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Present Tense Simple

Af. : S + VB + (E)S pers a IIIa singular
Int. : DO/DOES + S + VB ?

Af. : I work
You work
He works
She works
It works
We work
You work
They work

Neg.: I dont work

You dont work
He doesnt work
She doesnt work
It doesnt work
We dont work
You dont work
They dont work

Int.: Do I work ?
Do you work ?
Does he work ?
Does she work ?
Does it work?
Do we work?
Do you work?
Do they work?

Terminaia (e)s :
1. Majoritatea verbelor adaug -s la persoana a IIIa singular;
Ex: run runs
drive drives
2. Verbele care se termin n o, x, s, z, ch, sh adaug -es la persoana a IIIa
Ex: do does
go goes
mix mixes
pass passes
buzz buzzes
watch watches
wash washes.
3. Verbele care se termin n y i au nainte o consoan, transform y-ul n i i
adaug terminaia es, dar dac nainte de y este o vocal , y rmne neschimbat i
se adaug doar s
Ex.: try tries
cry cries
buy buys
play plays

1. Se folosete pentru a exprima adevruri generale , situaii de o valabilitate
Ex.: The sun rises in the East and sets in the West.
Birds fly.
2. Se folosete pentru a exprima aciuni obinuite, repetate , situaii permanente.
Este nsoit de obicei de adverbe de timp ca : every (day/ week/ month/ year etc.),
never, occasionally, often, sometimes, seldom, twice a week, usually etc. .
Ex.: We go to school every morning. (repetat)
Father smokes too much. (obicei)
Jane works in a bin factory. (situaie permanent)
3. n vorbirea direct, pentru a introduce citate.
Ex.: Shakespeare says:
Not marble, nor the gilded monuments
Ok princes shall
4. Uneori n redarea sumarului unei povestiri, fiind numit present istoric sau narativ.
Ex.: I went into the dark room and, suddenly, I hear a strange noise.
Uneori i prezentul simplu i continuu pot fi folosite pentru a reda rezumatul unei
povestiri ns exist o mic diferen ntre ele. n timp ce prezentul simplu se
folosete pentru o succesiune de aciuni scurte care au loc imediat una dup cealalt ,
prezentul continu se folosete pentru aciuni care erau deja n desfurare cnd
ncepe povestirea sau la un anumit moment din povestire.
Ex.: The Prince enters the cave and there he sees a witch. The witch is boiling
something and is talking to a huge black cat that is looking at itself in a mirror.
5. n intruciuni i demonstraii redate pas cu pas.
Ex.: First, I take the potatoes and slice them. Then, I slice the tomatoes, fry the
onion and parsley in a little fat until the onions are translucent.
6. n comentarii sportive. n acest caz prezentul simplu se refer la aciuni rapide ( care
sunt ncheiate nainte de propoziiile care le descriu. Prezentul continu este utilizat
pentru aciuni mai lungi.
Ex. : The goal keeper passes to Maradona, but Hagi ibtercepts. Hagi to Lctu
and he shoots and its a goal! The Romanians are leading by three goals to nil in the
second half.

Nstase serves! (this very moment)

Nstase in serving in the game we are watching now. ( The service is a
continuing activity.)
7. Pentru a exprima o aciune plnuit oficial sau aciuni care fac parte dintr-un
program bine stabilit ( itinerarii, orare, programe autobuz, tren, etc. )
Ex.: The championship starts next Saturday. (will start)
The tourists visit the British Museum on Friday morning. (will visit)
8. Pentru a exprima o aciune viitoare :
a) ntr-o propoziie condiional
Ex.: If your cousin comes here tomorrow, well go to cinema.
b) ntr-o propoziie temporal a crei aciune este simultan cu alt aciune
Ex.: Tom will like English grammar when he understands it.
9. n proverbe i zictori
Ex.: Despair gives courage to a coward.
10. n anumite contexte n special n propoziii interrogative, pentru a reda valoarea
Ex.: Why do you move so slowly? (repro)
11. n propoziii exclamative care ncep prin here sau there .
Ex.: Here they come!
There goes the train!
Dac aceste propoziii nu sunt exclamative trebuie folosit aspectul continu.
Ex.: Theyre coming.
The train is going now.
12. Cu verbul to continue si echivalenii si ( to go on, to keep on), deoarece contin n
ele nsele idea de continuitate i deci nu este necesar folosirea formei continue.
Ex.: The children continue to write.
The pupils go on reading.
Cnd to go on are sensul de to happen trebuie folosit aspectul continuu.
Ex.: What is going on there?

Present Tense Continuous

Af.: S + TO BE + VB + ING
Neg.: S + TO BE la negative + VB+ING
Int.: To BE + S + VB + ING ?
Ex.: Af. Im working
Neg.: Im not working
Int.: Am I working?
Youre working
You arent working
Are you working?
Hes working
He isnt working
Is he working?
Shes working
She isnt working
Is she working?
Its working
It isnt working
Is it working?
Were working
We arent working
Are we working?
Youre working
You arent working
Are you working?
They are working
They arent working
Are they working?
Terminaia ING:
1. Verbele care se termin n e, nltur e-ul i adaug ING.
Ex.: make making
recite reciting.
2. Verbele care se termin n consoan i au nainte o vocal scurt accentuat
dubleaz consoana final
Ex.: forget forgetting
stop stopping
begin beginning
3. Verbele care se termin n ie, transform ie n y i apoi adaug ING.
Ex.: lie (a sta ntins) lying
die (a muri) dying
tie (a lega) tying
1. Se folosete pentru a exprima o aciune care a nceput nainte de momentul
prezent, care este n desfurare n momentul vorbirii i care se va termina n
viitor. Aceast form a verbului arat c durata aciunii este limitat.
Putem folosi adesea cuvinte ca: just, now, at present, at the moment.
Ex.: Im watching TV now.
He is just doing his homework.
Cuvintele just i now nu se mai menioneaz atunci cnd ele se subineleg.
Ex.: Look! The children are speaking.

2. Se folosete pentru a exprima o aciune temporar, nchis ntr-o limit de timp.

Ex.: I usually go to school by bus, but today Im going by train.
3. Se folosete pentru a exprima aciuni plnuite sau aranjamente bine definite ale
unei personae pentru viitorul apropiat. Trebuie ntotdeauna folosit de adverb de
timp viitor.
4. Se folosete pentru a exprima viitorul n special cu verbe de micare ca: to come,
to arrive, to go, to leave.
Ex.: Our friends are arriving tomorrow.
He is going to London on Friday.
5. Se folosete pentru a exprima o aciune repetat care l deranjeaz, l irit pe
vorbitor. n acest caz verbele sunt de obicei nsoite de adverbe ca: always,
constantly, continually, for ever.
Ex.: He is always borrowing money for his friends but never give in back.
Trebuie observat c, cu verbele care exprim sentimente fizice de genul to ache,
to feel, to hurt i construcia to look forward to ( a atepta cu nerbdare) , nu este
mare diferen ntre aspectul simplu i cel continu.
Ex.: How do you feel? / How do zou feeling today?
My finger aches. / is aching.
We look forward / are looking forward to their arrival.
6. Uneori n propoziii subordonate de timp sau condiionale.
Ex.: The boy will play in the park while his mother is making a cake.
I will not disturb her if she is watching TV.
7. Cu verbele to get, to grow etc. pentru a exprima tranziia de la o stare la alta.
Ex.: Its getting dark.

Verbs that cannot be used in the continuous aspect

1. Verbe de perceptie: to feel, to hear, to notice, to see, to smell, to taste.
ex: The hay smells nice today.
Do you see the birds now?
The soup tastes delicious.
Daca dorim sa accentuam ideea de continuitate a acestor verbe trebuie folosit:can,could.
Ex: I can see the plane now.
We can hear the waves at lost.
Totusi verbele to smell, to taste, to feel,pot fi folosite la aspectul continuu atunci cand
arata o actiune voluntara din partea vorbitorului.
Ex:The cat is smelling the bush now.
Mother is tasting the soup to see if it is worm enough for the baby.
Cand verbele de perceptie sunt folosite cu intelesuri diferite de cele de baza,ele pot fi
folosite la aspectul continuu.
TO SEE(a vedea)
a)a avea o intalnire,un interviu:
ex:Tom is seeing his dentist on Friday.
Jane is seeing her manager now.
b)a vizita(folosit in general despre turisti):
Mary is seeing the sights so she will be a little late.
c) to see about:
Our form master is seeing about the trips to the mountains.
d) to see to (a avea de a face cu,a repara):
The mechanic is just seeing to the engine of our car.
e) to see somebody off/up/down/out:
Tom is seeing his grandfather off at the railway station now.
f) to see hallucinations:
Im seeing things.
TO HEAR (a auzi)
a)a primi vesti despre sau de la:
Im hearing interesting things about our new neighbour.
b) cand se refera la procese,cu intelesul de a audia:
The judge is just hearing the witnesses.
TO FEEL (a simti)
Se foloseste de obicei la aspectul simplu.Forma continua sugereaza ca starea este
Mary felt well yesterday but she is not feling weel today.
Ca o concluzie la vb: to feel,to smell,to taste putem spune ca ele sunt folosite in general
in 3 moduri diferite cu 3 intelesuri usor diferite:

a)a resimti o anumita senzatie:

In acest caz trebuie folosit aspectul simplu. Ideea de continuitate poate fi redata prin:
Jane feels/can feel a pain in her shoulder.
I (can) smell a perfume in here.
The children (can) taste something strange in the cake.
b) a face pe cineva sa resimta o anumita senzatie,aspectul simplu trebuie sa fie folosit in
asemenea circumstante:
We know that silk feels soft.
The mountain air smells great/fresh.
This pear tastes sweet.
c)a incerca sa obtina o anumita senzatie.
In acest caz si aspectul simplu si cel continuu poate fi folosit in functie de intelesul
The doctor feels the edge of his penknife before starting to sharpen his pencils.
Mother tastes the milk before giving it to baby. As she wants to feed the baby now she is
tasting it again.
2.Verbe care exprima activitati mentale:
to agree,to belive,to distrust,to douet,to find,to foresee,to forget,to guess,to image,to
know,to mean,to mind,to remember,to regognize,to recollect,to regard,to suppose,to
think(that),to trust,to understand etc.
She knows what you mean.
Do you mind if I give her this book?
Does she think that will be able to come?
Im sure she understands the lesson now.
Unele dintre aceste verbe pot fi folosite la aspectul continuu cu un inteles diferit:
TO FORGET(a uita)
I forget her address now.(nu.mi amintesc)
Im forgetting figures (exprima o pierdere treptata de memorie)
Are you forgetting your manners? (spus unui copil care nu a fost politicos).
TO THINK (a se gandi)
Cand ar intelesul de to imagine sau cand ti se cere o parere,trebuie folosit la aspectul
I think they have already arrived.
What do you think of the new price?
Dar cand nu ti se cere si nici nu ti se da o parere trebuie folosit la forma continua:
What are you thinking about?
Im thinking about our new teachers.
TO MIND(a se supara)
Cand are intelesul de a obiecta sau a displacea trebuie folosit la forma simpla:
Maggie doesnt mind if her husband comes home late.
Dar poate fi folosit la aspectul continuu atunci cand are intelesul dea avea grija de
cineva.Verbele care nu sunt folosite de obicei la aspectul continuu pot fi folosite la acest
aspect atunci cand vrem sa sugeram iritare,sarcasm,enervare,repros etc.

At the moment Ann is minding her sick mother.

We foresee no difficulty in solving that problem.
She is always foreseeing difficulties which never occur. (irritation)
Juliet is always distrusting her own judgment.
3.Verbe care exprima dorinta:
To desire, to intend, to want, to wish.
I want that book now.
4.Verbe care exprima posesia:
To belong to, to have, to hold, to keep, to own,to owe, to posess.
How many friends have you got here?
To have poate fi folosit la aspectul continuu atunci cand apartine unor constructii diferite:
Jane is having breakfast.
We are having a both now.
5.Verbe care exprima atitudine,sentimente,stari emotionale:
To abhor,to ador,to detest,to dislake,to displease,to like,to love,to hate,to prefer etc.
6.Verbe care exprima o stare,o conditie:
To appear, to be, to consist(of),to contain, to differ, to deserve, to equal, to exist, to
resemble ,to seem, to suit.
Dar to be poate fi folosit la aspectul continuu.
a)constructii pasive:
A new black of flats is being built near our house.
b)Pentru a arata ca subiectul expune o calitate temporara:
Look, how kind our aunt is being to us today.
c)uneori pt a exprima reprosul:
Why are you being so mean?
d)cu adjective ca: absurd,careless,clumsy,looy,rude,sentimental,silly,stupid etc.,pt a
exprima comportamente temporare:
Im not being sentimental, whatever you may think.
e)diferite verbe:to compare,to expect,to matter,to result,to suffice:
I expect (suppose) you know him.
Im expecting (waiting for) an important guest now.
7.Verbe modale:
I can drive a car now.
She may go to the cinema now.
You must learn the new words now.

Past Tense Simple


Aff: S+VB2
Int: DID+S+VB1

aff:I worked
You worked
He/she/it worked
We worked
You worked
They worked

Verbe regulate:
neg:I didnt work
You didnt work
He/she/it didnt work
We didnt work
You didnt work
They didnt work

Did I work?
Did you work?
Did he/she/it work?
Did we work?
Did you work?
Did they work?
I.Verbele regulate sunt verbele care formeaza trecutul si participiul trecut prin adaugarea
terminatiei *ed* la forma de baza.
Particularitatile ortografice:
1.Verbele care se termina in *e* adauga doar *d*;
2.Verbele care se termina in consoana +*y* transforma y-ul in *i* si adauga *ed*;
Daca verbul se termina in:vocala+y, y-ul ramane neschimbat si se adauga *ed*;
ex: play-played
3.Verbele care se termina in consoana si au inainte o vocala scurta accentuata;dubleaza
consoana finala si apoi adauga *ed*;
Ex: stop-stopped.
II.Verbele neregulate sunt alte verbe care isi schimba forma de trecut si participiu:

Verbe neregulate
aff:I went
You went
She went
He went
It went
We went
You went
They went

neg:I did not go

You did not go
She did not go
He did not go
It did not go
We did not go
You did not go
They did not go

int:Did I go?
Did you go?
Did she go?
Did he go?
Did it go?
Did we go?
Did you go?
Did they go?

1.Trecutul simplu se foloseste pt. a exprima actiuni care s-au incheiat intr-un anume
moment,bine precizat,din trecut;
Ex: I went to the mountains last week.
*yesterday,last night,last,a week ago,.ago
2.Se foloseste pentru a exprima obiceiuri din trecut;
ex: My grandmother drank five cups of coffee a day.
In aceasta intrebuintare mai pot fi folosite inca 2 constructii:
a) used to+infinitiv:actiuni sau stari trecute in special atunci cand vrem sa facem un
contrast cu prezentul;
Ex: I used to ride my bike to school but now I drive.
He used to have a heard.
b) would to+infinitive: se foloseste pentru a exprima actiuni repetate in trecut;
Ex: When I was at my grandparents home I would wake up early and go for a walk.
3..Se foloseste pt. a exprima o succesiune de actiuni trecute, scurte,care au loc una dupa
Ex: She woke up, got out of bed and made a cup of coffee.


Past Tense Continuous

Aff:I/he/she/it/was playing.
You/we/they/were playing.
Neg:I/he/she/it was not playing.
I/he/she/it wasnt playing.
You/we/they were not playing.
You/we/they werent playing.
Int: Was I/he/she/it playing?
Were you/we/they playing?
1.Se foloseste pt. a exprima o actiune in progres la un anume moment din trecut;
Ex: At 8 oclock my brother was watching TV.
2.Pt. a arata ca o actiune era in desfasurare intr-un anume moment din trecut cand o alta
actiune mult mai importanta sau mai dramatica a avut loc;
Ex: While Mary was crossing the street yesterday she was hit by a car.
3.Pt. a arata ca doua sau mai multe actiuni erau in desfasurare simultan in trecut;
Ex: While mother was cooking father was reading a newspaper and the kids were playing
on the carpet.
4.In vorbirea indirecta pt. a exprima un prezent continuu din vorbirea directa;
Ex:My doll is sleeping now, little Kate explained.
Little Kate explained that her doll was sleeping then.
5.Pt. a arata un aranjament viitor vazut din perspectiva trecuta;
Ex: Our neighbours did not come to our place that evening because they were taking the
night train to London.
6.Cu *always* pt. a exprima o actiune repetata din trecut care il deranja pe vorbitor;
Ex:The two pupils were always laughing during my classes.
7.In propozitii conditionale pt a exprima un conditional prezent.
Ex: What would you say if the boys were sleeping now?


Present Perfect Simple

Ex. I/we/you/they have opened
He/she/it has opened
I/we/you/they havent opened
He/she/it hasnt opened
Have I/we/you/they opened?
Has he/she/it opened?
Present perfect simple se foloseste :
1.cand nu mai suntem interesati de timpul cand a avut loc actiunea ci de rezultatul
acesteia in prezent
ex:I have visited an interesting museum.(I still remember the things seen there.)
2.cand actiunea continua in prezent si poate va continua si in viitor
ex:Many pupils have learnt in this school.(in present in trecut si poate si in viitor)
3.pentru a exprima actiuni incheiate in trecutul recent.(in acest caz verbul este de obicei
insotit de adverbe de timp ca:just,lately,recently ,till now ,up to now,so far,up to the
ex: The train has just left.
We havent seen Jack lately. acele cuvinte care arata o perioada de timp incompleta: today,this week, this month,
this year, all day ,all night ,this morning:
ex.Last week we wrote three letters ,this week we have written only one.
-daca aceste cuvinte arata insa o perioada de timp completa trebuie folosit past tense:
ex:We have seen a good film this morning .(suntem inainte de ora 12)
We saw a good film this morning.(suntem seara sau dupa amiaza)
5.HOW LONG cand se refera la o perioada de timp care se extinde pana in prezent cere
present perfect:
ex:How long have you been ill?(inca esti bolnav)
-atunci cand se refera la o perioada de timp trecuta se foloseste past tense sau past
ex:How long did you stay in London last year?
How long had you known him when he died? adverbe care arata frecventa actiunii pana in prezent:ever ,never, often ,seldom,
always ,several times:
ex: We have never visited New York.

Weve been to Scotland lots of times.

Have you ever been to the North Pole?
-EVER/NEVER cu present perfect inseamnatot timpul pana in prezent. Cu past tense
se refera la o perioda de timp incheiata. adverbele ALREADY si YET:
ex:Have you got up yet?
The student has already translated the lesson. SINCEsi FOR:
SINCE arata inceputul perioadei de timp care seextinde pana in traduce in
romana prin din ,de la ,de cand:
Ex:They havent seen Alice since 1989/Christmas/she went to London.
FOR se refera la o perioada de timp care continua pana in prezent. Intelesul lui este de
de atata timp:
Ex:These boys have been here for half an hour.
Cand for se refera la o perioada de timp incheiata trebuie folosit past tense:
Ex: My uncle lived in London for three years and then he moved to Paris.
9.Pentru actiuni trecute al caror timp nu este mentionat:
ex:Has Peter had lunch?
10.In ziare si reportaje.
Ex:A terrible accident has happened:a car ran into a group of children and killed three
of them.
-adesea folosim present perfect pentru a mentiona tema discutiei si past tense pentru
ex:Ive just been on holiday.
Oh, where did you go?


I/we/you /they have been waiting
He/she/it has been waiting
I/we/you/they havent been waiting
He/she/it hasnt been waiting
Have I/we/you /they been waiting ?
Has he/ she /it been waiting?

13 foloseste pentru a arata ca o actiune care a inceput in trecut continua pana in
Ex:Mary has been watering the flowers.
-prin folosirea perfectului simplu se accentueaza repetitia sau incheierea actiunii
Ex.Mary has watered the flowers.(her job is done) foloseste pentru actiuni repetate pana in prezent,insa deoarece descrie o actiune
aparent neintrerupta nu se foloseste atunci cand se mentioneaza de cate ori o actiune a
fost realizata sau numarul de actiuni facute.
Ex:Ive been drinking tea since 5 oclock.
Dar: Ive drunk three cups of tea since 5 oclock.
Uneori totusi nu este o mare diferenta intre aspectul simplun si cel continuu si ambele
pot fi folosite:
Ex:Jack has lived in this house for two years.
Jack has been living in this house for two years.
Dar acest lucru nu este posibil cu acele verbe care nu pot fi folosite la aspectul continuu:
Ex: I have known Jim for five years.
She has loved you since that day.



I/you/he/she/it/we/they had seen

I/you/he/she/it/we/they hadnt seen
Had I/you/he she/it /we/they seen

INTREBUINTARI foloseste pentru a exprima o actiune trecuta care a avut loc inaintea altei actiuni
trecute sau a unui alt moment trecut: de fapt este echivalentul trecut al lui Present
Perfect.Se remarca folosirea lui when ,before, now that ,as soon as, after in unele
propozitii care contin un Past Perfect:
ex: The boy explained that he had seen somebody in the garden.
When father came home Dick had done his homework.
Father came home after Dick had done his homework.

Dick has done his homework before his father came home
2.pentru a exprima durata pana la un anume moment din trecut:
ex:By the time the rain started,we had dug the whole garden. just , already , hardly /barely /scarcely ,no sooner pentru a arata ca o actiune a
fost incheiata cu putin inaintea altei actiuni trecute
ex:Mary told us that her brother had just left.
We didnt know that he had already repaired his car .
I had hardly /scarcely /entered the room when somebody knocked at the door.
-in ultimul caz o alta forma poate aparea de asemenea, desi este considerata a fi
ex:Hardly /scarcely had I entered the room when somebody knocked at the
No sooner had she seen the photos than she remembered everything about the
4. In Vorbirea indirecta pentru a exprima un trecut sau un present perfect din vorbirea
ex:I saw this film last week.Nick said .
Nick said he had seen the film the previous week.
I have never visited New York,the boy explained.
The boy explained he had never visited New York .
5.Cu since si for cand punctul de referinta este trecutul:
ex:In 1980 I had been a teacher for ten years.
I knew she hadnt seen him since Christmas.
6.pentru a exprima un conditional trecut dintr-o propozitie trecuta:
ex: I would have given her the book if I had seen her.
If only you hadnt lied to her!
7.pentru a exprima o dorinta nerealizata :
ex: I wished I hadnt missed the train!
8.Dupa had/would rather (cand subiectele sunt diferite) sau as if /as though :
ex: Yesterday I d rather you had stayed her than gone there.
She spoke about the play as if / as though she had seen it.
9.Pentru a exprima o actiune viitoare care are loc inaintea altei actiuni viitoare exprimata
de un future in the past:
ex: I told my friend that I would lend him the book after I had read it.
10.Cu verbe ca to expect ,to hope, to intend, to mean, to think pentru a exprima
intentia ,speranta trecuta care nu a fost realizata:
ex: I had hoped /intended /meant to find tickets for that performance ,but I
wasnt able to.



E.g.: I/you/he/she/it/we/they had been running
I/you/he/she/it/we/they hadnt been writing
Had I/you/he/she/it/we/they been speaking?
1. Se foloseste pentru a sublinia continuitatea unei actiuni pana la un
anume moment din trecut sau chiar inainte de el:
e.g. The pupils had been reading the lesson for five minutes when the
school master entered the classroom.
2. se foloseste in vorbirea indirecta pentru a exprima un Past Tense
Continuous sau un Present Perfect Continuous din vorbirea directa:
e.g. I was watching TV at seven oclock, Harry explained to his
Harry explained to his mother that he had been watching TV at
7 oclock.
We have been learning English for two years, the children told me.
The children told me that they had been learning English for two



I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they will work
I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they will not/wont work
Will I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they work ?
Se poate de asemenea folosi shall pentru persoana I sing. si pl.Forma de negative este
shall not /shant.

Intrebuintari: foloseste pentru a exprima o actiune viitoare neutra , ceva ce nu se poate
controla.exprima o prezicere o parere despre viitor. In acest caz se poate folosi adesea
Im sure,I expect,I think sau probably:
ex. I will go on an interesting trip next eek.
I think well have time for a coffee.
Therell probably be a lot of people at the disco. poate folosi si pentru a exprima o decizie luata exact in momentul vorbirii
ex. Its raining. Ill take an umbrella.
3.Will poate de asemenea exprima vointa sau la negative refuzul de a efectua o anumita
Ex. Jim will translate it for you.He speaks Italian.
The doctor wont come at this time of night. poate folosi Ill/well ca si will/wont you in oferte ,promisiuni,etc.
ex,Ill hold the door for you.~ oh,thanks.
Ill do my best to help you.
Wont you sit down?
Will you do something for me?
5.cand nu ne putem hotari se foloseste shall I/we pentru a cere un sfat sau o sugestie
ex. Where shall I put these flowers?

What shall we do this weekend?

Se mai poate folosi si pentru a face o oferta:
Shall I hold the door for you?

6.putem folosi shall pentru a face o promisiune:

ex. You shall be the first to know.(I promise)

Constructia be+going to +infinitive se poate folosi pentru a exprima :
1.actiuni planuite in viitor
ex. My uncle is going to buy a boat next month.
2.intentia prezenta.
Ex. What is Jane going to tell us?
Exista o diferenta intre intentia exprimata de going to si cea exprimata de viitorul simplu.
In timp ce viitorul simplu se foloseste pentru a arata intentia luata in momentul
vorbirii ,going to se foloseste pentru actiuni care ne-am hotarat deja sa le facem:
Ex. Were going to eat out tonight .( We have decided to eat out tonight)
Its hot in here.~Ill open the window.
3.prezicerea-cand stim ca ceva va avea loc in viitor datorita unor cause sau circumstante
ex. My sister is going to graduate from her faculty in May.
Its going to rain.Look at those big clouds.


I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they will be working

I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they will not/wont be working

Will I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they be working ?

1. Se foloseste pentru a exprima o actiune in desfasurare intr-un anume moment din
ex. Ill be having dinner at seven.
What will you be doing this time next week?
2.Se foloseste pentru a vorbi despre actiuni planuite din viitor sau care se petrec in mod
obisnuit :
ex.Ill be phoning my mother tonight .I always phone her on Fridays.
Well be spending our holiday in the mountains.
Adesea se foloseste ca o modalitate politicoasa de a intreba despre planurile cuiva mai
ales cand vrem ca cineva sa faca ceva pentru noi:
Ex.Will you be going out this morning ? Yes,why? Oh, could you get me a
Will you be using your camera this weekend? I wondered whether could borrow
Aceasta intrebuintare sugereaza ca nu vrem sa schimbam planurile celeilate persoane.

I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they will have gone
I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they will not/wont have gone
Will I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they have gone ?

1. Se foloseste pentru a arata ca o actiune va fi deja incheiata pana la un anume
moment sau pana inainte de o alta actiune viitoare. In acest caz este de obicei
asociat cu prepozitia by in contexte ca :by Monday ,by that time ,by the end of
Ex. It is nine sure my sister will have written her composition by
eleven oclock. foloseste pentru a rata durata pana la un anume moment in viitor:
ex. Tomorrow we shall have been on holiday for one month.

3. posibilitatea sau presupunerea

ex. If Jack has taken a taxi he will have arrived at the railway station in time.


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