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Conf. univ. drd.

Elena NISTOR

LIMBA ENGLEZ
Anul I

Acest manual urmrete instruirea cursanilor n domeniul cunoaterii unor


noiuni eseniale privind gramatica i lexicul limbii engleze, avndu-se n vedere
dezvoltarea aptitudinilor de comunicare verbal i scris. Scopul final vizeaz
capacitatea cursanilor:
-

de a se familiariza cu cteva aspecte ale modului de via tipic lumii anglosaxone;

de a nelege i interpreta informaii detaliate dintr-un anumit domeniu;

de a exprima opinii personale asupra unor teme cotidiene, utiliznd un


vocabular adecvat;

de a redacta scurte texte argumentative pe o tem dat;

de a-i dezvolta competena lingvistic prin identificarea, nelegerea i


nsuirea unor chestiuni de gramatic.

Pentru a se facilita o mai bun nelegere a subiectelor de gramatic, explicaiile


sunt oferite n limba romn, iar exemplele specifice problemei abordate apar att
n limba englez, ct i n limba romn.
Testele de verificare de la sfritul fiecrei uniti de studiu, precum i Testul final
urmresc, de asemenea, evaluarea cunotinelor acumulate de cursant pe parcursul
procesului de nvare.

CONTENTS
UNIT 1 Personal Information
The article
UNIT 2 Home (I): Housing
The Noun (I)
UNIT 3 Home (II): Rooms and Furniture
The Noun (II)
UNIT 4 Transport (I): On the Road
The Pronoun
UNIT 5 Transport (II): Air and Water
The Adjective
UNIT 6 Shopping
The Numeral
UNIT 7 Food and Drink
The Verb (I)
UNIT 8 Health
The Verb (II)
UNIT 9 Work
The Verb (III)
UNIT 10 Leisure Time
The Verb (IV)
UNIT 11 Sports
The Adverb
UNIT 12 Holidays
The Preposition. The Conjunction

Test de evaluare
Basic English Vocabulary
Main Irregular Verbs

UNIT 1
Personal Information

Exercise 1. Read the following text carefully and then sum up the main ideas of
the text:

My name is Alexandra Cosma and I am 26 years old. I live in Bucharest, the city
where I was born. At present, I am a student of the Faculty of Management,
Economic Engineering in Agriculture and Rural Development at the University of
Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine in my hometown. I also work as an
accountant with an agricultural company. I like my job very much and I intend to
stay there after graduation.
It is not always very easy for me because very often I work for 8-10 hours
a day at the office, and I also have to do all the housework and take care of my
twins. I can say I am fortunate that my husband helps me very much, otherwise I
would not manage.
Over weekends my programme is less busy and I even have a few hours
for myself and my hobbies. I like to go shopping with my husband. We often
enjoy going into one of the big stores downtown and wandering from one
department to another. We are also very fond of the theatres, music-halls and
cinemas in Bucharest.
But what I love most is to spend short holidays in the country, together
with my family. If you want to have a really quiet and healthy holiday, you must
go and stay on a farm. We prefer to go to my brothers farm not far from the city
where we enjoy ourselves immensely. There is always plenty to do on a farm and
of course we have to work very hard, but we do not mind; we really enjoy it,
particularly if the weather is nice.

VOCABULARY
development = dezvoltare, extindere, progres, evoluie
hometown = ora natal
accountant = contabil
graduation = absolvire
housework = treburi casnice, gospodrie
twin = geamn
to manage = a reui, a izbuti, a se descurca
to enjoy = a se bucura de, a-i plcea (to enjoy oneself = a se distra, a petrece)
store = magazin
downtown = centru comercial (al unui ora)
to wander = a rtci, a hoinri, a cutreiera
in the country(side) = la ar
plenty = belug, abunden, prisos, bogie, mulime
to mind = a avea ceva mpotriv, a-i psa

Exercise 2. Fill in the following form with information about yourself:


Surname/Family name/Last name(s) .
Forename/Christian name/First name(s) ...
Nationality Citizenship .
Date of birth Place of birth ...
Address ..
Education ...
...
Job Position ..
Work experience ...

Interests ....
Other skills ....
Plans for the near future ....

Exercise 3. Each of the fourteen people mentioned below is married to one of the
others. From the information you are given, find out who is married to whom
(note that there are three generations here):
ALAN is Carolines nephew and Larrys cousin.
BARBARA is Larrys mother and Maggies sister-in-law.
CAROLINE is Edwards daughter and Maggies sister-in-law.
DAVID is Gordons brother-in-law and Alans uncle.
EDWARD is Ingrids grandfather and Maggies father-in-law.
FANNY is Carolines mother and Alans grandmother.
GORDON is Helens son-in-law and Nigels brother-in-law.
HELEN is Barbaras mother-in-law and Larrys grandmother.
INGRID is Gordons niece and Davids daughter-in-law.
JOHN is Davids father and Gordons father-in-law.
KAREN is Gordons daughter-in-law and Maggies daughter-in-law.
LARRY is Johns grandson and Davids son.
MAGGIE is Larrys aunt and Fannys daughter-in-law.
NIGEL is Ingrids father and Fannys son-in-law.

Exercise 4. Write a short commentary expressing your opinions for, or against,


the ideas in the following text:

HISTORY OF NAMES
Have you ever wondered why your parents gave you the name they did: were you
named after an ancestor, is it family tradition, or do you carry the name of some
famous personality or film star?
Until about the 14th century, most people had only one name. It has been
estimated that in medieval England, for instance, three of five men carried the
name of Henry, Robert, John, William or Richard. As towns and cities grew, the
necessity to further identify individuals and families required a second or
surname.
With few exceptions there were four ways in which surnames or
permanent family names were adopted. They were:
1. patronymics - the fathers name with "son" immediately after it
(Peterson, Adamson, Woodson)
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2. place names - words that identify where a person or family lived or


came from (Hill, Lake, Wood, Glades, March)
3. occupational names - what a person did for a living (Miller, Butcher,
Baker, Tailor, Butler)
4. nicknames - usually based on a persons personality or characteristics
(Short, Long, Savage, White, Brown)
For several hundred years, the most popular names given to newborns
were those of biblical persons or saints. Even today, some religious faiths still
require a saints name at baptism and confirmation. In the 16th and 17th century,
people began giving their children not only a first or Christian name and surname,
but also a middle name as well. In America male children were often given the
maiden name of the mother as a middle name, thus honouring and preserving the
mothers family name.
Another common practice was to name children after the parents brothers
and sisters, and on occasion a combination of both. It is not unusual to find
several family members of one generation giving their children similar or
identical names.

Exercise 5. Fill in the following adjectives referring to character and personality,


according to the clue on the left:
ARIES/The RAM (Mar 21 Apr 20)
You wont find him in the corner at the party.

o.tg.i.g

Thats her doing the can-can on the table.

exv.rt

She has no problems.

c..ef.ee

He never frowns.

lt-h.a.t.d

She tells no lies.

t.u.hf..

He has few secrets.

o..n

Hell tell you if he doesnt like your make-up.

c.n.id

Shell tell you if she doesnt like your after-shave.

fk

Hes the person to ask for that five pounds you are owed.

e..y-gg

TAURUS/The BULL (Apr 21 May 20)


He knows what he wants and he usually gets it.

s.r.n.-wi..ed

She never gives up without a fight.

d.t.r.i.ed

He knows hes good.

s.l.-as.u..d

She knows shes as good.

s.l.-co..i..nt

She likes to be the boss, the one on top.

d.m.n.nt

He wants to be even bigger, even better the best

am..t.o.s

and expects high standards of performance from others.

d.m.n.i.g

He works 18 hours a day, jogs, and plays squash.

e.e.ge..c

She hates to lose, in business and at tiddlywinks.

c.mpt..e

GEMINI/The TWINS (May 21 Jun 20)


She thinks shes good.

p.o.d

He thinks hes superior to everyone.

a.r.g..t

As the most experienced and sensible person present, I

p.mp..s

Of course, I could have beaten him even more


easily, but I wanted to give him a chance.

b..stf.l

She wont share her presents with her sister.

s..f..h

He spends half the day in front of the mirror.

v..n

She thinks the whole world revolves around her.

s..f-c.n..r.d

He thinks hes the center of the universe.

e.oc..t..c

She looks down on anyone who hasnt got a


heated indoor swimming pool at home.

s.o.b..h

CANCER/The CRAB (Jun 21 Jul 20)


She seems to enjoy finding fault with others.

c.itl

Hell take off marks if you dont dot your is.

p.t.y
naw-m.n..d

She can only ever see one side of things.


He always likes the fat taken off his bacon.

f.s.y

Hes like a donkey.

s.u.b.r.

Shes like a mule.

o.s.in.t.

He loves money, loves having things.

m.t.r.a.i.t.c

Oh yes, hell help you if you make it worth his while.

m.r.en.ry

She never lets her husband out of her sight.

p.ss.ss..e

LEO/The LION (Jul 21 Aug 21)


You never know what hes going to do.

u.p.ed.ct..le

He never knows what hes going to do.

i.d.c.s.ve

There are two things I dont like about her her face!

t.o-fd

Be careful what hes saying about you behind your back.

h.po.r.t.c.l

Be careful what shes doing while your back is turned.

d.sh.n..t

He behaves like the weather in April.

cha.g.a.le

She behaves like the proverbial primadonna.

t.mp.r.m..t.l

He says what I want to hear, not what he thinks.

i.s.nc.r.

He never does all the things he says hell do.

u.r.l.a.l.

VIRGO/The VIRGIN (Aug 22 Sep 22)


Other peoples points of view always impress him.

i.p.e.s.on..le

Shes believe you if you told her pizzas grew on trees.

g.ll.ble

She lacks will-power.

w..k-w.d

He lacks courage.

c.w..d.y

He doesnt do much he just sits back and watches.

p.s..v.

Shell do what shes told.

ob.dt

You never know what hes thinking.

s.cr.t..e

It was an honour just to be on the same court as Sampras.


How I beat him 6-0, 6-0, 6-0? It was just luck.

m.d..t

LIBRA/The BALANCE, The SCALES (Sep 23 Oct 22)


He uses his common sense.

s.n.i.le

She never does silly things under pressure.

l.v.l-h..d.d

Shes like the Libran symbol of the scales.

w..l-b.l.n.ed

Shed solve all the problems on a desert island,

p.ac..c.l

and nothing would upset her.

c..m

Hed be a good judge or referee.

f..r-m..d.d

Shes got both feet on the ground and is really down-to-earth.

r.al..t.c

His heart rarely rules his head.

r.t..n.l

I think, therefore I am. Thats my approach.

l.g.c.l

SCORPIO/The SCORPION (Oct 23 Nov 22)


Keep out of her way when she loses her temper.
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a.gr..s.v.

Hes always the first one to put his fists up,

v..l.nt

And hes quick to use them to the full.

b.u.al

He may even add a boot or two for good measure.

v.c.o.s

She wont let anything stand in her way.

r..hl..s

He has no principles about hurting other people.

u.sc.u.u.ous

He almost seems to enjoy causing trouble.

m.l.c.ous

Shes a strong believer in an eye for an eye,

sp.tl

and a tooth or, in her case, teeth for a tooth.

v.n.i.t.ve

SAGITTARIUS/The ARCHER (Nov 23 Dec 20)


Those with some Latin blood in their veins.
They are fiery and emotional.

p.s.i.n.t.
h..-bl..d.d

Shes not afraid to go mountain climbing,

b.a.e

or to join a mountain rescue team.

c.ur.gs

He wants to go to wild and unexplored places.

a.v.nt.r..s

Theyre vivacious, like champagne bubbles.

l.v.l.

She puts her heart and soul into her profession.

d.d.c.t.d

On the sinking ship, the dog never left its masters side.

d.v.t.d

These friends do not desert you in a crisis.

l.y.l

CAPRICORN/The GOAT, The SEA GOAT (Dec 21 Jan 19)


Hed always stop to help a disabled person across the road.

c.ns.d.e

Thats her on the beach wiping oil off the sea birds feathers.

t.nd..

She wouldnt hurt a fly.

g.nt..

He leaves 10 tips.

g.n.r..s

He wouldnt mind if she dyed her hair green.

t.l.r..t

She lets him sleep when he gets back from a hard days work.

u.d.rst.n.i.g

He defends her in any argument.

p.o.ect.ve

She kisses him on the cheek every minute or so.

a.f.c.i.n.te

She always sends a card on her parents anniversary.

th..g.tf.l

AQUARIUS/The WATER BEARER (Jan 20 Feb 18)


If she likes you, shell fling her arms around you and say so.

i.p.l.i.e

He jumps into the bath without testing the water.

i.p.t.ous

Lose your way with her in the car? Youd better not!

i.p.t.e.t

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Hes constantly like a child on Christmas Eve.

ex.i.abl.

Hes a typical angry young man.

r.b.l.i.us

Shes Trotsky, Castro and Guevara all rolled into one.


Hes got a memory like a sieve.

rlut.o..ry
f..g.tf..

He thought a double brandy would help the baby sleep.

i.ress.ble

If she gets an idea in her head, theres no stopping her.

u.c.n.r.l.a.l.

PISCES/The FISH (Feb 19 Mar 20)


There she is, over there, on her own in the corner.

s.y

Hes afraid that the whole world is looking at him.

s.l.-c..s..ous

She peeps round her front door like a mouse.

t.m.d

Hes always the last to introduce himself.

r.s..ved

Be careful not to upset her. Its easily done.

s.n.i..ve

He can see beauty in a pile of rubbish.

i..gin.e

He can then turn the pile of rubbish into a work of art.

c.e.a.t.v.

I was moved to tears by the beauty of his sculpture.

em.t.l

He doesnt know who he is, where he is, what to do or why.

u.sta.le

Exercise 6. SUPPLEMENTARY READING

ETIQUETTE IN THE BUSINESS WORLD

Manners can make or break a relationship. By being considerate and


respecting others, you show sincerity in wishing others well. Making others feel
good will make you feel good, and for this you should take into consideration
some highlights (these situations refer to the business setting; rules for social
occasions may vary):
Nametags - that innocuous little addition to your carefully planned
wardrobe that becomes suddenly garish on your silk blouse. But they have a
purpose, and can better serve that purpose if handled correctly. First of all, print
your name clearly. Do not use script. A printed name is easier to read. If you want
to be referred to by your first name, print it larger than your last. If you want
others to refer to you by your title, include it on the nametag. Always wear the
nametag on your right shoulder or lapel. It is easier to read when shaking hands
with someone.
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Meeting Colleagues - First opinions are instant, therefore you must be


poised and gracious, your speech and actions confirming a favorable opinion.
How do you do this? Make the other party feel as if he or she the most important
person in the room. Look them in the eye and stand still. Don't rock back and forth
on your heels no matter how nervous you are. Speak clearly and in complete
sentences. Shake a hand if it is offered. In the work force, the highest-ranking
person would initiate the handshake. That may be you, so feel free to do so.
Introductions - It is a common business practice to introduce oneself with
first and last name only, although persons who have worked hard for their titles
sometimes use them. Rank plays a role in introductions, but customers rank over
everyone except dignitaries when it comes to business. The lower-ranking person
is introduced to the higher-ranking person. The subordinate to the boss, the
colleague to a customer. Verbalize the highest-ranking person's name first. For
example, if Sue is the colleague and Mary is the customer, the introduction is as
follows: "Mary, I'd like to introduce Sue to you. Sue, this is Mary."
When addressing a new colleague, it is better to use their title (Mr., Ms.,
etc.) until they give you permission to address them by their first name. Never
take the liberty of using a nickname unless it is offered. Be sure to repeat a name
in greeting and during ensuing conversations. Not only will the person appreciate
it, but saying it helps you remember the name for the future.
After the initial introduction, move on to small talk. Ask how they are,
then add a compliment or other statement. In the business world, this should not
be personal, that is, relating to clothes, family or the like. Also, in a group of
people, never single out a person and compliment them. If you must compliment
someone, compliment the group as a whole.
Conversations - A good rule of thumb is 'Think before you speak.' Listen
to what others are saying before you jump in. Stay away from negative comments.
Be generous with praise and careful of criticism. Be considerate of other's
feelings. Avoid slang, and don't dominate the conversation. And by all means, be
discreet. Confidences are just that-confidential.
Deadlines - Not only should you be on time to work or for appointments,
you should meet any deadlines and keep any promises you make. Emergencies
sometimes creep up, but if you have a reputation for reliability, you will more
likely be granted that extension you need.

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Dress - While acceptable attire varies from business to business, there are
some general guidelines to help choose the wardrobe right for you. Look at what
your boss or supervisor is wearing and dress similarly. Keep as conservative as
possible. Shorts don't belong in the office setting, nor do gaudy nails or glitter and
sequins. Skirts should not be higher than just above the knee, or fall below midcalf. Shoes should be well kept, with heels no taller than two to three inches. And
that perfume you love so much? Wear it for your enjoyment only.
So the next time that client meets you, smile, shake hands and say hello.
Make them feel as important as they are. You will be remembered not only for
your business skills, but also for your manners. Make that lasting impression a
favorable one. Once back in your hotel room or home, you can kick back, relax,
throw on the jeans and have that chewing gum again.

Exercise 7. Topics for discussion


1. Do you like your given name (the name given to you when you were born)?
Why (not)?
2. Does your name have a special meaning? (If it does, what does it mean?)
3. In what ways do you take after members of your family, in appearance and
character?
4. Which do you think is best: to be an only child, or to have brothers and sisters?
5. How often do you visit your relatives?

GRAMMAR
ARTICOLUL
(THE ARTICLE)
Este partea de vorbire utilizat pe lng un substantiv pentru a indica trstura
general sau particular a acestuia. Nu are neles de sine stttor (nu poate aprea
independent n propoziie). Are poziie fix - naintea substantivului.
n limba englez, exist trei tipuri de articol: hotrt, nehotrt, zero.
1. Articolul hotrt (THE) se pronun (aproximativ) d atunci cnd se
afl naintea unui substantiv care ncepe cu o consoan: the box, the child, the girl,
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the mountain, the river, the town etc.; se pronun (aproximativ) di atunci cnd
substantivul ncepe cu o vocal: the actor, the address, the event, the eye, the idea,
the university. Articolul hotrt se utilizeaz cu substantive numrabile (care au
att form de singular, ct i de plural).
Indic un anumit obiect, clar individualizat.
The book is on the table. (Cartea se afl pe mas.)
The books are on the table. (Crile se afl pe mas.)
The trip was interesting. (Cltoria a fost interesant.)
The carpets are dirty. (Covoarele sunt murdare.)
The student is learning English. (Studentul nva englezete.)

Pe lng aceast funcie, exist cazuri cnd articolul hotrt apare n mod
obligatoriu:
cu substantive care denumesc lanuri i vrfuri muntoase; ape (oceane,
mri, ruri), cu excepia lacurilor; insule, golfuri, canale etc.: The Carpathians
(Carpaii), The Alps (Alpii), The Caucasus (Caucazul), The Danube (Dunrea),
The Thames (Tamisa), The Atlantic (Ocean) (Oceanul Atlantic), The Black Sea
(Marea Neagr), The Mediterranean (Sea) (Marea Mediteran), The Shetlands
(Insulele Shetland), The Orkneys (Insulele Orkney), The Gulf of Mexico (Golful
Mexic), The Gulf of Alaska (Golful Alaska), The Suez Canal (Canalul Suez), The
English Channel (Canalul Mnecii).
cu substantive compuse care denumesc ri: The United States (of
America) (Statele Unite ale Americii), The United Kingdom (of Great Britain and
Northern Ireland) (Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii i Irlandei de Nord), The Arab
Republic of Egypt (Republica Arab Egipt).
cu substantive care denumesc instituii oficiale: The White House (Casa
Alb), The Kremlin (Kremlin), The University of Bucharest (Universitatea
Bucureti), The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Ministerul de Externe).
cu substantive care denumesc obiecte unice: The Sun (soarele), The
Moon (luna), the sky (cerul), the world (lumea).
cu substantive care denumesc ambarcaiuni: The Titanic, The Augusta,
The Christina.

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cu substantive care denumesc evenimente istorice: The First World War


(Primul Rzboi Mondial), The Gulf War (Rzboiul din Golf), The Plague
(Ciuma).
cu substantive precedate de prepoziii: on the table (pe mas), in the
room (n camer), to the office (ctre birou), at the airport (la aeroport).
cu substantive care fac parte din construcii genitivale formate cu of:
the streets of the town (strzile oraului), the rooms of the house (camerele
casei), the event of the year (evenimentele anului), the waves of the sea (valurile
mrii).
cu substantive urmate de o propoziie relativ (care rspunde la
ntrebrile care?, ce fel de?):
The man who is speaking is my brother.
(Brbatul care vorbete este fratele meu).

He is the first person that I met there.


(Este prima persoan pe care am ntlnit-o acolo.)
This is the house which I live in.
(Aceasta este casa n care locuiesc).
cu adjective pe care le substantivizeaz, indicnd clasa, grupul
persoanelor de acelai fel (cei...; poporul...): the rich = bogaii, the poor = sracii,
the blind = orbii, the sick = bolnavii, the English = englezii, the French =
francezii, the Irish = irlandezii, the Swiss = elveienii, the Americans = americanii,
the Romanians = romnii, the Italians = italienii, the Russians = ruii.
Not: De regul, numele de persoane nu primesc articol. Exist, ns, un caz
particular: atunci cnd articolul hotrt apare cu un nume de familie la plural,
numele capt sensul de familia...: the Browns = familia Brown; the Kramers =
familia Kramer; the Williamses = familia Williams.
2. Articolul nehotrt (A/AN) se pronun atunci cnd se afl naintea unui
substantiv care ncepe cu o consoan: a box, a child, a girl, a mountain, a river, a
town etc., precum i naintea substantivelor care ncep cu u, w, y: a university, a
window, a year; se pronun n atunci cnd substantivul ncepe cu o vocal (cu
excepia vocalei u): an actor, an address, an event, an eye, an idea. Articolul
nehotrt se utilizeaz cu substantive la singular.
Indic un obiect oarecare, o singur unitate.
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There is a book on the table. (Pe mas se afl o carte.)


Somebody asked me a question. (Cineva mi-a pus o ntrebare.)
We need a friend. (Avem nevoie de un prieten.)
Pe lng aceast funcie exist cazuri cnd articolul nehotrt apare
obligatoriu:
cu substantive care denumesc meserii, profesii, naionaliti precedate
de verbele to be, to become:
Mr. Brown is a teacher. (Domnul Brown este profesor.)
He is a Frenchman. (El este francez.)
My sister became a doctor. (Sora mea a devenit medic.)
cu numeralele hundred, thousand, million, billion, pentru a indica o
cifr aproximativ (dac cifra este cunoscut cu precizie, se folosete one):
(about) a thousand people
(aproximativ o mie de oameni)
dar:

one thousand two hundred and forty-five people


(o mie dou sute patruzeci i cinci de oameni)

cu pronumele little (puin, puin) i few (puini, puine), crora le


confer un plus de cantitate:
I have little time. (Am puin timp, aproape deloc.)
dar:

I have a little time. (Am ceva timp, destul.)


I read few English books.
(Am citit puine cri englezeti, aproape deloc)

dar:

I read a few English books. (Am citit multe cri englezeti.)

cu denumiri de msuri (timp, distan, cantitate): once a day (o dat pe


zi), twice a week (de dou ori pe sptmn), three miles an hour (trei mile pe
or), five dollars a pair (cinci dolari perechea).
3. Articolul zero desemneaz lipsa articolului. Articolul este absent n cazul
substantivelor la plural, care indic obiecte oarecare, uniti ale aceleiai clase.
Books are on the table. (Pe mas se afl cri.)
Stop asking questions! (Nu mai pune ntrebri!)
Everybody needs friends. (Toat lumea are nevoie de prieteni.)
Exist cazuri obligatorii cnd articolul este absent:
la substantive care denumesc zilele sptmnii, lunile anului,
anotimpurile:
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Ill meet you on Monday. (Ne ntlnim luni.)


He left in June and returned in December.
(A plecat n iunie i s-a ntors n decembrie.)
I like summer. (mi place vara.)
la substantive care denumesc continente i ri:
Last year, we visited South America and Australia.
(Anul trecut, am vizitat America de Sud i Australia.)
The United Kingdom is made up of Scotland, England, Wales and
Northern Ireland.
(Regatul Unit este format din Scoia, Anglia, ara Galilor i Irlanda
de Nord.)
la substantive care denumesc localiti (excepie face The Hague,
singurul ora care primete articol naintea numelui):
Have you ever seen Paris? (Ai vzut vreodat Parisul?)
He lived in San Francisco for five years.
(A locuit n San Francisco timp de 5 ani.)
la substantive care denumesc materii i substane:
People prefer coffee to tea.
(Lumea prefer cafeaua n locul ceaiului.)
This blouse is made of cotton.
(Bluza aceasta este fcut din bumbac.)
la substantive abstracte care nu au form de plural: love, hate, joy,
happiness, wisdom, health, friendship, knowledge etc.
Thats life! (Aa e viaa!)
Some people believe in love at first sight.
(Unii oameni cred n dragoste la prima vedere.)
Not: Atunci cnd substantivele bed, table, church, school, hospital, market,
court, jail, prison, harbour, port, sea, shore, town sunt folosite aratnd c
locurile respective sunt utilizate n scopul pentru care exist, se ntrebuineaz cu
articol zero; pentru alte situaii, aceste substantive sunt nsoite de articol hotrt:
Im exhausted, I am going to bed.
(Sunt epuizat, m duc la culcare.)
dar:

The little boy has put the books on the bed.


(Bieelul a pus crile pe pat.)
The criminal was sent to prison.
17

(Delincventul a fost trimis la nchisoare.)


dar:

They turned the prison into a museum.


(Au transformat nchisoarea n muzeu.)

Exercise 8. Fill in the spaces with the definite or indefinite article, wherever
necessary:
1. He is violonist we all expected to hear.
2. I thought I had shut front gate, but it is still open.
3. It was on beach, close down by sea, that I found them.
4. man who is waiting for you has already called twice.
5. road between trees was covered with fallen leaves.
6. This is spot where we camped last year.
7. It is very book I need.
8. They were sitting at table, engaged in lively talk.
9. He lived happy life among people he loved best.
10. What is distance from your house to institute?

Exercise 9. Translate the following into Romanian, paying attention to the use of
the articles:

1. His sister had a genius for acting.


..
2. I did not speak of the Adamses, but of one of my friends.

3. There is no such thing as a friendless man.

4. Wait a minute! You are the man I was looking for to help me.

5. What trouble you are taking with me!

6. A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.

7. He roamed about the forest, gun in hand.

18

8. A rolling stone gathers no moss.

9. A man who has been bitten by a snake, fears a rope.

10. A friend in need is a friend indeed.

Exercise 10. Supply (a) little, (a) few in the following sentences:
1. I should like to make remarks in connection with
the topic under discussion.
2. I know of the man. There is nothing definite that
I could say.
3. Please, make haste, there is time left.
4. She has a fairly good command of French and, besides, knows
German.
5. weeks from now hell be miles and miles away.
6. There are books on computer science in our
library and they are all out-dated.
7. Its no use asking him about it. He has
experience in this matter.
8. The chairman said words about our success.
9. There was very water in the flower-pot, so he
sprayed some more on the flowers.
10. There is soup left so I cannot give you a second
helping.

REMEMBER!
a(n) refers to any unspecified object (pl. some)
the (sg./pl.) refers to a certain object, known to everybody

19

CHECK-UP TEST
I. Choose the right variant:
1. Mail this letter without delay.
A.

C. the

B. a

D. an

2. He is not man I am looking for.


A.

C. the

B. a

D. an

3. story which I am about to tell is quite unusual.


A.

C. the

B. a

D. an

4. There was once man who lived by the seaside.


A.

C. the

B. a

D. an

5. man can adapt himself to any climate.


A.

C. the

B. a

D. an

6. He speaks English quite fluently.


A.

C. the

B. a

D. an

7. We shall talk about it at supper.


A.

C. the

B. a

D. an

8. Their son is at college.


A.

C. the

B. a

D. an

9. He was taught violin when he was very young.


A.

C. the

B. a

D. an

10. Next day snow in front of my window thawed.


A.

C. the

B. a

D. an

20

II. Write a 300-word composition about your name: its special meaning, its origin,
etc.

REFERENCES
1. Cambridge International Dictionary of English, Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1995
2. Ilovici, Edith, Mariana Chioran, Maria Ciofu, A Practical Guide to English
Grammar. Exerciii de gramatic, Ediia a II-a, Bucureti: Editura Didactic i
Pedagogic, 1972
3. Wellman, Guy, The Heinemann English Wordbuilder, Oxford: Heinemann
International, 1992

21

UNIT 2
Home (I): Housing
Exercise 1. Read the following text carefully and then sum up the main ideas of
the text:
Almost everybody in Britain dreams of living in a detached house; that is, a house
which is a separate building. The saying, An Englishmans home is his castle is
well-known. It illustrates the desire for privacy and the importance attached to
ownership which seem to be at the heart of the British attitude to housing.
The most desirable house is a large, detached house which not only
ensures privacy but is also a status symbol. Such a house is an unrealistic dream
for most people, but even a small detached house, surrounded by garden, gives the
required suggestion of rural life which is dear to the hearts of many British
people.
Most people try to avoid living in blocks of flats (what the Americans call
apartment blocks). Flats do not suit the British attitudes. People feel cut off from
the world; they miss the neighbourliness. Besides, flats involve uncertainties. You
share the corridor outside your front door, but whom with: the other residents on
the same floor, or all the residents in the building? What about the foyer
downstairs: is this only for the use of the people who live in the block, or for the
public in general? These uncertainties perhaps explain why the communal
living expected of flat-dwellers has been unsuccessful in most of Britain.

VOCABULARY
saying = zical, proverb
well-known = binecunoscut, vestit
privacy = intimitate, singurtate
ownership = proprietate, posesiune
housing = locuin, adpost
22

desirable = de dorit, dezirabil, oportun


to ensure = a garanta, a (se) asigura, a lua msuri
status = statut, stare, condiie, situaie
to surround = a nconjura, a mprejmui, a ngrdi
to avoid = a evita, a ocoli, a se feri (de)
neighbourliness = bun vecintate, sociabilitate, prietenie
to involve = a se implica, a se amesteca
to share = a mpri, a mprti, a se bucura (de)
downstairs = jos, la parter
dweller = locuitor

Exercise 2. Answer the following questions, using some of the vocabulary given
below:
1. Whats your address?/Where do you live? (In English, the typical order is:
number, road, town/city, county, post-code)

2. What part of the town do you live in?/What part of the town would you like to
live in? (right) in the centre; in the suburbs; not far from(the railway station/the
post-office/the Town Hall); on a main road; in a side street/off the main road

3. If you live in a block of flats, which floor is your flat on? in the basement; on
the ground floor; on the first/second/third floor

4. Has your block got a lift/a fire-escape? How many staircases are there?

5. What are the (dis)advantages of a balcony/terrace?

6. Has your house got a garden? What is it like? a (large/small) garden in front
of/at the back of the house; an asphalt yard where the children play; flower-beds;
a lawn; a few fruit-trees; an orchard; a kitchen-garden; bushes and shrubs

Exercise 3. Which is the difference between the following: street, road,


boulevard, drive, lane, close, avenue, crescent, alley? Consider:
23

a long piece of hard ground that people can drive along from one place to
another;
a road, usually with private houses, not open at one end;
a track for vehicles which leads to a house;
a wide road with trees on both sides especially one which leads to a large
house;
a road built in a curve;
a road in a city, town or village with buildings along one or both sides;
a narrow path or road between buildings, or a path in the park or garden;
a narrow road in the countryside or in a town;
a wide road in a city, usually with trees on each side or along the centre.

Exercise 4. Write a short commentary expressing your opinions for, or against,


the ideas in the following text:

INDIVIDUALITY AND CONFORMITY


Flats are unpopular not only because they do not give enough privacy, but also
because they do not allow enough scope for the expression of individuality.
People like to choose the colour of their own front door and window frames, and
also to choose what they are going to do with a little bit of outside territory,
however small that may be.
The opportunity which it affords for individual self-expression is another
advantage of the front garden. In any one street, some are paved, some are full of
flowerbeds with paths in between, others are just patches of grass, others are a
mixture of these. Some are demarcated by walls, others by fences, others by
hedges, and some have no barrier at all. Possibilities for variety are almost
endless!
However, not everything about housing in Britain displays individuality.
Because most houses are built by organisations, not individuals, they are not
usually built one at a time. Instead, whole streets, even neighbourhoods (often
called estates), are built at the same time. For reasons of economy, all the houses
on an estate are usually built to the same design. That is why adjacent streets in
British towns often seem to be full of houses that are identical.
Still, every single house is different the residents make sure of that! In
suburbs and towns, there is a constant battle going on between the individualistic
24

desires of the householder and the necessity for some element of regimentation in
a densely populated area. The contest is illustrated by the fact that anybody who
wants to build an extension to their house must first get planning permission
from the local authorities.

Exercise 5. Match the following types of dwelling (1-10) with the proper
definition (a-j):

1. bungalow

a) a house in the country with a

2. mobile home (Br.)/trailer house


(Amer.)

thatched roof
b) (a flat in) a block of flats of which

3. brownstone

each

4. terraced (Br.)/row (Amer.)

living in it

5. semi-detached house

one is owned by the people

c) a house that is one of a pair of

6. thatched cottage

joined houses

7. council house

d) a house which is a part of a terrace

8. condo(minium) (Amer.)

e) a house which is all on ground

9. tower block

level

10. detached house

f) a vehicle which is lived in as a


home and has its own engine
g) a house with a front of soft
reddish-brown stone
h) a house or flat owned by the local
town or country council, for which
the family living in it pays rent
i) a house not connected on any side
with any other buildings
j) a tall block of flats or offices

25

Exercise 6. Complete the following sentences with the suitable word or phrase:

at home

rental

landlord/landlady

mortgage

rent

block of flats/apartment

ownership

homely

housewives

estate
1. We let the spare room at a monthly of 55.
2. The is threatening to evict me if I do not pay the
rent by the end of the week.
3. If you fail to repay the , the bank will repossess
your house.
4. Housebuyers

are

now

much

less

inclined

to

believe

what

agents tell them about potential new homes.


5. Nowadays, when they get married, women do not necessarily give up their
jobs and become
6. He has made himself in the lounge and shows no
signs of leaving.
7. Jack and his sister live in the same
8. Property is quite expensive in this part of the
city.
9. Rates of home have remained relatively constant.
10. The hotel was and comfortable.

Exercise 7. Topics for discussion


1. Explain the popularity of the different types of dwelling in the UK. Compare it
with the situation in Romania.
2. Do you prefer living in the suburbs or in the center of the town? Why?
3. What are the steps one must take when looking for somewhere to live?
4. What are the (dis)advantages of living in a rented flat/house?
5. The importance of home.

26

GRAMMAR
SUBSTANTIVUL (I)
(THE NOUN)
Reprezint partea de vorbire care exprim nume de obiecte (fiine i
lucruri). Substantivele se pot clasifica n funcie de form i coninut.
1. Dup form, substantivele pot fi:
simple (formate dintr-un singur element): man, child, hill, bed, bus, city,
day, game, job, mother, page, house, park, town, year, tree, problem, grass,
peace, ear, head, colour, map etc.;
compuse (formate din dou elemente): newspaper, armchair, friendship,
holiday, homework, breakfast, blackboard, forename etc.
2. Dup coninut, substantivele se pot clasifica dup cum urmeaz:
proprii, care denumesc un obiect anume (fiine, locuri geografice,
evenimente istorice, naionaliti, zilele sptmnii i lunile anului etc.): David,
John, Mary, Europe, Asia, Ireland, Canada, The War of the Roses, The Gulf War,
Frehch, Romanian, American, June, October, Monday, Saturday.
comune, care indic unul sau mai multe obiecte de acelai fel. n aceast
categorie intr mai multe tipuri de substantive:
* numrabile (au form att pentru singular, ct i pentru plural): animal,
artist, carpet, brush, bird, hall, day, eye, model, man, woman, station, tree,
university, pig, plant, ray etc. Aceste substantive primesc adjectivele
many, (a) few.
* nenumrabile (au numai form pentru singular): cotton, flour, water,
tea, coffea, steel, snow, meat, nature, heaven, hell, east, north, sun,
universe etc. Aceste substantive primesc adjectivele much, (a) little.
* colective (denumesc o pluralitate de obiecte, considerate unitar): army,
family, crew, corporation, club, pack, fleet, public, council, ministry,
flight, team etc.
* concrete (denumesc obiecte palpabile): cat, dog, tree, rose, table, pencil,
child, house, rain, star, jewel, shirt etc.

27

* abstracte (denumesc noiuni: stri, sentimente, senzaii): health, joy,


love, hate, friendship, wisdom, beauty etc.
Substantivul prezint cteva categorii gramaticale specifice: numrul, genul,
cazul.

Genul
n limba englez exist patru genuri ale substantivului:
masculin (desemneaz fiine de sex masculin care pot fi nlocuite n
propoziie prin pronumele personal he): father, son, uncle, brother, Sir, king, man,
prince, dog, bull, cock, fox, stallion;
feminin (desemneaz fiine de sex feminin care pot fi nlocuite n
propoziie prin pronumele personal she): mother, daughter, aunt, sister, Madam,
queen, woman, princess, bitch, cow, hen, vixen, mare;
neutru (desemneaz fiine al cror sex nu intereseaz i obiecte care pot
fi nlocuite n propoziie prin pronumele personal it): cat, dog, bear, baby, house,
book, room, chair, shirt;
comun (desemneaz substantive cu o singur form pentru ambele sexe,
care n propoziie pot fi nlocuite fie prin he, fie prin she, n funcie de context):
child, cousin, friend, doctor, teacher, student, parent, bird, animal, horse.

Exercise 8. Use the verbs in brackets according to the meaning of the sentence,
bearing in mind that collective nouns can take either a singular (if they refer to a
single group or unit) or a plural verb (if they mean a number of individuals):
1. My family (is/are) at the seaside.
2. Our basketball team (is/are playing) tonight.
3. The whole gang (was/were) arrested.
4. People (likes/like) travelling today.
5. Our group (is/are) made up of fifteen students.
6. The crowd (was/were) cheering the speaker.
7. The audience (was/were) delighted with the
performance.
8. The government (has/have) agreed to improve the
conditions.
28

9. The staff (consists/consist) of almost twenty persons.


10. The army (is/are) camped near the river.

Exercise 9. Give the Romanian equivalents of the following English proverbs,


paying attention to the use of the abstract nouns and then make up your own
sentences using these:

1. Time and tide wait for no man.


..
2. Wealth is nothing without health.
..
3. A good beginning makes a good ending.
..
4. Charity begins at home.
..
5. Necessity is the mother of invention.
..
6. Speech is silver, but silence is gold.
..
7. Where there is a will there is a way.
..
8. Haste makes waste.
..
9. No gains without pains.
..
10. Beauty is only skin deep.
..

Exercise 10. Rewrite the following text, making all the nouns and pronouns
feminine wherever possible:

As the boy is walking along, he sees a horse with a man on its back. He asks the
man if his son has left home yet. The man says that the boy has stayed at home
because he is expecting his uncle and grandfather to come and see him. The boys
uncle is an actor and his grandfather is a manager of a theatre. Just then, a
29

policeman comes up and asks the boy if he has seen a bull wandering down the
road. The boy says he has seen nothing but a cock, two drakes and a gander,
which he thinks belong to the gentleman who lives in the big house, Lord
Wembley, a widower with ten children. The policeman asks who is helping in
keeping the house. The boy says he thinks it is Lord Wembleys brother-in-law.
The policeman says that if his brother-in-law is keeping house for all those
children he is a hero.

REMEMBER!
Concrete nouns can be either singular or plural; abstract nouns are only singular.
Uncountable nouns are only in the singular: kinds of foods, substances, material,
qualities.
Gender: usually, the same word refers to either a male or a female; sometimes,
there are different words for male and female.

CHECK-UP TEST
I. Choose the right variant:
1. Death is essential to the of life.
A. understatement

C. understanding

B. understudy

D. undertaking

2. You have eaten too cakes, no wonder you feel sick.


A. much

C. little

B. many

D. few

3. The female form for gander is


A. she-gander

C. goose

B. ganderess

D. geese

4. Like father, like


A. mother

C. sister

B. son

D. brother

5. Im afraid we dont have time left.


A. much

C. little

B. many

D. few
30

6. She is the highest-paid in Hollywood.


A. actor

C. actress

B. actoress

D. actrice

7. The is camped near the river.


A. army

C. armys

B. armies

D. armie

8. Their goes back to when they were at school together.


A. friendliness

C. friend

B. friendless

D. friendship

9. So people came to the party that one could harldy find a chair to
sit down.
A. much

C. few

B. many

D. little

10. Cinderellas fairy helped her go to the ball.


A. grandfather

C. grandmother

B. godfather

D. godmother

II. Write a 300-word composition about the way you imagine the house of the
future.

REFERENCES
1. Cambridge International Dictionary of English, Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1995
2. Gleanu-Frnoag, Georgiana, Doina Sachelarie-Lecca, Limba englez n
conversaie, Bucureti: Editura tiinific i Enciclopedic, 1982
3. Ilovici, Edith, Mariana Chioran, Maria Ciofu, A Practical Guide to English
Grammar. Exerciii de gramatic, Ediia a II-a, Bucureti: Editura Didactic i
Pedagogic, 1972
5. Wellman, Guy, The Heinemann English Wordbuilder, Oxford: Heinemann
International, 1992
6. ODriscoll, James, Britain. The Country and Its People, Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 1996

31

UNIT 3
Home (II)
Exercise 1. Read the following text carefully and then sum up the main ideas of
the text:

A typical British house has two floors, the ground floor and the first floor. On the
ground floor (downstairs) there are: the entrance hall, a living-room, a dining
room, and a kitchen with a pantry.
The living-room is large: the first thing you notice is a piano with a low
music stool in front of it. Next to the piano is a tall bookcase and, under the large
window on the left, there is a sofa with two cushions on it. The fireplace is at the
other end of the room, and on each side of it there is an armchair. Opposite the
fireplace there is a small table with a TV set on it. The floor of the room is
covered with a thick carpet. An electric light is hanging from the middle of the
ceiling: at night, the curtains are drawn and the lights are switched on.
The dining-room is for meals: breakfast in the morning, lunch at midday,
tea in the afternoon, and supper or dinner in the evening. In the middle of the
room there is a round table with six chairs. The dining-room table is covered with
a white cloth. On the sideboard standing against the wall there is a bowl of fruit:
apples, pears, plums, grapes, oranges or bananas according to the season.
Next to the living-room is the kitchen where there is a gas range, a
refrigerator, a kitchen sink, a large table under the window and a cupboard in
which plates and saucers, cups and glasses are arranged on the shelves. In the
drawers of the cupboard there are: forks, spoons and knives. On the right wall is
the door of the pantry, while another door leads into the backyard. Under the
kitchen there is the cellar.
From the entrance hall, a staircase leads to the first floor (upstairs), where
there are three bedrooms, a nursery or childrens room, a bathroom and a lavatory
or toilet (often separate). The furniture of the bedrooms is simple and in very good
taste: large beds with night-tables on either sides, chests-of-drawers, wardrobes,
and settees under the windows. There are reading lamps on each night-table, and
thick carpets cover the floors.

32

In the nursery there are two divans, a low table between them, a wardrobe,
and bookshelves around the walls. There is also a large case in which the sheets,
blankets and pillows are kept during the day. On the left wall there is the door of
the bathroom with tub, shower and a wash-basin.

VOCABULARY
living-room = camer de zi
dining room = sufragerie
fireplace = emineu
kitchen = buctrie
pantry = cmar
stool = scaun, taburet
to switch on = a deschide, a aprinde
sideboard = bufet
(kitchen) sink = chiuvet (de buctrie)
cellar = pivini, beci
chest-of-drawers = scrin, comod
settee = divan, canapea, banchet
blanket = ptur, cuvertur
pillow = pern
wash-basin = chiuvet (de baie)

Exercise 2. Answer the following questions, using some of the vocabulary given
below:
1. What kind of heating system have you got? central heating (radiators, boiler);
electric fires; gas fires; coal stoves; wood-burning stoves; open fireplaces

2. How do you cook? by electricity (on a plate, in an oven); by gas (on a gas
cooker/stove, in an oven)

33

3. Has cooking by gas any (dis)advantages over cooking by electricity?

4. List the following labour-saving devices in the order of their importance (for
you): refrigerator (fridge); deep-freeze; washing-machine; dish washer; vacuumcleaner; gas-cooker; automatic water-heater; electric mixer

5. Which of the above could you do without?

6. Which pieces of furniture do you consider essential? Give reasons for your
choice.

Exercise 3. Which is the difference between the following: cellar, basement,


pantry, storeroom, shed, wardrobe, cupboard, sideboard, oven, stove,
fireplace? Consider:
a room in a house where food is kept;
a piece of furniture with a door or doors behind which there is space for
storing things, usually on shelves;
a space in the wall of a room for a coal or wood fire to burn in, or the
decorated part which surrounds this space;
the lowest part of a building, partly or wholly below ground level;
a piece of furniture with a flat top and cupboards at the bottom, usually used
for holding glasses, plates, etc.;
a roofed shelter for storing things or for keeping tools, fuel, woodwork;
a room for keeping items in while they are not being used;
an underground room used for storing coal, wine, etc.;
a tall cupboard in which one hangs clothes;
a piece of equipment which burns fuel or uses electricity in order to heat a
place;
an enclosed space with a door, usually part of a piece of equipment used to
cook food or heat other substances.

34

Exercise 4. Write a short commentary expressing your opinions for, or against,


the ideas in the following text:

INTERIORS: THE IMPORTANCE OF COSINESS


Just as the British idea of home is a mental concept as much as a physical reality,
so is their idea of domestic comfort. The important thing is to feel cosy that is,
to create an atmosphere which seems warm. This desire usually has priority over
aesthetic concerns: most British people would rather buy several items of cheap,
mass-produced furniture, with chairs and sofas covered in synthetic material, than
one more beautiful and more physically comfortable item.
To many, tradition is part of cosiness, and this can be suggested by being
surrounded by old items of furniture. And, if you cannot have old furniture, you
can always have other things that suggest age. The open fire is an example. In
Britain, the real fire (as it is often called) is the perfect traditional symbol of
warmth because it is what most people used in the past to keep warm. So strong is
the attraction of a real fire that many houses have an imitation open fire,
complete with plastic coal which glows red when it is switched on.
Most older houses, even very small ones, have one general living-room
and a reception room, which maintains privacy (which is linked to cosiness). This
arrangement allows the front room to be kept for formal visits, while family
members and close friends can spend their time, safely hidden from public view,
in the back room. Although most modern smaller houses are built with just one
living room, privacy must be preserved so they normally have a hall onto which
the front door opens. It is rare for it to open straight into the living-room.

Exercise 5. Match some of the following household items (1-12) with their use (an):

1. blankets (bedspread/duvet)

a) to sleep between

2. dishcloth (scourer)

b) to clean and polish table tops

3. duster

c) to wash your face with

4. flannel

d) to dry your face with


35

5. floor cloth

e) to pipe your mouth with after

6. handkerchief

eating

7. nappy

f) to put round babys bottom

8. net curtains (blinds)

g) to keep you warm in bed

9. serviette (napkin)

h) to blow your nose with

10. sheets

i)

to wash up with

11. table cloth

j)

to dry the dishes with

12. table mat

k) to cover the table before laying it

13. tea-towel (teacloth)

l)

14. towel

m) to clean the floor with

to put hot dinner plates on

n) to stop people peeping through the


windows at you

Exercise 6. Complete the following sentences with the suitable word or phrase:

bathroom

bedrooms

dining-room

flats

entrance hall

first floor

front door

gate

fruit-trees

garage

garden

landing

ground floor

houses

kitchen

lounge

kitchen garden

lawns

living-room

shrubs

nursery

pantry

path

staircase

reception room

storeys

1. Many English families live in , but most English


people live in their own
2. I too have a small house not far from London. My house, like most
ordinary English houses, has two
3. It stands a little back from the road, and in front of it there is a small

4. A leads from the to the


of the house.
5. In front of the house there are neat and

6. At the back of the house there are some and a

36

7. At the side of the house there is a , where I keep


my car.
8. On

the

downstairs)

are

the

; one large serving as a


general and as a for
visitors; a ; and a with a

9. A

leads

from

the

hall

to

the

of the
10. On

this

floor

(upstairs)

are

the

the

and the or childrens


room.

Exercise 7. Topics for discussion


1. What do(nt) you like about the place where you live?
2. What would you like to do to improve your room/flat/house?
3. In your opinion, which is the most important room of a house?
4. Describe the house of your dreams.
5. How do you imagine the house of the future?

GRAMMAR
SUBSTANTIVUL (II)
(THE NOUN)
Substantivul prezint cteva categorii gramaticale specifice: genul (prezentat deja
n UNIT 2), numrul, cazul.

Numrul
Ca i n limba romn, exist numrul singular (care indic un singur
obiect) i numrul plural (care indic mai multe obiecte de acelai fel).

37

n mod obinuit, forma de plural a substantivului const n terminaia s


adugat la forma de singular.
bed beds

station stations

map maps

forename forenames

war wars

student students

Exist, ns, cazuri cnd aceast terminaie determin transformri n


structura substantivului:
substantivele terminate n s, -ss, -z, -zz, -x, -ch, -sh adaug -es :
bus buses

box boxes

class classes

watch watches

buzz buzzes

brush brushes

substantivele terminate n y, dup consoan i schimb terminaia n


-ies la plural; cele terminate n -y dup vocal primesc numai s :
baby babies

dar: toy toys

country countries

day days

story stories

boy boys

unele substantive terminate n f, -fe se transform n ves la plural;


altele nu sufer transformri :
leaf leaves

dar: roof roofs

wife wives

gulf gulfs

half halves

chief chiefs

unele substantive terminate n o se transform n oes la plural; altele


rmn neschimbate:
potato potatoes

dar: piano pianos

tomato tomatoes

radio radios

hero heroes

photo photos

Not: Exist cteva substantive care formeaz numrul plural altfel dect prin
adugarea terminaiei s la forma de singular: man-men, woman-women, childchildren, foot-feet, tooth-teeth, mouse-mice, goose-geese.
De asemenea, exist substantive cu o singur form:
numai pentru singular (se acord cu verbul la singular): information,
advice, furniture, luggage, baggage (pentru referirea la un obiect unic, se
folosete construcia a piece of); knowledge, news, business, money (n limba

38

romn se traduc de obicei prin plural); rice, sand, meat, peace, happiness,
thunder, lightning etc.
Information is useful. (Informaiile sunt utile.)
They gave us a piece of advice. (Ne-au dat un sfat.)
Money is power. (Banii nseamn putere.)
numai pentru plural (se acord cu verbul la plural): measles, mumps,
rickets; braces, shorts, trousers, jeans; glasses, binoculars, scissors, spectacles
(pentru referirea la un obiect unic, se folosete construcia a pair of);
I have bought a new pair of glasses.
(Am cumprat o pereche nou de ochelari.)
Give him those trousers! (D-i pantalonii aceia!)
numai pentru plural (se acord cu verbul la singular): athletics,
economics, gymnastics, mathematics, informatics, politics, therapeutics.
Mathematics is fascinating. (Matematica este fascinant.)
Informatics has become a fashion today.
(Informatica a devenit o mod n ziua de azi.)

Cazul
n limba englez exist patru cazuri:
nominativul este cazul de baz al substantivului, artnd obiectul care
desfoar aciunea exprimat de verb. Este, deci, cazul subiectului i rspunde la
ntrebrile cine?, ce?.
genitivul arat posesiunea, apartenena. Este cazul atributului i
rspunde la ntrebarea al, a, ai, ale cui?. n limba englez, exist dou tipuri de
genitiv:
* sintetic (s) - de obicei, se folosete numai pentru fiine (n cazuri excepionale,
poate aprea i la lucruri); la substantivele care formeaz pluralul prin adugarea
terminaiei s, se adaug numai apostroful.
This is the students book. (Aceasta este cartea studentului)
These are the students books. (Acestea sunt crile studenilor)
* analitic (of) - este general, se folosete pentru fiine i lucruri.
This is the book of the student. (Aceasta este cartea studentului.)
These are the books of the students.
(Acestea sunt crile studenilor.)
This is the cover of the book. (Aceasta este coperta crii.)
39

These are the covers of the books. (Acestea sunt coperile crilor.)
Not: Unele substantive pot fi folosite la cazul genitiv fr a mai aprea cel de-al
doilea substantiv - the butchers (= mcelarie), the chemists (= farmacie),
florists

(florrie),

dentists

(stomatologie)

-,

subnelegndu-se

shop/place/surgery/office.
dativul este cazul complementului indirect i rspunde la ntrebarea
cui?. Se indic prin prezena prepoziiei to sau, uneori, for.
Speak to me, please! (Vorbete-mi, te rog!)
He brought the newspaper to/for me. (Mi-a adus ziarul.)
acuzativul este cazul complementului direct i rspunde la ntrebrile
pe cine?, ce?
I met my brother yesterday. (L-am ntlnit pe fratele meu ieri.)
Read the letter, please! (Citete scrisoarea, te rog!)
Orice substantiv precedat de o prepoziie se afl n cazul acuzativ, cu excepia
prepoziiei to (specific pentru cazul dativ).
Not: Atunci cnd n aceeai propoziie apar un substantiv n cazul dativ i unul n
cazul acuzativ, poziia lor dup verb poate fi inversat; ns, n cazul n care
substantivul n dativ apare imediat dup verb, prepoziia specific (to/for) este
absent.
Mr. Jones brought his wife a bunch of flowers.
= Mr. Jones brought a bunch of flowers to/for his wife.
(Dl. Jones i-a adus soiei sale un buchet de flori.)
The postman has given my neighbour a letter.
= The postman has given a letter to/for my neighbour.
(Potaul i-a dat o scrisoare vecinului meu.)

Exercise 8. Choose the correct form of the verb:


1. Mathematics (is/are) an exact science.
2. Toms trousers (was/were) new.
3. His advice (proves/prove) very useful.
4. The 9 oclock news (was/were) very useful.
5. The information (is/are) not correct.
6. All the evidence (points/point) to him.
7. The furniture in this room (is/are) very old.
40

8. My scissors (is/are) in the drawer.


9. Money (does/do not) grow on trees.
10. Measles (is/are) less common now than in the
past.

Exercise 9. Translate the following sentences into Romanian, paying attention to


the genitival forms:
1. She was late because she went to the hairdressers.

2. My composition is almost ready but I still need a few hours work to finish it.

3. We can always find fresh vegetables at the greengrocers.

4. They had a two hours walk in the countryside.

5. Will you buy some bread for me at the bakers next door?

6. Bring me some cigarettes when you come home; the tobacconists is near the
tram stop.

7. Lets go to the grocers I need some sugar.

8. My new suit is not ready yet; it is still at the tailors.

9. Ill have my shoes mended at the shoemakers.

10. Have you read yesterdays newspapers?

Exercise 10. Translate these sentences into English, paying attention to the two
forms of the dative (wherever possible):
1. De ce nu deschizi ua doamnei?

41

2. Profesorul explic studenilor cuvintele noi.

3. I-a spus bun ziua prietenului su i a plecat.

4. Medicul prescrie medicamente pacientului.

5. D-i, te rog, sarea i mutarul.

6. John le scrie o scrisoare prinilor si.

7. Putei s-mi spunei ct e ceasul, v rog ?

8. De ce spui minciuni, nu ar fi mai bine s le spui adevrul ?

9. Trebuie s i cumprm un costum nou.

10. Toi le-au urat fericire tinerilor cstorii.

REMEMBER!
Plural: add -(e)s to the singular form. There are also irregular forms (other than
(e)s).
Nouns that have only singular (agreement with the verb in the singular):
economics, mathematics, news, information, etc., or only plural (agreement with
the verb in the plural): people, police, binoculars, glasses, etc.
Case: Genitive (sg. s/pl. s; of)
Dative (to/for)

CHECK-UP TEST
I. Choose the right variant:
1. She lost two of her front in an accident.
A. tooth

C. teeth

42

B. tooths

D. teeths

2. I have broken one of my


A. skies

C. ski

B. skis

D. skys

3. Her ethics faultless.


A. is

C. has

B. are

D. have

4. Could you tell the time, please?


A. me

C. myself

B. I

D. to me

5. They have bought the most expensive he could find.


A. furniture

C. furnitures

B. furniture

D. furniturs

6. No news good news.


A. are

C. has

B. is

D. is

7. Give all the necessary information!


A. she

C. her

B. to she

D. to her

8. She bought some lamb chops from the


A. grocer

C. butcher

B. grocers

D. butchers

9. I saw coming to your house.


A. they

C. to them

B. them

D. for them

10. There were some unusual before he arrived.


A. phenomenon

C. phenomena

B. phenomenons

D. phenomens

II. Write a 300-word composition about the most important room of your house.

43

REFERENCES
1. Cambridge International Dictionary of English, Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1995
2. Gleanu-Frnoag, Georgiana, Doina Sachelarie-Lecca, Limba englez n
conversaie, Bucureti: Editura tiinific i Enciclopedic, 1982
3. Ilovici, Edith, Mariana Chioran, Maria Ciofu, A Practical Guide to English
Grammar. Exerciii de gramatic, Ediia a II-a, Bucureti: Editura Didactic i
Pedagogic, 1972
4. Lord Evans et al., English Course, London: Linguaphone Institute Limited,
1979
6. Wellman, Guy, The Heinemann English Wordbuilder, Oxford: Heinemann
International, 1992
7. ODriscoll, James, Britain. The Country and Its People, Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 1996

44

UNIT 4
Transport (I): On the Road
Exercise 1. Read the following text carefully and then sum up the main ideas of
the text:

Nearly three-quarters of households in Britain have regular use of a car and about
a quarter have more than one car. A possible reason for the British being so
attached to their cars would be the obvious status indicators such as size and
speed. Apart from these, the British system of vehicle registration introduces
another: registration plates (number plates) give a clear indication of the age of
cars there is a different letter of the alphabet for each year.
Another possible reason is the opportunity of privacy. Being in a car is like
taking your castle with you wherever you go. Perhaps that is why the occasional
attempts to persuade people to car pool (to share the use of a car to and from
work) have met with little success.
The privacy factor may also be the reason why British drivers are less
communicative than those of many other countries. They use their horns very
little, are not in the habit of signalling their displeasure at the behaviour of other
road users with their hands and are a little more tolerant of both other drivers and
pedestrians. They are also a little more safety-conscious. Britain has the best road
safety record in Europe. The speed limit on motorways is a little lower than in
most other countries (70 m.p.h. = 112 k.p.h.) and people go over this limit to a
somewhat lesser extent.
Another indication of the car as a private space is that, in spite of its
concern for safety, Britain was one of the last countries in western Europe to
introduce the compulsory wearing of seat belts. This measure was, and still is,
considered an infringement of personal liberty.
The British are not very keen on mopeds or motorcycles, not private
enough for British tastes. Every year twenty times as many new cars as twowheeled motor vehicles are registered. Millions of bicycles are used, especially by
younger people, but they are not as common as in other parts of Europe.

45

VOCABULARY
quarter = sfert, ptrime
obvious = evident, vdit, clar
registration plate = plac cu numrul mainii
to persuade = a convinge
horn = claxon
to be in the habit (of) = a avea obiceiul (s)
pedestrian = pieton
motorway = osea, autostrad
m.p.h. (miles per hour) = mile pe or
k.p.h. (kilometres per hour) = kilometri pe or
extent = lungime, ntindere, durat, msur
compulsory = obligatoriu
seat belt = centur de siguran
infringement = nclcare, violare
moped = motoret

Exercise 2. Answer the following questions, using some of the vocabulary given
below:

1. What parts of the street are used by pedestrians? road; pavement; island;
pedestrian/zebra crossing

2. What/Who is traffic directed by? Are policewomen more efficient than


policemen? Why (not)? traffic-lights; traffic policemen/women

3. What are the following for? lamp-posts; bus/tram-stops; road markings/signs;


milestones

46

4. What kind of roads are these? In which of them can you find the heaviest
traffic? in town; main streets; side streets; one-way streets; thoroughfares;
avenues; in the country; motorways; lanes; paths

5. Which roads are better for traffic? long short; broad (wide) narrow; twolane four-lane; straight winding; paved unpaved; cobbled - asphalted

6. Describe travelling by bus, using the following expressions: to get on/off a bus;
bus-stop; request-stop; to pay the fare; change; ticket; vacant/occupied seat; rushhours

Exercise 3. Fill in the sentences below with the correct word:

tyres

(foot) brake

bodywork

choke

boot

(sparking) plugs

carburettor

bumper

accelerator

battery

clutch

gear

dashboard
1. It wont start: either the is flat, or the
are dirty.
2. Its got a nice spacious for your luggage, all-weather
to reduce the risk of skidding in wet weather, and a
showing you everything from the time you have been
travelling to the you should be in at any given moment.
3. Fortunately, the was not damaged when we drove into
the back of me, but the is quite badly bent.
4. The first thing you do for an emergency stop is take your foot off the

and

press

both

feet

down

on

the

long,

the

and the
5.

If

you

have

the

. will be flooded with petrol.

47

out

for

too

Exercise 4. Match the following expressions (1-8) with their proper equivalents
(a-h):

1. to drive a coach and horses through

a) to be in charge or in control of a

an argument

situation

2. to drive under the influence

b) to make somebody extremely

3. drive-in backs, cinema or restaurant

annoyed

4. to be in the driving seat

c) to drive after having drunk more

5. to drive somebody mad/crazy/insane

alcohol than legally allowed to

6. to drive ones message/point home

d) to force people to hear ones

7. to drive a hard bargain

message/point

8. driving force

e) to expect a lot in exchange for what


one pays/does
f) to destroy an argument completely
g) the person or thing which has the
greatest effect on what happens
h) a place that one can use/visit while
staying seated in a car

Exercise 5. Write a short commentary expressing your opinions for, or against,


the ideas in the following text:

PUBLIC TRANSPORT IN TOWNS AND CITIES


Britain is one of the few countries in Europe where double-decker buses (i.e., with
two floors) are a common sight. Although single-deckers have also been in use
since the 1960s, London still has more than 3,000 double-deckers in operation. In
their original form they were hop-on, hop-off buses that is, there were no
doors, just an opening at the back to the outside. There was a conductor who
walked around collecting fares while the bus was moving. However, these days
most buses, including double-deckers, have separate doors for getting on and off
and no conductor (fares are paid to the driver).
The famous London Underground (also known as the Tube) is feeling
the effects of its age. First opened in 1863, it is now one of the dirties and least
efficient of all such systems in European cities. However, it is still heavily used

48

because it provides excellent connections with the main line train stations and
with the suburbs surrounding the city.
Another symbol of London is the distinctive black taxi (the cabbie).
According to the national stereotype, the owner-drivers of these cars are friendly
people who never stop talking. While it may not always be true, they all have to
demonstrate, in a difficult examination, detailed familiarity (the knowledge)
with Londons streets and buildings before they are given their licence. Normally,
these traditional taxis cannot be hired by phone: you simply have to find one on
the street. But there are also many taxi companies that get most of their business
over the phone. Their taxis are known as minicabs.
However, both taxis and minicabs are expensive and most British people
rarely use them, except when going home late at night, after public transport has
stopped running.

Exercise 6. Which is the difference between the following: road, pavement, busstop, bus station, bus-shelter, motorway, lane, bus, coach, taxi? Consider:

a large motor vehicle in which people are driven from one place to another

a long road vehicle on which people travel

a place, usually marked by a pole with a sign, where a bus stops to let
passengers get on and off

a specially marked trip of a road, sports track or swimming pool that is


used to keep vehicles or competitors separate

a car with a driver whom one pays to be taken somewhere

a path with a hard surface used especially for walking

a place to wait for buses that has a roof and usually sides to prevent people
from getting wet if it rains

a wide road built for fast moving traffic travelling long distances

a long piece of hard ground that people can drive along from one place to
another

a place where buses start and end their journeys

49

Exercise 7. Topics for discussion


1. What is your favourite means of transport in a town/city? Why?
2. What are the rush-hours in a large town?
3. What are the (dis)advantages of the underground in the city?
4. Why are cars more necessary nowadays than they used to be?
5. Which are the most common causes of traffic accidents?

GRAMMAR
PRONUMELE
(THE PRONOUN)
Este partea de vorbire care ine locul unui substantiv. Pronumele poate fi
clasificat n funcie de form i coninut.
1. Dup form, pronumele pot fi:
simple: I, you, he, she, which, what, who, that etc.;
compuse: myself, yourself, herself, somebody, anyone, everybody,
nothing, each other, whatever, the same etc.
2. Dup coninut, pronumele pot fi:
personale, care prezint forme diferite, n funcie de persoan i numr,
precum i n funcie de caz (forma de dativ fiind identic cu aceea de acuzativ,
sensul fiind ns diferit):

Nominativ

Dativ (+ to)

Acuzativ

(cine ?, ce ?)

(cui ?)

(pe cine ?, ce ?)

I = eu

(to) me = mie, mi

me = pe mine, m

you = tu

(to) you = ie, i

you = pe tine, te

he = el

(to) him = lui, i

him = pe el, l

she = ea

(to) her = ei, i

her = pe ea, o

it = el, ea

(to) it = lui, ei, i

it = pe el, l, pe ea, o

we = noi

(to) us = nou, ne

us = pe noi, ne

You = voi

(to) you = vou, v

you = pe noi, ne

they = ei, ele

(to) them = lor, le

them = pe ei, i, pe ele, le

50

Not: n limba englez nu exist pronume de politee. Formele dumneata,


dumneavoastr, sunt exprimate n context prin pronumele personal you, nsoit
de apelativele Madam, Sir, Miss (fr nume) sau Mrs, Mr, Miss(cu nume de
familie).
Pe lng funcia de nlocuitor al unui substantiv care denumete un lucru,
pronumele it poate aprea n construcii impersonale de tipul:
It rains. (Plou.)
It is snowing. (Ninge.)
It is cold. (Este frig.)
It is late. (Este trziu.)
It is important to ... (Este important s ...)
It is not difficult to ... .(Nu este greu s ...)
It does not matter if ... .(Nu conteaz dac ...)
posesive, care nlocuiesc numele posesorului unui obiect (are forme
asemntoare cu adjectivul posesiv, cu deosebirea c pronumele apar independent,
n vreme ce adjectivele nsoesc obligatoriu un substantiv; n limba romn,
pronumele i adjectivul posesiv au traducere identic):
mine = al meu, a mea, ai mei, ale mele
yours = al tu, a ta, ai ti, ale tale (dumneavoastr)
his = al lui, a lui, ai lui, ale lui (pentru persoane)
hers = al ei, a ei, ai ei, ale ei (pentru persoane)
its = al lui / ei, a lui / ei, ai lui / ei, ale lui / ei (pentru lucruri)
ours = al nostru, a noastr, ai notri, ale noastre
yours = al vostru, a voastr, ai votri, ale noastre (dumneavoastr)
theirs = al lor, a lor, ai lor, ale lor.
demonstrative, care indic distana unui obiect fa de un alt obiect sau
identitatea acestuia cu sine nsui (pronumele i adjectivul demonstrativ prezint
forme identice):
this = acesta, aceasta
that = acela, aceea
these = acetia, acestea
those = aceia, acelea
the same = acelai, aceeai, aceiai, aceleai

51

relative, care introduc o propoziie relativ (o propoziie care determin


un substantiv din propoziia principal): who = care (pentru persoane); that = care
(pentru fiine i lucruri, cu sens restrictiv); which = care, care dintre (pentru
lucruri i fiine, cu sens selectiv)
The young man who is here was my classmate.
(Tnrul care este aici a fost colegul meu de clas.)
I dont remember what/which is this.
(Nu-mi amintesc ce/care este aceasta.)
interogative, care apar n ntrebri, pentru a nlocui substantivul ateptat
ca rspuns: who = cine (pentru persoane); what = ce (pentru lucruri); which =
care, care dintre (pentru lucruri i fiine, cu sens selectiv).
Who are you? (Cine eti/suntei?)
What have you got there? (Ce ai acolo?)
What/Which do you like more? (Ce/Care i place mai mult?)
Which is the best? (Care este cel mai bun?)
Pronumele relativ i cel interogativ au forme identice cu adjectivele
corespunztoare, cu diferena funcional specific.
Not: Pronumele who este singurul care prezint forme diferite n funcie de caz:
Nominativ - who = cine; care
Genitiv - whose = al, a, ai, ale cui/crui/crei/cror
Dativ - to whom = cui; cruia, creia, crora
Acuzativ - who (m) = pe cine; pe care
reflexive (apar dup verb i au sensul singur, fr a fi ajutat) i de
ntrire (apar dup cuvntul pe care l accentueaz i au sensul chiar, n
persoan):
myself

= eu nsumi/nsmi

yourself

= tu nsui/nsi

himself

= el nsui

herself

= ea nsi

itself

= el nsui, ea nsi (pentru lucruri)

oneself

= el nsui (cu sens impersonal)

ourselves

= noi nine/nsene

yourselves

= voi niv/nsev

themselves

= ei nii, ele nsele/nsei

52

nehotrte, care nu ofer nici o indicaie precis asupra obiectului


(prezint forme identice cu adjectivele nehotrte):
some = ceva, ctva, nite - de obicei, apare n propoziii afirmative, dar
poate aprea n ntrebri, atunci cnd se exprim o rugminte, o
dorin sau o ofert.
any = ceva, nite, civa, cteva, unii, unele, vreun, vreo, oarecare apare n
ntrebri sau n propoziii negative (cu negaia not la verb).
no = nici un, nici o, nu - apare n propoziii negative (cu verbul la forma
afirmativ) i este numai adjectiv.
none (no one) = nici unul, nici una - apare n propoziii negative (cu verbul
la forma afirmativ).
Not: Spre deosebire de limba romn, n limba englez nu este posibil
existena a dou negaii n aceeai propoziie: se poate nega fie verbul,
fie subiectul sau obiectul.
I didnt see anybody = I saw nobody. (N-am vzut pe nimeni.)
Some, any i no ajut la formarea urmtoarelor pronume compuse:
someone

= cineva, careva

somebody

= cineva

something

= ceva

anyone

= oricare, careva; nimeni

anybody

= cineva, oricine; nimeni

anything

= ceva, orice; nimic

no one

= nici unul/una

nobody

= nimeni

nothing

= nimic

Alte pronume nehotrte sunt: every = fiecare (cu compuii everyone = toi,
fiecare; everybody = toi, toat lumea; everything = tot, totul); other = alt, alt,
ali, alte; another = un altul, o alta, nc un, nc o; the other = cellalt, cealalt;
both = amndoi, amndou, ambii, ambele; several = civa, cteva; all = tot,
toat, toi, toate; one = un, unul, una, cineva; much = mult, mult; many = muli,
multe; (a) little = puin, puine; (a) few = puini, puine; either = oricare (dintre
dou elemente); neither = niciunul, niciuna (dintre dou elemente).

Exercise 8. Translate into Romanian, paying attention to the use of the pronoun it:
1. In this region it often rains cats and dogs.
53


2. It is hard to say if they will come or not.

3. It is generally accepted that he is a great writer.

4. It is all the same to me.

5. It seems that it will rain tomorrow.

6. It is not necessary to take any further steps.

7. It was natural that he should behave like that.

8. It is believed that he will return soon.

9. It is bad manners to eat with your mouth open.

10. In the morning it was all over.

Exercise 9. Translate the following into English, paying attention to the


possessive pronouns:
1. Greeala este a mea.

2. Cartea aceasta nu este a lui, este a ei.

3. Haina aceasta este dumneavoastr?

4. Acest creion rou este al tu?

5. Valizele din vestibul sunt ale lor.

6. Numele lui este Martin, iar al ei este Anne.

54

7. Nu tiu unde mi-e stiloul; d-mi-l pe al tu un moment.

8. Amndoi avem pantofi noi, dar ai lui sunt mai scumpi dect ai mei.

9. Nu are niciodat dicionar; mereu l folosete pe al meu.

10. Apartamentul vostru este mai nou dect al lor?

Exercise 10. Supply the compounds of some, any and no in the following
sentences:
1. Has seen my coat?
2. If call, tell him I am busy.
3. May I have pudding, please?
4. Didnt he give you in exchange?
5. Have you ever heard . about him since then?
6. He doesnt lend books or tapes to
7. There is I would like to talk with with.
8. There was at home when I called.
9. There isnt you can do about it.
10. I still havent found my earring; it could be !

REMEMBER!
Personal pronouns: I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they
Possesssive pronouns: mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, yours, theirs (different
from possessive adjectives)
Demonstrative pronouns: this, that, these, those, the same
Relative pronouns: who, that, which
Interrogative pronouns: who?(whom?, to/for whom?,whose?), what?, which?
Reflexive pronouns: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, oneself, ourselves,
yourselves, themselves
Indefinite pronouns: some, any, no, none (no one) + compounds: someone/body,
something, anyone/body, anything, no one/body, nothing; others: every
55

(everyone/body, everything), other, another, the other, both, several, all, one,
much, many, (a) little, (a) few, (n)either

CHECK-UP TEST
I. Choose the right variant:
1. These pencils are not mine. I dont know they are.
A. who

C. what

B. whom

D. whose

2. I cannot lend you the book because I need it


A. me

C. I

B. myself

D. myselves

3. I have questions to ask you.


A. some

C. no

B. any

D. none

4. Everyone felt that we were really going


A. everywhere

C. anywhere

B. somewhere

D. nowhere

5. May I have more pudding, please?


A. some

C. no

B. any

D. none

6. Except for the carpet, they didnt have to buy


A. everything

C. nothing

B. all

D. anything

7. This weekend we are going to relax and enjoy


A. we

C. one another

B. us

D. ourselves

8. I cant find those books; did you give them to?


A. which

C. whom

B. who

D. whose

9. Im sorry, I havent got money on me.


A. some

C. any

B. no

D. none

10. are the most famous monuments in your town?


A. which

C. what
56

B. whose

D. who

II. Write a 300-word composition about the road behaviour of a good driver.

REFERENCES
1. Cambridge International Dictionary of English, Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1995
2. Gleanu-Frnoag, Georgiana, Doina Sachelarie-Lecca, Limba englez n
conversaie, Bucureti: Editura tiinific i Enciclopedic, 1982
3. Ilovici, Edith, Mariana Chioran, Maria Ciofu, A Practical Guide to English
Grammar. Exerciii de gramatic, Ediia a II-a, Bucureti: Editura Didactic i
Pedagogic, 1972
4. ODriscoll, James, Britain. The Country and Its People, Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 1996
5. Wellman, Guy, The Heinemann English Wordbuilder, Oxford: Heinemann
International, 1992

57

UNIT 5
TRANSPORT (II): Air and Water
Exercise 1. Read the following text carefully and then sum up the main ideas of
the text:

British Airways traces its origins back to August 1919, when its original
predecessor airline, called Aircraft Transport and Travel, launched the world's
first daily scheduled international air service, between Hounslow Heath, on the
edge of today's London Heathrow, to Paris Le Bourget.
Nowadays, British Airways is the world's biggest international airline,
carrying more passengers from one country to another than any of its competitors.
It is one of the worlds longest established airlines, too, and has always been
regarded as an industry-leader.
Last year, more than 48 million people chose to fly on the 529,807 flights
that it operated. Thats the equivalent of 80 passengers checking in every minute
around the clock, and a British Airways flight taking off or landing every 30
seconds.
While British Airways is the worlds largest international airline, because
its US competitors carry so many passengers on domestic flights, it is the fifth
biggest in overall passenger carryings (in terms of revenue passenger kilometres).
The airline also carried more than 897,000 tonnes of freight and mail last
year - equivalent to 62 lbs (28 kgs) loaded every second. It ranks as the seventh
biggest cargo airline worldwide, its route network covering some 263 destinations
in 97 countries.
The group employs more than 60,000 people in around 100 countries
worldwide. Its two main operating bases are Londons two main airports,
Heathrow (the worlds biggest international airport) and Gatwick.
Unlike many of the world's other leading airlines, British Airways is
owned entirely by private investors, with more than a quarter of a million
shareholders. The companys corporate mission is: To be the undisputed leader in
world travel.

58

VOCABULARY
to trace = a urmri, a lua urma
original = original, iniial, originar, personal
to launch = a lansa, a arunca, a pune n micare
scheduled = programat, planificat, stabilit
competitor = concurent, rival
to check in = a rezerva, a reine (bilete, locuri)
to take off = a decola, a-i lua zborul
to land = a ateriza, a face escal
domestic = casnic, indigen, naional, intern
overall = total, global, general
carrying = transport
revenue = venit anual, ctig(uri), venituri, beneficii
freight = ncrctur, marf
network = reea, circuit
shareholder = acionar, deintor de aciuni

Exercise 2. Answer the following questions, using some of the vocabulary given
below:
1. Why do people travel so much nowadays? for pleasure; on business; to get to
work; for education

2. Which ways of travelling are most widely used today? by land (by car/train);
by air; by sea

3. What are the (dis)advantages of travelling by car/train/air/sea? relatively cheap;


comfortable; it takes a long time; the fastest way of travelling; you meet other
people
.
4. On what kind of trip are you likely to take this luggage with you: a bag; a
suitcase; a trunk; a rucksack; a briefcase; a string bag? When do you travel light?
59


5. What do you usually do during your journeys?

6. Which are the main airport formalities? Put them in order: ticket checking;
luggage weighing; customs (examination) formalities; passport control; security
check

Exercise 3. Match the following expressions (1-8) with their proper equivalents
(a-h):
1. customs

a) a piece of card or paper given to

2. luggage

someone, to show that they have paid

3. platform

for an item or activity

4. porter

b) the area used by passengers leaving

5. station

or arriving by train, aircraft or ship

6. terminal

c) a place where people can sit and rest

7. ticket

while waiting

8. waiting-room

d) long flat raised structure where


people get on and off trains
e) the place at a port, airport or border
where travellers bags are looked at
to find out if any goods are being
carried illegally
f) a person whose job is to carry things,
especially travellersbags at railway
stations, airports, etc.
g) a place where trains stop for people
to get on or off
h) the bags and suitcases a traveller
takes with him

Exercise 4. Write a short commentary expressing your opinions for, or against,


the ideas in the following text:

60

THE STORY OF THE CHUNNEL


On Friday, 6 May 1994, Queen Elizabeth II of Britain and President Mitterand of
France travelled ceremonially under the sea that separates their two countries and
opened the Channel Tunnel (often known as the Chunnel) between Calais and
Folkestone. For the first time ever, people were able to travel between Britain and
the Continent without taking their feet off solid ground.
The Chunnel was by far the biggest building project in which Britain was
involved in the 20th century. The history of this project, however, was not a happy
one. Several workers were killed during construction, the price of construction
turned out to be more than double the 4.5 million first estimated and the start of
regular services was repeatedly postponed, the last time even after tickets had
gone on sale. On top of all that, the public showed little enthusiasm. On the day
that tickets went on sale, only 138 were sold in Britain and 21 in France! On the
next day, an informal telephone poll found that only 5% of those calling said they
would use the Chunnel.
There were several reasons for this lack of enthusiasm. At first, the
Chunnel was open only to those with private transport. For them, the small saving
in travel time did not compensate for the comparative discomfort of travelling on
a train with no windows and no facilities other than toilets on board. In addition,
some people felt it was unnatural and frightening to travel under all that water.
It is not yet known whether the public attitude will change and become
more positive. The direct train services between Paris and London seem to offer a
significant reduction of travel time when compared to travel over sea, so perhaps
this part of the enterprise will be more of a success.

Exercise 5. Fill in the sentences below with the suitable word, according to the
meaning:
bus

cart

coach

coach and horses

train

jet

lorry

railway

rocket

gravy train

61

1. First things first; dont put the before the horse.


2. I guess theyre stolen. It looks as if they fell off a
3. Boss suit, lap-top, Porsche. He is trying to enter the set.
4. Handsome?! His face looks like the back of a
5. Your argument is wholly lacking in logic; one could drive a
through it.
6. Come on, slow ! Hurry!
7. Your motorbike goes like a , like a bat out of hell.
8. Management?! Utter chaos, more like it! What a way to run a
!
9. Yes, they are rich; got on the . back in 79.
10. From the off, the winner, Red Rum, went like a

Exercise 6. Which is the difference between the following: suitcase, briefcase,


string bag, trunk, airport, airfield, flight attendant, flight lieutenant,
bookshop, book-stall? Consider:

a table or a very small shop with an open front where books, magazines,
etc. are sold

an officer in the British air force

a large strong case used for storing clothes and personal possessions, often
when travelling or going to live in a new place

a person who serves passengers on an aircraft

a large, often box-shaped container with a handle for carrying clothes and
possessions while travelling

a place where aircraft regularly take off and land, with buildings for
passengers to wait in, equipment for controlling flights, etc.

a usually flat rectangular case, especially used for carrying business papers

a shop where books are sold

a shopping bag which is made of pieces of string tied together and has
large spaces between each piece

a level area where aircraft can take off and land, which has fewer buildings
and services than an airport and is used by fewer passengers

62

Exercise 7. Topics for discussion


1. On what occasions do you travel by car/train/sea/air?
2. What kind of books do most people read while travelling?
3. Do you like to be met by friends when you arrive at destination? Why?
4. In your opinion, is it better to make seat reservations in advance? Why (not)?
5. Some people like to around a busy railway station, an airport or a harbour even
if they do not travel anywhere. Can you find reasons why they do this?

GRAMMAR
ADJECTIVUL
(THE ADJECTIVE)
Este partea de vorbire care exprim nsuirea unui obiect (fiin sau lucru).
Apare, de obicei, naintea substantivului pe care l determin i rspunde la
ntrebrile care ?, ce fel de ?. Spre deosebire de limba romn, n limba englez
adjectivul este invariabil (nu se modific n funcie de gen i numr).
Adjectivul prezint dou categorii de clasificare: dup form i dup
coninut.
1. Dup form, adjectivele pot fi:
simple (formate dintr-un singur cuvnt): simple, quick, nice, good,
brave, bright, real, right, beautiful, interesting;
compuse (formate din dou cuvinte): good looking, short sighted,
blue eyed, hard working, ready made etc.

2. Dup coninut, adjectivele se mpart n:


propriu-zise (calificative), care arat o calitate a obiectului: red, white,
bitter, busy, dull, easy, fresh, happy, little, natural, old,
perfect, sad, slow, tall, true, young etc.;
determinative, care confer precizie obiectului. Unele dintre acestea
provin din pronume. Deosebirea dintre pronume i adjectivele provenite din
pronume este funcional: n timp ce pronumele apar independent, adjectivele
63

provenite din pronume nsoesc obligatoriu un substantiv. Adjectivele


determinative sunt:
* posesive - indic posesorul unui obiect:
my = al meu, a mea, ai mei, ale mele
your = al tu, a ta, ai ti, ale tale; al, a, ai,ale dumneavoastr
his = al lui, a lui, ai lui, ale lui (pentru persoane)
her = al ei, a ei, ai ei, ale ei (pentru persoane)
its = al lui/ei, a lui/ei, ai lui/ei, ale lui/ei (pentru lucruri)
our = al nostru, a noastr, ai notri, ale noastre
your = al vostru, a voastr, ai votri, ale voastre; al, a, ai, ale
dumneavoastr
their = al lor, a lor, ai lor, ale lor
* relative - dup cum arat i numele, introduc o propoziie relativ (propoziie
care determin un substantiv din propoziia principal): whose = al, a, ai, ale crui;
al, a, ai, ale crei; al, a, ai, ale cror (pentru fiine); what = ce, care (pentru lucruri
i, uneori, pentru fiine); which = care, care dintre (pentru lucruri i fiine,
implicnd selecia dintr-o clas de lucruri sau fiine).
The young man whose book is here was my classmate.
(Tnrul a crui carte este aici a fost colegul meu de clas.)
I dont remember what/which address this is.
(Nu-mi amintesc ce/care adres este aceasta.)
She knows what/which book I am talking about.
(tie despre ce/care carte vorbesc.)
* interogative - apar n ntrebri, pentru a determina substantivul ateptat ca
rspuns: whose = al, a, ai, ale crui; al, a, ai, ale crei; al, a, ai, ale cror (pentru
fiine); what = ce, care (pentru lucruri i, uneori, pentru fiine); which = care, care
dintre (pentru lucruri i fiine, implicnd selecia dintr-o clas de lucruri sau fiine)
Whose car have you driven? (A cui main ai condus?)
Whose brother are you? (Al cui frate eti?)
What/which student is the best? (Ce/Care student este cel mai bun?)
Not: Pentru adjectivele demonstrative i cele nehotrte se recomand
consultarea pronumelor corespunztoare, avndu-se n vedere deosebirea
funcional deja menionat.

64

Comparaia adjectivelor
Aceast problem se refer la adjectivele propriu-zise (calificative). Ca i
n limba romn, n limba englez exist urmtoarele grade de comparaie:
A. gradul pozitiv reprezint forma de baz a adjectivului: wise, long, short,
common, important, beautiful.
B. gradul comparativ indic insuirea unui obiect prin comparaia cu un alt
obiect:
de inferioritate: not so/as ... as (nu aa de ... ca)
less ... than (mai puin ... dect)
not so wise as

less important than

not as short as

not so beautiful as

de egalitate: as ... as (tot aa de ... ca)


as wise as

as important as

as short as

as beautiful as

de superioritate: *adjectivele formate dintr-o singur silab, precum i


cele formate din sou silabe (cu terminaia n y, -ble, -er) adaug -er la final:
...-er than (mai ...dect)
wiser than

easier than

shorter than

abler than

* majoritatea adjectivelor formate din dou silabe, precum i cele formate


din mai multe silabe, sunt precedate de more: more... than (mai ...dect)
more correct than

more interesting than

more prudent than

more beautiful than

C. gradul superlativ:
relativ, care indic nivelul cel mai nalt sau cel mai redus al nsuirii
unui obiect n raport cu un alt obiect:
* adjectivele formate dintr-o singur silab, precum i cele formate din dou
silabe (cu terminaia n y, -ble, -er), adaug -est la final: the ...-est of (cel mai ...
dintre).
the wisest of

the easiest of

the shortest of

the ablest of

65

* majoritatea adjectivelor formate din dou silabe, precum i cele formate din mai
multe silabe, sunt precedate de most: the most ... of (cel mai ... dintre)
the most correct of

the most interesting of

the most prudent of

the most beautiful of

absolut, care indic cel mai nalt nivel al nsuirii, fr a se mai face
comparaie: very ... (foarte ...).
very wise

very important

very short

very beautiful

Not: Exist cteva adjective care nu respect aceste reguli, la gradul comparativ
de superioritate i la gradul superlativ relativ.

Pozitiv

Comparativ (mai...)

Superlativ (cel mai...)

good; well

better

the best

bad; ill

worse

the worst

much; many

more

the most

little

less

the least

old

older

the oldest

elder

the eldest (pentru membrii mai


vrstnici ai aceleiai familii)

far

the farthest (n spaiu)

farther

further (n plus, adiional, the furthest (n timp)


suplimentar)
near

the nearest (cel mai apropiat)

nearer

the next (urmtorul)


late

the latest (cel mai recent)

later

latter (ultimul din doi, cel the last (ultimul, cel din urm)
de-al doilea)

Exercise 8. Fill in the spaces with the right adjectives:

cheeky

leggy

handy

nosey

hearty

skinny

heady

chesty

1. congratulations on your success!


2. He could watch those women in jumpers for hours.
66

3. That sounds like a rather cough youve got.


4. The shops are quite - only two minutes walk.
5. No, you cant borrow my fancy dress for the evening! Dont be so
!
6. Its nothing to do with you what theyre doing tonight! Dont be so
!
7. She is so that when she turns sideways, she is almost
invisible.
8. I feel quite after getting all those right; or perhaps it is
the champagne.

Exercise 9. Supply the appropriate adjective and give the Romanian equivalent of
the following expressions:

dead

deaf

drunk

good

green

hard

large

mad

old

quiet

1. as as a post

a) beat cri

2. as as gold

b) bun ca pinea cald

3. as as life

c) de cnd lumea i pmntul

4. as as nails

d) n mrime natural

5. as as hills

e) mort de-a binelea

6. as as a lord

f) nebun de legat

7. as as a

g) sntos tun

mouse

h) surd ca un lemn

8. as as grass

i) mut ca un pete

9. as .. as mutton

j) verde ca smaraldul

10. as as a hatter

Exercise 10. Choose the proper form in the sentences below:


1. Tom is than Mary. (older elder)
2. The building is Richards house. (nearest next)
3. The new complex was equipped with all the device.
(last latest)
67

4. I can walk than you without getting tired. (farther


further)
5. Youd better take this route which has the turns. (least
fewest)
6. John is the of the Brown brothers. (oldest eldest)
7. He bought the doll at the toy-shop. (next nearest)
8. To solve this problem, we shall need information.
(farther further)

REMEMBER!
Adjectives are used before nouns.
Comparative: -er (than); more (than)
Superlative: (the) -est (of); (the) (of)

CHECK-UP TEST
I. Choose the right variant:
1. She will discard him like an shoe.
A. older

C. old

B. elder

D. oldest

2. He visited London a month ago; next month he sill visit city.


A. other

C. an other

B. another

D. the other

3. The bookstore is than the post office.


A. near

C. more near

B. nearer

D. nearest

4. That boy is the image of his father.


A. such

C. very

B. much

D. many

5. The other book is as this one.


A. more expensive

C. so expensive

B. less expensive

D. as expensive
68

6. they arrive, the earlier we can finish.


A. the sooner

C. the more soon

B. the soon

D. the soonest

7. There is water in this well.


A. little

C. few

B. littler

D. fewer

8. Janet and Augusta are age.


A. the same

C. the each

B. of the same

D. of the each

9. This street-car will not carry than fifty people.


A. more

C. many

B. much

D. most

10. This issue of the journal is than the previous.


A. good

C. better

B. gooder

D. the better

II. Write a 300-word composition about travelling as a characteristic of


contemporary life.

REFERENCES
1. http://www.britishairways.com/
2. Cambridge International Dictionary of English, Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1995
3. Gleanu-Frnoag, Georgiana, Doina Sachelarie-Lecca, Limba englez n
conversaie, Bucureti: Editura tiinific i Enciclopedic, 1982
4. Ilovici, Edith, Mariana Chioran, Maria Ciofu, A Practical Guide to English
Grammar. Exerciii de gramatic, Ediia a II-a, Bucureti: Editura Didactic i
Pedagogic, 1972
5. Wellman, Guy, The Heinemann English Wordbuilder, Oxford: Heinemann
International, 1992
6. ODriscoll, James, Britain. The Country and Its People, Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 1996

69

UNIT 6
SHOPPING
Exercise 1. Read the following text carefully and then sum up the main ideas of
the text:
When youve got some shopping to do, youd better make up a list of the things
you need. If you have enough time, you can go to different shops. But if you are
in a hurry, it is wiser to choose a big store with specialised departments.
For instance, the grocers offers a wide variety of goods. Your shopping
list includes: a packet of cocoa, a pound of the best quality butter, lean bacon, and
some tinned fish. From the butchers you need to buy a kilo of pork, a chicken,
and a few mutton chops, and from the bakers two loaves of bread and a few rolls.
Next, you have to stop at the greengrocers for some fresh vegetables:
cauliflower, tomatoes, potatoes, carrots, parsnip, cabbage, lettuce, and onion. And
dont forget the fruit: grapefruits, oranges, grapes, apples, and a pineapple.
You may also want to buy some sweets from the confectioners: two large
bars of milk chocolate, a box of toffies, a tin of biscuits, and a small whip cream
cake.
If you are a smoker, you may drop in at the tobacconists too for two
packets of cigarettes or some mild pipe tobacco, and a new lighter or a box of
matches.
Anyway, remember: you neednt spend all the money you have. Buy only
what is really necessary for the rest, just go window-shopping!

VOCABULARY
to do shopping = a face cumprturi (to go shopping = a merge la cumprturi)
lean = slab, fr grsime
tinned = conservat, n cutii de conserve
70

chop = cotlet (cu os)


loaf (pl. loaves) = pine, franzel
roll = chifl, corn, franzelu
cauliflower = conopid
parsnip = pstrnac
lettuce = salat verde
(the) confectioners = cofetrie
toffy = caramea, acadea, pralin
whip cream = fric
mild = slab, uor
lighter = brichet
to go window-shopping = a se uita la vitrine (fr a cumpra nimic)

Exercise 2. Answer the following questions, using some of the vocabulary given
below:
1. What is a department store?

2. In which of the departments listed below can you buy the following goods:
notepaper, postcards, pencils; handcream, lipstick, mascara; ear-rings, bracelets,
necklaces; records; thread, tape, ribbons; jumpers; pullovers; cardigans; cups,
plates; teapots; light bulbs, refrigerators, vacuum cleaners?
- knitted goods
- haberdashery .
- electrical equipment ..
- china and glassware
- stationery
- cosmetics
- record department ..
- jewellery .
3. List the foloowing items of clothing under two headings: blouse; shirt;
trousers; dress; skirt; pants; slips; vest; panties; bras; socks; tights; shawl.
- mens wear
- womens wear
71

4. On what occasions do you wear the following: dressing gown; bathing suit;
uniform; anorak; overalls; mourning; fancy dress; disguise; makintosh; dinner
jacket; lounge suit; evening dress; fur coat; bridal veil; beachwrap?

5. What foodstuffs can you get at each of the following shops?


- the bakers ..
- the butchers
-the grocers ..
- the greengrocers .
- the fishmongers .
- the sweet-shop .
- the dairy ..
6. Which of the following characteristics of supermarkets do you consider most
important: a wide range of goods; display of goods on open counters; self-service;
tinned foods; frozen foods; ready-packed foods; ready-bottled drinks? Why?

Exercise 3. Fill in the sentences below with the correct word:

department stores

escalators

budget dresses

ready-to-wear

maternity wear

chain-stores

chemists shops

dairy shops

supermarkets

1. are moving stairways, carrying people up and down to


various floors.
2. are cheap dresses.
3. are clothes worn by mothers-to-be.
4. are big stores where all kinds of goods are told.
5. are clothes which are mass-produced, not made-tomeasure.

72

6. are stores where a variety of goods are


offered/displayed on open counters.
7. are shops where milk, cheese, eggs, butter are sold.
8. are big food stores.
9. are shops where medicines, cosmetics and toilet
supplies are usually sold.

Exercise 4. Write a short commentary expressing your opinions for, or against,


the ideas in the following text:

SHOPPING IN BRITAIN
Among the best-known supermarket chains there are Sainsbury and Tesco, but
Asda is the best known of many discount stores.
There is only one department store with a large number of branches:
Marks & Spencer. To the British, clothes at M&S are typical of the middle range:
they are neither cheap nor expensive, failry good quality and rather conservative.
Unlike most other department stores, M&S also has a food hall, where items are
more expensive than in supermarkets.
In a category all by itself is Woolworths, which used to have a branch in
almost every high street in the country. It sells mostly sweets, music, toys, and
childrens clothes all of the cheaper kind.
On tins and packets of food in British shops, the weight of an item is
written in the kilos and grams, familiar to people from continental Europe.
However, as most British people have little idea of what these terms mean, many
of the packets and tins also record their weight in pounds (lbs) and ounces (oz).
Moreover, for all fresh food items, such as meat, cheese, fruit and vegetables, the
price is listed only in this latter way. Nobody ever asks for a kilo of apples or 200
grams of cheese; if these are the amounts you want, you would have to ask for
two pounds or so of apples and half a pound or less of cheese, and you would
be about right.

73

Here are some useful British measurements and their continental


equivalents:

units of weight and volume


1 ounce (oz) = 28 g
1 pound (lb) = 450 g
14 pounds = (Br) 1 stone = 6.4 kng
1 ton = (Br) 1 tonne
1 pint = 0.1 litres
1 gallon = 4.5 litres

units of length and distance


1 inch (in) = 2.5 cm
1 foot (ft) = 30 cm
1 yard (yd) = 90 cm
5 miles (m) = 8 km

units of area
11 square feet (sq ft) = 1 m
5 acres = 2 hectares
1 square mile = 2.6 square km
Shoe and clothing sizes are also measured on different scales in Britain.

The people who work in shops which sell these things usually know about
continental and American sizes too, but most British people dont.
Mens Shoes
EUROPE

U.K.

U.S.A.

39

5.5

39.5

6.5

40

6.5

40.5

7.5

41

7.5

41.5

8.5

42

8.5

43

9.5

44

10

10.5

74

Mens Clothing
Shirts

Suits

EUROPE

U.S.A.

EUROPE

U.S.A.

35

14.

34

34

36

14.5

36

35

37

15

38

36

38

15.5

40

37

39

16

42

38

40

16.5

44

39

41

17

46

40

42

17.5

48

41

Womens Shoes
EUROPE

U.K.

U.S.A.

36

4.5

36.5

3.5

37

5.5

37.5

4.5

38

6.5

38.5

5.5

39

7.5

39.5

6.5

40

8.5

Womens Clothing
EUROPE

U.K.

U.S.A.

36

32

10

38

34

12

40

36

14

42

38

16

44

40

18

46

42

20

48

44

22

50

46

24

75

Exercise 5. Match the following items of food (1-10) with the proper containers
(a-h) (two of the latter occur twice):

1. chocolate

a) packet

2. cigarettes

b) tin

3. jam

c) tube

4. matches

d) bottle

5. milk

e) bag

6. sardines

f) jar

7. soap

g) box

8. soda water

h) bar

9. tea
10. tooth-paste

Exercise 6. Which is the difference between the following: dress, jumper,


cardigan, sweater, anorak, waistcoat, cap, beret, bowler, helmet? Consider:

a short, waterproof coat that protects the wearer against cold, wet and
windy weather, usually with a part for covering the head;

a round flat hat made of soft material;

a woollen item of clothing which covers the upper part of the body and the
arms, and which does not open at the front;

a soft light hat which either fits closely to the head or is flat with a curved
part sticking out at the front, and which is worn especially as part of a
uniform;

a usually woollen piece of clothing with long sleeves which is worn on the
upper part of the body and which does not open at the front;

a mans hat that is black and has a round hard top;

a piece of clothing for a woman which covers the top half of the body and
some or all of the legs;

a strong hard hat that covers and protects the head;

a piece of clothing that covers the upper body but not the arms and usually
has buttons down the front;

76

a woollen piece of clothing which covers the upper part of the body and
the arms, fastening at the front with buttons, and usually worn over other
clothes.

Exercise 7. Topics for discussion


1. Do you like to go shopping? Why (not)?
2. Do you go shopping only when you need something or whenever you have
money on you?
3. Would you rather go shopping alone or have a friend with you?
4. Do you do your shopping in a department store or you prefer going to smaller
shops?
5. Do you usually buy fruit and vegetables at the greengrocers or at the
supermarket? Why?

GRAMMAR
NUMERALUL
(THE NUMERAL)
Reprezint partea de vorbire care exprim o cifr, numrul sau ordinea
obiectelor. Deseori, determin un substantiv, naintea cruia apare.
Exist mai multe tipuri de numeral, dintre care cele mai frecvent utilizate
sunt:
1. Numeralul cardinal, care exprim o cifr sau numrul obiectelor:
1 = one; 2 = two; 3 = three; 4 = four; 5 = five; 6 = six; 7 = seven;
8 = eight; 9 = nine; 10 = ten; 11 = eleven; 12 = twelve.
ntre 13 i 19, numeralele se compun prin adugarea terminaiei teen: 13
= thirteen; 14 = fourteen; 15 = fifteen; 16 = sixteen; 17 = seventeen; 18 = eighteen;
19 = nineteen.
Zecile (20 - 90) se compun prin adugarea terminaiei y: 20 = twenty; 30
= thirty; 40 = forty; 50 = fifty; 60 = sixty; 70 = seventy; 80 = eighty; 90 = ninety.
ntre zeci i uniti apare obligatoriu liniua de unire: 21 = twenty-one; 35
= thirty-five; 79 = seventy-nine etc. ntre sute, mii sau milioane i zeci apare

77

obligatoriu and: one hundred and twenty-one; seven hundred and thirty-five; one
thousand and seventy-nine etc.
Atunci cnd numerele denumind zecile, sutele, miile, milioanele sunt
necunoscute, acestea apar la form de plural: tens (zeci), hundreds (sute),
thousands (mii), millions (milioane). Dac numerele sunt cunoscute, apar la form
de singular: three hundred (trei sute), ten thousand (zece mii), five million (cinci
milioane).
Not: n limba englez, cuvntul care definete miliardul este billion.
2. Numeralul ordinal, care exprim ordinea obiectelor sau locul unui obiect ntro serie. n general, se formeaz prin adugarea terminaiei th la numeralul
cardinal, cu excepia primelor trei: first (primul, prima); second (al doilea, a
doua); third (al treilea, a treia); dar fourth (al patrulea, a patra); fifth (al cincilea, a
cincea) etc.
Dup cum se poate observa, la unele numerale se produc modificri de
scriere: fifth, eighth, ninth.
La zeci, terminaia y devine ieth: twentieth, thirtieth, fortieth, sixtieth,
seventieth, eightieth, ninetieth.

Alte tipuri de numerale sunt:


3. Numeralul fracionar, unde numrtorul este exprimat printr-un numeral
cardinal, iar numitorul, printr-un numeral ordinal:
1/3 = one-third (o treime)
1/5 = one-fifth (o cincime)
2/10 = two-tenths (dou zecimi)
3/4 = three-fourths (trei ptrimi)
4. Numeralul colectiv: couple (doi, dou), pair (pereche), dozen (duzin), score
(douzeci).
5. Numeralul multiplicativ, format prin adugarea terminaiilor -fold sau times
la numeral, excepie fcnd numeralele one i two:
single, once (o dat)
double, twice (de dou ori)
threefold, three times (de trei ori)
fourfold, four times (de patru ori)

78

6. Numeralul distributiv, care arat repartizarea n grupe, se formeaz cu


ajutorul lui by sau and:
one by one (unul cte unul)
three by three (trei cte trei)
by twos (cte doi)
by threes (cte trei)
two and two (doi i cu doi)
three and three (trei i cu trei)
Not: Aproximarea numeric se exprim prin: about (circa), almost (aproape),
nearly (aproximativ). Depirea unei cifre se exprim prin: over (peste),
more than (mai mult de), above (peste).

Exprimarea datei
Ordinea obinuit este: LUNA, ZIUA, ANUL, ziua fiind exprimat prin numeral
ordinal.
June the 5th, 1992
April 22nd, 1978
Anul se citete n grupe de cte dou cifre: 19-92 (nineteen-ninety-two); 18-78
(eighteen-seventy-eight); 12-07 (twelve-o-seven).
Anul 2000 se citete two thousand.
Not: Cifra zero are mai multe modaliti de citire: n vorbirea formal,
protocolar, apare forma nought; n tiin, se citete zero; n vorbirea
curent, obinuit (n special la numerele de telefon), se pronun la fel ca litera o
/aproximativ u/.

Exprimarea timpului
Ora ntreag se exprim cu ajutorul formei o'clock: ten o'clock, one o'clock, eleven
o'clock etc.
Jumtatea de or se exprim prin half, iar sfertul de or prin (a) quarter.
Funciile orare se exprim cu ajutorul prepoziiilor past (ntre 1 i 29 minute) i to
(ntre 31 i 59 minute).

Exercise 8. Write in words and then read out loud the following figures,
operations, dates and telephone numbers:

79

3,574 ..
222,222 ..
0.75
5 + 5 = 10 ..
9 7 = 2 .
6 X 4 = 24 ..
18 : 3 = 6 ..
17 August 1989 .
2505735
0722594826 ..

Exercise 9. Translate the following into Romanian, paying attention to the


different parts of speech expressing number:

1. Articolul este despre un copil de cinci ani.

2. Sute de persoane s-au adunat n faa cldirii.

3. Am vrut s cumpr mtase, dar costa zece lire metrul.

4. A strigat-o de dou sau trei ori, apoi a plecat.

5. Discursul lui a fost de cinci ori mai lung dect al tu.

6. Vin pe la noi din trei n trei zile.

7. William Shakespeare s-a nscut la data de 23 aprilie 1564.

8. Distana dintre Bucureti i Londra este de aproximativ 3000 km.

9. Mergeau cte doi sau cte trei pe crarea din pdure.

10. Acest medicament trebuie luat din 6 n 6 ore.

80

Exercise 10. Supply the missing words in the following text, paying attention to
the verbs (or other words) expressing mathematic operations:

to add - addition

to divide - division

to multiply multiplication

to subtract - subtraction

- Can you spare me a moment? I'm trying to revise my knowledge of mathematics


and I don't think I remember too much.
- Let's begin with and What is
the answer if you 15 by 17?
- 255.
- 64 by 8.
- 64 by 8 is 8.
- Good ! Now, let's check up and
What do 5 plus 34 do ? 13 !
- I get 26.
- What remains if you 17 from 76 ?
- I'll be left with 59.
- Congratulations! Mathematics is interesting, but difficult; not too many people
are good at it.

REMEMBER!
Cardinal: one, two, three, four, five etc.
Ordinal: first, second, third, fourth, fifth etc.
The time: (a) quarter/half (past/to)
The date: 31 st (of) May, 31 May or May 31 = the thirty-first of May, or May the
thirty-first
The year: 1999 = nineteen ninety-nine
Telephone numbers: 0722-730096 = oh seven double two seven three double oh
nine six

81

CHECK-UP TEST
I. Choose the right variant:
1. He is a brilliant pupil: he is in his group.
A. twice

C. second

B. two

D. both

2. Four four eight.


A. and, is

C. plus, is

B. and, are

D. plus, are

3. That flock is made of about two sheep.


A. hundred

C. hundredth

B. hundreds

D. hundredths

4. This is I have to remind you to call on them.


A. the four time

C. four times

B. fourth time

D. the fourth time

5. He grew up during the


A. sixties

C. sixties

B. sixtys

D. sixtieth

6. They left the building in


A. two and three

C. twice and thrice

B. twos and threes

D. twices and thrices

7. ... is ten.
A. twice five

C. two times five

B. second five

D. second times five

8. That was English book I have ever read.


A. first

C. one

B. the first

D. the one

9. I had no time to answer the question.


A. twenty-five

C. twenty-fifth

B. twenty-fiveth

D. twenty-fives

10. There is a danger in going along the lines outlined by him.


A. thrice

C. three times

B. threeheld

D. threefold

II. Write a 300-word composition about going shopping on 24th/31st December.


82

REFERENCES
1. Cambridge International Dictionary of English, Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1995
2. Gleanu-Frnoag, Georgiana, Doina Sachelarie-Lecca, Limba englez n
conversaie, Bucureti: Editura tiinific i Enciclopedic, 1982
3. Ilovici, Edith, Mariana Chioran, Maria Ciofu, A Practical Guide to English
Grammar. Exerciii de gramatic, Ediia a II-a, Bucureti: Editura Didactic i
Pedagogic, 1972
4. ODriscoll, James, Britain. The Country and Its People, Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 1996

83

UNIT 7
FOOD AND DRINK
Exercise 1. Read the following text carefully and then sum up the main ideas of
the text:

Typical cooking involves a lot of roasting and, according to the British taste, food
should be eaten hot. A fry up is a phrase used informally for several items fried
together, most commonly eggs, bacon, sausages, tomatoes, mushrooms, and even
bread. The dish is not always accompanied by chips (the British word for French
fried potatoes).
Although it is sometimes poetically referred to as the stuff of life, bread
is not an accompaniament to every meal. It is not even normally on the table at
either lunch or the evening meal. It is most commonly eaten, with butter and
almost anything else, for a snack, either as a sandwich or as toast (a British
household regards toasting facilities as a basic necessity). On the other hand, the
British use a lot of flour for making pastry dishes, both savoury and sweet,
normally called pies, and for making cakes.
Eggs are a basic part of most peoples diet. They are either fried, softboiled and eaten out of an egg cup, hard boiled (so that they can be eaten with
the fingers or put into sandwiches), or poached (i.e. steamed).
In most households, it is common for a family meal to finish with a
prepared sweet dish. This is called either pudding, sweet or dessert. There is
a great variety of well-known dishes for this purpose, many of which are served
hot (often a pie of some sort).
The British are the worlds biggest consumers of sugar more than five
kilograms per person every year. Sugar is present in almost every tinned food
item, and they also love sweets (including all kinds of chocolate and also what
the Americans call candy).

84

VOCABULARY
phrase = expresie, sintagm
informally = neoficial, neprotocolar, familiar
item = articol, element, obiect
dish = (fel de) mncare
stuff = materie, substan, esen
accompaniament = nsoitor, auxiliar
snack = aperitiv, gustare
pastry = (produse de) patiserie/cofetrie
savoury = savuros, gustos, apetisant
diet = diet, regim alimentar, hran
poached = fiert fr coaj (poached eggs = ochiuri romneti)
preserved = conservat
variety = varietate, soi, diversitate
candy = bomboan, drops

Exercise 2. Answer the following questions, using some of the vocabulary given
below:

1. Which of the following do you have for breakfast: strong/weak tea; black/white
coffee; milk; fruit juice; soft-(hard-)boiled/fried/scrambled/poached eggs;
omelette; cornflakes; sausage?

2. What do you generally have for dinner? tomato/chicken/noodle soup; meat:


beef, veal, mutton, lamb, pork, poultry; fish; boiled/roast/mashed/chipped
potatoes; vegetables: cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, peas, (French) beans, eggplants, cucumbers, green-peppers, lettuce, (spring) onions.

3. Which is your favourite dessert: (chocolate) cake; apple tart; cheese pie;
pudding; cheese and biscuits; fruit; fruit salad; ice-cream?

85

4. What do you usually drink with your main meal: brandy; white/red wine;
dry/sweet wine; beer; orange juice; lemonade; (mineral) water?

5. What meals are the following used for? Where are they arranged on the table?
cups and saucers; soup-plates; dinner-plates; tea-spoons; soup-spoons; dessertspoons; knives; forks; napkins; table-cloth.

6. What is the difference between frozen and tinned foods?

7. What are your favourite dishes?

Exercise 3. Which is the difference between the following: to poach, to fry, to


deep-fry, to grill (Br.)/to broil (Amer.), to season, to boil, to roast, to bake, to
microwave, to smoke? Consider:

to cook by using direct heat, especially under a very hot surface in a


cooker

to cook by using dry heat in an oven or over a fire

to cook inside a cooker, without using added liquid or fat

to cook by putting food in gently boiling water or other liquid

to preserve and add a smoky flavour using smoke from burning wood

to cook by frying food in a lot of oil or fat

to cook by putting food in water which is heated until it starts to turn into a
gas

to cook in hot oil or fat

to cook food very quickly by putting it in a microwave oven

to improve the flavour of food by adding small amounts of salt, herbs or


spices

86

Exercise 4. Write a short commentary expressing your opinions for, or against,


the ideas in the following text:

DRINKS IN BRITAIN
The attitude to alcohol in Britain is ambivalent. On the one hand, it is accepted
and welcomed as an integral part of British culture. The local pub plays an
important role in almost every neighbourhood and pubs, it should be noted, are
predominantly for the drinking of beer and spirits. The nearest pub is commonly
referred to as the local and people who go there often are known as regulars.
Even a certain level of drunkenness is acceptable: provided this does not lead to
violence, there is no shame attached to it.
On the other hand, the puritan tradition has led to the widespread view that
drinking is something potentially dangerous which should therefore be restricted,
in terms of both who can do it and where it can be done. Most people, including
regular drinkers, consider that it would be wrong to give a child even half of a
glass of beer. When, in 1993, research was published showing that nearly 70% of
fifteen-year-old children in the country drank some alcohol in an average week, it
was generally agreed that this was a serious social problem. People cannot be
served in pubs until the age of eighteen and they are not even allowed inside one
(unless it has a special childrens certificate) until they are fourteen.
For many people, drinking is confined to pubs. Wine or beer is not as
much a part of home life as it is in some other European countries. Most cafs are
not allowed to serve even beer.
Nevertheless, alcohol, especially beer, is an important part of many
peoples lives. Notice, for example, the mass rush across the Channel after
customs duties were changed in 1992. Beer was much cheaper in France and
people were allowed to bring back almost as much as they liked. It was calculated
that, in the first year, the single European market cost the British government
about 250 million in lost taxes on alcohol.

87

Exercise 5. Fill in the blanks with the suitable words or phrases required by the
meaning of the following sentences:

alcoholics

beverage

drink driving

drunkards

hangover

hard drinker

quench

sober

soft drinks

tipsy
1. We stopped in a small village to our thirst and refuel
the jeep.
2. She refuses to have any in the house.
3. The place was full of noise and shouting.
4. Many are unaware of their problem until it is too late.
5. causes over 800 deaths a year on the roads.
6. I cant drink gin it gives me a really bad
7. He quickly earned a reputation as a
8. Not too much for me thanks, Im feeling a bit already.
9. We were all pretty drunk, but she was the only one who was

10. On the plane, they only served snacks and

Exercise 6. The meat from some animals has a different name from the animal
itself. For example, the meat from a cow is called beef, the meat from a pig is
called pork or ham or bacon, the meat from a calf is veal, the meat from a deer
is venison, and meat from a sheep is mutton. But the meat from a lamb is lamb,
the meat from a rabbit is called rabbit, and for birds the same word is used for
both the meat and the creature (chicken, turkey, duck, etc.).
Choose the best word to fill in the gaps:
1. The spaghetti sauce is made from minced
(beef/cow/cattle)
2. I choose for the main course. (mutton/sheep/deer)
3. We usually have for dinner on Friday. (game/pig/calf)
4. I dont cook very often because it is quite expensive.
(calf/cow/veal)
88

5. How many slices of would you like? (pig/bacon/pork)


6. He is a farmer. (cow/beef/cattle)
7. These sausages are too salty for my taste.
(sheep/pork/pig)
8.

The

restaurant

speciality

is

lorange.

(goose/duck/deer)
9. She cooked . in red wine sauce for dinner.
(venison/sheep/cow)
10.

Could

have

another

sandwich,

please?

(pig/calf/ham)

Exercise 7. Topics for discussion


1. Do you usually eat at home/at a canteen/in a restaurant/at a snack bar?
(Dis)advantages of each.
2. On what occasions do people eat out? Why is it customary to mark important
events in restaurants?
3. (Dis)advantages of buying semi-prepared, ready-packed, ready-cooked and
ready-bottled foods.
4. Do you care much for spices? Why (not)? If yes, what kind?
5. Do you (dis)agree that people eat far more than is good for them?

GRAMMAR
VERBUL (I)
(THE VERB)
Este partea de vorbire care exprim o aciune, o stare, o atitudine etc.
Verbul prezint cteva caracteristici specifice, care trebuie avute n vedere n
analizarea aciunii: persoana care face aciunea, timpul cnd se face aciunea,
modul n care se desfoar aciunea, aspectul acesteia (durata n timp), diateza.
1. Persoana care face aciunea este subiectul propoziiei. n funcie de aceasta,
verbul dobndete forme diferite pentru a indica ndeplinirea aciunii de ctre

89

vorbitor (persoana I: I, we), interlocutor (persoana a II-a: you) sau de un alt obiect
(persoana a III-a: he, she, it, they).
2. Timpul aciunii reprezint momentul sau perioada n care se desfoar
aciunea. n limba englez exist trei timpuri de baz: trecut, prezent i viitor, i
trei timpuri secundare: trecut perfect, prezent perfect i viitor perfect.
3. Modul aciunii indic felul cum este conceput aciunea. Exist moduri
personale (care formeaz singure predicatul unei propoziii) i impersonale (care
nu pot forma singure predicatul).
n categoria modurilor personale intr:
indicativul, care arat o aciune real, singur;
subjonctivul, care descrie o aciune ireal;
conjunctivul, care indic o aciune dorit;
imperativul, care exprim un ordin, o sugestie direct, o rugminte, un
sfat etc.
Modurile nepersonale cuprind:
infinitivul, care arat numele aciunii, strii;
gerundul, care indic aciunea verbal;
participiul, cu forme de prezent (artnd o aciune n desfurare) i
trecut (indicnd nsuirea rezultat dintr-o aciune)
Not: Gerundul i participiul prezint particulariti proprii, care le disting clar
fa de gerunziul i participiul din limba romn.
4. Aspectul aciunii reprezint o categorie verbal specific limbii engleze,
referitoare la durata unei aciuni. Poate fi de dou tipuri:
simplu (aciunea propriu-zis);
continuu (desfurarea nentrerupt a aciunii ntr-o anumit perioad de
timp, bine definit).
Aspectul continuu se formeaz cu ajutorul verbului auxiliar to be i terminaia
ing adugat la verb.
Not: Exist o serie de verbe care, de regul, nu pot fi folosite la aspectul
continuu (atunci cnd totui apar la acest aspect, i modific sensul): to
hear, to see, to smell, to taste, to feel, to sound, to look, to appear; to
believe, to consider, to expect, to hope, to imagine, to know, to suppose, to
90

think, to understand, to forget, to recognize; to love, to like, to dislike, to


hate, to detest, to prefer, to want, to refuse, to regret, to wish, to mind; to
have; to be; to own, to possess; to resemble; to belong etc.
5. Diateza reprezint o alt categorie aparte, diferit de cea existent n limba
romn. Se refer la forma verbului n funcie de aciunea ndeplinit de subiect:
dac subiectul este cel care face aciunea, diateza este activ; dac aciunea este
ndeplinit de altcineva i este numai suportat de subiect, diateza este pasiv;
dac subiectul este cel care ndeplinete i, n acelai timp, suport aciunea,
diateza este reflexiv. n limba englez, diateza reflexiv nu exist ca atare, fiind
fie inclus n sensul unor verbe, fie introdus prin prezena unui pronume reflexiv
plasat dup verb.
He grew fat. (S-a ngrat.)
I am washing myself. (M spl.)
Not: Pentru formarea unor construcii verbale compuse, se face apel la verbe
auxiliare (ajuttoare): to be, to have, to do, shall, will, should, would. Aceste verbe
prezint urmtoarele caracteristici: nu au neles independent, neputnd fi traduse;
i schimb forma n funcie de modul, timpul, persoana i numrul cerute, n timp
ce verbul de conjugat rmne invariabil.
* TO DO - formeaz negativul i interogativul timpurilor prezent i trecut.
* TO BE - formeaz aspectul continuu, mpreun cu participiul prezent
(-ing)
- formeaz diateza pasiv, mpreun cu participiul trecut (-ed, la
verbe regulate; a treia form, la verbe neregulate)
* TO HAVE - formeaz timpurile perfecte, mpreun cu participiul trecut
(-ed sau forma a treia averbului)
* SHALL, WILL - formeaz timpul viitor
* SHOULD, WOULD - formeaz modul condiional
- formeaz modul subjonctiv analitic

91

I. Modurile personale
A. Indicativul - indic o aciune real, sigur, desfurat ntr-un moment bine
definit. n limba englez, exist timpuri simple (trecut, prezent, viitor), care
subliniaz aciunea propriu-zis; timpuri continue, care subliniaz durata
aciunii; timpuri perfecte, care subliniaz anterioritatea aciunii sau rezultatul
acesteia.
Deoarece ntre timpurile din limba englez i cele din limba romn nu
exist o coresponden perfect, vor fi prezentate cu denumirea n limba englez.
1. Present Simple
afirmativ: Verb (la toate persoanele). Excepie: persoana a III-a singular
(he, she, it) + Verb-s
negativ: do/does + not + Verb; don't/doesn't + Verb
interogativ: Do/Does + Subiect + Verb ?
Exprim o aciune prezent, repetat cu regularitate, o stare permanent.
Apare cu adverbe de frecven: often, always, never, rarely, seldom, frequently,
generally, usually, constantly etc.
He lives in a large house.(El locuiete ntr-o cas mare.)
He does not (doesnt) live in a large house.(El nu locuiete ntr-o
cas mare.)
Does he live in a large house ?(El locuiete ntr-o cas mare ?)
2. Present Continuous
afirmativ: am/are/is + Verb-ing (participiu prezent)
negativ: am/are/is + not + Verb-ing; aren't/isn't + Verb -ing
interogativ: Am/Are/Is + Subiect + Verb-ing ?
Exprim o aciune n plin desfurare n momentul prezent sau o aciune
temporar, desfurat pe timp limitat n perioada prezent. Apare cu adverbe de
timp prezent: now, just now, right now, this week/month/year etc.
Cnd apare cu adverbul always, indic o aciune repetat, care este caracteristic
persoanei care o ndeplinete (de obicei, exprim nemulumirea vorbitorului).
I am working hard today. (Astzi muncesc mult.)
Im not working hard today .(Nu muncesc mult astzi.)
Am I working hard today ?(Muncesc mult astzi?)
I am always working hard on weekends. (ntotdeauna muncesc la
mult sfrit de sptmn.)
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3. Present Perfect
afirmativ: have/has + Verb-ed/III (participiu trecut)
negativ: have/has + not + Verb-ed/III; haven't/hasn't + Verb -ed/III
interogativ: Have/Has + Subiect + Verb-ed/III ?
Este un timp de relaie, artnd legtura dintre un moment trecut i un prezent.
Cnd apare cu since sau for, exprim o aciune nceput n trecut i continuat n
prezent.
They have known me for years. (Ei m cunosc de ani de zile.)
She has lived in London since 1995.
(Ea locuiete la Londra din 1995.)
Cu adverbe de timp prezent (today, this week/month/year, this morning), exprim
o aciune trecut, efectuat ntr-o perioad de timp care nu s-a ncheiat nc.
I have worked hard today. (Am muncit mult astzi.)
He has written many novels this year.
(El a scris multe romane anul acesta.)
Cu adverbe de timp neprecizat, care leag trecutul de prezent (often, never, ever,
seldom, lately, yet), exprim o aciune trecut, ncheiat deja, dar cu rezultate,
consecine n prezent.
Have you ever visited this museum ?
(Ai/Ai vizitat vreodat acest muzeu ?)
He hasnt come yet. ( El nu a venit nc.)
4. Present Perfect Continuous
afirmativ: have/has + been + Verb-ing (participiu prezent)
negativ: have/has + not + been + Verb-ing; haven't/hasn't + been + Verb -ing
interogativ: Have/Has + Subiect + been + Verb-ing ?
Exprim o aciune n plin desfurare ntre un moment trecut i prezent (exist
posibilitatea ca aciunea nceput n trecut, care continu n prezent, s continue i
n viitorul apropiat).
He has been living in London for six months.
(El locuiete la Londra de ase luni.)
We havent been calling him since Christmas.
(Nu l-am mai cutat de la Crciun.)
Have you been sleeping for eleven hours?
(Ai dormit unsprezece ore?)

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5. Past Simple
afirmativ: Verb-ed (verbe regulate)/II (verbe neregulate)
negativ: did + not + Verb; didn't + Verb
interogativ: Did + Subiect + Verb ?
Exprim o aciune trecut, ncheiat ntr-o perioad de timp trecut, fr legtur
cu prezentul. Apare cu adverbe de timp trecut: yesterday, the day before
yesterday, last month/week/year, a week/month/year ago etc.
I visited them last evening. (I-am vizitat asear.)
I didnt visit them last evening. (Nu i-am vizitat asear.)
Did I visit them last evening? (I-am vizitat asear?)
Not: Din punct de vedere al formei, n limba englez verbele se mpart n dou
categorii importante: verbe regulate i verbe neregulate. Verbele regulate
formeaz Past Simple i Past Participle prin adugarea terminaiei (e)d la forma
de infinitiv (ex.: to work worked - worked = a lucra, a munci). Verbele
neregulate au fie toate cele trei forme identice (to cut cut - cut = a tia), fie
numai dou forme identice (to get - got - got = a primi), fie forme diferite (to
know knew - know = a ti, a cunoate). Deoarece verbele neregulate sunt
uzuale, se recomand nvarea acestora pe dinafar (a se vedea Lista principalelor
verbe neregulate de la sfritul manualului).
6. Past Continuous
afirmativ: was/were + Verb-ing (participiu prezent)
negativ: was/were + not + Verb-ing; wasn't/weren't + Verb-ing
interogativ: Was/Were + Subiect + Verb-ing ?
Exprim o aciune n plin desfurare ntr-un moment trecut. n limba romn, se
traduce prin imperfect (mergeam, spuneam, aveam, credeam, veneam).
I was looking out of the window when they called me.
(M uitam pe fereastr cnd m-au strigat.)
I wasnt looking out of the window when they called me.
(Nu m uitam pe fereastr cnd m-au strigat.)
Was I looking out of the window when they called me?
(M uitam pe fereastr cnd m-au strigat?)
7. Past Perfect
afirmativ: had + Verb-ed/III (participiu trecut)
negativ: had + not + Verb-ed/III; hadn't + Verb-ed/III
interogativ: Had + Subiect + Verb-ed/III ?
94

Exprim o aciune trecut, care a avut loc naintea unei alte aciuni trecute sau a
unui moment din trecut. n limba romn, se traduce de obicei prin mai mult ca
perfect (mersesem, spusesem, avusesem, crezusem, venisem).
The parcel had arrived before them.
(Coletul ajunsese naintea lor.)
The parcel hadnt arrived before them.
(Coletul nu ajunsese naintea lor.)
Had the parcel arrived before them?
(Ajunsese coletul naintea lor?)
8. Past Perfect Continuous
afirmativ: had + been + Verb-ing (participiu prezent)
negativ: had + not + been + Verb-ing; hadn't + been + Verb-ing
interogativ: Had + Subiect + Verb-ing ?
Exprim o aciune n plin desfurare ntre dou momente trecute. n limba
romn, se traduce prin mai ca perfect, perfect compus sau imperfect.
He had been walking for an hour when he met us.
(Mersese/A mers/Mergea de o or cnd ne-a ntlnit pe noi.)
He hadnt been walking for an hour when he met us.
(Nu mersese/Nu a mers/Nu mergea de o or cnd ne-a ntlnit pe
noi.)
Had he been walking for an hour when he met us?
(Mersese/A mers/ Mergea de o or cnd ne-a ntlnit pe noi )
9. Future Simple
afirmativ: shall/will + Verb
negativ: shall/will + not + Verb; shan't/won't + Verb
interogativ: Shall/Will + Subiect + Verb ?
Exprim o aciune viitoare obinuit. Apare cu adverbe de timp viitor: tomorrow,
the day after tomorrow, next week/month/year etc.
I shall come tomorrow. (Voi veni mine.)
He will come here next week. (Va veni aici sptmna viitoare.)
He will not (wont)come here next week.
(Nu va veni aici sptmna viitoare.)
Will he come here next week? (Va veni aici sptmna viitoare.)

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10. Future Continuous


afirmativ: shall/will + be + Verb-ing (participiu prezent)
negativ: shall/will + not + be + Verb-ing; shan't/won't + be + Verb-ing
interogativ: Shall/Will + Subiect + be + Verb-ing ?
Exprim o aciune n plin desfurare ntr-un moment viitor. Se folosete
cu adverbe de timp specifice: this time tomorrow, today week, in another
two/theree/four hours/days/weeks, very soon etc.
I shall be still working at five oclock.
(nc voi lucra la ora cinci.)
You will be watching him on TV very soon.
(l vei vedea la televizor foarte curnd.)
You wont be watching him on TV very soon.
(Nu-l vei vedea la televizor forte curnd.)
Will you be watching him on TV very soon?
(l vei vedea la televizor foarte curnd?)
11. Future Perfect
afirmativ: shall/will + have + Verb-ed/III (participiu trecut)
negativ: shall/will + not + have + Verb-ed/III; shan't/wont't + have + Verbed/III
interogativ: Shall/Will + Subiect +have + Verb-ed/III ?
Exprim o aciune anterioar, desfurat ntr-un moment viitor, naintea unei alte
aciuni viitoare. Se traduce prin viitorul anterior din limba romn (voi fi mers,
voi fi spus, voi fi avut, voi fi crezut, voi fi venit).
He will have left home by ten oclock.
(Va fi prsit casa pn la ora zece.)
He wont have left home by ten oclock.
( Nu va fi prsit casa pn la ora zece.)
Will he have left home by ten oclock.
(Va fi prsit casa pn la ora zece?)
12. Future Perfect Continuous
afirmativ: shall/will + have + been +Verb-ing (participiu prezent)
negativ: shall/will + not + have + been + Verb-ing;
shan't/won't + been + Verb-ing
interogativ: Shall/Will + Subiect +have + been + Verb-ing?
Exprim o aciune n plin desfurare ntre dou momente din viitor.
96

I shall have been finishing the novel by tomorrow.


(Voi fi terminat romanul pn mine.)
I shall not have been finishing the novel by tomorrow.
( Nu voi fi terminat romanul pn mine.)
Shall I have been finishing the novel by tomorrow?
(Voi fi terminat romanul pn mine?)
Pe lng aceste timpuri, n limba englez mai exist dou timpuri specifice,
inexistente n limba romn, care sunt necesare pentru respectarea anumitor reguli
de concordan a timpurilor. Dac o propoziie principal are verbul la un timp
trecut, regula strict a gramaticii limbii engleze impune folosirea unor timpuri
trecute n propoziiile secundare. n cazul n care acestea conin ideea de viitor,
aceasta va fi redat prin urmtoarele timpuri:
13. Future in the Past
afirmativ: should/would + Verb
negativ: should/would + not + Verb; shouldn't/wouldn't + Verb
interogativ: Should/Would + Subiect + Verb?
Exprim ideea de viitor ntr-o propoziie secundar dependent de o propoziie
principal cu verbul la un timp trecut. n limba romn se traduce prin viitor.
I knew you would come. (tiam c vei veni.)
14. Future Perfect in the Past
afirmativ: should/would + have + Verb-ed/III (participiu trecut)
negativ: should/would + not + have + Verb-ed/III; shouldn't/wouldn't + have +
Verb-ed/III
interogativ: Should/Would + Subiect + have + Verb-ed/III?
Exprim ideea de viitor anterior.
I knew I would have finished the novel by ten oclock.
(tiam c voi fi terminat romanul pn la ora zece.)

Exercise 8. Turn the following sentences into the negative and the interrogative:

1. We want to have a rest after lunch.

2. That visitor told you his name.


97

3. The three men have stopped at the corner.

4. I shall do my shopping tomorrow morning.

5. She goes to the library every two days.

6. He has been studying all the time.

7. We shall be meeting them as soon as possible.

8. You have got permission to visit the site.

9. It rains a lot in the mountainous regions.

10. The postman brought a registered letter.

11. You will receive all the necessary information.

12. The boy ran to the door and shut it.

13. He is trying hard to catch up with his colleagues.

98

14. We waited for you till late last night.

15. The train reaches the station at 6 a.m.

Exercise 9. Translate the following into Romanian, paying attention to the use of
the verbal tenses:
1. Nu ai gsit biletul pe care i l-am lsat?

2. i aduci aminte c le-am spus c nu au dreptate?

3. Nu-i dai seama despre ce este vorba.

4. Cnd l-am vzut din nou, el nc atepta n staie.

5. Nu cred c vei fi acolo naintea noastr.

6. Bnuiam c se ntmplase ceva.

7. Locuiesc n acest cartier de 16 ani i nc nu cunosc mprejurimile.

8. Toi uitaser cntecul nostru preferat.

9. M doare capul i cred c am rcit; de ieri stau n cas.

10. Eu cred c vei reui la examen.

99

Exercise 10. Supply the right verbal tense in the following sentences, paying
attention to the time adverbial:
1. The moon (to shine) through the window when I
(to go) to sleep last night.
2. She always the concerts broadcast on the radio on
Sunday mornings. (to listen to)
3. We (to wonder) where he
(to live) all those years.
4.

When

she

(to

leave)

school

she

(to go) to work at a radio station.


5.

(not

to

save)

anything

since

(to buy) the car.


6. I (to remember) I (to sit) in
the armchair and (to smoke) until my wife
(to come) to call me for dinner.
7. We generally our spare money at the savings bank. (to
deposit)
8. He (to work) as a shop assistant for the next three
days.
9. Hydrogen a gas without colour, smell or taste. (to be)
10. Water at 0C and at 100C.
(to boil, to freeze)

REMEMBER!
Most important tenses:
Simple Present: everyday activities he/she/it -(e)s; dont/doesnt; do/does
?
Present Continuous: activity happening now am/are/is -ing; am/are/is not
-ing; am/is/are-ing?
Simple Past: past activity [Regular verbs: forms the Past Simple and Past Participle
form by adding (e)d to the infinitival form; Irregular verbs form the Past Simple
and Past Participle differently (see the list of the main irregular verbs)]
Simple Future: future activity shall/will; shant/wont; shall/will?
100

CHECK-UP TEST
I. Choose the right variant:
1. I writing the letter.
A. just finished

C. finished just

B. have just finished

D. just have finished

2. The little girl her new doll very much.


A. is liking

C. likes

B. is loving

D. loves

3. I unless I catch a taxi.


A. am

C. shall be

B. must be

D. have been

4. When I have passed all my exams, I to join you on the seaside.


A. shall be able

C. am able

B. could

D. shall can

5. You should look both ways while you the street.


A. cross

C. have crossed

B. are crossing

D. were crossing

6. In my childhood I a very naughty boy.


A. were

C. was

B. have been

D. had been

7. When you here, you will meet my cousins.


A. will come

C. shall come

B. come

D. will be coming

8. How old you when you graduated from school?


A. was

C. have been

B. were

D. had been

9. I know her by sight but I her.


A. have never met

C. didnt never meet

B. never meet

D. did met

10. Whenever they gave us a ring, we . to meet them.


A. went

C. will go

B. have gone

D. had gone

II. Write a 300-word composition about some traditional Romanian dishes.


101

REFERENCES
1. Cambridge International Dictionary of English, Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1995
2. ODriscoll, James, Britain. The Country and Its People, Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 1996
3. Gleanu-Frnoag, Georgiana, Doina Sachelarie-Lecca, Limba englez n
conversaie, Bucureti: Editura tiinific i Enciclopedic, 1982
4. ODriscoll, James, Britain. The Country and Its People, Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 1996

102

UNIT 8
HEALTH
Exercise 1. Read the following text carefully and then sum up the main ideas of
the text:

Where is the virtue in sport, fitness and the beautiful body? It is high time you
hung up your trainers and exercised your mind, not your body. Think about the
things in life that give you most pleasure. Watching television, perhaps sipping
chilled lager? How about eating lasagna by candlelight in a favourite restaurant?
What do they all have in common? They all involve nothing more strenuous than
sitting or lying down.
Why, then, this present mania for doing things that require staying vertical
or running around? I hate exercise and all forms of sport, just like the smugness
and self-righteousness of those who think developing rippling muscles and flat
stomachs superior to the cultivation of personality, manners, good taste in art,
music, literature and food. I was brought up to believe that physical exercise was
bad for one, and experience seems to support my parents philosophy that pain,
suffering and ill-health result from anything more strenuous than walking to the
pillar box on the corner or digging the allotment. This has been reinforced over
the years by reports of footballers with torn ligaments, atheletes crippled by
arthritis, or joggers dropping dead with heart attacks.
We are all followers of fashion in some way, and exercising is a fashion,
an ephemeral fad. People who take exercise are full of their own importance and
rightenss. It is all so serious! Exercising makes people think they can live forever;
it is repetitive and unending: once you stop, the flab returns and the pulse slows
down again. And it is expensive: in terms of time, effort and material things like
club fees, equipment and special outfits.
But take heart, for the best club to join is free, has no age limit, and
requires no previous experience or special outfits. It is right there, in your sittingroom. So welcome to your rightful place beside the fire.

103

VOCABULARY
trainer = pantof de sport, adidas
to sip = a sorbi, a nghii
strenuous = obositor, extenuant, care cere mult efort
to abhor = a detesta, a ur
smugness = suficen de sine, automulumire
self-righteousness = siguran de sine, ngmfare
rippling = care murmur/susur/clipocete; (aici) care se ncordeaz
to dig = a spa
pillar box = cutie potal
allotment = alocare, repartiie
crippled = schilodit, mutilat
fad = stil sau activitate la mod pentru o scurt perioad de timp
flab = slbiciune, moliciune, lips de via
outfit = echipament, instalaie, dispozitiv
to take heart = a-i lua inima n dini

Exercise 2. Answer the following questions, using some of the vocabulary given
below:

1. Which factors do you consider more important in keeping good health:


wholesome food; regular meals; plenty of exercise; a lot of rest; recreation;
medicine?

2. What are the complaints you suffer from most frequently: have a
headache/toothache/stomachache/backache; suffer from sleeplessness/insomnia?

3. What do people usually do when they do not feel very well? Put these actions
in the right order: to feel slightly unwell; to go to the doctor; to be examined by the
doctor; to make an appointment; to go to the chemists; to get a prescription; to
have the prescription made up; to phone the doctors receptionist

104

4. What are the symptoms of flu? coughing; sneezing; headache; a running nose;
a clogged nose; a high temperature; a sore throat; feeling giddy; sweat

5. What treatment does a doctor usually prescribe to a patient suffering from a bad
cold? to stay in bed; to take some medicine; to gargle; to keep oneself warm; not
to get overtired

6. What can you get at a chemists? pain-killers; dressing; powders; mixtures;


pills/tablets; drops; ointments; cotton

Exercise 3. Which is the difference between the following: clinic, nursing home,
experiment, trial, experience, guinea-pig, patient, subject, to see, to watch?
Consider:

a test, usually over a limited period of time, to discover how effective or


suitable something or someone is

a person who is receiving medical care, or who is cared for by a particular


doctor or dentist when necessary

to look at something for a period of time, especially something that is


moving

a test done in order to learn something or to discover whether something


works or it is true

a person used in a scientific test, usually to discover the effect of a drug on


humans

a building, especially part of a hospital, to whish people can go for


medical care or advice

a private hospital where ill and very old people can stay and be cared for

105

(the process of getting) knowledge or skill which is obtained from doing,


seeing or feeling things, or something that happens which has an effect on
you

to be aware of what is around womeone by using ones eyes

the thing which is being discussed, considered or studied

Exercise 4. Write a short commentary expressing your opinions for, or against,


the ideas in the following text:

THE BODY IN TIME


How does your body run all day? Like clockwork!
7 to 9 am: Heart rate increases, doby temperature rises and adrenal
hormonespeak at the body gears up for the day ahead. More people over 65 suffer
heart failure and stroke now than at any other time of the day. The majority of all
deaths, including suicide, occur. Asthma sufferers, however, receive maximum
benefits from their medicine soon after waking.
9 to 11 am: The body is least sensitive to pain and anxiety levels are
lowest. Alertness peaks in late morning when body temperature is high. Shortterm memory is 15 percent more efficient and problem-sovling abilities are
sharper.
1 to 2 pm: Energy levels and alertness drop temporarily.
3 to 4 pm: The best time for athletes as muscles strength, body flexibility
and aerobic capacity reach their peak. Long-term memory is significantly better.
A second peak in the death rate occurs at 4 am, with an unusually high number of
traffic fatalities.
5 pm: Blood pressure peaks. Taste and smell are sharpest.
6 to 7 pm: This is the worst time of the day for dieters to eat more
calories end up as fat due to fluctuations of body metabolism.
8 to 11 pm: The brain hormones serotonin and adenosine shut down the
electrical activity of some neurons, causing drowsiness and sleep. Hearing,
however, remains acute throughout the night.
Midnight to 3 am: Blood pressure, heart rate and stress hormones all
bottom out. Heart attacks are rare, as most deaths, because the body is in its most
relaxed state. But the most common time for the onset of labour in pregnant
women is 1 am.
106

4 am: The body temperature drops to its lowest level of the day. Industrial
accidents are unusually high now. The body steps up its production of histamine,
increasing wheezing attacks in asthmatics.

Exercise 5. Match the following facial features (1-10) with the proper definition
(a-j):

1. brow

a) openings in the nose

2. complexion

b) the soft lower parts of the ears

3. eyelids

c) flat parts on the side of the face

4. gums

above the ckeek-bones

5. lobes

d) the bony case that protects the brain

6. nostrils

e) the tissue our teeth are in

7. skull

f) the passage from the mouth towards

8. temples

the stomach

9. throat

g) another name for the forehead

10. tongue

h) the colour and state of the skin on the


face
i) the movable skin which opens and
closes the eyes
j)

the

organ

used

for

tasting,

swallowing and speech

Exercise 6. Fill in the blanks with the suitable words or phrases required by the
meaning of the following sentences:

bloodhshot eyes

chin

concussion

earache

eyebrows

face

front teeth

mouth

nose

sore throat

107

1. I have got a from shouting too much at the football


match.
2. Last week, I had got a when I walked into a door.
3. I have from trying to read in the dark.
4. I singed my while trying to light the gas-cooker.
5. I scratched my when I fell on the ice.
6. Yesterday I got an from swimming underwater a lot.
7. I chipped one of my eating one of my wifes rockcakes.
8. I have got a blocked-up after that early morning
swim.
9. I have got an ulcer in the from eating too many
sweets.
10. He scalded his with his shaving water.

Exercise 7. Topics for discussion


1. What is good health, in you opinion?
2. What do you understand by a regular life?
3. What do you usually do in case of emergency?
4. The importance of herbs for todays medicine.
5. The secret of longevity.

GRAMMAR
VERBUL (II)
(THE VERB)

Modurile personale (II)


B. Subjonctivul - indic o aciune ireal, presupus, dar posibil, realizabil.
Dup form, poate fi:
1. sintetic, cu forme pentru:

108

* prezent, identic cu infinitul scurt (fr to), care apare n expresii de tipul: it is
important/natural that ..., precum i n exclamaii.
It is important that he come early.
(Este important ca el s vin devreme.)
So be it! (Aa s fie!)
God bless you! (Dumnezeu s te binecuvnteze!)
Come what may! (Fie ce-o fi!)
Long live ...! (S triasc ...!)
* trecut, identic cu trecutul simplu (Past Simple), care apare n expresii ca: I wish
..., its time ..., if I were you/if you were me/if he were you ..., would rather, had
better.
I wish he understood. (A dori s neleag.)
Its time we left. (Este timpul s plecm.)
If I were you, I would tell him. (Dac a fi n locul tu, i-a spune.)
I would rather you left. (A prefera s pleci.)
2. analitic, care se formeaz cu verbele modale cerute de expresii ca: it is
important/natural that ..., so that, in order that; sau de verbele: to suggest, to
insist, to demand, to order (that).
It is important that he should come.
(Este important ca el s vin.)
I shall speak so that he might understand.
(Voi vorbi astfel nct el s poat nelege.)
I insist that you should listen to me. (Insist ca tu s m asculi.)
C. Condiionalul - exprim o condiie sau o aciune dorit. Fraza condiional
este format din propoziia principal, care exprim aciunea condiionat, i
propoziia secundar, care indic o condiie a realizrii acestei aciuni. Propoziia
subordonat poate fi introdus prin: if, if not, unless, if only, in case.
n limba englez, exist trei tipuri de condiional, care exprim:
condiia real, care se poate realiza n prezent sau viitor. n acest tip de
condiional, ideea de viitor este redat numai n propoziia principal; n
propoziia secundar nu va aprea niciodat o form de tip viitor, introdus prin
shall/will.
If you talk to him, he will uderstand.
(Dac i vorbeti/vei vorbi, va nelege.)
109

If you talk to him, he may understand.


(Dac i vorbeti/vei vorbi, poate nelege.)
condiia ideal, care nu se poate realiza n prezent, dar este posibil s se
realizeze n viitor. n acest caz, propoziia principal prezint o form verbal
compus din would urmat de verb la infinitiv scurt (fr to), n timp ce propoziia
secundar are verbul la Past Simple.
If you talked to him, he would understand.
(Dac i-ai vorbi, ar nelege.)
If you talked to him, he might understand.
(Dac i-ai vorbi, ar putea nelege.)
condiia ireal, care nu s-a realizat i este imposibil s se realizeze. n
acest tip, propoziia principal are o form verbal compus din would i verb la
infinitiv perfect (have + Verb-ed/III), iar propoziia secundar prezint verbul la
Past Perfect.
If you had talked to him, he would have understood.
(Dac i-ai fi vorbit, ar fi neles.)
If you had talked to him, he might have understood.
(Dac i-ai fi vorbit, ar fi putut nelege.)
D. Imperativul exprim un ordin, o comand, un ndemn, un sfat, o urare. Se
formeaz n mod diferit, n funcie de persoane:
pentru persoanele I i a III-a singular i plural, cu ajutorul verbului let i
un substantiv sau pronume n cazul acuzativ, urmate de verb la infinitiv scurt
(fr to). Forma negativ primete dont ...
Let me come in!

Dont let me come in!

(Las-m s intru!)

(Nu m lsa s intru!)

Let him speak !

Dont let him speak!

(Las-l s vorbeasc!/

(Nu-l lsa s vorbeasc!/

S vorbeasc!)

S nu vorbeasc!)

Let George speak!

Dont let George speak!

(S vorbeasc George!)

(S nu vorbeasc George!)

Let us play!

Dont let us play! sau

(Hai s ne jucm!)

(S nu ne jucm!)
Let us not play! (form protocolar)

110

pentru persoana a II-a singular i plural, cu ajutorul verbului la infinitiv


scurt (fr to). Negaia se formeaz prin dont...
Come in! (Intr/Intrai!)

Dont come in! (Nu intra!/ Nu intrai!)

Speak! (Vorbete!/Vorbii!)

Dont speak! (Nu vorbi!/ Nu vorbii!)

Look! (Privete!/Privii!)

Dont look! (Nu privi!/Nu privii!)

Exercise 8. Fill in the spaces with the Subjunctive form of the verb in brackets:
1. I wish summer now. (to be)
2. I regret I ever going to that club. (to suggest)
3. It looks as if there an accident. (to happen)
4. success attend you! (may)
5. If we time, we should call on you. (to have)
6. Dont you wish we on holidays sooner? (to go)
7. It is high time you your mind whether you come or
stay. (to make up)
8. I wish everybody about this. (to know)
9. You looks as if you to ask something (to want).
10. Far it from me! (to be)
11. It is certainly time you and I a serious talk. (to have)
12. If this so, you are both to be blamed. (to be)
13. We wish they us more often. (to visit)
14. We insist that the problem dealt with by the board.
(to be)
15. I demand that they it at once. (to do)
16. It is time we for the airport. (to leave)
17. If the news true, this is a very serious matter. (to be)
18. Everybody the room. (to leave)
19. Even if it we should leave. (to rain)
20. Its a pity we for the Black Sea cruise in advance.
(not to book)

Exercise 9. Translate the following into Romanian, paying attention to the use of
the Imperative:

111

1. Citete ultimul numr al revistei! Mi se pare foarte interesant.

2. Nu fi ngrijorat! Totul va fi bine.

3. Nu cred c ar trebui s mergem pe jos. Hai s lum un taxi!

4. S le telefonez c venim? Nu-i nevoie. Hai s le facem o surpriz!

5. Nu-l deranja! Nu vrea s vad pe nimeni.

6. S mergem! E trziu i nu vreau s ne atepte.

7. Du-te s vezi expoziia. E legat de specialitatea ta.

8. Hai s amnm excursia pn se restabilesc toi.

9. Crezi c te descurci? S te ajut la traducere!

10. S iei umbrela! Plou tare afar.

Exercise 10. Supply the three conditional types in the following sentences
(wherever possible):

1.

You

never

(to

suceed)

unless

you

(to have) more confidence in yourself.


2. The climbers (can) bear all the hardships if they
(to get) used to the weather before.
3. I (may) accept your offer if you family
(to agree).
4. They (to come) to see you more frequently if they
(not to be) so busy.
5. If you (to have) enough money, why you
(not to go) on a trip abroad?

112

6. I

(not to

go) into the city unless

you

(to want) me to buy something special.


7.

We

(not

to

take)

this

road

if

we

(to be certain) it was the right one.


8.

If

there

(to

be)

any

difficulty,

(to get) in touch with her at once.


9. If it (to prove) impossible to find a solution, what we
(shall) do?
10. If I (to be) you, I (to
consider) the matter settled.

REMEMBER!
Subjunctive: - Present: I wish/Its time/If/Suppose + Past Tense
- Perfect: I wish(ed)/Its time/If/Suppose + Past Perfect
- analytical: it is important/strange/better/essential that (etc.) +
should
Imperative: Go!/Dont go!; Lets (not)!
Conditional:
1) IF + Present Tense WILL/Imperative/Modal:
If you go, we will/might understand.
2) IF + Past Simple WOULD/Modal:
If you went, we would/might understand.
3) IF + Past Perfect WOULD HAVE/Modal:
If you had gone, we would/might have understood.

CHECK-UP TEST
I. Choose the right variant:
1. I wish he with us right now.
A. is

C. were

B. was

D. be

2. Youll never succeed you have more confidence in yourself.


A. if

C. unless
113

B. if not

D. less

3. Far it from me!


A. is

C. were

B. was

D. be

4. Its time for us


A. leaving

C. to leave

B. left

D. to have left

5. Dont come she tell you.


A. if

C. unless

B. if not

D. less

6. It looks as if it an accident.
A. is

C. were

B. was

D. be

7. football if you dont like it!


A. Dont play

C. Not to play

B. Not play

D. No play

8. It is natural that children fond of games.


A. to be

C. be

B. should be

D. would be

9. He spoke French as if it his mother tongue.


A. is

C. were

B. was

D. be

10. I wish they me better.


A. understand

C. understood

B.have understand

D. did understand

II. Write a 300-word composition about the necessity of a balanced diet for good
health.

REFERENCES
1. Cambridge International Dictionary of English, Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1995

114

2. Ilovici, Edith, Mariana Chioran, Maria Ciofu, A Practical Guide to English


Grammar. Exerciii de gramatic, Ediia a II-a, Bucureti: Editura Didactic i
Pedagogic, 1972
3. Wellman, Guy, The Heinemann English Wordbuilder, Oxford: Heinemann
International, 1992
4. Womans Day - March 20, 1990

115

UNIT 9
WORK
Exercise 1. Read the following text carefully and then sum up the main ideas of
the text:

The British attitude to work is marked by a certain lack of enthusiasm. At the


upper end of the social scale, this exists because leisure has always been the main
outwards sign of aristocracy. And, because of Britains class system, it has had its
effects throughout society: if you have to work, then the less it looks like work,
the better. Therefore, traditionally, a major sign of being middle class (as opposed
to working class) has been non-manual work. The fact that skilled manual (or
blue-collar) workers have been paid more highly than the lower grades of nonmanual (white-collar) workers for several decades has only slightly changed this
social perception.
Nevertheless, the connection between class distinctions and types of work
lives on in many ways, such as the different way in which earnings are
conventionally expressed and paid. For instance, while manual (and lowest grades
of non-manual) workers receive their wages paid every week, usually in cash, and
the rate is quoted per hour or week, the non-manual workers are paid a monthly
salary, either by cheque or into bank, and the rate is quoted per year.
Perhaps the traditional lack of enthusiasm for work is the reason why, in
comparison with most European countries, the working day starts rather late:
usually at eight oclock for manual workers, and around nine for non-manual
workers. However, measured by the number of hours (about 50) worked in a
week, the British reputation for not working hard enough appears to be false. The
normal lunch break is an hour or less, and most people (unless they work parttime) continue working until five or later. Many people often work several hours
overtime a week. In addition, a large proportion of British people stay in the
workforce for a large part of their lives; the normal retiring age for most people is
sixty-five (sixty for some, including a greater proportion of women).
The recent overall trend in employment is basically the same as elsewhere
in Western Europe. The level of unemployment has gradually rised and most new
job opportunities are in the service sector (for example, in communications, health
116

care and social care). This has led to an interesting irony with regard to the two
sexes: the decline of heavy industry means fewer jobs in stereotypical mens
work, while the rise in service occupations means an increase in vacancies for
stereotypical womens work. In 1970 around 65% of all those in work in Britain
were men; in 1993 men made up only 51% of the workforce. Many men now seek
employment as nurses, child carers, shop assistants, secretaries and other kinds of
office worker, although these jobs are still considered to be more suitable for
women and the rates of pay in these work areas are low.

VOCABULARY
lack = lips, absen
upper = superior, de sus (lower = inferior, de jos)
outwards = vizibil, fi, evident
slightly = puin, ntructva, cam
to live on = a se pstra, a dinui
earning = ctiguri, venituri, salariu
wage = plat, leaf, chenzin
cash = bani pein/ghea
overtime = ore suplimentare
workforce = for de munc
retiring age = vrsta de pensionare
proportion = proporie, raport
trend = direcie, orientare
unemployment = omaj
office worker = funcionar

117

Exercise 2. Answer the following questions, using some of the vocabulary given
below:

1. What is, in your opinion, the difference between a job and a career?

2. Have you got a job/a career? If not, what are you going to take up as a career?

3. What has made you decide to take up this career? teachers/friends/familys


encouragement; personal qualities

4. What were you good at when you were at school? Mathematics; Physics;
Chemistry; Biology; Economics; foreign languages; music; sports; practical
subjects, etc.

5. What does the system of higher education include in Romania?


(under/post)graduate studies (B.Sc, B.A); Master (M.Sc, M.A); Doctor (Ph.D)

6. What is the difference between full-time and part-time students?

Exercise 3. Which is the difference between the following: job, career,


occupation,

profession,

(Br.)

to

employ/(Amer.)

to

hire,

(Br.)

to

dismiss/(Amer.) to fire, to retire, (Br.) holiday/(Amer.) vacation, sick leave,


maternity leave? Consider:

to have (someone) work or do a job for you and pay them for it

any type of work which needs a special training or a particular skill, often
one which is respected because it involves a high level of education

a period in which a woman is legally allowed to be absent from work in


the weeks before and after she gives birth

a time, often one or two weeks, when someone does not go to work, and is
free to do what they want, especially travel or relax

118

a job for which a person is trained and in which it is possible to advance


during ones working life, so that one hets greater responsibility and earns
more money

to tell (someone) officially that (s)he is no longer to be employed in that


job

a persons job, or a regular activity

a period of absence from work because of illness

the regular work which a person does to earn money

to (cause to) leave ones job or stop working because of old age or ill
health

Exercise 4. Write a short commentary expressing your opinions for, or against,


the ideas in the following text:

ROLE REVERSALS
There are many other forms of role-reversal besides the one where father washes
nappies and mother drives a truck. From the moment a mother asks her child to
thread a needle for her one such reversal is underway.
There is a lot of role-reversal about in those activities which are for some
reason called leisure the ones which involve sweating up mountains, risking
rupture at the end of a rope or clinging to the tiller in a gale. Dad, who does not
know which way up is a spoon in his own home kitchen, in camp suddenly
becomes a fussy old maid about not leaving the washing up, while mother lies
back in the grass thinking who cares? Sons, who at home must be prized for from
their beds with tyre-leaves, flex their muscles eagerly in the dawn when it is a
matter of going fishing. Or a wife who is a tyrant tiger at home, is reduced at sea
to the status of gallery-slave, greenly trying to cook.
At least those reversals are temporary; and temporary reversals have one
incontestable blessing: they let you see how it feels to be the other guy.
A few years back, The Observer investigated some role-reversed couples,
and found that most of them reverted to a more conventional pattern when some
phase or crisis was over; the big advantage, they all said, was that now they knew
what the other party had to put up with.
Yet, you do not always know whether the reversal is temporary. Money,
for example: there is a beautiful description of the host who could not be a good
119

guest, but it is one thing to be a guest just this once, or because you have forgotten
your wallet; quite another when you are unemployed with no expense account. In
our family, for example, we do change places over money, since both of us tend to
spend when we have been working hard and be very skinflint when we have not.
It only teaches us flexibility.

Exercise 5. Match the following expressions(1-10) with the proper definition (aj):
1. baby boom

a) care for children provided either by

2. mother figure

the government, an organization or a

3. family circle

person, while parents are at work or

4. baby talk

are absent for another reason

5. child care

b) caring for, growing, educating

6. babyhood
7. family credit

children
c) a large increase in the number of

8. to babysit

babies born among a particular group

9. child-rearing

of people during a particular time

10. mother country

d) the words that a very young child


uses, or the words used by some
adults when they talk to babies
e) the period of time when one is a baby
f) to take care of someones baby or
child while the person is out, usually
by going to their home
g) ones close relatives
h) a payment made by the government
to families with a low income
i) the country where one is born or
which one feels is his/her original
home
j) a woman who one feels he/she can
ask for help, support or advice
120

Exercise 6. Consider the following list of jobs and their suitability wither for one
sex only or for both sexes:

Jobs

Men only

Women only

Both sexes

nurse
coal-miner
taxi driver
secretary
Prime Minister
front-line soldier
hairdresser
engineer
teacher
priest

Exercise 7. Topics for discussion


1. Do you find the British attitude to work confusing? Why (not)?
2. Do you see work as a heavy burden or a sacred obligation?
3. All careers are important in the 21st century. Give reasons for/against this
statement.
4. What sorts of jobs are women doing nowadays that they did not do before? And
men?
5. What areas of life are likely to remain the sole domain of one or other sex?

GRAMMAR
VERBUL (III)
(THE VERB)
II. Modurile nepersonale
A. Infinitivul - indic numele aciunii sau strii. Are form de:
prezent (to go, to speak, to write), care arat c aciunea se desfoar n acelai
timp cu verbul dup care este aezat.
121

perfect (to have gone, to have spoken, to have written), care exprim o aciune
anterioar celei artate de verbul dinainte.
De asemenea, infinitivul poate aprea n form lung (cu particula to), dup
verbele: to begin, to play, to sllow, to forbid, to agree etc. sau dup adjectivele:
difficult, easy, dangerous, nice etc. Forma scurt a infinitivului (fr to) apare
dup verbele: to hear, to feel, to see, to watch, to observe, to let etc., dup
construciile: I would rather, I had better, i dup verbele auxiliare i modale.
Infinitivul ajut la formarea a dou structuri specifice limbii engleze:
* Acuzativ + Infinitiv. Unele verbe sunt urmate de infinitiv lung: to want,
to like, to allow, to order, to know, to think, to imagine, to believe, to wait for etc.
I want you to listen to me. (Vreau ca tu s m asculi.)
She is waiting for him to come. (Ea l ateapt pe el s vin.)
Alte verbe sunt urmate de infinitiv scurt: to see, to hear, to make, to let, to have
etc.
You make me laugh. (M faci s rd.)
I will have you learn. (Te voi face s nvei.)
* Nominativ + Infinitiv, care apare cu verbe cu sens activ (to seem, to happen, to
appear, to prove, to turn out etc.) sau cu sens pasiv (to be allowed, to be ordered,
to be known, to be supposed, to be seen, to be heard etc.).
She seems to be late. (Pare s ntrzie.)
They turned out to be wrong. (S-a dovedit c au greit.)
She was ordered to leave. (I s-a ordonat s plece.)
They are supposed to be thieves. (Se presupune c sunt hoi.)
B. Gerundul - prezint form identic cu participiul prezent (-ing).
Diferena const n valoarea sa de substantiv, spre deosebire de participiu, care are
valoare verbal. Gerundul apare dup:
verbe: to admit, to begin, to start, to finish, to end, to give up, to like, to enjoy,
to love, to dislike, to hate, to forgive, to forget, to go on, to mind, to prefer, to
regret, to remember, to try, to understand etc.
She admitted being wrong. (A recunoscut c a greit.)
We enjoy skiling. (Ne place s schiem.)
I don't mind trying. (Nu m deranjeaz s ncerc.)
expresii: it's no use/good, it's (not) worth, I cant stand, I feel like etc.
122

Its not worth crying. (Nu merit s plngi.)


She feels like dancing. (Are chef s danseze.)
prepoziii sau substantive, adjective i verbe urmate de prepoziii: of, on, at, in
to, with, about, from, for etc.
They are fond of learning foreign languages.
(Ei sunt pasionai de nvarea limbilor strine.)
We talked about going on vacation.
(Am vorbit s plecm n vacan.)
C. Participiul - prezint forme de prezent i trecut.
* Participiul prezent are form identic cu gerundul (-ing). mpreun cu verbul
auxiliar to be, formeaz aspectul continuu al verbelor.
I am trying to learn. (ncerc s nv.)
It was raining for two days. (Plou de dou zile.)
De asemenea, poate nlocui o ntreag propoziie secundar al crei verb
prezint aspect continuu.
While I was reading the newspaper, I remembered them.
= While reading the newspaper, I remembered them.
(n timp ce citeam ziarul, mi-am amintit de ei.)
The man who is crossing the street is my neighbour.
= The man crossing the street is my neighbour.
(Brbatul care traverseaz strada este vecinul meu.)
Not: Pentru a nu se confunda participiul prezent cu gerundul, se recomand
ncadrarea formei ing ntr-o construcie cu un timp continuu. Dac
ncadrarea este posibil, forma este participiul prezent; n caz contrar, este gerund.
O alt deosebire const n faptul c participiul este introdus prin while i who, iar
gerundul numai prin prepoziii.
The man crossing the street... = ... Who is crossing...
(Brbatul care traverseaz strada ...)
While entering the room ... = While I was entering the room...
(n timp ce intram n camer ...)
dar

Learning is knowing. (A nva nseamn a cunoate.)

123

* Participiul trecut formeaz timpurile perfecte, mpreun cu verbul auxiliar to


have, i diateza pasiv, mpreun cu verbul auxiliar to be.
I have brought the newspapers. (Am adus ziarele.)
I was brought here by my friend.
(Am fost adus aici de prietenul meu.)
Participiul ajut la formarea a dou structuri specifice limbii engleze:
Acuzativ + Participiu i Nominativ + Participiu. Se construiete cu majoritatea
verbelor cerute de Acuzativ + Infinitiv i Nominativ + Infinitiv; diferena dintre
aceste construcii const n faptul c structurile formate cu participiu subliniaz
aciunea n curs de desfurare.
I see come from school. (O vd adesea venind ...)
I see her coming from school. (O vd acum venind...)

Exercise 8. Rephrase the following sentences using Infinitival constructions:


1. We were very sorry that we did not meet you at the party.

2. Everybody expected that he would get an appointment.

3. It seems that all her savings are gone.

4. He was pleased when he heard he had been promoted.

5. It appears that she is interested in fine arts.

6. It turned out that they were absolutely broke.

7. I was surprised when I heard that she wanted to work in our department.

8. It is said that he found the solution to our problem.

9. I was glad that I arrived on time.

10. It happened that we came across our former schoolfellows.

124

Exercise 9. Translate the following into English, paying attention to the use of the
Gerund:
1. Copilul a nceput s vorbeasc foarte devreme.

2. V deranjeaz dac deschid fereastra?

3. Renun la fumat i te vei simi cu mult mai bine.

4. Continuai s citii, v rog!

5. V mulumesc pentru ajutorul dumneavoastr.

6. Ai terminat de citit ziarul?

7. Nu pot s nu-l admir pentru curajul lui.

8. Ce v-a mpiedicat s venii ieri?

9. A reuit s termine lucrarea la timp.

10. Nu-mi amintesc s-mi fi spus cineva acest lucru.

Exercise 10. Translate the following sentences into Romanian, paying attention to
the forms of the Participle:

1. Having been away from town for some time, he did not know about the recent
changes.

2. Could you manage to have this coat sent to the dry-cleaner?

3. Strictly speaking, he ought to have been punished.

125

4. Crossing the street at the wrong place, you run the risk of being fined or, even
worse, knocked down.

5. When are you going to get your flat painted?

6. While working on her paper, she took no notice of the time.

7. Do you happen to know the man speaking to the crowd over there?

8. Not being signed, the cheque could not be cashed.

9. They wont have me working so much, I can assure you of that!

10. They kept silent as if puzzled by my sudden question.

REMEMBER!
Infinitive: - the basic form(+/- to) required by certain types of verbs
Gerund: -ing required by certain types of verbs
Participle: - present (-ing) to form Continuous tenses, or required by certain
fixed structures; - past (-ed for regular verbs, other forms for irregular verbs) to
form Perfect tenses, or required by certain fixed structures

CHECK-UP TEST
I. Choose the right variant:
1. I should like you my friends.
A. to meet

C. meeting

B. meet

D. will meet

2. Our teacher let us earlier yesterday.


A. leave

C. live

B. to leave

D. to live

126

3. She tries her best her pronunciation.


A. improving

C. improve

B. improved

D. to improve

4. They made the whole article.


A. us read

C. we read

B. us to read

D. we to read

5. It is worth while the question.


A. to discuss

C. to discussing

B. discussing

D. for discussing

6. It was a surprise that.


A. to him do

C. for him do

B. to him to do

D. for him to do

7. There is still much to be done before home.


A. go

C. going

B. to go

D. to going

8. the telephone, they kept on talking in the dining-room.


A. Not hear

C. Not to hear

B. Not hearing

D. Not to hearing

9. I should like more diligent.


A. he to be

C. him to be

B. he be

D. him be

10. We have not seen the sun out for more than a fortnight.
A. come

C. coming

B. to come

D. to coming

II. Write a 300-word composition about the importance of work.

127

REFERENCES
1. Cambridge International Dictionary of English, Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1995
2. Gleanu-Frnoag, Georgiana, Doina Sachelarie-Lecca, Limba englez n
conversaie, Bucureti: Editura tiinific i Enciclopedic, 1982
3. Ilovici, Edith, Mariana Chioran, Maria Ciofu, A Practical Guide to English
Grammar. Exerciii de gramatic, Ediia a II-a, Bucureti: Editura Didactic i
Pedagogic, 1972
4. McCarthy, Michael, Alistair MacLean, Patrick OMalley, Proficiency Plus.
Grammar-Lexis-Discourse, Oxford: Basil Blackwell Limited, 1990
5. ODriscoll, James, Britain. The Country and Its People, Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 1996

128

UNIT 10
LEISURE TIME
Exercise 1. Read the following text carefully and then sum up the main ideas of
the text:
Although the pub, the working mans club, or the numerous other clubs devoted
to various sports and pastimes play a very important part in many peoples lives,
British people do not spend more of their free time out of the house than most
other Europeans do. They watch a lot of television and are also reported to be the
worlds most dedicated home-video users. Today, more than 40% of British
people watch more than three hours of television every day, and about 15% watch
seven hours or more. Television news is watched every day by more than half of
the population; as a result, its presenters are among the best-known names and
faces in the whole country.
Although the British are comparatively uninterested in formal education,
and although they watch a lot of television, they are nonetheless enthusiastic
readers. Yet, the vast majority of the books read in Britain could not be classified
as serious literature. Britain is the home of what might be called middlebrow
literature (that is, mid-way between serious, or highbrow, literature and popular,
or pulp, fiction). For example, the distinctly British genre of detective fiction
(the work of writers like Agatha Christie) is regarded as entertainment rather than
literature but it is entertainment for intelligent people.
The theatre has always been very strong in Britain. Its centre is, of course,
London, where successful plays can sometimes run without a break for many
years, but every large town in the country has its theatres. It seems that the
conventional format of the theatrical play gives the British people a safe
opportunity to look behind the mask of accepted social behaviour. The countrys
most successful and respected playwrights are usually those who explore the
darker side of the personality and of personal relationships, often through comedy.
In contrast, although cinema-going is a regular habit for a much larger number of
people than is theatre-going, the cinema in Britain is generally regarded as simply
entertainment.

129

Classical music, like painting and sculpture, is a minority interest. The low
level of enthusiasm from the British public may be explained by the lack of
identification with wider intellectual trends and the individualism of the creators.
There appears to be a general assumption in Britain that artistic creation is a
personal affair, not a social one, and therefore art is not something for which
society should feel responsible.

VOCABULARY
pub = crcium, tavern
pastime = distracie, amuzament
to spend = a petrece, a cheltui, a epuiza
dedicated = dedicat, pasionat
nonetheless = totui, cu toate acestea
middlebrow = (literatur, muzic, film etc.) de calitate, care se bucur de
popularitate larg
highbrow (literature) = (literatur, muzic, film etc.) pentru cunosctori/iniiai
pulp fiction = cri sau reviste de calitate ndoielnic
genre = gen literar
entertainment = distracie, amuzament
to run = a se juca, a rula, a se desfura
playwright = dramaturg, autor dramatic
regular = obinuit, curent, normal, sistematic
assumption = presupunere, supoziie
affair = chestiune, problem, treab

Exercise 2. Answer the following questions, using some of the vocabulary given
below:

1. What is your favourite TV channel? Why?

130

2. Which of these programmes do you consider of general/minority interest:


childrens programmes; serial films; serious drama; light entertainment; soap
operas; football matches; news; documentaries; cartoons; sports; pop music;
science; political talk-shows?

3. What TV programme would you do your best not to miss/probably enjoy if you
happened to see/watch because you would not bother to turn off the TV set/avoid
watching at all costs?

4. Are you a theatre/cinema-goer? How often do you go to the theatre/cinema?

5. What kind of music do you like? symphonic; chamber; instrumental; classical;


contemporary; folk; dance; light; jazz; pop

6. Can you play an instrument? Which? piano; violin; guitar; drum; saxophone;
trumpet; accordion; flute; pan-pipes; bagpipe

Exercise 3. Which is the difference between the following: anchorperson,


announcer,

soap

opera,

sitcom,

telethon,

televangelism,

teletext,

teleprompter, talk show, chat show? Consider:

a TV programme about the continuing daily life and troubles of characters


init, which is broadcast regularly

a system for giving written information on many subjects (such as news


and sports results) by a television

a person who introduces programmes on radio or television

an informal radio or television programme on which famous people are


asked questions about themselves and their work

a popular form of humorous TV show typically having a number of


standard characters who appear in different stories each week
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the activity of preaching on television in order to persuade people to


become Christians and give their money to religious organizations

a TV show, usually several hours long, whose purpose is to collect money


for charity

a radio or television programme on which ordinary people or famous


guests appear to discuss a particular subject

a machine that unrolls lines of enlarged writing, placed in front of


someone appearing on TV so that they can read and yet appear to be
speaking naturally

a TV broadcaster who is in charge of a news broadcast and appears on it to


connect one part of the broadcast with next one

Exercise 4. Write a short commentary expressing your opinions for, or against,


the ideas in the following text:

FORMALITY AND INFORMALITY


In Britain, when people are not playing a public role (that is, when they are just
being themselves) there seems to be no rules at all. The British are probably more
tolerant of strange clothing than people in most other countries. For example,
you may find the same bank employee on his lunch break in hot weather, walking
through the streets with his tie round his waist and his collar unbuttoned; he is not
longer at work and for his employers to criticize him for his appearance would
be seen as a gross breach of privacy.
Perhaps because of the clothing formalities that many people have to
follow during the week, the British like to dress down on weekends. They cant
wait to take off their respectable working clothes and slip into something really
scruffy. Lots of men who wear suits during the week can then be seen in old
sweaters and jeans.
This difference between formalities and formality is the key to what
people from other countries sometimes experience as coldness among the British.
The key is this: being friendly in Britain often involves showing that you are not
bothering with the formalities. This mean not addressing someone by his/her title
(Mr, Mrs, Professor, etc.), not dressing smartly when entertaining guests, not
shaking hands when meeting and not saying please when making a request.
When they avoid doing these, the British are not being unfriendly or disrespectful:
132

they are simply implying that you are their friend, and so all the rules can be
ignored.
To address someone by his/her title or to say please is to observe
formalities and therefore to put a distance between the people involved. The same
is true of shaking hands. Although this sometimes has a reputation of being a very
British thing to do, it is actually rather rare. Most people would do it only when
being introduced to a stranger or when meeting an acquaintance (but not a friend)
after a long time. Similarly, most British people do not feel welcomed if, on being
invited to somebodys house, they find the hosts in smart clothes and a grand table
set for them. They do not feel flattered by this, they feel intimidated: it makes
them feel they cannot relax!

Exercise 5.

Match the following types expressions (1-10) with the proper

situation (a-j):
1. Whats on?

a) You want to know what programme

2. Whos in it?
3. Whats it about?

is being broadcast on radio.


b) You want to know whether the actors

4. Wheres it on?

are any good.

5. What time does it start?

c) You cannot see a free sit anywhere.

6. Where shall we sit?

d) You are thirsty.

7. Wheres the bar?

e) You want to know who has moved

8. What did you think of it?

the controls on (the radio/TV) so that

9. Whats on the air?

it receives programmes broadcast

10. Whos tuned in to this?

from a particular station.


f) You need to know what time to get to
the cinema/theatre.
g) You are leaving the cinema/theatre
with a friend.
h) There are three cinemas in town and
you do not know which is showing
the film you want to see.
133

i) You havent a clue what to go and


see.
j) It might be a horror film and you
wouldnt enjoy that.

Exercise 6. Fill in the sentences with the suitable word or phrases:

put on

on the box

televised address

screened

the tube

on telly

channel

small screen

in television

televised
1. Neither issue was the subject of the presidents on
Friday night.
2. Is there anything good tonight?
3. She is a star of the American TV show which is now
in Britain.
4. That guy just sits and watches all day long.
5. Tom is hoping to get a job
6. Whats ?
7. This years championships are not going to be at all.
8. Why do they so many comedy programmes these
days?
9. I had seen the movie before, but it didnt look so good on the

10. They want to show all educational programmes on one particular

Exercise 7. Topics for discussion


1. Speak about a well-known television personality.
2. Describe the best radio/TV programme from your point of view.
3. What are the (dis)advantages of television over radio? Of cinema over
television?
4. Your favourite film, actor/actress.
5. A performance that has roused very much admiration/controversy.
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GRAMMAR
VERBUL (IV)
(THE VERB)

Verbele modale
Aceste verbe reprezint o categorie special, datorit comportamentului
aparte. nsoesc ntotdeauna un alt verb, cruia i modific sensul: dac verbul
comun exprim o aciune propriu-zis, n prezena verbului modal capt o nuan
deosebit (o aciune imaginar, posibil). Verbele modale prezint urmtoarele
caracteristici:
au form de infinitiv scurt (fr to), ca i verbele care le urmeaz;
nu au terminaia s la persoana a III-a singular a timpului Present Simple;
nu primesc terminaia ing;
negativul i interogativul se formeaz fr ajutorul verbelor auxiliare;
nu au toate modurile i timpurile, pentru a cror formare sunt nlocuite de
echivalente: can-to be able to; may-to be allowed to, to be permitted to, to be
posible to; must-to have to.
1 CAN = a putea, a ti; nlocuitor modal: to be able to = a fi n stare, a fi
capabil.
Exprim: capacitate: I can run very fast. (Pot s alerg foarte repede.)
She cannot (cant) cook. (Nu tie s gteasc.)
posibilitate, presupunere:
They can be there now. (E posibil s fie acolo.)
She cant do that! (Nu se poate s fac asta!)
n limbaj colocvial, permisiune (ca nlocuitor al lui may):
Can I go home? (Pot pleca acas?)
You cannot come in! (Nu poi intra!)
Pentru alte timpuri i moduri, se folosete verbul to be able to.
He was able to run very fast. (Putea s alerge foarte repede.)
He will be able to run very fast.(Va putea s alerge...)

135

2. COULD exprim:
capacitate (trecut al lui can):
I could run very fast. (Puteam s alerg foarte repede.)
She couldnt sing in her childhood. (Nu tia s cnte n copilrie.)
posibilitate:
It could be true. (S-ar putea s fie adevrat.)
He could answer you. (Ar putea s-i rspund.)
permisiune mai formal:
Could I go home? (A putea pleca acas?)
3. MAY = a putea, a avea voie; nlocuitor modal: to be allowed to, to be
permitted to; = a se putea, a fi posibil; nlocuitor modal: to be possible to
Exprim: permisiune, n limbaj formal:
May I go home? (Pot pleca acas?)
You may not come in. (Nu poi/Nu ai voie s intri.)
Poate fi nlocuit cu echivalentele modale to be allowed/permitted to:
I was allowed to go home. (Mi s-a ngduit s plec acas.)
He will be permitted to come in. (I se va permite s intre.)
posibilitate, presupunere:
They may be there now. (Se poate s fie/Or fi acolo acum.)
It may rain in the afternoon. (Se poate s plou dup-amiaz.)
Poate fi nlocuit de echivalentul modal to be possible to:
It was posible to rain. (Era/A fost posibil s plou.)
It will be posible to rain. (Va fi posibil s plou.)
4. MIGHT exprim:
permisiune mai formal:
Might I go home? (A putea pleca acas?)
You might not come in. (Nu ai putea/Nu ai voie s intri.)
posibilitate mai vag:
They might be there now. (S-ar putea s fie acolo acum.)
It mught rain in the afternoon. (S-ar putea s plou dup-amiaz.)
5. MUST = a trebui; nlocuitor modal: to have to = a trebui neaprat, a avea
obligaia.
Exprim: obligaie, datorie;
You must write to them. (Trebuie s le scrii.)
I must leave soon. (Trebuie s plec curnd.)
136

posibilitate, presupunere:
You must be tired. (Trebuie s fii obosit.)
They must be at home now. (Trebuie s fie acas acum.)
Not: n ntrebri prin care se cere permisiunea, rspunsul afirmativ se
formeaz cu may (formal) sau can (colocvial), iar cel negativ cu must not
(interdicie):
- May I smoke in here? (Pot s fumez aici?)
- Yes, you may. (Da, avei voie/vi se permite.)
- No, you mustnt. (Nu, este interzis.)
n ntrebri prin care se pune la ndoial obligaia, rspunsul afirmativ se formeaz
cu must (impunere), iar cel negativ cu need not (lipsa necesitii):
- Must I really go there? (Chiar trebuie s m duc acolo?)
- Yes, you must. (Da, trebuie/e obligatoriu.)
- No, you neednt. (nu, nu este necesar/nevoie.)
6. SHALL - ca verb auxiliar, este utilizat la persoana I-a singular i plural (I, we),
pentru a exprima o aciune viitoare: I shall speak, we shall speak. Ca verb modal,
este folosit la toate persoanele i exprim:
promisiune, ordin:
I shall write the letter. (Promit c voi scrie scrisoarea.)
They shall come on time. (Trebuie s ajung la timp.)
ofert, propunere, n care se ateapt opinia interlocutorului (apare n
special cu persoana I-a), n ntrebri:
Shall I close the window? (S nchid fereastra?)
Shall we listen to him? (Oare s l ascultm?)
7. SHOULD = ar trebui, ar fi cazul
Exprim: sfat: You should talk to him.
(Ar trebui s-i vorbeti.)
They shouldnt go to that party.
(Nu ar trebui s mearg la petrecerea aceea.)
presupunere: He should be still at home.
(Ar trebui s fie nc acas.)
They should be on their way now.
(Ar trebui s fie pe drum acum.)

137

8. OUGHT TO = ar trebui, s-ar cuveni (form literar, mai protocolar dect


should)
Exprim: sfat: You ought to talk to him.
(S-ar cuveni s i vorbeti.)
You oughtnt go to that party.
(Nu ar fi cazul s mergi la petrecerea aceea.)
presupunere: He ought to be still at home.
(S-ar cuveni s fie nc acas.)
They ought to be on their way now.
(Ar trebui s fie pe drum acum.)
9. WILL - ca verb auxiliar, este utilizat la persoanele a II-a i a III-a singular i
plural (You, he, she, it, they) pentru a exprima o aciune viitoare: you will speak,
he/she/it will speak, they will speak. Ca verb modal, apare la toate persoanele i
exprim:
voin, dorin: I will come back soon. (M voi ntoarce curnd.)
He will not (wont) speak to us.
(Nu vrea s ne vorbeasc.)
cerere, invitaie politicoas (apare n special cu persoana a II-a), n ntrebri:
Will you close the window?
(Vrei s nchidei fereastra?)
Will you answer my question, please?
(Vrei s-mi rspundei la ntrebare, v rog?)
Not: Pe lng forma de viitor menionat mai sus, exist alte cteva modaliti
de exprimare a acestui timp:
prezentul simplu (Present simple), nsoit de un adverb de timp viitor:
tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, next week/month/year etc. Aceast form
exprim o aciune viitoare planificat n mod oficial un plan sau o decizie a unei
autoriti.
The train leaves later. (Trenul pleac mai trziu.)
I meet you next week. (Ne ntlnim sptmna viitoare.)
prezentul continuu (Present Continuous), nsoit de un adverb de timp
viitor, exprim o aciune viitoare voit, un plan sau o decizie personal.
I am leaving later. (Plec mai trziu.)
They are getting married this summer.
(Ei se cstoresc n vara aceasta.)
138

to be going to (= a avea de gnd s, a inteniona s) se refer la o


aciune care se va desfura ntr-un viitor apropiat.
I am going to leave later.
(Am de gnd s plec mai trziu.)
He is going to talk to us about his plans.
(Intenioneaz s ne vorbeasc despre planurile lui.)
to be about to (= a fi gata s, a fi pe punctul s, a se pregti s) se
folosete n vorbirea curent pentru a exprima o aciune care se va desfura ntrun viitor imediat.
I am about to leave. (Sunt gata s plec.)
We are about to meet her. (Ne pregtim s o ntlnim.)
10. WOULD - ca verb auxiliar, se folosete pentru formare timpului Future in the
Past i a modului condiional. Ca verb modal, exprim:
cerere, invitaie deosebit de politicoas (apare n special cu persoana a
II-a), n ntrebri:
Would you close the window?
(Ai vrea s nchidei fereastra?)
Would you answer to my question, please ?
(Ai dori s-mi rspundei la ntrebare, v rog?)
aciune repetat:
He would always ask this kind of questions.
(Obinuiete s pun tot timpul astfel de ntrebri.)
They would go climbing every weekend.
(Obinuiesc s fac alpinism n fiecare week-end.)
Not: Aciunea repetat n mod frecvent, dar n trecut (acum ncheiat), poate fi
exprimat prin construcia used to = obinuiam s.
I used to ask this kind of questions.
(Obinuiam s pun astfel de ntrebri.)
They used to go climbing every weekend.
(Obinuiau s fac alpinism n fiecare week-end.)
11. DARE - ca verb comun, nseamn a cuteza, a avea curajul. Ca verb modal,
apare n propoziii negative i interogative, cu sensul a ndrzni, a se ncumeta, a
se aventura, a avea ndrzneala/neobrzarea.
How dare you? (Cum ndrzneti?)
She darent say a word. (Nu a ndrznit s spun o vorb.)
139

They darent go in there. (Nu a ndrznit s intre acolo.)


12. NEED - ca verb comun, nseamn a avea nevoie. Ca verb modal, apare n
propoziii negative i interogative, cu sensul a fi nevoie, a trebui.
Need you go now? (E nevoie s pleci acum?)
We neednt say anything. (Nu a fost nevoie s spunem nimic.)

Exercise 8. Fill in the spaces with the suitable modal verb, according to the
meaning of the sentence:
1. I come to see you next Saturday?
2. I go to London next week, but I have not decided yet.
3. You not smoke so many cigarettes a day.
4.

What

have

happened

to

Tom?

He

be at home, its past seven already.


5. we take the bus, or we walk
there?
6. I am trying to persuade him, but he not listen to my
reasons.
7. I dont think you go to bed so late.
8. You write so carelessly, no one can understand your
handwriting.
9. Every morning he go to the river and swim in the cold
water.
10. you kindly let us know as soon as possible?

Exercise 9. Translate the following into Romanian, paying attention to the use of
the modal verbs:
1. Ar trebui s cunoti asemenea lucruri.

2. Nu trebuie s uii c eti obligat s dai i tu o mn de ajutor.

3. Nu trebuie s fumeze atta de mult. Tutunul ar trebui interzis.

140

4. Poate vor rezerva locuri din timp i nu va mai trebui s ateptm.

5. Trebuia s ne spun c s-ar putea s ntrzie.

6. Este posibil s nu-i rspund la scrisoare.

7. Trebuie s-i ceri scuze pentru ceea ce i-ai spus.

8. Cum ndrzneti s te pori astfel cu un vechi prieten?

9. E posibil s ning la noapte; ai putea s-i iei haine mai groase.

10. Nu cred c poate s ne anune, dar s-ar putea s vin mai devreme.

Exercise 10. Continue the following sentences, paying attention to the meaning
expressed by the modal verbs:
1. It must be a very simple matter.
2. It might rain in the afternoon. ..
3. He cant be your brother! ..
4. You shall not have this book.
5. They shouldnt worry so much.
6. He cant have ssai that! .
7. He may be quite tired. ..
8. Will you wait a moment, please? ..
9. You should try to help her.
10. You could invite the Smiths too. .

REMEMBER!
CAN/COULD/BE ABLE TO capacity; possibility
MAY/MIGHT/BE ALLOWED TO, BE POSSIBLE TO permission; uncertainty
MUST/HAVE TO obligation
SHOULD = OUGHT TO advice
NEED - necessity
DARE courage, boldness
141

CHECK-UP TEST
I. Choose the right variant:
1. It very difficult for him to find the house on this dark night.
A. must

C. have to

B. may

D. could

2. I like a cup of coffee, please.


A. would

C. will

B. should

D. shall

3. You walk for miles and miles without meeting anyone.


A. can

C. will

B. may

D. shall

4. I go to Paris next month, but it is not very sure yet.


A. can

C. may

B. could

D. might

5. Ill call the people in for dinner, I?


A. shall

C. may

B. should

D. might

6. If somebody come while I am out, tell him to wait.


A. shall

C. can

B. should

D. could

7. you take a seat, please?


A. Can

C. Shall

B. May

D. Will

8. Dont worry! Such things often happen.


A. will

C. shall

B. would

D. should

9. How much I give him?


A. can

C. shall

B. could

D. should

10. You not smoke so many cigarettes.


A. can

C. must

B. cay

D. need

II. Write a 300-word composition about the role television/cinema/theatre/music


plays in your life.
142

REFERENCES
1. Cambridge International Dictionary of English, Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1995
2. Gleanu-Frnoag, Georgiana, Doina Sachelarie-Lecca, Limba englez n
conversaie, Bucureti: Editura tiinific i Enciclopedic, 1982
3. Ilovici, Edith, Mariana Chioran, Maria Ciofu, A Practical Guide to English
Grammar. Exerciii de gramatic, Ediia a II-a, Bucureti: Editura Didactic i
Pedagogic, 1972
4. Wellman, Guy, The Heinemann English Wordbuilder, Oxford: Heinemann
International, 1992
5. ODriscoll, James, Britain. The Country and Its People, Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 1996

143

UNIT 11
SPORTS
Exercise 1. Read the following text carefully and then sum up the main ideas of
the text:
Sport probably plays a more important part in peoples lives in Britain than in
most other countries. For a very large number, and this is especially true for men,
it is their main form of entertainment: millions take part in some kind of sport at
least once a week, and many millions more are regular spectators and follow one
or more sports. There are hours of televised sport each week. Every newspaper,
national or local, quality or popular, devotes several pages entirely to sport.
There are several sports, directly connected with the British:
- Cricket is referred to as the English national game, often because of the
associations it carries with it. For the British, cricket is much more than a sport: it
symbolizes a way of life a slow and peaceful rural way of life. Cricket is
associated with long sunny summer afternoons, the smell of new-mown grass and
the sound of leather (the ball) connected with willow (the wood from which
cricket bats are made). Cricket is special because it combines competition with the
British dream of rural life.
- Football has traditionally drawn its main following from the working
class. But in the last twenty years or so, it has started to attract wider interest. The
full official name of soccer (as it is called in the USA and sometimes in Britain)
is association football, which distinguishes it from other kinds such as rugby
football (almost always called simply rugby). In Britain, many team sports, but
especially football, tend to be men-only affairs; only a handful of children and
women go to football matches. Perhaps this is why active support for local teams
has recorded a tendency to become violent, and football hooliganism has become
a major problem in England.
- Rugbys traditional home is among the working class of northern
England, where it was a way for miners and factory workers to make some extra
money from their sporting talents. Similar to American football in the ball it uses
(egg-shaped) and its aim (to carry the ball over the opposing teams line), it is yet

144

very different in details: you cannot interfere with a player who does not have the
ball; there are not time-outs; and players do not wear body armour.
Apart from these, almost every sport which exists is played in Britain,
particularly team sports: hockey (mostly on a field, but also on ice), basketball
(for men) and netball (for women). Of less interest are individual sports: tennis,
golf, cycling, gymnastics, swimming, sailing, etc.

VOCABULARY
to take part (in) = a lua parte (la) , a participa (la)
at least = cel puin, mcar
entirely = n ntregime, complet
new-mown (grass) = (iarb) proaspt cosit
leather = piele tbcit
willow = salcie
bat = bt, palet
to draw = a trage, a scoate, a extrage, a proveni
following = urma, suporter
to distinguish = a se distinge, a se deosebi
extra = suplimentar, n plus
to interfere = a interveni, a se amesteca
time-out = pauz scurt
armour = armur, blindaj, echipament de protecie
sailing = navigaie, sport nautic

Exercise 2. Answer the following questions, using some of the vocabulary given
below:

1. Can you think of a definition of sport? Is it: a challenge to a personal, group or


national sense of achievement; a matter of individual rivalry or personal

145

ambition; an essential means of keeping fit; a pastime; a waste of time? Why do


you consider so?

2. Which of the following outdoor games do you prefer: football; rugby;


badminton; lawn tennis; other (say which)?

3. Which of the following indoor games do you prefer: volleyball; basketball;


handball; table tennis; chess; other (say which)?

4. What sports are practised mainly in winter? skiing; ski-jumping; skating; bobsleighing; sledging; mountaineering

5. What sports are practised mainly in summer? canoeing; sailing; swimming;


diving; riding; horse-racing; cycling; hunting
....

6. Is it better to watch sport on television or to be present at the event? Why?

Exercise 3. Which is the difference between the following: referee, linesman,


goal-keeper, timekeeper, ball-boy, stable-boy, trainer, trainee, jockey, rider?
Consider:

the player who stands in the teams goal to try to stop the other team from
scoring

a person who is learning and practicing the skills of a particular job

someone who picks up balls which have been used and gives them back to
the players

a person in charge of a game who makes certain the rules are followed

a person who teaches skills to people or animals and prepares them for a
job, activity or sport

a person whose job is rising horses in races

someone who works in a stable and cares for the horses


146

an object or person that records an amount of time

an official at a sporting event who is responsible for deciding when the


ball has crossed the line that marks the edge of the playing area

a person who travels along on a horse or bicycle

Exercise 4. Write a short commentary expressing your opinions for, or against,


the ideas in the following text:

OTHER SPORTS
Traditionally, the favourite sports of the British upper class are hunting, shooting
and fishing. The most widespread form of hunting is foxhunting (in fact, that is
what the word hunting usually means in Britain). This is a popular pastime
among some members of the higher social classes and a few peoples from lower
social classes, who often see their participation as a mark of newly-won status.
Shooting is a minority pastime confined largely to the higher social classes
that often organise shooting parties. The birds (such as grouse) may only be shot
during certain specified times of the year.
The only kind of hunting associated with the working class is harehunting, in which greyhound dogs chase hares. However, because the vast
majority of people in Britain live in twons and cities, this is a minority activity,
too.
Fishing is popular among all social classes and the most popular
participatory sport of all in Britain: out of the total of approximately 60 million
British people, between four and five million go fishing regularly. When fishing is
done competitively, it is called angling.
Apart from being hunted, another way in which animals are used in sport
is racing. Horse-racing is a long-established and popular sport in Britain. Even
modern British royalty has close connections with sport involving horses (some
members of the royal family own racehorses and attend certain annual race
meetings; others are active participants in polo and slow-jumping, both of which
involve riding a horse).
For most people, the chief attraction of horse-racing is the opportunity it
provides for gambling: even if they are not taking part or watching, British people
like to be involved in sport by placing bets on future results. Gambling is
widespread throughout all social classes and it is basic to sport. The British
147

usually bet on horses, greyhounds or football teams, but they also like to play
bingo or the lottery.

Exercise 5. Match the following types of sports (1-10) with the proper definition
(a-j):

1. badminton

a) a game played on a square board, in

2. basketball

which each player has 16 pieces that

3. billiards

can be moved on the board in

4. chess

different ways

5. fencing

b) a game played on a table covered in

6. golf

green cloth in which a long pole is

7. gymnastics

used to hit balls against each other

8. hockey

and into pockets around the table

9. tennis

c) a game in which teams hit a large

10. volleyball

ball backwards and forwards over a


high net without allowing the ball to
touch the ground
d) a game in which teams score points
by throwing a large ball through an
open net hanging from a metal ring
e) a game played on a sports field
between two teams of eleven players
who each have a curved stick with
which they try to put a small hard
ball into the other teams goal
f) a game played outside in which a
small ball is hit a long distance into 9
or 18 small holes in a particular
order, using as few hits as possible
g) a game played between two or four
people on a specially marked area
148

which involves hitting a small ball


across a central net
h) a sport in which two people fight one
another with long thin swords
i) a sport in which two or four people
hit a shuttlecock over a high net
j) physical exercises and activities
performed inside, often using
equipment such as bars and ropes
which are intended to increase the
bodys strength and the ability to
move and bend easily

Exercise 6. Fill in the blanks with the suitable words or phrases required by the
meaning of the following sentences:

betting

cricket

dog-racing

football

football pools

horse-racing

lawn tennis

rugby

sport lovers

swimming

swiming pools

skiing

1. The British have always been a nation of and


interest in all types of sport is as great today as it has ever been.
2. It is true that has remained a specifically British
game and is played only in Britain.
3. But

the

most

popular

sport

in

Britain

is,

nevertheless,

4. In the summer, probably comes next in


importance to cricket.
5. is also very popular and there are many public

6. Another popular sport after football is which


remains a largely amateur game.
7. Winter sports such as are generally impossible in
Britain owing to the unsuitable climate.

149

8. One reason for the great interest in sport in Britain is the Englishmans
fondness for
9. This

has

always

been

an

integral

part

of

such

sports

as

and
10. In recent times, betting on has become a national
pastime.

Exercise 7. Topics for discussion


1. Do you think there is any connection between the most popular national game
and the nation that enjoys it?
2. What is the most popular sport in Romania? Why do you think it is so?
3. Which is your favourite sport? Why?
4. Your favourite team/sportsman or woman.
5. Reasons for popularity in sport.

GRAMMAR
ADVERBUL
(THE ADVERB)
Reprezint partea de vorbire care exprim caracteristica sau mprejurarea
unei aciuni. Determin un verb, un adjectiv sau un alt adverb.
Adverbul prezint dou categorii de clasificare: dup form i dup
coninut.
1. Dup form, adverbele por fi:
formate prin adugarea terminaiei ly la adjectivul corespunztor:
happly, extremly, finally, immediately, slowly, truly, nicely, equally, fully,
sincerely, simply etc.
cu form identic cu adjectivul corespunztor: back, deep, direct,
early, enough, far, fast, hard, high, ill, just, late, left, little, long, low, much, more,
near, pretty, right, short, still, straight, well, wrong.
cu dou forme (una identic cu adjectivul, cealalt format prin
adugarea terminaiei ly la adjectiv) i sensuri deosebite: deep, (adnc) deeply
(profund), direct (direct) directly (exact, imediat), hard (din greu) hardly (cu
150

greutate, abia), high (sus) highly (foarte), just (chiar, tocmai) justly (drept),
late (trziu) lately (recent, de curnd), near (lng) nearly (aproape c), short
(brusc) shortly (pe scurt).
2. Dup coninut, exist adverbe:
de mod, care arat modul n care se desfoar o aciune (rspund la
ntrebarea cum?): fast, hard, badly, easily, slowly;
de timp, care arat timpul cnd se desfoar aciunea (rspund la
ntrebarea cnd?): lately, ever, never, often, rarely, seldom, sometimes, usually,
generally, constantly, today, yesterday, tomorrow, ago, last, next, yet, still, since,
before, after;
de loc, care arat locul unde se petrece o aciune (rspund la ntrebarea
unde?): here, there, above, below, up, down, abroad, in, out, everywhere,
anywhere, somewhere, nowhere;
interogative: how?, why?, when?, where?
de afirmaie i negaie: yes. of course, certainly, naturally, sure, no,
not, at all, by no means.
Unele adverbe prezint restricii cu privire la poziia n propoziie:
adverbele de timp definit (yesterday, today, tomorrow, next week etc.)
pot aprea att la nceputul, ct i la sfritul propoziiei:
I shall be able to meet you next week.
(Te voi putea ntlni sptmna viitoare.)
Next week, I shall be able to meet you.
(Sptmna viitoare, te voi putea ntlni.)
adverbele de frecven (always, often, seldom, never) apar ntre subiect
i predicat sau ntre auxiliar i verb:
I never drink coffee in the evening.
(Nu beau niciodat cafea dimineaa.)
She is always asking a lot of questions.
(ntotdeauna pune o mulime de ntrebri.)
atunci cnd n propoziie apar mai multe adverbe, ordinea lor este
fix (MOD + LOC + TIMP):
She sang wonderfully at the concert last evening.
(A cntat minunat la concertul de asear.)
My brother worked hard at the office last week.
(Fratele meu a lucrat mult la birou sptmna trecut.)
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Comparaia adverbelor
Ca i adjectivele, adverbele prezint grade de comparaie, urmnd aceleai
reguli:
a. gradul pozitiv reprezint forma de baz a adverbului: soon, hard, early,
quickly, beautifully, importantly.
b. gradul comparativ indic mprejurarea prin comparaie:
de inferioritate: not so/as ... as (nu aa de ...ca)
less ...than (mai puin ... dect)
not so hard as

not so quickly as

not as early as

less importantly than

de egalitate: as ... as (tot aa de ... ca)


as hard as

as quickly as

as early as

as importantly as

de superioritate:
*adverbele formate dintr-o singur silab, precum i adverbul early, adaug -er la
final: ...-er than (mai ...dect)
harder than

earlier than

*adverbele formate din dou sau mai multe silabe sunt precedate de more: more
... than (mai ... dect)
more quickly than

more importantly than

c. gradul superlativ:
relativ, care indic nivelul cel mai nalt sau cel mai redus al unei mprejurri
n care se desfoar aciunea:
* adverbele formate dintr-o singur silab, precum i adverbul early, adaug est la final: the ... est (of) (cel mai ... dintre)
the hardest of

the earliest of

* adverbele formate din dou sau mai multe silabe sunt precedate de most:
the most ... of (cel mai ... dintre)
the most quickly of

the most importantly of

absolut, care indic cel mai nalt nivel al mprejurrii unei aciuni fr a se
mai face comparaii: very ... (foarte ...)
very hard

very quickly

very early

very importantly

152

Not: Ca i n cazul adjectivelor, exist cteva adverbe care nu respect aceste


reguli, la gradul comparativ de superioritate i la gradul superlativ relativ.

Pozitiv

Comparativ (mai ...)

Superlativ (cel mai ...)

well

better

the best

badly

worse

the worst

much

more

the most

little

less

the least

far

farther

the farthest (n spaiu)

further

the furthest (n timp)

Exercise 8. Fill in the spaces with the proper form:


1. Spring must be here: the air smells (fresh, freshly)
2. His secretary was called. She looked through the
papers. (careful, carefully)
3. She tasted the coffee (cautious, cautiously)
4. I dont like this wine. It tastes (sour, sourly)
5. This song sounds (delightful, delightfully)
6. The student who failed the exam felt (miserable,
miserably)
7. It was quite dark; she felt along the wall for the
switch. (light, lightly)
8. He works before every exam. (hard, hardly)
9. Their friends look (happy, happily)
10. Explain it in English. (correct, correctly)

Exercise 9. Translate the following into Romanian, paying attention to the use of
the adverbs:
1. Ai sosit prea trziu pentru a mai prinde trenul.

2. Acest exerciiu este destul de greu de explicat.

153

3. Problema aceasta este prea grea pentru noi.

4. El vorbete englez destul de bine pentru a se face neles.

5. Astzi este prea cald pentru a mai juca tenis.

6. Nu eti destul de nalt ca s ajungi la raftul acela.

7. Este prea devreme; nc nu trebuie s plecm.

8. Ai terminat deja? Nu, mai am nc puin.

9. Nu mai insista! Am rspuns deja la aceast ntrebare.

10. Mereu pleac la munte iarna i la mare vara.

Exercise 10. Rewrite the following sentences, placing the adverbs in the right
order:

1. I said goodbye to them (regretfully, last week, at the airport)

2. He does not understand English (obviously, well)

3. He has been sitting (for ten minutes, quietly, on that chair)

4. We have been studying (all day, hard, at home)

5. They announced us that they arrived (Saturday evening, safely, at the seaside)

6. We dont go for our holidays (to the seaside, often)

7. Our family have guests (sometimes, for dinner)

154

8. I do my shopping (occasionally, in the afternoon)

9. I drive (never, on the shore, alone, to that place)

10. Do you work (so hard, always, on weekends)?

REMEMBER!
Adverbs can have either identical form with adjectives or add ly to the adjectival
form. They are used after verbs.

CHECK-UP TEST
I. Choose the right variant:
1. At 10 oclock every evening he goes to
A. sleep

C. sleepy

B. asleep

D. asleepy

2. When she arrived we were already


A. sleep

C. sleepy

B. asleep

D. asleepy

3. The students in the last row asked the lecturer to speak


A. loud

C. loudly

B. aloud

D. aloudly

4. Dont read the poem to yourself; read it


A. loud

C. loudly

B. aloud

D. aloudly

5. There is not a answer to the problem because its not that simple.
A. straight

C. straightly

B. astraight

D. straightly

6. Im so tired I cant think any more.


A. straight

C. straightly

B. astraight

D. straightly

155

7. His new car goes very


A. fast

C. fastly

B. afast

D. afastly

8. They advertised this car as a very one.


A. fast

C. fastly

B. afast

D. afastly

9. When you are in a hurry, dont ride a bicycle because it goes


A. slow

C. slowly

B. aslow

D. aslowly

10. She was terribly late because she came by a very bus.
A. slow

C. slowly

B. aslow

D. aslowly

II. Write a 300-word composition about the importance of sport in contemporary


society.

REFERENCES
1. Cambridge International Dictionary of English, Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1995
2. Gleanu-Frnoag, Georgiana, Doina Sachelarie-Lecca, Limba englez n
conversaie, Bucureti: Editura tiinific i Enciclopedic, 1982
3. Ilovici, Edith, Mariana Chioran, Maria Ciofu, A Practical Guide to English
Grammar. Exerciii de gramatic, Ediia a II-a, Bucureti: Editura Didactic i
Pedagogic, 1972
4. ODriscoll, James, Britain. The Country and Its People, Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 1996

156

UNIT 12
HOLIDAYS
Exercise 1. Read the following text carefully and then sum up the main ideas of
the text:

Britain is a country governed by routine: it has fewer public holidays than any
other country in Europe, and even the annual holidays are not as long in many
other countries. In fact, about 40% of the population do not go away anywhere for
their holidays.
It is traditional for families to spend a week or two every year at one of the
seaside resort towns close to larger cities. Such towns have developed certain
characteristics that are now regarded as typical of the traditional English holiday
resort: some hotels where richer people stay, boarding houses for most families
(that is, small family businesses offering either bed and breakfast or, more
rarely, full board). The food in these boarding houses, as well as in local
restaurants, is cheap and conventional with an emphasis on fish and chips.
Stereotypically, daytime entertainment in sunny weather centres around
the beach, where the children make sandcastles, buy ice-cream and sometimes go
for donkey rides. Often adults do not bother to go swimming; they are happy just
to sit in their deck chairs. Swimming and sunbathing without any clothing is rare.
All resorts have various kinds of attraction, including more-or-less
permanent funfairs. For the evenings, and when it is raining, there are amusement
parks, bingo halls, dance halls, discos, theatres, bowling alleys and so on, many of
these situated on the pier. This unique British architectural structure is a platform
extending out into the sea. The large resorts have decorations which light up at
night.
Another traditional destination for the British is the holiday camp, where
visitors stay in chalets in self-contained villages with all food and entertainment
organized for them. The enforced good-humour, strict meal-times and events such
as beauty contests that were once characteristic of these camps have now given
way to a more relaxed atmosphere.

157

VOCABULARY
routine = rutin, obicei
to go away = a pleca, a se ndeprta
resort = staiune
boarding house = pensiune
bed and breakfast = hotel sau locuin particular care asigur cazare i mic
dejun
full board = pensiune complet
emphasis = accent(uare), subliniere, scoatere n eviden
beach = plaj, litoral, coast
sand = nisip
donkey = mgar, asin
deck chair = ezlong
sunbathing = bronzare, expunere la soare, plaj
funfair = parc de distracie
pier = dig, chei, debarcader
chalet = caban, vil montan

Exercise 2. Answer the following questions, using some of the vocabulary given
below:

1. What are the most popular places for holidays? seaside; mountains; health
resorts; foreign countries

2. What kind of people are likely to go to each of the above?

3. Which attractions of the seaside/mountains as a holiday place appeal to you


most? (sun)bathing; fishing; climbing; camping out

158

4. Do you prefer package holidays? What advantages do these offer concerning


accommodation/transport/activities/cost?

5. What advantages offer camping? flexible holiday; relaxed atmosphere; ease of


moving around

6. What are the things you usually pack for holidays? Why?

Exercise 3. Which is the difference between the following: hotel, hostel, motel,
chalet, inn, bed and breakfast, boarding-house, guest-house, holiday camp,
camping site? Consider:

private house that a person pays to stay in and receive meals

hotel by the side of a road, usually with paces for cars next to each room

place where people on holiday can stay and entertainments are provided
for them

pub where people can stay for the night, usually in the countryside

small cheap hotel

piece of land where people on holiday can stay in tents, usually with toilets
and places for washing

small hotel or private house offering a room in which one can stay for the
night and a morning meal

small wooden house found in mountainous areas, or a house built in a


similar style, used by people on holiday

large house where people can stay free or cheaply

building where one pays to have a room to sleep in, and where one can
often eat meals

159

Exercise 4. Write a short commentary expressing your opinions for, or against,


the ideas in the following text:

MODERN HOLIDAYS
Half of all the holidays taken within Britain are now for three days or less. Every
holiday weekend there are long traffic jams along the routes to the most popular
holiday areas.
The increase in car ownership has encouraged many people to take
caravan holidays. But these days, millions of British people take their cars across
the Channel every year, and nearly half of all the nights spent on holidays away
from home are spent abroad.
Most foreign holidays are package holidays, in which transport and
accommodation are booked and paid for through a travel agent. These holidays
are often booked and paid for in advance. In the middle of winter, the television
companies run programmes which give information about the packages being
offered. In many British homes, it has become traditional to get the holidays
brochures aut and start talking about where to go in the summer around Christmas
time. Spain is by far the most popular package-holiday destination.
But there are also many other types of holidays. Hiking in the country and
sleeping at youth hostels has long been popular and so, among an enthusiastic
minority, has pot-poling (the exploration of underground caves).
There are also a wide range of activity holidays available, giving full
expression to British individualism: an increasing number of people now go on
working holidays, during which they might help to repair an ancient stone wall
or take part in an archaeological dig. This is an echo of another traditional type of
holiday fruit picking. This used to be the habit of poor people from the east
end of London - for example, to go to Kent at the end of the summer to help with
the hop harvest (hops are used for making beer).

160

Exercise 5. Match the following words (1-10) with the proper definition (a-j)

1. tent

a) a period of the year when there is

2. off-season
3. caravan

less activity in business


b) movable shelter usually made of

4. night club

strong cotton, which is supported by

5. to sunbathe

poles and held in position by ropes

6. seaside

fixed into the ground with hooked

7. package holiday

nails

8. resort

c) to sit or lie in the sun in order to

9. sleeping bag
10. to book

make your skin darker


d) to arrange to have (a seat, room,
tickets) at a particular time in the
future
e) a holiday at a fixed price in which
the travel company arranges ones
travel, hotel and meals
f) a large thick bag for sleeping in
g) a place which is open until late at
night where people can go to drink
and dance and often see some type of
entertainment
h) a wheeled vehicle for living or
travelling in, especially for holidays,
which contains beds and cooking
equipment and can be pulled by a car
i) the area near the sea, especially
where people spend their holidays
and enjoy themselves
j) a place where many people go for
rest and relaxation

161

Exercise 6. Fill in the blanks with the suitable words or phrases required by the
meaning of the following sentences:

cruise

departure lounge

hitch-hiking

inter-city express

season ticket

sightseeing excursion

thumb a lift

touring holiday

1. Uncle Bill and Aunt Jane are on the quayside at the cross-channel port of Dover
the first stage of their Mediterranean
2. Grandmother is at the coach station, armed with her special old-age pensioners

3. She is off on a one-day to Stonehenge, Blackpool


Tower and Canterbury Cathedral.
4. Julia is with her boyfriend at the airport, kicking their cases through the

5. Mum and Dad are already on the open road, as they decided to make an early
start on their through the Loire valley.
6. Uncle Max is about to board the 10.40 to Glasgow for
a fortnights holiday back to the homeland.
7. My brother is on the slip road of the M1 motorway, trying to

8. There is no car on the road, the rucksack is getting heavier and the sky is
getting darker; its not much of a life sometimes,

Exercise 7. Topics for discussion:


1. How often do you have holidays?
2. Do you prefer spending you holidays at home or somewhere else? Why?
3. (Dis)advantages of a camping/walking/hitchhiking holiday.
4. The best way to know a place.
5. Describe the part of Romania that you would advise a foreign visitor not to
miss.

162

GRAMMAR
PREPOZIIA
(THE PREPOSITION)
Reprezint partea de vorbire care face legtura ntre prile de propoziie.
n limba englez, prepoziiile uzuale sunt:
about = despre

except = afar de

above = deasupra

for = pentru; de

across = peste

from = de la

after = dup

in = n

against = mpotriva

into = n

along = de-a lungul

inside = n interiorul

smong = printre

near = lng

around = n jurul

of = de

at = la

off = de pe, din

before = nainte(a)

on = pe, asupra

behind = n spatele

out = din

below = sub

outside = n exteriorul

beside = alturi

over = peste, deasupra

between = ntre

per = prin; pe

beyond = n afara

regarding = privind

by = lng; de (ctre)

round = n jurul

concerning = privind

since = de, din

despite = n ciuda

through = prin

down = jos

till = pn

during = n timpul

to = ctre, spre
under = sub, dedesubt
with = cu
without = fr

Totui, deseori, prepoziiile i pot schimba sensul de baz n funcie de


context:
through the window (pe fereastr)
in time (la timp)
for work (la lucru)
163

by bus (cu autobuzul)


on foot (pe jos)
Alteori, prepoziiile pot aprea dup verbe, crora le confer un sens diferit
fa de nelesul de baz (le transform n verbe frazale):
to look (a privi) - to look after (a vea grij de)
to look for ( a cuta)
to go (a merge) - to go on (a continua)
to go by ( a trece)
to make (a face) - to make into ( a transforma)
to make up (a ntregi; a fixa; a alctui; a se farda)
n alte cazuri, prepoziiile pot aprea dup substantive sau adjective i
trebuie reinute mpreun:
at night (noaptea)

safe from (ferit de)

at times (uneori)

of old (pe vremuri)

at peace (n pace)

proud of (mndru de)

by sea (cu vaporul)

on duty (de serviciu)

by the hour (cu ora)

on sale (de vnzare)

by the way (apropo)

pale with fright (palid de spaim)

Dup cum se poate observa problema prepoziiilor n limba englez este


deosebit de dificil, datorit diverselor sensuri i funcii. Deoarece n limba
romn, de multe ori, nu exist echivalente exacte, se recomand nvarea
expresiilor ca atare.

CONJUNCIA
(THE CONJUNCTION)
Leag dou cuvinte cu acceai funcie sintactic sau dou propoziii, fie de acelai
fel, fie o propoziie secundar de cea principal.
Propoziiile de acelai fel sunt legate prin conjuncii precum:
and (i)
as well as (precum i)
besides (n afar de)
either or (sau sau, ori ori)
neither nor (nici nici)
164

both and (i i)
or (sau, fie, ori)
otherwise (sau, n caz contrar)
hence (aadar, deci, prin urmare)
then (apoi, dup aceea)
therefore (de aceea, n consecin)
but (ns, ci, dar)
while (n timp/vreme ce)
because (deoarece, pentru c)
for example, for instance (de exemplu)
such as (precum, cum ar fi)
that is, abreviat i.e. din expresia latin id est (adic)
Propoziiile secundare sunt introduse prin conjuncii precum:
as (deoarece, pentru c)
as if, as though (ca i cum, de parc)
(al)though (dei, cu toate c)
before (nainte de)
till, until (pn cnd)
when (cnd)
where (unde)
in order that (pentru ca s)
lest (ca s nu)
because (deoarece, pentru c)
since (de vreme ce)
even if (chiar dac)
as long as (ct vreme)
if only (mcar dac, cel puin dac)
unless (dac nu)
provided/providing (that) (dac, cu condiia s)

165

Exercise 8. Fill in the spaces with one of the following prepositions, according to
the meaning of the sentence:

at

for

in

of

on

to

with

1. Hurry up or else youll be late school.


2. I am very pleased our new car.
3. Does this bus stop railway station?
4. I dont think that he is fit this job.
5. Smoking is not allowed this building.
6. It has been snowing and all the fields were white
snow.
7. The food you brought is sufficient all our family.
8 There was a challet the top of the mountain and
another one the valley.
9. My aunt has rented a small house the back of the
park.
10. Dont be angry him! He is only a child!

Exercise 9. Translate the following into Romanian, paying attention to the use of
the prepositions:
1. Mi-e team c nu pot fi de acord cu propunerea dumneavoastr.

2. Au nceput deja s-i fac planuri pentru vacana urmtoare.

3. Poate c are dreptate. De ce nu-l asculi?

4. Au ajuns la gar foarte devreme i au ateptat trenul destul de mult.

5. E nepoliticos s ari cu degetul lumea de pe strad.

6. A btut la u, iar noi l-am invitat nuntru.

166

7. Prefer s mearg cu autobuzul sau tramvaiul: nu-i place s mearg pe jos.

8. Cnd l-am vzut, era nconjurat de mult lume i vorbea cu voce tare.

9. A czut din copac i i-a rupt piciorul, iar acum trebuie s-i ia concediu.

10. A luat revista de pe raft i, din greeal, a pus-o pe pervaz.

Exercise 10. Fill in the blanks with the suitable conjunction(s):


1. I shall stay here you promise to finish work.
2. you go now, you will be late.
3. Where did they go we left the theatre?
4. Dont go to see her she asks you to!
5. her husband is abroad, she will go to stay with her
parents.
6. He intends to study medicine graduates from college.
7. Your work is better than mine, not as good as hers.
8. We must finish cleaning the house they come back
home.
9. Dont forget to call on them you are in Brighton.
10. He has not been here the winter started.

REMEMBER!
Prepositions join words or expressions; the most common show movement:
below, under, up, down, to, from, through, etc.
Conjunctions join phrases or sentences; they show: time, place, cause, result,
condition, comparison, etc.

167

CHECK-UP TEST
I. Choose the right variant:
1. we were at the party someone broke a window.
A. as soon as

C. until

B. unless

D. while

2. They were walking the bank of the river holding hands.


A. along

C. to

B. across

D. from

3. He has been an excellent worker he came to our factory.


A. from

C. as

B. since

D. for

4. He will be able to buy that car he has saved the right money.
A. before

C. as soon as

B. until

D. then

5. We are all interested the study of English.


A. by

C. to

B. of

D. in

6. She told us an interesting story. What ?


A. about

C. with

B. for

D. from

7. The woman blue is my sister-in-law.


A. of

C. with

B. in

D. at

8. the end of this year, he will have lived here for ten years.
A. to

C. until

B. by

D. till

9. I had opened the door he had time to knock.


A. when

C. after

B. while

D. before

10. This film is quite different what I expected.


A. to

C. by

B. for

D. from

168

II. Write a 300-word composition about the (dis)advantages of living in a


hotel/motel/boarding-house/inn/camping site/chalet.

REFERENCES
1. Cambridge International Dictionary of English, Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1995
2. Gleanu-Frnoag, Georgiana, Doina Sachelarie-Lecca, Limba englez n
conversaie, Bucureti: Editura tiinific i Enciclopedic, 1982
3. Ilovici, Edith, Mariana Chioran, Maria Ciofu, A Practical Guide to English
Grammar. Exerciii de gramatic, Ediia a II-a, Bucureti: Editura Didactic i
Pedagogic, 1972
4. ODriscoll, James, Britain. The Country and Its People, Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 1996
5. Wellman, Guy, The Heinemann English Wordbuilder, Oxford: Heinemann
International, 1992

169

TEST DE EVALUARE
I. Choose the correct phrase or word.
Example: He would like to a. let

his car repaired

b. have
c. leave
d. letting
The correct answer is b: have

1. My mother wanted

a. of me

be a doctor

b. that I
c. for me to
d. me to

2. This house is

a. too

expensive for us

b. to
c. enough
d. two

3. I'd like to help you, but I haven't got

a. many time
b. some time
c. no time
d. enough time

4. Are you going

a. to

holiday next week?

b. on
c. for
d. in

5. Hello my name's Anna Cook


a. Please to meet you
b. I lucky to meet you
c. Pleased to meet you
d. It pleases me to meet you

170

6. Could you a. say

me his number

b. speak
c. talk to
d. tell

7. Mr Jones is in Germany

a. to

Tuesday

b. for
c. until
d. still

8. The letter must be typed

a. by

5 p.m.

b. for
c. until
d. latest

9. You don't want to come

a. do you?
b. don't you?
c. did you?
d. aren't you?

10. I like her. She likes me.


We like

a. ourselves
b. each other
c. us
d. ourself

11. I'm

a. having interest

in the news

b. of interest
c. interested
d. interesting

12. It's the company a. who

makes cars

b. what
c. that
d. where
171

13. What will happen when the Euro

a. come
b. 'll come
c. comes
d. will come

14. Dear Jack,


Thank you

a. of

your postcard

b. from
c. to
d. for

15. We won't be successful if we

a. won't speak English


b. aren't speaking English
c. aren't going to speak English
d. don't speak English

16. When Sherlock Holmes arrived the murderer


a. had gone
b. has gone
c. had been going
d. has been going

17. I've been reading all night.


I've

a. been read three books


b. had read three books
c. been reading three books
d. read three books

18. I've got an idea.


Why

a. don't we go to the cinema?


b. do not we go to the cinema?
c. do we go to the cinema?
d. are we going to the cinema?

172

19. I don't know where Tim is.


He isn't at home, so he

a. must work
b. must be working
c. has to work
d. needs to work

20. I'm sorry about the delay but it a. needs

some time to get

through to China.
b. lasts
c. takes
d. uses

21. Mr Smith wants you to call him as soon as you

a. get back
b. are getting
c. will get
d. are going to get

22.

a. Someone

left a message while you were out.

b. Something
c. Anyone
d. None

23.

Oh, who

a. did phone?
b. has phoned?
c. was phoning?
d. phoned?

24. I guess the takeover talks will

a. go on
b. run down
c. stand out
d. come to

173

for hours.

25. I know you find English difficult but you mustn't

a. put up.
b. run down
c. go up.
d. give up.

26. We won't be able to use the photocopier until they

a. had

repaired

it.
b. will have
c. would have
d. should have

27. Mrs Jones always tries to arrive

a. at

the office by 7 in the

morning.
b. to
c. by
d. on

28. The new Toyota

a. isn't needing

a lot of petrol.

b. doesn't use
c. doesn't have
d. isn't employing

29. If you want a new job, take a look at the a. announcements

in the

newspaper.
b. claims
c. applications
d. advertisements

30. Since I had my accident, I've been driving much

a. careful

than I

used to.
b. carefully
c. more careful
d. more carefully

174

31. If I

a. would be

rich enough, I would buy my own house.

b. will be
c. were
d. am

32. Where

a. did you goon holiday last year?


b. have you gone
c. had you gone
d. did you went

33. How long

a. is John working

at MBUK now?

b. does John work


c. has John been working
d. do John working

34. If we don't raise our prices, we a. would make a loss.


b. are making a loss.
c. had made a loss.
d. will make a loss.

35. Jill told me last night that she

a. will go to

leave the company.

b. is going
c. was going to
d. has been going to

36. If he hadn't been so drunk, he a. hadn't fallen


the stairs.
b. didn't fall
c. wouldn't fall
d. wouldn't have fallen

37. We spend a lot of money a. on

customer service.

b. of
c. for
d. by
175

down

38. His new Renault a. carries

six people.

b. holds
c. employs
d. takes up

39. Visitors to the company

a. mustn't

have a pass.

b. cannot
c. don't need
d. needn't

40. Susanne is still at university. She

a. makes

courses in American

History.
b. leads
c. does
d. works

II. Identify the one underlined word or phrase that should be corrected, then find
the number of the question on your answer sheet and mark your answer.
Example:
The police is looking for two climbers lost in the highlands.
a

c d

The sentence should read: 'The police are looking for two climbers lost in the
Highlands.' Therefore you should choose answer (b.

41. We look forward to receive your reply soon. Yours sincerely.


a

42. We are very interested to hear your views on this matter.


a

43. Please send us any informations you have on this subject.


a

44. Any customers which have not contacted you by the 14th should be phoned.
a

176

45. If we hadn't found the error so quickly, the report would have taken many
more time.
a

46. As you can see, sales dropped down dramatically last year.
a

47. There are too much money spent on weapons and not enough on environment
protection.
a

48. So, until the end of the year we hope to increase sales by 12% to $1.7 million.
a

49. Last time we were in London we stood at the Hilton for three nights.
a

50. The construction of the new sports car took more then five years.
a

III. Compositions (choose at least one)


1. Usual things that may happen while shopping (about 10 lines).
2. Getting lost in a big city (10-line dialogue: QuestionAnswer)
3. (Dis)advantages of owning a car/riding bikes (10 lines).
4. Your favourite kind of holiday (10 lines).
5. Career opportunities today (10 lines).

177

VOCABULARUL DE BAZ AL LIMBII ENGLEZE


(BASIC ENGLISH VOCABULARY)
I. Nouns

accident

argument

action

arm

actor

army

addition

arrival

address

art

advantage

article

advertisement

artist

advice

assistant

affair

atmosphere

afternoon

attention

age

attraction

agriculture

aunt

aid

authority

air

autumn

airport

avenue

alcohol
ambition

baby

amount

back

amusement

bacon

anger

bag

angle

bakers

animal

balance

apparatus

ball

apple

band

appointment

bank

approval

barbers

arch

base

architect

basin

area

basket
178

bath

box

battle

boy

beard

brain

beauty

brake

bed

branch

bedroom

bread

beef

breakfast

beer

breath

behaviour

bridge

belief

brother

bell

brush

bench

building

bill

bus

bird

business

birth

butchers

birthday

butter

biscuit

button

bit
bite

caf

blackboard

cake

blade

camera

blanket

cancer

block

candidate

blood

cap

blouse

capital

board

capitalism

boat

captain

body

car

bone

card

book

care

booking-office

carpet

boot

cart

border

cat

bottle

cattle

bottom

centre
179

century

coat

ceremony

coffee

chair

coin

chalk

collar

chance

colony

character

colour

chat

comb

cheat

comedy

cheese

comfort

chemists

commander

cheer

commerce

cheque

committee

cherry

communication

chest

communism

chief

communist

chicken

company

child

comparison

chimney

competition

chin

composition

chocolate

compromise

church

concert

cigar

condition

cigarette

conductor

cinema

congratulation

circle

connection

city

conservative

class

constitution

clerk

conversation

climate

co-operation

clock

copy

cloth

cord

clothes

cork

cloud

corner

coal

cotton

coast

council
180

country

desire

courage

detail

court

detective

cover

development

cow

dictator

crack

difference

cream

difficulty

creation

direction

credit

discovery

crime

disturb

criminal

dining-room

crowd

dinner

cup

direction

cupboard

disarmament

current

discover

curtain

discussion

custom

disease

customer

disgust
dish

danger

dispute

date

distance

daughter

distribution

day

doctor

death

dog

debate

dollar

debt

door

decision

doubt

defence

dozen

degree

drawer

delay

dress

democracy

driver

departure

driving

desk

dust

desert
design

ear
181

earth

failure

east

fame

edge

family

education

farm

effect

farmer

effort

father

egg

favour

election

feeling

element

female

emotion

fever

employee

fiction

end

field

enemy

figure

energy

film

engine

fine

engineer

finger

entrance

fire

envelope

fireplace

equality

fish

error

flag

essay

flame

evening

flat

event

flight

examination

floor

example

flour

existence

flower

expansion

fog

experience

food

expert

foot

expression

foreigner

eye

fork
framework

face

freedom

fact

friend

factory

friendship
182

front

gun

frontier
fruit

hair

fuel

hairdressers

fun

half

furnace

hall

furniture

ham

future

hand
handkerchief

game

harbour

garage

harvest

garden

hat

gas

head

gate

headache

gentleman

headline

gift

health

girl

heart

glass

heating

globe

helicopter

glove

hen

goal

hill

gold

history

good-bye

holiday

government

home

governor

homework

grandfather

honey

grandmother

horse

grass

hospital

grip

hotel

grocers

hour

ground

house

group

humour

growth

husband

guest
guide

ice
183

ice-cream

knowledge

idea
illness

laboratory

improvement

labour

impulse

lady

increase

lamp

independence

land

industry

language

information

lake

initiative

law

ink

leader

insect

leaf

instrument

learning

insurance

leather

interest

leg

invention

lesson

iron

letter

island

level
liberty

jam

library

jet

licence

jewel

life

job

lift

journey

limit

joy

line

justice

linen
lip

kettle

list

key

literature

kidney

liver

kidness

lorry

king

lot

kitchen

lunch

knee

lung

knife
184

machine

Miss

magazine

mistake

maize

model

male

moment

man

money

manager

month

manner

moon

market

morning

marmalade

motel

map

mother

masterpiece

mountain

match

mouth

material

movement

matter

Mr.

mayor

Mrs.

meal

museum

measure

music

meat

mutton

medicine
meeting

name

member

nation

memory

nature

merchant

neck

message

neighbour

metal

neutral

method

news

middle

newspaper

midnight

night

mile

noise

milk

noon

mine

north

mineral

nose

minister

notebook

minute

number

misfortune

nurse
185

nut

penny
people

observation

person

occasion

petrol

ocean

photograph

office

piano

officer

picture

oil

piece

operation

pig

opinion

pillow

opposition

pilot

orange

pin

orchestra

pipe

organization

place

origin

plane

oven

plant

owner

plate
platform

packet

pleasure

page

plum

pain

pocket

painter

poetry

palace

police

paper

politics

parcel

population

parent

pork

park

port

parliament

porter

part

position

party

post

patient

pot

pavement

potato

peace

pound

pen

poverty

pencil

powder
186

power

reason

present

record

president

refrigerator

price

relation

print

relief

prison

religion

problem

report

process

representative

product

republic

profit

respect

programme

restaurant

progress

result

property

revolution

proposal

reward

prose

rice

protest

ring

pump

rival

punishment

river

pupil

road

purpose

rock

pyjamas

roll
roof

quality

room

quarter

root

queen

rubber

question

ruin
rule

radio
railway

sack

range

salad

rate

salary

razor

sale

ray

salt

reaction

sand

reading

satellite
187

satisfaction

sitting-room

sausage

situation

scale

size

scenery

skill

school

skin

science

skirt

sea

sky

seaside

slope

season

soap

secretary

socialism

self-service

society

sensation

sock

sense

soda(-water)

series

soldier

servant

son

sex

song

shade

sort

shape

sound

sheep

soup

shelf

south

shelter

space

ship

speed

shirt

spirit

shoe

sponge

shop

spoon

shop-assistant

sport

shopping

spring

shore

stage

shoulder

staircase

shower

stamp

side

star

sight

state

silence

statement

silver

station

sister

steam
188

steel

telegram

stick

television

stocking

temper

stomach

temperature

stone

tendency

storm

theatre

story

theory

stranger

thief

street

thing

string

thunder

structure

ticket

student

time

subject

tin

substance

toast

success

tobacconists

sugar

ton

suggestion

tongue

suit

tool

suit-case

tooth

sum

top

summer

towel

sun

town

supper

tractor

system

trade
tradition

table

tragedy

tablet

train

tail

tray

tap

treaty

tax

tree

taxi

trial

tea

trick

teacher

trip

team

trouble

technician

trousers
189

truck

watch

truth

water

tube

wave

turkey

way

twist

weapon

typist

week

tyre

weight.
welcome

umbrella

west

underground

wheat

unemployed

weather

unemployment

wheel

unit

wife

university

wind

use

window
wing

valley

winter

value

woman

vegetable

wood

vessel

wool

victory

word

view

worker

village

works

voice

workshop
worm

wages

writer

walk

writing

wall
wallet

year

war

youth

190

The Days of the Week

The Months of the Year

Sunday

January

Monday

February

Tuesday

March

Wednesday

April

Thursday

May

Friday

June

Saturday

July
August
September
October
November
December

II. ADJECTIVES

able

brave

absent

bright

active

brilliant

actual

broad

afraid

brown

alive

busy

ancient
angry

calm

asleep

capitalist

awake

careful
central

bad

certain

beautiful

cheap

big

chemical

bitter

clean

black

clear

blind

clever

blue

comfortable
191

common

exact

cold

excited

complete
complex

fair

conscious

false

content

familiar

contrary

famous

cool

fat

cruel

fertile

curious

few
fine

damp

foggy

dangerous

foolish

dark

foreign

dead

free

deaf

frequent

dear

fresh

deep

friendly

delicate

funny

delightful

full

dependent
different

general

difficult

gentle

direct

glad

dirty

good

dull

grateful

dumb

great

dusty

greedy
green

easy

grey

economic

guilty

elastic
electric

handsome

empty

happy

equal

hard
192

healthy
heavy

main

high

many

honest

medical

hot

merry

human

mild

hungry

military
modern

ill

much

important
impossible

narrow

independent

national

industrial

natural

injured

nearby

intelligent

necessary

interesting

nervous

international

neutral
new

joint

next
nice

kind

noisy
normal

large

nuclear

last
late

old

lazy

only

left

opposite

little

oval

local

own

lonely
long

pale

loose

past

loud

peaceful

low

peculiar

lucky

perfect
193

permanent

sharp

pleasant

short

polite

sick

political

silly

poor

similar

possible

simple

powerful

sincere

pretty

sleepy

private

slow

public

small
smooth

quick

social

quiet

socialist
soft

rapid

solid

ready

sorry

real

sour

reasonable

square

red

stiff

regular

still

responsible

stormy

rich

straight

right

strange

roast

strong

rough

stupid

round

successful
sure

sad

sweet

safe
same

tall

satisfactory

terrible

scientific

thick

secret

thin

serious

tired

several

thirsty
194

traditional

wet

true

white
whole

ugly

wide

useful

wild

usual

wise
wonderful

valuable

worth

violent

wrong

warm

yellow

weak

young

wealthy

III. NUMERALS

zero

one

first

once

two

second

twice

three

third

double

four

fourth

five

fifth

six

sixth

seven

seventh

eight

eighth

nine

ninth

10

ten

tenth

11

eleven

eleventh

12

twelve

twelfth

13

thirteen

thirteenth

14

fourteen

fourteenth

15

fifteen

fifteenth

16

sixteen

sixteenth

17

seventeen

seventeenth
195

18

eighteen

eighteenth

19

nineteen

nineteenth

20

twenty

twentieth

21

twenty-one

twenty-first

22

twenty-two

twenty-second

23

twenty three

twenty third

24

twenty four

twenty-fourth

30

thirty

thirtieth

40

forty

fortieth

50

fifty

fiftieth

60

sixty

sixtieth

70

seventy

seventieth

80

eighty

eightieth

90

ninety

ninetieth

100

hundred

hundredth

1,000

thousand

thousandth

1,000,000

million

millionth

1,000,000,000

billion

billionth

IV. VERBS

accept

apologize

accuse

appear

acquire

apply

act

approve

add

arrive

advance

ask

advise

astonish

agree

attack

amuse

attempt

answer

attend
196

avoid

close
come

be

complain

beat

confirm

become

congratulate

begin

consider

behave

continue

believe

control

belong

cook

bend

correct

bind

cost

bite

cough

bleed

count

blow

create

boil

cross

borrow

cry

break

cure

breathe

cut

bring
broadcast

damage

build

dance

burn

decide

burst

defeat

bury

defend

buy

depend
describe

calculate

deserve

call

destroy

can

develop

catch

dictate

cause

die

celebrate

dig

change

disappear

choose

discuss

climb

divide
197

do

flood

draw

flow

dream

fly

drink

follow

drive

force

drop

forget

drown

form

dry

free
freeze

earn

frighten

eat
educate

gather

elect

get

encourage

give

enjoy

go

enter

govern

escape

greet

exchange

grow

excuse

guard

explain
exploit

hang

export

happen

express

hate
have

fail

hear

fall

heat

feed

help

feel

hesitate

fight

hide

fill

hit

find

hold

finish

hope

fix

hurry

flee

hurt

float
198

imagine

listen

imitate

live

import

lock

improve

look

include

lose

inform

love

inherit
inspect

make

intend

march

interfere

mark

introduce

marry

invent

may

invite

mean
meet

join

melt

joke

mention

judge

mind

jump

miss
mix

keep

move

kill

must

kiss
knock

need

know

note
notice

laugh
lay

obey

lead

object

learn

oblige

leave

offer

lend

omit

let

open

lie

oppose

light

order

like

organize
199

owe

receive

paint

recognize
reduce

pass

regret

pay

reject

permit

relate

plan

remain

play

remember

please

repair

point

repeat

poison

reply

possess

report

postpone

represent

pour

request

praise

rest

prefer

return

pretend

rise

prevent

rob

produce

rub

promise

run

pronounce
propose

sail

protect

satisfy

protest

save

prove

say

publish

search

pull

see

punish

seem

push

sell

put

send
serve

rain

settle

raise

shake

reach

shall

read

share
200

shave

suppose

shine

surprise

shock

surround

shoot

sweep

shout

swim

show

switch

shut
sign

take

sing

talk

sink

taste

sit

teach

sleep

tear

slip

telephone

smell

tell

smile

test

smoke

thank

sneeze

think

snow

threaten

speak

throw

spend

tie

spill

touch

spread

translate

stand

transport

start

travel

stay

tremble

steal

trust

step

try

stop

turn

strike

type

struggle

understand

study

unite

succeed

urge

suffer
suggest

visit

support

vote
201

win
wait

wish

want

witness

warn

wonder

wash

work

waste

worry

wear

wound

welcome

wrap

will

write

V. PRONOUNS, DETERMINERS, ARTICLES

our

me

ours

my

ourselves

mine
myself

they

you

them

yours

their

yourself

theirs

yourselves

themselves

he
him

who

his

whose

himself

what

she

which

her
hers

herself

all

it

an

its

another

itself

any

we

anybody

us

anything
202

both

one

each
either

this

else

these

every

that

everybody

those

everything
except

other

former

same

latter

some

neither

somebody

no

something

nobody

such

nor

the

nothing

203

VI. ADVERBS, CONJUNCTIONS, PREPOSITIONS

about

between

above

beyond

abroad

but

across

by

after

certainly

afterwards

chiefly

again

clearly

against

close

ago
almost

down

alone

during

along
already

early

also

enough

although

especially

always

even

among

ever

and

everywhere

anywhere

except

around
as

fairly

aside

far

at

fast

away

for
formerly

back

forward

because

from

before
behind

generally

below

gently

beneath
beside

hard

besides

hardly

here

out

highly

outside

how

over

however
past
if

perfectly

immediately

perhaps

in

probably

indeed

properly

inside

publicly

into

purposely

instead (of)
quickly
just

quite

largely

rather

lately

really
recently

meanwhile
more

seldom

moreover

simply

naturally

slowly

nearly

so

never

soon

no

sometimes

not

somewhere

now

still

nowhere

suddenly

of

than

often

then

on

there

once

though

or

through

otherwise

thus
205

till
to

very

today
together

well

tomorrow

when

tonight

where

too

while

towards

why
with

under

without

unless
until

yes

up

yesterday

usually

yet

206

PRINCIPALELE VERBE NEREGULATE


(MAIN IRREGULAR VERBS)
INFINITIV
(INFINITIVE)

TRECUT
(PAST SIMPLE)

to be

was, were

PARTICIPIU
(PAST
PARTICIPLE)
been

SENS
(MEANING)

to bear

bore

born(e)

a purta

to beat

beat

beat

a bate

to become

became

become

a deveni

to begin

began

begun

a ncepe

to bind

bound

bound

a lega

to bite

bit

bitten

a muca

to bleed

bled

bled

a sngera

to bless

blessed, blest

blessed, blest

a binecuvnta

to blow

blew

blown

a sufla

to break

broke

broken

a (se) rupe, a (se)

a fi, a exista

sparge
to breed

bred

bred

a crete

to bring

brought

brought

a aduce

to build

built

built

a cldi, a construi

to burn

burned, burnt

burned, burnt

a arde

to burst

burst

burst

a izbucni

to buy

bought

bought

a cumpra

to cast

cast

cast

a arunca

to catch

caught

caught

a prinde

to choose

chose

chosen

a alege

to come

came

come

a veni

to cost

cost

cost

a costa

to creep

crept

crept

a se tr

to cut

cut

cut

a (se) tia

to deal

dealt

dealt

a avea de-a face cu

to dig

dug

dug

a spa

to do

did

done

a face, a svri

207

INFINITIV
(INFINITIVE)

TRECUT
(PAST SIMPLE)

to draw

drew

PARTICIPIU
(PAST
PARTICIPLE)
drawn

SENS
(MEANING)

to dream

dreamed, dreamt

dreamed, dreamt

a visa

to drink

drank

drunk

a bea

to drive

drove

driven

a conduce (maina)

to dwell

dwelt

dwelt

a locui

to eat

ate

eaten

a mnca

to fall

fell

fallen

a cdea, a scdea

to feed

fed

fed

a se hrni

to feel

felt

felt

a se simi

to fight

fought

fought

a lupta

to find

found

found

a descoperi, a gsi

to fly

flew

flown

a zbura

to forbid

forbade

forbidden

a interzice

to forecast

forecast

forecast

a prevedea, a

a trage, a desena

prezice
to forget

forgot

forgotten

a uita

to freeze

froze

frozen

a nghea

to get

got

got (Amer. gotten)

a cpta, a obine;
a deveni, a se face

to give

gave

given

a acorda, a da

to go

went

gone

a merge, a se duce

to grind

ground

ground

a mcina

to grow

grew

grown

a crete, a se
dezvolta

to hang

hanged, hung

hanged, hung

a atrna, a
spnzura

to have

had

had

a avea, a poseda

to hear

heard

heard

a auzi

to hide

hid

hid, hidden

a (se) ascunde

to hit

hit

hit

a (se) ascunde

to hold

held

held

a ine, a susine

to hurt

hurt

hurt

a (se) rni

208

INFINITIV
(INFINITIVE)

TRECUT
(PAST SIMPLE)

to keep

kept

PARTICIPIU
(PAST
PARTICIPLE)
kept

SENS
(MEANING)

to kneel

knelt

knelt

a ngenunchea

to know

knew

known

a ti, a cunoate

to lead

led

led

a conduce

to lean

leaned, leant

leaned, leant

a se apleca

to learn

learned, learnt

learned, learnt

a nva

to leave

left

left

a pleca, a prsi

to lend

lent

lent

a mprumuta, a da

a ine, a pstra

cu mprumut
to let

let

let

a lsa, a permite

to lie

lay

lain

a sta culcat, a zcea

to light

lighted, lit

lighted, lit

a aprinde, a lumina

to lose

lost

lost

a pierde

to make

made

made

a face, a furi

to mean

meant

meant

a vrea s spun

to meet

met

met

a (se) ntlni, a face


cunotin

to mistake

mistook

mistaken

a grei, a confunda

to misunderstand

misunderstood

misunderstood

a nelege greit

to pay

paid

paid

a plti

to put

put

put

a pune, a aeza

to read

read

read

a citi

to rend

rent

rent

a sfia

to ride

rode

ridden

a clri, a mna
(caii)

to ring

rang

rung

a suna

to rise

rose

risen

a se ridica, a rsri

to run

ran

run

a alerga, a fugi

to saw

sawed

sawn

a tia cu fierstrul

to say

said

said

a spune, a zice

209

INFINITIV
(INFINITIVE)

TRECUT
(PAST SIMPLE)

to see

saw

PARTICIPIU
(PAST
PARTICIPLE)
seen

to seek

sought

sought

a cuta

to sell

sold

sold

a vinde

to send

sent

sent

a trimite

to set

set

set

a aranja, a stabili

to sew

sewed

sewn

a coase

to shake

shook

shaken

a se zgudui

to shine

shone

shone

a strluci

to shoot

shot

shot

a mpuca

to show

showed

shown

a (se) arta

to shut

shut

shut

a (se) nchide

to sing

sang

sung

a cnta (din gur)

to sink

sank

sunk(en)

a (se) scufunda

to sit

sat

sat

a sta jos, a edea

to sleep

slept

slept

a dormi

to smell

smelled, smelt

smelled, smelt

a mirosi

to sow

sowed

sown

a planta, a semna

to speak

spoke

spoken

a vorbi

to speed

sped

sped

a accelera, a grbi

to spell

spelled, spelt

spelled, spelt

a silabisi

to spend

spent

spent

a cheltui, a petrece

to spill

spilt

spilt

a vrsa

to spin

spun

spun

a (se) rsuci

to split

split

split

a despica

to spoil

spoiled, spoilt

spoiled, spoilt

a strica, a rsfa

to spread

spread

spread

a (se) rspndi

to stand

stood

stood

a sta n picioare

to steal

stole

stolen

a fura

to stick

stuck

stuck

a (se) lipi, a se fixa

to strike

struck

struck, stricken

a izbi, a lovi

to write

wrote

written

a scrie

210

SENS
(MEANING)
a vedea