este data de actiunea combinata a
In figura 13f sunt prezentate liniile de curgere foarte multe microaschieri ale particulelor abrazive
ale particulelor abrazive, adica traiectoriile de lucru ca urmare a cresterii vascozitatii locale a mediului.
ale acestora. Si aici se observa ca exista o mai mare

Figura 13e. Detaliu e Figura 13f. Detaliu f

Cresterea vascozitatii locale a mediului de distributie aleatoare pentru particulele abrazive,


lucru nu ar trebui sa aib loc. Prelucrarea AFM omogenitatea mediului de lucru presupunandu-se
presupune o crestere uniforma si in masa a dicil de obtinut in realitate.
vascozitatii, crestere care sa confere mediului forte
de aschiere de aceeasi intensitate pentru a se Se pot face insa unele observatii legate de faptul ca
produce prelucrare uniforma si liniara. exista o deplasare a liniilor de curent catre exterior, in
Orice discontinuitate a vascozitatii duce la sensul actiunii microaschierii, cresterea vascozitatii
variatia presiunii care actioneaza asupra particulei actionand radial. Datorita vitezelor neliniare si actiunii
abrazive si deregleaza traiectoria acesteia si induce aleatorii a particulelor abrazive, in aceeasi sectiune doar
variatii a curbelor de viteza. unele sectoare asigura prelucrabilitate. Daca, in timp,
In figura 13g se prezinta o sectiune situatia se prezinta de acelasi aspect, zone din suprafata
transversala intr-o zona de curgere ingustata. Se raman neprelucrate suficient ceea ce ar putea conduce la
observa ca exista o distributie a vitezelor nerealizarea procesului de prelucrare la parametrii doriti.
nesimetrica. In modelul de analiza s-a considerat o

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 26


Figura 13g. Detaliu g

Trecerea fluidului cu vitez prin ajustajele aspecte care modifica procesul de prelucrare. n
piesei i ale dispozitivului conduce la nclzirea, figurile 14, 14a, 14b, 14c si 14d este reprezentat
att a fluidului, ct i a pieselor metalice. Aceasta variaia temperaturii n domeniul analizat, inclusiv
influenta este importanta deoarece poate induce detalii reprezentative si explicative.

Figura 14. Variatia temperaturii in procesul AFM


In cazul analizat variatia temperaturii atinge elementele dispozitivului dar influenteaza
valoarea de aprox. 20oC, ceea ce nu inflenteaza vascozitatea mediului.
foarte mult materialele din care sunt confectionate

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 27


Figura 14a. Detaliu a Figura 14b. Detaliu b

In figura 14a se observa ca are loc o crestere a Cresterea de temperatura de aproape 20oC
temperaturii dupa intrarea in ajutajul piesei de conduce la variaia importanta a vscozitii
prelucrat si, mai ales, in zona de iesire din acest fluidului, dar i la o modificare a turbulenelor ce
ajutaj. Aceasta conduce la o prelucrare buna la apar, aa cum rezult din figurile 14 b, 14c si 14d.
intrarea in zona de prelucrare si o prelucrare mai
slaba la iesire, lucru confirmat si practic.

Figura 14c. Detaliu c Figura 14d. Detaliu d

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 28


5. CONCLUZII
influeneaz procesul de nanofinisare (presiune,
Pe plan mondial finisarea prin curgere abraziv este vitez, temperatur, vscozitate, turbulene etc.).
larg utilizat pentru operaii precum debavurarea, Cunoasterea dependenei ntre aceti parametri
lustruirea, i rotunjirea muchiilor n domenii ca i calitatea suprafeelor prelucrate, cunoasterea
industria aeronautic, construcia de automobile, bilanului energetic al procesului si analiza mai
prelucrarea tanelor i matrielor etc.; multor medii reopectice bazate pe constituenti
diferiti va permite o aprofundare a analizei
Una dintre cele mai importante aplicaii o procesului si optimizare prin simulare adaptiva a
constituie lustruirea orificiilor de foarte mici acestuia.
dimensiuni ale injectorelor de combustibil cu
avantaje privind creterea randamentului i BIBLIOGRAFIE
reducerea emisiei de noxe a motorului;
[1]. Liebke, W.R., Method of Removing Excess Overlay
n literatura de specialitate exist foarte puine Coating from within Cooling Holes of Aluminide
Coated Gas Turbine Engine Components, Brevet
preocupri privind modelarea i optimizarea USA.
procesului de prelucrare prin curgere abraziva; [2]. Petri, K. L., Billo, R.E., Bidanda, B., Neural
network process model for abrasive flow
operations, Journal of Manufacturing Systems,
Datorita utilizarii unui program CAD pentru Vol. 17, No.1, 1998.
proiectarea echipamentului, adica CATIA [3]. Perry, K.E. Abrasive Flow Machining Method and
Tooling, Brevet USA.
versiunea V5 R16, se pot face simulari ale [4]. Rhoades, L.J., Method of Controlling Flow
functionarii intregului echipament ce pot preveni Resistance in Fluid Orifice Manufacture, Brevet
eventualele neconcordante intre elementele ce il USA.
[5]. Rhoades, L.J., AFM International, the Materials
compun precum si modificarea si imbunatatorea Information Society. operations, Journal of
continua a acestuia; Manufacturing Systems, Vol. 17, No.1, 1998.
[6]. Rhoades, L.J., Brocess and Apparatus of Abrading
by Extrusion, Brevet USA.
Datorita flexibilitatii programului de proiectare [7]. Ionescu. N., Curs Tehnologii Speciale, U.P.B.,
se poate modifica intregul sistem in functie de Romania.
[8]. Internet, http://www.extrudehone.com/
cerinta pietii, de tipo-dimensiunile pieselor de
prelucrat si de modul de actionare a
echipamentului pe diferite tipuri de masini.

Realizarea unor modele care s permit simularea


procesului de nanofinisare cu fluide reopectice
confirma posibilitatea determinarii parametrilor ce

QUICK INFO

Intelligent software helps build perfect robotic hand

Scientists in Portsmouth and Shanghai are working on intelligent


software that will take them a step closer to building the perfect robotic
hand.

Using artificial intelligence, they are creating software which will learn and
copy human hand movements.

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 29


They hope to replicate this in a robotic device which will be able to perform the dexterous actions only
capable today by the human hand.

Dr Honghai Liu, senior lecturer at the University of Portsmouths Institute of Industrial Research, and
Professor Xiangyang Zhu from the Robotics Institute at Shanghai Jiao Tong University in China, were
awarded a Royal Society grant to further their research.

The technology has the potential to revolutionise the manufacturing industry and medicine and scientists
hope that in the future it could be used to produce the perfect artificial limb.

A robotic hand which can perform tasks with the dexterity of a human hand is one of the holy grails of
science, said Dr Honghai Liu, who lectures artificial intelligence at the Universitys Institute of Industrial
Research. The Institute specialises in artificial intelligence including intelligent robotics, image processing
and intelligent data analysis.

He said: We are talking about having super high level control of a robotic device. Nothing which exists
today even comes close.

Dr Liu used a cyberglove covered in tiny sensors to capture data about how the human hand moves. It was
filmed in a motion capture suite by eight high-resolution CCD cameras with infrared illumination and
measurement accuracy up to a few millimetres.

Professor Xiangyang Zhu from The Robotics Institute at the Jiao Tong University in Shanghai, which is
recognised as one of the world-class research institutions on robotics, said that the research partnership
would strengthen the interface between artificial intelligence techniques and robotics and pave the way for
a new chapter in robotics technology.

Humans move efficiently and effectively in a continuous flowing motion, something we have perfected
over generations of evolution and which we all learn to do as babies. Developments in science mean we
will teach robots to move in the same way.

(from Software Tech Briefs Newsletter)

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 30


ESTABLISHING ASSEMBLING TYPE
BETWEEN THE BODIES FROM METALLIC CARBIDES
AND THE TAMPING TOOLS

Cristinel Beleag1, Sorin George Badea1, Dumitru Dan Dragoi2


1
S.C. IMCF S.A. Bucureti, cristibesleaga@yahoo.com
2
University of Bacau

ABSTRACT
The researches regarding to the utilization of some assembling types of the bodies
from metallic carbides to the active part (tine) of the tamping tools have as the
main purpose the establishing of some adequate assembling type which are lead
to a very good mechanical properties and in the end to increasing the lastingness
of the active part of the tamping tools.

KEYWORDS: tamping tools, assembling types, metallic carbides, lastingness

1. INTRODUCTION - a and P&T 08-275 UM


- b for the mechanized tamping:
Tamping is a technological operation of realizing a 1-active part tine;
support under the inferior part of a sleeper [1], with 2 - body of the tool;
the main purpose to assure a specific geometry and 3 - the part of the tamping tool which is attach to the
resistance of the railway (Fig.1). port tool;
4 - part of the tamping tool which prevent the rotate
of the tamping tool into the port tool ;
5 - special part of tool for drawing out the tool from
the port tool
Mechanized tamping consists [3] in the
vibration (oscillation) and squeeze of the ballast
under the inferior part of the sleeper, at frequencies
by 35 Hz, amplitude of the oscillation is 35 mm and
the force is 1000 kgf (10 kN) Fig.3.
Fig.1. Tamping operation
Tamping is being executed [2] with the help of the
tamping tools (Fig.2).

a b Fig. 3. Tamping mechanism:


Fig.2. The tamping tool P&T 09-32 CSM curved

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 31


1- tamping tool;
2 - port tool;
3 - hydraulic cylinder for squeeze movement;
4 - mechanical limitation for squeeze movement;
5 - pneumatic cylinder for mechanical limitation
movement;
6 - axle with eccentric for vibration movement;
7 - guiding for vertical movement of the tamping
mechanism;
8,9 - joints;
10 - chassis of the tamping mechanism.

2. TAMPING TOOLS TYPE


In the world are use many types of the
tamping tools which are included many types of Fig 5. Plasser Austrian tamping tool
assembling. Some of them are presented below,
with their particularity. Crowell U.S. solution [6] is present in the
Johansson - Sweden solution [4] is present following picture Fig. 6. His particularities are
in the following picture Fig. 4. His particularity is using a special shape for the body and the tine (blade)
a dismountable assembling between the body of the with certain positions between them and the axle of
tamping tool and the active part of this (tine, the tamping tools, using the tungsten carbides and a
blade). special method for applied at the surfaces which are
exposed to abrasion wear.

Fig. 4. Johansson - Sweden tamping tool


Fig. 6. Crowell - U.S. tamping tool
A Plasser solution (Austria) [5] is present
Richard U.S. solution [7] is present in the
in the following picture Fig. 5. His particularity is
following picture Fig. 7. His particularities are
a removable tine (blade) from the body (shaft) of
using more bodies from tungsten carbides, with a
the tamping tool.
special geometry and which are positioned at the end
of the tine (blade) where the abrasive weariness and
shock is intensive. The protection at the abrasive
weariness and shock is on the front and rear surfaces.

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 32


Williams U.S. solution [10] is present in
the picture Fig. 10. His particularities are using a
many various arrangements from bodies of wear
resistant material which are placed in all zones which
are exposed at the abrasive wear and shock. It has
also a special geometry at the end of the tine because
the geometry of the bodies are specifically, and the
wear resistant material cover the front surface, the
rear surface and the lateral surfaces.

Fig. 7. Richard U.S. tamping tool

Glenn U.S. solution [8] is present in the


following picture Fig. 8. His particularities are
using hardened steel for tine (blade or pad) and a
wear resistant coating covers. The wear resistant
bodies are placed at the inferior side of the tine,
where absorb the shock and reduce the abrasive
weariness.

Fig. 10. Williams U.S. tamping tool

Isakov U.S. solution [11] is present in the


picture Fig. 11. His particularities are using a
plurality of insert bodies which are resisted at
abrasive wear and shock (carbides material). The
Fig. 8. Glenn U.S. tine (blade) for tamping tool insert bodies are rigidly positioned therein at the end
of the tine/ blade. The shape of the leading edge is
Ruban Russia solution [9] is present in arcuate between the opposed shoulders. Each insert
the picture Fig. 9. His particularities are using a body has a leading edge with a radius and from this
special casing from wear resistant material, for composition result the leading edge of the tine / blade.
increasing the abrasion resistance of the tine / pad
of the tamping tool, and the core material for filling
the tine / pad casing. The core material of the tine /
pad is used for attach the tine / pad to the body of
the tamping tool through welding.

Fig. 11. Isakov U.S. tamping tool

Another solution for the tine / blade of the


tamping tool for Plasser& Theurer tamping machine
[5] is present in the picture Fig. 12. His
particularities are using a special case / cover for tine/
Fig. 9. Ruban Russia tine / pad for tamping tool blade from wear resistant material, for increasing
the resistance at the abrasive wear and shock. This
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 33
case/ cover are composed from many and variously fastening and squeezing bases of the bodies
shapes of bodies which are attached rigidly at the from CMS Fig. 13.
tine/ blade.

Fig. 12. Tamping tool for Plasser &Theurer


tamping machine
Fig. 13. The tine/blade movements and main stress
3. THE ESTABLISHING
- the small space for realizing the assembling.
ASSEMBLING TYPES
This space is limited by the dimensions and
the shape of the active part (tine) of the
For assembling the tine/ blade at the
tamping tools.
shank/ body of the tamping tool it can be use, in
- decreasing the mechanical resistance of the
generally, two types by assembling:
bodies from CMS and the tine, especially to
- dismountable assembling
the bending and shock stress, in the case of
- undismountable assembling
designing of some shapes, channels,
The most producers use the
thresholds, grooves / slots s.a. for seating,
undismountable assembling between those two
fastening and squeezing of the bodies from
pieces, because it is sure. In Romania, we use since
CMS on the tine.
today, only the undismountable assembling
Because of these reasons it is better to use
between the tine and the body of the tamping tool
some undismountable assembling, stiffs and
which is realized through electrical welding or the
resistances, which it can realize the conditions to use
tamping tool and the tine are realized together in
at the tamping tools and in this way it is possible to
the one piece version.
increase the lastingness of these [12].
For assembling the bodies from metallic
Among the undismountable assembling
carbides (CMS) at the different types of tamping
(with rivet, welding, pasting, brazing) depending by
tools it can be use, in generally, two types by
the materials which are assembled, the advantages
assembling:
and disadvantages of each undismountable
- dismountable assembling
assembling methods which are assembled and the
- undismountable assembling
experience which is been accumulated in the
The dismountable assembling (with cotter,
industrial field / area for the assembling of this couple
grooves, bolts or peg, thread, with pressing s.a.) in
by materials it can use the assembling through
the case of plating / reinforcing the active part
pasting/ brazing.
(tine) of the tamping tools are very difficult to use
The assembling method through pasting, by
because:
comparison with the other types of the
- function in permanence in the vibrating
undismountable assembling methods has some
conditions (f=35 Hz) of the tamping tools,
advantage as follows:
because the tamping operation which
- the fissures are missing or are very little
contain the vibrating movement and which
- the stress concentrators are missing or are
lead to the difficulties regarding to assure
very small
against dismountable of assembling and
- it can paste the different materials
also to the mechanical strength Fig. 13.
- the thermo stress and remanences stress are
- the high stress on the different directions,
small
with variable characteristics, fact which
made difficult to realize the seating,
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 34
For the paste assembling method is very the role for decreasing the superficial tension for
important to prepare very well the surfaces of the realize/make diffusion much better.
pieces which follow to be paste. For this it is In the experimental researches we have use
necessary to clean very well by the oxides, stranger the types of tine / blade which are presented below
materials s.a. for it produce a very good diffusion (Fig. 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21).
and interpenetration (Fig. 14) between the paste
alloy and the base materials which follow to be
paste, for dont be produced the cold brazing which
dont assure a good mechanical resistance [13].

bodies from
metallic carbides

paste alloy
diffusion area

material of active
part (tine) of the
tamping tool

Fig. 14. Section in the paste assembling

For pasting the bodies from CMS by the


active part (tine) of the tamping tools it use the
hard paste method or brazing for which it use paste
alloys with fusion temperature more than 500 C Fig. 15. Tine/blade covered with bodies from metallic
(620C 900C). Because of the properties of the carbides version 1
paste alloy the mechanical resistance of some
brazing it can reach the mechanical resistance of
welding.
Having in view the fact that the hard paste
method/brazing is used for pasting between the
bodies from metallic carbides and the metallic alloy
like support for many tools and also that for
important brazing, it use especially paste alloy base
on precious metals like Ag or alloy of this, in the
case of the tamping tools it use a similar method.
The problems consist in the establishing
what paste alloy it can use exactly, what
method/process for paste it can use, what type of
metallic carbides it can use, what type of metal it
can use for tine (active part of the tamping tool) or
for the whole tamping tool, what thermo treatment
it can use for to obtain the mechanical properties
for the material of the tamping tool s.a.
The paste methods are very many and
different depending on by the mode of realizing the
Fig. 16. Tine/blade covered with bodies from metallic
heating of the pieces and the fusing of the paste
carbides version 2
alloy: with flame (in the welding case); through the
immersing of the pieces into the bath with fusing
salts; with soldering hammer; through the heating
into furnace or through induction.

For remove the oxides which are form


during the pasting process and also for improving
of moistening of the surfaces for pasting, its use
together with the paste alloy, the tides for pasting.
These tides contain also the additions which have
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 35
Fig. 19. Tine/blade covered with bodies from metallic
carbides version 5
Fig. 17. Tine/blade covered with bodies from
metallic carbides version 3

Fig. 18. Tine/blade covered with bodies from Fig. 20. Tine/blade covered with bodies from metallic
metallic carbides version 4 carbides version 6

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 36


REFERENCES
1. ***Plasser&Theurer, Tamping depth control SDA-03/2-23,
Adjusting instruction, Plasser&Theurer, Linz, 1994
2. ***Plasser&Theurer, Stopfpickel service vorschrift, ein-u,
Ausbau, Regenerierung, S19-01, Plasser&Theurer, Linz, 1994
3. ***Instructiuni privind executarea lucrarilor de buraj, ridicarea
caii la nivel longitudinal si tranversal si riparea caii cu masinile
grele de cale tip BNRI sau BMNRI nr. 465/277-1973,
Departamentul cailor ferate/Directia Linii si Instalatii, Bucuresti,
1980
4. Arne Johansson, Torsten Larsson, Tamping tool, Aktiebolaget
Bofors, Bofors, Sweden, 1984
5. Franz Plasser Bahnbaumaschinen Industriegesellschaft
M.B.H., Stopfpickel s.a., Wien, Austria
6. Crowell James, Tool for tamping ballast and the like, Atherton,
U.S., 1990
7. Richard W. Beiswenger, Tamping blade and a hard wear
resistant insert therefor, Penn Hills Township, U.S., 1975
8. Glenn Gevik, Tamping blade for a railroad tamping machine,
Duluth, MN, U.S., 2006
9. Anatolij Ruban, Tamping tine for a tamping unit, Dlinnaja,
Russia, 2003
Fig. 21. Tine/blade covered with bodies from 10. Williams Edward, Tamping tool, Fair Oaks, St. Louis,
metallic carbides version 7 U.S., 2004
11. Isakov Edmund, Manway Terry, Improved tamping blade
with improved inserts, Raleigh, Monroeville, U.S., 1989
4. CONCLUSIONS 12. Cristinel Besleaga, Contributii privind marirea durabilitatii
sculelor de burare, Teza de doctorat, Bucuresti, 2006
The world wide using of some materials 13.Pavelescu D., Radulescu Gh., s.a., Organe de masini (Machine
Elements), Didactics and Pedagogical Publishing, Bucharest, 1985
and technologies to increase the lastingness of
active part of the tamping tools is less known and
wide spread, an example in this way is using
metallic carbide like the tungsten carbide. Internal
matter doesnt exists achievements in this area, this
problem is ignored because the information is less
and there are a lot of difficulties at technical level.
We have achieved so, for the firs time in Romania,
the first tamping tools having the active part (tine)
plated with plates of metallic carbide through
brazing.
By experimentally covering with plates from
metallic carbide of the tamping tools type P & T 09
32 CSM, using hard paste process (brazing), the
obtained lastingness is until 270 % higher than the
lastingness obtained in the present.

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 37


Quick Info In addition, CAE software now provides tools
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New Software

ALGOR (Pittsburgh, PA) announced


ALGOR V21 finite-element analysis software that
includes new and improved features such as a
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transient analysis; full 3D display of 2D
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ALGOR, Inc. announced that its latest, major finite


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simulating engineering analyses of their product For example, using this capability, you can perform a
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and meshing algorithms for better mesh matching
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Meanwhile, analysis software has been largely
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However, recent developments in computer
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affordable systems that can handle complex
analyses in a practical amount of time. (http://www.validatecad.com/examples.html)

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 38


THE HARD PASTE ASSEMBLING BETWEEN
THE BODIES FROM METALLIC CARBIDES
AND THE TAMPING TOOLS
S.G.Badea1, C. Beleag1 , D.D.Dragoi2
1
S.C. IMCF S.A. Bucureti, cristibesleaga@yahoo.com
2
University of Bacau

ABSTRACT
By the quality of the paste assembling between the bodies from metallic carbides
and the active part (the tine) of the tamping tool, and also the geometry of these
depend very much the behavior in exploitation in a good / optimal conditions of
the tamping tools and, in consequence the lastingness of these. That why it must
to accord a special attention to the paste operation of the bodies from metallic
carbides in a very good conditions.

KEYWORDS: metallic carbides, tamping tools, paste assembling, constructive


design

1. INTRODUCTION
The paste assembling is a technological
process with his specifically characteristics by
which it must care at the dimension and especially
at the constructive design.
The constructive design of the assembling
through pasting, depend by the purpose and it is
necessary to having in view the following:
- for to increase the mechanical resistance
of the assembling through pasting, it is
necessary to increase the size of the shape
for pasting or to utilize a some Fig. 1. Tamping tools brazed with metallic carbides
combination of the geometries shapes.
Also it is important the form of the bodies 2. CONSTRUCTIVE DESIGN
which will be paste.
- realizing a small space / distance between Having in view the specifically characteristics
that two shapes which will be paste. This of the hard paste assembling, for a good constructive
space / distance is 0,025 0,25 mm. design it is necessary to go the following steps:
- realizing the running of the paste alloy in 1) - the finding and identification of the real
the small space between the two shapes conditions for the functions of assembling between
for pasting. the bodies of metallic carbides (CMS) and the active
- realizing of some shapes forms for going part (tine) of the tamping tools.
out of gases In this case it must having in view that the
The tamping tools brazed at the active part tamping tools work in the hard conditions and its are
of these (tine / blade) with different bodies from subdue to the high stress like shock, vibrations,
metallic carbides and which are mounted on the bending, flexion s.a. Also its no very important the
tamping mechanism / tamping machine are showed aspect / appearance of the assembling and about the
in Figure 1. techno economical conditions it is necessary to
having in view the obtaining a high resistance of the

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 39


assembling. The functional conditions of the surfaces and to decrease the superficial tension for to
tamping tools are showed in picture Fig. 2 realize / make a diffusion much better. The tides
Mechanized tamping [1, 2, 3] consists in which have been used are the borax
the vibration (oscillation) and squeeze of the ballast (Na2B4O710H2O) or a mixture which is realize from
under the inferior part of the sleeper, at frequencies 50 % Na2B4O710H2O, 40 % KF, 10 % B(OH)3.
by 35 Hz, amplitude of the oscillation is 35 mm For decreasing the tension which are produced
and the force is 1000 kgf (10 kN) Fig. 2 between the bodies from metallic carbides and the
main material of the tine (steel alloy), in course of the
paste process thanks to the different coefficients by
the thermical dilatation between the metallic carbides
(6 7 10 -6) and the base material of the tine which
is from steel alloy (11 12 10 -6), it can use some
special alloy between these two material like
permaloy Fe and Ni alloy which has coefficient
by the thermical dilatation (8 9 10 -6).
For heating the pieces which will be paste
and the fuzion of the paste alloy we have selected the
paste process with high frequencies current (105 Hz);
The inductor has a shape similar with the shape of the
bodies from metallic carbides.
For to execute a good assembling through
pasting of the bodies from metallic carbides at the
active part of the tamping tools (tine / blade) it must
Fig. 2. Tamping operation be executed before some operations which must to
assure a quality, mechanical resistance and
2) - choosing of the paste alloy. For this it must lastingness more high. It had in view so, especially, to
having in view the following: prepare the channels / places from the tine / blade of
- the capacity at paste of the materials which will the tamping tool, in which will be paste the bodies /
be paste (the bodies from metallic carbides and the plates from metallic carbides. The dimensions of the
main material of the tine of the tamping tool); channels / places are very important and these it must
- running and moistening properties; be adjusted according with the optimal dimensions of
- the temperature of melting (the melting the bodies from metallic carbides and the thickness of
temperature of the paste alloy it must be with 50 C the paste alloy in the assembling (Fig. 3, 4, 5).
less than the temperature of melting of the tine
material);
- absence of the chemical reaction between the
paste alloy and the main material of the tine;
- the resistance properties of the paste alloy.
In the case of the pasting of the bodies from
metallic carbides (CMS) to the tine of the tamping
tools, the paste alloys which can be use are
according with the technical indications:

-BAg40ZnCdCu, with temperature of work = 610 C


-BAg70CuZn, with temperature of work = 755 C
-BAg48CdNi, with temperature of work = 680 C
These entire paste alloys are indicated for pasting Fig. 3. Channels (places) at the tine (blade) for
of the hard metals, steels, steels alloy, tungsten tamping tool version 1
alloys.

3) - establishing the type of paste process. Having


in view the real conditions for the functions of
assembling which are present at point 1, the paste
alloys which is choice and present at point 2 and
the fact that for to increase the resistance of the
paste assembling it is necessary to use the tides for
remove the oxides which are form during the paste
process and also for improving of moistening of the
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 40
Fig. 4. Channels (places) at the tine (blade) for
tamping tool version 2

Fig. 7. The tine (blade) surfaces

Fig. 5. Channels (places) at the tine (blade) for


tamping tool version 2

4) - the calculation for dimensions and check of the


paste assembling (Fig. 7, 8). This calculation for
dimensions and resistance of the paste assembling
it is influenced by the diffusion phenomenon (Fig. Fig. 8. The system forces which action on the tine [4]
6), by the parallelism between these two surfaces,
by the thickness of the paste alloy. Frv = F rp + F rs + F f p + F f s + 2 ( F r1 + F f1 ) + Fi (1)

bodies from
metallic carbides Frv = p Ap sin + p As cos + p Ap cos
(2)
+ p As sin + 2 ( p Al cos K + p Al sin K )
paste alloy p1 S + m g
diffusion area + L At
m
material of active
the friction coefficient between the ballast and the
part (tine) of the
tamping tool ( = 0,5 0,7 steel-ballast)
tamping tool
p the pressure into the ballast (p 2 N/mm2)
Ap the main surface area
Fig. 6. The diffusion phenomenon
As the secondary surface area
, , the functional angles of active part of the
The critical element into the assembling
tamping tool
between the bodies of metallic carbides and the
Al the lateral surfaces areas
active part of the tamping tool are the layer of the
K the functional inclination angle on the lateral
paste alloy and that two zones of the diffusion, on
surfaces
the one side between the paste alloy and the bodies
the ballast density min = min. 2400 [kg/m3]
from CMS and the other side between paste alloy
L the penetration drive of the tamping tool into the
and the base material of the active part (tine) of the
ballast L = 0,3 [m]
tamping tool [4].
At the transversely section area of the tine, on the
penetration direction into the ballast
At = 140 30 [mm2] = 4,2 10-3 [m2] the
transversely section area of tine of the tamping tool P
& T 09-32 type

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 41


p1 pressure in the hydraulic cylinder which For the stretch solicitation [5] between the
actions on the tamping mechanism to penetrate the body from metallic carbides and the tine/ blade of the
tamping tools into the ballast tamping tool (Fig. 11), the tension is:
S the stroke area
m total weigh of the tamping mechanism, tl = F / b s atl (9)
including the tamping tools
g the gravitational acceleration

For obtaining a high resistance in the layers


of the paste alloy, it is necessary to realize an
optimal surface for pasting. For these reason it is
necessary to increase the dimensions of the
surfaces for pasting which means the utilization by
the bodies from CMS with a certain surface Fig. 11. The stretch solicitation
dimensions. These dimensions are limited by the
technological conditions for obtaining of the bodies For the bending solicitation between the
from CMS and that which appear in the paste body from metallic carbides and the tine/ blade of the
assembling. tamping tool (Fig. 12), the tension is:
For the cutting solicitation [5] between the
body from metallic carbides and the tine/ blade of il = Mi / W = 6 F l / b s2 ail (10)
the tamping tool (Fig. 9), the tension is:

fl = F / b l afl (3)
For the condition by the equal resistance
between pasting and the pieces:

F = b s att = b l afl (4)

l = s att / afl (5) Fig. 12. The bending solicitation

att , atl the addmisible resistences at the stretch for


tine material and the paste alloy
afl the addmisible resistence at the cutting
solicitation of the paste alloy
ail the addmisible resistence at the bending
solicitation of the paste alloy
Fig. 9. The cutting solicitation tl , il , fl - the real tensions from assembling/
pasting at the stretch, bending and cutting tensions
In situation like in picture (Fig. 10), the For the paste alloy from Ag:
tension in the pasting for the cutting solicitation is: - the breakage resistence at the static cutting
solicitation, rf = 220 Mpa,
fl = F cos / b l afl (6) - the breakage resistence at the stretch solicitation,
r = 300 400 Mpa
For the condition by the equal resistance - the breakage resistence at the cutting solicitation,
between pasting and the pieces: r = 150 280 Mpa
For the safety coefficient Srl = 2 4
F = b s att = b l afl / cos (7) afl = rf / Srl
At the dinamic solicitations,
l = s att cos / afl (8) -1fl = 30 MPa, -1tl = 65 MPa, -1l = 50 MPa.
The safety coefficient at the tiredness Srl = 2 3.

Fig. 10. The cutting solicitation

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 42


The metallic carbides which have been used are:
- group of utilization: G 40
- composition: 80% WC, 20% Co
- density: 13,5 [g/cm3]
- hardness: 1100 [50HV]
- resistance at bending: 2600 [N/mm2]
- elasticity module: 500000 [N/mm2]
- resistance at compression: 3800 [N/mm2]
- thermic dilatation (0 600 C) : 6,5 10-6

3. CONCLUSIONS

Fig. 13. Tamping tool, brazing with metallic The researches in specialized literature
carbides version 1 regarding at the actual stage of the researches, design,
manufacture and exploitation of the tamping tools
have showed a low level of information and technical
details regarding these types of tools.
Worldwide using of some hard or extra hard
materials and technologies to increase the wear
resistance of the active part (tine) of the tamping tools
is less known and spread, one example in this case is
the usage of tungsten carbides.
For the first time in Romania, we have
obtained the first tamping tools having the active part
(tine) plated with plates of metallic carbide (Fig. 13,
14, 15) through brazing [4].

Fig. 14. Tamping tool brazing with metallic


carbides version 2 REFERENCES
1. ***Plasser&Theurer, Tamping depth control SDA-03/2-23,
Adjusting instruction, Plasser&Theurer, Linz, 1994
2. ***Plasser&Theurer, Stopfpickel service vorschrift, ein-u,
Ausbau, Regenerierung, S19-01, Plasser&Theurer, Linz, 1994
3. ***Instructiuni privind executarea lucrarilor de buraj, ridicarea
caii la nivel longitudinal si tranversal si riparea caii cu masinile
grele de cale tip BNRI sau BMNRI nr. 465/277-1973,
Departamentul cailor ferate/Directia Linii si Instalatii, Bucuresti,
1980
4.Cristinel Besleaga, Contributii privind marirea durabilitatii
sculelor de burare, Teza de doctorat, Bucuresti, 2006
5.Pavelescu D., Radulescu Gh., s.a., Organe de masini (Machine
Elements), Didactics and Pedagogical Publishing, Bucharest, 1985
Fig. 15. Tamping tool brazing with metallic
carbides version 3

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 43


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TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 44


ANALIZA CARACTERISTICILOR MECANO-ELASTICE I
ELECTRICE ALE ALIAJELOR ECOLOGICE CUATERNARE
Vasilescu Dan Dragos1, Constantin Baciu2, Petrica Corabieru3, Anisoara Corabieru3, Mihai Lozovan4,
Viorel Dobrea4
1
SC PROCOMIMPEX IASI, e-mail: oficeprocom@yahoo.com, 2 UNIVERSITATEA TEHNICA GH. ASACHI
IASi, 3 SC PRESUM PROIECT SA Iasi, 4 INCDFT Iasi

REZUMAT
Valorile caracteristicilor mecano-electrice ale aliajelor speciale ecologice
cuaternare de tipul CuNiSiMn i CuNi4AlSi se situeaz la limita inferioar a
bronzurilor cu beriliu clasice.Valorile caracteristicilor mecano-elastice ale aliajelor
de nlocuire pot fi crescute prin durificare mecanic ulterioar fr a influena
valoarea conductivitii electrice.Determinarea modulului de elasticitate E funcie
de temperatur al aliajelor speciale ecologice cuaternare s-a realizat folosind
metoda neconvenional a rezonanei oscilaiilor mecanice.Lucrarea analizeaz
modulul de elasticitate E i conductivitatea electric ale aliajelor ecologice
cuaternare.

ABSTRACT
The values of the mechanic-electric characteristics of the special ecological
quaternary alloys of type CuNiSiMn and CuNi4AlSi are placed at the inferior limit of
the classic bronzes with beryllium. The values of the mechanic-elastic characteristics
of the replacing alloys can be increased by mechanical hardening without
influencing the value of the electric conductivity. The determination of the elasticity
modulus E depending on temperature of the special ecological quaternary alloys has
been performed using the non-conventional method of mechanic oscillations
resonance. The present work studies the elasticity modulus E and the electric
conductivity of the ecological quaternary alloys.

CUVINTE CHEIE: elasticitatea i rezistivitatea aliajelor ecologice cuaternare

KEYWORDS: elasticity and resistivity of the ecological quaternary alloys

1. INTRODUCERE E = tg =/, n N/m2 (1)


unde, este tensiunea (efortul specific), n N/m2,
Msurarea i determinarea caracteristicilor - alungirea (lungirea specific), n mm/mm, iar -
fizico-mecanice ale aliajelor speciale ecologice panta curbei pe poriunea liniar.
cuaternare: modul de elasticitate i rezistivitate 2. pentru domeniul de elasticitate reprezentat
(conductivitate) electric, s-au realizat pe probe i de o curb, se definesc, modulul tangent, E i
epruvete aflate n stare clit, respectiv mbtrnit, n modulul de coard, Ec, ambele egale cu tg ; media
conformitate cu standardizarea n vigoare. Modulul de aritmetic a modulelor de coard determin modulul
elasticitate, s-a determinat n urma efecturii de elasticitate mediu al materialului - Emed, (N/m2).
ncercrilor conform ASTM E111-82 Modulul de Determinarea conductivitii electrice a aliajelor
elasticitate (Young) al aliajelor speciale ecologice speciale ecologice cuaternare ca mrime cea mai des
cuaternare s-a calculat pe baza prelucrrii diagramelor folosit n practic pentru a caracteriza din punct de
tensiune-deformaie (-).n domeniul elastic, vedere electric un material destinat sudrii electrice
standardul definete urmtoarele categorii de module prin presiune s-a fcut dup calcularea rezistivitii
de elasticitate (figura 1): electrice, n baza relaiei de invers proporionalitate,
1. pentru domeniul de elasticitate reprezentat . = 1.
de o dreapt, se definete modulul de elasticitate Valorile rezistenei eantioanelor utilizate
Young, calculat pe baza legii de proporionalitate pentru determinarea rezistivitii aliajelor speciale
dintre tensiune i alungire (legea lui Hooke): ecologice sunt foarte mici.

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 45


Indiferent de aliaj sau de starea de tratament a intrarea X se aplic un semnal de curent continuu dat
acestuia, aceste valori se ncadreaz ntre limitele de convertorul frecven tensiune (Cft), peste care
0,05-0,25 . se suprapun markerii de frecven dai de generatorul
de markeri (Gm). Alimentarea cuptorului se face de la
reeaua de 220 V, 50 Hz prin intermediul unui
regulator de temperatur (Rt) care primete semnalul
de comand de la termocuplul (Tc).
Temperatura poate fi reglat n domeniul 20
800 C cu o precizie de 0,5 C. Ea poate fi citit pe
indicatorul de temperatur (I C).

Figura 1. Definirea modulelor de elasticitate n


domeniul elastic

2. ANALIZA MODULULUI DE
ELASTICITATE

n afar de metoda standardizat enunat mai


sus, pentru determinarea modulului de elasticitate E s-
a folosit i o metod neconvenional, precis i mai
puin costisitoare. Metoda se bazeaz pe principiul
rezonanei oscilaiilor mecanice i prezint avantajul
c poate fi utilizat i pentru determinri la o gam
larg de temperaturi. Principiul de lucru al metodei se
rezum la determinarea frecvenei de rezonan a Figura 2. Schema instalaiei pentru
oscilaiilor mecanice longitudinale induse ntr-o determinarea modulului de elasticitate (Young)
epruvet de anumite dimensiuni, i calcularea
modulului lui Young din relaia de dependen a Forma probei de studiat poate fi cilindric sau
acestuia cu frecvena de rezonan, dimensiunile i prismatic. Poziionarea firelor de suspendare trebuie
masa epruvetei. Pentru ca temperatura de lucru s nu s se fac n vecintatea nodurilor de vibraie care se
afecteze dimensiunile i masa epruvetei, nclzirea se gsesc la o distan egal cu 0,224L fa de capetele
realizeaz n atmosfer protectoare (argon). probei. Formulele de calcul pentru modulul lui Young
O instalaie de determinare a modulului lui n cazul utilizrii celor dou tipuri de probe, sunt
Young, bazat pe principiul rezonanei, este urmtoarele:
prezentat schematic n figura 2, cu scopul de a studia pentru probe cilindrice,
4
variaia acestuia n funcie de temperatur, la aliajele L m
speciale ecologice cuaternare recent obinute i E = 0,1607 f 2 (2)
insufucient studiate. Dei aparatura folosit este destul d L
de complex, metoda este destul de simpl i permite pentru probe prismatice,
obinerea unor valori pentru modulul de elasticitate cu 3
L m
o precizie suficient de ridicat. E = 0,0947 f 2 (3)
Instalaia funcioneaz n felul urmtor: proba a b
de studiat (P) este introdus n cuptorul cu nclzire
n care: E este modulul de elasticitate (Young), n
electric (C) suspendat de dou fire (F) din crom-
N/m2, L lungimea probei, n cm, d diametru probei
nichel cu diametrul de 0,1 mm. Aceste fire sunt cilindrice (cm), a latura seciunii prismei paralel cu
conectate la excitatorul (Ex) respectiv la traductorul
firul de suspensie (cm), b latura seciunii prismei
acustic (Ta). Excitatorul l constituie membrana unui
perpendicular pe firul de suspensie (cm), m masa
difuzor, iar traductorul este o casc fonic Tesla cu o
probei (g), f frecvena de rezonan a oscilaiilor
membran vibrant de 0,1 mm grosime. Excitatorul se
longitudinale din prob (Hz).
alimenteaz de la un generator de frecven variabil La o frecven egal cu frecvena proprie de
n domeniul 100 10.000 Hz (Gf) prin intermediul
oscilaie a probei, pe osciloscop se vizualizeaz
amplificatorului de putere (A1). Semnalul recepionat
imaginea de rezonan iar inscriptorul va trasa curba
de traductorul acustic este detectat i amplificat de
conform figurii 2.
amplificatorul selectiv (A2) i vizualizat pe Determinarea modulului de elasticitate pentru
osciloscopul (Osc). aliajele de nlocuire, prin metoda rezonanei, la
n acelai timp, acest semnal se aplic pa
temperatura ambiant, s-a fcut pe probe cilindrice cu
intrarea Y a unui inscriptor (XY), n timp ce ladimensiunile de 180x1,6 cm.
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 46
Rezultatele interpretrii diagramelor sunt Conductoarele de conexiune cu puntea, confecionate
prezentate n tabelul 1, comparativ cu valorile din srme de Monel cu = 1 mm, sau fixat de cleme
caracteristicilor elastice ale bronzurilor clasice cu prin brazare.
beriliu.
Determinarea rezistenei Tabelul
Rx, a rezistivitii
1
x
Tabelul 1. Caracteristici mecano-elastice dup i a conductivitii electrice x ale aliajelor, s-a fcut
tratamentul de mbtrnire n baza relaiilor:

Rx=RRe/Ra , n (4)
Caracteris Aliajul valabil la echilibrul punii, i
tica
d2
CuNi3SiMn CuCo2Be) CuNi4AlSi CuBe2CoNi) x = R x , n m,
4L
E,
109-112 - 118-120 120-123 1
GPa x = , n S/m (5, 6)
)
date pentru aliajele echivalente: Berylco 10 i
x
Berylco 25 (DIN 17666 W)
Valorile obinute prin metoda neconvenional unde : R, Re , Ra sunt rezistenele din braele punii, n
sunt urmtoarele: 107 GPa pentru CuNi3SiMn i 116 , iar d i L sunt dimensiunile fizice ale probei
GPa pentru CuNi4AlSi cu aproximativ 3% mai mici utilizate, n m.
dect valorile medii obinute prin metoda standard. Valorile determinate pentru rezistivitatea
electric (x) respectiv valorile calculate pentru
3. STUDIUL CONDUCTIVITII conductivitatea electric (x), ale celor dou aliaje
ELECTRICE speciale ecologice obinute n urma efecturii
tratamentelor termice de clire de punere n soluie i
n mod practic, msurarea rezistivitii, mbtrnire sunt prezentate n tabelul 2. Comparativ,
respectiv determinarea conductivitii electrice a n tabel sunt trecute i valorile mrimilor electrice
reperelor tip srme din aliajele speciale ecologice pentru bronzurile clasice cu beriliu. Valorile
cuaternare, s-a fcut n conformitate cu standardizarea prezentate n tabel arat c, i din punctul de vedere
n domeniu, pe probe cu diametrul de 1,0 mm i al caracteristicilor electrice, aliajele studiate pot fi
lungime 1 m cu ajutorul unei puni duble Thomson de echivalente cu bronzurile CuCo2Be respectiv
curent continuu, tip Rthir 8.05, cu domeniul de CuBe2CoNi.
msurare 10-4 102 , i clasa de precizie 0,05, Referitor la unitatea de msur a conductivitii
conform schemei de principiu din figura 3. electrice, trebuie menionat c n unele lucrri de
specialitate, pentru aliajele bogate n cupru, aceasta se
exprim n mod curent n procente din conductivitatea
electric a cuprului standard, care este 100 % IACS
(International Annealed Copper Standard). Pentru
conversie se folosete egalitatea: 100 % IACS =
58,001276 MS/m (0,017241 m).
Analiznd valorile mrimilor prezentate n
tabelul 2 pentru aliajele speciale CuNi3SiMn i
CuNi4AlSi studiate, i comparndu-le cu cele ale
bronzurilor CuCo2Be i CuBe2CoNi, se observ c,
pentru starea de mbtrnire, caracteristicile fizico-
mecanice sunt aproape egale. Se poate afirma c
aliajele speciale ecologice pot constitui nlocuitori ai
bronzurilor cu beriliu menionate, cel puin din punct
de vedere al caracteristicii de conductivitate electric.

Figura 3. Schema electric a instalaiei pentru


msurarea rezistenei electrice cu puntea dubl
Thomson metoda celor patru puncte

Cele patru contacte de legtur ale srmei de


msurat s-au asigurat prin prindere mecanic cu
ajutorul unor cleme confecionate dintr-un material
rezistent la oxidare (Monel) avnd n vedere faptul c
vor lucra i la temperaturi mult mai mari de 20 C.

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 47


Tabelul 2
Tabelul 2 Caracteristici electrice pentru aliajele BIBLIOGRAFIE
speciale ecologice
Aliaju Rezistivitatea, la 20 Conductivitatea, 1.Corbieru A., Corbieru P., Velicu S., Vasilescu D., -
l C, m MS/m (% IACS) STUDY AND DETERMINATION OF THE
clit mbtr clit mbtrn ELECTRIC RESISTIVITY, OF THE COEFFICIENT
nit it OF VARIATION OF THE ELECTRIC RESISTIVITY
CuNi3 0,1031- 0,0493- 9,70- 20,3-
AND OF THE ELASTIC MODULUS FOR THE
SiMn 0,0907 0,0446 11,02 22,4
BIMETALLIC BUSHINGS FOR AUTOMOBILES, Al VI-
(16,72- (35,0-
lea Congres Internaional de tiina i Ingineria
CuCo - 0,04347 19,0) 38,62)
2Be 8 ) - 23,0) Materialelor, Mai 2007, Buletinul Institutului Politehnic din
(39,65) Iai, Tomul LIII (LVII), fasc.2, Secia tiina i Ingineria
CuNi4 0,1938- 0,0828- 5,16- 12,08- materialelor, pag. 215, ISSN 1453-1690.
AlSi 0,1815 0,0810 5,51 12,35 2.Corbieru A., Corbieru P., Predescu C., Vasilescu D.,
(8,9-9,5) (20,82- - STUDY OF THE PROCESSING BY HEAT
CuBe - 0,08333 - 21,29) TREATMENTS OF BIMETALLIC BUSHINGS FOR
2CoNi 3 ) 12,0) AUTOMOBILES, OF HYPOEUTECTOIDE CARBON
(20,69) STEEL-BRONZE , Al VI-lea Congres Internaional de
)
valori conform STAS 10624-76; ) valori tiina i Ingineria Materialelor, Mai 2007, Buletinul
conform STAS 10624-88 Institutului Politehnic din Iai, Tomul LIII (LVII), fasc.2,
Secia tiina i Ingineria materialelor, pag. 221, ISSN
6. CONCLUZII 1453-1690.
3.Corbieru P., Corbieru A., Sohaciu M., Vasilescu D. -
valorile modulului de elasticitate E obinute INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF THE BIMETALLIC
pentru aliajele ecologice CuNi3SiMn i BUSHINGS ECONOMIC ASPECTS, Al VI-lea Congres
CuNi4AlSi sunt cu aproximativ 3% mai mici Internaional de tiina i Ingineria Materialelor, Mai 2007,
dect valorile medii obinute prin metoda
Buletinul Institutului Politehnic din Iai, Tomul LIII (LVII),
standardizat.
fasc.2, Secia tiina i Ingineria materialelor, pag.225,
valorile caracteristicilor mecano-elastice ale
aliajelor speciale ecologice pot fi crescute prin ISSN 1453-1690.
durificare mecanic ulterioar fr a influena 4.Vasilescu D., Baciu C., Lozovan M., Corbieru A.,
valoarea conductivitii electrice. Corbieru P., - STUDY OF THE THERMO-PHYSICAL
PARAMETERS AND THEIR CORRELATION IN THE
se observ c, pentru starea de mbtrnire, RAPID TREATING WITH BORON-CARBON-
caracteristicile fizico-mecanice ale aliajelor VANADIUM, ELECTRO-CHEMICALLY
speciale ecologice i bronzurile cu beriliu clasice CONTROLLED, OF THE COLD PLASTIC
sunt aproape egale, bronzurile cu beriliu pstrnd DEFORMATION TOOLS - Al VI-lea Congres
un mic avantaj nesimnificativ. Internaional de tiina i Ingineria Materialelor, Mai 2007,
aliajele speciale ecologice pot fi echivalente cu Buletinul Institutului Politehnic din Iai, Tomul LIII (LVII),
bronzurile CuCo2Be respectiv CuBe2CoNi. cel fasc.2, Secia tiina i Ingineria materialelor, pag.231,
puin din punct de vedere al caracteristicii de ISSN 1453-1690.
conductivitate electric. 5. Dan Dragos Vasilescu, Constantin Baciu, Costica
Bejinariu, Liviu Adomnicai, Petrica Corabieru,
Anisoara Corabieru, Laura Solonariu - STUDY OF THE
SUPERFICIAL LAYERS FRAGILITY AND OF THE
WEAR RESISTANCE OF THE STEEL COMPLEXLY
ALLOYED BY RAPID BORON-CARBON-VANADIUM
TREATMENT ELECTROCHEMICALLY
CONTROLLED BOVACONTROL - Conference
Excellence Research - a Way to E.R.A.- Braov 2007, Ed.
Tehnica,Bucuresti, ISSN 1843-5904.
6. Topologeanu M., Marian A., Mitulescu C., Velicu S.,
Pocris C., Ragalie S., Popescu D., Corabieru A.,
Corabieru P. New approaches regarding the creation of
virtual enterprises in the national network Annals of the
Oradea University, Fascicle of Management and
Technological Engineering, volume VI (XVI), pag. 1629-
1636, 2007, ISSN 1583-0691.

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 48


ETUDE DOPTIMISATION ET DE ROBUSTESSE POUR LE
PROCESSUS DE SEPARATION ELECTROSTATIQUE
Alexandra Dogaru* , Lucian Dascalescu** , Alexandru Radulescu*, Sorin Cananau*
*
Universit POLITEHNICA Bucarest, ROUMANIE, e-mail: anda_dogaru@yahoo.com
**
Universit de Poitiers IUT Angoulme, FRANCE, e-mail: ldascalescu@iutang.univ-poitiers.fr

REZUMAT
Echipamentele electrice i electronice (EEE) precum i deeurile acestor tipuri de
echipamente (DEEE) sunt reglementate pe plan european prin directivele 2002/96/EC i
2002/95/EC, al cror scop principal este reducerea cantitii de deeuri eliminate.
Lucrarea de fa i propune s prezinte o tehnologie modern, utilizat n industria
reciclrii deeurilor echipamentelor electrice i electronice, n conformitate cu
particularitile lor specifice. Scopul final al lucrrii este realizarea unui studiu de
robustee al procedeului de separare electrostatic, n vederea optimizrii parametrilor
tehnologici.

RESUME
Les quipements lectriques et lectroniques (EEE) et les dchets dquipements lectriques
et lectroniques (DEEE) sont rglements sur le plan europen par les directives
2002/96/EC et 2002/95/EC, avec le but principal de rduire la quantit de dchets
liminer. Ce travail propose de prsenter une technologie moderne utilise dans lindustrie
du recyclage des DEEE, en conformit avec leurs particularites spcifiques. Le but final de
larticle est de raliser une tude de robustesse du processus de sparation lectrostatique,
pour loptimisation des paramtres technologiques.

MOTS-CL: Sparation, recyclage, dchets, electrostatique, rcuperation.

1. INTRODUCTION Le grand nombre dquipements lectriques et


lectroniques et la grande varit des dchets gneres
Annuel, entre 20 et 50 millions des tonnes de dchets complique la gestion et la prelucration.
dquipements lectriques et lectroniques sont
produits dans tout le monde. Les dchets 2. LES DECHETS ELECTRIQUES ET
lectroniques sont ceux auxquels volume se dvloppe ELECTRONIQUES
le plus rapid. Parfois ceux-ci sont hors dusage ou
sont brl sans aucun traitement pralable, par Les quipements lectriques et lectroniques (EEE) et
consquent se produit une pollution de lair et du sol. les dchets dquipements lectriques et lectroniques
La quantit des dchets est dans une volution (DEEE) sont rglements sur le plan europen par
ininterrompue, du 3 jusqu' 5 % par anne. deux directives, 2002/96/EC et 2002/95/EC, dont
Les dchets provenents du consommateurs lobjectif : dune part, de delimiter lutilisation des
domestiques sont estims a 14 Kg/ tte dhabitant substances dangereuses dans les EEE et, dautre part,
annuel. Ceux-ci reprsente 50% de la quantit totale de favoriser leurs rutilisation, le recyclage et les
des dchets lectiques et lectroniques. autres formes de valorisation des DEEE afin de
Chaque jour, 350000 des ordinateurs sont vendues rduire la quantit de dchets liminer.
dans tout le monde. Seulement en 2004 la vente du Les quipements lectriques et lectroniques destins
tlphones portables a connue une augumentation aux mnages sont souvent spars en trois principales
avec 30%, plus de 674 millions des unites. A la fin catgories :
du 2005 130 millions de ces tlphones arrive au fin Les produits blancs ou appareils
de vie, en produisant 65 mille de tonnes des dchets. lectromnagers, qui recouvrent les appareils de
lavage, de cuisson, de conservation, etc. 77%

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 49


Les produits bruns, qui recouvrent les appareils Concernant le flux de rcupration des DEEE, le
audiovisuels (tlevision, magntoscope, Hi-Fi) - consommateur apporte son appareil un rcuprateur
14% (Figure 3). Ici, lappareil est jug rutilisable ou non .
Les produits gris (IT), qui recouvrent les Deux chemains soffrent a lui : la voie de la
quipements informatiques et bureautiques : rutilisation ou celle du recyclage. Si lappareil peut
micro-ordinateurs, tlphonie, fax, etc. 9% tre rutilis, il est rpar si ncessaire, remis
Dans la figure 1 on a fait une classification des niveau et revendu comme quipement usag. Si
matriaux dans la composition des dchets lectriques lappareil est trop vieux on jug irrparable, il est
et lectroniques. dmonte, ses composantes sont tries par matire et le
tout est recueilli par un recycleteur.

Fig.3. Flux de rcupration des DEEE


Fig 1. Materiaux dans les dchets lectriques et
lectroniques
Le recycleteur destine la rutilisation une partie de
ce quil collecte en revendant les pices, notamment
Les types des matriaux plastiques prsents dans les
les puces des circuits imprims. Les mtaux sont tris
dchets lectriques et lectroniques peuvent tre
et revendus diffrents raffineries selon quelles
analyser dans la figure 2.
refondent du cuivre, de laluminium ou des mtaux
prcieux. La diversit des types de matriaux devient
un vritable casse-tte en ce qui concerne le plastique
puisque trop de diffrents sous-groups, appels
rsines, sont incorpors la fabrication des
ordinateures. Plus de cinq rsines, possdant chacune
un profil molculaire distinct, ne pouvant donc pas
tre traites conjointement.

3. PRINCIPE DE LA METHODE DE
SEPARATION ELECTROSTATIQUE

La sparation lectrostatique des matriaux isolants et


des matriaux conducteurs constituants dun mlange
granulaire, est une mthode de plus en plus utilise
dans lindustrie du recyclage des dchets de varit
provenance. Suivant on va tudi :
Loptimisation dun procd de sparation
lectrostatique en utilisant un sparateur avec
lectrode plaque, pour la sparation dun mlange de
Fig. 2. Matriaux plastiques dans les dchets 20% sel et 80% sable ;
lectriques et lectroniques La robustesse de ce procd;
Damliorer le modle.

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 50


Le sparateur lectrostatique (Figure 4) avec Pour trouver le point de fonctionnement, on utilise la
lectrode plaque est un sparateur qui permet de mthode des surfaces de rponses appliques un
sparer un mlange granulaire isolant-conducteur. plan composite faces centres. Les coefficients de
Dans ce type de sparateur, le champ lectrique est ce plan composite sont prsentes dans le tableau 2.
cr entre deux lectrodes : llectrode plaque (1) et Une analyse de limportance des coefficients ne peut
llectrode statique (2) relie un gnrateur de haute dire que la distance entre les deux lectrodes et le
tension de polarit ngative. Le mlange granulaire niveau de la haute tension est la plus importante dans
est dpos sur llectrode plaque par le vibro- les processus de sparation.
transporteur (3) et est introduit dans la zone du champ
lectrique. Tab. 2. Les coefficients du plan composite
En contact avec llectrode plaque, les particules
conductrices (sel) viennent de se charges avec une Coefficient sable mixe sel
charge positive, sont attires par llectrode statique Constant 83,95 13,85 2,19
et dpose dans le collecteur (4), au partie droite. Les
ten -0,42 -0,56 0.89
particules isolantes glissent sur la plaque, et elles se
projettent sur la partie gauche du collecteur (soumises A1 0,36 0,49 -0,86
leurs propres poids). A2 0,51 -0,68 0,17
Dis 1,69 4,18 -5,87
ten*ten -2,13 -0,58 2,71
A1*A1 -0,19 -0,95 1,14
A2*A2 0,44 -1,34 0,90
Dis*Dis -2,75 -0,58 3,32
ten*A1 -0,18 0,25 -0,06
ten*A2 -0,13 -0.02 0,16
ten*Dis -0,41 -0,54 0,95
A1*A2 -0,07 -0,30 0,38
A1*Dis 0,50 -0,19 -0,31
A2*Dis 0,14 -0.90 0,76
Fig. 4. Sparateur lectrostatique avec lectrode En utilisant logiciel Modde5.0 on a trouve, aprs
plaque 5005 itrations, que le point optimum de
fonctionnement se trouve pour : Uopt=30kV, 1opt=50o,
4. OPTIMISATION DU PROCD 2opt=40o, Dopt=200 mm. (Figure 5).
Loptimisation dun procd exprimental devrait
permettre lidentification du point de fonctionnement,
cest dire les valeurs de contrle pour lesquels la
rponse du processus est maximum, minimum ou
proche dune cible. Pour les procds lectrostatiques
de sparation, la minimisation de la fraction du
produit mixte est le critre choisi de loptimisation.
Les facteurs choisis faire les plans dexpriences
sont (Tab. 1) :
- Le niveau de la haute tension U[kV] ;
- La distance entre les lectrodes rapporte au
centre du sparateur D[mm] ;
- Langle que fait llectrode statique par rapport
laxe de llectrode plaque 2 ;
- Linclinaison dlectrode statique 1.

Tab. 1. Les niveaux des facteurs

Niveau U[kV] 1[o] 2[o] D[mm]


+1 30 80 50 220
0 28 65 45 210 Fig 5. Le point optimum de fonctionnement
-1 26 50 40 200

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 51


5. ETUDE DE LA ROBUSTESSE On traitant les rsultats obtenus (tableau 4), par le
logiciel modde5.0 et on obtient le modle de ce test
La robustesse est une notion trs importante dans (tableau 5). Lanalyse des coefficients de ce modle
beaucoup de domaines. On peut la dfinir de la montrer quaucun facteur na dimportante influence,
manire suivante : si les variations significatives du cela signifie que le processus est robuste.
niveau dun facteur nentranent que de faibles Tab. 5. Modle du test
variations de la rponse, celle-ci est dire robuste pour
ce facteur. Une rponse est donc robuste vis--vis Coefficient sable mixe Sel
dun facteur, si elle conserve peu prs la mme
valeur malgr les changements de niveau de ce Ct. 80,70 12,96 6,34
facteur. U 0,51 0,26 -0,77
Dans un processus les facteurs qui interviennent A1 0,68 0,48 -1,16
appartenant deux catgories : A2 0,80 1,30 -2,09
Facteurs contrlables : facteurs qui sont D 0,16 1,67 -1,83
modifiables, avec prcision par loperator ;
Facteurs non-contrlables : sont nomms facteurs La robustesse fait avec la mthode propose par
de bruit tel que la temprature, humidit, etc. Taguchi a montrer que pour diminuer linfluence des
Les testes de robustesse sont utiliss pour : facteurs de bruit, les facteurs contrlables doivent se
Trouver lintervalle de variation des facteurs situer autour des valeurs suivantes : U=29 [KV] et
contrlables en utilisant un test fait autour du D=205 [mm]. A ces niveaux des paramtres
point optimum de fonctionnement ; contrlables, la moyenne du produit mixte la plus
Trouver lintervalle de variation des facteurs petite valeur minimale et la dispersion est (tableau 6).
contrlables pour diminuer linfluence des Taguchi a dmontr que pour minimiser la cible, la
facteurs de bruit. Pour a, on utilise le test de fonction y =10log( 2 + 2) doit tre maximiser.
Taguchi et un test fait en utilisant la mthode des
surfaces de rponse. Cette fonction fait la liaison entre la moyenne et la
Pour effectuer le test autour du point optimum de variance.
fonctionnement, on utilise un plan factoriel En utilisant la mthode des surfaces des rponses, on
fractionnaire. Pour une variation de facteurs peut dterminer les relations entre les deux catgories
contrlables (tableau 3), les rsultats sont montrs des facteurs (contrlable et bruit). Pour une meilleure
dans le tableau 4. qualit de la plage de variation des facteurs
contrlables, on opte pour le plan composite.
Tab. 3. La variation des facteurs controlables Daprs les rsultats du tableau 7, on remarque
quaucun coefficient nest trs important pour le
+1 0 -1 procds de sparation, donc le system est robuste.

U 29.3 30 30.3 Tab. 7. Les valeurs du coefficients


1 47 50 53
coefficient sable mixe sel
2 37 40 43 Constant 78,84 15,92 5,24
D 197 200 203 ten -0,83 -0,01 0,84
dis 1,57 0,61 -2,18
Tab. 4. Rsultats com -3,50 2,72 0,78
deb -0,27 0,59 -0,31
Nr crt Tens A1 A2 Dist sable mixe sel ten*ten 0,79 0,50 -1,29
1 29,5 47 37 197 78,32 6,84 14,84 dis*dis -2,95 -1,80 4,75
2 30,5 47 37 203 80,64 13,53 5,82 com*com 2,16 -0,24 -1,93
3 29,5 53 37 203 79,63 14,57 5,81 deb*deb -0,11 1,86 -1,74
4 30,5 53 37 197 79,31 11,36 9,33 ten*dis -0,08 0,56 -0,48
5 29,5 47 43 203 78,84 15,83 5,34 ten*com 0,07 0,04 -0,11
6 30,5 47 43 197 80,56 13,38 6,06 ten*deb 0,31 -0,16 -0,15
7 29,5 53 43 197 82,25 13,23 4,52 dis*com -0,31 0,23 0,09
8 30,5 53 43 203 82,62 14,25 3,14 dis*deb 0,70 -0,81 0,11
9 30 50 40 200 82,25 13,40 4,35 com*deb -0,30 -0,01 0,31
10 30 50 40 200 82,60 13,23 4,18
11 30 50 40 200 82,12 14,05 3,83

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 52


Dans tout nos essais, on a pu observer que les avec les mmes conditions et le deuxime, on a fait
rsultats de sparation deviendront de plus en plus varier les conditions. Les dernires trois expriences
mouvais, par rapport au nombre de rutilisation du sont similaires pour les deux tests. Si on fait une
mme produit chaque test effectu. Cette dgradation comparaison entre les rsultats obtenus (tableau 8),
a t constate spcialement pour les granules du sel. on peut dire que la dgradation est peu prs la
Dans ces conditions on a essayer de corriger cette mme, on conclu que le principal facteur de la
dgradation du sel. dgradation est la rpti.
Pour voir quelle sont les facteurs qui causent la
dgradation du sel, on a fait deux tests : le premier

Tab. 6.Rsultats apres la mthode de Taguchi


Psi Vari Y
distance temps Nc Mix Co Nc Mix Co Nc Mix Co
210 28 78,00 15,61 6,40 20,94 4,52 10,13 -37,86 -23,95 -17,08
200 28 75,23 16,44 8,33 23,56 3,54 10,82 -37,55 -24,37 -19,04
210 30 77,26 15,35 6,64 13,54 2,52 3,82 -37,77 -23,77 -16,81
200 30 74,73 17,77 7,50 10,09 1,52 5,78 -37,48 -25,02 -17,93
205 29 79,45 14,84 5,72 4,30 1,29 1,67 -38,01 -23,45 -15,36

Tab. 8. La comparaison des resultats Le modle mesur est dcrit par lquation suivante :
nombre cond.dif Le mme cond.
9 2,15 2,33 y=6.68-0.567U-0.915D-1.637Comp+0.03Db
10 2,06 2,23
11 1,88 2,15 Le modle corrig est dcrit par lquation :

Chaque fois on utilise le produit, ce dernier se y=9.93-0.241U-0.541D-0.628Comp-2.089Db


dgrade pour importe quelles conditions de
fonctionnement. Pour trouver le niveau de la
dgradation qui a eu lieu a chaque fois, on suppose
que la premire masse du sel rsult de la sparation
est la meilleure. On cherche une courbe
dapproximation (Figure 6) pour les rsultats
obtenus dans le test avec les mme conditions.

Fig.7. Lamlioration du modle

Fig.6. La courbe dapproximation

Si on fait le rapport entre la premire valeur mesure et


ceux obtenus avec la courbe dapproximation, on
obtient les coefficients de dgradation pour chaque
fois. Avec ces coefficients on multiplie les rsultats
du test, fait avec conditions diffrentes, et on obtient
le model corrig (Figure 7).

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 53


6. CONCLUSIONS

Les mthodes numriques et danalyse utilises The grey-coloured nanocomposite material was
pour tudier les processus de sparation developed for rigorous, high-pressure wind-tunnel
lectrostatiques sont trs utiles et sont faciles testing, under-the-hood automotive applications and
dappliques dans beaucoup de domaines. other applications requiring high thermal resistance
Le processus de sparation est trs sensible au and insulating electrical components, as well as for
petit changement, pour a on doit tre attentif au building accurate and stable jigs and fixtures.
niveau de facteurs et au condition dambiant.
La sparation lectrostatique est un processus Accura Greystone material resists high temperatures
multifactoriel fonctionnant avec de nombreux and is intended for tooling and other demanding
paramtres qui sont rglables et inter-dpendants. applications.

3D Systems says that stereolithography users,


BIBLIOGRAPHIE
especially racecar and aerospace development teams,
1.Douglas Montgomery, 2005, Design and analysis of experiments, will find easy-to-use, easy-to-clean Accura Greystone
John Wiley&Souns, Inc to be a best-in-class material for their development,
2. Jacques Goupy, 2005, Pratiques les plans dexperiences, Dunod, testing and preproduction applications.
Paris
3.Jacques Goupy, 1999, Plans dexperiences pour surfaces de
rponse, Dunod, Paris Abe Reichental, 3D Systems' president and chief
4. Karim Medles &Co, 2004, Set point identification and executive officer, comments: "Accura Greystone
robustness testing of electrostatic separation processes material is our latest breakthrough in material
5. Lucian Dascalescu & Co, Effect of ambient humidity on the science and technology as we continue to emphasise
outcome electrostatic separation processes
6. Ministerul agriculturii, padurilor, apelor si mediului, Strategia the importance of engineered materials and
nationala de gestiune a deseurilor composites to our business. We believe that it takes
breakthrough materials like Accura Greystone to
push and expand the end-use applications' envelope
and broaden the adoption of additive manufacturing
technology into the mainstream of automotive and
aerospace design, development and manufacturing.
Quick Info As a leader and innovator in this exciting space, we
are intensifying our commitment to material science
research and expect to introduce additional high
functionality breakthrough materials in the near
future."

(http://www.3dsystems.com)

SLA material uses nanocomposite technology

3D Systems Corporation is introducing Accura


Greystone material, a new engineered nanocomposite
material for use in its stereolithography (SLA)
systems.

Designed for motorsport and aerospace applications,


Accura Greystone material delivers exceptional
accuracy, stiffness, thermal performance and long-
term stability.

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 54


SPLIT SPHERICAL ROLLER BEARINGS
AN ECOLOGICAL SOLUTION FOR REDUCING THE COSTS
Luminita Madalina Draganus *, Alexandru Radulescu*, Mircea Despa**
*
University POLITEHNICA Bucharest, ROMANIA, e-mail: dluminitza@yahoo.com
**
CN Industrial Group Bucharest, ROMANIA, e-mail: mircea@inacn.ro

REZUMAT
Rulmentii cu inele sectionate sunt recomandati deoarece faciliteaza asamblarea si
simplfica operatiile de montare-demontare. Cu ajutorul acestui tip de rulmeni
timpul de staionare al mainilor i instalaiilor se reduce, acest lucru implicand la
randul sau scaderea costului de producie. Desi varianta cu inele secionate este
mai scump din punct de vedere al costurilor directe, raportata la costurile totale-
ce includ activitile curente de ntreinere precum i pe cele determinate de
reparaii i schimbul de rulmeni,-devine net mai avantajoas dect varianta cu
rulmenti clasici.

ABSTRACT
With new constructions split spherical roller bearings help in many cases to save
considerable cost since they simplify the assembly and facilitate mounting.With this
type of bearings, the downtimes of machines and plants is reduced and thus the
production cost as well. Although the split bearing variant is more expensive than
unsplit bearing variant, refering to total costs witch contain current
activities with maintenance and roller replacement, is distinctly
advantageous then unsplit bearing variant.

CUVINTE CHEIE: Rulmeni, tehnologie, cost de producie, ecologie.

KEYWORDS: Roller bearings, technology, cost, ecology.

1. INTRODUCTION shafts - all require regular maintenance, repair and


overhaul.
Replacing or removing damaged or worn parts on Where solid rather than split spherical roller bearings
heavy machinery and equipment that requires regular are used, companies should choose to fit the split type
servicing or maintenance, can be a real headache for instead. Mounting of split bearings normally leads to
manufacturing companies, particularly those in the a reduction of machinery downtime and maintenance
mining, quarrying and mineral processing sector, costs. In many cases, split bearings can also reduce
where the value of capital equipment and production the cost of new designs, because the bearings simplify
machinery is normally high, [1], [2]. the assembly process and mounting procedure.
Repair and overhaul of components soaks up valuable Split spherical roller bearings are particularly useful
time and resources, often resulting in costly when several solid spherical roller bearings are being
production downtime, while the equipment or used to support a complex drive shaft, or where the
machinery is offline being repaired. The harsh bearing needs replacing but is located in a tight space
operating environment may also result in more on a machine, so access is restricted.
regular maintenance and overhaul being required on With split spherical roller bearings, the inner ring,
machinery. outer ring and cage assembly are split. A cylindrical
Dismantling and assembly procedures can be bore provides direct mounting onto the shaft. These
complicated and often involve drives being bearings typically offer high thrust load capability
disconnected, belts, pulleys, gears, bearings, and dynamically compensate for any misalignment.
couplings and shafts being disassembled or removed.
Equipment such as bucket wheel excavators, winch
drums, screw conveyors, mixers and stirrers, mills,
crushers, rotary kilns, fans and blowers, drive and line

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 55


2. TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF THE
SPLIT SPHERICAL ROLLER BEARINGS

The dimensions of FAG split spherical roller bearings


were adapted so that they can be used instead of unsplit
spherical roller bearings and their adapter sleeves.
Outside diameter, outer ring width and shaft seat
diameter are identical.
FAG split spherical roller bearings can be mounted into
FAG split plummer block housings without requiring
any further machining of the housings. The same
applies to housings from other manufacturers provided
that the internal dimensions are identical.
Fig.3. Internal design of the bearings
FAG split spherical roller bearings have a cylindrical
bore. Inner ring, outer ring and roller/cage assembly are
Split spherical roller bearings have the normal
split into halves. The split bearing rings are bolted tolerances of unsplit radial bearings and the normal
together. clearance of unsplit spherical roller bearings with a
The main advantages of the split spherical roller cylindrical bore. The shaft has to be machined to
bearings are, [5]: h6...h9 in order to attain the required tight inner ring
Easy bearing replacement as split spherical roller fit after bolting. These shaft tolerances are also used for
bearings (top) require the same mounting space as unsplit bearings mounted with adapter sleeves. Usually,
unsplit bearings with adapter sleeves (bottom) the housing bore is machined to H7 or H8.
(Figure 1); FAG split spherical roller bearings with separate locking
Easy to inspect, fast and easy mounting-the FAG rings are recommended for applications where
considerable temperature differences between shaft and
split spherical roller bearing directly before mounting inner ring halves may have to be accommodated, e.g.
into an SNV housing (Figure 2); dryer rolls of paper machines. The bearings are equipped
The internal design of split spherical roller either with a split moulded cage of glass-fibre reinforced
bearings is identical to the proven high capacity polyamide or with a split machined brass cage.
FAG E1 design spherical roller bearing (Figure 3). The load carryng capacity of split spherical roller
bearings is smaller than that of unsplit spherical roller
bearings since the pitch circle for the roller/cage
assembly is reduced due to the outer ring bolting.
Nevertheless, a high load carrying capacity is achieved
by providing the largest possible number of rollers with
the largest possible diameter.
FAG split spherical roller bearings are usually lubricated
with a lithium soap base grease of penetration class 2
with EP additives. The lubrication intervals are identical
with those of unsplit bearings. Split spherical roller
bearings may be relubricated via a groove and holes in
Fig. 1. Replacement of the split spherical roller bearings the outer ring
The replace of the old bearing with the split
spherical roller bearing supposes the following
steps, presented in Table 1.

Table 1. Replacement technology for split bearings


Replace
-ment Example
stage

Bearing
dis-
assembl
e

Fig. 2. Inspection for the split roller bearings

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 56


Replace The required steps in bearing mounting and
-ment Example dismounting for the case of the centrifugal fan are
stage presented in Table 2.

Table 2. Mounting and dismounting for the fan

Half- Unsplit bearing Split bearing


bearing
assembl Disassemble couplings at
y Not required
transmission input ends

Loosen conection between


Not required
foundation and electric motor

Loosen fastening bolts Not required

Remove coverfor easier


Not required
Shaft lifting
turning
Use loops to suspend
Not required
impeller

Lift rotor usig a crane Not required

Remove transmission using a


Not required
crane(access to coupling)
Assembl
y of the
other Remove coupling Not required
half-
bearing
Remove bearing at drive end Yes

Remove bearing at opposite


Yes
end
3. ECONOMICAL ANALYSIS FOR THE
SPLIT SPHERICAL ROLLER BEARINGS Install new bearing at
Yes
opposite end
The economical analysis for the split spherical roller
bearings was made in the case of a centrifugal fan Install new bearing at drive
(Figure 4), [4], [6]. Not required
end

Assembly in reverse order Not required

The methodology for the costs calculation was


used by the supplier, CN Industrial Group, to find
the production price for each component part, [1],
[3], [5].
The results and estimative expenses dictated by
disassembly,assembly, alignment, and function
are presenting in Table 3.
Fig. 4. General view of the centrifugal fan, [6]

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 57


Table 3. Estimative expenses for split bearings 4. CONCLUSIONS
replacement
Split spherical roller bearings are mainly used for
applications where the replacement of an unsplit
Unsplit Split spherical roller bearing would require intricate
Cost factors additional work, e.g. where gear-wheels or couplings
bearing bearing
have to be withdrawn, drives dismounted, and shaftings
disassembled. With split spherical roller bearings the
Downtime 36 hours: 6 hours: downtimes of machines and plants is reduced and thus
(1350 Euro/hour) 48600 Euro 8100 Euro the production cost as well.
With new constructions split spherical roller bearings
3 people 2 people help in many cases to save considerable cost since they
Manual labour: working 18 working 6 simplify the assembly and facilitate mounting. The
(5 Euro/hour) hours each: hours each: ranges of application are from shafts supported by
270 Euro 60 Euro several bearings to bearing locations of restricted access,
for example: belt drives, ships, conveyor plants, rolling
Alignment 3 hours: Not mills, ventilation systems, paper machines etc.
(35 Euro/hour) 105 Euro required Although the split bearing endurance is smaller
then normal bearings, it is recommended to use
this type of bearings because they simplify the
Crane rental: 24 hours: Not mounting and dismounting operations.
105 Euro/hour 2520 Euro required The variant with split roller bearings is more
expensive than unsplit bearings variant, but
Replacement refering to total costs witch contain current
Not activities with maintenance and roller
bearing 2200 Euro
required replacement, is distinctly advantageous then
(drive end)
unsplit bearing variant.
Replacement Also, it became more advantageous if we take in
bearing 2200Euro 8800 Euro consideration the costs involved by tehnological
(oposite end) downtimes.

Hidraulic nut Not REFERENCES


2510 Euro
(RKP 260) required
1. *** Split spherical roller bearings, INA, Catalogue 611.
2. *** Business Planner, Users Guide, B-Plan International
Software Ltd., Israel, 1993.
Total Cost 58405 Euro 16960 Euro 3. Mayers, J-H., Marketing, McGrow Hill Book Company,
New York, 1986.
4. Filipoiu, D.I. et al., Tehnologii si utilaje tehnologice.
Fabricatie si costuri, Ed. Printech, Bucuresti, 2003 (in
Romanian)
5. www.inacn.ro
The main prices for each component of the 6. www.saveb.ro
bearing are:

Standard variant of bearing (classic unsplit


ball bearing) :
- SNV 120-L Housing: 88 Euro
- Conical bearing 22313EK: 81 Euro
- Conical sleeve T41A: 19 Euro
- Sealing 2 pcs x 2 Euro= 4 Euro
- Total costs: 192 Euro

Split bearing variant:


- SNV 120-L Housing: 88 Euro
- Split bearing: 219 Euro
- Sealing 2 pcs x 2 Euro= 4 Euro
- Total costs: 311 Euro

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 58


CERCETRI PRIVIND REALIZAREA MEDIILOR DE LUCRU
LA NANOFINISAREA PRIN CURGERE ABRAZIV
CU MEDII DE LUCRU REOPECTICE

Valeriu Avramescu, Ctlin Horia Oranu ICTCM Bucuresti, vavramescu@ ictcm.ro


Norvegia Elena Avramescu, Adrian Dimon INTEC Bucuresti

ABSTRACT
The nano-finishing technologies for complex surfaces is an integral concept which uses
concentrated energy sources and fluid mediums with reopectic properties, fluids which have in
there dispersion abrasive materials. The realization of this kind of fluids requires the obtaining
of abrasive grains with specific dimensions, in the nano- area, with properties and technical
characteristics required by the abrasive flow finishing process with reopectic work mediums.

KEY WORDS: nano-finishing technologies, complex surfaces, fluid mediums, abrasive


materials, reopectic work mediums

1. INTRODUCERE ocului, apar particule grosolane iar datorit efectului de


uzare prin frecare apar granule fine.
Necesitatea de a obine suprafee de o calitate tot Dup H. Kramer fragmentarea se produce n
mai ridicat i ct mai repede posibil a determinat pe cei exclusivitate prin impactul particulelor mici cu rol de
care lucreaz n industria prelucrtoare s caute noi proiectil asupra particulelor mari ce au rol de int. Prin
procedee de finisare. Prelucrarea cu abrazivi este cel mai aceste procedee nu pot fi obinute materiale cu granulaia
vechi, dar i cel mai modern procedeu de prelucrare. Este sub 1 m. G. Hutting, analiznd echilibrul dinamic
procedeul cel mai vechi deoarece a fost folosit la stabilit n procesul de fragmentare, arat c n procesul
confecionarea uneltelor i armelor, dar este i un de mcinare apar i efecte chimice. De aceea el consider
procedeu modern, deoarece astzi tehnica utilizeaz c prin mcinare nu se pot obine particule de material
materiale cu duritate foarte mare, ce nu pot fi prelucrate foarte fine.
dect cu ajutorul materialelor abrazive noi, cu proprieti B. Metode fizico chimice
superioare i cu performane deosebite. Pulverizarea const n dezintegrarea materialului
.Obiectivele propuse au n vedere dezvoltarea topit cu ajutorul unui agent extern (ap, aer, gaze) care
unui concept integrator de nanoprelucrare, n special are o energie cinetic foarte ridicat i o vitez mare de
nanofinisare prin medii de lucru reopectice ce utilizeaz curgere. n literatura de specialitate se arat c
nanomateriale abrazive. Cercetrile privesc realizarea pulverizarea se desfoar n condiii de maxim
granulelor abrazive: stadiul actual al utilizrii mediilor eficien cnd temperatura agentului de pulverizare este
abrazive, tehnologii de obinere, tipuri, proprieti, date egal cu cea a topiturii materialului supus pulverizrii.
tehnice, caracteristici tehnice ale granulelor abrazive etc. Acest lucru este greu de realizat practic; de aceea se
Obiectivele procedeelor de prelucrare foarte fin apeleaz la alte metode precum folosirea creuzetului
sunt: creterea calitii suprafeelor prin micorarea rotitor, a electrodului consumabil rotitor, dezintegrarea
rugozitii; mbuntirea geometriei formei suprafeei; unei mase topite prin impact cu paletele unei turbine de
mrirea preciziei dimensionale; mbuntirea strii de mare viteza, cu ajutorul plasmei sau prin mprtiere
tensiuni din stratul superficial. dintr-un recipient perforat antrenat n micare de rotaie.
Pulverizarea sub aciunea fortelor centrifuge se
2. TEHNOLOGII DE OBINERE realizeaz prin mai multe procedee ca: metoda
A GRANULELOR ABRAZIVE electrodului rotitor, metoda cu creuzet rotitor, metoda cu
disc rotitor prevzut cu fante i aripioare.
Pulverizarea cu ajutorul cmpurilor
A. Metode mecanice (mcinarea) electromagnetice sau a impulsurilor electrice de mare
Fragmentarea materialelor compacte prin metode putere, anuleaz tendina de modificare a compoziiei
mecanice este larg rspndit, permind obinerea de chimice a materialului care apare la pulverizarea cu gaze
particule ntre 40-250 m. Metoda este eficient dac sau ap. Pentru obinerea materialelor cu granulaie mai
materialul are plasticitate redus deoarece n ncercarea mare de 0,5 mm se apeleaz la dezintegrarea jetului de
de dezintegrare, se deformeaz plastic. n perioada topitur cu ajutorul unui cmp electromagnetic.
mcinrii, datorit efectului combinat al strivirii i

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 59


3. TIPURI DE GRANULE
ABRAZIVE I UTILIZAREA LOR

A. Granule abrazive din material Este folosit la prelucrarea sub presiune a suprafeelor
minerale forjate, tratate termic, vopsite, conferind o finee relativ
bun.
Materialele abrazive cele mai utilizate n
prelucrrile mecanice sunt oxidul de aluminiu i carbura E. Granule abrazive din Cubit 321-3M
de siliciu. Granulele ceramice abrazive pot fi unul din
aceste minerale sau un amestec al celor dou, nelegate Materialul Cubitron 321-3M propus de Corporate
chimic ntre ele. Au putere tietoare foarte bun i sunt Technical Achievement Award este un compozit cu o
destul de scumpe. Pentru eficientizarea procesului sunt mare eficien n prelucrarea suprafeelor putnd nlocui
utilizate diferite combinaii granulometrice, precum: 8, alumina sau granulele de diamant. Este un material
10, 12, 14, 16 (foarte nalt), 20, 24, 30, 36, 46 (nalt), ranforsat cu o structur de plci microcristaline, cu o
54, 60, 80, 90, 120 (medie), 150, 180, 200 (fin), 240, distribuie uniform a componentelor structurale. Este
320 (foarte fin) i 400, 500, 600 (ultra fin). folosit la prelucrarea sub presiune a suprafeelor forjate,
tratate termic, vopsite, conferind o finee relativ bun.
B. Granule abrazive din materiale
plastice F. Granule abrazive din oxidul alb de
aluminiu
Granulele acrilice sunt cele mai durabile
materiale. Au finee mare i sunt folosite pentru un grad Oxidul alb de aluminiu (alumina) este folosit n
mare de finisare al suprafeelor prelucrate. Mrimile proporie de 99,5% pentru prelucrri de precizie a
standard sunt 12-16, 10-16, 16-20, 20-30, 30-40 mesh iar suprafeelor metalice. Funcie de puritatea sa are o larg
mrimile speciale sunt 12-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80 mesh. clas granulometric de livrare respectiv 16, 24, 36, 60,
Granulele de melamin sunt folosite pentru 100, 120, 180, 240 mesh. Are putere de tiere comparat
curirea suprafeelor dificile care necesit vitez mare cu cea a carburilor sinterizate. Este folosit ca material de
de impact suprafa granul abraziv. Au capacitate curire pentru suprafee lustruite, valve, pistoane, palete
mare de curire i pot fi folosite ca nlocuitori ai bilelor de turbine n industria auto i aerospaial.
de sticl sau altor materiale abrazive. Mrimile standard
sunt 8-12, 12-16, 16-20, 20-30; 20-40 mesh i 40-60 G. Granule abrazive din carbur de
mesh sunt mrimi speciale. siliciu
Granulele de urea sunt dintr-un material plastic
dintre cele mai utlizabile i se folosesc la curirea
pieselor turnate din nisip. Reprezint un mediu ecologic Carbura de siliciu sub form de granule este cel
i reciclabil folosit ca alternativ la curirea chimic. mai frecvent mediu abraziv folosit la abraziune. Ea poate
Ele asigur creterea nivelului de finisare i curirea fi reciclat i are un randament mai bun dect alumina
suprafeelor cu asperiti mari. Mrimile standard sunt 8- putnd fi folosit de mai multe ori. Ea are aceleai clase
12, 10-20, 12-16, 16-20, 20-30, 30-40 si 40-60 mesh. granulometrice ca i alumina. Prezint o duritate mai
mare i poate fi folosit i pentru prelucrarea suprafeelor
din sticl.
C. Granule abrazive pe baz de cuar
H. Granule abrazive utilizate pentru
Nisipul dur este utilizat pentru curirea formelor
coji de turnare. Cnd este folosit ca mediu abraziv este prelucrarea hidroabraziv
foarte eficient, fiind durabil i avnd fee
multiunghiulare. Este un excelent nlocuitor al nisipului Un numr mare i diferite tipuri de materiale
de turntorie. Curirea cu nisip dur este indicat a fi abrazive sunt utilizate n prelucrrile cu jet abraziv,
folosit acolo unde substratul acoperit cu vopsea, amestecul ap + abraziv + aer fiind, ntr-un fel,
murdrie, gresat, crust, carbon etc va rmne asemntor amestecului abraziv + polimer utilizat de
neschimbat. AFM, mai ales dac inem cont i de faptul c n ap se
introduce un polimer cu lan lung pentru diminuarea
D. Granule abrazive din Cubit 321-3M frecrii la perete (fenomen opus celui necesar n cadrul
AFM).
Materialul Cubitron 321-3M propus de Corporate
Technical Achievement Award este un compozit cu o
mare eficien n prelucrarea suprafeelor putnd nlocui
alumina sau granulele de diamant.
Este un material ranforsat cu o structur de plci
microcristaline, cu o distribuie uniform a
componentelor structurale.

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 60


4. CARACTERISTICI I
PARAMETRII REPREZENTATIVI

n tabelul 1 sunt prezentate valori ale parametrilor


pentru diferite materiale abrazive, iar n tabelul 2 sunt
prezentate date tehnice i caracteristici fizice pentru
diferite pulberi abrazive. Tabelul 1: Proprieti ale materialelor abrazive

Material Deprecierea particulelor, (%) Volumul particulei, [A3]


Almandine 5 60 1529.62
Spessartine - 1566.15
Pyrope - 1503.88
Grossulare 30 1671.18
Andradite 80 90 1767.61

Cunoaterea caracteristicilor particulelor este


crucial. n tabelul 2 sunt prezentate 22 de caracteristici
fizice i chimice pentru pulberile abrazive Barton-garnet.
Particulele trebuie s fie dure; ele realizeaz
erodarea materialului fr s se uzeze. Forma particulei
este foarte important. Tabelul 2: Date tehnice si caracteristici fizice
pentru pulberile abrazive Barton
Proprieti Comentarii
- Combinaie de almandite i pyrope
- Mineral omogen
Descriere general - Nu sunt chimicale libere
- Oxizii i dioxizii se combin chimic: Fe3Al2(SiO4)3
- Ionii de fier i aluminiu sunt parial nlocuibili de Ca, Mg i Mn

- Dioxid de siliciu (SiO2) 41.34 % - Oxid feros (FeO) 9.72 %


- Oxid de fier (Fe2O3) 12.55 % - Oxid de aluminiu (Al2O3) 20.36%
Analiza chimic - Oxid de calciu (CaO) 2.97 % - Oxid de magneziu (MgO) 12.35%
- Oxid de mangan (MnO) 0.85 %
Duritatea ntre 8 i 9 pe scara Mohs
Rezistena De la sfrmicios pn la dur
Forma particulei Ascuit, unghiular, iregulat
Fragilitatea Laminri pronunate, plane de clivaj iregulate
Culoarea ntre rou i roz
Streaks Alb
Transparena Translucent
Lustre Sticlos
Gravitatea specific 3.9 g/cm3 to 4.1 g/cm3
Indice de refracie 1.83
Unghiul faetelor 37 C i 42 P
Cristalizarea Cubic, rombic, sau tetragonal
Punct de topire 1,315 C (2,300 F)
Propr. electrostatice - Coductivitatea: 18,000 V - Nereversibil
Absorbia de umezeal Inert
Dispersia Auto-dispersie
Fr efecte patologice
Fr silicai liberi duntori

Particulele cu forme ascuite erodeaz foarte bine n figura 1 sunt prezentate cteva forme ale particulelor
materialul i, dup impact, pot cauza tensiuni mari. utilizate n procesul de erodare.

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 61


Figura 1. Forme ale particulelor abrazive

Tabelul 3: Relaia dintre scala Mohs i duritatea Knoop


Material Duritate
Mohs Knoop
Oxid de aluminiu 8-9 2,100
Zgur de cupru - 1,050
Minerale silicate 7.5 1,350
Sticl 5.5 400 600
Roc de minerale silicate 8+ -
Carbur de siliciu 9.15 2,500
Oxid de siliciu - 700
Oel - 400 800
Zirconiu - 1,300

Cea mai important proprietate fizic pentru adncitura lsat de materialul abraziv. Relaia dintre scala
prelucrarea cu abraziv este duritatea particulei abrazive. Mohs i duritatea Knoop este dat de tabelul 3. Carbura de
Ea se determin prin unul sau dou teste. Primul, testul siliciu, alturi de oxidul de aluminiu i mineralele silicate
duritii Mohs, este un test de zgriere n care un material sunt dintre cele mai dure.
va fi zgriat dac acesta este mai moale dect materialul
Dou relaii diferite definesc forma particulei.
abraziv i nu va fi zgriat dac este mai dur. Cellalt test,
Prima definete msura prin calcularea raportului
testul duritii Knoop, este un test prin care se compar
alungirii relative, cea de-a doua planeitatea:
lp bp
Ra= i Rp= (1, 2)
bp tp
Dimensiunile sunt artate n figura 2 pentru trei forme
diferite de particule abrazive:

Figura 2 Raportul alungirii i planeitii

O alt relaie arat ct de aproape este particula studiat


de o form ideal (spre exemplu sfer, cub, tetraedru etc.).
Cei mai importani factori sunt sfericitatea i rotunjimea
(conform figurii 3):

4 2 * rcolt
* l p * bp
dp
Sp= i Sr= (3, 4)
d cerc N colturi

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 62


Vasek i Martinec au propus un factor de circularitate care
mai nti a fost dezvoltat de Cox pentru a caracteriza
particulele abrazive i un factor de form dat de relaia 6.

4 Ap d min
F0= 2
, unde P=Px+Py+ 2 Pxy i Fform= (5, 6)
P d max

Este imposibil s descriem ficare tip de particul


folosind relaiile prezentate mai nainte.
De aceea este utilizat o descriere statistic a
dimensiunii i formei particulelor abrazive.

5. MEDII DE LUCRU REOPECTICE


UTILIZATE LA PRELUCRAREA
AFM
Sunt muli parametri care afecteaz modul n care bor, oxidul de aluminiu i diamantul. Alegerea
decurge procesul AFM. Mediul abraziv utilizat este n materialului abraziv depinde de doi factori de baz.
strns legtur cu parametrii procesului i, de aceea, nu n primul rnd materialul care este finisat adic
poate fi analizat dect n strns corelare. Parametrii densitatea i proprietile fizice. n al doilea rnd
principali sunt mrimea granulei, materialul granulei i cerinele rugozitii suprafeei finale.
baza mediului. - Mediul de baz. Temperatura mediului poate fi
- Mrime granul. n procesul AFM, scula de tiere modificat sau variat pe ntreaga durat a
este identificat cu actualele granule abrazive din procesului de ctre main. Meninerea temperaturii
mediul abraziv. Granulele mediului abraziv au cea n timpul procesului este complicat deoarece
mai mare influen asupra calitii suprafeelor. Cu mediul este extrudat sub presiune prin cavitatea
ct mai mic este mrimea lor, cu att mai mic piesei. Principalul motiv pentru luarea n calcul a
cantitatea de material ndeprtat i, n consecin, cu temperaturii mediului de baz este faptul c
att mai bun suprafaa finisat. Mrimea granulelor vscozitatea mediului se modific odat cu
se ncadreaz ntre 0,005 mm i 1,5 mm. temperatura. Cu ct temperatura este mai nalt cu
Rugozitatea suprafeei este determinat de mrimea att vscozitatea este mai mic, deci dac mediul
granulelor folosite. Att rugozitatea iniial a atinge temperaturi ridicate, suspensia granulelor
suprafeei ct i cea care trebuie s rezulte n final abrazive este n pericol.
trebuie s fie luate n considerare. Este un procedeu
comun de a nu limita procesarea la o singura mrime
a granulei n fiecare mediu de baz. Dou sau trei
mrimi diferite de granule se pot folosi n cadrul
aceluiai mediu de baz, depinznd de rezultatele
cerute.
- Odat ce procesul de extruziune s-a terminat, mediul
care rmne pe piesa de lucru poate fi uor
ndeprtat cu aer comprimat sau cu vacuum.
- Materialul granulei. Materialul din care sunt
fabricate granulele abrazive este, n mod normal,
carbura de siliciu dar se poate folosi i carbura de
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 63
6. CONCLUZII BIBLIOGRAFIE
Necesitatea obinerii unei suprafee de nalt [1]. Hugh Jack, Abrasive Jet Machining (AJM), version
1.0, August 2001
precizie i calitate este un obiectiv extrem de important [2]. Kozak, Kamlakar, Pajurkar, Hybrid Machining proces
care este impus de funcionalitatea pieselor aflate n evaluation and development, Unyversity of Nebraska,
aciune. Avantajul metodei este c procesul, prin Lincoln, SUA (2004)
manipularea unui mediu abraziv special, permite [3]. Dr. John H. Olson, Abrasive Jet Mechanics,
Contributing Wrier, March 8, 2005
asigurarea unei precizii funcionale oricrui tip de
[4]. Perry, K.E. Abrasive Flow Machining Method and
suprafa. Tooling, Brevet USA.
[5]. Rhoades, L.J., Method of Controlling Flow
Mediul abraziv deine rolul de baz n cadrul procesului. Resistance in Fluid Orifice Manufacture, Brevet
USA.
De proprietile lui, n strns legtur cu materialul [6]. Rhoades, L.J., AFM International, the Materials Information
suprafeei supuse prelucrrii, depinde efectul final al Society. operations, Journal of Manufacturing Systems, Vol. 17,
procesului. De mrimea grunilor, de duritatea lor, dar, No.1, 1998.
mai ales, de formula de realizare a acestui mediu abraziv [7]. Lam, Smith, Process monitoring of Abrasive Flow Machining using a
Neural Network predictive model, Departament of Industrial Engeenering,
cu proprieti reologice, depinde gradul de superfinisare University of Pittsburgh, 2005.
a suprafeei supuse prelucrrii.

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TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 64


SISTEME SUPERFLEXIBILE ROBOTIZATE NOI CONCEPTE

Trygve Thomessen Productive Programming Metods As, Trondheim, Norvegia,


Vladimir Cardei, Valeriu Avramescu, Loredana Pun, Roxana Grejdnescu ICTCM Bucuresti,
vavramescu@ ictcm.ro

ABSTRACT
The new superflexibility concept of a robotized system represents a high level in the
industrial robots applying. This fact allows a special impact to the robots users and
producers. The paper presents some aspects regarding a high flexibility robotized
system for applications in some technological processes for small - scale productions.
This system suppose a correlation between the new requirements, which are imposed
by the high flexibility, both on the robots structure and programming and on the
robotized system components.

KEY WORDS: superflexibility, robotized system, technological processes,


small - scale production

I. INTRODUCERE II. SOLUII CONSTRUCTIVE


CARE ASIGUR
Astzi roboii industriali reprezint cea mai bun SUPERFLEXIBILITATEA
soluie pentru combinarea celor dou nevoi principale
i anume productivitatea i flexibilitatea, caracteristici SISTEMULUI ROBOTIZAT
care i recomand i pentru fabricaia de serie mic. Nu
n ultimul rnd roboii industriali sunt construii pentru La baza superflexibilitatii st posibilitatea
un anumit tip de produs, prin aceasta satisfacndu-se i schimbrii rapide i sigure de ctre robot a minilor
cerinele industriale referitoare la scurtarea timpilor de mecanice, a portbacurilor i a dispozitivelor de lucru
producie i la meninerea riguroas a valorilor prin acionarea direct a sistemului de
parametrilor tehnologici. zvorre/dezvorre doar prin deplasarea braului
Superflexibilitatea unui sistem robotizat impune robotului n raport cu magaziile n care sunt depuse
noi concepte de programare pentru a obine timpi componentele respective.
minimi de setare i implic un grad mult mai mare de n componena unui sistem robotizat superflexibil
tipizare, de modularizare al minilor mecanice i sunt incluse o serie de mini mecanice simple sau cu
dispozitivelor de lucru manevrate de roboii industriali portbacuri interschimbabile, precum i dispozitive de
i de control computerizat al parametrilor tehnologici, lucru care sunt depozitate n magazii specifice, de unde
dect cel actual, pentru a obine o mare eficien n robotul le extrage conform programului, pentru
aplicaiile industriale. efectuarea unor anumite activiti, dupa care le depune
Realizarea unui sistem flexibil implic pe lang napoi n magazii.
robotul industrial, utilajul deservit i sisteme flexibile Pentru minile mecanice i pentru suporii specifici
de adaptare ntre robot i elementele sistemului mini ai dispozitivelor de lucru s-a adoptat un mecanism de
mecanice (grippere), dispozitive de lucru, dispozitive zvorre care are la baz un sistem de blocare cu
de complian, soft crora trebuie de asemenea s li elemente lise a carui element de blocare este acionat,
se confere flexibilitate. producnd dezvorrea doar atunci cnd componenta
Acest sistem robotizat prezint un mare grad de respectiv este depus n magazie i cnd tutul
noutate deoarece rezolv noi cerine de mare dispozitivului de cuplare automat, fixat pe braul
flexibilitate n robotic att pe partea de structur a robotului, este retras din componenta respectiv.
robotului i de programare a acestuia, ct i pe partea Pentru portbacuri s-au adoptat mecanisme de
de componente ale sistemului robotizat, gradul ridicat zvorre cu tifturi cilindrice care, intrnd n alezajele
de flexibilitate fiind obinut prin unificarea flexibilitii aferente din portbacuri, blocheaz deplasarea transversal
componentelor sistemului cu cea a structurii a acestora n ghidajele suporilor din structura minilor
sistemului. mecanice.
Pentru realizarea dezvorrii portbacurilor, dup
introducerea complet a minii mecanice cu
portbacurile cuplate n magazia aferent, zavoarele sunt
acionate prin mpingerea ansamblului ctre
tampoanele aferente din structura magaziei, acestea
intrnd n alezajele zavoarelor din portbacuri,
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 65
mpingndu-le, realizndu-se decuplarea transversal a i ca o interfa ntre robot i celelalte componente ale
portbacurilor fa de suporii lor din structura minii sistemului.
mecanice. Au fost urmarite urmatoarele obiective tiinifice i
Dispozitivele de lucru sunt fixate prin piese de tehnice:
adaptare de suporii lor specifici, prevzui cu sisteme dezvoltarea conceptului de modulizare a
de cuplare automat cu braul robotului, supori care componentelor sistemului robotizat,
sunt depui n magaziile aferente. modulizarea minilor mecanice, a unor dispozitive de
Sistemul de compliana are rolul de a menine lucru i a altor echipamente aferente sistemului,
ferma poziia dispozitivului de lucru atunci cnd forele standardizarea interfeelor dintre diferitele tipuri de
care acioneaz asupra sculei sunt mai mici decat o roboi si de echipamente,
valoare prereglat i de a permite o deplasare
controlat a acestuia atunci cnd forele depesc
programarea rapid i intuitiv a robotului,
dezvoltarea sistemelor senzoriale pentru creterea
aceast valoare.
flexibilitii sistemului robotizat.
Instalaia pneumatic asigur alimentarea cu aer
n figura 1 sunt prezentate componentele modulare
comprimat a minilor mecanice, a dispozitivelor de
reprezentative care permit realizarea unor celule
lucru sau a senzorilor pneumoelectrici instalai pe aceste
robotizate cu o mare flexibilitate. A fost organizat un
componente asigurnd o presiune de lucru n domeniul
Stand pentru experimentarea componentelor flexibile
46 bar pentru un diametru nominal Dn 6 mm.
reprezentative ale unui sistem robotizat superflexibil,
Instalaia electric asigur alimentarea cu energie
destinat att testrii n condiii reale de manipulare
electric a unor dispozitive de lucru, a unor
robotizat a componentelor reprezentative, ct i
componente ale sistemului robotizat, sau a unor senzori
elaborarii unor metodologii de programare a unui
pneumoelectrici, furniznd semnale de interblocare catre
sistem robotizat superflexibil.
echipamentul de comand al robotului i putnd servi

COMPONENTA VARIANTE
Mna mecanic cu fixare direct pe braul robotului cu posibiliti de prindere multipl a unor semifabricate
sau piese diferite
Mini mecanice interschimbabile automat cu portbacuri fixe
cu bacuri reglabile
cu posibiliti de prindere multipl
Mna mecanic cu portbacuri interschimbabile automat cu portbacuri fixe
cu bacuri reglabile
cu posibiliti de prindere multipl
Magazii mini mecanice
portbacuri
dispozitive de lucru
Dispozitiv de cuplare automat cu braul robotului cuplare mecanic
cuplare mecanic i energetic
cuplare mecanic i informaional
cuplare mecanic, energetic i informaional

Dispozitiv de complian dupa o direcie


dupa dou direcii
Senzor electropneumatic poziia corect a piesei
nchiderea matriei fa pe fa
Dispozitiv pentru fixarea unor semifabricate cu senzori de prezen corect a piesei
Unelte si dispozitive specifice de lucru main de gaurit
main de nurubat
dalt
polizor (biax)

Figura 1. Componente reprezentative ale unei celule robotizate superflexibile

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 66


Flexibilitatea deosebit a sistemului robotizat - prinderea reglabil i ferm a semifabricatelor cu mna
superflexibil se datoreaz principiilor originale care mecanic, obiectiv realizat prin alegerea sistemului de
stau la baza soluiilor funcionale i constructive ale bazare i fixare a semifabricatelor n portbacuri,
componentelor mecanice ale acestuia; pe baza lor s-au - orientarea suporilor minilor mecanice a magaziilor
definit obiectivele specifice i direciile tematice: cu portbacuri i a dispozitivelor de lucru cu scopul
- acionarea sistemului de zvorre/dezvorre doar simplificrii procedurilor de programare i de rulare a
prin deplasarea braului robotului fa de magaziile programului robotului, prin activarea unui numar ct
n care sunt depuse minile mecanice i mai redus de micri pentru realizarea funciilor de
dispozitivele de lucru, fr a mai fi necesar un cuplare/decuplare, funcii care impun deplasri precise
element de execuie special pentru acionarea i cu vitez redus.
mecanismului de cuplare mecanic i pneumatic a n elaborarea soluiilor componentelor
acestora cu braul robotului, reprezentative executate s-au avut n vedere
- interschimbabilitatea automat a minilor urmatoarele cerine constructive i funcionale:
mecanice i a dispozitivelor de lucru n raport cu realizarea unei structuri modulare compacte, cu
braul robotului, caracteristic realizat prin ct mai puine elemente n micare,
tipizarea mecanismului de cuplare mecanic,
energetic i informaional,
posibiliti de adaptare uoar a structurii
componentelor pentru lrgirea domeniului de
- cuplarea mecanic automat a portbacurilor cu mna
dimensiuni sau de aplicaii,
mecanic, obiectiv realizat doar prin deplasarea de
catre braul robotului a minii mecanice fa de sigurana deosebit n realizarea funciei de
magaziile n care sunt depuse portbacurile, fra a mai cuplare/decuplare a minilor mecanice sau a
fi necesar un element de execuie special pentru dispozitivelor de lucru cu braul robotului i a
acionarea mecanismului de cuplare/decuplare minilor mecanice cu portbacurile aferente,
mecanic a portbacurilor cu mna mecanic, posibiliti de adaptare uoar a structurii
- interschimbabilitatea automat a portbacurilor n echipamentului complex de testare pentru noi
raport cu minile mecanice, obiectiv realizat prin teme de studiu n domeniul aplicaiilor
tipizarea mecanismului de cuplare mecanic i a sistemelor robotizate superflexibile n diverse
structurii magaziilor n care portbacurile sunt depuse, procese tehnologice.

Magazie pentru mini mecanice cu Magazie pentru mini mecanice cu Magazie cu Magazie cu portbacuri
portbacuri interschimbabile bacuri reglabile sau fixe portbacuri interschimbabile II
interschimbabile I

Mna mecanic cu portbacuri Mna mecanic cu bacuri reglabile Suport dispozitiv de Magazie pentru
interschimbabile sau fixe lucru dispozitiv de lucru

Magazie cu portbacuri Dispozitiv de Dispozitiv de cuplare automat cu Instalaie electric


interschimbabile III complian braul robotului
Figura 2. Componente reprezentative

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 67


III. METODOLOGIE DE REALIZARE A IV. CONCLUZII
PROGRAMELOR SISTEMULUI FLEXIBIL
ROBOTIZAT Conceptul nou, de superflexibilitate a unui sistem
robotizat reprezint o treapt superioar n activitatea
n cadrul unui program de manipulare a unor de utilizare a roboilor industriali, fapt care conduce la
semifabricate sau de prelucrare robotizat n cadrul un impact deosebit asupra utilizatorilor i al
unei celule superflexibile, robotul industrial efectueaz, fabricanilor de roboi.
n principiu, urmatoarele tipuri de activiti, pentru care, Creterea cerinelor de productivitate i mediile
n program, sunt incluse o serie de condiii de noi de lucru impun utilizarea roboilor industriali n
interblocare care condiioneaz rularea acestuia: industrie. Aceasta este deosebit de important n medii
- pornirea rulrii programului de lucru atunci cnd dificile de lucru pentru limitarea mbolnavirilor
toate condiiile iniiale specifice procesului tehnologic posibile i pentru limitarea factorilor care pot conduce
robotizat sunt ndeplinite, (utilajele din sistem pornite la o productivitate i calitate sczut.
i n configuraie apt s permit rularea programului Prin introducerea robotizrii superflexibile pentru
robotului, parametrii tehnologici ncadrai n valorile producia de serie mic pot fi obinute urmatoarele
prescrise etc.), efecte economice si sociale:
- preluarea/depunerea unor mini mecanice sau - creterea productivitii: 75 %;
dispozitive de lucru din magaziile specifice, - creterea calitii operaiilor executate i
- preluarea/depunerea unor portbacuri din/n magaziile reducerea rebuturilor cu 80%;
specifice, - ridicarea calificrii profesionale a personalului
- rularea unor secvene de manipulare din program, de deservire a sistemului robotizat superflexibil i
(deplasarea braului robotului pentru apucarea unor crearea de noi locuri de munc ;
semifabricate etc.), - deschiderea unui nou domeniu de cercetare cu
- rularea unor secvene de prelucrare din program, aplicaii directe n industrie;
(deplasarea braului robotului cu dispozitivul de lucru - deschiderea de noi piee de desfacere pentru
i realizarea unor prelucrri prin gurire, polizare, componentele i programele specifice care asigur
lefuire, msurare etc.), superflexibilitatea sistemelor robotizate.
- preluarea unui semifabricat din postul de livrare,
(existena i pozitia precis a semifabricatului n postul V. BIBLIOGRAFIE
de preluare etc.),
[1] Ciobanu., L., Manipulatoare i roboi industriali, Rotaprint Univ.
- rularea unor secvene din program, (deplasarea Tehnic Gh. Asachi Iai, 1994.
braului robotului pentru aducerea semifabricatului n [2] D. Drgulescu, M. Toth-Tacu, Planificarea i generarea
postul de lucru al unui utilaj etc.), micrii roboilor, Ed. Orizonturi Universitare, Timioara, 2002.
- comanda unor secvene din programul unor utilaje din [3] Everett, H. R., Sensors for Mobile Robots: Theory and
Application, A. K. Peters Ltd, 1995.
sistem, (deschiderea unor dispozitive de prindere, [4] Ispas, V., Aplicaiile cinematicii n construcia manipulatoarelor
efectuarea unor operaii asupra semifabricatului i a roboilor industriali Ed. Tehnic, Bucureti, 1990.
manipulat de ctre robot etc.), [5] Latombe, J.-C, Robot Motion Planning, Kluwer Academic
- transferul semifabricatului la alt utilaj sau depunerea Publishers, 1995.
[6] Russel, S., P. Norvig, Artificial Intelligence - A Modern
lui n postul de evacuare, retragerea robotului n poziia Approach, Prentice-Hall International, Inc., New Jersey, 1995.
de ateptare pentru reluarea unui nou ciclu de lucru,
- oprirea rulrii programului robotului pna la ndeplinirea
condiiilor de interblocare aferente secvenelor
programului,
- oprirea rulrii programului robotului datorit
nendeplinirii unei condiii de interblocare aferente
secvenelor programului, reluarea rulrii programului
fiind comandat de ctre operator numai dup
nlaturarea, de ctre acesta, a cauzelor care au generat
nendeplinirea condiiei de interblocare,
- trecerea pe alte secvene din program daca nu sunt
ndeplinite anumite condiii tehnologice, (evacuarea
unor semifabricate insuficient ncalzite, evacuarea unor
semifabricate necorespunzatoare etc.),
- trecerea pe alte subprograme la un numr prescris de
cicluri, (ungerea i/sau rcirea matrielor dupa
executarea unui numr prescris de cicluri etc.).

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 68


ASPECTE PRIVIND FUNCIONAREA UNEI INSTALAII
EXPERIMENTALE BAZAT PE EFECTUL DE SEPARARE
ENERGETIC A UNUI CURENT TURBIONAR DE AER
Rducanu Petre1, Barbu Valentin2, Popescu Anghel2
1
Universitatea Politehnica din Bucureti, 2 SC ICTCM SA Bucureti
raducanu2000@yahoo.com , vbarbu@ictcm.ro

REZUMAT
Aceast lucrare prezint rezultatele obinute cu ajutorul unei instalaii
experimentale bazate pe efectul de separare energetic a unui curent turbionar de
aer pentru generarea de frig sau cldur. Instalaia, de dimensiuni i greutate
reduse, a fost testat n condiii de laborator pentru a se vedea parametrii ce pot fi
realizai. Se prezint rezultatele experimentale obinute.

ABSTRACT
This paper presents the results got with an experimetal installation using a vortex
tube to freeze or heat a precinct. The installation, having small sites and weight, was
tested in laboratory conditions in order to see what parameters can be got. The
paper presents the results obtained.

CUVINTE CHEIE: instalaie experimentala, separare energetic

KEY WORDS: experimental installation, vortex tube

1. INTRODUCERE Valorificarea resurselor de gaz comprimat pentru


producerea concomitent a frigului i cldurii.
Efectul de separare energetic a unui curent La microsistemele frigorifice cu aciune periodic,
turbionar de gaz comprimat n doi cureni, unul rece i folosite n domeniul mijloacelor de transport prevzute
altul cald, a fost descoperit de ctre inginerul metalurg cu surse de aer comprimat.
francez George Ranque, care a studiat procesul de Instalaia, bazat pe separarea energetic a unui
separare ce avea loc ntr-un ciclon de desprfuire[1], n curent turbionar de gaz comprimat n doi cureni, unul
vederea separrii gazului de praf. Ranque a obinut, n rece i altul cald, datorit avantajelor pe care le
anul 1931, un brevet de invenie pentru descoperirea sa prezint, i care o fac utlilizabil in numeroase
[2]. n anul 1946 fizicianul german Robert Hilsch a domenii, i poate gsi actualmente o serie divers de
publicat un articol [3] n legtur cu cercetrile utilizri, cum ar fi:
experimentale pe care le-a fcut asupra tubului de Condiionarea (rcirea) sau nclzirea unor incinte la
vrtej, fcnd i recomandri privind construcia i mijloacele de transport (autocare, aotocamioane,
exploatarea lui. Astzi tubul Ranque-Hilsch este pe locomotive, vapoare, aeronave etc.).
deplin acceptat i recunoscut, el continund s fie Refrigerarea produselor perisabile n timpul
studiat pentru a se descifra pe deplin mecanismele care transportului lor cu mijloacele de transport (vagoane
permit obinerea acestui efect curios. frigorifice, nave frigorifice, izoterme auto etc).
Studii efectuate n domeniu [4], [5], [6] au pus n Rcirea n unele procese tehnologice (rcirea
eviden c, innd seama de utilizarea n diverse burghielor, a unor componente electronice etc).
scopuri a energiei termice a curentului de gaz, O astfel de instalaie este simpl din punct de
economicitatea sistemelor de separare energetic vedere constructiv, neavnd piese n micare i deci
turbionar devine favorabil n situaii n care sistemele posibilitile de defectare fiind reduse iar uzurile
convenionale de tipul instalaiilor frigorifice, extrem de mici. Dimensiunile de gabarit i greutatea
instalaiilor de climatizare sau pompelor de cldur cu tubului Ranque-Hilsch sunt reduse, ceea ce permite
comprimare mecanic de vapori nu pot fi aplicate. integrarea lui uor n cele mai diverite locaii, fiind un
Astfel, este de preferat utilizarea turbionatoarelor de argument de baz n cazul utilizrii instalaiei pe
separare energetic n urmtoarele direcii: mijloace de transport.
Rapiditatea conectrii i a deconectrii lui i
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TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007
permite s intre n funciune foarte rapid, fiind deci 2. DESCRIEREA FENOMENULUI FIZIC
lipsit de inerie. Simplitatea i continuitatea reglajului
parametrilor asigurai de instalaie ntr-un interval larg n figura 1 se prezint schema constructiv a unui
de valori este un alt atu important al instalaiei. Nu n astfel de dispozitiv.
ultimul rnd trebuie menionat faptul c poluarea Debitul de gaz comprimat, n cazul studiat aerul,
produs de un astfel de dispozitiv este practic caracterizat n starea iniial de anumii parametri
inexistent. presiune i temperatur (pi* i Ti*) este introdus n
Reglementrile cuprinse n legislaia UE n tubul ce constituie corpul generatorului turbionar
domeniul ecologic, al introducerii de tehnologii printr-un ajutaj, care pote fi convergent sau convergent-
avansate i al economisirii de combustibil constituie un divergent. Ajutajul accelereaz gazul pn la viteze
factor ce trebuie s contribuie la introducerea i n ara egale sau apropiate de cea a sunetului.
noastr a instalaiilor bazate pe turbionatoare Ranque- Jetul iniial de gaz, care prsete ajutajul prin
Hilsch pentru diverse domenii de aplicaie, dintre ele seciunea Aa, se mparte n doi cureni.
detandu-se domeniul transportului, unde Unul se deplaseaz n lungul corpului cilindric C
climatizarea/nclzirea cabinelor de conducere i a de seciune At. La captul prin care acest curent iese
spaiului cltorilor conduce, cu costuri reduse, att la din tub se afl un ventil de reglaj V care permite
creterea confortului pasagerilor, ct i la asigurarea modificarea seciunii Av. Al doilea curent se deplaseaz
unor condiii optime de lucru personalului de deservire, prin diafragma D de seciune constant Ad.
lucru care contribuie la creterea securitii i Se constat experimental c zona periferic a
siguranei n transporturi. curentului iniial de gaz, cea care se deplaseaz n
Prin utilizarea acestei metodologii n ara noastr se lungul tubului i iese prin seciunea Av, va avea la
poate asigura introducerea unei tehnologii moderne, ieirea din tub o temperatur Tc mai mare dect
ecologice, pentru condiionarea/nclzirea mijloacelor de temperatura de intrare a aerului comprimat n tub. n
transport, n concordan cu directivele CE. acelai timp, zona central a jetului iniial de gaz, care
Varianta de instalaie ce a fost studiat a urmrit trece prin diafragm i iese din tub pe la captul opus,
obinerea climatizrii/nclzirii unor mijloace de va avea o temperatur Tf mai cobort dect
transport i realizarea eventual a unor mini-spaii rcite temperatura de intrare a aerului comprimat n tub.
(pentru pstrarea unor buturi, alimente etc), deci Prin manevrarea ventilului V se poate modifica
utilizarea att a efectului de rcire ct i a celui de seciunea de curgere Av i implicit debitele de gaz cald
nclzire. i respectiv rece ce prsesc tubul. Aceast variaie a
Utilizarea tubului Ranque-Hilsch n domeniul debitelor conduce la o modificare important a
climatizrii mijloacelor de transport se nscrie n temperaturilor celor doi cureni.
direciile recunoscute de aplicabilitate pentru aceast n procesul de formare i curgere a celor dou
instalaie, dar care au fost totui puin sau deloc jeturi turbionare are loc o distribuire a energiei jetului
investigate i aplicate, constitind o soluie ecologic iniial de gaz comprimat, proces n care zona periferic
ntr-un domeniu n care diminuarea polurii se impune se nclzete iar cea central se rcete. Aceast
cu deosebit acuitate. Acest studiu are un carater de redistribuire a energiei este rezultatul unor procese
cercetare aplicativ ce l plaseaz la frontiera dintre gazodinamice deosebit de complexe al cror mecanism
cunoaterea tiinific i aplicabilitatea sa tehnic n nu a fost nc pe deplin elucidat. Cercetrile efectuate
practic. pn n prezent scot n eviden faptul c la baza
Pe plan extern interesul pentru astfel de instalaii fenomenului analizat se afl un schimb turbulent de
se afl n continu cretere, diverse firme ncepnd energie ntre zona central i cea periferic, asociat cu
studii n aceast direcie, unele introducnd n redistribuirea cmpurilor de vitez ntre cele dou zone.
producia de serie aceste tuburi turbionare.

Fig.1. Schema constructiv a unui generator turbionar

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TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007
3. ANALIZA POSIBILITILOR Analiza prezentat n continuare se face pe baza
DE FUNCIONARE A INSTALAIEI legilor generale ale naturii, a cele dou principii ale
termodinamicii, pentru a se vedea dac n principiu este
O analiz a dispozitivului pune n eviden faptul posibil funcionarea lui [7].
c acesta nu poate funciona n orice condiii, el putnd Se analizeaz, spre exemplificare, dou variante de
constitui, n afara limitelor de lucru un perpetuum funcionare, prezentate n tabelul 1.
mobile, deci un lucru irelizabil n practic.
Tabelul 1
Varianta Aer comprimat Aer rece Aer cald
a 2 kmol, 4 bar, 20oC 1 kmol, 1 bar, -10oC 1 kmol, 1 bar, 50oC
b 2 kmol, 4 bar, 20oC 1,8 kmol, 1 bar, -10oC 0,2 kmol, 1 bar, 290oC

Se verific nti dac aparatul nu contravine


principiului I al termodinamicii (varianta a) 4. INSTALAIA EXPERIMENTAL.
H=H1+ H2= (n CM,pT)=n1CM,p(t1,e-t1,i)+n2CM,p(t2,e- REZULTATE OBINUTE
t2,i)=Cm,p[1(-10-20)+1(50-20)]=0 Instalaia experimental realizat i studiat a
Deoarece variaia entalpiei sistemului este nul, urmrit s evidenieze care sunt parametrii care pot fi
rezult c din punct de vedere al principiului I sistemul obinui, posibilitile de reglaj ale instalaiei i modul
poate funciona. n care un astfel de dispozitiv poate fi folosit la
Se verific apoi dac aparatul nu contravine condiionarea (rcirea) sau ncalzirea unor incinte la
principiului II al termodinamicii: mijloacele de transport (autocare, aotocamioane,
locomotive, vapoare, aeronave etc.).
S=S1+S2 Instalaiei i-au fost ataate o serie de aparate de msur i
control, care au permis s se urmreasc variaia n timp
T1,e p1,e a principalilor parametrii ce caracterizeaz regimurile
S1=n1(CM,pln RM ln )= funcionale. Principalii parametrii ce s-au monitorizat au
T1,i p1,i
fost: debitul de aer de intrare, debitul de aer cu
=29,3ln 273 10 8315 ln 1 =8,37 kJ/K temperatur ridicat la ieire, debitul de aer cu
273 + 20 4 temperatur sczut la ieire, temperatura aerului la
intrare, temperatura aerului cald la ieire, temperatura
T2,e p2 , e aerului rece la ieire, presiunea aerului la intrare,
S2=n2(CM,pln RM ln )=
T2,i p2,i presiunea aerului rece la ieire, presiunea aerului cald la
ieire, posibilitile de reglare ale dispozitivului de reglaj
=29,3ln 273 + 50 8315 ln 1 =14,39 kJ/K (modul cum se poate comanda o cantitate mai mare de
273 + 20 4 aer rece sau una mai mare de aer cald, funcie de
necesitile consumatorului), temperatura mediului
S=S1+S2=22,76 kJ/K>0 ambiant (din incinta a crei nclzire/rcire se
realizeaz), temperatura mediului ambiant (exterior
Datorit faptului c S>0, rezult c din punct de
incintei a crei nclzire/rcire se realizeaz), consumul
vedere al principiului II sistemul poate funciona.
de energie (aer comprimat) al instalaie pentru realizarea
n plus, deoarece S este destul de mare, funcionarea
unui anumit grad de nclzire/rcire a incintei.
dispozitivului poate fi optimizat, tiind c pentru ca un
Experimentele au fost mprite n dou etape:
proces s fie posibil, este suficient ca S s fie numai
Etapa I, care a cuprins ncercarea instalaiei
infinitezimal mai mare dect zero.
pentru a vedea modul n care aceasta funcioneaz.
Deci procesele au un caracter de ireversibilitate
destul de pronunat, fiind posibil s reducem caracterul Etapa a II-a, care a cuprins testarea instalaiei
de ireversibilitate. n regim, care a fost modificat, pentru a se putea vedea
Se ncearc optimizarea funcionrii instalaiei cum se modific parametrii aerului la ieire.
(varianta b) Rezultatele experimentale obinute au fost
Dispozitivul poate fi perfecionat, de exemplu prelucrate statistic pentru a se obine att estimarea
pentru parametrii variantei b. Se vede c n acest caz adevratei valori a unei mrimi i a preciziei
H=0 (deci principiul I nu este contrazis), dar S=- msurtorilor, ct i pentru a se corela numrul de
0,29<0, deci dispozitivul nu poate funciona. msurtori cu precizia aparatelor, n scopul stabilirii
Se observ c trebuie fcut o analiz foarte atent valorii msurate cu precizia impus.
a parametrilor funcionali pentru ca aparatul s poat Pe baza nregistrrilor variaiei parametrilor de
funciona, dar si pentru ca pierderile energetice s fie funcionare s-a trasat diagrama de funcionare a
minime iar randamentul instalaiei s fie ct mai dispozitivului, care permite o vizualizare rapid a regimului
ridicat. de funcionare a instalaiei, permind tragerea unor concluzii
pe baza crora s se poat lua cele mai adecvate decizii.
71
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007
n figura 2 se prezint diagrama de funcionare a
dispozitivului, obinut pe baza prelucrrii statistice a
datelor experimentale.

tf [oC] 40
tC[oC]
tf [oC]
tC[oC]

30

20

10

0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1 [-]

Fig. 2 Diagrama de funcionare tf=f() i tC=f()


m& f
& f ) i cel total ( m& ): =
Observatie: S-a notat fraciunea dintre debitul de fluid rece ( m ; tf=t a-tf tC= t C-ta
m&

5. CONCLUZII
n concluzie, se poate aprecia, pe baza rezultatelor
Pe baza diagramei de funcionare obinute se pot experimentale obinute, c instalaia bazat pe separarea
desprinde urmtoarele concluzii: energetic a unui curent turbionar de aer permite obinerea
Instalaia experimental realizeaz parametrii unor temperaturi ce pot realiza, n funcie de necesitate, fie
estimai iniial. rcirea, fie nclzirea unei incinte.
Reglarea temperaturilor pentru curentul de aer
rece, respectiv cald se poate face din ventilul de BIBLIOGRAFIE
reglaj al instalaiei, care modific fraciunile de aer
distribuite ntre cei doi cureni. 1. Ranque, G.J., Experiences sur la detente giratoire avec
productions simultanes dun echappament dair chaud et dair
Se observ c pentru curentul de aer rece exist o
froid, Journal de Physique 1933, vol 7, nr 4.
valoare maxim care se obine pentru o fracie 2. Ranque, G.J., Method and apparatus for obtaining from fluid
=0,25. Este evident c pentru cazurile =0 i =1 under pressure two curents of fluid at different temperatures,
tR se anuleaz. Patent USA nr 1.952.281, March 1934.
3. Hilsch, R., Die Expansion von Gasen in Zentrifugalfeld als
Pe msur ce fraciunea de gaz rece crete, Kalteprocess, Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung, vol 1, Ianuarie 1946.
temperatura acestuia se micoreaz. 4. Otten, E.H., Vortex tube, Engineering, august 1958.
Pentru curentul de aer cald acest maxim nu exist, 5. Radcenco, Vs., Generatoare turbionare de frig i cldur, Ed
temperatura crescnd aproximativ liniar cu Tehnic, Bucureti 1990.
6. Suslov, A.D., Ivanov, S.V., Vihrevie apparati, Masinostroienie 1985.
fraciunea .
7. Rducanu, P., Procese termogazodinamice n aparatele, mainile
i instalaiile termice i frigorifice, Ed Printech, Bucureti 2005.

72
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007
CONCEPTIA MODULARA IN CONSTRUCTIA
DE MASINI-UNELTE
Gheorghe Marin1, Aurel Costea2, Nicoleta Rachieru2
1
SC ICTCM Institutul de Cercetare si Proiectare Tehnologica pentru Constructii Masini SA Bucuresti,
vavramescu@ictcm.ro
2
SC APLAST Campulung Muscel

REZUMAT
Lucrarea se refera la necesitatea unei abordari sistemice, bine argumentata
stiintific, tehnic si economic, a flexibilitatii de componente, echipamente si sisteme
de fabricatie, prin cresterea gradului de modulizare a componentelor si
dezvoltarea de caracteristici si functiuni noi ale acestora. Sunt oferite solutii de
structuri modulare noi cu caracteristici si performante superioare si cu grad
ridicat de adaptabilitate.

ABSTRACT
The paper refers to the necesity of a systemic approach, scientifically validated from the
technical and economical point of view, regarding to the flexible components of the
equipment and manufacturing systems. The purpose of the paper is to analyse the
modulating degree of the main parts from machine tools, in order to develop new
function and to explore their characterisitcs. New solutions of modulating structures
are offered, with high adaptability performances.

CUVINTE CHEIE: Sisteme de fabricatie, Constructie modulara, Masini-unelte.

KEYWORDS: Manufacturing sistems, Modular construction, Machine-tools.

1. CONSIDERATII GENERALE
La prelucrarea pe masinile-unelte agregat, piesa
Tendinta de a executa, in conditii rationale din punct semifabricat, fixata o singura data, ramane nemiscata
de vedere tehnic si economic, utilaje si echipamente in timp ce mai multe scule pot prelucra simultan sau
cu flexibilitate ridicata care sa corespunda simultan-succesiv diferite suprafete ale piesei, de
necesitatilor tehnologice specifice beneficiarilor, a unde rezulta o reducere semnificativa a timpilor
condus la utilizarea principiului inrudirii constructive auxiliari. Principiul agregarii a fost aplicat la
ce presupune conceptia, prin derivare de la masina de constructia masinilor de gaurit, strunjit, frezat, alezat
baza, a diferitelor ei variante constructive, refolosind si frezat sau a centrelor de prelucrare.
de la o masina la alta subansambluri, mecanisme si
elemente adaptabile care transforma variantele in 2. APLICATII ALE CONCEPTIEI
masini cu caracteristici functionale distincte. MODULARE
Extinderea utilizarii acestui principiu ofera avantajul
refolosirii subansamblurilor interschimbabile pentru Aplicarea conceptiei modulare in constructia de masini-
constructia unor linii tehnologice dupa terminarea unelte poate fi ilustrata la solutiile alese pentru masinile de
unui program de fabricatie. frezat longitudinal unde prin folosirea unor subansambluri
Una din aplicatiile conceptiei modulare sunt masinile- identice, in cadrul aceleiasi tipodimensiuni de masina se
unelte agregat realizate intr-o structura care sa obtin variante constructive modulare cu functiuni diferite
inlocuiasca, in unele cazuri masinile-unelte universale (fig.1): un montant si cap de frezat orizontal a; un
si pe cele speciale, coreland doua caracteristici montant, consola si cap de frezat vertical b; un montant,
contradictorii in proiectarea de masini-unelte: consola, cap de frezat orizontal si vertical c; doi montanti
prelucrarea unei diversitati de piese, specifice dintre care unul auxiliar, traversa si cap de frezat
masinilor universale si realizarea unor productivitati orizontal d; doi montanti si doua capete de frezat
si precizii de fabricatie ridicate obtinuta pe masini orizontale e; doi montanti, traversa si doua capete de
speciale. frezat verticale f; doi montanti, traversa, doua capete de
frezat orizontale si doua capete de frezat verticale g.

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 73


Sub aspectul tipizarii si unificarii masinilor-unelte Pentru a ilustra gradul de realizare a unui produs sau
modulele constructive ale acestora pot fi diferentiate grupa de produse dupa principiile construirii pe baza
in module de baza, principale si auxiliare. de module, proiectantii de masini-unelte folosesc
urmatorii doi indicatori mai importanti: gradul de
refolosire Gr si gradul de tipizare Gt definiti
matematic dupa cum urmeaza:

r (1)
G r
=
n+r
100

t (2),
Gt = 100
R

unde:
r este numarul de repere (subansambluri)
refolosite in noua constructie de la produsele
anterioare;
n numarul de repere (subansambluri) noi
introduse in proiect;
t numarul de piese (subansambluri) tipizate;
R numarul total de piese (subansambluri) din
componenta produsului.

Indicatorii pot sa reflecte gradul de unificare in cadrul


aceleiasi tipodimensiuni, familii sau sistem de masini,
Figura 1 marimea lor influentand costul proiectarii si executiei
produselor si scurtand sau prelungind durata lor de
Modulele de baza sunt acele subansambluri si piese asimilare si fabricatie.
de masini-unelte care alcatuiesc cadrul de rezistenta In ansamblu avantajele oferite de aplicarea sistemului
al utilajului (batiu, montanti, suporti) si sustin conceptiei modulare pot fi sintetizate prin
celelalte grupe constructive. urmatoarele: conceperea celor mai reusite constructii
In categoria modulelor principale sunt incluse cu o inalta siguranta in functionare; diminuarea
totalitatea subansamblurilor constructive care muncii de proiectare si cresterea productivitatii in
indeplinesc una sau mai multe functii (suport-scula, sectoarele de conceptie inclusiv cel al pregatirii
suport-piesa, transmisii) iar drept module auxiliare tehnologice, unde procesele pot fi tipizate; asigurarea
sunt considerate sistemele de programare cu comanda unor loturi mai mari de produse si prin aceasta a unor
numerica, alte reglari si comenzi, regulatoare, conditii de fabricatie superioare; realizarea in conditii
dispozitive de transport etc., servind la extinderea economice optime a masinilor-unelte de diferite tipuri
functiunilor masinii si automatizarea acesteia (fig.2). si variante constructive corespunzand unei multitudini
de scopuri tehnologice; livrarea rapida, eventual din
depozite a subansamblurilor si pieselor de schimb;
convertirea rapida a unei variante de masina in alta si
de la un gen de productie la altul, in cazul schimbarii
programului de productie ceea ce inseamna cresterea
flexibilitatii acesteia etc.
In cele ce urmeaza sunt prezentate cateva exemple de
tipizare a masinilor-unelte, din care se poate
desprinde metodologia aplicata in prezent de catre
institutele de profil si posibilitatile tehnice pe care le
ofera aceasta activitate.

Figura 2

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 74


Toate acestea sunt concepute prin combinarea
montantului 1, pe care se afla capul de frezat 2 cu
batiul avand, dupa caz: sanie port-piesa deplasabila
transversal 3, masa fixa si sania montantului
deplasabila transversal 4, doua sanii din care una
transversala si alta longitudinala 5, magazin de scule
si mana mecanica 6 etc.
O serie tipodimensionala completa si de perspectiva a
masinilor orizontale de alezat si frezat avand drept
parametru principal diametrul arborelui de alezare, se
compune din marimile: 100, 125, 130, 160 si 180,
fiecare dintre variantele constructive mentionate mai
inainte putand sa fie executata intr-una din aceste
marimi. Prin adaugarea de module auxiliare care
imprima utilajului diferite grade de automatizare:
comanda conventionala, cu afisaj de cote, cu
comanda numerica dupa program etc., variantele pot
Figura 3 fi derivate in continuare.
Spre exemplu, prin trecerea la proiectarea si
Masinile-unelte din aceasta subgrupa sunt destinate asimilarea marimilor 100, 125 si 180 mm au rezultat
prelucrarii pieselor turnate sau sudate cu gabarite pe langa tipodimensiunile de baza alte 14 variante
mari de tipul carcaselor, prin operatii de frezare, constructive din care: patru variante marimea 100
gaurire, alezare, strunjire plana, prelucrare dupa mm, sapte variante marimea 125 mm si trei variante
contur etc. In general, o masina orizontala de alezat si marimea 180 mm.
frezat prezinta urmatoarea structura modulara (fig.3): Din figura 5 rezulta conceptia de tipizare aplicata la
batiu 1, sanie longitudinala 2, sanie transversala 3, constructia masinilor orizontale de alezat si frezat
masa rotativa 4, papusa 5 si montant 6. unde, prin combinarea modulelor principale masa
Variantele constructive de masini orizontale, pentru port-piesa 1, batiu 2, capul de forta 3 si sania
alezat si frezat impuse de cerintele tehnologice sunt transversala 4, se obtin diferite variante constructive
urmatoarele (fig. 4): cu montant fix a; cu montant ale acestor masini.
deplasabil transversal b; cu montant deplasabil
longitudinal si transversal c; cu batiu in cruce,
montant deplasabil longitudinal si masa deplasabila
transversal d; cu montant deplasabil transversal si
pinola culisanta e.

Figura 5

Cele analizate se refera numai la rezultatele obtinute


Figura 4
prin combinarea diferitelor posibilitati constructive
sau functionale ale subansamblurilor principale ale
masinilor orizontale de alezat si frezat, fara a se opera

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 75


modificari dimensionale mai importante la piesele 3. CONCLUZII
turnate. Aceste modificari cum sunt schimbarea
lungimii batiului, a mesei sau montantilor se pot Dat fiind numarul foarte mare de variante realizate la
realiza la piesele turnate prin pastrarea unui modul de proiectarea in conceptia modulara a masinilor-unlete,
baza la care se adauga tronsoanele de diferite marimi. se impune organizarea documentatiei tehnice astfel
Spre exemplu batiul (fig.6) piesa turnata de baza a incat sa se asigure un volum minim de desene
acestor utilaje, este modulat permitand realizarea executate, o usurinta de manipulare a acestora si, mai
diferitelor curse pentru sania longitudinala. ales, posibilitatea de selectionare in timpul cel mai
scurt posibil a subansamblurilor si reperelor necesare
pentru obtinerea variantei solicitate.
In acest scop tot mai multe unitati de conceptie din
tara si din strainatate incep sa-si perfectioneze
sistemul clasic de elaborare si organizare a
documentatiei avand la baza impartirea si codificarea
produselor in ansambluri, subansambluri si piese,
inlocuindu-l cu codificari bazate pe criterii
tehnologice, constructive, functionale si morfologice.

Figura 6 BIBLIOGRAFIE
O solutie similara este adoptata si pentru montat care 1. Brgaru, A., Armeanu, A., Pnu, V., Dulgheru, L.
se poate refolosi in cadrul aceleiasi tipodimensiuni, in Sistemul dispozitivelor din elemente modulare (DEM),
sistem modern de optimizare a pregtirii tehnologice a
vederea realizarii de masini apartinand diferitelor fabricaiei. Revista Construcia de Maini, nr.6/1981,
clase (fig.7). Bucureti.
2. Brgaru, A. .a. SEFA-DISROM. Sistem i metod.
Teoria i practica proiectrii dispozitivelor de maini-
unelte. Editura Tehnic, Bucureti, 1982.
3. Brgaru, A., Pico, C., Ivan, N.V. Optimizarea
proceselor i echipamentelor tehnologice. Editura
Didactic i Pedagogic, Bucureti, 1996, ISBN 973-
30-4447-4.
4. Costea, A., Rachieru, N., Apostol, B. Contribuii
privind construcia modular i performanele
tehnologice ale dispozitivelor de prelucrare. n Buletin
tiinific. Seciunea 18-Tehnologie, pag.83, Editura
Academiei Tehnice Militare, Bucureti, 1999, B 25899,
CD-817.
5. Costea, A., Rachieru, N. Flexibilitatea i
performanele echipamentelor de prelucrare.
Figura 7 Optimizarea proiectrii dispozitivelor. Editura Bren,
Bucureti, 2005, ISBN 973-648-391-8.
6. Crian, I. Tehnologia ca sistem. Editura tiinific i
Enciclopedic, Bucureti, 1980.
7. Ivan, N.-V. Bazele optimizrii proceselor
tehnologice. Editura Universitii din Braov, Braov,
1983.
8. Malia, M., Gheorghe, A., - Inginerie industrial.
Prezent i perspectiv. Editura Academiei Romne,
Bucureti, 1990.
9. Vasii Rocule, S. , Gojinechi, N., Andronic, C.,
elariu, M., Gherghel, I. Proiectarea dispozitivelor
Editura Didactic i Pedagogic, Bucureti, 1982.

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 76


POWER LOSSES ESTIMATION IN PRECESSIONAL GEAR
Ion Bostan, Valeriu Dulgheru, Ion Bodnariuc

Technical University of Moldova, Dept. Theory of Machines and Machine Parts, Republic of Moldova

ABSTRACT
The planetary precessional transmissions represent a new principled type of the
mechanical transmission. The specific of the relative sphere-spatial movement of the
precessional gearing elements makes the sliding friction to persist. The study of the
contact between two working surfaces of one gearing is very important, because the
duration of the gearing running, its reliability and efficiency depend on the materials
behavior, from which are produced the prehension elements. The study of the contact
in the kinematical precessional gearing has a major importance, because in the
kinematical precessional gearing there is present the slipping friction, which leads to
big power losses and to a big heat elimination in the contact zone.

KEYWORDS: Precessional transmission, friction coefficient, slipping

INTRODUCTION
The teeth of the planet gear are shaped with a
The planetary precessional transmissions represent a circular arc profile (fig.1). The geometry of the circular
new principled type of the mechanical transmission. teeth profile in normal section is marked by:
The specific of the relative sphere-spatial movement of rd teeth radius of sphericity;
the precessional gearing elements makes the sliding angle of inclination of flank (technological
friction to persist. The study of the contact between two parameter to ease the removal of the satellite from the cast);
working surfaces of one gearing is very important, rr radius of notch (to reduce the possibility of
because the duration of the gearing running, its appearance of tension concentrator at the flank);
reliability and efficiency depend on the materials h parameter which is determined by the shape of
behavior, from which the prehension elements are the central wheel tooth.
produced. The study of the contact in the kinematical In planetary precessional transmissions which
precessional gearing has a major importance, because in represent a rather complicated mechanism the total
the kinematical precessional gearing there is slipping power losses are determined as the sum of power losses
friction, which leads to big power losses and to big heat in the friction elements.
elimination in the contact zone.

1. ANALYSIS OF POWER LOSSES


IN KINEMATICAL
PRECESSIONAL TRANSMISSION rr
Power planetary precessional transmissions have been
studied amply. To exclude the sliding friction in the
gearing of the power precessional transmission, the tooth-
roller gearing has been utilized, which replaced the sliding r h
friction by rolling friction of the gearing. This fact allowed
increasing the efficiency, and solution of problems related
to fabrication technologies for the crown gears of the
satellite block. The utilization of tooth-roller gearing in
kinematical planetary precessional transmission is almost
impossible because of small dimensions of the teeth. In a. b.
such case it is reasonable to utilize the tooth-tooth Fig. 1. The tooth profile of the central wheel (a)
continuous gear. The teeth of the central wheel have and satellite wheel (b)
nonstandard convex-concave profile described by For this purpose ample analysis of the kinematical
parametric equations according to the fundamental theory precessional transmission has been carried out, from the
of the precessional gear [1]. point of view of energy losses.
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 77
On the basis of the performed analysis a structural 391.536 400
Viteza punctului E

model of the kinematical precessional reducer was


elaborated (fig.2). It allows the determination of power 350

losses in the friction torque. 300

3
V E 10

mm/s
250

Tfr.ang Output haft


Crank-shaft RZ

200

R RC RD RE RF
RB 150

d1

d3
d2

d4
d1

d5
140.79
100
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
Tfr.A Tfr.C Tfr.D Tfr.B 1 400
Tfr.E Tfr.F grade

Fig. 4. The sliding velocity graphic for the number of


z1 z2 Tfr.ang Satellite revolutions of the leading shaft n a.c.=3000 min-1

Fig. 2. Structural model of the kinematic precessional For the examined variants experimental investigations
reducer will be carried out regarding the friction coefficient of
the materials couples.
Structural analysis of the kinematic precessional
transmission conducted to pointing out basic friction
torque, which allows the determination of transmission
efficiency. This fact allowed us to estimate
quantitatively the power losses sources in the
kinematical precessional transmission. The block
diagram of power losses in the kinematical precessional
transmission is shown in fig. 3.

Power losses in the kinematical


precessional reducer

Power losses in the Power losses in the Power losses in the


gearing bearings of the bearings of the outlet
crank shaft shaft Fig. 5. Laboratory installation Amsler A 135
Fig. 3. Block diagram of power losses in the reducer.
The experiment has been carried out on the laboratory
Further on, the study of power losses in each, installation Amsler A 135 presented in the Fig. 5,
previously presented, joint is described. which is placed in the laboratory of Machine Elements,
the Technical University Gh. Asachi, Iai, Romania.
Plastic mass Hostaform C9021 [2] and steel 40 has
2. ESTIMATION OF THE been used as testing material.
KINEMATICAL PRECESSIONAL Efficiency estimation of the precessional gear was
GEAR EFFICIENCY carried out as result of ample research on the sliding
coefficient of the precessional gear according to the
To determine the losses in the gear it is necessary to geometry and material of the gear elements, and various
carry out the study of the frictional coefficient kinetostatic parameters.
dependent on: Efficiency is defined by the relation:
Various kinetostatic parameters; Ties
Geometry of gear elements; ang = , (1)
Material of the friction torque elements. Ties + T fr. ang
The sliding friction is predominant in the tooth- Ft d m4
tooth kinematical precessional transmission. Research Ties = , (2)
on the frictional coefficient demands the estimation of 2
the sliding velocity in the gear, of the forces that drive where: Tfr. ang. gear moment of friction;
in the gear and of the lubrication conditions. Ties outlet moment of torsion;
The kinematical study of the precessional gear was Ft gear tangential force
performed in order to estimate the sliding velocity. Ft = Fn /cosw ;
A number of analytical calculus of precessional Fn gear normal force;
gear sliding velocity for various geometrical parameters dm4 average diameter of the gear wheel
has been done by using MATHCAD software: z1, z2 crown;
=1050; = 030; = 25; = 1,53,5. w gearing angle (20-70o).

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 78


3. DETERMINATION OF BEARINGS d 3 n1
MECHANICAL LOSSES Val B = ,m/s , (11)
60
and the friction moment in bearing B is:
To estimate the losses in the kinematical
d3
precessional transmission bearings the following basic T frB = RB , N mm , (12)
notions have been established: 2
Vint- velocity of the inlet shaft; where RB is the reacting force of bearing B.
Vie- velocity of the outlet shift ; The summing friction moment in the inlet shaft
Vsatel- satellite velocity; bearings is:
z1; z2- number of teeth of the gear elements. T fr.int = T frA + T frB , N mm. (13)
Satellite velocity is defined by the relation:
Vsatel = -Vint/z2=- Viei/z2. (3)
C. ESTIMATION OF THE FRICTION
Relative velocity of the satellite friction bearing.
MOMENT IN THE OUTLET SHAFT
Vrel= Vint Vsatel= VintVint/z2= Vint(11/z2), (4)
BEARINGS
where i is gear reduction rate.
To define the friction moment in the outlet shaft
A. ESTIMATION OF THE FRICTION bearings the following geometrical and kinematical
MOMENT IN THE CRANK SECTOR parameters have been established:
BEARINGS OF THE INLET SHAFT Outlet shaft diameter d4, mm.
Average diameter of the axial bearing surface
The shaft diameter was defined (the fitting bore of d5, mm.
the sliding bearing) d1, in order to estimate the friction Sliding velocity of bearing E with the
moment in the crank sector bearings of the inlet shaft. diameter d4 will be:
Then, the sliding velocity of the kinematical joint d 4 n2
crank-satellite wheel hub will be: Val E = ,m/s , (14)
60
d 1 n1 d 1 n1 where n2 is the outlet speed.
Vrel = Vint Vsat = ,m/s (5)
60 60 z 2 The friction moment in bearing E is:
where n1 is the inlet speed. d4
T frE = RE , N mm , (15)
The friction moment of bearings C and D (fig.2) is 2
defined by the relations: where RE is the reacting force in bearing E.
d1 The friction moment in bearing F:
T frC = RC , N mm, (6)
2 d4
T frF = RF , N mm. (16)
T frD = RD
d1
, N mm, (7) 2
2 where RF is the reacting force in bearing F.
where is the sliding friction coefficient; The friction moment in the axial bearing Z is:
RC reacting force in bearing C; d5
RD reacting force in bearing D. T frZ = RZ , N mm. (17)
2
The summing friction moment in the sliding where RZ is the reacting force in bearing Z.
bearings of the satellite wheel is defined by the relation The summing friction moment in the outlet shaft
T fr. sat = T frC + T frD , N mm. (8) bearings:

T fr.ies = T frE + T frF + T frZ , N mm. (18)


B. ESTIMATION OF THE FRICTION
MOMENT IN THE INLET SHAFT
BEARINGS 4. ESTIMATION OF ENERGETIC
For bearing A of the inlet shaft its diameter is d2, mm. PARAMETERS
Sliding velocity in the bearing A is: IN THE PRECESSIONAL
d 2 n1 TRANSMISSION BEARINGS
Val A = ,m/s, (9)
60
and the friction moment in bearing A is: The summing friction moment in the transmission
d2 bearings is equal to components sum:
T frA = RA , N mm , (10) T fr. = T fr.int + T fr.cot + T fr.ies , N mm. (19)
2
where RA is the reacting force of bearing A Then the efficiency of sliding bearings is defined
by the relation:
For bearing B shaft diameter is d3, mm. Ties
l.a = . (20)
Ties + T fr.
Sliding velocity in bearing B will be: Estimation of power losses in bearings:
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 79
In the sliding bearing of the crankshaft:
5. MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY
Pfr.sat = T fr.sat Vrel = T fr.sat Vies i, (21)
OF KINEMATICAL PRECESSIONAL
where i is the transmission ratio. TRANSMISSION
In the sliding bearings of the inlet shaft:
Pfr.int = T fr.int Vint = T fr.int Vies i . (22)
Having established the estimation relations of
In the sliding bearing of the outlet shaft: power losses in basic kinematical joints, it becomes
Pfr.ies = T fr.ies Vies . (23) relatively simple to establish the estimation relation of
kinematical precessional transmission efficiency which,
Summing losses at the time of sliding bearings
on the whole, is equal to the product of the two
friction:
components (efficiency of sliding bearings and gear
Pfr. = Pfr.sat + Pfr.int + Pfr.ies . (24) efficiency):
Efficiency of sliding bearings: tr = l.a ang . (26)
Pies
l.a. = . (25) On the basis of the obtained relation an algorithm
Pies + Pfr. for the estimation of power losses in the kinematical
precessional transmissions will be elaborated. Also a
series of graphs for various geometrical and kinetostatic
parameters will be produced. This thing will be useful to
designers who will estimate quantitatively kinematical
precessional transmissions at the phase of design.

REFERENCES

[1] Bostan I. Precessionnye peredai s mnogoparnym zacepleniem.


Izd. tiintza, 1991, 356 p.
[2] Hostaform, Acetalnyi sopolimer (POM), 2001 Ticona GmbH,
QUICK INFO Frankfurt-on-Maine.

Supercomputing Helps Saves Lives in Bangladesh


Storm Surge

On November 16, Cyclone Sidr hit Bangladesh, killing


thousands and leaving hundreds of thousands homeless.
But nearly 24 hours in advance of the storm, Hassan
Mashriqui, an assistant extension professor of coastal
engineering with Louisinana State University (LSU),
was able to give Bangladesh emergency officials storm
surge maps so detailed that area agencies were able to
take action, saving lives.
Four days earlier, Mashriqui saw the cyclone in the Bay
of Bengal and was able to access a large portion of the
LSU's Shell Coastal Environmental Modeling
Laboratory's (CEML's) supercomputing capabilities to The original storm surge model sent to Bangladesh
develop storm surge models. He immediately contacted officials about 20 hours before the eye made landfall.
Bangladesh officials.
Using the highly detailed models, he was able to
pinpoint events down to small counties and towns. "We "The advance notice we were able to provide certainly
were looking at a 10- to 12-foot storm surge that would saved lives and helped to lessen the devastation," said
devastate anything in its path," he said. Mashriqui. "When you can pinpoint the areas of impact
and determine the level of storm surge that far ahead of
landfall, it provides critical time for agencies and
officials to focus energy and resources to the areas that
will need them most."

(from Software Tech Briefs Newsletter)

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 80


SERVICIU DE DIAGNOSTICARE PRIN VIBRATII
A MASINILOR SI ECHIPAMENTELOR INDUSTRIALE
REALIZAT IN SPRIJINUL IMM
Miron Zapciu

Universitatea POLITEHNICA din Bucureti, zapcium@sun.cfic.pub.ro

REZUMAT
Aceast lucrare prezint realizarile Centrului Naional de Cercetare a
Performanelor Sistemelor Tehnologice CNCPST-Optimum, ce ofer
ntreprinderilor mici i mijlocii interesate un serviciu inovativ de diagnosticare
a starii tehnice a masinilor si echipamentelor industriale pe baza unei analize
combinate vibratii si/sau zgomot.

ABSTRACT
This paper presents theachievements of National Research Centre for Technological
Systems Performances CNCPST-Optimum,which offers to SMEs an innovating
service for the diagnosis of the technical estate of machines and industrial
equipments, based on the vibrations and noise analysis.

CUVINTE CHEIE: IMM, masini, echipamente industriale, diagnosticare, vibratii

KEY WORDS: SME, machines, industrial equipments, diagnosis, vibrations

1. INTRODUCERE
- masina trebuie oprita imediat pentru a
Universitatea POLITEHNICA din
evita o avarie iminent.
Bucureti, prin Centrul Naional de Cercetare a
Performanelor Sistemelor Tehnologice In evaluarea starii normale de
CNCPST-Optimum ofer ntreprinderilor mici i functionare a unei masini se remarca faptul ca nu
mijlocii interesate un serviciu inovativ de este disponibila o singura variabila direct
diagnosticare a starii tehnice a masinilor si masurabila. Ca si in domeniul medical, nu exista
echipamentelor industriale pe baza unei analize doar o singura variabila pentru a determina
combinate vibratii si/sau zgomot, dupa o conditia de sanatate a unei persoane, deci in
procedura care sa elimine factorii perturbatori ce termeni tehnici, doar semne individuale ale
ascund defectul. avariilor pot fi masurate, iar o decizie poate fi
luata in conditii generale. Cu cat vor fi mai
Se vor obtine spectre de vibratii care vor
evidente semnele avariilor care sunt masurate, cu
fi dublate de investigatii pe baza de zgomot la
atat va fi mai exacta evaluarea starii de
functionarea in-situ. Proiectul creeaza un serviciu
functionare a masinii. Evaluarea conditiei de
nou, special destinat utilizatorilor de echipamente
functionare a unei masini utilizand valorile
industriale din constructia de masini-unelte,
generale ale nivelului de vibratii si zgomot este
echipamente complexe, masini agricole si
metoda cea mai simpla si mai rapida de a realiza o
instalatii conexe.
diagnosticare.
Obiectivul acestei tehnici de
Necesitand costuri scazute, aceasta
diagnosticare este de a lua una din deciziile
metoda produce rezultate de incredere si
urmatoare:
genereaza informatii pentru o recunoastere
- masina poate continua sa opereze fara a
timpurie a avariilor si dezechilibrelor, o
lua nici o masura;
planificare optima a actiunii de mentinere si de
- trebuie realizate anumite actiuni de
prevenire a unor avarii sau intreruperi ale
mentenanta planificate in timp;
proceselor productive.
- trebuie efectuat un diagnostic analitic
pentru a elimina cauzele ce pot produce
avarii masinii;

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 81


Obiectivul acestei tehnici de diagnosticare
este de a lua una din deciziile urmatoare:
In figura 1 sunt detaliate activitile de
1.- Masina poate continua sa opereze fara a inspecie i de intervenie n cadrul unei
lua nici o masura; mentenane de tip preventiv.
2.- Trebuie realizate anumite actiuni de
mentenanta planificate in timp;
3.- Trebuie efectuat un diagnostic analitic
pentru a elimina cauzele ce pot produce avarii
masinii;
4.- Masina trebuie oprita imediat pentru a
evita o avarie iminenta.

MENTENANTA MASINILOR SI
ECHIPAMENTELOR INDUSTRIALE

INSPECTIE INTERVENTIE

EVALUAREA DIAGNOSTICAREA MENTENANTA REPARATIE A


STARII MASINII MASINII PREVENTIVA MASINII

Analiza in frecventa
Determinarea unor -FFT- Echilibrare
parametri generali Functia de transfer
(nivel vibraie,
temperatura, zgomot etc.) Analiza la pornirea sau Aliniere
oprirea masinii
-Tracking-
Stroboscop

Osciloscop

Fig. 1 Posibiliti de intervenie pentru diagnosticare i pentru mentenan preventiv

Scopul urmrit de constituirea Proiectul se adreseaza IMM-urilor cu profil


serviciului de diagnosticare productiv, creeaza un serviciu nou, si este destinat
Va fi creat un serviciu de diagnosticare utilizarii corecte a echipamentor industriale,
oferit gratuit IMM-urilor selectate de ctre un masinilor-unelte, echipamentelor complexe,
consoriu format din cinci parteneri. Institutul masini agricole si instalatii conexe.
National pentru Intreprinderi Mici si Mijlocii are
ca sarcin selectarea potenialilor beneficiari ai Scopul acestui proiect este ca masinile cu
acestui serviciu. probleme sa reprezinte un procent de sub 6-8%
Se vor obtine spectre de vibratii/ zgomot din totalul celor existente in cadrul unei firme.
la functionarea masinilor in conditii de regim
stabil de functionare, care vor fi utile pentru
corecta utilizare a respectivelor echipamente.

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 82


2. SITUAIA LA NIVEL EUROPEAN

In literatura internationala de specialitate, analiza Comparand amplitundinile generale ale


vibroacustica este utilizata de mult timp pentru vibratiilor, inregistrate la intervale periodice si
detectarea si identificarea conditiilor masinilor- utilizand echipamente specializate ( de exemplu
unelte. Intretinerea predictiva este posibila prin colector de date 2526 al companiei Brel &
recunoasterea celor mai mici schimbari in starea Kjaer) se obtine un exemplu de program de
de functionare a masinii. In contrast cu monitorizare predictiva de baza.
intretinerea corectiva in care raspunsul rapid este
prima cerinta, monitorizarea predictiva nu este Tratarea acestui subiect aduce cunostinte
limitata de timp si foloseste o mare diversitate de noi in domeniul mecanic si mecatronic, face apel
caracteristici complexe. Mentenanta se la cunostinte interdisciplinare de IT, abordare
concentreaza in principal asupra identificarii unei neuronala, electronica de semnal, senzori,
proceduri de obtinere a frecventelor proprii pentru sisteme expert, masini-unelte si controlul
arborele principal al unei masini-unelte folosind proceselor de prelucrare.
analiza de tip tracking . Programele pentru monitorizarea
Cele mai multe organizatii din Europa predictiva au 3 obiective principale :
a- Avertizarea cat mai repede posibil a
(in special din Austria, Germania, Suedia etc.)
doresc sa se indrepte catre un program de unor potentiale defecte ale
mentenanta predictiva care include seturi de echipamentului dotat cu sisteme
continue de monitorizare
masuratori experimentale facute prin intermediul
unor traductoare instalate permanent si masuratori b- Monitorizarea conditiei tehnice a
periodice facute cu intrumente portabile si masinii sau echipamentului pe baza
nivelului general de vibratii sau
ultraportabile. Intretinerea predictiva se poate
realiza on-line de la senzorii instalati (ex : vibratii zgomot
si temperaturi-limita) in mod periodic cu un c- Avertizarea din timp a unor defecte
care pot ramane ascunse, utilizand
colector de date sau cu o combinatie dintre cele
doua variante. caracteristici complexe, de exemplu
un spectru CPB.

Mentenanta
predictiva

1 2
3
Date on-line, continua, cu Colectarea periodica
senzori instalati a datelor

Procedura mixta, on-line si


colectare de date

Fig. 2 Posibilitati de mentenanta predictiva

n figura 2 se detaliaz cele trei tipuri de Serviciul care se propune are mai multe
mentenan predictiv. In general, cele mai multe niveluri, nivelul de baza fiind acela in care se
din pogramele de mentenanta predictiva verifica nivelul general de vibratie si zgomot pe
incorporeaza o mare varietate de parametri pentru baza unei diagrame de tip TRACKING la
a caracteriza cu acuratete starea tehnica a masinii pornirea echipamentului si aducerea acestuia pana
si pentru a avertiza din timp schimbarile la functionarea in regim normal de lucru.
semnificative.

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 83


Ultimul nivel consta in obtinerea cauzelor, Aceasta actiune a fost validata pana
detectarea componentelor care conduc la acum de rezultate experimentale extrem de
functionarea defectuoasa a masinii monitorizate. incurajatoare bazate pe masurarea nivelului de
vibratii a arborelui principal la doua masini de
frezat folosind modulul tracking al aparatului
Principalul obiectiv al acestui serviciu
inovativ este acela de a propune o mentenanta Vibroport 41.
predictiva pentru domeniul masinilor si Atunci cand componenta de vibratie sau
zgomot domina spectrul general la o anumita
echipamentelor industriale. In acest context,
subiectul actual este extrem de important si frecventa, nivelul general de vibratii sau zgomot
permite elaborarea unui serviciu pentru poate fi un bun parametru pentru detectarea
timpurie a defectelor elementelor in functiune si a
mentenanta predictiva. Obiectivul secundar il
reprezinta gasirea unui model dinamic care sa altor parti mecanice rotative ale masinilor si
echipamentelor din domeniul ingineriei
elimine din spectru acele frecvente care nu se
datoreaza unor defecte. industriale.

R
Nivel de reparatie
Supraveghere
atenta
Nivelul 3
3

Analiza componentelor masinii

Nivelul 2
2 Date de intrare

Folosirea amplitudinii generale


pentru monitorizarea masinii

Nivelul 1 1 Date de intrare

Prima analiza generala

Fig. 3. Trei niveluri tipice ale programului de mentenanta predictiva

Nu este nici o coincidenta in faptul c Organizatiile experimentate sustin ca un


figura 3 considera trei niveluri ale deciziei. Un program cu o monitorizare regulata predictiva
program de monitorizare trebuie sa fie conceput implementat va elimina total masinile in pana si
pentru a recunoaste cu acuratete cele mai mici va reduce numarul de masini care functioneaza in
schimbari si sa foloseasca cele mai simple si mai conditii improprii (masinile cu probleme vor
putin costisitoare metode de identificare a masinii reprezenta un procent de sub 6-8% din totalul
cu probleme de restul masinilor care au o celor existente).
comportare dinamica bun.

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 84


3. EXEMPLU DE PROCEDURA

Cteva exemple de rezultate obinute pn n acest moment sunt prezentate n figurile urmtoare:

Pentru centrul de prelucrare vertical MIKRON HSM 600U

Fig. 4. Nivelurile de vibraie pentru domeniul 36000-28000 rot/min; axa X-X

Urmtoarele turaii se recomand a se


evita: 29130 rot/min (485 Hz) ; 14550 rot/min
(242.5 Hz) ; 12.600 rot/min (210 Hz)

Fig. 5 Nivelurile de vibraie pentru domeniul 36000-28000 rot/min axa Y-Y

Au fost obinute urmtoarele frecvene ce trebuie


evitate: 128, 210, 242.5 i armonica sa de 485 Hz.

Determinri experimentale pentru masina PC MILL100 (EMCO)

Fig. 6. Determinari experimentale in domeniul de viteza 5000-200 rot/min

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 85


4. IMPACTUL CREAT
DE NOUL SERVICIU
Impactul economic preconizat al acestui
serviciu consta in: BIBLIOGRAFIE
a) cresterea capacitatii de cercetare-
dezvoltare a firmelor din economia 1) Zapciu, M.; Bisu, Cl.Fl. (2007). Dynamic issues and
romaneasca si cresterea capacitatii de procedure to obtain useful domain of dynamometers used
in machine tool research aria, Proceedings of 7th
transfer tehnologic a unor servicii noi
International Multidisciplinary Conference, pp. 735-742,
oferite pe piata, in special IMM-urilor; ISSN -1224-3264, Baia Mare, Romania.
b) cresterea duratei de viata a masinilor si 2) Zapciu, M.; Paraschiv, M. (2007). Predictive
echipamentelor industriale cu 8-10%, maintenance and use of tracking concept to analyze
dynamics of machine tool spindle. The 11th International
dezvoltare economica durabila, prin Conference - TMCR2007, pp.512-516, May 31th June
reconsiderarea ciclului normal de viata al 3th, 2007, Chisinau, Modavia.
echipamentelor; 3) Sutter, G.; Molinari, A. (2005). Analysis of the Cutting
c) respectarea preciziei de prelucrare si Force Components and Friction in High Speed
Machining. Journal of Manufacturing Science and
eliminarea rebuturilor prin functionarea Engineering, Trans. of the ASME, May 2005, Vol.127,
defectuoasa a masinilor si pp. 245-250.
echipamentelor complexe; stabilirea 4) Zapciu, M.; Anania, Fl.D.; Tnsescu, A.; Bisu, Cl.Fl.
momentului pentru remanufacturare, (2004). Analyzing the fondation to have accurate dynamic
behavior for industrial robots included into FMS.
reciclare a masinilor din dotarea firmei; Proceedings of the International Conference ICMaS 2004,
d) cresterea productivitatii muncii, Romanian Academy Edition, pp. 425-428, ISSN 0035-
reducerea numarului de masini cu 4074.
functionare defectuoasa la 6-8% din 5) Ispas, C.; Gerard, A.; Zapciu, M., Mohora, Cr. (2004).
Condition monitoring and dynamic behavior for CNC turn
totalul parcului de masini; dezvoltarea de main spindle turning with 6000 rpm. Proceedings of the
noi capacitati tehnologice; International Conference ICMaS 2004, Romanian
e) transferul fortei de munca spre activitati Academy Edition, pp. 113-116, ISSN 0035-4074.
de conceptie in cazul unor agenti 6) Bisu, C. (2007). Study of Self-Maintained Vibration in 3D
Cutting A new modelling applied on turning, PhD
economici beneficiari ai rezultatelor Thesis, University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest.
cercetarii.
Cel mai important impact social este
asigurat prin dezvoltarea educatiei spre inovare,
spre cunoastere si utilizare judicioasa a masinilor
complexe si care au costuri ridicate. Tinerii
cercetatori sunt implicati in viitoare dezvoltari ale
proceselor din intreprinderi, precum si in
colective de concepere a unor produse noi. Un alt
impact social puternic este acela de a crea
posibilitatea transferului fortei de munca de la
activitati productive spre cel de conceptie a
produselor. Se poate aprecia ca impactul asupra
mediului este unul favorabil prin reducerea
emisiilor de zgomot si reducerea nivelului
vibratiilor care sunt transmise in mediul
industrial. Serviciul propus urmrete permanent
respectarea legislatiei in domeniu in ceea ce
priveste limitele de vibratii si zgomot pentru
masini si echipamente industriale.

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 86


NEW APPROACHES REGARDING THE CREATION OF
VIRTUAL ENTERPRISES IN THE NATIONAL NETWORK
Marian Topologeanu

SC ICTCM SA Bucuresti, mtopologeanu@ictcm.ro

ABSTRACT
The paper presents a new concept of Virtual Enterprises (V.E.) in a complex
approach as a regional network of economic entities as potential constitutes of a
V.E. That make possible creation of a data base of technological, collaborative and
behaviorist attributes allowing a selection process by clustering in the attribute
space potential selections of V.E. groups able to produce the goal product.
The attributes classification is a good support to reengineering works, inside the
network entities, to achieve organizational need imposed by the V.E. participation.

KEYWORDS: virtual enterprise, entity, network.

1. INTRODUCTION - the configuration development and


adaptation of the infrastructure and
The Virtual Enterprise is an advanced form of production capacities;
associative and collaborative economic activity and - the operative management V.E manage
the start is contemporaneous with first manufacturing the production, delivery and support
production. One of actual definition of V.E. describes product in profit conditions
this concept like a temporary network of - the final the end of agreements and the
independent companies, in relation any with other results.
through informatics technology by which divided the
competences, the infrastructure and the business 3. CONCEPT OF NATIONAL
process in the purpose to satisfy the requests of the NETWORK FOR V.E. RENIV -
market. The definition of the network can be the PREMISES
cooperation unofficial form which develop by
change methods of informations, people and social The common development of V.E. pass
norms. following stages:creation
a) seting the request of investitors and the
2. THE MODEL OF V. E. definition of the object (product, service);
b) extractions of technological and constructive
The creation of V.E. is a initiative at dates of product ;
competition of two primary requests: c) appeal to potential participants, possessor of
- investors request to start the product in technologies, from lisr or by Internet on base
manufacturing and on market, with short of specialized portal, specify the
production cycle and minimum costs; technological requests;
- manufacturing economic entities request, d) partners selection.
the potential participants in the structure of e) In these stages the approach by informatical
V.E. is to fructify the production capacities product must make in c) stage.
on maximum. The approach by national network concept of
- The V.E has the life cycle divided on six potential participants/partners in evolution of
stages: differents V.E. offers many advantages:
- the conception establish the relation and
the strategy of V.E.; - creation of a data base of technological,
- the competition the primary test of the collaborative and behaviorist attributes
product on the market; allowing a selection process

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 87


- are using only representations for 6. TECHNOLOGICAL CLASSES AND
technological attributes describe by SPECIFIED ATTRIBUTES
processes (fractal approach) allowing a
optimal selection by attributes clusters of The realization of the product is the
potential partners; development result of parallel/sequential
- potential partners included in data base can to technological processes row, the architecture
organize the technological processes in production system can be compound by working
according with the requests by definition of technological nucleus, with conceptual equivalent
attributes in network by reenginering works type holistic and fractorial.
and virtual simulation;
- complex informaticl approach of registration The working technological nucleus can be:
process and selection of partners in network.

4. ASPECTS REGARDING Technology Productivity


THE SELECTION OF PARAMETERS Element, Technological
FOR CREATION OF V.E. semi-product process, machi- Process
IN THE NETWORK nery, equipment,
Materials technical dates
The success of V.E. like efficiency and finality a b c
depends by the partners quality and adequate of this
for objective/object.The existence of data base of The feature working technological nucleus
registration entities in network is a favored premise. is defined by 3 zones:
The selection criterions must to vise the technological a) input with defining of material type which
requests and behavioural/collaborative. enter in process or the product compounds of
In esence the partners selection for V.E. with the product, semi-products or assembly
defined objective, attended by adequate informatic entered in process;
system crossing stages following: b) technological zone in which the
- the representace of the object (product/service) technological concept reunites the
of V.E. by technological attribute which defined him technological process with specified
- the entities selection from data base of network operations, machineries and necessary
must make in two stages: equipments and the process features which is
Stage 1 selecting in the technological refer at processing requests, necessary
attributes space, the attributes of object and to qualities, production type;
ensure that these find in attributes set declarate c) output from nucleus defined by processing
by the partners from network. compound, compound, manufacturing
Stage 2 selections refining of stage 1 must material, assembly, product.
make in the behavioural and collaborative
attributes space. Was defined in project 6 classes (A-F) with 14
parameters categories which will define the
5. INFORMATIC MECHANISM technological attributes frame like clustering space
OF V.E. NETWORK and a associated technological class (S).

The informatics system V.E. will be a complex The classes define:


product which contains modulus:
a) the technologies,
- logging modulus in network; b) operations and techniques,
- requirement modulus; c) Compounds type,
- communication modulus in network; d) technological machineries,
- operative modulus; selection tools of clusters; e)semi-product materials,
- optimizing and modeling tools. f) technological dates,
s) fabrication preparation
The public information, dissemination and
access in system will be making by specialized site. Example with development stages of a registration:

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 88


Registra- CUMULATIVE CODE
No. tion CUMULATIVE TEXT
CT A1 A2 B1 B2 C D1 D2 E1 E2 E3 F1 F2 F3
stage
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
1 Metal 01
2 Metal cutting 01 08
3 Metal, cutting, turning 01 08 01
1
Metal, cutting, turning,
4 01 08 01 01
horizontal spindle
Metal, cutting, turning,
5 01 08 01 01 03
automatic
Metal, cutting, turning,
6 01 08 01 01 03 04
automatic, spindle
Metal, cutting, turning,
7 automatic, CNC with automatic 01 08 01 01 03 04 05
control automatic contr
Metal, cutting, turning,
8 automatic, CNC with automatic 01 08 01 01 03 04 05 02
control
1 Metal, cutting, turning,
9 automatic, from carbon steel 01 08 01 01 03 04 05 02 02

Metal, cutting, turning,


10 automatic, from carbon steel, 01 08 01 01 03 04 05 02 02 01
usual
Metal, cutting, turning,
11 automatic, laminate bar 01 08 01 01 03 04 05 02 02 01 02

Metal, cutting, turning,


12 01 08 01 01 03 04 05 02 02 01 02 03 X
automatic, diameter <10mm
Metal, cutting, turning, auto-
2 12 01 08 01 01 03 04 05 02 02 01 02 04 X
matic and diameter 10100 mm
Metal, cutting, turning, auto-
1, 2 13 matic, manufacturing precision 01 08 01 01 03 04 05 02 02 01 02 04 X 04
IT 07

Example with two registrations:

CUMULATIVE CODE
No. CUMULATIVE TEXT
CT A1 A2 B1 B2 C D1 D2 E1 E2 E3 F1 F2 F3
Metal, cutting, turning, horizontal spindle,
automatic, spindles, machinery with high
productivity, CNC with automatic
1 01 08 01 01 03 04 05 02 02 01 02 03 X 0
control, carbon steel material, usual, from
laminate bar, diameter 10mm,
manufacturing precision IT 07
Metal, cutting, turning, horizontal spindle,
automatic, spindles, machinery with high
productivity, CNC with automatic
2 01 08 01 01 03 04 05 02 02 01 02 03 X 0
control, carbon steel material, usual, from
laminate bar, diameter 10-100 mm,
manufacturing precision IT 07

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 89


7. ECONOMIC, LOGISTIC AND These parameters reflect the technical level of
BEHAVIORAL ATTRIBUTES manager act.

These sub serve at selections refining on Informatics of all Percentage evaluation of activities
technological attributes departments number, functional departments
n 3 stages, one point for:
Economic parameters - designing informatics;
Technological
Parameter expression - production norm informatics;
informatics
Dynamic of Percentage increase or decrease on 3 - informatics of technical control
turnover years on percentage scale and production automation
Dynamic of Percentage increase or decrease of Commercial and Evaluation: YES / PARTIAL (over
human human resources reported of dynamic marketing 50%) /NO Declaration
resources turnover informatics
Company Percentage increase or decrease of near
near money money in last years 8. TECHNOLOGICAL
Duty degree
Fluctuation in last 3 years.
CHARACTERIZATION
of company
The defining of functional dates put the
The weights are in unitary scales (1-4 or 1-5) product in users zone who define not the
with optimal value 1. technological parameters, first informations regarding
requests like: human security, environment protection,
Behavioral Parameters the form, size, mass, medium (industrial processes,
The administrator must check the declarations. infrastructure, transport, personal use).
Parameters Scalar expression The importance of constructive date which
The degree of completion Evaluation in 4 percentage determine technologic the products class present that
of contractual business scales according by the assembly operations, control, final testing are
economic entity technological operations which must be in a
Contracts/orders weight/ Evaluation in 4 percentage specialized enterprise.
with delay on delivery scales
Weight of cancellation The constructive levels of product
Contracts or cancellation Evaluation in 4 percentage The product is represent in this schedule:
orders from the contacts scales
total
A B C D
Logistic parameters Product assembly subassembly compounds
These parameters look at acquisition evaluation and
compounds compounds
delivery of partners in network.
D3 D2
Acqusition Degree
Acquisition must be sure and Evaluation The diagram lattice points represent assembly
qualitative with suppliers list YES/NO operations specifically in AB lattice points and not in
Scheduled acquisition from market lattice points BCD and CD.
YES/NO Regarding the production/realization of V.E.
without suppliers list
Uncertain acquisition YES/NO objective is important to tell the security source for
production of assembly, subassembly, compounds.
These registrations can be controlled by network For assembly, subassembly, compounds the
Administrator. source can be:

Delivery of the product - acquisition from free market;


With respect of delivery Evaluation - partial realization in V.E.
diagram YES/NO - total realization in V.E.
With delivery delays Evaluation in 3
percentage scales

The compounds can be:


Management Parameters commune; usual assembly compounds
from the market;
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 90
specific realize in product
manufacturing.

Example of operation sheet for a compound

For example we choose one type piece - connecting rod.

Date for Operation Sheet


Assembly: heat engine
Unit: connecting road - link
Compound: connecting rod
Compound weight: 960 gr. (Fz: 03)
Technological principal dimension: 60
(F01: 04)1
Pieces/product Number : 4
Piece Material : (example: OLC 45)
Heat Treatment: (example nitridation)

For execution of the piece is necessary the


TECHNOLOGICAL FLOW:
Connecting rod
1. Drop Forging;
2. Cutting (turning) of surface A;
3. Cutting (milling) of plane surface C; CUMULATIVE TECHNOLOGICAL
4. Cutting (milling) of plane surface D; OPERATIONS
5. Cutting (turning) of surface B;
6. Cutting (milling) of plane surface E; - Forging operation: 1;
7. Cutting(milling) of plane surface F; - Cutting operations: 1, 5;
8. Cutting (milling) of plane surface G; - Milling operations: 3,4,6,7,8,9;
9. Cutting (milling) of plane surface H; - Boring operations: 10, 11;
10. Cutting (boring) of surface A; - Drilling operations: 12;
11. Cutting (boring) of surface B; - Heat Treatment (nitridation) operation: 13;
12. Cutting(drilling) 5; - Grinding operations: 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21;
13. Heat Treatment (nitridation);
- Control operation: 22.
14. Cutting(grinding) of plane surface C;
15. Cutting(grinding) of plane surface E; Technological operations: the 21 technological
16. Cutting (grinding) of plane surface D; operations presented in technological sheet
17. Cutting(grinding) of plane surface F;
18. Cutting (grinding) of surface C; Cumulative technologies: technological operations 2)
19. Cutting(grinding) of surface B; A presented in technological sheet
20. Cutting(grinding) for surface G balancing
21. Cutting (grinding) for surface H balancing; Special requests : lot and quality mark 3)
;
22. Control.
The definition of technological chain:
Cumulative operations Chain: B H
Free operation / independent: A.4)

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 91


Operation Sheet of the compounds / section operation in cumulative code
EXPERT NOTES
TECHNOLOGICAL OPERATIONS CODE EXPERT
TYPE
RECOMMAND COMPLEX TOOLS
TOOLS
ATIONS
Compound:
Connecting Rod
CT A1 A2 B1 C E1 E2 E3 F1 F2 F3 C2 D1 D2 S1 S2 1 2 3 4 5
Cumulative code

A Forging 01 04 03 X 07 02 02 02 09 03 10 01 02 X
1)
B Cutting 01 08 01 X 07 02 02 02 04 03 07 02 03 02 03
2)
C Milling 01 08 02 01 07 02 02 02 08 03 08 02 03 02 03
3)
D Boring 01 08 09 X 07 02 02 02 04 03 04 02 03 02 03
4)
E Drilling 01 08 03 X 07 02 02 02 03 03 06 02 03 03 01 X
Heat treatment 5)
F 01 16 03 X 07 02 02 02 13 03 X
nitridation
6)
G Grinding 01 08 06 X 07 02 02 02 04 03 04 02 03 02 03
7)
H Control

9. CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES
1 Adrian CURAJ. The management of integrated
The regional approach makes possible creation of manufacturing systems in virtual enterprise Ed. Didactica si
a data base of technological and behavioral attributes. Pedagogica. 2000 Bucharest;
That makes possible selection by clustering of 2. CEEX Contract 13 I/07.10.2005. Development of an open
partners of V.E. on ask objectif. wide of economic manufacturing entities, as a clustering
dynamic space, to build up virtual enterprises defined by set
The attributes classification is a good support to of attributesREINVIR. Project Manager -SC ICTCM SA ;
reengineering works, inside the network entities, to 3. Virtual Enterprise in the concept of national network.
achieve organizational need imposed by the V.E. Constructia de Masini Revue.Year No.1/2006.
participation. 4 www.ictcm.ro/ceex2005/infosoc13-2005/;
5. www.ictcm.ro/projects in working
One informatics mechanism will assist the
national network of V.E. in selection stage and in life
cycle of creation entity.

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 92


ASPECTE PRIVIND FABRICAIA VIRTUAL INTELIGENT
A PROCESELOR CU GRAD RIDICAT DE RISC
DIN INDUSTRIA CONSTRUCTOARE DE MAINI
N VEDEREA REDUCERII VULNERABILITII
I COMBATEREA CONSECINELOR ACCIDENTELOR
INDUSTRIALE
Avramescu Valeriu, Grejdnescu Roxana,Pun Loredana Theodora
S.C. ICTCM S.A. Bucuresti, vavramescu@ ictcm.ro

ABSTRACT
This paper reffers to the aspects regarding the new integrator concept which answers to
the industrial security requirements and assures the sure approach of the work processes
in hard conditions in order to descrease the vulnerability and combat the industrial
accidentes risk.
The regarded work processes are the ones with haigh risk level, which require special
work enclosures and/or equipments: sandblasting / shot-peening, welding, thermic
cutting, covering and painting. These aspects are on the base of some technological
models developments for high risk processes, which will be able to integrate equipments,
processes, robots, work parts, with aid of specific sensorisation and of monitoring and
inspecting cameras integrated in a multifunctional modulated specialized enclosure.

KEY WORDS: industrial security, industrial fabrication.

1. INTRODUCERE Sistemele de fabricaie virtual au un sistem fizic i unul


virtual. ntruct sistemele virtuale sunt construite i
Procesele de lucru avute n vedere sunt cele cu grad ridicat operate computerizat, ele sunt mai sigure i mai economice.
de risc, care necesit incinte i/sau echipamente speciale de Mai mult, dup ce datele sunt verificate n mediul virtual,
lucru: sablare/alicare de curire, metalizare, sudare, tiere eroarea este transmis n mediul fizic.
termic i vopsire; ele presupun condiii foarte grele i
periculoase de munc iar unele sunt cu att mai periculoase
cu ct sunt realizate de ctre factorul uman n condiii n
care nu exist ntotdeauna suficient protecie. Pentru toate
aceste procese, reprezentative, introducerea noului concept
de fabricaie virtual inteligent, poate ndeprta intervenia
direct a omului asupra procesului, poate asigura mbinarea
i repetabilitatea parametrilor tehnologici prescrii i a
calitii operaiei executate n condiii de lucru curate,
poate asigura securitatea oamenilor i securitatea
industrial, inclusiv protecia mediului de lucru.

2. FABRICAIA VIRTUAL
INTELIGENT
Fabricaia virtual este un concept cheie care nsumeaz
activiti de fabricaie i care presupune modele i simulri n
loc de obiecte i operaii n lumea real. Conceptul de
fabricaie virtual inteligent este deosebit de important
pentru implementarea n procesele tehnologice cu grad
ridicat de risc.
Aa cum se poate observa n figura 2.1 a) sistemele de
fabricaie tradiionale, fr un concept virtual, presupun
procesarea materialului i datelor prin intermediul operrii
unui utilizator i prin faciliti fizice. Fig. 2.1 Sisteme de fabricaie

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 93


n acest fel, relaia dintre sistemul de fabricaie fizic i cel
virtual este una de colaborare, aa cum este artat n figura
2.1 b).
Fabricaia virtual inteligent reprezint soluia care ar
putea rezolva consecinele datorate riscului tehnologic.

3. IDENTIFICAREA PROCESELOR Metalizarea prin pulverizare termic, procedeu bazat pe


CU GRAD RIDICAT DE RISC proiectarea unui jet de particule topite ale unui material
pe o suprafa neconform sau deteriorat, prezint
Procesele de lucru vizate sunt cele cu grad ridicat de riscuri prin aciunea jetului de particule topite i a
risc: sablare/alicare de curire, metalizare, sudare, tiere gazelor emanate.
termic i vopsire. Vopsirea, procedeu de acoperire a suprafeelor cu
Sablarea, proces de curire sau de finisare, cu ajutorul diverse straturi i pelicule de protecie, decorative etc.,
unui jet de particule abrazive uscate sau n suspensie, prezint att riscuri funcionale neconforme ct i riscuri
aplicat unei suprafee pentru a ndeprta toate defectele accidentale poteniale; exist msuri de protecie a
provenite din prelucrri sau din aciunea agenilor cabinelor de lucru, de eliminare a noxelor i a dispersiei
atmosferici, prezint riscuri n zona noxelor i a aciunii prafului de vopsea n mediul ambiant.
periculoase a particulelor abrazive. Sudarea (ex.: cu arc electric), procedeu de mbinare
Alicarea, procedeu de ecruisare superficial a nedemontabil a materialelor, prezint riscuri ale
suprafeelor pieselor metalice prin bombardarea procesului i noxe locale, inclusiv agresiune asupra
suprafeelor pieselor cu alice metalice sferice proiectate omului prin intensitatea luminoas.
cu vitez ridicat de pe paletele unei turbine sau printr-
un jet de aer comprimat, induce aceleai riscuri.

Metalizare Sablare Sudare Vopsire

Fig. 3.1 Aplicaii robotizate

4. CONCEPTUL INTEGRAT
DE CABIN MULTIFUNCIONAL
MODULAR
O organizare eficient a unui post virtual de lucru
Noul concept, conform concepiei anterioare, respect cerinele:
asigur: controlul i virtualizarea n timp real ale parametrilor
protecia omului prin ndeprtarea din zona de lucru i procesului tehnologic;
coordonarea adaptiv a procesului direct de ctre posibilitatea efecturii de reglaje ale parametrilor;
robot;
izolarea procesului de mediul industrial prin instalarea lui verificarea rezultatelor obinute prin efectuarea
ntr-o cabin specializat; procesului tehnologic;
creterea pregtirii profesionale a operatorilor; supravegherea noxelor i emisiilor rezultate din proces
limitarea riscului de accidente umane i reducerea (praf, noxe, gaze fierbini) i semnalizarea depirii
costurilor; limitelor receptibile;
reducerea substantial a spaiilor de lucru specifice prin supravegherea consumurilor energetice aferente
integrarea lor n aceeai celul. aplicrii tehnologiei.
Organizarea virtual a unui post de lucru are n vedere
urmtoarele elemente: Soluia original implic obinerea de performane
tehnice deosebite ntr-o singur concepie unitar,
tipul procesului tehnologic (mecanic, fizico-chimic,
termic); folosind robotizarea i automatizarea proceselor
numrul parametrilor de control ai procesului menionate, inclusiv funcionarea virtual a unei/unor
tehnologic; cabine multifuncionale. Realizarea unei cabine modulare
tipul funciei de transfer pentru senzori i postul de comand
robotizat implic elaborarea de algoritmi tehnologici
al sistemului virtual. specifici pentru procesele tehnologice cu grad ridicat de
risc enunate.
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 94
Ele se modeleaz virtual pentru reducerea vulnerabilitii 5. CONCLUZII
i combaterea consecinelor accidentelor industriale,
inclusiv realizarea de echipamente tehnologice, de Lucrarea vizeaz un concept integrator care s
monitorizare i senzorizare pentru echipamentele de raspund cerinelor de securitate industrial i s
protecie. asigure abordarea sigur a proceselor de lucru n
n principiu se desfoar urmtoarele secvene condiii grele pentru atenuarea vulnerabilitii i
tehnologice: combaterea riscului accidentelor industriale. Modele
produsul sau piesa supus procesului este dezvoltat tehnologice ale proceselor cu grad ridicat de risc,
ntr-un mediu CAD; integrez echipamente, procese, roboi i piese de lucru,
odat modelate procesele, se stabilesc traiectoriile de cu ajutorul condiionat al senzorilor specifici i camerelor
lucru ale roboilor; de monitorizare i inspectare integrate ntr-o cabin
o camer specializat de luat vederi descrie piesa sau specializat, modulat, multifuncional.
produsul;
cele dou semnale suprapuse vor defini integral i exact BIBLIOGRAFIE
obiectul din cabin;
trebuie respectate condiii de siguran referitoare la 1. Cristina Mohora, Costel Cotet, Gabriela Patrascu, Simularea
interaciunea dintre utilaje; sistemelor de productie, Editura Academiei Romane, Bucuresti, 2001.
2. Camarinha-Matos L.M, Virtual Enterprises: Life cycle supporting
se personalizeaz camera multifuncional pentru tools and technologies funded in parts by the European Comission,
operaia prescris; through the Esprit PRODNET II and INCO SCM, 1999.
se introduce piesa i se poziioneaz fa de roboi, 3. SUHNER, Usinage economique et rationnel, Germany, 1990
4.Weinert K., Friedhoff J, Efficient discrete simulation of 3-axis-
camerele TV i/sau senzori; roboii efectueaz operaia milling for sculptured surfaces, Production Engineering, Vol. II/2, 1997.
tehnologic conform programului transmis i corelat cu
imaginea tridimensional a piesei; totul se desfoar n
orb;
la terminarea procesului robotul, cu o camer mobil
sau camere poziionate specific, face inspecii;
imaginile sunt analizate i se fac coreciile necesare;
acelai robot va putea modifica accesoriile din cabin i
o va putea pregti rapid pentru o alt operaie funcie de
cerina tehnologic.

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TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 95


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TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 96


THE BEHAVIOR OF THE PISTON-CYLINDER
TRIBOSYSTEMS
Gheorghe Potaru1, Andrei Potaru2, Victor Ceban1
1
Technical University of Moldova, Dept. Theory of Machines and Machine Elements
2
Technical University of Moldova, Dept. Automatics and Information Technology

ABSTRACT:
The paper presents researches concerning the functioning and the reliability of
certain types of machines and mechanisms as internal-combustion engines,
hydraulic machines and devices, compressors and others, which is mostly
determined by the functioning of the piston-cylinder assembly. Having diverse
specific constructive forms the piston-cylinder assembly is executing more than one
function (sealing the workspace of the cylinder, effective load transmission,
transport of material, movement guiding, etc.) which determines the large diversity
and complexity of the work conditions. Taking into account the type and the laws of
relative movement, the diversity of the contact forms and the work conditions, the
friction couple of this assembly must be examined and analyzed as distinct systems in
the context of systemic analysis and modeling.

KEYWORDS: tribosystem, tribomodels, friction.

Generally, from the point of view of complementary


1. INTRODUCTION processes, the tribosystem may be examined as a
structure of subsystems with distinct functions and
The functioning and the reliability of certain types of processes. Parts of this structure represent: a a
machines and mechanisms as internal-combustion mechanical subsystem that establishes the main
engines, hydraulic machines and devices, compressors function which is mostly determined by the type and
and others, is mostly determined by the functioning of function of the cinematic couple, mechanical
the piston-cylinder assembly. Having diverse specific deformation processes that appear in the contact zone
constructive forms the piston-cylinder assembly is and evolution of defects, of their dislocation density
executing more than one function (sealing the distribution in superficial contact layer structures,
workspace of the cylinder, effective load transmission, change of the mechanical properties of triboelements,
transport of material, movement guiding, etc.) which b- hydrodynamic subsystem, whose function is to
determines the large diversity and complexity of the separate contact surfaces and create efficient
work conditions. functioning states in the whole variation scale of
Taking into account the type and the laws of loading conditions; c chemical subsystem, intended
relative movement, the diversity of the contact forms to create or modify, by means of chemical interactions,
and the work conditions, the friction couple of this some superficial structures with tribologic properties
assembly must be examined and analyzed as distinct able to ensure normal functioning capacity of the
systems in the context of systemic analysis and tribosystem in extreme loading situations; d
modeling. thermodynamic system, where transformations and
dissipations of energy take place, those which should
2. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS ensure transfer of entropy flux produced at the
dissipation in the contact zone.
Contact processes from subsystems and their influence
While researching behavior and predicting normal and
on elements structures and properties may be
critical functioning of tribosystems, it is necessary to
researched taking a complex approach as well as
apply the methodology for the analysis of multifactor
separately, making direct measurements during the
systems [4, 5]. The essence of this methodology is
attempts and by physical and chemical analysis
decomposition of the system into elements and
methods, structural as well as quantitative.
elemental processes, structure, state and triboelements
Internal communications between subsystems (within
properties analysis, establishing evolution of structures,
the same material constituent triboelements of the
processes and of their degree of mutual influence,
tribosystem) and of the tribosystem with other external
establishing transformation operators and factors of
systems are realized by matter fluxes (material) and
inputs and outputs.
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 97
energy fluxes. According to earlier research, a special material structure in superficial contact layers take
role in these communications is played by information place [3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 20]. These processes are decisive as
[9, 10, 21, 22]. New concepts and scientific paradigms far as it concerns the behavior of the tribosystem and
also impose new approaches on the conceptual determine its evolution in time. The thermodynamic
definition of the tribosystem and on the establishing of state and the intensity of dissipation processes (entropy
the research methods. production) on the macro level are reflected in the
variation of dynamic parameters (especially of the
Fn average temperature T(x) in the contact zone and its
1 local fluctuation on stroke)
v (x)
F f (x) Functional behavior of the tribosystem, which is highly
sup inf sup complex, almost excludes the possibilities of final
L 2 L research by purely analytical methods (on the basis of
x dx non-linear differential equation systems). Thats why
F f (x) , the basis of tribosystems study, taken by the majority
N of researchers, was mainly experimental methods. The
400
300 experimental model should fully comply with the
200 requirements of similarity with the real tribosystem,
100 according to the following: relative movement law;
0 contact form and size; laws of command parameters
-100 upon the contact states and unfolding of the contact
-200 processes.
-300
The peculiarity of the tribosystem under research
-400
v (x) , consists in both the dynamic character of the
m /s triboelements surface interaction and, as a
3,0 consequence, in the dynamism of the contact processes
+vmax

2,0 and their evolution. The states the tribosystem goes


1,0 through may be completely assessed by traditional
0 tribological research methods, which is why new
-1,0
approaches are taken to establish the research
-vmax

-2,0
-3,0 methodology.
According to the methodology proposed by the authors
T (x) , C [1, 2, 3], the state of the tribosystem and the contact
200 processes is appreciated in complex with two groups of
160
120
parameters. The variables and parameters from the first
80 group (which are recorded in real time during the
40 experiment) determine the state of the tribosystem at
0 the local state on the cycle stroke. Some of the most
important local variables are (fig.1, fig.2) local force of
Fig.1. The reamer of the tribosystem cycle with cyclic friction Ff(x) and its variation on stroke, local average
slips of the piston ring - cylinder. temperature in the contact zone T(x) and the thickness
of the lubricant layer during the contact h(x). The
Symbols: sup and inf indicate the position on the second group comprises variables and parameters of
stroke (L) of the superior dead point and respectively the tribosystem state assessment on the global level,
inferior dead point of the ring; integrated in the limits of a motion cycle with double
1 - the piston ring triboelement; stroke 2L or within the limits of a period of time of
2 - the cylinder triboelement. the evolution trajectory. Two variables are significant
for this group: mechanical work (Afc) required at the
While examining a tribosystem with cyclic movement, overcoming of friction forces and average temperature
piston-cylinder type, it is necessary to clarify some (T) in the contact zone determined by the integration
particular aspects (fig. 1) and namely: the variable within the limits of a cycle.
L 0
speed motion v(x) of the contact on stroke (L), force of
friction Ff(x) with a variable character within the limits
of the cycle and local fluctuations of temperature T(x)
Afc= F f ( x) dx
0
+ F ( x) dx
L
f (1)

in the contact zone. 2L


1
2 L 0
From the thermodynamic point of view, tribosystems T= T ( x) dx (2)
are dissipative open and irreversible systems, which
can comprise stationary and non-stationary unfolding The experiments describe the behavior of the
of the contact processes. tribosystem in the whole range of loading regimes
The dissipation of mechanical energy is realized on the (command parameters variation) including state of
real contact surface, changing the thermodynamic state catastrophic gripping as well. The command
as well as the structural state of the triboelements. parameters for the cyclic motion tribosystems are the
Thus, processes of auto-organization or degradation of following: cyclic frequency of contact (nc); normal
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 98
actual load (Fn); sliding speed on stroke (v(x)). A surfaces to adapt to complex conditions imposed by
typical sequence of the experiment unfolding is shown new situations.
in fig. 2 where: A well-outlined non-linear behavior on the evolution
a the oscillograms of the variation of friction force trajectory may be noticed at the rapprochement to the
(1) and of the thickness of the lubrication film (2) at the zone of catastrophic gripping. In this zone a high level
variation of the temperature in the contact zone; b the of non-determination persists where the slightest
oscillograms of the temperature variation in the contact fluctuation can shift the system into a point of
zone for different actual loads; c the oscillograms of bifurcation and can launch the process of avalanche
the friction forces (1) and the thickness of the towards the catastrophic state [11].
lubrication film (2) for stable regimes in tribosystem This behavior of the tribosystem raises new
functioning and different actual loads. requirements for research concepts and methods in the
field of tribology of dynamic systems. A decisive role,
in this context, must be attributed to modern
experimental research methods. From the conceptual
point of view the methodological base must be built on
the analysis of fluxes of materials, energy and
information about internal communication between the
elements of the system and communication of the
system with other internal systems. The complex
examination of such peculiarities of this type of
communications and their influences on the general
behavior of dynamic tribosystems of piston-cylinder
type will allow a further elucidation of more numerous
problems linked to the increase of machine reliability
and decrease of their impact on the environment.
Fig.2. The graphic of a typical experimental sequence Communications by flux of materials. The spatial and
of the tribosystem with cyclic and translation slips. chemical structure of triboelements materials and
material communications between them are decisive in
During the experiment, the contact goes through the behavior of the tribosystem. These very
various states and regimes of friction-lubrication, being communications determine: spatial time structure of
separated into several distinct periods of the evolution. surface contact layers [14, 15, 16, 20] and the capacity
In the limits of the first period, at relatively low to auto-organize in new structures ordered under the
temperatures (up to 70-80 C) the tribosystem is in a influence of working conditions; adapting capacity of
slightly unstable balance with a non-essential response the microgeometric characteristics of the surfaces to
to the fluctuation of command parameters. During the new interaction situations; material transfer from one
second period, at higher temperatures - 100-120 C triboelements to another. Some mechanisms of
the tribosystem undergoes states that cause essential material transfer (absorption, chemosorbtion, diffusion,
destabilization in the contact zone, being far from selective transfer) are well known in the area. Finding
balance. The duration of this period is different for new mechanisms of communicating with materials [14,
different load regimes. At the end of this period the 17] relates to present day and future research.
tribosystem enters another period with a stable regime. The possibility to choose initial chemical composition
There is a transition period that appears between the of the triboelements possessing capacities that were
two periods. enumerated will allow realizing such migrating
Having analyzed a great number of samples of dynamic material structures in the area of surface
experimental data, obtained by tests on tribomodels of contact layers having optimum tribologic properties for
piston ring - cylinder type, it was determined that there the whole variation range of command parameters, as
is a non-linear and chaotic behavior in the dynamics of well as for the early realization of catastrophic
tribosystem state. In the case of realization of relative situations.
stability, the state of the tribosystem tends to strange Direct monitoring of materials transfer during the
attractors with reduced stability, which may be left at experiment is impossible, due to the dynamic character
the slightest external or internal fluctuations. In these of the flux. Thats why these processes may be
zones, on the attractor trajectories under the action of established and assessed only at the phenomenological
fluctuations points of bifurcation may appear in the level on the basis of the information extracted from the
evolution of the tribosystem [8, 10, 11, 12, 13]. tribosystem dynamic parameters signals.
The stability of the attractor or the ulterior direction of In the previously conducted experiments, whose data
tribosystem evolution depends on a series of factors, were at the basis of the analysis, for the triboelements
such as: amplitude, form and period of command of the tribomodel were used materials of the piston-
parameters fluctuations, response of internal cylinder group and oils widely used in the construction
parameters to these fluctuations (such as parameters of and exploitation of internal-combustion engines and of
spatial and chemical structural organization of hydraulic engines, as well as a series of experimental
triboelements); structural stability and capacity to auto- materials, additives and oils. The lubricant flux in the
organize into new ordered structures of superficial contact zone is emitted continually or periodically. The
layers of the triboelements, capacity of the contact quantity is chosen depending on the purpose of the
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 99
experiment. The material which is used is transported The average local temperature (T(x)) from the contact
from the contact zone by means of the lubricant flux. zone (fig.1), being a correlative parameter with
Communication by means of energy flux. dissipated power P(x), has the same tendencies to vary
The mechanical work at the shift of the contact on as the friction force Ff(x) however in a different form
stroke is used to overcome friction forces and is of the trajectory and at another amplitude scale.
dissipated on the real contact surfaces, being In the plane of phases may be projected and observed
transformed into internal thermal energy of the the motion of the system in the areas of strange
triboelements (increasing thermodynamic entropy of attractors through sections of evolution trajectory.
the tribosystem), in structural internal changes (of The global energetic state of the contact may be
various degree) of triboelements materials and at the analyzed at different hierarchical levels. The inferior
material transfer on the material flux. Materials transfer global energetic level is introduced in the limits of the
is made on two diametric directions. In the first motion cycle. Energy quantity dissipated in a cycle
direction, it is linked to ordered changes in the surface (Afc), represents a minimal discrete portion of
layers, whereas in the second one there is structural assessment of global energetic state of the contact in a
degradation (wear) of the surface contact layer certain point on the evolution trajectory. On a higher
(increasing of structural entropy). The energy transfer hierarchical level, included in a given segment of the
process is produced by mobile and discrete contact on trajectory (ti, ti+), the energetic state (work used Af)
stroke where contact time of local realization of the tribosystem is determined by the integration of
(implicitly of sliding speed) is highly important. Thats cycle Afc energy in the limits of this segment.
why time duration and its repeat frequency determine t i +
the unfolding of the contact processes. Af = nc A
ti
fc (t ) dt (3)

F f (x), From the thermodynamic point of view, the energy


N dissipated ant the global level determines the
300
production of entropy on the examined hierarchical
200 level.
An important role in the assessment of states that the
100 tribosystem undergoes is played by the temperature in
the contact zone. The temperature field that firstly
-vmax +vmax results from the energy consumption at dissipation and
-3.0 -2.0 -1.0 0 1.0 2.0 3.0 v(x), m/s on the transfer of the entropy flux implicitly includes
the influence of other hidden factors of the system.
-100
This implies the use of temperature as and indicator of
processes of structural change in the surface layers of
-200
the triboelements. Correlation between dissipated
energy on cycle Afc and average temperature (T) in the
-300 contact zone on the evolution trajectory is presented in
figure 4.
Variation curves for these two variables (being
Fig.3. Trajectory of local energetic states of the
appreciated as basic dynamic variables V(t) of contact
contact in the plane of phases.
processes) are obtained by measurements and real time
(The directions of the arrows indicate the branches of
processing, on the entire cycle of the experiment and
the trajectory at the increase and, correspondingly,
are presented as temporal series (also named time
decrease of sliding speed on stroke L).
series). As the experimental data results indicate
(fig.4), the trajectories of dynamic variables on certain
At the local level the energetic state of the contact is
sections correlate among themselves, also bearing
determined by the trajectory in the plane of phases
chaotic variations with different amplitudes and
(fig.3) constructed on the sliding speed on stroke (v(x))
frequencies, going from one unstable attractor to
and of friction force (Ff(x)).
another, until reaching state of stability.
The result Ff(x) v(x) =P(x) represents the local energy
The level and the tendency to modify the global state
dissipation power in the zone of the examined point x
of contact on various sections of the trajectory may be
of the trajectory (fig.1).
appreciated by analyzing variations and jumps by
From the thermodynamic point of view this result also
various orders of variable derivates and with the
represents local speed of producing entropy in the
correlation parameters between them. Additional
process of dissipation.
information may be obtained by assessing correlation
The position and form of the trajectory branches and
between local and global state parameters.
the increase and decrease of sliding speed differs
considerably on both directions of the motion on
stroke, thus forming a trajectory with 2 closed
contours. On the basis of form and position of
trajectory in the plane of phases we may also determine
regimes of friction-lubrication realized at the contact in
the zones of each point from the stroke.
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 100
T , C chemical structure that would be able to ensure
A fc, J tribologic properties imposed by the general function
50 200 of the tribosystem and by the compatibility
requirements of the triboelements. In order to ensure
40 160
2 the function of the tribosystem, the structure of the
elements must also comply with the requirements of
30 120
stability to external and internal fluctuations of
20 80 command and commanded parameters. According to
1 experimental data, the structural stability requirement
10 40 is almost impossible to achieve in real conditions of
functioning. In this context, a special attention should
0 0 be given to solid triboelements. As the materials of
10 20 30 t, min these triboelements change their structure in the surface
Fig.4. Time correlation curves of the work of friction contact zone, they will also modify their tribologic
forces (1) and of the temperature in the contact zone properties. Here, the following questions arise: which
(2) obtained for normal actual loads of contact is the direction in which change evolves and which will
Fn=3500N. Materials used: electrolytic chrome-steel, be the organization (auto-organization) possibilities of
synthetic motor oil. structures with adequate properties. This mode of
approaching the problem has probably lead to the
Communications by information flux. In the course of introduction of a new communication flux between
the last decades a new characteristic is more and more elements, and systems, and namely, the information
frequently used in the system analysis, and namely flux, that comes to elucidate more aspects in the
the information flux. Using information to assess the tribosystems behavior.
states of the systems has reached high degrees in The notion of information [10, 21, 22], has not
different areas. This fact is firstly due to the present acquired clear contours yet, that would establish its
level of information theory and information technology place in the hierarchy of fundamental scientific
development within traditional theories and concepts. categories, all due to its complexity and diversity of its
In order to examine the behavior of the tribosystem use. On the basis of the sources that were consulted,
from the informational point of view it is necessary to information may be defined as a property of the
clarify certain essential issues and namely: what is a interaction of material worlds components that
tribosystem as a complex structure, and how are the determines the direction of the motion of energy and
triboelements organized at the microstructural level; substance. In this context, information is attributed the
how is the structural architecture of triboelements following three associated functions: determination of
modified under the influence of entropy flux produced the direction for motion, form and structure of
by the tribosystem and how are these changes reflected substance (of the material), of form and structure
upon triboelements properties; which of the meanings (modulation) of the fields that appear under the
attributed to information better correspond to influence of spatial forces that accompany substance
tribosystem behavior; what are the possibilities to motion. This formulation, being more explicit,
extract information from material and energy fluxes illustrates the physical aspect of the category of
(and supports and bearers of information). information, where its support is specified (form and
Searching for answers to the enumerated questions structure of the material part of the world). This notion
represent a certain difficulty due to their spread over may be made more particular and accepted as basis for
several branches of science. Here, the priority will be the examination of triboelements behavior.
given to recent research in the field of science of At the interaction of triboelements the information flux
materials, physics of the solid body, thermodynamics altogether with the material flux and the energy flux
of open dissipative systems, theory of information and between elements all determine the motion direction of
information technology, chaos theory and synergetics, the system on the evolution trajectory. Taking this
non-linear dynamics, modern theories of signal premise as basis we may conclude that any structure
processing and philosophical aspect of the enumerated change movement concerning triboelements and form
issues [7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16, 17, 18]. of contact (information support) will be also
General theory of complex system analysis determines accompanied by changes in the fields (thermal, of
structure as a construction possessing hierarchical deformation and of tension) by means of which the
architecture. Thus, each element that is in the system, information flux is transmitted and distributed. Thus,
irrespective of origin, may be examined at its natural architecture of layers adjacent to contact is
hierarchical level as a separate subsystem having its achieved. The modified structure and form of contact
own structure and function. As for tribosystems, the will obviously depend on the antecedent composition
upper hierarchical level constitutes the two solid and structure of the triboelements and on the loading
triboelements that, in the process of contact, are in conditions of the contact. An important role while
relative motion and two liquid or gas elements, one of achieving new structures is attributed to the time of
which is interposed between contact surfaces (working irreversible change of the contact from one hierarchical
as a lubricant), whereas the other one constitutes the state to another, both at the local level on stroke as well
working environment. Each of the triboelements at the as on the global level.
upper hierarchic level should have a spatial and
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 101
The information about the direction and modification b)
span of the structures (synthesis or loss of information) T , C
may be observed during experiments, only by means of
signals modulated in energetic and force fields. These 160
signals represent dynamic variables V(t) of the system
and may be recorded in certain conditions, as it was 120
mentioned above, as time series. The number of
dynamic variables is limited (due to monitoring and 80
access peculiarities). Usually, just one variable is
recorded, less often two or three variables may also 40
appear. Real dynamic systems are complex and
0
multifactorial, having several mobility degrees, thats 10 20 30 t, min
why they may be analytically described by means of c)
differential equations with a certain number of
variables and parameters equal to the number of T, C
mobility degrees. Thats why the problem of
160
reconstructing the minimal number of variables that
would determine the state of the system appears. This
120
procedure is executed on the basis of the analysis of
time series of the system variables recorded during the
80
experiment.
In the case of dynamic tribosystems, such as piston-
cylinder systems, it is easier to monitor the variation of 40
the contact zone temperature fields. Samples of time
0
series for the variation of contact zone temperature 10 20 30 t, min
fields are presented in fig. 5. On each section of the Fig.5. Consecutive sections of the temporal series with
time series the fluctuations of contact zone field temperature fluctuations in the contact zone obtained
temperature in the given conditions of the experiment in the case of certain experimental materials of
occurred exclusively due to internal system parameter triboelements in different loading conditions with
fluctuations. These fluctuations confirm the fact that normal actual load:
there are processes of structural modification in the a Fn =1200N;
zones adjacent to surface contact layers, accompanied b Fn =1600N;
by changes in tribological properties of triboelements c Fn =2000N.
materials. Structural level transition is produced The dotted line represents a possible trajectory of
periodically when states with unstable strange attractor deviation.
attractors are reached. Unstable attractors are
spontaneously left, in a sequence of irreversible Here is were the most important and difficult problem
event steps that have variable periods. The transition appears, and namely, the extraction of information
process is completed when entering the domain of the contained (modulated) in the signals of the dynamic
next stable attractor (right hand branch of the series). variables, the decoding and its interpretation relative to
The system will stay in this attractor until a new the behavior of the contact processes and the evolution
unstable state or conditions to spontaneously leave it of contact condition.
are created. On the basis of experimental results The information aspect has not found yet a satisfying
obtained on tribomodels for a number of materials in reflection in the research of tribosystems with dynamic
various combinations it was certainly established that behavior. Still, the results of the developments made in
the form of the signal fluctuations, amplitude and other interdisciplinary sciences, like tribology, show
period, as well as total period of system transition that the solution of this problem can be found in the
differ from case to case and have a random and chaotic new research of the fields like: non-linear dynamical
character. system analysis, chaos theory, modern theories of
signal analysis [14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20].
a) One of the efficient methods for rating the information
T , C flux refers to the study and analysis of strange
attractors of dissipative systems. The information is
160 coded [23] on the stationary orbits of the attractor and
is extracted through intermittency points with chaotic
120
trajectories. The characteristics of the strange attractor,
80
in another method [26, 29, 30], are determined on the
basis of the fractal analysis from which the correlative
40
entropy Kolmogorov-K2 is computed. The K2 entropy
indicates the speed of information loss, thus the system
0 evolution direction, if rising to chaos, if lowing to
10 20 30 t, min organizing.

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 102


The method of extracting the information from the for information extracting from the dynamic variables
strange attractor through the synchronization with the signals and its processing requires additional research
moves of another attractor [24] also presents interest. both in the dynamic tribosystems and information
The information, in this case, is determined as the technologies fields.
difference between the entropies of the two attractors. The research in this area can establish a new branch in
In the [26, 27] works an efficient method of informatics triboinformatics.
information computing is presented. It is based on the
analysis of the time series of the dynamic variables REFERENCES
V(t)at the phenomenological level. The authors named
methodology developed in these works The Flicker- [1] Crudu I. A Principle Tribosystematization and Tribomodelling,
Noise Spectroscopy FNS. According to the concept Balkantrib 99, The 3rd International Conferense of Tribology,
(1999), Iunie, 2-4, Sinaia, Romnia.
of this methodology the flicker noise is the carrier of [2] Crudu I. On the Concept of Tribo-System and a Tribomodelling
the information regarding the condition and the Criterion, Proc. of 4th European Tribology Congress, Eurotrib 85
evolution direction of the system. From the analysis of Lion, (1985).
the dynamic variable signal the spectral power S(f) of [3] Ajder V, Crudu I, Potaru Gh.. Tomescu L. Tribomodeeling
the contact between piston-ring and cilinder in internal combustion
the variations and the differential moment of order (n) engines, (1994).
of the jumps (n) are found. These characteristics are [4] Czicos H. Tribology, Elsevier Scientific Publighing Company,
used as markers of the system structural Amsterdam-Oxford-New York, (1978).
modifications process, and their sequence indicates the [5] ,

evolution direction. A special meaning is assigned to a . , (1987), 8,
specific infinitely little time interval named Now 6, . 996-1003.
which can present the instant step of irreversible [6] . .
transition of the system towards another state. The . ., , (1989).
[7] ., . . .
markers are transferred to the Now period with the ., , (1990).
help of the -function. [8] Prigogine I. The End of Certainity. Time, Chaos and the New
The Flicker noise can be found in a wide area of Laws of Nature. The Free Press. N.Y., London, Toronto, (1997).
systems, including the tribosystems. Thats why the [9] Haken H. Advanced Synergetic. _ Springer-Verlag. Berlin,
(1983), 356 p.
FNS methodology can be successfully adapted and [10] Haken H. Information and Selforganization. Springer-Verlag.
specified for the research of the tribosystems with Berlin Heidelberg, 1988.
dynamic behavior. [11] .. . -3- ., .-.: .
The problem of researching the information aspect of . . . . ., (1990). . 128.- ISBN 5-02-014271-9.
[12] . . . .: .
the tribosystems has its specific. For the extraction of (1988), 240 .
information existing methods can be used. Still, the [13] Schuster H. G. Deterministic Chaos. Physik _ Verlag,
subtleties that can undoubtedly come to surface will Weinheim, (1984), 240 p.
need new fundamental methodological approach. [14] . . , .. , . . .

. , (2006),
3. CONCLUSION 76. . 10, .66-73.
[15] . . .
. . .-(2005).- .8. - 6, . 39-
The peculiarities of the piston-cylinder type 56.
tribosystems with dynamic behavior have led to of a [16] .., . ., ..
new research methodology. .
According to the methodology, the behavior of the 60-CdTe x , (2006),
4, .26-34.
tribosystem can be appreciated at different hierarchical [17] . . .
levels:
1 local level (inferior), for the points of the contact . , (2005), 47, 5, .808-
position on the stroke; 811.
[18] . . , .. , . . . . .
2 inferior global level (integrated in the cycle limits); .
3 superior global level (integrated in some time .
interval limits). , (2005), 75. . 5, .28-45.
The dynamic variables of the system are integrated as [19] .., .., ..
.
time series from which the fluxes of energy dissipated -: , (2001), 116 .
at local and global levels can be extracted. [20] .., ..
These fluxes determine the energetic condition of the .- : , (2006).-191 .:.
contact at the three hierarchical levels. In order to find [21] Brillouin, L. Science and Information theory. Academic Press
INC. Publishers, N.Y. 1956
the direction of the contact state evolution the [22] Norton M.J. Introductory Concepts in Information Science.
information extracted from the dynamic variables Information Today, Inc. Medford, New Jersey, (2000).
signals can be used. [23] . . , . . , . .
The use of information and the energy flux will allow, .
10, (1997), .50-79.
during the experiment, the estimation of the structural [24] . . , . , .., ..
modifications in the surface layer zones of triboelement .
contacts and the evaluation of the new structure state. . , (2001), 27,. 11, .78-85.
The problem of selecting or development of a method

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 103


[25] Hegger R., Kantz H., Schreiber T. // Practical implementation [28] ..
of nonlinear time series methods: the TISEAN package. Chaos. : - //
(1999). V.9. P.413. . (2006). .42. 5.
[26] .. . . [29] ..
.: , (2000), 350 . . - ,
[27] Timashev S.F., Vstovsky G.V. and Solovieva A.B. Informative (1965), . 1, c. 37.
essence of chaos. In: Unsolved problems of noise and fluctuations in [30] S.G.Basiladze. The threshold and up-limit boundary informatics
physics, biology and high technology UPoN (2005). relations for the signals. Preprint NPI MSU (2004)20/759

12
Quick Info

Expanding market for sensor interfacing Ics

The past few decades have witnessed a substantial growth in sensors and sensor-based applications, which has led to a
greater demand for sensor interfacing integrated circuits (ICs). Additionally, the dominance of electronic controls over
mechanical controls further influences the growth of sensor interfacing ICs.

New analysis from Frost & Sullivan, 'Developments in Sensor Interfaces', finds that data acquisition systems form an
important end-user segment for sensor interfacing. The numerous applications for smart sensor systems require efficient
data acquisition strategies to handle the variety of sensory data produced.

Frost & Sullivan Research Analyst Prithvi Raj comments: "The cost of the underlying technology employed in sensor
interface design and development propels advancements in this area. Modern manufacturing processes and the advent
of advanced technologies such as improved amplifier designs have facilitated a significant reduction in the
manufacturing costs of typical sensor interfacing ICs."

End-user markets represent one of the primary drivers for the adoption of sensor interfacing. The applications that need
signal conditioning as well as interfacing fall into the categories of communication, consumer, automotive and
industrial. These end-user application markets will continue to drive developments in sensor interfacing. With new
application areas evolving at a rapid pace, interfacing techniques will be forced to keep up, thereby fostering an
environment of constant innovation and improvement.

However, given the sheer number of sensors currently available in the market, and the fact that various devices have
adopted numerous sensing principles, the task of designing appropriate interfacing ICs to satisfy them all appears
daunting.

Raj says: "Since a majority of these sensors output analogue signals, analogue interfacing is a must. However, it is not
possible to employ the same type of interfacing as there could be a significant difference between the type of output (for
example, resistive, capacitive or inductive)."

Designing a system requires the proper knowledge of the various output parameters of the sensor interfaces.
Despite the presence of many highly versatile sensor interface chips in the market, they remain limited to specific
sensor types.

(http://www.frost.com/prod/servlet/frost-home.pag)

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 104


WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF ALUMINA
AND AISI 52100 STEEL AGAINST
MOLYBDENIUM BORIDE COATED AISI D2 STEEL
Ugur Sen, H Unal, A Mimaroglu, S.Yilmaz, S Sen

Sakarya University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering,


Sakarya-Turkey, e-mail: ugursen@sakarya.edu.tr, mimarog@sakarya.edu.tr

ABSTRACT
In the present study, the tribological behaviour of Alumina and AISI 52100 steel
were investigated. Wear tests were carried out under atmospheric conditions and
using ball-on disc tribometer. Molybdenum boride coated AISI D2 Steel was used as
counterface surface. Molybdenum boride was realized on AISI D2 steel by thermo-
reactive deposition technique. The phases formed on the coated steel were MoB,
Mo2B, FeMo and FeB. Wear tests conditions were 2 and 5N loads and sliding speeds
of 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 m/s. The results showed that the coefficient of friction decreases
with the increase in sliding speed while there is a drop in wear rate with the
increasing sliding speed. The results also showed that the coefficient of friction of
AISI 52100 steel and alumina were ranging between 0.296 0.622 and 0.474
0.908 respectively. Wear rates of AISI 52100 steel and alumina were ranging
between 2.27x10-8 3.39x10-9 and 2.344x10-9 3.94x10-11 mm3/m respectively.

KEYWORDS: Molybdenum boride, Thermo-reactive deposition, Wear

molybdenum borides, namely MoB and Mo2B5,


1. INTRODUCTION are in equilibrium with MoSi2 at temperature
around 1600 C]. Besides the aforementioned
ModeMolybdenum (Mo) has a wide range of properties, MoB and Mo2B5 have good thermal
industrial applications due to its unique conductivity and relatively high coefficients of
combination of physical, chemical and thermal expansion, which makes them promising
mechanical properties [1]. Molybdenum borides candidates for reinforcing MoSi2 .
have attracted considerable interest for technical As a result of the important properties of
applications because of their high melting point, molybdenum borides, it was decided to
chemical stability, high hardness, high strength investigate the tribological behavior of alumina
and excellent resistance against mechanical and and AISI 52100 steel rubbing against a
corrosive wear [2], [3], [4] and [5]. Molybdenum counteface material of and AISI D2 boronized
borides are very hard but also brittle. This coated steel.
limitation may be partially circumvented if they
are used as coatings over less brittle metallic 2. MATERIALS AND
molybdenum substrates. But there are very few EXPERMENTAL WORK
investigations dealing with the boriding of
molybdenum [6] and [7]. Due to the high
melting points (2600, 2375, and 2140C) for 2.1. MATERIALS
MoB, MoB2 and Mo2B5 respectively, chemical
stability, extremely high hardness, good The material used in this investigation are
corrosion resistance, and excellent high- Alumina, AISI 52100 steel and AISI D2
temperature strength, molybdenum borides have boronized coated steel. The steel consists of
attracted considerable interest for structural 0.129% C, 0.182% Si, 0.766% Mn, 0.0416% P,
applications [7]. Additionally, the MoBSi 0.0576% S, 0.038% Cr, 0.018%Mo, 0.012% Ni,
ternary system indicates that at least two of the 0.0012% V and balance iron.

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 105


Before treatment, the samples were cut to the recorded continuously. A schematic diagram of
dimensions of 20mm in diameter and 5mm in the test device is shown in Fig. 1.
length, and ground by 1200 grit emery paper and
cleaned for 15 min in the ethyl alcohol,
ultrasonically. Salt bath boronizing treatment
was carried out in the first step of the
boromolybedening treatment at 1000 C for 2 hrs
in the slury salth bath consisting of borax, boric
acid and ferro-silicon. In the second step, pre-
boronized steel samples were molybdenized by
pack method in the powder mixture consisting of
ferromolybdenum, ammonium chloride and
alumina at 1000 C for 14 hrs. The samples
were directly immersed in the powder mixture in Figure 1. Ball-on-disc tribometer
the alumina crucible. An alumina lid was used to
close the box and alumina cement was used for Wear was measured primarily by volumetric
sealing the crucible. After the treatment the (volume loss) means. Volumetric wear of the
samples were cooled in the box for 1 hr in the spherical ball specimens was determined by
open air. The boromolybdenized samples were measuring the diameter of the wear scar and
ground and polished up to 0.3 m with alumina calculated using the radius of the ball the volume
paste and then etched with 3% Nital, for of material that had been removed. Multiple tests
metallographic examinations. Olympus BO 71 (up to five repeats) for some test conditions
optical microscope with optical micrometer was showed that the wear rate data were very
used for optical microstructure and measurement reproducible, with standard deviations being less
of the coating layer formed on the steel samples. than 13.2% of the mean value (within a 95%
The samples were analyzed on the cross- confidence level). Finally, average value was
sections. Micro-hardness measurements of the considered.
layers from surface to interior on the cross-
sections were utilized using Future-Tech FM- 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
700 micro-hardness tester under the loads of 10
g. Xray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the layers Figure 2 and 3 present the variation in coefficient
realized on the surfaces of the coated sample of friction of alumina and AISI 52100 steel with
with 2 varying from 20 to 100, using CuKa sliding speed respectively.
radiation.

2.2.WEAR TESTS
The friction and wear test parameters are shown
in Table X.

Figure 2. Variation of coefficient of friction with


sliding speed for Alumina

In these tests an ball-on- disc tribomrter was


used.In this arrangement the balls were firmly
fixed to a stationary and discs were attached to a
horizontal chuck driven by a variable-speed
electric motor. The frictional force, monitored by
a load cell attached to the ball holder, was

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 106


increase in sliding speed while there is a drop in
wear rate with the increasing sliding speed. Wear
rates of AISI 52100 steel and alumina were
ranging between 1.506x10-2 8.748x10-6 and
1.560x10-3 1.019x10-7 mm3/m respectively.
Figure 5 present the microgragh of the boronized
coated surface of AISI DE steel. Figure 5b and c
present alumina and 52100 steel balls worn
surfaces. Figur 5a shows the phases of the
coating layer. Figure 5a and 5b shows the
grooved and the formation of the film patches
on the worn surfaces during wear process.

Figure 3. Variation of coefficient of friction


with sliding speed for AISI 52100 steel

It is clear from these figures that the coefficient


of friction is higher at higher load values. In case
of alumina the friction coefficient variation with
sliding speed is following an increasing then to
decreasing profile and the maximum values are
at 0.3 sliding speed. In case of steel the
coefficient of friction is increasing with the
increase in sliding speed value. The results also
showed that the coefficient of friction of AISI (a)
52100 steel and alumina were ranging between
0.296 0.622 and 0.474 0.908 respectively. (a)

Figure 4 present the variation in wear rate for


alumina with the change in sliding speed and
under 2 and 5N load values.

(b)

Figure 4. Variation in wear rate of alumina and


52100 steel with sliding speed and applied load

It is clear from this figure that the wear rate is in


decrease with the increase in sliding speed and
applied load values. Generally the results showed (c)
that the coefficient of friction increases with the
Figure 5. Micrography of the worn surfaces

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 107


CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES
- The coefficient of friction decreases with [1] Srivatsan, B.G. Ravi, M. Petraroli and
the increase in sliding speed while there is a T.S. Sudarshan, Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard
drop in wear rate with the increasing sliding Mater. 20 (2002), p. 181
speed. [2] R.Thomson, Borides: their chemistry and
- The coefficient of friction of AISI 52100 applications, London, Royal Institute of
steel and alumina were ranging between Chemistry 5 (1965).
0.296 0.622 and 0.474 0.908 [3] In: A.W. Weimer, Editor, Carbide,
respectively. Nitride and Boride Materials Synthesis and
- Wear rates of AISI 52100 steel and alumina Processing, Chapman & Hall, London (1997).
were ranging between 2.27x10-8 3.39x10-9 [4] Y.Z. Li, Y.N. Fan and Y. Chen, J. Solid
and 2.344x10-9 3.94x10-11 mm3/m State Chem. 170 (2003), p. 135.
respectively. [5] K. Kudaka, K. Iizumi, T. Sasaki and S.
Okada, J. Alloys Compd. 315 (2001), p. 104.
[6] A. Bonomi, H. Giess and C. Gentaz,
Electrodepos. Surface Treat. vol. 1 (1972/73),
pp. 419427.
[7] C.L. Yeh and W.S. Hsu , Journal of Alloys
and Compounds 440 (2007) 193198.

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TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 108


ELASTO-HYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION ANALYSIS
OF PARTIAL ARC BEARINGS USING CFD & FSI
Praveen Bhat, Satish Shenoy B, and R. Pai

Dept. of Mech. & Mfg. Engg., Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal, India.

ABSTRACT
For the theoretical calculations of the pressure distribution and, in turn, of the performance
characteristics of the partial arc bearing system, it is necessary to know accurately the fluid film
geometry. Since, in practice, the runner and the bearing shell are elastic and deform under
hydrodynamic pressure, the correct film geometry cannot be established without taking into
account elastic deformations. The journal material is more rigid than the bearing shell material, so
the deformation of the journal surface can be neglected. In the present analysis, the modified film
geometry is obtained by including the deformation in the bearing and its effect on the performance
characteristics of a partial arc bearing is studied.
This paper presents the overall Elasto-hydrodynamic Lubrication(EHL) analysis of a
Externally adjustable Single 60 partial arc bearing with different tilts and different radial
adjustments using the sequential application of Computational Fluid Dynamics(CFD) and
Computational Structural Dynamics(CSD). Here the coupled field analysis uses the
capabilities of commercially available Finite Element Software ANSYS/FLOTRAN and the
technique of Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI).
The pressure field has been obtained considering the laminar flow regime using CFD. Stress
distribution and deformation in the pad due to resulting pressure force is obtained using
FEM, satisfying the boundary conditions. The stress distribution indicates the critical points
in the pad. ANSYS/FLOTRAN is applied to simulate the pressure field and calculate the static
characteristics of a Single 60 partial arc bearing for various eccentricity ratios and length to
diameter (L/D) ratios. The results show reasonable agreement in general.

KEYWORDS: Partial arc bearing, FSI, CFD

1. INTRODUCTION
Partial arc bearings are used in relatively low-speed The actual physical model is simplified in analytical
applications. They reduce power loss by not having the research which uses the Reynolds equation to simulate
upper pad but allow large vertical vibrations. In real the pressure field using FEM, in the hydrodynamic
bearings, it can be advantageous for the bush not to lubrication of bearings. In several research papers the
encircle the shaft completely. If the load is acting in an application of general CFD codes makes this analysis
approximately constant direction then only part of a effective when complex flow geometries are involved
bearing arc is often employed. The most common or when more detailed solutions are needed.
bearings of this type are 180 arc bearings, although
narrower arcs are also in use.
2. THEORY
Pressure in the oil film satisfies the Reynolds equation
which intern is a function of film thickness, and hence The fluid-solid interaction solver is an automated tool
the housing distortion, play a very important role. specifically designed for fluid-solid interaction
Therefore the structural distortion and the pressure problems. It uses ANSYS FLOTRAN elements for
distribution are very strongly coupled and a combined fluid elements and ANSYS structural or coupled-field
solution is needed. elements for solid elements. Fig. 1 shows the algorithm
Traditional method of overall Elasto-Hydrodynamic for the time and stagger loops of a fluid-solid
Lubrication analysis for a partial arc bearing usually interaction analysis.
involves the development of complicated numerical
calculation programs.

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 109


3. SOLUTION PROCEDURE
The partial arc bearing analysis is done using
ANSYS/FLOTRAN and the technique of FSI. The
procedure for doing a FSI on a partial arc bearing
mainly consists of the following main steps:

STEP1: Setup the fluid and solid analysis


The fluid-solid interaction analysis for Elasto-
hydrodynamic lubrication can be performed as follows:
Create the oil film model and the finite
element mesh for this region.
Apply the appropriate boundary conditions,
material properties for the fluid analysis, and
select the appropriate solution options.
Create the solid model of the bearing housing
and the finite element mesh for this region.
Apply the appropriate boundary conditions
Fig. 1: Fluid-Solid Interaction Solution Algorithm and material properties for the structural
analysis.
The fluid-solid interaction solver solves the equations
for the fluid and solid domains independently of each
other. It transfers fluid forces and heat fluxes and solid
displacements, velocities, and temperatures across the
fluid-solid interface. The algorithm continues to loop
through the solid and fluid analyses until convergence
is reached for that time step (or until the maximum
number of stagger iterations is reached). Convergence
in the stagger loop is based on the quantities being
transferred at the fluid-solid interface.

Fluid-Solid Interface
In most applications, the fluid and solid mesh are
dissimilar along the fluid-solid interface because the
fluid and solid mesh have different resolution Fig. 2: Fluid and Solid Boundary Conditions
requirements. The fluid-solid interaction solver
supports load transfer across a dissimilar mesh. It uses STEP2: Flag the Fluid-Solid Interface.
a linear search algorithm for the global search to locate The next step is to flag film-bearing interface where
the nodes belonging to a finite element mesh. It uses a load transfer takes place with a FSI number. Apply the
point to segment search algorithm for the local search field-surface interface flag twice: once for the fluid
to locate the nodal locations on an element face. The side of the interface and once for the solid side of the
interpolation method determines what quantities are interface. Load transfer occurs between film and
transferred at the interface. bearing interface with the same interface number.

Mesh Updating STEP3: Specify the Fluid-Solid Interaction solution


Many a time coupled-field analysis involving a fluid option.
domain and a structural domain yields significant The options that are required to specify the film-
structural deflections. In this case, to obtain an overall bearing interaction solution are described below.
converged coupled-field solution it is often necessary Specify basic analysis options like the
to update the finite element mesh in the non-structural solution order, the interpolation method and
region to coincide with the structural deflection and the method for load transfer across the
recursively cycle between the field solution and interface
structural solution. Mesh Morphing Technique is used Maximum number of stagger iterations
to move nodes and elements of the "field" mesh to (depends on convergence criterion)
coincide with the deformed structural mesh. Convergence values (0.5e-2)
Specify output frequency (100)
Specify Relaxation Values (0.5)

STEP4: Obtain and Post process the results.


The analysis is performed and the results are obtained.
To post process FSI analysis, the database must be
resumed.
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 110
You can review results using standard ANSYS
postprocessor commands. Simultaneous post
processing of the fluid and solid results files is not
supported. Read in the fluid or the solid result file one
at a time and post process the results.

4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


The radial adjustment is given in addition to the radial
clearance and these adjustments are obtained by inter -
changeable spacers and small tilting motion about the
leading edge of the pad or bearing element.

The radial adjustments in the partial arc bearing is


given in terms of 12.5 &25% of the radial clearance in
both upward and downward direction and a tilt of 1,2
and 3 is provided in downward direction for various Fig. 5:Pressure contour in oil film for radial
L/D and eccentricity ratios. The results obtained are adjustment of 25% of clearance(upward direction)
plotted. and 2 tilt (downward direction) for L/D=0.5 and
eccentricity ratio=0.6.

Fig. 3: Pressure contour in oil film for radial


adjustment of 12.5% of clearance (downward Fig. 6: Stress distribution in bearings for radial
direction) and 1 tilt (downward direction) for L/D=0.5 adjustment of 25% of clearance(upward direction) and
and eccentricity ratio=0.6 2 tilt (downward direction) for L/D=0.5 and
eccentricity ratio=0.6

Fig. 4: Stress distribution in the bearing for radial Fig. 7: Plot of non dimensional pressure in the
adjustment of 12.5% of clearance(downward direction) circumferential direction for radial adjustment of 25%
and 1 tilt (downward direction) for L/D=0.5 and of clearance (upward direction) and various tilt at
eccentricity ratio=0.6 L/D= 0.5 and eccentricity ratio=0.6.

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 111


REFERENCES
[1] Jain.S.C, Sinhasan. R, and Singh.D.V, Elasto-hydrodynamic
Lubrication analysis of Partial arc journal bearings, Tribology
International, June 1982, p 161-169.

[2] Praveen Bhat, Satish Shenoy B, R.Pai, Overall Elasto-


hydrodynamic Lubrication analysis of a 60 Partial Arc Bearing
using Fluid Structure Interaction, Proceedings of INDO NAFEMS
Symposium, January 2007.
[3] Satish Shenoy B, R.Pai, Overall Elasto-hydrodynamic
Lubrication analysis of Journal Bearing using CFD and FSI,
International Conference in Industrial Tribology (ICIT 06),
November 2006.

[4] Wechsler, L., Analysis of Partial Arc Bearings including effects


of elasticity and viscosity, American Society of Mechanical
Fig. 8: Non dimensional deformation plot for radial Engineers (paper), n 73-DGP-6 1973, p 10
adjustment of 25% of clearance(upward direction) and [5] Wechsler, Laskar, Analysis of Partial Arc bearings including
various tilt at L/D=0.5 and eccentricity ratio=0.6 effects of elasticity and viscosity, Naval Engineers Journal, v 85, n
1, Feb, 1973, p 50-57
5. CONCLUSION [6] ANSYS INC. ANSYS 10.0 Documentation.

EHL analysis of partial arc bearing is


proposed which includes deformation of the
bearing surface.
Simulation results show that the level of the
structural deformation depends on the radial
adjustments given in addition to the bearing
clearance, the tilt and the lubricant film
thickness.
The plots and figures above show that the
results agree in general.
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TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 4 / 2007 112


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TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3 / 2007 87