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cl. a 12-a, L1, Reports. Modal verbs. Unit 7: Responsibilities, manual English Horizons, OUP

Rada Blan i colectiv, English Horizons, Student`s Book 12, Editura OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS VERBELE MODALE N LIMBA ENGLEZ Caracteristicile generale ale verbelor modale: - Au numai infinitiv scurt (nu au particula "to"); - Nu au forma cu "-ing" i nici participiu; - Au aceeai form pentru toate persoanele (nu au "-s", "-es" la persoana a 3-a singular); - n forma negativ nu folosesc verbul "do", ci numai NOT (I cannot dance tonight.); - Fac interogativul numai prin inversare (May I have this dance?); - Formarea lui "nu-i aa" n propoziiile care folosesc verbe modale, se face folosind verbul modal (I can play the game, can't I? -> Pot sa joc jocul, nu-i aa?) - Verbele modale nu pot forma anumite timpuri, de aceea, se inlocuiesc cu alte verbe. can se nlocuiete cu to be able to may se nlocuiete cu to be allowed to must se nlocuiete cu to have to - CAN si MAY au forme de trecut: can -> could may -> might CAN 1. exprim capacitatea fizica sau intelectuala 2. pentru a exprima imposibilitatea sau neincrederea 3. pentru a exprima permisiunea in limbajul neoficial 4. pentru a exprima continuitatea verbelor de perceptie

MAY 1. cand se cere permisiunea in mod oficial, politicos 2. exprima posibilitatea 3. exprima o dorinta MUST 1. cand se exprima o obligatie interna (subiectiva, personala) 2. pentru a exprima o deductie logica, o concluzie

OUGTH TO 1. "Ought to" se foloseste cu precadere pentru a exprima o recomandare SHALL 1. pentru a exprima solicitarea unui sfat, o ofert sau o sugestie (Folosit cu persoana I, interogativ) 2. pentru a exprima o promisiune, o obligaie sau o ameninare care provin de la cel care vorbete ( Folosit cu persoanele II i III) 3. pentru a exprima o hotarare 4. pentru a exprima o interdictie in acte oficiale WILL 1. pentru a exprima vointa, hotarare 2. pentru a exprima o promisiune 3. pentru a exprima o posibilitate, presupunere 4. pentru a exprima ceva inevitabil 5. pentru a inlocui prezentul simplu pentru o actiune obisnuita, repetata 6. pentru a exprima o invitatie, cerere politicoasa NEED, USED TO, DARE NEED / NOT NEED - este folosit pentru a exprima necesitatea sau lipsa acesteia USED TO - este folosit doar la Past Tense, pentru a exprima: 1) o actiune repetata, un obicei trecut, care nu mai este precticat in prezent 2) o actiune repetata, un obicei trecut, care mai este practicat si in prezent DARE - se foloseste cu sensul de "a indrazni", in special in propozitii interogative si negative Modal Verb Tutorial Modals are special verbs which behave very irregularly in English. has created one of the most in-depth modal tutorials in print or online. Study the modal explanations and complete the associated exercises and take another

step toward English fluency. If you want to use the Modal Verb Tutorial as a reference only and do not want to complete the tutorial Click Here . The tutorial should be completed as follows: 1. Read this introduction page including the section below titled "What are Modal Verbs?" 2. Complete the exercises below. After each exercise, we have listed the modals covered. Just click on the modal link to learn more about its use.

EXERCISES Modal Exercise 1 Modal Exercise 2 Modal Exercise 3 Modal Exercise 4 Modal Exercise 5 Modal Exercise 6 Modal Exercise 7 Modal Final Test

TOPICS COVERED Can , Could , Have to , Must , Might and Should Have to and Must Might , Must and Should . Afterwards, you can repeat the exercise using Could , Have to and Ought to Couldn't and Might not Have got to , Had Better , May and Shall Could , Might , Should and Would Modal Verbs Forms Cumulative Modal Test

What are Modal Verbs? Modal verbs are special verbs which behave very differently from normal verbs. Here are some important differences: 1. Modal verbs do not take "-s" in the third person. Examples:

He can speak Chinese. She should be here by 9:00.

2. You use "not" to make modal verbs negative, even in Simple Present and Simple Past. Examples:

He should not be late. They might not come to the party.

3. Many modal verbs cannot be used in the past tenses or the future tenses. Examples:

He will can go with us. Not Correct She musted study very hard. Not Correct

Common Modal Verbs Can Could May Might Must Ought to Shall Should Will Would

For the purposes of this tutorial, we have included some expressions which are not modal verbs including had better, have to, and have got to. These expressions are closely related to modals in meaning and are often interchanged with them.

CAN COULD HAVE TO MUST MIGHT SHOULD 1. Ted's flight from Amsterdam took more than 11 hours. He be exhausted after such a long and flight. He prefer explore to stay in tonight the and get some rest. 2. If you want to get a better feeling for how the city is laid out, you walk downtown waterfront. 3. Hiking the trail to the peak be dangerous if you are not well prepared for dramatic weather changes. You research the route a little more before you attempt the ascent. 4. When you have a small child in the house, you leave small objects lying around. Such 5. 6. Nathan: Jenny's engagement objects Dave: be you swallowed, hold your No, ring is enormous! It causing breath serious for I have cost a injury more or than even a death. minute? can't. fortune.

7. Please make sure to water my plants while I am gone. If they don't get enough water,



8. I speak Arabic fluently when I was a child and we lived in Egypt. But after we moved back to Canada, I had very little exposure to the language and forgot almost everything I knew as a child. Now, I just say a few things in the language. 9. The book is optional. My professor said we read it if we needed extra credit. But we read it if we don't want to. 10. Leo: Where is the spatula? It be in this drawer but it's not here. Nancy: I just did a load of dishes last night and they're still in the dish washer. It be in there. there's hold 14. Ned: a That's storm it I north the of only here and we your it other rain get lighter for place later on to a this it be. afternoon. Chicago. minute? 11. You take your umbrella along with you today. The weatherman on the news said 12. we pull over at the next rest stop? I really use the bathroom and I don't know if I until borrow 13. Oh no! Frank's wallet is lying on the coffee table. He have left it here last night. Stephen: Sure, no problem. Actually, you keep it if you want to. I've given up smoking. 15. I believe she said that to Megan! She insult her cooking in front of everyone at the party last night. She have just said she was full or had some salad if she didn't like the meal. 16. Do you chew with your mouth open like that? Geez, it's making me sick watching you eat that piece of pizza. 17. Mrs. Scarlett's body was found in the lounge just moments ago, and it's still warm! Nobody has left the mansion this evening, so the killer be someone in this room. It be any one of us!!! 18. Ted: I don't know why Denise starting crying when I mentioned the wedding. Pamela: It have been what you said about her brother. Or, perhaps she is just nervous. After before all, the big you day is tomorrow. speak? 19. you always say the first thing that pops into your head? you think once in awhile

20. I was reading the book last night before I went to bed. I never took it out of this

room. It be lying around here somewhere. Where it be? be swallowed, causing serious injury or even death. MUST HAVE TO 1. I be at the meeting by 10:00. I will probably take a taxi if I want to be on time. 2. You submit the application if it has not been completely filled out. Check that the name, address, and background information are correct. If the form is not accurate and complete, sent you will be rejected and you will reapply at a later date. them? 3. Tina: Look at these flowers - they're beautiful! But, there's no card. Who could have Stephanie: It have been David. He's the only one who would send you flowers. 4. You forget to pay the rent tomorrow. The landlord is very strict about paying on time. 5. You be so rude! Why don't you try saying "please" once in a while. 6. If you are over 18 in California, you take a driver training course to get a driver's license. You can have a friend or a family member teach you instead. But remember, you penny hundred Lilly: miles That still get your to to have the cost permit before their nearest a you start practicing. name. mechanic. fortune! 7. You be rich to be a success. Some of the most successful people I know haven't got a 8. Ed: My car broke down in Death Valley last week. I have it towed more than a

9. While hiking in Alaska, you keep an eye out for bears. If you see one, you approach it. They are beautiful animals; however, they are wild and unpredictable in nature. You be afraid of them, but educating yourself about the dangers can help keep you safe. 10. I go to work tomorrow because it is Memorial Day. The best thing about a day off from work is that I get up at 6:00; I can sleep in till noon if I want to. 11. Yesterday, I cram all day for my French final. I didn't get to sleep until after midnight. 12. Nate: Oh no! I completely forgot we were supposed to pick Jenny up at the airport. Barbara: She still be sitting there waiting for us.

13. Ingrid received a scholarship to Yale University which will cover 100% of the tuition. She worry at all about the increasing cost of education. 14. When I was a child my grandmother was continually correcting our manners. She always used to say, "One eat with one's mouth open." Or, she would correct us by saying, "One rest one's elbows on the table." And every time I wanted to leave the table, she would say, "One ask to be excused." 15. I've redone this math problem at least twenty times, but my answer is wrong according to the answer key. The answer in the book be wrong!




1. Nancy said you didn't need to buy her anything for her birthday, but I really think you at least get her some flowers or a nice bottle of wine. 2. Debbie said she was really busy this week, but I think she show up at the party if she doesn't have to work overtime on Friday. 3. Nina said she would come over right after work, so she be here by 6:00. 4. Oh my God, he's unconscious. Don't move him - he have internal injuries. Somebody call an ambulance. 5. You be kidding! That can't be true. 6. Dan: Where's the remote control? I want to change the channel. Fiona: I don't know. It be under the couch. Or, perhaps I absent-mindedly took it into the kitchen. I'll check in there. 7. For most people, learning a language is a challenging undertaking. Experts agree that to make the most of your language learning experience, you practice the language regularly and push yourself to maintain old vocabulary while acquiring new words and expressions. 8. New research suggests that exercise can reduce the chance of heart disease as well as cancer. That's why I told my father that he start walking once a day. 9. We should invite Sally and her husband to come to the picnic on Saturday. We haven't seen them in weeks, and they really enjoy a nice day at the beach. 10. Tim: While I was a student, I spent a year and a half studying Pygmy culture in the Central African Republic. My research focused on unique aspects of the their social structure and religion. Simona: That have been absolutely fascinating! 11. We had better call Tony to see if he's at home before we go over to his house. He be there and we don't want to drive all the way over there for nothing. 12. At first, my boss didn't want to hire Sam. But, because I had previously worked with Sam, I told my boss that he take another look at his resume and reconsider him for the position. 13. You worry so much. It doesn't do you any good. Either you get the job, or you don't. If you don't, just apply for another one. Eventually, you will find work. 14. I would love to go on the cruise to Tahiti with Robin and Michelle. But such a

luxurious trip cost a fortune. I doubt I could afford something like that. 15. The book recommends adding fresh soil and using plant food to make your garden flowers grow. Since some people might be allergic to chemicals in artificial plant foods, the book says that you use an organic brand to avoid skin irritations.

MULTIPLE CHOICE EXERCISE Choose the correct answer for each gap below, then click the "Check" button to check your answers. 1. I'm not really sure where Beverly is. She in the living room, or perhaps she's in the backyard. 2. Doug the video we rented on his way to work. It was on the table, but now it's gone. 3. You the air pressure in your tires. You don't want to get a flat tire on your trip. 4. The computer isn't working. It during production. 5. The package tomorrow afternoon. It was sent by express mail this morning. 6. You the tickets for the play in advance - they sell out quickly. 7. You can't mean that! You . 8. If Debbie hasn't come home yet, she for us in the coffee shop. 9. Mike decided not to join us for lunch. He at work to finish the marketing report. 10. If I had gone with my friends to Jamaica, I on a white sand beach right now. 11. If I had gone with my friends to Jamaica, I come to work this week. 12. If I had gone with my friends to Jamaica, I scuba diving lessons. 13. Margaret agreed to meet us at the entrance to the theater. She for us when we get there. 14. It Sam who called and didn't leave a message on the answering machine. He said he wanted to get together with us this weekend. 15. The machine on by flipping this switch. 16. She . That could have been why her eyes were so red and swollen. 17. If she was crying, she very upset. 18. That painting by Picasso. It could be a forgery. 19. Your diving equipment regularly if you want to keep it in good condition. 20. If I hadn't taken a taxi, I for you at the train station for hours.

VERBE MODALE Verbele can, may, must se numesc verbe modale, pentru ca exprima atitudinea vorbitorului fata de actiunea pe care urmeaza sa o indeplineasca. Actiunea este considerata ca: - posibila: I can read English now. (Pot sa citesc /stiu sa citesc/ englezeste acum.) - necesara: You must do it today. (Trebuie sa o faci azi.) ; They must stay here. (Ei trebuie sa ramana aici.) - permisa: You may go there (at) any time. (Poti /ai voie/ sa te duci acolo oricand.) - probabila: It may rain. (Se poate /e posibil/ sa ploua.) Aceste verbe se numesc si verbe defective pentru ca nu pot fi folosite la toate timpurile si modurile conjugarii, ele avand cel mult doua forme verbale (prezent si trecut):

Prezent Trecut can may must could might pentru trecut se foloseste had to

Verbele can, may, must au urmatoarele caracteristici: - sunt urmate de alte verbe la infinitivul scurt: You may go there when your classes are over-Te poti duce acolo cand se termina orele. We can go there by bus or we may take a tram-Ne putem duce acolo cu autobuzul sau putem lua tramvaiul. He must keep indoors-Trebuie sa ramana in casa. - formeaza interogativul si negativul ca si verbele auxiliare: Can your friend speak English? -Stie prietenul tau sa vorbeasca englezeste? He cannot speak it very well-N-o vorbeste prea bine. Must you work all the time?-Trebuie sa lucrati tot timpul?

You must not smoke so much-Nu trebuie sa fumezi atat de mult. May I ask you a question-Pot sa va pun o intrebare? He may not find my address-S-ar putea sa nu-mi gaseasca adresa. Nota: Forma negativa a verbului can se scrie intr-un singur cuvant: cannot, iar forma contrasa este can't. - verbele modale nu primesc terminatia -s la Prezent, persoana a III-a singular: She can translate an English text-Ea stie sa traduca un text englezesc. It may be late. He must leave-Poate sa fie tarziu. Trebuie sa plece. Nota: Verbul can este adeseori folosit cu sensul de a sti sa: I can speak English. He can read well.

Forma interogativa La Prezent, spre deosebire de verbele auxiliare si de verbele modale care formeaza interogativul prin simpla inversiune, celelalte verbe formeaza interogativul cu ajutorul verbului auxiliar to do la prezent (do pentru persoana I si a II-a singular si plural, precum si pentru persoana a III-a plural; does pentru persoana a III-a singular) urmat de infinitivul scurt al verbului principal. Numai auxiliarul (do, does) se conjuga, verbul principal ramanand invariabil (la infinitiv). Ordinea cuvintelor in propozitia interogativa: Se remarca o inversiune partiala in ordinea cuvintelor: grupul subiect infinitivul scurt al (pronume sau substantiv) verbului principal you George these students like help study alte elemente sintactice winter sports? you? well?

verb auxiliar (do, does) Do Does Do

Present Tense (The Interrogative Form):

to know do I know? do you know? does he, she, it know? do we know? do you know? do they know?

to do (ca verb notional, de sine statator) do I do? do you do? does he, she, it do? do we do? do you do? do they do? Forma negativa

La Prezent, forma negativa a verbelor (cu exceptia verbelor auxiliare si modale) se construieste cu ajutorul verbului auxiliar do urmat de particula negativa not si de infinitivul scurt al verbului de conjugat. Ordinea cuvintelor in propozitia negativa:

subiect (pronume sau substantiv) I She

verbul auxiliar (do, does) do does

negatia not not not

infinitivul scurt al verbului de conjugat like come

alte elemente sintactice rain. with us.

to know I do not know you do not know he, she, it does not know we do not know

to do (ca verb notional, de sine statator) I do not do you do not do he, she, it does not do we do not do

you do not know they do not know

you do not do they do not do

In vorbirea de toate zilele se foloseste forma negativa contrasa (sau forma negativa scurta). Aceasta forma se obtine din contragerea negatiei not cu auxiliarul to do:

to know I don't know you don't know he, she, it doesn't know we don't know you don't know they don't know

to do (ca verb notional, de sine statator) I don't do you don't do he, she, it doesn't do we don't do you don't do they don't do Forma interogativ-negativa

Forma interogativ-negativa se caracterizeaza prin folosirea inversiunii partiale (ca la interogativ) si a negatiei not (ca la negativ). Ordinea cuvintelor in propozitia interogativ-negativa: verb auxiliar (do, does) Do Does subiect infinitivul scurt al negatia not (pronume) verbului principal they it not not learn suit alte elemente sintactice foreign languages? you?

to know do I not know? do you not know? does he, she, it not know? do we not know?

to do (ca verb notional, de sine statator) do I not do? do you not do? does he, she, it not do? do we not do?

do you not know? do they not know?

do you not do? do they not do?

La forma contrasa, folosita in vorbirea curenta, se observa o schimbare in ordinea cuvintelor. Negatia not se contopeste cu formele verbale ale auxiliarului si de aceea preceda subiectul: to know don't I know? don't you know? doesn't he, she, it know? don't we know? don't you know? don't they know? to do (ca verb notional, de sine statator) don't I do? don't you do? doesn't he, she, it do? don't we do? don't you do? don't they do?

Nota: Cand subiectul propozitiei interogativ-negative nu este exprimat prin pronume, ci printr-un substantiv, grupul negatiei verbale do not (sau does not) va fi asezat inaintea subiectului: Do you not like my compositions? (subiect - pronume) Does not the teacher like my composition? (subiect - substantiv) Insa prin folosirea formelor prescurtate, aceasta deosebire se elimina de la sine: Don't you like my composition? Doesn't the teacher like my composition?