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Analele Universit ii Constantin Brncu i din Trgu Jiu, Seria Inginerie, Nr.

3/2011

TEHNICI DE EXTRACTIE A POLUANTILOR DIN SOL, PRIN APLICAREA METODELOR FIZICE DE DEPOLUARE Maria Calinoiu, conf. dr. ing., Universitatea ,,Constantin Brancusi,, din Tg-Jiu

TECHNIQUES FOR EXTRACTING POLLUTANTS FROM THE SOIL BY APPLYING PHYSICAL METHODS FOR DEPOLLUTION Maria Calinoiu, asociate PhD ing., University ,,Constantin Brancusi,, of Tg-Jiu
ABSTRACT: Soil remediation techniques differ depending on the application site (off-site, on-site and in situ,,) and applying technical principles (methods of physical, chemical, thermal and biological). Soil remediation involves the application of physical methods of immobilization of pollutants by sealing, hydraulic lock or stabilization and inertare and methods of extraction of pollutants. Extraction of pollutants from soil by physical methods consist of excavation, pumping, washing, flotation and extraction with air. All extraction techniques are presented by physical methods, the scheme process and principles underlying removal of pollutants from soil. KEY WORDS: techniques, extracting, pollutants, soil

REZUMAT: Tehnicile de depoluare a solurilor difera in functie de locul de aplicare ( in afara amplasamentului, pe amplasament si ,,in situ,,) si de principiile tehnice de aplicare (metode fizice, chimice, termice si biologice). Depoluarea fizica a solurilor presupune aplicarea metodelor de imobilizare a poluantilor, prin etansare, blocare hidraulica sau stabilizare i inertare si a metodelor de extractie a poluantilor. Extractia poluantilor din sol prin metode fizice consta in excavare, pompare, spalare, flotatie sau extractia cu ajutorul aerului. Sunt prezentate toate tehnicile de extractie prin metode fizice, schema procedeului si principiile care stau la baza indepartarii poluantilor din sol. CUVINTE CHEIE: Tehnici, extracie, poluani, sol

1. CLASIFICAREA TEHNICILOR 1.CLASSIFICATION OF SOIL DE DEPOLUARE A SOLURILOR REMEDIATION TECHNIQUES


a. in functie de locul de aplicare a. 1. metode aplicate n afara amplasamentului constau n evacuarea solului prin excavare sau pompare, transportul n afara amplasamentului i efectuarea tehnicilor de depoluare n centre specializate avantajele sunt: - ndeprtarea rapid i total a componentelor contaminate - posibilitatea continurii activitii pe amplasament - eficiena ridicat de depoluare, conferit de centrele specializate dezavantajele sunt: a. based on application site a. 1. methods applied to off-site consist of removal of soil by digging or pumping, transport off-site remediation techniques and performance in specialized centers the advantages are: o rapid and complete removal of contaminated components o scope for further work on site o high efficiency of remediation offered by specialized centers disadvantages are: - high cost of transport - rapid and complete removal of contaminated components

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- costul ridicat al transportului - ndeprtarea rapid i total a componentelor contaminate - riscul dispersrii pariale a poluanilor n timpul lucrrilor de evacuare, ncrcare, transport i descrcare, impunerea unor limite de concentraii n poluani nainte de tratare - evitarea amestecului de poluani a. 2. metode aplicate pe amplasament au la baz principiul evacurii solului dup excavare, produsele contaminate nu mai sunt transportate n afara amplasamentului, ci sunt tratate pe amplasament, utiliznd instalaii de depoluare mobile a. 3. metodele aplicate in situ execuia lucrrilor de depoluare se realizeaza direct n mediul poluat, fr a se apela la lucrri de evacuare sistemul tehnic cuprinde parte mobil, instalat la suprafaa amplasamentului, cu posibiliti de utilizare n alt parte dup terminarea lucrrilor de depoluare si partea inserat n mediul subteran ofer posibilitatea depolurii simultane a solului i a apelor subterane b. in functie de principiile tehnice de depoluare b. 1. metode fizice metode bazate pe imobilizarea fizic a poluanilor, prin izolare (etanare, blocare hidraulic) sau prin stabilizare sau inertare metode bazate pe extracia fizic a poluanilor din mediul contaminat prin excavare, pompare, splare, flotaie, extracie de gaze sub vid (venting), injectare de aer sub presiune (sparging, hidrooc, geooc, UVB, stripping), extracie electrocinetic b. 2. metodele chimice sunt aplicate pentru distrugerea,

- the risk of partial dispersion of pollutants in the exhaust during the work, loading, transport and unloading, imposing limits on pollutant concentrations before treatment - avoid mixing of pollutants a. 2. methods applied to site o based on the principle of land disposal o after excavation, no contaminated products are transported off-site, but is treated on site using mobile decontamination facilities a. 3. methods applied "in situ" execution of remediation is done directly in the polluted environment, without resort to escape work technical system includes some furniture, installed at the surface of the site, with possible uses elsewhere after remediation works and the inserted in the underground It provides simultaneous remediation of soil and groundwater b. depending on the technical principles of remediation b. 1. physical methods methods based on physical immobilization of pollutants by isolation (seals, hydraulic lock) or by stabilization or inertare methods based on physical extraction of pollutants in the environment contaminated by excavation, pumping, washing, flotation, vacuum gas extraction (Venting), pressurized air injection (sparging, hidrooc, geooc, UVB, stripping), electrokinetic extraction b. 2. chemical methods are of disposal, separation, neutralization or conversion of pollutants by chemical extraction, oxidation, reduction and precipitation declorurare b. 3. thermal methods have the basic principle of extraction,

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destruction or immobilization of separarea, neutralizarea sau pollutants by subjecting the transformarea poluanilor, prin contaminated material at high extracie chimic, oxidare, reducere, temperatures (incineration, thermal declorurare i precipitare desorption, vitrification) b. 3. metodele termice au ca principiu de baz extracia, b. 4. biological methods is based on the degradation of distrugerea sau imobilizarea pollutants because microorganisms poluanilor prin supunerea (bacteria, fungi) bioreactor materialului contaminat la temperaturi biodegradation in bulk, in situ ridicate ( incinerare, desorbie biodegradation, and biospargingul termic, vitrificare) bioventingul b. 4. metode biologice do not involve destruction se bazeaz pe degradarea poluanilor biolixivierea and bioaccumulation of datorit activitii microorganismelor pollutants, but their separation from (bacterii, ciuperci): bioreactorul, biodegradarea n vrac, biodegradarea contaminated environment in situ, bioventingul i biospargingul biolixivierea i bioacumularea nu presupun distrugerea poluanilor, ci doar separarea lor de mediul contaminat.

presupune distrugerea acestora, ci doar blocarea migrrii lor, fapt care reduce mult impactul polurii asupra mediului. Aceste metode pot fi aplicate in situ. Etanarea - const n nchiderea fizic a mediului contaminat, prin utilizarea unui sistem etan de protecie, format din perei, cuvertur i fund ; obiectivul l constituie stoparea migrrii poluanilor, prin utilizarea unor bariere fizice care contracareaz efectele dispersiei. Blocarea hidraulic - stoparea migrrii poluanilor prin blocare hidraulic se face prin instalarea unor puuri sau sonde de pompare cu priz de ap, sub nivelul zonei contaminate i evacuarea apei n exterior Stabilizarea i inertarea - stabilizarea const n transformarea unui poluant solubil n compus insolubil pe baza unei reacii chimice sau n virtutea absorbiei pe o matrice neutr i nebiodegradabil (argile,

2. METODE FIZICE DE IMOBILIZARE A POLUANILOR 2. PHYSICAL METHODS IMMOBILIZATION Imobilizarea fizic a poluanilor nu POLLUTANTS

OF OF

Physical restraint does not mean destruction of pollutants, but blocking their migration, which greatly reduces the impact of environmental pollution. These methods can be applied "in situ". Sealing - the closure of the physical environment is contaminated, using a sealed protection system, consisting of walls, blankets and background aim is to stop the migration of pollutants through the use of physical barriers that counteract the effects of dispersion. Hydraulic Locking - Hydraulic lock to stop migration of pollutants is through the installation of wells or wells pumping water outlet, below the contaminated area and drainage outside Stabilization and inertarea stabilization is the transformation of insoluble compounds soluble pollutants on a chemical

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zeolii, gips, crbune activ, silicat de sodiu) - inertarea sau solidificarea se bazeaz pe amestecarea solului poluat cu anumite produse adjuvante (ciment, var, cenua de termocentral, asfalt), n scopul obinerii unui material compozit solid, impermeabil i nereactiv.

reaction or absorption under a neutral and non-biodegradable matrix (clays, zeolites, gypsum, charcoal, sodium silicate - inertarea or solidification is based on mixing of polluted soil with adjuvant products (cement, lime, ash from thermal plants, asphalt), in order to obtain a composite solid, waterproof and non-reactive

3. METODE FIZICE DE 3. PHYSICAL METHODS OF EXTRACIE A POLUANILOR EXTRACTION OF POLLUTANTS


3.1. Excavarea se aplic n cazul unor poluri accidentale i punctiforme ale solului, cnd apply to the point of accidental pollution poluantul poate s ajung n scurt timp la and soil, the pollutant may reach the groundwater shortly pnza freatic 3.2. Pomparea este utilizat n cazul depolurii acviferelor contaminate cu hidrocarburi care plutesc la interfaa dintre zona saturat i zona nesaturat (fig. 1.) sistemul de pompare selectiv se bazeaz pe utilizarea a dou pompe conexe, fiecare cu rol distinct, amplasate n acelai pu sau n dou foraje apropiate; pompa de ap este instalat n interiorul acviferului i are rolul de a crea un con de depresiune n care sunt atrase hidrocarburile plutitoare. hidrocarburile acumulate la partea superioar a acviferului, la baza conului invers de depresiune, sunt evacuate cu ajutorul unei pompe speciale amplasat deasupra pompei de ap. 3.2. Pumping is used for clean up aquifers contaminated with hydrocarbons floating on the interface between the saturated and unsaturated zone (fig. 1) pumping system is based on selective use of two pumps connected, each with a distinct role, located in the same well or two wells nearby, the water pump is installed within the aquifer and is designed to create a cone of depression are floating hydrocarbons attracted hydrocarbons accumulated on top of the aquifer, to the opposite cone of depression are discharged through a special pump placed above the pump. 3.1. Excavation

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Fig. 1. Depoluarea unui acvifer contaminat cu hidrocarburi mai uoare dect apa 3.3. Splarea este o metod fizic sau fizico-chimic, utilizat pentru eliminarea fazei reziduale de poluant imobilizat n matricea solului principiul splrii const n separarea poluanilor din sol i transferul acestora n faz lichid sau gazoas, sub aciunea apei i a energiei mecanice; solul contaminat este excavat cu mijloace mecanizate, este transportat la o instalaie de splare dotat cu echipamente specifice, n care se obine un produs splat i un concentrat de poluani. aplicarea splrii se face pe amplasament ( se pot spala poluani organici, poluani anorganici solubili, metale grele) splarea solului in situ permite extracia poluanilor din sol fr excavarea acestuia; metoda se aplic n cazul solurilor permeabile si se bazeaz pe un sistem de infiltrare n sol a apei de splare care are ca efect antrenarea mecanic i solubilizarea poluanilor, sistem urmat de colectarea n aval i pomparea la suprafa a apei purttoare de poluani; la suprafa, apa este supus unui proces de decontaminare, dup care poate fi din nou reintrodus n sol (fig. 2) infiltraia controlat a apei n sol se poate face prin:

Fig. 1. Clean an aquifer contaminated with hydrocarbons lighter than water 3.3. Washing is a physical or physicochemical method, used to remove residual pollutant phase immobilized in the soil matrix the principle of separation of money is transfer of pollutants in soil and liquid or gaseous phase, under the action of water and mechanical energy, contaminated soil is excavated by mechanical means, is transported to a washing plant equipped with specific equipment, which is obtained washed product and concentrate pollutants the application money is made on site (you can wash pollutants organic, inorganic soluble pollutants, heavy metals) soil washing "in situ" allows the extraction of pollutants from the soil without excavating it, the method applies to permeable soils and is based on a system of water infiltration into soil washing which results in mechanical training and leaching of pollutants, followed by system downstream collection and pumping of water-bearing surface pollutants, to surface water is subjected to a decontamination process, after which it can be reintroduced back into the soil (fig. 2 ) controlled soil water infiltration can be done by: - digging of trenches upstream of the

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sparea unor tranee n amonte de zona poluat, tranee n care se introduce ap curat - realizarea unor puuri verticale de injectare - executarea unor drenuri orizontale - stropirea suprafeei solului contaminat prin aspersiune solul de la suprafaa zonei poluate este stropit prin aspersiune cu ap curat sau cu o soluie diluat care conine reactivi de splare (ageni dispersani, tensioactivi)

polluted trenches where clean water is introduced - the development of vertical injection wells - execution of horizontal drains - sprinkler spray contaminated surface soil - polluted soil from the surface area is sprinkled with clean water or spray with a solution containing diluted wash reagents (agents dispersants, surfactants)

Fig. 2. Splarea solului in situ, prin aspersiune 3.4. Flotaia

Fig. 2. Washing in situ soil, sprinkler 3.4. Flotation

hydrocarbons may be extracted by organochlorine compounds, pot fi extrai prin flotaie hidrocarburile, flotation, compuii cyanide compounds and heavy metals compuii organoclorurai, cianhidrici i metalele grele. flotation process is carried out in procesul de flotaie se realizeaz n maini flotation machines which provide more de flotaie care, asigur aerarea ct mai complete aeration of the slurry in the soil is complet a tulburelii n care se gsete solul polluted, homogeneous dispersion of the soil poluat, dispersia omogen a solului n slurry, continuous and uniform supply and tulbureal, alimentarea continu i uniform evacuation of the products produced under si evacuarea n condiii bune a produselor good conditions (foam and product per room) obinute (spuma i produsul de camer) flotation process is carried out in inainte de a fi supus flotaiei, solul poluat flotation machines which provide more este pregtit corespunztor prin operaiile complete aeration of the slurry in the soil is de mrunire, dezaglomerare, atriie, polluted, homogeneous dispersion of the soil delamare; tulbureala destinat flotaiei este slurry, continuous and uniform supply and condiionat cu reactivi de flotaie, n vase evacuation of the products produced under de agitare good conditions (foam and product per prin adugarea reactivilor denumii room) spumani, se asigur persistena bulelor de before being subjected to flotation,
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aer create de main, iar prin adugarea soil polluted by adequately trained shredding reactivilor denumii colectori, se creeaz operations, dezaglomerare, attrition, artificial sau se intensific hidrofobia delamare; slurry is conditioned with poluanilor i a mineralelor purttoare de flotation reagents for flotation, the mixing poluani; reactivii denumii modificatori vessels influeneaz flotabilitatea substanelor by addition of reagents called poluante, asigurnd condiiile procesului de foaming, ensure persistence of air bubbles flotaie selectiv. created by machine and by adding reagents collectively, to create artificial or increase 3. 5. Extracia poluanilor cu ajutorul hydrophobic pollutants and pollutant-bearing curenilor de aer minerals, reagents called modifiers influence the buoyancy of pollutants, providing procedeele de extracie a poluanilor din sol selective flotation process conditions. cu ajutorul curenilor de aer sunt adecvate n cazul poluanilor volatili. 3. 5. Extraction of pollutants by air cu ct concentraiile poluantului n faza currents gazoas sunt mai ridicate, cu att exist mai multe anse de succes n aplicarea procedures for extraction of pollutants procedeelor de extracie cu ajutorul in soil with air currents are suitable for volatile pollutants. curenilor de aer. the pollutant concentrations in the gas 3.5.1. Extracia poluanilor sub vid (venting phase are higher, the more likely successful n situ) in applying extraction procedures using air procedeul prevede punerea sub currents presiune a solului contaminat, utiliznd ventilatoare (exhaustoare) sau pompe de vid, 3.5.1. Extraction of pollutants under racordate la sonde sau puuri de extracie vacuum (in situ Venting) gradientul de presiune creat genereaz - the process provides for contaminated soil o circulaie a gazelor n interiorul solului spre pressure, using fans (exhaust) or vacuum sonda sau puul de extracie pumps, wells or wells connected to the poluanii volatili prezeni n zona extraction nesaturat sunt antrenai de curentul generat - created pressure gradient generates de extractor sunt evacuai la suprafaa solului, movement of the soil gas extraction to probe unde sunt neutralizai sau distrui, utiliznd or shaft echipamente speciale (fig. 3) - volatile pollutants present in the unsaturated zone are trained by the current generated by the extractor are evacuated from the soil surface, where they are neutralized or destroyed, using special equipment ( fig. 3)

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Fig. 3. Extracia hidrocarburilor volatile sub vid (venting in situ) 3.5.2. Extracia poluanilor prin injecia aerului sub presiune a. Procedeul sparging (n situ) principiul acestui procedeu const n injecia de aer sub presiune, n mediul subteran contaminat, fapt care determin o vaporizare intens a poluanilor cu proprieti volatile vaporii toxici rezultai sunt n continuare aspirai de ctre o instalaie venting (fig. .4.). aerul cu presiune se introduce printrun foraj sau pu de injecie, prevzut la partea inferioar cu un tronson perforat care este mai scurt dect tronsonul perforat corespunztor forajului sau puului de aspiraie volumul de aer injectat (V1) este mult mai mic dect volumul de gaz aspirat (V2) poluanii care pot fi eliminai prin sparging sunt compuii organici volatili i semivolatili (benzen, toluen, xilen, benzin, solveni clorai); pentru extinderea gamei de eliminare a poluanilor prin sparging, se nlocuiete aerul curat cu un amestec aerozon sau aer-ap oxigenat

Fig. 3. Vacuum extraction of volatile hydrocarbons (venting in situ) 3.5.2. Extraction of air pollutants injection pressure a. sparging process (in situ) - the principle of this method is the injection of pressurized air in the underground contamination, which causes an intense vaporization of volatile pollutants by property - are still toxic fumes resulting vacuum by a facility Venting (fig. 4.). - air pressure is introduced through an injection well drilling or provided at the bottom with a perforated section that is shorter than the section corresponding hole drilling or suction pit - volume of air injected (V1) is much smaller than the volume of gas aspirated (V2) - pollutants can be removed by sparging are VOCs and semivolatili (benzene, toluene, xylene, gasoline, solvents, chlorine), to extend the range of pollutant removal by sparging, air is replaced with a clean-air mixture or air-ozone peroxide

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Fig. 4. Schema depolurii solurilor n situ, prin injecie de aer (sparging) b. Procedeul stripping n coloan - este utilizat pentru depoluarea la suprafa a apelor subterane evacuate din acvifer (fig. 5.). - principiul acestui procedeu const n realizarea unui contact energic ntre ap i aer - amestecul ap-aer determin trecerea compuilor volatili din faz lichid n faz gazoas

Fig. 4. Soil remediation scheme in situ air injection (sparging) b. Stripping process in the column - is used for the remediation of groundwater discharge to the surface of the aquifer (fig. 5.). - the principle of this process is to achieve a strong contact between water and air - water-air mixture causes volatile compounds in liquid phase transition in the gas phase

Fig. 5. Schema de depoluare prin metoda stripping n coloan

Fig. 5. Remediation scheme by stripping the column method

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CONCLUZII
Tehnicile de depoluare a solurilor difera in functie de locul de aplicare ( in afara amplasamentului, pe amplasament si in situ ) si de principiile tehnice de aplicare (metode fizice, chimice, termice si biologice). Depoluarea fizica a solurilor presupune aplicarea metodelor de imobilizare a poluantilor, prin etansare, blocare hidraulica sau stabilizare i inertare si a metodelor de extractie a poluantilor. Extractia poluantilor din sol prin metode fizice consta in excavare, pompare, spalare, flotatie sau extractia cu ajutorul aerului. Extractia poluantilor cu ajutorul aerului se poate realiza sub vid (venting i vid) sau sub presiune (stripping in situ sau in coloana)

CONCLUSIONS
Soil remediation techniques differ depending on the application site (off-site, on-site and in situ) and application of technical principles (methods of physical, chemical, thermal and biological). Soil remediation involves the application of physical methods of immobilization of pollutants by sealing, hydraulic lock or stabilization and extraction methods inertare and pollutants. Extraction of pollutants from soil by physical methods consist of excavation, pumping, washing, flotation and extraction with air. Extraction by air pollutants can be done under vacuum (Venting and vacuum) or pressure (in situ or stripping column)

BIBLIOGRAFIE

Brusturean G. A., Dpollution des sols par venting et extrac-tion sous pression rduite: tude exprimentale. modlisation et simulation numrique, Thse sci. INSA ,Lyon, 2004. Destribats J.M., Prez E., Soyez B., La dpollution des sols en place. Techniques et exemples. Etudes et recherches, Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chausses, Paris, 1994 Lecomte P., Les sites pollus, traitement des sols et des eaux souterraines, Editure Technique et Documentation, Paris, 1998. Neag G., Depoluarea solurilor si apelor subterane, Editura Casa Crii de tiin, Cluj-Napoca, 1997 Popa R.G., Tehnici de protectie si depoluare a solurilor, Universitatea ,,Constantin Brancusi,, din Tg-Jiu, Facultatea de Inginerie, Note de curs, 2010

Brusturean G. A., Dpollution des sols par venting et extrac-tion sous pression rduite: tude exprimentale. modlisation et simulation numrique, Thse sci. INSA, Lyon, 2004. Destribats J.M., Prez E., Soyez B., La dpollution des sols en place. Techniques et exemples. Etudes et recherches, Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chausses, Paris, 1994 Lecomte P., Les sites pollus, traitement des sols et des eaux souterraines, Editure Technique et Documentation, Paris, 1998. Neag G., Clean soil and groundwater, Books Publishing House of Science, ClujNapoca, 1997 Popa R.G., Protection and remediation techniques of soil, University Constantin Brancusi of Targu-Jiu, Faculty of Engineering, Course Notes, 2010

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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