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Iai, 2001 Editura Ion Ionescu de la Brad

Cuvnt nainte
Obiectivul disciplinelor de limbi strine n instituiile de nvmnt superior cu profil nefilologic l constituie n majoritatea cazurilor introducerea studenilor n limbajul textelor de specialitate prin familiarizarea cu particularitile stilului tiinific, cu modalitatea de formare a vocabularului de specialitate i cu diferite tehnici de traducere care s le permit cursanilor s consulte literatura de profil n limba strin respectiv. n acord cu acest deziderat, lucrarea de fa este destinat tuturor celor ce studiaz n domeniul agriculturii, ct i celor care lucreaz deja n acest domeniu i care au nevoie de elemente de limbaj specializat n viaa lor profesional. Cursul poate fi utilizat de oricine aflat deja la un nivel mediu sau avansat de cunoatere a limbii engleze i care dorete s-i mbunteasc bagajul de cunotine de specialitate. Lucrarea este mprit n module. Fiecare modul se refer la cte o problem particular din domeniul agriculturii. Modulele sunt structurate dup o schem comun: text de specialitate explicaii la text exerciii ( teste de autoevaluare, teste de verificare a cunotinelor dobndite n modulele anterioare, exerciii libere creative ) Textele selecionate din diverse tratate, manuale, cursuri i lucrri din literatura de specialitate englez i romn, au fost organizate dup criterii ale disciplinelor de predare cu profil agricol pentru a facilita asimilarea fireasc a unor expresii i cuvinte de uz curent. Fiecare text de specialitate, pe lng cuvintele i expresiile englezeti cu echivalentele lor din limba romn este nsoit de un numr de exerciii lexico gramaticale care au drept scop fixarea elementelor de vocabular i a noiunilor de gramatic. O atenie deosebit se acord activitilor de traducere i retroversiune, considerndu se c acestea ilustraz cel mai bine competena lingvistic a cursanilor, iar exerciiile creative solicit opinii personale din partea cursanilor privind problema abordat. Autoarea



The importance of plant life on earth cannot be overemphasized. Without plants, life on earth could not exist. Directly or indirectly, plants are the primary source of food for humans and animals. Whether people eat plants or eat animals that feed on plants, plant life is vital as a food source. Plants play another essential role by producing oxygen.Without oxygen, life on earth could not exist.Plants are the major producers of oxygen on this planet. All plant life, from the smallest plankton in the ocean to the giant redwood tree, works to produce oxygen. In addition to supplying food and oxygen, plants help to keep us cool, renew the air, slow down the wind, hold soil in place, provide a home for wild life, beautify our sourroundings, perfume the air, and furnish building materials and fuel. A plant is a living organism. It is made up of different parts, each of which has a particular purpose, or specialized function. If one part of the plant is not functioning properly the whole plant will suffer. But we may cut flowers off the plant or prune the roots. Such damage is only temporary and so the plant will continue to grow. The basic parts of a plant are the root system, which is below the ground, and the shoot system above. The root of a plant has two main functions. It takes in, or absorbs, water and minerals from the soil through the root hairs, which are single cells near the tip of each root. The other main function of the root is to hold, or anchor, the plant firmly in position in the soil. The shoot system above the ground consists of the stem, the leaves, flowers and fruit. One of the functions of the stem is to support the plant. Another important function is to enable water and minerals to pass up from the roots to the leaves and flowers. Organic materials such as sugar travel

4 down the stem to the roots. The leaves grow out of the side of the stem. Their main job is to make food for the plant by the process known as photosynthesis. For this process sunlight is necessary. Water from the soil and carbon dioxide from the air are converted into sugars and other carbohydrates. During the process oxygen is formed and released into the air. The flower contains the reproductive organs of the plant. The stamens produce the male sex cells, or spermatic, which are carried in the pollen grains. The carpel produces the female sex cells, or ovules. The fruit, the ripened ovary of the flower, encloses the seeds and protects them while they are developing. The seed itself consists of an embryo and foodstore. The embryo is the part which will develop into another plant and the footsore is necessary to provide nourishment for the young plant while it is growing.


Words and Phrases to prune = a tia, a scurta (crci, ramuri) root system = sistem radicular root hairs = peri absobani (radiculari) stamen pl. stamina = stamin pollen grains = grunciori de polen root tip = vrful rdcinii leaf (pl. leaves) = frunz, foaie, foi shoot = lstar

EXERCISES SELF - EVALUATION 1. Rewrite the following sentences replacing the words printed in italics with expressions from the text which have the same meaning.

5 EXAMPLE The roots of plants take in water and minerals from the soil. The roots of plants absorb water and minerals from the soil. a) The single cells near the tip of each root increase their surface area by extending outwards from the root. b) The root holds the plant firmly in position in the soil. c) Sunlight provides the energy for the process of converting water from the soil and carbon dioxide from the air into sugars and other carbohydrates. d) While growing, the seeds are protected by the ripened ovary of the flower.

2. Complete the following text by filling in the blank spaces with the expressions given below. A dotted line .. requires a phrase to be added and a straight line _______ requires a word to be added. roots soil air made up of seed function by their roots conversion shoot system carbon dioxide ripened ovary living specialized reproductive organs orgnic materials are produced such as more fertile consists of process carbohydrates soil photosynthesis water and minerals

A plant is a living organism . different parts each of which has a _______function. The basic parts of a plant are the root system and the .. The root absorbs water and minerals from the _________.

6 The shoot system . the stem, the leaves, flowers and fruit. An important ________ of the stem is to enable . to pass up to the leaves and flowers and . such as sugar to travel down to the _________. In the leaves __________ takes place. The process results in the ________ of water from th soil and . from the air into sugars and other _________. During the _______ oxygen is formed and released into the air. The plants . are contained in the flower. The spermatia . by the stamens and the ovules are produced ________ the carpel. The fruit, the . of the flower, encloses and protects the _________.


Translate into Romanian: The function of the embryo in the seed is to develop into an adult plant. The first stage in the process whereby this is done is called germination. In this process the seed awakens from its dormant state and starts growing. The function of the flower is to bring about the reproduction of the plant. The first stage in the process whereby this is done is called pollination. In this process the pollen grains are transferred from the stamens to the stigma of the female parts. The next stage is called fertilization. In this process one of the male gametes from the pollen unites with the female gamete in the ovule.

Roots are usually underground and, therefore, are not easily visible. Roots function to anchor the plant and hold it upright. absorb water and minerals from the soil and conduct them to the stem. store large quantities of plant food. propagate or reproduce some plants.

The first three functions are essential to all plants.

7 Structure.The internal structure of a root is much like that of a stem. Older roots of shrubs and trees have phloem ( corklike bark ) on the outside, a cambium layer, and xylem ( wood ) inside, just as stems do. The phloem carries manufactured food down to the root for food and storage and the xylem carries water and minerals up to the stem. The external structure of the root is very different form that of the stem. Whereas the stem has a terminal bud which initiates new growth, roots have a root cap. Just behind the root cap are many root hairs. Side roots of increasing size form as the root grows older.The root cap produces a continous supply of new cells which rub off to lubricate a path and protect the cap and new root as the root pushes its way through the soil. The root hairs absorb moisture and minerals which are conducted to the larger roots and to the stem of the plant. In addition to their function within the plant itself, many roots are important as cash crops for food. Vegetables such as carrots, beets, radishes, and sweet potatoes are all roots. Roots also serve in the process of propagation. Type of Root System. The ease with which nursery stock is transplanted or moved depends to a great extent on the type of root system that the plant possesses. Fibrous Root System v. Tap Root System. Plants with fibrous root system are much easier to transplant than plants which have tap root systems.The tap root system has longer and fewer roots. Because of this, much of the root system is cut off when a plant is dug. The ends of the roots which are lost in the cutting contain many root hairs necessary in the absorption of water and minerals from the soil. The larger roots serve only to conduct and store water, nutrients, and food. If too many of the small roots are lost, the plant may not be able to replenish the moisture lost by the leaves, and the plant will dry out and die. Heavy pruning of the top of the plant may prevent this from happening.

EXPLANATORY NOTES Words and Phrases xylem cambium root cap = s. xilem, esut lemons = s. cambiu = s.piloriz (scufia sau caliptra )

fibrous root = s. radcin fibroas

8 taproot phloem = radcin pivotant = s. floem, esut liberian

EXERCISES SELF EVALUATION Which of the following is not a function of roots ? a) storage of food b) absorption of water c) anchoring of plants d) manufacture of food Plants are easier to transplant if they have a: a) tap root system b) large root system c) fibrous root system d) small root system The major function of root hairs is to: a) grow into larger roots b) absorb water and minerals from the soil c) protect the root as it pushes through the soil d) keep the root warm


Translate into English: Rdcina este un organ principal vegetativ al cromofitelor. Crete de obicei n sol i are ca funcii specifice fixarea plantei la substrat i absorbia din sol a apei cu srurile minerale. Pe lng

9 fuciile specifice, n rdcin au loc procese fundamentale ale vieii, cum ar fi: hrnirea, respiraia, creterea, ca i unele funcii deosebite, ca urmare a faptului c rdcina poate suferi uneori procese de metamorfozare.

Stems have two main functios: (1) the movement of materials, such as the movement of water and minerals from roots upward to the leaves, and the movement of manufactured food from the leaves down to the roots and (2) the support of the leaves and reproductive structures (flowers and fruit or seeds). Stems are also used for food storage, and for the reproduction methods which involve stem cuttings or grafting. Green stems manufacture food just as leaves do. External Stem Structure. The outside of the stem consist of lenticels,or breathing pores,bud scale scars and leaf scars.Bud scale scars indicate where a terminal bud has been located a previous year. The distance between two scars represents one year of growth.Leaf scars show where leaves were attached. Internal Stem Structure. The stem of woody plants is composed of bark called phloem and wood called xylem. Water and minerals travel up the sapwood, or xylem, and manufactured food travels down the bark, or phloem. These two layers are separated by the cambium which produces all new cells. This stem structure is typical of dicots, plants which have two seed leaves. Dicot stems may continue to grow because the cambium builds new phloem cells on the outside and new xylem cells on the inside. Some plants, such as grasses, have a different stem structure.These plants are referred to as monocots because they have only one cotyledon (seed leaf).Corn is an example of a monocot.Notice that the monocot stem has no cambium.All cells are formed in the initial stage of stem growth and merely and large to create the size of the mature stem. There is no further enlargement of stem size by formation of new cells.

10 EXPLANATORY NOTES Words and Phrases terminal bud / lateral bud = mugure terminal / mugure lateral leaf scar = s. cicatricea frunzei bark = s.scoar,coaj woody stems = tulpini lemnoase propagation = nmulire, cretere, cultivare grafting = s. altoire stock = s. (bot.) portaltoi pruning = s. tiere, scurtare (crci, ramuri)


Two main functions of stems are : a) to store food and move water up to the leaves b) movement of materials and support of plant parts c) to manufacture food and store it for future use d) to furnish food for human beings and other animals

The xylem, or wood, of a stem: a) conducts manufactured food down to the roots b) is very hard c) is green in color d) conducts water and minerals up to the leaves

11 Which of the following is not a function of roots? a) storage of food b) absorption of water c) anchoring of plants d) manufacture of food

Translate into English: Tulpina este un organ vegetativ, care ia natere din muguraul embrionului (plumula). Tuplina d natere la muguri, susine frunzele, florile i mai trziu fructele i stabilete legtura morfo-fiziologic ntre aceste organe i rdcin. esuturile produse de meristemele primare formeaz structura primar a tulpinei.

Leaves are the food factory of the plant, producing all food that is used by the plant and stored for later use by the plant or by animals. Leaves vary a great deal in shape and size.Most leaves are flat. Some, such as the leaves of pine trees, are needlelike, while others, such as onion leaves are cylindrical.The shape and size of leaves helps to identify plants. The arrangement of leaves on plants also differs. Some plants have leaves which alternate on the stem; some are positioned opposite one another.Others are whorled (arranged in a circle around the stem). External leaf structure. Leaves consist of the petiole, or leaf stalk, and the blade, a larger, usually flat part of the leaf.Notice that the leaf blade has veins and midrib.The midrib is the large center vein from which all other leaf veins extend. The veins of the leaf form its strucural framework.Most leaves have one of the forms:oval, needle, cordate, ovate, round, spatulate, lanceolate, linear, wedge shaped.Leaves have different

12 margins: entire, undulate, crenate, dentate, serrate, incised. Awareness of different leaf margins assists in plant identification. Internal leaf structure. Internally, leaves have specialized cells which perform very important tasks. The skin of the leaf, called the epidermis, is a single layer of cells. Its chief function is to protect the leaf from loss of too much moisture. There are special cells in the leaf skin known as guard cells. These cells open and close a small space or pore on the underside of the leaf called a stoma to allow the leaf to breathe and transpire, or give off moisture. In the center of the leaf are food-making cells which contain chloroooplasts. The green color of the chloroplasts, which gives green leaves their colour, comes from the chlorophyll they contain.These cells , through a process called photosynthesis, manufacture food. Food manufactured in the leaves moves downward through the stem to the roots. It is then used by the plant or stored in the stem or root in the form of sugar, starch, or protein.The leaves themselves are also used as food for various animals , including human beings.They are often the most nutritious part of the plant.


Words and Phrases

leafstalk = s. peiol blade = s. (bot.) limb vein = s. (bot.) nervur stalk / petiole = s. peiol midrib = s. nervur principal guard cell = s. celul protectoare

EXERCISES SELF EVALUATION The green color of leaves is caused by tiny particles in the food-producing cells called :

13 a) guard cells b) epidermis c) chloroplasts d) starch Green plants are able to manufacture food only in the presence of a) light b) carbon dioxide c) water d) all of these


Translate into English: Frunza este alctuit n general din trei pri componente: limb (sau lamin ), peiol, i teac.Aceast frunz, la care deosebim cele trei pri componente, se numete frunz complet; adesea, ns, lipsesc peiolul i teaca sau numai teaca, sau lipsesc limbul,i peiolul, n aceste cazuri fiind vorba de frunze incomplete.Limbul este partea turtit a frunzei, de culoare verde, strbtut de nervuri. Limbul este i partea cea mai important a frunzei, fiindc ndeplinete fotosinteza. Dup forma limbului se definete tipul de frunz.


To most people, flowers are something of beauty meant to be seen and enjoyed. Some people usually think of fruits and seeds as healthful foods. The parts that are admired and enjoyed by human beings, however , have an entirely different purpose for the plant. The beauty of the flower, for example, is necessary to attract insects. In their visits for nectar or pollen, these insects fertilize the flower by means of a process called pollination. This is the beginning of fruit and seed formation. The fruits and seeds are made attractive to animals and birds so that they are collected, eaten, and spread. This, in turn, reproduces the plant. Flowers differ in such features as size, shape, and color, but generally have the same basic parts. These basic parts are necessary for the production of seeds. A complete flower has both male and female parts and only one parent is necessary if the plant is self-fruitful, or can pollinate itself. The complete flower contains four main parts: sepals, petals, stamen, and pistil. The sepal is the green leaflike part of the flower which covers and protects the flower bud before it opens. The petals are actually leaves, but are generally known as the most striking part of the flower.The bright colors which are usually present on flowers act to attract insects for pollination. The stamens make up the male reproductive part of the flower.The stamen consists of a short stalk called a filament and a sac-like structure on top of the filament called an anther.The anther contains pollen, which is the male sex cell. The pistil, located in the center of the flower, is the female part of the flower.It produces the female sex cells, the eggs. These eggs, if fertilized, become seeds. The pistil has three main parts. These include a sticky stigma on top to catch pollen and a style, a tube which leads to the third part, the ovary. The egg cells develop in the ovary.After fertilization, the ovary grows to become a fruit or a seed coat.


Words and Phrases

peduncle = s. peduncul receptacle = s. receptacul anther = s. anter style = s.(bot.) stil ovule = s. (bot.) ovul embryo sac = sac embrionar pollination = s.polenizare cross-pollination = s.polenizare ncruciat calyx pl. calyces = s.caliciu

EXERCISES SELF EVALUATION Pollination is sexual process in which pollen is deposited on the stigma of the plant.It starts the process of fertilization and a) growth of the polen tube b) seed formation c) production of a fruit or seed coat d) all of the above The stamen is: a) the male part of the flower b) the part of the flower that produces pollen c) the part of the flower that holds the anther d) all of the above



Translate into English: O floare tipic la Angiospermae este alcatuit dintr-un internod numit peduncul, care se termin cu axul florii sau receptaculul. De la baz spre vrf, n sens centripet, pe receptacul se ntlnesc sepalele, a cror totalitate formeaz caliciul; petalele, care alctuiesc corola; staminele, care formeaz mpreun androceul i carpelele.


The formation of the seed is intimately connected with the development of the embryo, and as the latter grows within the embryo sac the integuments surrrrounding the ovule keep pace with its enlargement.When it has ceased increasing in size, the ovule begins to lose water and the outer integument especially forms a mechanically resistant and impervious layer of cells, the seed coat or testa. The considerable range of form of the mature seed coat of different plants depends on the mode of development and differentiation of these cells. The most familiar seeds are those with dry coats, usually hard and leathery. These hard, resistant coats afford protection from dessication, mechanical injury etc. The impervious testa also prevents germination from taking place too soon, so that the essential internal changes which must take place during a seeds obligatory dormancy can be completed. In addition to the changes in the ovule which lead to the formation of the seed, other parts of the flower, especially the ovary, enter a new phase of development after fertilization. The result is a structure exclusive to flowering plants, the fruit.After fertilization, the ovary enclosing the ovule becomes the fruit enclosing the seed.The biological significance of fruits is that they afford greater protection, and possibly improved nutrition, to the maturing seed, while later they provide some specialized means of dispersal for the seed. Although the simplest fruits are derived from the ovary alone, many include in their structure parts derived from the style, the receptacle, parts of the perianth, the pedicel and peduncle, or even bracts and bracteoles.Thus, a fruit may be defined as a structure developed from a flower, usually after it has been fertilized. It consists of one or more mature ovaries, together with any accessory structures derived from other floral parts, and is concerned with the protection and commonly the later dispersal of the seeds contained within it.


Words and Phrases

integument = s. tegument, nveli testa pl.testae = s.(bot.) coaja dur a unei semine dessication = deshidratare funicle = s. (bot.) funicul hilum = s. (bot.) hil aril = s. (bot.) aril

EXERCISES SELF EVALUATION The pistil is: a) the female part of the flower b) the male part of the flower c) the showy part of the flower d) the pollen-producing part of the flower When fertilized, the eggs in the ovary grow into: a) fruit b) seed cases c) seeds d) flowers



Translate into English: Dup procesul de fecundaie, n flori se produc transformri mari: unele pri ale florii se ofilesc i cad, altele ns se modific att cantitativ, ct i calitativ. Toate aceste modificri care se petrec n floare, n urma fecundaiei, constituie procesul de fructificaie sau de formare a fructului.n general staminele, petalele i sepalele se usuc i cad de pe axul floral, existnd i cazuri cnd sepalele rman pe fruct, nsoindu-l ca anexe; alteori caliciul se mrete i nvelete fructul.


The life cycle of a typical annual plant can be divided into several stages. The first stage is germination. Seeds remain dormant, or in a resting state, if they are kept cool and dry. When the amount of moisture and the temperature level are right, the seeds germinate and start growing. Certain conditions are necessary for this to happen. An essential condition is that the seeds must be alive. Sometimes seeds are dried at a temperature which is too high. This has two effects: the water content in the seeds is reduced too much, and certain essential proteins are destroyed. As a result, the seeds die. Other conditions for germination concern the amount of moisture in the soil. If dry seeds are planted in a dry soil, they will not germinate until it rains. On the other hand, if there is too much water in the soil, the seeds will not germinate either. This is because wet soils remain cold for a longer period of time than drier, well/drained soils. If the soil is too cold germination will not occur. An additional reason for seeds not germinating is that badly drained soils may lack sufficient oxygen. Dormant seeds require very little oxygen in order to stay alive, but when they start to germinate they require more. In the first stage of germination the primary root, or radicle, emerges. Then the stem pushes its way upward until it appears above the surface of the soil. At the same time the root system grows downward, and begins to spread through the soil. In the early stages of development the seedling depends entirely on the foodstore in the seed but as soon as the first leaves are produced, it is able to manufacture food for itself. The seedling begins photosynthesis.

19 Next, the plant enters the stage of rapid growth. In this stage of the life cycle, the plant begins to grow to its full size. When it is mature enough, it flowers, and when this happens pollination and fertilization are ready to take place. In the process of pollination the pollen is carried by wind or insects from the stamens to the stigma of the carpel. It germinates on the stigma and grows down the style into the ovary, where fertilization takes place. EXPLANATORY NOTES Words and Phrases dormancy = stare latent primary root = rdcin principal emerge = a iei (la iveal), a rsri seedling = rsad, puiet foodstore = rezerv de hran pollination = polenizare fertilization = fecundare stamens = stamin stigma = stigmat germination = germinare, ncolire style = stil ovary = ovar photosynthesis = fotosintez pollen grains = grunciori de polen root hair = perior absorbant stigma. pl stigmata gamete = gamet male gamete = gamet mascul ovule = ovul, gemul testa pl. testae = coaj tare a unei semine radicle = radicul plumule = tij embrionar

20 EXERCISES SELF EVALUATION Rewrite the following sentences replacing the words printed in italics with

expressions from the text which have the same meaning. a) The seed starts growing when there is enough air or water and the temperature is right. b) A seed will only germinate when there is enough air in the soil. c) Seeds which are in a resting state require very little air to remain alive. d) As soon as the stem and leaves appear above the surface of the soil, they begin to manufacture food. e) After the plant has appeared above the surface of the soil it enters the stage of life when it begins to grow to its full size. f) The process of carrying the pollen to the stigma is brought about by wind or insects. Match the names of the processes in the list on the left to the identifying descriptions of

their course of action in the list on the right.

NAME OF PROCESS a) transpiration b) germination c) pollination d) fertilization e) osmosis

DESCRIPTION OF COURSE OF ACTION i) one of the male gametes unites with the female gamete in the ovule ii) pollen grains are transferred from the stamen to the stigma of the female parts iii) water passes through the leaf cells and evaporates into the air iv) nutrients in the soil pass through the cell membranes into the root hairs v) the seed awakens from its dormant state and starts growing.


Translate into Romanian: Fertilization is the process whereby one of the male gametes from the pollen unites with the female gamete in the ovule. Firstly, the pollen carrying the male gametes germinates on the stigma. Then, one of the male gametes goes down the style into the ovary chamber. Finally, it fertilizes the female gamete in the ovule by uniting with it. The life cycle of a plant is the period of time during which the plant grows from a seed, flowers and dies. The first stage of plant growth is the germination of the seed. This forms the beginnings of the stem and root systems. As soon as the stem appears above the ground food manufacture, or photosynthesis, begins. After that, the plant enters the period of rapid growth. During this time the vegetative parts grow to full size. When the plant flowers it is ready for pollination and fertilization. During this stage, pollen is transferred from the stamens to the stigma where it germinates. Next, fruit and seeds are produces. This is followed by the decay of the vegetative parts. Finally, the seeds are dispersed by insects, animals or wind, and the plant dies. Germination is the process whereby the seed awakens from its dormant state and begins to grow. The first stage in the germination of a bean is the splitting of the testa. The radicle emerges from the testa and starts to grow downwards. Next, the plumule, which is curved to protect the growing point, begins to grow up towards the light. When the young plant breaks the soil surface, food manufacture by photosynthesis can begin. Also at this stage below the soil surface secondary roots develop. Finally, the main shoot grows upwards sprouting leaves; at the same time the root system spreads through the soil. Photosynthesis is the process whereby the plant manufactures food for itself. First of all, carbon dioxide from the air is taken in through the leaf cells. This is combined with water from the soil in the presence of sunlight. The sunlight provides the energy to bind CO2 and H2O together to form sugars and other carbohydrates. Subsequently, the carbohydrates go to the growing points in the plant, enlarging tissues. At the same time oxygen is given off as a gas. We may summarize this chemical process as follows: 6 CO2 + 6 H2O => C6H12O6 + 6 O2



The classification of plants undoubtedly goes back to very early man.He depended upon them for food, shelter, and probably clothing.He fashioned weapons from them for his protection and to capture animals for food.Possibly he classified them into groups based upon their uses, such as for food, fiber, weapons, medicineand religion. The early scholars always wrote in Latin or Greek, so naturally, when they described plants or animals, they gave them scientific Latin or Latinized Greek names..However, this way of naming plants also caused problems; the names were often long and difficult. The famous Swedish botanist, Linnaeus simplified the matter by developing the binominal (two-name) system for naming plants.He gave all plants just two Latin names as their scientific names.This system is still used today. The first name is knowm as the generic name; this is the plants group name. All plants having the same generic name are said to belong to the same genus All plants belonging to the same genus have similar characteristics and are more closely related to each other than they are to the members of any other genus.The second name is the specific name or special name. All plants with the same specific name belong to the same species. The Latin word species means kind . It is difficult to define exactly what a species is, but we can say that plants of the same species have the same characteristics and will consistently produce plants of the same type. Today, species are often subdivided into varieties. One variety of a species resembles that of another variety, but there are always one or two differences that are consistent and inherited. The generic name is usually a noun and the species name an adjective.The species name, because it is an adjective, often gives information about the plant. Sometimes, it tells us the colour of the plant (e.g. Betula alba) or gives geographical information about where a plant occurs naturally (e.g. Anemone virginiana ).

23 Related genera (plural of genus) with similar flower structures are grouped together into major units known as families. When the Latin names of plants are printed, they are expressed in italics.This is because when names and phrases are written in a language other than our own, it is conventional to print them in italics or underline them if they are typewritten or hand written. Also, by convention, the generic name is always written first and the species name last. The generic name always begins with a capital letter; the species name with a small letter. Sometimes, when a number of species all belonging to the same genus is the subject, the generic name is abbreviated and the first letter is used. Scientists who identify and classify plants are known as taxonomists. An international set of rules has been drawn up to ensure that every different species has a different binominal name and that the scientific name assigned to the plant is the oldest binominal name ever used for that plant. This international set of rules is known as the INTERNATIONAL CODE OF BOTANICAL NOMENCLATURE. The internationally accepted method of naming plants, that is the BINOMINAL SYSTEM cannot be applied arbitrarily and a precise set of rules must be followed. Thus, every plant must belong to a variety, every variety to species, every species to a genus, every genus to a tribe or family, every family to an order, every order to a class, every class to a division (phylum), each phylum to the plant kingdom. A complete categorization of common wheat, Triticum aestivum, is as follows: KingdomPlanta; Division-Spermatophyta; Class-Monocotyledonae; Order-Graminales; FamilyGramineae; Genus- Triticum; Species-aestivum.


taxonomy = taxonomie, tiina clasificrii phylum, pl. phyla = ncrengtur order = s. ordin, sistem genus, pl. genera = s. gen, clas

24 species, pl. species = s. specie; clas variety = s. varietate; soi; specie cultivar = s. cultivar; soi, hibrid, linie consangvinizat

EXERCISES SELF EVALUATION Match the terms on the left with their definitions on the right: a) a term used in classification, signifing a group of related genera b) a systematic unit including geographic races and varieties and included in a genus 3. family 4. order 5. class 6. phylum 7. kingdom 8. variety 9. cultivar c) a group of closely related species d) family and classes e) a division of a phylum and divided into orders f) a primary division in classification g) the primary division in classification h) an agricultural variety that is the product of artificial selection by human being i) a local variation in a species natural population

1. species 2. genus

Translate into English: Toate plantele cunoscute astzi n natur sunt mai mult sau mai puin nrudite ntre ele i deriv din tipuri mai vechi prin transformri nencetate pe care le-au suferit sub influena factorilor de mediu, dobndind caractere noi, diferite de ale strmoilor lor. Botanica sistematic (sistematica vegetal) este tiina care se ocup cu descierea tuturor plantelor cunoscute i clasificarea n grupuri, categorii sau uniti sistematice de diferite valori numite taxoni.


Plants can be divided into annuals, biennials and perennials according to their total length of life. ANNUALS. Typical examples are wheat, barley and oats which complete their life history in one growing season, i.e. starting from the seed, in 1 year they develop roots, stems and leaves and then produce flowers and seed before dying. BIENNIALS. These plants grow for 2 years. They spend the first year in producing roots, stems and leaves, and the following year in producing the flowering stem and seeds, after which they die. Sugar beet, turnips are typical biennials, although the farmer treats these crops as annuals, harvesting them at the end of the first year when all the foodstuff is stored up in the root. PERENNIALS. They live more than 2 years, and, once fully developed, they usually produce seeds each year. Many of the grasses and legumes are perennials. Plants are also classified as dicotyledons and monocotyledons according to the structure of the seed. DICOTYLEDONS. A good example of a dicotyledon seed is the broad bean because it is large and easy to study. If a pod of the broad bean plant is opened when it is nearly ripe it will be seen that each seed is attached to the inside of the pod by a short stalk called funicle.All the nourishment which the developing seed requires passes through the funicle from the bean plant. If a bean is soaked in water the seed coat can be removed easily and all that is left is largely made up of the embryo (germ).This consists of two seed leaves, or cotyledons, which contain the food for the young seedling.Lying between the two cotyledons is the radicle. MONOCOTYLEDONS. This class includes all the cereals and grasses and it is, therefore, very important.The wheat grain is a typical example.It is not a true seed (it should be called a single seeded fruit). The seed completely fills the whole grain, being practically united with the inside wall of the grain or fruit.This fruit wall is made up of many different layers which are separated on milling into varying degrees of fineness, e.g. bran and pollards, and these are valuable livestock feed. Most of the interior of the grain is taken by the floury endosperm.The embryo occupies the small raised area at the base. The scutellum, a shield-like structure, separates the embryo from the endosperm.The scutellum can be regarded as the cotyledon of the seed. There is only one cotyledon present and so wheat is a monocotyledon.

26 EXPLANATORY NOTES Words and Phrases pod = s. (bot.) pstaie;teac stalk = s. (bot.) lujer; tulpin funicle = s. (bot.) funicul hilum = s. (bot.) hil micropyle = s. (bot.) micropil radicle = s. (bot.) radicul plumule = s. (bot.) plumul

EXERCISES SELF EVALUATION Fiind the terms in the text above which describe the following:

1. it attaches a seed to the inside of a pod. 2. it separates the embryo from the endosperm. 3. a plant that has only one seed leaf.

Explain the differences between an annual, a biennial and a perennial..




To properly grow into profit making crops, plants require a certain environment. This environment can be divided into two parts: the underground environment in which thr roots live and grow, and the above ground environment in which the visible part of the plant exists. THE UNDERGROUND ENVIRONMENT Although some plants require a more specialized underground environment, there are certain factors that affect the growth and development of all plants. The medium ( soil or soil substitute ) in which plants are grown is a very important factor. Through their roots which anchor them in the soil, plants take in air moisture, and minerals all vital to plant life. Many times, plant food is added to the soil to encourage better growth. Soil is a residue composed of two main ingredients: mineral material and organic material. Organic material originates from dead plants and animals and materials other than this are derived from rocks of various kinds. These rocks are broken down into small particles by mechanical disintegration and chemical decomposition. This breaking down process, known as weathering, may thus be both physical and chemical. When weathering processes are largely physical by heat or wind, for instance - the composition of the soil is very similar to that of the parent rock. In arid regions weathering is mostly by physical means. But in humid regions chemical processes of weathering are equally important. In such regions rock particles are affected by water which may contain carbonic or other weak acids. These acids dissolve some of the particles in the rocks. The mineral material that is left behind is insoluble. Consequently, the insoluble mineral residues in the soils have less resemblance to the original rocks. There are larger amounts of organic matter in the soil, too.

28 The process of soil formation results in the development of the soil profile. This is made up of a succession of horizontal layers, or horizons, of varying thickness, from the surface to the parent rock. Generally speaking, there are three distinct horizons, known as A, B and C. A is the top soil, which is coarse-grained, and dark in colour because of the presence of humus. B is known as the sub-soil which contains some of the products leached, or washed, out of the horizon. The C horizon consists of parent material which has been weathered in the upper part, and unweathered rock below. Any sample of soil contains particles of different sizes. These have been divided into the following size groups: TABLE 1


Diameter (mm)

gravel coarse sand fine sand silt clay

more than 2.0 2.0 0.2 0.2 0.02 0.02 0.002 less than 0.002

Soils range from pure clays to pure sands. Most of them contain various proportions of sand, silt and clay and these varying proportions make up a soils textural class. The principle classes in order of increasing fineness of material are sand, loamy sand, loam, silt loam, silty clay loam, clay loam, silt and clay. Any soil contains both mineral and organic matter. Clay particles are the most important of the mineral particles because they are the smallest. Smaller sized particles have a greater exposed surface area than larger sized particles. The smaller the size of a particle, the greater is its reactivity. That is to say, smaller sized particles can react or combine with water, nutrients and humus more easily than larger sized particles. Thus, a clay soil is more reactive than any other type of soil.

29 Humus from decomposed organic matter is vital to a soil as it makes a heavy soil lighter. In addition, it helps to bind the mineral particles together in crumbs.

EXPLANATORY NOTES Words and Phrases weathering = alterare, ansamblu al schimrilor fizice, chimice i biologice, produse n roci sub influena agenilor atmosferici, plantelor i microorganismelor. parent rock = roc mam soil profile = profil de sol layer = strat, stratificaie coarse-grained coarse = aspru, gros, de calitate inferioar, prost grained = granulat, grunos, zgrunuros coarseness = asprime, microgranulaie leach = 1. a filtra, 2. a trata cu leie leaching = levigare, splare sand = nisip silt = nmol, ml, aluviune clay = argil, lut, hum texture = textur loam = lut, pmnt argilos, pmnt rodnic, fertil crumb = frmituri, frme, fragmente humus = humus, pmnt vegetal sandy clay = argil slab, nisipoas clay ground = sol argilos, pmnt gleic gravel = pietri prundi silty clay = argil prfoas clay loam = lut argilos silt loam = lut prfos

30 EXERCISES SELF EVALUATION Rewrite the following sentences replacing the words printed in italics with

expressions from the text which have the same meaning. a) Material other than mineral material is derived from dead plants and animals. b) Breaking down rocks into small particles is performed mostly by heat or wind in arid and semi-arid regions. c) The remains of mineral materials that cannot be dissolved in water have little similarity to the parent rocks in humid regions. d) The succession of horizontal layers in a soil are called the top soil, the subsoil and the parent material.

Translate into English : Pentru definirea texturii solului, particulele elementare de sol sunt grupate, n funcie de mrimea lor, n mai multe categorii, denumite fraciuni granulometrice. Principalele fraciuni granulometrice sunt cele de nisip, praf i argil. n funcie de textur, solurile se mpart n clase sau specii texturale, care sunt determinate de proporiile dintre fraciunile granulometrice din sol, mai exact de suprafaa specific a solului. Clasele texturale sunt denumite dup fraciunea granulometric determinant i pot fi determinate, pe baza rezultatelor analizei granulometrice, n funcie de coninutul n argil i praf al solului. Translate into Romanian: The soil system is made up of mineral particles which are mixed with decomposed organic matter. The top soil consists of this mixture, which is so vital for plant growth. Below the top soil is the sub-soil which is largely composed of mineral matter. In addition to the mineral and organic matter, called the soil solids, there are spaces between the soil particles which are taken up by water and air to make up the non-solid part of the soil. The accompanying diagram shows the volume

31 composition of a typical top soil. Amounts are approximate as the percentage of certain constituents e.g. water and air, is constantly varying. Soil solids consist mainly of particles of various sizes. All particles between 0.002 mm and 0.02 mm are silt. Particles larger than 0.02 mm are sand particles, coarse sand and fine sand. Particles smaller than silt are clay particles. Clay is able to absorb a great deal of water owing to the amount of pore space between the particles. Sand does not have this property. Therefore, a soil which contains more clay is able to hold more water than a soil with less clay. The mineral material in all soil is derived from parent material by the process of weathering which breaks down rocks into smaller particles by mechanical disintegration and chemical decomposition.


The basic definition of the word erosion is to wear away. Since the earth was first formed, there has been a continual wearing away of the surface. Many agents are responsible, but the discussion here will be limited to cultivated fields. Erosion that takes place under natural conditions (i.e. when the land surface and native vegetative cover have not been disturbed by human activities) is called natural or geological erosion. On the other hand, when timberland is cleared or grassland is broken up, processes of erosion are accelerated, and we have unnatural or soil erosion. Whenever erosion is speeded up as a result of human activities so that it removes all or part of the topsoil, we call the process soil erosion. Geological erosion is a relatively slow process under many conditions and soil formation may keep pace with the removal of the surface soil. Soil erosion, on the contrary, is very rapid when environmental factors favor erosion.



Erosion by water may be divided into four categories: splash, sheet, rill, and gully. Strictly speaking, sheet erosion refers to the quite uniform removal of soil from the surface of an area in thin layers. For sheet erosion alone to occur it is necessary that there be a smooth soil surface, which is seldom the case. Usually a soil surface that is designated smooth contains small depressions in which water will accumulate. Overflowing from these at the lowest point, the water cuts a tiny channel as it moves down the slope. Duplicated at innumerable points, this process presently creates a surface cut a multitude of very shallow trenches that are called rills. None of these may grow to appreciable size of depth, so the surface soil is rather uniformly removed from the field. Accordingly, sheet erosion and rill erosion work hand in hand; the combined process is usually called sheet erosion, as distinguished from gully formation. Although sheet erosion may pass unnoticed by the average observer, gullies attract immediate attention. They disfigure the landscape and give the impression of land neglect and soil destruction. Not only do gullies result in soil loss but also, as previously mentioned, the eroded material is usually deposited over more fertile soil at the foot of the slope. Also, fields dissected by gullies offer many problems in farming operation. Gullying proceeds by three processes: (1) waterfall erosion, (2) channel erosion, and (3) erosion caused by alternate freezing and thawing. Usually more than one process is active in a gully.

Is indirectly related to water conservation in that a lack of water leaves land barren and exposed to the wind. Wind erosion reaches its greatest extent in semiarid and arid regions. Nevertheless, much damage is caused to both crops and soils in humid areas by soil blowing, although the phenomenon is less spectacular and attracts comparatively little attention in these regions. Wind erosion can be controlled (1) if the soil particles can be built up into clusters or granules of too large a size to move in saltation; (2) if the wind velocity near the soil surface can be reduced by ridging the land, by vegetable cover, or even by developing a cloddy surface; and (3) by

33 providing strips of stubble or other vegetative cover sufficient to catch and hold the particles moving in saltation. EXPLANATORY NOTES Words and Phrases erosion = eroziune, distrugere; roadere timberland = pmnt mpdurit, pdure environmental factor = factor de mediu sheet erosion = eroziune de suprafa rill = rigol, rule splash erosion = eroziune prin mprocare trench = an, canal rill erosion = eroziune prin iroire dredge = a draga gully erosion = eroziune n adncime strip = fie smooth soil surface = suprafa neted de sol wind erosion = eroziune eolian saltation = saltaie vegetable cover = covor vegetal soil erodibility = erodabilitatea solului

EXERCISES SELF - EVALUATION Match the terms on the left with their definitions on the right: a the removal of a fairly uniform layer of soil from the land surface by runoff water.

1. rill erosion

34 2. sheet erosion b an erosion process in which numerous small channels of only several inches in depth are formed; occurs mainly on recently cultivated soils. 3. creep erosion 4. splash erosion c the spattering of small soil particles caused by the impact of raindrop on very wet soils. d slow mass movement of soil and soil material down relatively steep slopes primarily under the influence of gravity, but facilitated by saturation with water and by alternate freezing and thawing.


Translate into English: Combaterea eroziunii solului i chimizarea agriculturii reclam, de asemenea, cunoaterea amnunit a proprietilor solurilor i a rspndirii lor. Cercetrile de sol ofer datele necesare stabilirii msurilor celor mai potrivite pentru combaterea i prevenirea eroziunii, nevoii de ngrminte, n funcie de condiiile naturale i de sol, msurilor privind prevenirea i combaterea polurii solului.


One meaning of drainage is the natural ability of the soil to allow a downward movement of water. The ease with which water can pass through a soil depends on the proportions in it of coarse and fine particles such as sand and clay. The finer the particles become, the more slowly the water percolates, or passes, through the soil. So heavy soils such as clay are more impermeable than light soils.

35 When there is too much water in the soil, some of it must be drained off. This is the other meaning of drainage : the removal of excess water from the soil by ditching or tiling, (subsurface drainage). This is done in order to maintain a correct balance of air and water in the soil. Good drainage makes a soil easier to work. It also helps to increase the feeding area of the soil for the roots of plants. Another advantage is that a well-drained soil will have enough air for aerobic bacteria to break down humus and so provide food for the plant. Ditching is one of the most important techniques for draining land. Ditches can be cut at certain intervals between the crops. These will remove surface water. They should be wide and straight, with sloping sides, and they should be regularly cleaned. Another important technique is tile drainage. Porous drainage tiles may be laid in or on the land and these will help to draw off the surplus water. The distance between the drains will depend on the level of the land, the permeability of the soil, and the amount of rainfall. For very heavy soils mole drainage can be used. This technique is used where water accumulates underground. A tunnel is bored about 3 inches in diameter through the earth at a depth of about 2 feet. Signs Indicating the Necessity for Drainage : Soils have a wet and spongy surface. Plants have a withered and sickly appearance and are bleached a yellowish colour. Land dries out in patches in summer. Snow lies long on wet soils. Crops are stunted and blighted. Freshly turned furrow slices show a glazed appearance. Rushes, sedges and other water-loving plants are signes of the need for drainage.

Advantages of Drainage. The temperature of the soil is improved. The temperature of the plant rises : when there is much water present in the soil plant food is diluted and therefore the plant requires to take in much water to get the

36 necessary food. This keeps down the natural heat of the plant and heat will be lost in the process of transpiration, so retarding growth. The mechanical and physical condition of the soil is improved. Air is admitted and sucked into the soil. Drainage allows air to decompose organic matter. Drainage provides suitable conditions for useful bacteria. It gives larger crops as roots penetrate deeper and are able to obtain a greater supply of plant food. There is less disease and the quality of the crop improves. A greater number of seeds germinate because of better air and temperature conditions. A greater variety of crops can be grown. Tillage is easier since cultivations can be undertaken earlier and as result the growing season is lengthened. Manures are more effective. Good grasses appear in pasture and harmful grasses disappear. There are fewer insect pests. The health of livestock is improved

EXPLANATORY NOTES Words and Phrases soil drainage = drenaj global water-logged soil = sol saturat de ap impervious layer = strat impermeabil water table = nivelul stratului acvifer freatic humus = humus, pmnt vegetal denitrification = denitrificare tillage = lucrarea solului manure = gunoi de grajd; ngrmnt natural

37 undrained land = pmnt nedrenat tile drainage = drenaj prin drenuri ngropate n sol mole drain = dren crti open drain = dren deschis surface drainage = desecare (ndeprtarea prin canale deschise a excesului de ap de la suprafaa solului) subsurface drainage = drenaj de subsuprafa

EXERCISES SELF EVALUATION Rewrite the following sentences replacing the words printed in italics with

expressions from the text which have the same meaning. a) Water passes through the soil quickly when the ease with which water can pass through the soil is high. b) Removing excess water from the soil helps to increase the feeding area of the soil for the plant roots. c) Laying porous drainage tiles on the land helps to remove surplus surface water. d) Water from rivers, lakes or reservoirs may have to be transported along canals a long distance to the fields, whereas water from underground deposits lifted from a well may be close to the crops. e) How much water a crop requires from irrigation depends partly on the shortage of water in the soil.


Translate into Enlish : Drenajul, ca proprietate a solului, poate fi considerat, ntr-o anumit msur, ca o rezultant a proprietilor hidrofizice ale solului. Prin drenaj se nelege posibilitatea ndeprtrii excesului de ap din sol. Se deosebete drenajul extern, drenajul intern i drenajul natural sau global.

Where and when water is in short supply, irrigation is needed to make up the deficit. We should distinguish between the collection of water and its application. There are two main sources of irrigation water : surface water and ground water. The former may be obtained from rivers, lakes or reservoirs, and the latter is provided by underground water deposits. Irrigation from rivers is mainly along canals from dams which have been built across the rivers. The water collects behind the dam during the wet season. And it is applied in the fields later during the dry season. Subterranean water is obtained by digging or drilling a well. In either case it is necessary to lift the water before it can be used for irrigation. The amount of water which is required for irrigation depends on a number of factors. It depends, firstly, on the type of soil, and the deficit in the soil. By this we mean the amount of water which is needed to bring the soil to full capacity. It also depends on the type of crop, the stage of growth of the crop and the amount which it will use at the particular time. The irrigation requirement of a crop is not the same throughout its growing period. Most plants require larger quantities of water during the later stages than in the earlier stages. Choice of the various methods of applying irrigation water is influenced by : seasonal rainfall, slope and general nature of the soil surface, supply of water and how it is delivered, crop rotation, and permeability to water of the soil and subsoil. The methods of distributing water can be classified as surface, subsurface, sprinkler, and drip or trickle. Surface irrigation distributes water down rows or into basins and similar areas that are surrounded by ridges or dikes. Flooding of basins and similar areas is used for pastures, orchards, and the like. Crops commonly irrigated by furrow irrigation include row crops such as potatoes,

39 sugar beets, corn grain sorghum, cotton, vegetables, and fruit trees. Furrows are made across the field, leading down the slope. Subirrigation is irrigation by water movement upward from a free water surface some distance below the soil surface. In arid regions where almost all of the water used to grow crops is from irrigation, subirrigation would cause serious salt accumulation problems in the upper part of the soil. Subirrigation works best where natural rainfall removes any salts may that accumulate. Sprinkler irrigation. Everyone is familiar with the sprinklers used to water or irrigate lawns. Sprinkler systems are versatile and have special advantages where high infiltration rates or topography prevents proper leveling of the land for surface distribution of water. The rate of application can also be carefully controlled. Sprinkler irrigation modifies the plant environment by completely wetting the soil and leaves. Reductions in relative humidity and temperature reduce water stress in plants. The high specific heat of water makes sprinkling an effective means to reduce frost hazard. Drip irrigation is the frequent or daily application of water drops to localized areas of the soil. Only a small amount of the root zone is wetted, but roots in the localized moistened areas absorb water rapidly. A major advantage of drip irrigation is the large reduction in water used.

EXPLANATORY NOTES Words and Phrases irrigation = irigaie, irigare, udare furrow irrigation = irigare prin brazde surface irrigation = irigaie prin scurgere la suprafa sprinkler irrigation = irigaie prin aspersiune subirrigation = irigaie subteran basin/ check irrigation = irigaie prin submersiune drip irrigation = irigaie prin picurare border-strip irrigation = irigaie prin fii waterlogging = exces de umiditate.

40 EXERCISES SELF EVALUATION Complete and then translate into Romanian the following text by filling in

the blank spaces. Some of the expressions you will require are given below. A dotted line requires a phrase to be added, and a straight line ____________ requires a word. digging or drilling get rid of tube-bored must be Where and when water is in short supply ___________ is needed in order to make up for natural rainfall. There are two main sources of ___________ water: surface water and . Surface water is ____________ by the flowing waters of rivers or is ___________ from the still water of tanks, ponds or artificial ___________. Subterranean water is tapped by wells. Wells may be shallow wells which have been dug by hand or ____________ wells which have been __________. In either case water lifted before it can be used for ____________. For a given type of soil the amount of water which is required varies with the . the plant, its physiological make-up and the ____________ of the growing season. Where and when there is too much water in the soil some of it must be _________off. Thus, __________ and __________ are alike two faces of a coin. While the purpose of irrigation is to arrange for sufficient____________in the soil for satisfactory .., the ____________ of drainage is to remove ____________ moisture from the root-zone. To avoid an excess of moisture, care must be taken to .. any collection of water either above or below ground surface. There are three methods of doing _____________: by ditching, by laying .....and by using . provided obtained function lenght drained type of crop



Tillage is the practice of working the soil with implements in order to get conditions favourable to the growth of crops. It is the least lasting of soil improvements but is very important and depends on skill which comes by practice and experience. The main consideration in cultivation is the nature of the soil, its texture or structure, and whether it requires opening or consolidation. Tillages are of two classes: (1) preparing the soil for crops; (2) keeping the soil in condition after the crop has been put in. The object of the first operation is to refine and deepen the soil for root development; to cause the soil to dry out on the surface and warm it for the germination of the seed, and to increase the water-holding power of the soil. In the second case, the object of tillage is to control soil moisture, keep down the weeds and consolidate the soil. Tillages are all operations of a mechanical nature. The complete objects of tillage are: (a) the production of a suitable tilth or soil structure; (b) the control of soil moisture, aeration and temperature; (c) the destruction of weeds; (d) the destruction or control of soil pests; (e) burying or clearing rubbish and the mixing of manures in the soil. THE PRODUCTION OF TILTH. Some crops require a very fine seed bed, while others do best where there are clods. In preparing seedbeds, ploughing is usual, but not always the first operation. The plough cuts the soil into rectangular slices or furrows so that the rubbish is buried and the soil surface is exposed in a rough condition to the weather.There may be a long interval before the next operation, but later on the land is cultivated by grubber, cultivator, harrow,discs, or rollers to give the desired tilth. Very often many implements have to be used before the desired result is obtained. CONTROL OF MOISTURE,AERATION AND TEMPERATURE. Soil temperature and aeration are closely associated with soil moisture and the conditions of cultivation most suitable for supply of soil moisture are the cultivations which give most suitable conditions of air and temperature.

42 DESTRUCTION OF WEEDS. Annual weeds can be killed by completely burying or by dragging them out and leaving the roots exposed to dry weather. Most weeds are easily destroyed in the seedling stage and one object of tillage is to create soil condition which will make weed seeds germinate so that the seedlings may be destroyed by further cultivation. THE CONTROL OF SOIL PESTS. Various soil tillages may bring pests to the surface and expose them to the attack of the birds, and some tillages (e.g. rolling) may crush pests, but generally speaking, conditions of cultivation which favour the growth of healthy crops are against conditions which favour insect pests. BURYING RUBBISH AND MIXING MANURE IN THE SOIL. The plough is normally used for burying the remains of plants, rubbish and dung, and one of the chief requirements of good ploughing is that all vegetation should be covered by soil.Cultivators and harrows are often used for mixing fertilizer with the soil before the crop is sown.Sometimes drills and planting machines place the fertilizers in bands close to the crop. EXPLANATORY NOTES Words and Phrases implement = s. (agr.) unealt, obiect, articol; mijloc, instrument tillage = s. (agr.) lucrarea solului tilth = s. (agr.) condiie fizic caracteristica solului bine lucrat to puddle = vt. a bttori (solul n stare umed ) seedbed = s. pat germinativ seedling stage = n stadiu de rsad clod = s. bulgre, bucat (de pamnt sau lut) plough = s. plug ploughing = s. artur furrow = s. (agr.) brazd; cut; fga; urm de roat grubber = s. (agr.) plug de deselenit; splig pentru scosul rdcinilor cultivator = s. cultivator harrow = s. grap disc plough = plug cu discuri chisel plough = cultivator pentru pregtirea solului

43 seeding plough = plug semntoare seeding machine = semntoare to drag = v. a trage cu putere; a scoate trgnd

SELF EVALUATION Choose the proper term 1. A roller is used to break up the (clods,ridges).and compact the seedbed. 2. A (seedling,legume) is a crop sometimes used as green manure. 3. A ( roller,harrow) is an implement used to compact soil. 4. A (ridge,furrow) is a small ditch brtween two (furrows,ridges) Match the terms on the left with their definitions on the right: 1. breaking into tiny particles 2. making small hollows to catch water 3.the blowing of soil particles 4. a pile of material made by the wind 5. leaving unplanted,but cultivated 6. saving or protecting something 7. rain or snow 8. wear away 9. lack of moisture 10. planting different crops in strips side by side

a. saltatation b.fallowing c. strip farming d. pulverizing e. erode f. precipitation g. drought h. basin listing i. conservation j. drift



Translate into English: Lucrrile care se aplic solului pot fi clasificate dup mai multe criterii: a)uneltele cu care se execut; b) dup adncimea de executare a lucrrii; c) dup epoca de executare.Aratul este lucrarea principal de pregtire a solului care se aplic nainte de semnatul oricarei plante i care se execut cu plugul.Prin artur, volumul solului se mrete cu 20-30%.

Tillage equipment can be divided into two general classes, namely (1) primary tillage equipment and (2) secondary tillage equipment. In the first group are included various kinds and types of ploughs such as: trailed or mounted ploughs, reversible ploughs, moldbroad, disc and chisel ploughs. Secondary tillage equipment includes harrows (seed harrow, drag harrow, spring tooth harrow, chain harrow, disc harrow) packers, cultivators (rotary cultivators), rollers (ridged rollers, smooth rollers) , rotary hoes, and special tools for surface tillage to conserve moisture and destroy weeds. Planting equipment is considered to be any power-operated device used to place seed or plant parts in or on the soil for propagation and production of foos, fiber and feed crops. It includes row-crop planters and broadcast and drill planters. Row-crop planters may be trailing, front tractormounted and rear-tractor mounted. Equipment for placing growing plants or plant parts in the soil is called a transplanter. Cultivators are used to stir the surface of the soil at a shallow depth. The gangs of the cultivator can be equipped with various sweeps and shovels. Sprayers and dusters are used in controlling insect pest and plant diseases.There are hydraulic, hydro-pneumatic and air-plane sprayers. Fertilizing equipment includes manure spreaders, granular fertilizer distributors and equipment for applying liquid fertilizers. Harvesting equipment includes grain,corn, cotton, root, hay and forage machines.Grain harvesting is usually performed by the combined harvester-thresher or combine. There are two types of combines, the pull or tractor-drown combine and self-propelled combine.

45 The main corn harvesting machine is the corn-picker. When this machine removes the husks it is called a picker-husker. Some pickers shell the corn in the field. They are called picker-sheller. Trailing-corn combine is also used in harvesting corn. Root harvesting equipment comprises potato harvesters, sugar beet harvesters and others. Hay harvesting equipment consists of machines necessary in making hay , while forage harvesting equipment consists of machines required for placing green suculent material into silos. The principal machine required in making hay are mowers, rakes, presses, crushers and windrowers. Field forage harvesters can be divided into two general types: field chopper-harvesters and field-flail forage harvesters. Finally, crop-processing equipment used to process harvested crops includes stalk-cuttershredders, shellers, feed grinders, crop dryers and feed mixers. One of the greatest problems of farm-equipment is the transmission of power. There are several methods of transmitting power: direct drive, belts, sprocket wheels and chain, gears, shafts and universal joints, flexible shafting and power take-off shafts. The principal component parts of machines are: cam, valve, push rod, bearings, keys, bolts, screws, washers and springs.


primary tillage equipment

= maini pentru prelucrarea solului la adncime

secondary tillage equipment = maini pentru prelucrarea solului la suprafa planting equipment = maini de semnat transplanter = main de plantat sprayer = main de stropit duster = main de prfuit fertilizing equipment = main pentru aplicarea ngrmintelor manure spreader = main de mprtiat ngrminte naturale. granular-fertilizer distributor = main pentru aplicarea ngrmintelor lichide harvester = seceratoare

46 harvesting equipment = main de recoltat trailed plough = plug tractat trailing corn combine = combin pentru recoltat porumb broadcast planter = semntoare de semnat prin mprtiere picker-husker = culegtor de tiulei picker-sheller = culegtor de tiulei cu batoza hay harvesting equipment = main de recoltat fn root harvesting equipment = main pentru recoltat rdcinoase mower = cositoare rake = grebl crusher = main de strivit field forage harvester = combin pentru recoltat furaje windrower = brzdar drill planter = semntoare pentru cereale pioase drier = uscator drill = semntoare n rnduri tractor-drawn combine = combin tractat feed grinder = main pentru mcinat furaje feed mixer = amestector de furaje field-flail forage harvester = combin pentru recoltat furaje cu rotor field chopper harvester = main pentru recoltat i tocat furaje EXERCISES SELF EVALUATION Fill in the blanks with the proper terms from the list clover cover crops disk fitting mat seed bed stubble tractor weeds

47 1) On a modern farm, implements are drawn by a 2) An implement used to break up sod is a 3) The process of breaking up sod is called 4) Sod may be produced by a growth of grass or 5) The roots and the soil that clings to them are called the 6) The soil which is prepared for planting is called the 7) In addition to preparing the soil for planting,tillage turns under the was left standing when an earlier crop was cut. 8) It also turns under which have been planted to reduce erosion and leaching. 9) And it slows up the growth of undesired plants, or which the soil.


A tutor is giving some students instructions about safety. Read carefully what he says and write down the main ideas of his advice. I want to say one or two things before we go out to the farm next week. As you know, we are spending a week there so that you can get to know how to drive and use equipment such as tractors, combine harvesters, and so on. Some of what I want to say may sound obvious, but we have had some quite bad accidents in the past, and I dont want any more. Accidents on the farm are usually caused by carelessness and stupidity, and thats quite unnecessary. So first, do exactly what the demonstrator says.If he says stand back, stand back.And stand exactly where he tells you. Dont go round to a side of the machine where he cant see you.And dont touch any part of the machine untill he tells you to.That will be when the machine is off. One student lost his hand five years ago, just because he was on the wrong side of a combine and put his hand in. Next, do wear proper clothing. When you come to use the combine, youll find glasses of some kind useful to keep the dust out. Although its not absolutely necessary, you may also find gloves useful.When you first use some of these machines, youll find theyre hard on the hands. And dont bring only a smart suit.Youll be asked to clean parts of the machines, and carry out other kinds of maintenance work. You cant do that in a suit. So bring suitable clothes. Dont wear

48 clothes that blow around in the wind, though: they can get caught in the machinery and pull you into it. Now, one last thing. When youre actually driving things like tractors, dont get too excited. Drive slowly to start with. A tractor is not a racing car. Remember, it is easy to turn a tractor over, especially on a hill. And if your tractor does not have a safety cab, you can get trapped underneath it as it falls. So, drive slowly and safely.



Plant growth cannot continue if there is not a supply of minerals in a soil. The materials which are available for this purpose can be divided into two groups: the bulky, organic materials which are called manure, and the more concentrated, inorganic chemical substances which are called fertilizers. Farmyard manure, or dung, consists of a mixture of litter, solid excreta and urine. It contains three most important substances for plant materials nitrogen, phosphate and potash. Manure is added to the soil for several reasons.It improves the physical condition of the soil. It also keeps up the level of humus in the soil, and maintains the best conditions for the activities of soil organisms. Finally, it makes up for the plant nutrients which have been removed by crops or lost by leaching and soil erosion. Another kind of manure is green manure. This includes leguminous crops which grow quickly such as clover and lucerne. Such crops supply additional nitrogen as well as organic matter. A leguminous crop which is ploughed under will add as much nitrogen to the soil per acre as 3 to 10 tons of farmyard manure. Fertilizers are usually classified according to the particular food element which forms their main constituent. So, they may be grouped as nitrogenous fertilizers, phosphatic fertilizers, potassic fertilizers and so on.

49 The most commonly used fertilizer which contains nitrogen is ammonium sulphate, which is made from ammonia and sulphuric acid, and which contains 21 % nitrogen. This element encourages rapid vegetative growth and gives plants a healthy green colour. Another valuable nitrogenous fertilizer is urea, which is made from ammonia and carbon dioxide, and contains 46 % nitrogen. The most widely used phosphatic fertilizer, superphosphate, is made by treating mineral phosphate with sulphuric acid. Phosphorous stimulates the formation of a plants roots, and promotes fruit and seed production. Finally, wherever high crop yields are expected, potash is used together with nitrogen and phosphorous. Potassium makes the plant tissues stronger. This helps the plant to withstand mechanical damage such as broken branches, and torn leaves. In this way the entry of disease bearing agents, or pathogens, such as bacteria and fungi, is prevented. Potassium is important for all plants but particularly so for those that produce oil and starch or sugars. All plants are affected by the degree of acidity or alkalinity of the soil. The less the nutrient supply, the more acid the soil becomes. Because mineral salts are basic, an acid soil has a low base content. Acidity makes some elements unavailable to plants. If a soil is very acid, with a pH value of less than 5-0, lime can be added to correct this acidity. The main constituent of lime is calcium, an important plant food. The presence of lime helps to make essential elements of plant food more easily available to plants. Nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium are more easily available in a welllimed soil than in an acid soil.

EXPLANATORY NOTES Words and Phrases manure = ngrmnt natural, gunoi, blegar to manure = a ngra pmntul green manure = ngrmnt verde, ngrmnt sideral farmyard manure = gunoi de grajd, blegar dung = baleg, blegar litter = aternut de paie folosit n grajduri excreta pl. (fiziol.) = excreii

50 leguminous crop = leguminoase to plough = a ara, a spa (brazd)


SELF EVALUATION Rewrite the following using other words and construction from the text where possible.

a) A mixture of litter, solid excreta and urine improves the physical conditions of the soil and makes up for lost plant nutrients. b) The most commonly used fertilizer which contains nitrogen is made by combining ammonia with sulphuric acid. c) When applied to the soil, the product which results from treating mineral phosphate with sulphuric acid promotes the production of fruit and seeds. d) Broken branches and torn leaves allow pathogens such as bacteria and fungi to enter the plant and destroy it. e) Essential elements of plant food are not readily available in a soil with a pH value of less than 5-0. Combine each pair of sentences into a single sentence. Change the second sentence into

a relative clause and insert it into the first sentence at the point indicated by the dots. a) A leguminous crop will add as much nitrogen to the soil per acre as 3 to 10 tons of farmyard manure. A leguminous crop is ploughed under. b) Solid excreta, or faeces, is the material .. The material has passed through the animal without being digested. c) Ammonium sulphate is the most commonly used nitrogenous fertilizer. Ammonium sulphate supplies the soil with nitrogen and sulphur. d) When crude salt is purified it is called muriate of potash Muriate of potash contains 50-60 % K2O e) Another fertilizer is urea. This fertilizer contains nitrogen.

51 f) A soil .. will contain quite a high proportion of calcium. Such a soil has a pH value of 6-5 or more. g) The roots of leguminous crops such as clover bear nodules The nodules contain bacteria ..... These bacteria accumulate nitrogen from the air. h) A compost is a mixture of partly broken down material .. This material is usually made up of leaves or grass cuttings. i) Fungi . can be controlled by means of chemical substances Fungi attack the aerial parts of the crop, the leaves, stems etc. These chemical substances are known as fungicides. j) In addition to the method of disease control .. there are other methods of control Disease control attacks the disease organism. These other methods are particularly important in crop production. Complete the following text by filling in the blank spaces. Some of the expressions you

will require are given below. A dotted line .. requires a phrase to be added and a straight line ____________ requires a word. therefore essential elements soil fertility nitrogen ammonium sulphate constituent plant food calcium pectate promotes potassium deficient in plant nutrition stunted growth nutrients acid

Fertilizers are of crucial importance in maintaining and improving . by ensuring an adequate supply of plant ______________ for satisfactory plant ______________. For example, nitrogen promotes rapid _____________ and gives plants a healthy green colour. If a soil is deficient in _____________ plants will be stunted in _____________ and the leaves yellowish in colour. However, this _____________ can be corrected by adding to the soil a such as urea. To take another example: phosphorous stimulates early growth and root formation, and ___________ fruit and seed production. If there is a ____________ of ____________ in the soil, plants will be stunted in growth with bluish green leaves and poor ... development.

52 To remedy this situation a .. such as superphosphate should be applied. The most commonly used nitrogenous fertilizer is ammonium sulphate which supplies the soil with both ___________ and ____________. There are other fertilizers which contain nitrogen including urea, which is made from ammonia and carbon dioxide. _____________ contains about 46 % ____________, more than double the amount in . It is, ____________, a valuable fertilizer to use in soils which are .. nitrogen, as in the tropics, for example. One result of nutrient deficiency is an increase in soil acidity. The effect of ____________ is to make certain elements unavailable to plants. To correct this, lime should be ____________. The main _____________ of lime is calcium, itself an essential . which combines with pectin in plants to form . , an essential element of cell walls. But the main effect of lime is to make .. of plant food available to plants. Thus, _____________, phosphorous and _____________ are more easily available in a welllimed soil than in an _____________ soil.


Translate into Romanian: Compound fertilizers are multiple nutrient materials supplying two or three plant nutrients simultaneously. Mixed fertilizers containing all the three principal nutrients (N, P and K) usually meet nutrient deficiencies in a more balanced manner and require less labour to apply them than straight fertilizers used separately. A soil with / having a pH value lower than 5 would contain quite a high proportion of calcium. However, a soil with / having a pH value of 6-5 or more would be considered strongly acid. High acidity means low calcium, magnesium, and potassium, all important plant foods. A compost is a mixture of partly broken down material made up of leaves or grass cuttings. Fungi, which attack the aerial parts of the crop, the leaves, stems etc., can be controlled by means of chemical substances known as fungicides. The quantity of fertilizer or manure required for rice cultivation depends on the fertility of the soil and the nutrients released from the rotted weeds and stubble ploughed in during cultivation.



In crop production the control of weeds, diseases and pests is essential to obtain high yields. All three may be controlled by sound farm practices. These include the choice of clean seed and the growing of varieties of crop which can resist disease. They also include careful cultivation, both presowing and post-sowing, and the use of chemicals. Weeds reduce crop yields on account of the fact that they compete with crops for water, soil nutrients and light. They also make harvesting difficult. Most weeds are aggressive and invasive, they grow quickly and spread far, and so are difficult to get rid of. One recommended way of eradicating many persistent weeds is first to plough up the roots and underground parts of the plant. Then the soil may be cultivated lightly, on one or more occasions after the first ploughing. The principal reason for cultivating the soil is to kill weeds. Weeds may also be killed by means of chemicals which have the collective name of herbicides. Weed-killers are of two basic types: selective and non-selective. The former remove certain weeds from certain crops. Nonselective weed killers may be used for removing all vegetation e.g. as brush killers. They must be used extremely carefully for the simple reason that they will eradicate all plants on contact which includes the crop itself. They are usually used before sowing or before the emergence of the crop itself. Plant diseases are caused by organisms which use the crop plant as a host. These are mainly micro-organisms e.g. fungi, bacteria and viruses. These parasitic micro-organisms live off the food nutrients in the tissue cells of the plants. They frequently kill the host tissues, and either the whole plant or a part of it is damaged and killed. Micro-organisms are reproduced and spread by minute bodies such as spores, fungi and bacteria. Wind, water, diseased plants, cuttings and tubers, animals, men and insects are some of the means whereby disease is disseminated. It is very difficult to kill the fungi and bacteria, or to make the virus which is inside the host plant inactive. But the evolution of plant varieties which can resist disease has completely changed methods of disease control. A number of varieties have been evolved and are now available to farmers. So the control of plant diseases has increasingly become a matter of prevention. Fungi, which attack the aerial parts of the crop, can be controlled by means of fungicides. There are sprayed or dusted on to the plant surfaces. They should be applied before the plant is seriously damaged. Sometimes spray and dust is applied whether disease is present or not. In any case, it is necessary to examine crops frequently for signs of disease.

54 Soil-borne diseases are much more difficult to control. There are various ways of treating the soil. One way is to use chemicals that easily change into a gas or vapour, which enter the soil and kill the harmful organisms. The soil is covered with a polythene sheet and the volatile chemical is injected into the soil. After about 24 hours the sheet is removed and the soil is allowed to air for a few days before use.

EXPLANATORY NOTES Words and Phrases sowing = semnat, nsmnare pre-sowing = premergtor semnatului, nainte de semnat post-sowing = dup semnat emergence = rsrire, nmugurire bacterium, pl. bacteria = bacterie cutting = 1. buta; 2. rmie, deeuri, surcele; 3. uscturi, vreascuri fungus, pl. fungi = ciuperc, burete, mucegai to evolve = a (se) dezvolta to spray = a pulveriza, a dispersa, a mprtia, a stropi fin to dust = 1. a pulveriza; 2. a acoperi cu praf

EXERCISES SELF - EVALUATION Rewrite th following using other words and constructions from the text where possible.

a) Weeds which grow quickly and spread far are difficult to get rid of. b) A way which is frequently advised to eradicate weeds which last a long time is to plough first and then cultivate lightly.

55 c) Chemicals which remove certain weeds from certain crops are used in rice cultivation, when they are sprayed over he whole crop at low concentrations. d) Organisms which are micoscopic in size and use the crop plant as a host are frequently the cause of a whole crop being killed. e) Plant diseases are spread in a variety of ways by wind, water, animals, men and insects, for instance. f) In order to control soil-borne diseases a chemical that easily change into a gas or vapour can be injected into the soil under a polythene sheet. Write down and complete the sentences by filling in the blanks with a past participle

modifier or a present participle modifier. Form each modifier from one of the verbs in the list. fix drive draw spray cultivate lime dust operate bear compose recommend

Example: Leguminous plants have nitrogen fixing bacteria growing on their roots, which extract nitrogen from the soil air, use what they need themselves, and pass on the rest to the host plant. a) For carrying out heavy jobs which need a lot of power, such as ploughing or land reclamation, tractor .. implements are superior in every way to manually . or bullock .. implements. b) Nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium are more easily available to plants in a well- soil than in a soil which has a low pH value and is therefore acid. c) Due to the fact that grasslands have diminished in many countries in recent years fodder crops have become increasingly important, particularly for dairy cattle. d) In the case of soil-. diseases where the fungus living in the soil attacks the seeds or seedlings, soil disinfectants or sterilizers such as formaldehyde or formasan are helpful in destroying the fungus. e) One of the . methods of eradicating the paddy stem borer is dipping the seedlings in 0-1 % DDT suspension before transplanting.

56 f) As most vegetable crops are usually affected by a variety of fungus and virus diseases and a number of insect pests, it is better for the farmer to equip himself with the necessary and .. machines. g) .. manure, or compost, can be made from different sorts of waste material including padi-straw, grass clippings, sugar-cane refuse, etc.


Translate into Romanian: Plant disease may be defined as a condition in which the plant as a whole, or many part of it, does not perform its normal function. It may be brought about by a number of organisms which are all microscopic in size such as fungi, bacteria, viruses etc., or by physiological causes. These microorganisms obtain their food in two ways: by breaking down dead plants or animal remains (saprophytes) or by attacking living plants and animals (parasites). Fungi are micro-organisms producing thread-like growths known as hyphae. Fungi can be controlled by means of chemical substances known as fungicides. There are many kinds of fungicide but they are all used by spraying or dusting them on to the plant surfaces. Bacteria are microscopic cellular organisms. They occur, like fungi, both in the air and in the soil. Such preparations have proved very effective for the control of seed-borne and some soil-borne diseases. Virus diseases are usually spread by direct contact, through diseased cuttings and grafts and by insects. Virus diseases cannot be prevented or cured by chemicals. Thus, the use of disease-free seed is essential to reduce infection. To prevent the disease seeds should be planted early and close. Clean seed should be used and infected plants uprooted and burnt. It is very difficult to kill fungi and bacteria and to inactivate virus once it is inside the host plant. Hence, the control of plant disease increasingly lies in preventing infection. The development of disease resistant varieties has, however, revolutionized methods of disease control. Nowadays, varieties of most of the economic crops which are resistant to certain important diseases are available to farmers.




Just as the entire plant is influenced by the underground environment of the plant roots, the entire plant is also affected by the environment surrounding the top of the plant. The aboveground environment may be explained in terms of the factors affecting plants. These include: (1) temperature, (2) light, (3) humidity, (4) plant diseases, (5) insects, and (6) gases or particles in the air. Temperature The temperature of the air has one of the strongest effects on plant growth. Some plants, such as lettuce, cabbage grow best in cool temperatures. Others, such as corn, beans, and tomatoes, prefer hot weather. There are temperatures above which all plant growth stops. At the other extreme, temperatures near and below freezing also stop plant growth and, in fact, kill tender crops. Generally the plant growth rate increases as temperature increases up to about 90 0 F. This varies, but is a good general rule, providing that moisture is available to the plant and wilting does not occur. Light Light must be present before plants can manufacture food. No green plant can exist for very long without light, whether that source is sunlight or light from an artificial source. Plants vary in the amount of light they require for best growth. Some plants prefer full sunlight; others prefer varying degrees of shade. Light affects plants in other ways. Some plants, such as chrysanthemum, bloom only when the days begin to shorten. (Long nights are necessary for flower buds to form). This response to different periods of day and night is called photoperiodism. Flowering is one way in which plants react to varying periods of light and dark. Plants may be classified in three groups according to this flowering reaction. Short day plants, such as chrysanthemum, flower when days are short and nights are long. Long day plants, such as lettuce,

58 flower when days are long and nights are short. Indifferent plants are plants that do not depend upon certain periods of light or darkness to flower. Plants grow toward their source of light because the plant stem produces more greowth hormones on the shady side, causing the stem on that side to grow to a greater length. Humidity Most plants are not affected drastically by a minor change in humidity, the moisture level of air. Most plants grow best in the 40 to 80 percent relative humidity range. Relative humidity is the amount of moisture in the air as compared to the percentage of moisture that the air could hold at the same temperature if it were completely satureted Some plants are more sensitive to humidity than others. Provided that the roots are able to replenish moisture lost through plant leaves as fast as it is lost and that the plants do not wilt, low humidity is not a great problem for most crops.When the humidity is very high (8o to 100 percent relative humidity), other problems may arise. For example, high humidity may cause the spread of fungus diseases. Plant diseases and insects Any time a plant is suffering from disease or insect damage, production is reduced. The amount of reduction depends on how severe the damage is and what percentage or part of the plant is able for producing food, the more leaves that are lost, the more severely total production is reduced. Some diseases and insect damage may be prevented by the use of varieties of plants that are resistant to disease and/or insects, or by crop rotation or chemical sprays. Gases and air particles Carbon dioxide is vital to plants for the production of food. There is rarely a severe enough shortage of carbon dioxide to cause damage to plants. However, greenhouse operators find that by adding carbon dioxide to the air, the growth rate of certain crops may be increased enough to more than pay for the added cost of the carbon dioxide. Other growth-restricting factors such as lack of water are usually more important to outside crops and therefore given more consideration. EXPLANATORY NOTES Words and Phrases crop rotation = s. ( agr. ) asolament to wilt = vt. a se veteji, a se ofili

59 EXERCISES SELF - EVALUATION As the outside temperature increases, plant growth normally b) increases if moisture is available c) decreases because plants become too hot d) decreases because the plant cannot receive moisture fast enough e) increases because humidity always increases with the temperature Green plants cannot live without light because a) it is necessary for the manufacture of food b) they need light to breath c) light helps to warm them to the optimum temperature for growth d) none of the above


Translate into Romanian: Global warming is an environmental problem affected by and felt by all countries. Much of the increased buildup of carbon dioxide and other gases is the result of fossil-fuel combustion in developed countries, but burning of forests is also a major cause. As carbon dioxide and other gases accumulate in the atmosphere, they may trap heat, creating the so-called greenhouse effect. If world temperature rise, average sea level may rise, thus threatening coastal lands.Violent storms, monsoons, droughts, floods,and generally increased weather variability are likely.While a warmer world is not necessarily less favorable to agriculture, regional impacts are harder to predict. And global warming could be very hard on certain animal species because their ecosystem may shift while the property-lime boundaries of their preserves do not.



The terms used in a discussion of agriculture become more complex as we begin to realize the many relations that are involved in a field of production that is absolutely necessary to everyone. Sound environmental management is essential for sustained agricultural development.Yet environmental degradation is evident throughout the developing world. Soil erosion, siltatation of rivers and reservoirs, flooding, overgrazing, poor cropping practices, desertification, salinity and waterlogging, deforestation, energy depletion, loss of biodiversity, and chemical pollution have become major problems. Soil erosion is slowly undermining agricultural productivity in many parts of the world. The extent of the world erosion problem is very difficult to assess because few nations have systematically surveyed the condition of their soil resources.Nevertheless, the amount of agricultural land now being retired due to soil erosion is estimated to be at least 20 million hectares per year.The effects on productivity are potentially serious.Eroded soils typically are at least twice as rich in nutrients and organic matter as the soil left behind.Soil nutrient losses can be partially replaced by increased use of chemical fertilizers, but only up to a point, and fertilizer can be expensive. At any rate, the yields with fertilizers are lower than they would be in the absence of erosion, so that erosion reduces productivity below its potential. Desertification involves the depletion of vegetative cover, exposure of the soil surface to wind and water erosion, and reduction of the soil organic matter, soil structure, and water-holding capacity.Intensive grazing, particularly during drought years, reduces vegetative cover; the loss of vegetation reduces organic matter in the soil and thus changes soil structure.Moderate desertification may cause a 25 percent loss of productivity while severe desertification can reduce productivity by 5o percent or more. Deforestation creates environmental problems on land and in the air.Forest play a vital role providing food, fuel, medicine, fodder for livestock, and building material.They provide a home for innumerable and diverse plant and animal species.They protect the soil, recycle moisture, and reduce carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.But forests are being cleared at an alarming rate throughout the world.Every year more than 11 million hectares are cleared, and the rate of cutting is increasing. Chemical pollution.The use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers has contaminated the land and water in many countries, damaging the health of producers and consumers, stimulating the emergence of pests resistant to pesticides, destroying the natural enemies of pests,and reducing fish

61 populations or rendering them unsafe for human consumption.Acute pesticide poisonings are common, and little is known about potential long-term health effects.



Answer the following questions: 1.Why are people so interested in environmental protection? 2.How does peoples health and life depend on the environment? 3.Who needs protection nowadays?


Environmental degradation can result from physical, economic, and institutional factors. Many environmental problems are interrelated; for example, deforestation, erosion and siltation of rivers and reservoirs are all linked. Natural resource degradation usually has both direct and indirect causes. For example, desertification can directly result from overgrazing and poor cropping practices, but indirectly result from poverty and population growth.Understanding the true causes of environmental degradation requires a searching for and analysis of complex direct and indirect physical, economic,and institutional linkages. Physical causes of natural resource degradation. Physical or technical causes of natural resource degradation are often the most visible and direct, even though a series of complex linkages may be involved.Land clearing for timber, fuelwood, cattle ranching, or farming causes deforestation.Deforestation results in loss of biodiversity and soil erosion.If the area is semi-arid, loss of forests can contribute to desertification. Desertification can also result from overgrazing, which itself is caused by too many cattle eating grass in an area subjected to dry spells or droughts.Many other examples of physical causes of natural resource degradation can be cited.

62 It is important to identify physical causes of environmental problems, but it is even more important to identify the underlying economic and institutional causes including social, cultural, and policy-related causes. Economic causes of natural resource degradation. Poverty and environmental degradation go hand in hand.Poverty drives people to farm marginal lands intensively, to seek fuelwood relentlessly, and to follow other agricultural practices that produce food at the potential sacrifice of future production. Poverty reinforces population growth, which is a major cause of deforestation, overgrazing, and farming on steep slopes,drylands,and flood plains. Institutional causes of natural resource degradation. A major cause of environmental degradation is institutional failure, both private and public.Institutions are rules of behavior that affect private incentives. Existing social structures and local customs may not be adequate to preserve the environment as population growth and economic development proceed. Poverty, high rates of return to capital, debt problems, rapid population growth, and misguided public policies conspire against solutions. Environmental problems are interrelated,and understanding their causes requires sorting out complex physical,economic,and institutional linkages. Technical solutions are needed for each of these problems, but economic and institutional changrs must provide the incentives for behavioral change. As incomes grow, populatio pressures are reduced, and the demand for environmental protection increases. Economic development means more resources in the long run for addressing environmental problems.Changes in taxes,subsidies, regulations, and other policies can influence local incentives for conservation. Balancing benefits with costs, obtaining local input in the decision making process, and compensating losers are needed for effective solutions to local and global environmental problems. Because transactions costs must be reduced for natural resource conservation to occur, information flows must be improved and human capital must be developed. Education also becomes vitally important. Thus , focusing on communications infrastructure and human-capital development are two of the keys to environmental improvement. EXPLANATORY NOTES policy to evolve = (1) a plan of action; (2) a statement of aims;(3) a document which contains a contract of insurance = to develop gradually and naturally

63 incentive output infrastructure = incitement (to action,to do ) provocation, motive, payment or concession to stimulate greater output by workers = (1) what is made, production; (2) information from a computer = all the systems which support a countrys industry and economy, e.g. road,rail, post and airway systems, factory, hospital,housing and education systems; radio, television and telephone systems; water,gas and electric systems sustainable development = development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of the future generations to meet their own needs.



Are the poorest countries the most vulnerable to environmental degradation? Why, or why not?

Translate into Romanian: The only way to understand our new role as a co-arhitect of nature is to see ourselves as part of a complex system that does not operate according to the same simple rules of cause and effect we are used to. The problem is not our effect on the environment so much as our relationship with the environment. As a result, any solution to the problem will require a careful assessment of that relationship as well as the complex interrelationship among factors within civilization and between them and the major natural components of the earths ecological system. (Adapted fromEarth in the Balance: Ecology and the Human Spirit by Al Gore 1992, page 34)




The ability to compose business correspondence, although a rare marketable skill, is not an unattainable one. It is not a skill one is born with. People learn how to write, just as they learn how to read, to type or to operate computers. But, just like learning to type, learning to write takes work and practice. One gets better at it the more one writes. Of all the different kinds of letters, perhaps none are more important for your personal career than those letters you write to apply for a job. Your curriculum vitae (or resume in American English), and accompaning letter of application, if well planned and written, can do much to help you secure the job of your choice.

The curriculum vitae also called resume or data sheet is an outline of all you have to offer a prospective employer. It is a presentation of your qualifications, your background, and your experiences, arranged in such a way as to convince a busines sperson to grant you an interview. It must look professional and exemplify those traits you want the employer to believe you possess It must be typed on business-size band.

65 It must have overall neat appearance: margins should be wide and balanced. Headings should stand out and should be parallel. Corrections should be invisible: the finished product must be perfect. The information contained on your CV must be accurate, expressed in short phrases, rather than whole sentences, and complete. It should consist of facts. Nowadays, it is preferable to keep a resume to one page. This means that you must be efficient in selecting the facts to include and clever in arranging them. In making these decisions, keep in mind the specific job for which you are applying. A curriculum vitae must be factual, objective and brief and it usually contains the following sections: Personal data: name, address, date and place of birth, sex, marital Employment objective: many career conselors recommend that this be status,number of children, nationality. included and listed first, immediately after your name and address. Mentioning a clearly defined job goal creates the favorable impression that you are a well-directed, motivated individual. Education: list, in reverse chronological order, the schools you have Work experience: each job experience should be listed ( again, with the most attended, with names, dates of attendance, and degrees or diplomas awarded. recent job first ) with your position or title, employers name and address, dates of employment, and a brief description of your responsibilities. Extracurricular activities and Special skills: list anything that might help you to get the job, any facts that dont fit under Education or Work Experience, but which demonstrate an important aspect of your value to an employer (e.g. computer skills, command of foreign laguages, speed in taking decisions, skills in using high-tech office tools, communication skills, etc.). References: The last section of your CV is a list of those people willing to vouch for your ability and experience. Former employers and teachers (especially teachers of job- related courses) are the best references. Each reference should be listed by name, position or title, business address and telephone number. A minimum of three names is recommended. You need not use all of these sections; use ,of course only those that are most relevant. Also, the order in which you list the categories is flexible. You may list your strongest sections first, or you may list first the section that is most relevant to the job in question.

66 Some companies send application forms which contain more or less the same information as a CV. In that case it is not necessary to send a separate CV. Model of CURRICULUM VITAE

Personal data

First name: Cristian Surname / Family name: Andone Date of birth: Place of birth: .. Marital status: .. Nationality: Romanian Home address: . Phone No.: ... Business address: Romanian Bank for Development, IT Department Phone No.: Employment objective

Feeling capable of assuming more responsibility in an emerging market economy, I would like the challenge of applying new concepts in real life. Education Banking College of the Romanian Banking Institute graduated in 1997, specialised in banking 1995-1996 Bucharest, one week specialised courses on different banking matters run within the Training Center of the Romanian Banking Institute (RBI). March-April 1996: a three week Fulbright scholarship in Denver-Colorado. Work Experience: bank clerk for the Bancoop (1994-1996 - computer assisted accountant for BRD (up to now).

67 Present position

Head of the Computer Assisted Accountancy Unit of the IT Department, Romanian Bank for Development. Special skills computer skills command of English, French, German speed in taking decisions communication skills Other personal details I am a hard working person I enjoy team work I never need an extra day off Date: 14th of September 1999 Cristian Andone

The purpose of a letter of application is to attract an employers attention and persuade him or her to grant you an interview. To do this, the letter presents what you can offer the employer, rather than what you want from the job. Like a CV, a letter of application is a sample of your work, and it is, as well, an opportunity to demonstrate, not just talk about, your skills and personality. Because a letter of application must sell your qualifications, it must do more than simply restate your CV. It should state explicitly how your background relates to the specific job and it

68 should emphazise your strongest and most pertinent characteristics. The letter should demonstrate that you know both yourself and the company. When writing a letter of application, keep in mind the following principles: start by attracting attention continue by describing your qualifications assure the employer that you are the person for the job conclude by requesting an interview A complete application should contain both a letter of application and a CV. It is always most professional to include both.


----------------------Street ---------------------------Phone:-----------------------Mrs. Lesly Quirk Information Engineering Group Ltd. Lloyd House 22 Lloyd Street Manchester M2 5WA Dear Mrs. Quirk, I would like to apply for-----------------------------------------

advertised in -----------------------------------------As you can see -------------------------I have had--------------

69 I enclose --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------and I will be available ----------------------------------I will be free ------------------------------------------

Yours sincerely,

EXPLANATORY NOTES Words and Phrases: application = a request for something, e.g. a job, a place in a college. application form = a document which is filled and signed by a person who is applying for something, e.g. a job, a passport, a driving license applicant = a person who puts in an application for something. asset = something that is owned by a person or a company, such as money, a building, a car. to asses = to judge the quality or worth of ( a person or thing ) grant = a gift of money, e.g. from the government especially for education to advertise = to make ( something, usually goods or services) known to companies or the general public e.g. by means of newspaper, magazines, posters, cinema, television or radio. advertisment = a notice of something which is being advertised vacancy = the state of being vacant, a post which is vacant consumer market = all the people who buy to satisfy their own needs or those of their families. cost effectiveness = is a method etc., giving value for money, often in comparison with something else, e.g. spending money on advertising in newspaper instead of television.



1. Read the following advertisment and write your CV and a letter of application for the position mentioned. Before writing them have a look at the explanatory notes above:



MONSATO has a vacancy in its fast growing Agricultural Products Company, for a MARKET RESEARCH SPECALIST (M/F) with responsibility for a selection of European countries. The position is based at our European Headquarters in Brussels and reports to the Market Research Mgr, Europe. The ideal candidate will be a university graduate, preferably with a degree in agricultural sciences or economics and have three to five years experience in the consumer market research area. Experience in advertising research as well as acquaintance with basic operations research would be assets. Frequent travel will be called for, and fluency in English as well as French and/or German is useful. The position holds responsibility for quality, methodology, cost effectiveness analysis and impact of market research projects in Europe. Opportunities for career growth associated with this appointment are exceptionally good. A competitive salary is offered and overall conditions are in line with what is expected of a major international company. Application in confidence should be addressed to L.Borrill Manager, Personnel at Monsato Europe S.A., avenue de Tervuren 270-272 at 1150 Brussels.



A company is also called a firm or a business. While it is producing goods or trading, it is said to be business. A firm which is just starting up is going into business and a company which stops operating goes out of business. If a company gets bigger, it expands. The expansion or a firm means it can produce more goods or sell more products. A manufacturing company produces goods. The goods it makes are its products. When a manufacturing company expands, it usually increases production. If one year it produces a hundred tonnes and the next year it produces a hundred and ten tonnes, it has increased production by ten percent. A company which sells goods in large quantities (in bulk) is called a wholesale distributor (or wholesaler). A company or person buying goods in bulk and selling them in small quantities is a retailer. Most local shops are retailers and sell goods retail. Two or more companies which sell or manufacture the same product are competitors. They are in competition and they compete for customers. It is important to keep ahead of competition by selling at competitive prices. If one company has an advantage over its competitors, it gives them an edge on the market. An area where there is a demand for certain goods is called a market. A company which markets (sells) goods locally caters for the local market. A company which sells goods abroad is an exporter. An export company sells goods on the international (or overseas) market. A company which starts selling goods overseas is said to go into exporting (or to go into the export business). The money needed to start a business is called capital. If a person does not have enough capital he may borrow some from the bank in the form of a loan or an overdraft. Before the bank will give him a loan he must put up some security (such as his house) in case he cannot pay back the money. Security is also called collateral. If a business owned by one man (a sole trader or

72 proprietor) runs into trouble, the owner is liable to pay all the debts to his creditors, even if he has to sell his private possessions. A sole trader is personally liable to his creditors. Sometimes two or more people own and run a business. This is called a partnership. People who invest money in a business are called investors or backers. The backers in a partnership are all partners and owners. Usually all the partners have personal unlimited liability for debts to creditors. A partner who invests money in a partnership but who does not run the business is called a sleeping partner. All the investors in a limited company have limited liability. Investment in a Ltd. is in the form of shares. Everyone who buys shares in the company is a shareholder. The liability of each shareholder is limited to the amount of his investment. If a person has shares in a company, he is said to have stake or holding in the company. If he holds 20 % of the shares, he has a 20 % stake. If a shareholder hs more than 50 holding, he is a majority shareholder and he has a majority for controlling interest in the company. Capital which is borrowed is called loan capital. Capital obtained from investment is called share capital or equity capital. The ratio between the loan capital and the equity capital determines whether a company has a high gearing or a low gearing. A company which is highly geared has a high proportion of loan capital. A company which is low geared has proportionately more equity capital.

EXPLANATORY NOTES Words and Phrases to go into business = a se lansa n afaceri to run a business = a conduce o afacere to go out of business = a se retrage dintr-o afacere wholesale = the sale of goods in large amounts as to retailers rather than the consumers directly (opposed to retail) s. = vnzare angro wholesaler = angrosist retail = the sale of goods to ultimate consumers, usually in small quantities to sell at retail = a vinde cu amnuntul / cu bucata to sell in bulk = a vinde cu ridicata

73 retailer = negustor detailist (cu bucata) to compete (with, for) = a se lua la ntrecere competitor = concurent, rival, competitor overdraft = the amount of money owed to a bank by a person, usually an amount agreed by the bank and the customer to cater = a procura, a deservi caterer = furnizor, persoan care aprovizioneaz liability = money owed, debts or pecuniary obligations = rspundere, responsabilitate, garanie barker = a person or organisation that supports a bussines, idea with money 1. susintor, sprijinitor, adept; 2. girant sleeping partner = comanditar share = one of the equal parts into which the money (capital) needed for starting or running a company is divided = participare, aciune shareholder = a holder or owner of shares, especially in a company or corporation = acionar to hold shares in a company = a fi acionar al unei societi holding company = a company which controls one or more companies (by owning more than half the ordinary shares in them) loan holder = creditor ipotecar equity capital = capital propriu gearing = the relationship between the value of a companys fixed interest loan capital and its ordinary shares. If the amount of these loans is greater than the value of the ordinary shares,the company is said to be highly-geared. If less, it is low-geared.

74 EXERCISES SELF EVALUATION Match the following: a. utility b. pecuniary obligations c. owner of shares d. to sell directly at the consumer e the sale of goods in large amounts f. the sale of goods to ultimate consumers, usually in small quantities 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. a. b. c. d. e. f.

1. shareholder 2. retail 3. to sell at retail 4. electric light system 5. liability 6. wholesale


Translate into Romanian: Winners of the future will be those who can best understand the environment in which they operate and who have the ability to exploit changing market conditions by anticipating correctly future trends and demands. They will be those organisations which anticipate the future by understanding the present and which are adept at managing the process of change.

75 In modern business, information is vital to decision-making. The quality of any decision depend on the relevance, accuracy and timeliness of the information available. Paraphrasing the saying Knowledge is power, today business world steps forward and says: Information is power. Information is the essential word in a business environment and the key to progress. These are only a few reasons for which one should sense the importance of both professionalism and knowledge/information as key features a person or a business taken as a whole is supposed to possess in the business world of the future. (According to: The Times and Business Planning, by Bill Richardson, Roy Richardson, 1992, page 122)

The best way of classifying businesses is according to the business ownership. The most common forms of business ownership are: sole proprietorship; partnership; corporation.

Each form of ownership has a characteristic internal structure, legal status, size, and field to which it is best suited. Each has key advantages and disadvantages and offers the employees a distinctive working environment with its own risks and rewards. A sole proprietorship is a business owned and usually operated by a single individual. It is the easiest form of business to start with limited funds. As a sole proprietor, you work for yourself, you are the only one who decides when to work, how many hours a day, whom to hire, in a word you are independent. But you also have unlimited liability and restricted financial resources. A proprietorship has a limited life. When the proprietor dies, the business often dies, too. A proprietor who wants to make sure his business will grow and continue without him, generally forms a partnership or merges with a larger business. A partnership is an unincorporated business owned and operated by two or more individuals under a voluntary legal association. There are general partnerships, in which all partners

76 are legally equal and are liable for businesss debts, and limited partnerships, in which one or more people act as general partners, the other partners are passive investors whose liability is limited to the amount of their capital contribution. A partnership has an increased capital and credit sources, greater profit potential, unlimited life span; but the general partners have an unlimited liability, they might have management problems, etc. Thats why, many professionals (such as doctors, accountants, lawyers) prefer establishing corporation to partnerships. A corporation is a legally chartered enterprise with most of the legal rights of a person, including the right to conduct a business, to own and sell property, to borrow money and to sue or be sued. There are different types of corporations: public corporations (that is, companies owned by large numbers of public investors; these investors buy stock on the open market, thereby providing public corporations with large amounts of permanent capital; in return, the shareholders receive the chance to share in the profits if the corporation succeeds); private corporations (corporations whose stock is not available to the general public; they withhold their stock from public sale, preferring to finance any expansion out of their own earnings or to borrow from some other source); nonprofit corporations (are incorporated institutions whose owners have limited liability and that exist to provide a social service rather than to make a profit); etc. (Adapted from Business Today, by David J.Rackman & co., 1990, p.39)

EXPLANATORY NOTES Words and Phrases proprietor = an owner, especially of a business liability investor interest to sue = (1) debit; sum of money that has to be paid (2) the state of being legally responsible for loss, damage, a debt,etc. = a person who puts money into a company, or who buys shares to make a profit, or who paid money on deposit at a bank to earn interest = money paid to a lender of cash for the use of it. = to bring a claim against a person in a court of law to charter = to hire (a ship, a plane,etc.) for a special purpose

77 EXERCISES SELF EVALUATION Complete the following sentences: 1. employees a. a family b. an under-aged person c. just one person 2. Shareholders are . of a corporation. a. the employees b. part of the managerial staff c. the owners 3. A partnership is a . association of two or more individuals as coA sole proprietorship is a business owned by , although it may have many

owners of a business for profit a. loyal b. legal c. lawyer 4. is benefit of sole proprietorships. a. Secretary b. Secret c. Secrecy.



Translate into Romanian: The economies of eastern Europe have been transformed during the 1990s. Market-oriented systems have replaced the old command economies. In the most countries of the region, more than half of GDP is now generated by the private sector. The governments in the bulk of the region have comprehensively liberalised prices, external trade and currency arrangements, and privatised smallscale economic units. It has proved essential that these should have been the first areas of change. Many have also privatised a substantial share of their larger enterprises. All transition countries also still face other substantial challenges of reform for example, in the areas of banking supervision, the development of banking skills, capital market development, competition policy, labour market regulation, social security, secured transactions and broad areas of the legal structure. The ownership transformation has in some places been focused on industry and services, while leaving the organisational structure in agriculture largely unchanged. Some key prices, notably those for energy and housing, are still centrally controlled in many countries at levels that fail to cover production costs (in the case of energy) or clear the market (in the case of housing). Despite impressive advances in market-oriented reform, further major challenges lie ahead in much of the region, including in those countries that have moved the furthest in their marketoriented transition, such as those that have become members of the NATO and are prospective members of the European Union. (Slightly adapted from Transition Report 1996, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Royal Print Limited London)

Put the verbs in brackets into the right tense in the text below: Romanian firmly (express) . its option for integration into the European

Union and (file) an official application for accession to E.U. on June 22, 1995. This accession (become) . a nation strategic objective toward which the priorities and aspirations of all the countrys social and political forces regarding Romanias destiny are converging.




( modulele 1 4 )

Rezolvai testele de la urmtoarele pagini: pag. 3, pag. 5, pag. 8, pag. 10, pag. 13, pag. 15, pag. 17, pag. 18, pag. 21, pag. 23, pag. 27, pag. 31, pag. 34, pag. 35, pag. 37, pag. 41, pag. 44


( modulele 5 8 )

Rezolvai testele de la urmtoarele pagini: pag. 47, pag. 48, pag. 49, pag. 51, pag. 52, pag. 53, pag. 56, pag. 58, pag. 60, pag. 66, pag. 71, pag. 75


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Dicionar englez romn, Ed. Acad. Romn, 1974 Dicionar romn englez, Ed. tiinific, Bucureti, 1973 Dicionar agricol n opt limbi, Praga, 1970 Dicionar de tiina solului, Ed. tiinific i enciclopedic, Bucureti,1977 Dicionar de economie romn englez i englez romn, Ed. Niculescu S.R.L., Bucureti,1997 The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English, Oxford, 1964 Collins Business English Dictionary, London 1989


CUPRINS MODULE 1 .. 3 THE PARTS OF A PLANT AND THEIR FUNCTIONS 3 Exercises 5 ROOTS .. 6 Exercises .... 8 STEMS .. 9 Exercises 10 LEAVES 11 Exercises 12 FLOWERS . 14 Exercises 15 SEEDS AND FRUITS ... 16 Exercises 17 THE LIFE CYCLE OF A PLANT 18 Exercises 20 MODULE 2 .. 22 PLANT CLASSIFICATION . 22 Exercises 24 PLANT GROUPS .. 25 Exercises 26 MODULE 3 .. 27 THE ORIGIN AND COMPOSITION OF SOIL .. 27 Exercises 30 SOIL EROSION AND ITS CONTROL 31 TYPES OF WATER EROSION 32 WIND EROSION .. 32 Exercises 33 SOIL DRAINAGE AND IRRIGATION .. 34 Exercises 37 IRRIGATION 38