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cutit

MECANISME 1′′ 1

1′si 1′′ 1
elemente
Mecanism cu came
motoare 1′
Mecanism de tip seping

Figura 1.1
z ωz
z ω ωz
z ωz z
vy
vy
ωx y vy y vt ω
ωy y ωx x
x vx x
vx ωy ωy vx
1.2.a 1.2.b 1.2.c 1.2.d 1.2.e 1.2.f

vx
ωx
12.g 12.h 1.2.i 1.2.j 1.2.k
vx

1 1
2 2 2
Figura 1.3.a Figura.1.3.b Figura 1.4
Clasificarea lanturilor cinematice este prezentata în Tabelul 1.1. Rangul “j” al unui element este egal cu numarul cuplelor
cinematice cu care acesta se leaga de alte elemente.
Tabelul 1.1
Dupa complexitatea Lanturi cinematice plane Toate elementele au miscari într-un singur plan sau în plane paralele
miscarii Lanturi cinematice spatiale Miscarile elementelor au loc în plane diferite
Lanturi cinematice simple Fiecare element are j ≤ 2
Dupa numarul cuplelor
cinematice Lanturi cinematice complexe Cel putin un element are j ≥ 3
care revin unui element Lanturi cinematice închise Toate elementele au j ≥ 2
cinematic
Lanturi cinematice deschise Cel putin un element are j = 1
5
L = 6⋅n − ∑ k ⋅ Ck (1.1)
k =1

Figura 1.5
5 5
M = L − 6 = 6 ⋅ (n − 1) − ∑ k ⋅ Ck = 6 ⋅ m −∑ k ⋅ C k (1.2)
k =1 k =1
L = (6 − 3) ⋅ n − (5 − 3) ⋅ C 5 − (4 − 3) ⋅ C 4 (1.3)
M = 3⋅ m − 2⋅ C5 − C4 (1.4)
5
M = (6 − f ) ⋅ m − ∑ (k − f ) ⋅ C k (1.5)
k =1

element conducator CIV CIII CIII

contactor
CR
V 2 3
CR
V
m = 3 ; C5 = 4 ; C4 = 0 m = 2 ; C5 = 2 ; C4 = 1
M = 3⋅3 − 2⋅4 = 1 M = 3⋅2 − 2⋅2 − 1 = 1 Figura 1.6 1
r M = 6⋅3 − 5⋅2 − 3⋅2 = 2!
ω1 (motor)
1
Mecanismul spatial schematizat în figura 1.7 are: m = 3, C5 = 2, C4 = 2 si f = 1. Ca urmare, aplicând relatia (1.5), rezulta M = 1.

1 CR
V r doua cuple CV !
2 ?1
(motor) 5
CIV 1 6
z
m=3 2 3
3 CV = 2 4
x y CIV = 2
M = 6⋅3 − 5⋅2 − 4⋅2 = 0 !?
CR
V Se observa ca nici un element nu poate
m = 6 ; CV = 7!
M = 3⋅6 − 2⋅7 = 4
Figura 1.7 avea rotatie fata de (Oy). Figura 1.8
2 doua cuple C5! 2
1 1
5 5
6 6
3 4 4
m = 6 ; C5 = 9
m = 5 ; C5 = 7
M = 3⋅6 − 2⋅9 = 0 ?!
M = 3⋅5 − 2⋅7 = 1
Elementul 3 este pasiv! Ajuta la rigidzarea barei 2.

Figura 1.9.a Figura 1.9.b


CV CV

3
2 1 m=3 2 1 m=2
C5 = 3 C5 = 2
C4 = 1 C4 = 1
CIV CIV
M = 3⋅3 − 2⋅3 − 1 = 2 !? M = 3⋅2 − 2⋅2 − 1 = 1
Rola 2 poate fi îndepartata.
Figura 10.a Figura 10.b
3 ⋅ mech − 2 ⋅ C5 ech = −1 (1.6)
3 ⋅ mech + 1
C 5 ech = (1.7)
2
Tabelul 1.2
mech 1 3 5 7 ….
C5 ech 2 5 8 11 ….
3 m=2+1=3
1 2 m=2 1
C4 C5 = 2 + 2 =4
C5 = 2
C4 = 1 2 C4 = 0
M=1
M=1
Figura 1.11.a Figura 1.11.b

(n) 2 2
(n) 2 2 B C TV
B
m=3
3 3
B 1 ρ C5 = 4
ρ 1B 1 D D C4 = 0
1 m=2 CR
V M=1
C5 = 2 A A
1
C4 = 1
m=2
C5 = 2 m=3 M=1
C4 = 1 C5 = 4
O Figura 1.13
C4 = 0
M =1
Figura 1.12 (n) M=1 (n)
3
C5 = m (1.8)
2
Tabelul 1.3
m 2 4 6 …
C5 3 6 9 …

element
diada
conducator
Figura 1.14 a Figura 1.14.b

2
2 1
4 1 4 4
1 3
3 3
2
2
Figura 1.15
B2
α B3 B1
l2 1 D2
C D1
B β 2 C1 3
l1 D3
2 D4 D0
1 B4
ϕ l3 B0
C0
A 3 D A
C4 C5 C6 C7 4
l4 D7
4 4
D5 D6
B5 B7
Figura 2.1 Figura 2.3
B6
v A = ω ⋅ l OA (2.1)
vA K AVA
= v⋅ (2.2)
lOA Kl OA
K
ω = v ⋅ tgφ = Kω ⋅ tgϕ (2.3)
Kl
Kω = 1 si deci ω = tgφ (2.4)
v 2A
a nA = = ω 2 ⋅ rA (2.5)
rA
(2.6)
a tA = ε ⋅ rA
A A A tB
A tA VA A VA
A
AA
ψ ϕ A nA a B
VA γ A nB
A Bt B
VB AB
ε A nB
O ω
O O O ω
Figura 2.4 Figura 2.5 Figura 2.6 Figura 2.7
t
a At K ⋅ AAA K A
ε= = a = ⋅ tgψ (2.7)
rA K l ⋅ OA Kl
ε = K ε ⋅ tgψ (2.7′)
ε = tgψ (2.8)

 A
2
 aA n  = OA ⋅ AAn ; AAn = AVA
A A
( )2 = K1 ⋅ v 2A = K l ⋅ a nA (2.9)
  OA K 2v rA K 2v
K 2v n n
sau a nA = ⋅ AAA , adica vectorul AAA reprezinta acceleratia a nA la scara Ka .
Kl
a A = a nA + a At (2.10)

aA = (a ) + (a )
n 2
A
t 2
A = ω 4 ⋅ l OA
2
+ ε 2 ⋅ l 2OA = l OA ⋅ ω4 + ε 2 (2.11)

a B = l OB ⋅ ω 4 + ε 2 (2.12)

a tA rA ⋅ ε ε a tB rB ⋅ ε ε
tgγ = = = = = = (2.13)
a nA rA ⋅ ω 2
ω 2
a nB rB ⋅ ω 2 ω2

AB b
VA VC a
VB n a
B c AA
C pv b B
A pa γ ⊥ AB
A
Figura 2.8 Figura 2.9 Figura 2.10 Figura 2.11
v B = v A + v BA (2.14)
v BA = ω ⋅ l AB ; v BA ⊥ AB (2.15)
3
vC = v A + v CA , iar directia vCA ⊥ AB . (2.16)
ab AB
= (2.17)
ac AC
a B = a A + a BA (2.18)
a BA = a nBA + a tBA (2.19)

a B = a A + a nBA + a tBA (2.20)

v 2BA
a nBA = = ω 2 ⋅ l AB ; a nBA AB (2.21)
l BA
a tBA = ε ⋅ l AB ; a BA
t
⊥ AB (2.22)
( )
v A = K v ⋅ p va
v B = K v ⋅ (p v b) (2.23)
v BA = K v ⋅ (ab)

Pentru determinarea acceleratiilor se considera ecuatia vectoriala a acceleratiilor conform relatiei (2.18).
ω 2 B
r
A aB
b pa
r r
a a Bt
1 a nB
α 3 r
r r a BA n1
v vA rt
O BA a BA r
aA
h

C b
r a
4 vB n r
d pv a nBA
Figura 2.12 Figura 2.13 Figura 2.14
a B = a B + a B ; a A = a A + a A ; a BA = a BA + a BA
n t n t n t (2.24)

a nB + a tB = a A + a BA
n
+ a tBA (2.25)

v 2A v2 v2
a nA = ; a nBA = BA ; a nB = B (2.26)
l1 l2 l3
r
A a a tA
r n
2 1 r a BA
r
3
r
aB ω pv vB b a nA
r
r
vB α r r aA r
O vA v BA a tBA
4
B a n1
r rn
Figura 2.15 b aB a BA
pa
Figura 2.16 Figura 2.17
( )
v BA = K v ⋅ ab ; v A = K v ⋅ p v a ( ) (2.27)

aB = a nA + a tA + a nBA + a tBA (2.28)

∑ ln = 0 (2.29)

∑ l n ⋅ e i⋅φ = 0n (2.30)

∑ (i ⋅ l n ⋅ ω n ⋅ e i⋅φ + &l n ⋅ e i⋅φ ) = 0


n n (2.31)

∑ (i ⋅ &l n ⋅ ωn ⋅ e i⋅φ + i ⋅ l n ⋅ ε n ⋅ e i⋅φ − l n ⋅ ω2n ⋅ e i⋅φ + &l&n ⋅ e i⋅φ + i ⋅ &l n ⋅ ωn ⋅ e i⋅φ ) = 0


n n n n n (2.32)

∑ (i ⋅ l n ⋅ ε n ⋅ e i⋅φ − l n ⋅ ω2n ⋅ e i⋅φ + 2 ⋅ i ⋅ &l n ⋅ ω n ⋅ e i⋅φ + &l&n ⋅ e i⋅φ ) = 0


n n n n (2.33)

l n ⋅ e i⋅φn = l n ⋅ cos φ n + i ⋅ l n ⋅ sin φ n (2.34)


O ' O + OA + AB = O ' B sau h + l1 + l 2 = x B (2.35)
l1 ⋅ cos φ1 + l 2 ⋅ cos φ 2 = x B
 (2.36)
h + l 1 ⋅ sin φ1 + l 2 ⋅ sin φ 2 = 0
l ⋅ sin φ1 + h
sin φ 2 = − 1 (2.37)
l2
 dφ1 dφ 2 dx B
− l 1 ⋅ sin φ1 ⋅ dt − l 2 ⋅ sin φ 2 ⋅ dt = dt
 (2.38)
l 1 ⋅ cos φ1 ⋅ dφ1 + l 2 ⋅ cos φ 2 ⋅ dφ 2 = 0
 dt dt
4
dφ1 dφ 2 dx B
= ω1 ; = ω 2; = υB (2.39)
dt dt dt
−l1 ⋅ ω1 ⋅ sin φ1 − l 2 ⋅ ω 2 ⋅ sin φ 2 = υ B
 (2.40)
l1 ⋅ ω1 ⋅ cos φ1 + l 2 ⋅ ω 2 ⋅ cos φ 2 = 0
l1 ⋅ cos φ1
ω 2 = − ω1⋅ (2.41)
l 2 ⋅ cos φ 2
 dϕ1 dω1 dϕ 2 dω 2 dυ B
− l1 ⋅ ω1 ⋅ cos ϕ1 ⋅ dt − l1 ⋅ sin ϕ1 ⋅ dt − l 2 ⋅ ω 2 ⋅ cos ϕ 2 ⋅ dt − l 2 ⋅ sin ϕ 2 ⋅ dt = dt
 (2.42)
− l1 ⋅ ω1 ⋅ sin ϕ1 ⋅ dϕ1 + l1 ⋅ cos ϕ1 ⋅ dω1 − l 2 ⋅ ω2 ⋅ sin ϕ 2 ⋅ dϕ 2 + l 2 ⋅ cos ϕ 2 ⋅ dω 2 = 0
 dt dt dt dt
− l1 ⋅ ω12 ⋅ cos φ1 − l 2 ⋅ ω 22 ⋅ cos φ 2 − l 2 ⋅ ε 2 ⋅ sin φ 2 = a B
 (2.43)
− l1 ⋅ ω12 ⋅ sin φ1 − l 2 ⋅ ω22 ⋅ sin φ 2 + l 2 ⋅ ε 2 ⋅ cos φ 2 = 0
l1 ⋅ ω12 ⋅ sin φ 1 + l 2 ⋅ ω22 ⋅ sin φ 2
ε2 = (2.44)
l 2 ⋅ cos φ 2
l1
sin φ 2 = − ⋅ sin φ1 (2.45)
l2
ϕ2 ϕ2
y y
A A

1 2
1
2 ϕ1 3 ω1
3 ω1 B ϕ1
B x
h

O x
O′ 4 O
4
xB xB

Figura 2.18 Figura 2.19


r r
F i = − m ⋅ a G
τi =  r r (3.1)
M i = − J G ⋅ ε

r l/2 l/2
G1 r a nG 2 ε2 C
a Gn G
r x
a nG1 G2 r
A Fi 2
B x dx
ω = ct M i2
Figura 3.1.a1 Figura 3.1.b Figura 3.2
l
2
JG = 2 ⋅ ∫ x dm
2 (3.2)
0
l
2
m′ ⋅ l3
JG = 2 ⋅ m ′ ⋅ ∫ x 2dx = 2 ⋅ m ⋅
12
(3.3)
0
r r
 Fi = dFi



m
τi 0 =  r r r (3.4)
 Mi = r × dFi


 m
r r r r r r
∫ ∫
Fi = dFi = − a ⋅ dm = − ( −ω 2 ⋅ ρ + ε × ρ) ⋅ dm
∫ (3.5)
m m m
r r r r

Fi = ω 2 ⋅ ρ ⋅ dm − ε × ρ ⋅ dm
∫ (3.6)
m m

∫ r × dFi = ∫ [(z + ρ)× (ω )]


r r r r v r r r
Mi = 2
⋅ ρ − ε × ρ ⋅ dm (3.7)
m m
r r r r r r r r r
Mi = ω 2 ⋅ z × ρ ⋅ dm − z × (ε × ρ ) ⋅ dm − ρ × (ε × ρ ) ⋅ dm
∫ ∫ ∫ (3.8)
m m m
r r r r r r
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
Mi = j ⋅ ω2 ⋅ z ⋅ x ⋅ dm − i ⋅ ω2 y ⋅ z ⋅ dm + i ⋅ ε ⋅ z ⋅ x ⋅ dm + j ⋅ ε ⋅ y ⋅ z ⋅ dm − k ⋅ ε ⋅ ρ 2 ⋅ dm
∫ (3.9)
m m m m m

5
r r r r
Mi = i ⋅ (− ω 2 ⋅ Jyz + ε ⋅ J zx ) + j ⋅ (ω2 ⋅J zx + ε ⋅ J yz ) − k ⋅ ε ⋅ J z (3.10)

r
dFi dm
x
P
r r
r r ρ r r
z ω ε
O z

y
Figura 3.3
r r r r
Mi = i ⋅ Mix + j ⋅ M iy + k ⋅ M iz (3.11)

x x x x
y y
y G y y G y
G G
y y x x
x
Rotor neechilibrat
x
Rotor echilibrat static Rotor echilibrat dinamic Rotor echilibrat static si dinamic
Figura
r 3.4
x Fie
r varianta r x
Fi Fi me
la +me
ω Tc
G1 G1 re r
r ωr z
y O ωm
r
G2 re G2 t
O
r r tp tr to
Fi Fi
r me di plan de
Fie
echilibrare
plan de die Figura 3.6
echilibrare
Figura 3.5
   2 
 J k ⋅ ω k 2 − J k ⋅ ω k1  = Wm − Wru − Wrp
2 2 2
∑  m k ⋅ vGk 2 − m k ⋅ v Gk1  +
 2 2  ∑  2 2 
(3.12)
 
v 2Gk2 ω k2 2
∑ mk ⋅
2
+ ∑ Jk ⋅
2
= Wm − Wru − Wrp (3.13)

2
ω 2k1
∑ ∑
v Gk1
mk ⋅ − Jk ⋅ = Wm − Wru − W rp (3.14)
2 2
Wm − Wrp W rp
η= = 1− (3.15)
Wm Wm

∏η i
Wru
η= = η1 ⋅ η 2 ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ηn = (3.16)
Wm
wM w1n w2n w3n wM wrn
1 2 3 n
Figura 3.7


mk
2
(
⋅ v 2Gk2 − v 2Gk1 + ) ∑ J2 ⋅ (ω k 2
k2 )
− ω2k 1 = Wm − Wr (3.17)

lk 2 ϕk 2
Wm = ∑∫ Fmk ⋅ cos α k ⋅ dl k + ∑ ∫ M mk ⋅ dϕ k (3.18)
lk 1 ϕk 1
l 'k 2 ϕ' k 2
Wr = ∑ ∫ Frk ⋅ cos α' k ⋅dl' k +∑ ∫ M rk ⋅ dϕ' k (3.19)
l ' k1 ϕ ' k1
(3.20)

Fr .red. ⋅ dl = ∑
Frk ⋅ cos α 'k ⋅dl 'k + M mk ⋅ dϕ' k (3.21)
ω
Fm .red. = ∑ Fmk ⋅ ⋅ cos α k + ∑ M mk ⋅ k
vk
(3.22)
v'B v' B
ω'
∑ Frk ⋅ v' kB ⋅ cos α' k +∑ M rk ⋅ v' Bk
v'
Fr.red. = (3.23)

6
Mm .red. ⋅ dϕ = ∑ Fmk ⋅ cos α k ⋅ dl k + ∑ M mk ⋅dϕ k (3.24)

Mr .red. ⋅ dϕ = ∑ Frk ⋅ cos α 'k dl 'k + ∑ M rk ⋅ dϕ' k (3.25)

vk ω
M m .red. = ∑ Fmk ⋅ ⋅ cos α k + ∑ M mk ⋅ k (3.26)
ω ω
ω' k
∑ Frk ⋅ ∑ M rk ⋅
v' k
M m .red. = ⋅ cos α 'k + (3.27)
ω ω
vB′ dϕ
r B
Fm red B
Mm red
B′
r r
dl Fr red
ω
A Mr red
ω
A
Figura 3.8 Figura 3.9
2 2
m red ⋅ v B ' m k ⋅ v Gk J k ⋅ ω 2k
2
= ∑ 2
+ ∑ 2
(3.28)

2 2
v  ω 
m red = ∑ m k ⋅  Gk  +
 v B' 
∑ J k ⋅  k 
 vB' 
(3.29)

2 2
J red ⋅ ω m k ⋅ v Gk J k ⋅ ω 2k
2
= ∑ 2
+ ∑ 2
(3.30)

2 2
 v Gk   ωk 
J red = ∑ m k ⋅  ω
 +

∑ J k ⋅  ω 
 (3.31)

l2
m red 2 ⋅ v 2B '2 m red1 ⋅ v 2B'1
2

2
= ∫ (Fm.red − Fr .red ) ⋅ dl (3.32)
l1

l2
2 m red1 ⋅ v 2B 1'
v B'2 =
m m.red ∫
⋅ Fred ⋅ dl +
m red2
(3.33)
l1

B r B
Fm red

B′ B B′
mred
r mred
r r
ω v B′ Jred Fr red
r A
A
A

Figura 3.10 Figura 3.11 Figura 3.12

ϕ2

∫ ω ⋅ dϕ
1
ωm = ⋅ (4.1)
∆ϕ
ϕ1

δ max − δ min
Se defineste gradul de neregularitate al mersului masinii (δ) ca fiind δ = .Uzual, gradul de neregularitate al mersului
δm
masinii are valorile: δ = 1/5…1/30 - pentru pompe; δ = 1/20…1/5 – pentru concasoare; δ = 1/50…1/30 – pentru masini-unelte; δ =
1/300…1/200 – pentru motoare electrice de curent alternativ si δ ≤ 1/200 pentru motoare de aviatie.
 δ  δ
Ca urmare, rezulta relatiile: ω max = ω m ⋅  1 +  ωmax si ω min = ωm ⋅  1 −  .
 2   2

Wm = ∫ Mm .red ⋅ dϕ (4.2)
0

Wr = ∫ M r.red ⋅ dϕ (4.3)
0

7
ω2max ω2
J red. max ⋅ − J red. min ⋅ min = ∆Wmax (4.4)
2 2
Mm red
M
Mr red

− + − + −
ω

ϕmin
ϕ

ωmax
a b c d e
O

ωm
ϕmax
ωmin

ϕ

t dt (t)
TC ∆EC

Figura 4.1

ϕ
O
a b c d e
Figura 4.2

 ω2 ω2 
∆ Wmax = J red ⋅  max − min  = J red ⋅ ω 2m ⋅ δ (4.5)
 2 2 
 
∆ Wmax
Jred = (4.6)
ω 2m ⋅ δ
Jtotal = J = Jred + J V (4.7)
∆Wmax
JV = 2 − J red (4.8)
ωm ⋅ δ
∆Wmax
JV ≅ (4.9)
ω2m ⋅ δ
G ⋅ D2
J= (4.10)
8⋅ g

M M
Fcf

C
CL
R G

ωM

(motor)

Figura 4.3

8
Ff 21
φ = arctg (5.1)
N 21
N 21
pm = ≤ pa (5.2)
Ac
N = P ⋅ cos β + Q ⋅ cos α
 (5.3)
µ ⋅ N + Q ⋅ sin α = P ⋅ sin β
sin(α + φ )
P = Pmax = Q ⋅ (5.4)
sin(β − φ )
sin(α − φ)
P = Pmin =Q⋅ (5.5)
sin(β + φ )
2 ⋅ µ ⋅ N ≥ P

  a (5.6)
µ ⋅ N ⋅ a + N ⋅ l = P ⋅  d + 2 
  
P α α=ϕ
R21 ϕ N21 α N v = ct
ϕ P ϕ Con de
1 (sanie) P
Ff 21 frecare µN

2 (ghidaj) α P
Q α β
P
Figura 5.1.a Figura 5.1.b Figura 5.1.c

F α
v = ct N N
F µ
N1 µ
2 2
ϕ µN β
l
ϕ β
Ff
A
N2
b
µN P
a L N N
2 2
d
Figura 5.2 Figura 5.3
d
D
n F
cuzinet (2)
F ω
F O2 fus (1) O2 αc
O1 F21 bH
O1
r1 ϕ 2
Fn 21 Ff 21
F21 A α
p(α)
n=0 ρ pmax
Figura 5.4 Figura 5.5
2 ⋅d + a
N = P⋅ (5.7)
2 ⋅ (l + µ ⋅ a )
P
N= (5.8)
2⋅ µ
l
µ≥ (5.9)
2 ⋅d
N N 
F = 2 ⋅  ⋅ sin α + µ ⋅ ⋅ cos α  (5.10)
2 2 
F
N= (5.11)
sin α + µ ⋅ cos α
N /2
pm = ≤ pa (5.12)
b ⋅L
µ
Ff = µ ⋅ N = ⋅ F = µc ⋅ F (5.13)
sin α + µ ⋅ cos α

9
µ π
µc = 〉 µ , µc este minim pentru α = − ϕ . (5.14)
sin α + µ cos α 2
ρ = r1 ⋅ sin ϕ ≈ r1 ⋅ tg ϕ = r1 ⋅ µ = ct. (5.15)
Mf = Ff21 ⋅ r1 = F21 ⋅ sin ϕ ⋅ r1 ≈ F ⋅ tg ϕ ⋅ r1 = F ⋅ r1 ⋅ µ (5.16)
2
 α 
p(α ) = p max ⋅ 1 −   (5.17)
α 
 c 

4  1 − ν12 1 − ν 22  2⋅ F
sin α c = ⋅ + ⋅ (5.18)
π  E1
 E 2 
 B ⋅ (D − d)
αc
  D
∫ µ ⋅ p(α ) ⋅ B ⋅ 2 ⋅ dα ⋅ 2
D
Mf = (5.19)
−αc

αc D µ ⋅ αc
Mf = µ ⋅ ⋅ F ⋅ = µ ech ⋅ F ⋅ r ), coeficientul de frecare conventional (echivalent): µ ech = . (5.20)
sin α c 2 sin α c
cuzinet (2)
ω
F r
F −π/2 F r +π/2
d

pm
B fus (1) p
α
α pmax
pm dα dα

Figura 5.6 Figura 5.7


π/ 2
d 
F= ∫ p m ⋅  ⋅ dα  ⋅ cos α ⋅ B = p m ⋅ B ⋅ d
 2 
(5.21)
−π / 2
F
pm = ≤ pa (5.22)
d⋅B
π/ 2
d  d d2
Mf = ∫ µ ⋅ p m ⋅  ⋅ dα  ⋅ B ⋅ = µ ⋅ π ⋅ p m ⋅
2  2 4
⋅B (5.23)
−π/ 2
π
Mf = ⋅µ ⋅ p m ⋅ r2 ⋅ B (5.24)
2
π
M f = ⋅ µ ⋅ F ⋅ r ≅ 1,57 ⋅ µ ⋅ Fr (5.25)
2
π/ 2
d
∫ cos
2
F = 2 ⋅ p max ⋅ ⋅B ⋅ α ⋅ dα (5.26)
2
0
2 ⋅F
pmax = ≤ pa (5.27)
π ⋅ B⋅ r
4 ⋅F
p max = ≤ pa (5.28)
π ⋅ B⋅ d
µ ⋅ B ⋅ d 2 ⋅ p max
Mf = (5.29)
2
4
M f = ⋅ µ ⋅ F ⋅ r , P = Ff ⋅ v = µ ⋅ F ⋅ v (5.30)
π
(pm ⋅ v) ≤ (p ⋅ v)admisibil, respectiv (p max ⋅ v) ≤ (p ⋅ v)admisibil
4⋅F
pm =
(
π ⋅ D 2e − D 2i
≤ pa
) (5.31)

De
2
Mf = ∫ (p m ⋅ 2πr ⋅ dr ) ⋅ µ ⋅ r
Di
(5.32)

2
3 3
1 D − Di
Mf = ⋅µ⋅F⋅ e (5.33)
3 D e2 − D 2i

10
De De
2 2
F= ∫ p ⋅ 2 πr ⋅ dr = 2π(pr) ⋅ Di∫ dr
Di
(5.34)

2 2
D − Di
F = 2 ⋅ π ⋅ (p ⋅ r ) ⋅ e (5.35)
2
F 2⋅F 2⋅ F
p= , pentru r = Di ⁄2, p max = si pentru r = D e ⁄2 p min =
π ⋅ (D e − D i ) ⋅ r π ⋅ (D e − Di ) ⋅ Di π ⋅ (D e − D i )⋅ D e
(5.36)

De De
2 2
Mf = ∫ (p ⋅ 2πr ⋅ dr )⋅ µ ⋅ r = 2π(pr) ⋅ µ ⋅ Di∫ r ⋅ dr
Di
(5.37)

2 2

M f = 2πµ ⋅ (pr)⋅
D 2e − D 2i
8
π
4
⋅ µ ⋅ (pr)⋅ D e − D i
=
2 2
( ) (5.38)

Pentru (p ⋅ r) = : M f = ⋅ µ ⋅ F ⋅ (D e + D i )
F 1
π ⋅ (D e − D i )
(5.39)
4
(pm ⋅ v) ≤ (p ⋅v)admisibil, respectiv (pmax ⋅ v) ≤ (p ⋅ v)admisibil (5.40)
F
dFf F ramura
ω pasiva
fus axial dN
α F2
(pivot) uzura
dFc
cuzinet Mt
(patina) O β roata


Di ω motoare
p

D
pm F+dF F1
vmax ramura
vmax
De activa
Figura 5.8.a Figura 5.8.b Figura 5.9
 dα
dN + dFc = (F + F + dF) ⋅ sin 2 ≅ F ⋅ dα v2
 unde: dFf = µ ⋅ dN si dFc = r ⋅ ω 2 ⋅ dm = r ⋅ 2 ⋅ r ⋅ dα ⋅ B ⋅ ρ ⋅ s , (5.41)
dFf = (F + dF − dF)⋅ cos dα ≅ dF r
 2
dFf = B ⋅ s ⋅ ρ ⋅ v 2 ⋅ dα (5.42)
dF
− µ ⋅ F = −µ ⋅ B ⋅ s ⋅ ρ ⋅ v 2 (5.43)

µ⋅α 2
F = C⋅ e + B ⋅s ⋅ρ ⋅ v (5.44)

α = 0 ⇒ F = F2 ⇒ C = F2 − B ⋅ s ⋅ ρ ⋅ v 2 (5.45)

( )
F = F2 − B ⋅ s ⋅ ρ ⋅ v 2 ⋅ e µ⋅β + B ⋅ s ⋅ ρ ⋅ v 2 (5.46)

F = (F − B ⋅ s ⋅ ρ ⋅ v )⋅ e
1 2
2 µ ⋅β
+ B ⋅ s⋅ ρ⋅ v 2 (5.47)
2 ⋅ Mt
Fu = (5.48)
D
Fu = F1 − F2 (5.49)
 µ⋅β
e
F1 = Fu ⋅ µ ⋅β + B⋅ s ⋅ ρ ⋅ v2
 e − 1
 (5.50)
F = F ⋅ 1
+ B ⋅ s ⋅ρ ⋅ v2
 2 u µ⋅β
e −1
Fu
F1 = µ ⋅β ⋅ e µ⋅β + B ⋅ s ⋅ ρ ⋅ v 2 (5.51)
e −1
dN F ⋅ dα − dFc 2 ⋅ Fu
⋅ e µ⋅β
p = σs =
dA
=
 D
B ⋅   ⋅ dα
=
B ⋅ D ⋅ e µ⋅β
− 1 ( ) (5.52)
2
2 ⋅ Fu ⋅ e µ⋅β
Pentru α = β ⇒ p max = σ s max =
( )
(5.53)
B ⋅ D ⋅ e µ⋅β − 1

11
2 ⋅ Fu
Pentru α = 0 ⇒ p max = σs max =
(
B ⋅ D ⋅ e µ ⋅β − 1 ) (5.54)

5.10.a 5.10.b 5.10.c 5.10.d 5.10.e 5.10.f 5.10.g 5.10.h 5.10.i 5.10.j
bH
π
F= ∫∫ p H ⋅ dS = ∫ p H ⋅ B ⋅ db = 2 ⋅ p H max ⋅ b H ⋅ B (5.55)
S − bH
2⋅F
p Hmax = σ H max = (5.56)
π ⋅ bH ⋅ B

4 F ⋅ ρ  1 − ν 12 1 − ν 22 
= 8 F⋅ ρ 1 1 1
bH = ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ , unde = + (5.57)
π B  E1 E2  π E ech ⋅ B ρ ρ1 ρ 2

2
E ech =
1 − ν12 1 − ν 22 (5.58)
+
E1 E2
F ⋅ E ech
σ H max = (5.59)
2 ⋅ π⋅ ρ ⋅ B
2
În cazul particular cilindru/plan, ρ 1 = R, ρ 2 → ∞, E1 = E si, ipotetic, E2 → ∞. Ca urmare, E ech =
1 −ν2
2⋅
E
F⋅R
b H = 1,076 ⋅ (5.60)
E ⋅B
F⋅ E
σ H = 0,418 ⋅ (5.61)
R ⋅B

ρ1 ρ1 F
F ω
F B
ρ1
ωr = 0
F=0 bH bH bH
ωr = 0 σH max ρ2
ρ2
σH = p Hmax
aH
ρ2 N = R =F
k bH

Figura 5.11 Figura 5.12 Figura 5.13


3 η⋅F 1 − ν 12 1 − ν 22

1 1
a H = bH = 3 ⋅ unde k= + ,η= +

(5.62)
2 k ρ1 ρ 2 E1 E2


2
3  k 
= ⋅3 ⋅
1
σ H max ⋅F (5.63)
π 2  η 
 
 ω 
Pfi = PfA + PfB = Fi ⋅ k ⋅ ω1 ⋅  1 + 2 ⋅ b  (5.64)
 ω1 

f1 = k
d D Fi
F
dei
A ωb
ω1 α
B
ω2 = 0 F3 = F⋅cos2α
Fi
Fi+1 F2 = F⋅cosα
f2 = k
Fmax = F1
Fi
Figura 5.14 Figura 5.15 Figura 5,15

12
 d   d 
Pfi = Fi ⋅ k ⋅ ω1 ⋅ 1 + 2 ⋅ ei  = Fi ⋅ k ⋅ ω1 ⋅  1 + ei  (5.65)
 2⋅ db   db 
 d   dei 
∑ M f i = k ⋅ 1 + d b  ⋅ ∑ Fi
Pfi
Mfi = = Fi ⋅ k ⋅ 1 + ei  . Momentul de frecare total M f = (5.66)
ω1  db 

∑ Fi = π ⋅ F
4
(5.67)

4  d 
Mf = ⋅ k ⋅ F ⋅  1 + ei  (5.68)
π  db 
4 d  d  2
Mf = ⋅ k ⋅ F ⋅ ⋅  1 + ei  ⋅ (5.69)
π 2  db  d
8 k  d 
µr = ⋅ ⋅  1 + ei  << µa (5.70)
π d  db 
d
Mf = µ r ⋅ F ⋅ (5.71)
2
Pfi = 2Fi ⋅ k ⋅ ω b

 dm (5.72)
ω b ⋅ d b = ω1 ⋅ 2

d
Pfi = Fi ⋅ k ⋅ ω1 ⋅ m (5.73)
db

∑ Pfi
∑ Fi
dm
Mf = = k⋅ ⋅ (5.74)
ω1 db
dm d
Mf = k ⋅ F ⋅ = µr ⋅ F ⋅ (5.75)
db 2
2 ⋅ k ⋅ dm
µr = << µa (5.76)
d ⋅ db

d d
d3 µN H
db surubul
F
F
ω1 N ψ2
ϕ′
p d3
p piulita
ψ2
ω2 = 0 D1
πd2 d2
dm b) c)
d
d2
Figura 5.17 a) Figura 5.18
Lc η
N ϕ = 6° filet ferastrau
Fc µP 80%
µN
ϕ = 12° filet triunghiular
sau trapezoidal

µ′ = µ F
d ψ2
ψ = ϕ′
Dg 40°
γ

N N′
γ Ff S autofrânare; suruburi de miscare,
suruburi de strângere; fara autofrânare (masini-unelte);
randament foarte mic randament relativ ridicat.

Figura 5.19 Figura 5.20 Figura 5.21

13
F
4⋅
z (5.77)
pm =
(
π ⋅ d 2 − D12
≤ pa
)
H = F ⋅ tg (ψ 2 + φ′) , unde ψ 2 = arc tg
p
(5.78)
π ⋅ d2

= F ⋅ 2 ⋅ tg (ψ 2 + φ′ )
d2 d
Mt1 = H ⋅ (5.79)
2 2

⋅ tg (ψ 2 − φ ′)
d2 d2
M ′t 1 = F ⋅ =F⋅ (5.80)
2 2
Punând conditia ca M′t 1 ≤ 0 , rezulta conditia de autofrânare ψ 2 ≤ φ′ (5.81)

1 S − D 3g
3
M2 = ⋅ µp ⋅ F⋅ (5.82)
3 S 2 − D 2g

S 3 − D 3g
⋅ tg (ψ 2 + φ′) + ⋅ µ p ⋅ F ⋅
d2 1
M cheie = F ⋅ (5.83)
2 3 S 2 − D 2g
M cheie
Pentru o cheie de lungime Lc rezulta forta la cheie Fcheie = .
Lc
Pentru o lungime standardizata L c = (12 L15) ⋅ d , rezulta F ≅ (60L100) ⋅ Fcheie !
Lu F⋅ p F ⋅ tg ψ 2 tg ψ 2
η= = = =
L c H ⋅ π ⋅ d 2 F ⋅ tg (ψ 2 + φ′) tg (ψ 2 + φ′) (5.84)

Punând conditia

= 0 pentru randamentul maxim ? max , rezulta ψ opt = π − φ′ ≅ 41°K 42° .
dψ 4 2
tg ψ 2 tg ψ 2 1 − tg ψ 2
2
η= = = ≤ 0,5 !
tg 2 ⋅ ψ 2 2 ⋅ tg ψ 2 2 (5.85)
1 − tg2 ψ 2
d2
M t1 ⋅ 2 ⋅ π F⋅ ⋅ tg ψ 2
2
η=
(M t1 + M 2 )⋅ 2 ⋅ π = d S3 − D3g 
sau
(5.86)
F ⋅  2 ⋅ tg (ψ 2 + φ ′) + ⋅ µ p ⋅ 2
1 
 2 3 S − Dg2 

tg ψ 2
η=
S 3 − D 3g
tg (ψ 2 + φ ′) +
2 (5.87)
3
⋅µp ⋅
(
d 2 ⋅ S 2 − D 2g )
F

ψ2

d2

Figura 5.22

⋅ tg (ψ 2 + φ r )
d2
Mt = F⋅ (5.88)
2
2⋅ k
Momentul este similar cu cel al cuplei surub–piulita cu alunecare, iar unghiul de frecare redus este φ r = arc tg .
d 2 ⋅ sin γ
În acest caz randamentul atinge valori de 80…85%, iar puterea pierduta prin frecare este de 50…100 de ori mai mica decât în cazul
suruburilor cu alunecare.

14