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LECIA 13

Verbe modale 1 May i Can. Globalization


GRAMATIC
May i can sunt VERBE MODALE sau ajuttoare: nu primesc s la persoana a III-a singular,
nu primesc do, does, did la interogativ i negativ i sunt urmate de INFINITIV fr to.
A. MAY. Utilizare:
1. cu referire la evenimente sau aciuni posibile sau probabile n prezent, adesea cu sens
de viitor. Might poate fi folosit pentru a sublinia o foarte redus posibilitate:
There are black clouds on the horizon. It may rain.
Alice may get angry if you tell her.
You might convince him to come if you also invite his girlfriend.
i cu forma continu:
Call me after eight, I may be working hard late tonight.
Alex says he might be trying to conquer Mont Blanc this year.
NOT: formele alternative sunt:
Maybe it wil rain. It is likely to rain.
Maybe Alice will get angry if you tell her. Alice is likely to get angry if you tell her.
2. pentru a cere, a oferi sau a refuza permisiunea politicos:
May I open the window? It is very hot in this office.
You may go in to see the dean now.
You may not call me by my first name.
NOT: forme alternative:
Am I allowed to open the window?
You are not permitted to smoke in this building.
Can I open the window? (can poate fi i el folosit, dar este considerat mai puin
politicos)
3. cu well pentru a indica o foarte mare probabilitate:
I think the negotiations may well break down, look at their expressions.
The Government may well decide to raise the price of gas again.
NOT: forme alternative:
I think it is very likely to rain today.
The Government is very likely to decide to raise the price of gas.
ATENIE: may / might as well are alt sens:
There is nothing interesting on TV this evening, I may / might as well have an early
night. (= Din moment ce nu este nimic interesant la TV, e mai bine s m duc devreme
la culcare.)

4. cu o construcie perfect pentru a face referire la o presupunere n trecut:


Eddie is not at the cafeteria, he may have gone home early.
Brian might not have been killed by Evelyn.
5. cu o construcie perfect pentru a face referire la ceva care s-ar fi putut petrece n
trecut, dar nu s-a petrecut; se poate folosi numai might:
You might have broken your neck when you fell from the horse. (but you didnt).
A lot of people, who might have been saved, died when the Titanic sank.
B. CAN. Utilizare:
1. pentru a cere, a acorda sau a refuza permisiunea, similar cu may, dar mai puin formal:
You can legally drink alcohol at 21 in the US.
Can I borrow your pen, please? Ive left mine at home.
You cannot use your cellphone during the exam.
NOT: forme alternative:
You are permitted / are allowed to / may drive at seventeen in the UK.
ATENIE: la negativ, could i might au sensuri diferite. Comparai:
John could not be building the house by himself. (It is impossible, it is too much
work.)
John might not be building the house by himself. (He is not building the house
himself, he probably has help.)
2. pentru a face referire la probabilitate, posibilitate sau imposibilitate n prezent, n
trecut sau la condiional:
Look, theres plenty of snow, we can go skiing today.
He could be outside crying, for all I care.
Robert cannot swim for a few weeks, hes broken his leg.
3. pentru a face referire la abilitate sau ndemnare n prezent, n trecut sau la
condiional:
She is a great artist; she can make a portrait in 5 minutes.
Can you speak English?
I am hopeless at cooking, I cant even fry an egg.
If he studied harder, he could pass the exam.
NOT: pentru alte timpuri, se folosete be able to:
She will be able to / has been able to make a portrait in 5 minutes.
4. could + INFINITIV perfect, pentru a se referi la o aciune care nu a avut loc:
You could have hurt your back lifting that heavy table.
I could have driven you to the airport, but my car was at the mechanics.
cnd nu tim dac aciunea s-a petrecut sau nu:
Have you seen my CD? Your brother could have taken it.
NOT: forme alternative:
You might have hurt your back lifting that heavy box.
You would probably have hurt your back lifting that heavy box.

C. To be able to exprim abilitatea. Este o alternativ formal pentru can / could n prezent,
trecut sau la condiional. Pentru toate celelalte timpuri putem folosi NUMAI to be able to.
The students will be able to speak English well after the end of this intensive course.
(viitor)
I have been able to finish all the books in the series. (prezent perfect)
By next July, I will have been able to save enough money to spend my birthday in
Paris. (viitor perfect)

EXERCIII
1. Completai spaiile cu can, could i be able to. n unele cazuri exist mai multe posibiliti.
1.
2.
3.
4.

When I first went abroad, I ........................ speak any foreign languages. (neg.)
When the sales start, you .................................. buy that expensive designer coat.
You have put too much sugar in my coffee, I never ........................ drink it.
The manager ........................ see you at the moment, hes busy with another client.
(neg.)
5. When Marion worked as a graphic artist, she ........................ draw a portrait in 5
minutes.
6. We ........................ catch the 7.30 train from London, if we leave now.
7. ........................ I have your attention for a minute, please?
8. Harry ........................ visit all the museums of London, if hes only staying for the
weekend. (neg.)
9. Russell ........................ eat fresh fish every day, when he lived by the sea.
10. Jonathan ........................ swim until he was seventeen. Now he swims for the national
team. (neg.)
2. Folosii may / might sau be allowed to n propoziiile de mai jos. n unele cazuri exist mai
multe posibiliti.
1.
2.
3.
4.

................................. I help you?


After ................................................. smoke by his parents, Jim gave up the habit.
We ............................................................. (not) use the presidents meeting room.
Ted is a recovering alcoholic. He ......................................................................... (not)
drink any alcoholic drink ever again.
5. It the temperature fell another few degrees, the pipes .................................. freeze.
6. .............................................. they come in with their muddy boots?
7. My son ........................................ go mountain biking with his friends in the summer.
8. After ..................................................... leave the hospital, Dans mood improved.
9. You .................................................... (not) play on my laptop!
10. People ................................................... enter France without a passport, when it
became a member of the EU.

3. Folosii can, could, may, might sau un timp potrivit al lui be able to n situaiile urmtoare.
n unele cazuri sunt posibile mai multe rspunsuri.
1. Your friend Jamie has come to visit you in your new house. Ask him if he found the
way easily.
...............................................................................................
2. Offer to show him around.
...............................................................................................
3. Ask him to follow you to the living room.
...............................................................................................
4. Jamie wants to know if he can smoke in your house.
...............................................................................................
5. Ask him politely to smoke on the balcony.
...............................................................................................
6. You want to know if Jamie is good at playing chess.
...............................................................................................
7. Offer him something to drink.
...............................................................................................
8. Jamie wants to stay the night but is afraid to ask in case you say no.
...............................................................................................
9. You are delighted. Offer him the spare room.
...............................................................................................
10. Remind him that in the morning you wake up early in order to catch the sunrise.
...............................................................................................
VOCABULAR
Globalization
1. Globalization is the ruling world model of the day. It is basically as attempt to bring all
countries together in a more united world.
The positive side is that it creates a bridge of communication. With the new technologies, like
the internet, you can reach a person from the other side of the world in a second.
The negative side is that in this process, minority cultures run the risk of being absorbed by
majority cultures.
New global professions
Globalization also created a new professional group. It is formed of people mostly from the
business field who have a kind of common global culture.
Generally, they are highly educated and have well-paid jobs. They speak foreign languages
and travel internationally. This new professional group are citizens of the world.
Pop culture
The United States is by far the biggest producer of popular culture goods. Pop culture is
mostly popular with teenagers. It is accessible through movies, music, television shows,
newspapers, fast food and clothing etc.
Many complain that American culture is imported into other cultures, where young people try
to imitate what they see on TV.

The global village


To most people, globalization is an opportunity to enrich the world culturally. Cultural
exchanges brought about by globalization can help promote tolerance and diversity. Their
dream is to create a multi-cultural global village, where ideas and practices can be freely
exchanged and appreciated.
2. Globalization quiz. Choose the best answer to each question.
1. How many international migrants are there in the world?
a. 200 million
b. 75 million
c. 150 million
2. How many people are added to the worlds population every year?
a. 48 million
b. 77 million
c. 56 million
3. The 10 largest multinational companies have an income greater than that of how many of
the world's poorest countries:
a. 30
b. 75
c. 100
4. By 2050, global warming could make how many plants and animals extinct?
a. 75,000
b. 1 million
c. 500,000
5. Which is the most powerful brand in the world?
a. Apple
b. Coca-Cola
c. McDonalds
3. Follow the clues for Across and Down to fill in the crossword.

Across
2. A person who leaves their home country to live and work in another country.
5. Globalization has created new ......
6. The system of making and managing money.
11. Beliefs, attitudes and behaviors shared by a community.
12. The new international vision that affects societies, cultures and economies.
Down
1. This facilitates globalization, done mainly through the internet and mass media.
3. A global network connecting millions of computers.
4. Television, radio, computers, satellites etc.
7. As a negative effect, globalization might ...... minority cultures.
8. The whole world or worldwide.
9. Buying and selling.
10. As a positive effect, globalization might ...... the world.