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Prezentul simplu (Simple Present Tense)

- o aciune cu caracter general (prezent simplu generic)
- o aciune cu caracter obinuit, repetat (prezent simplu habitual)
- o aciune cu caracter momentan, interesul vorbitorului concentrndu-se
asupra aciunii n sine pe care o exprim verbul, i nu asupra faptului c
aciunea are loc n momentul vorbirii.(prezent simplu instantaneu)

Mod de conjugare: verb de conj. (inf.scurt )+ s/es (la pers. a III-a sg.) la
Do (prez.) + sb. + Vb. de conj. (inf.scurt) la interogativ;
Sb + do (prez) + not + vb. de conj (inf. scurt) la negativ.
She works late at night. Does she work late at night? She does not work late
at night.

P.S. Generic: apare n legi, definiii, adevruri generale:

Ex: The Moon spins round the Earth. Dogs bark. Children like sweets.
Women are talkative.

P.S. Habitual: verbul apare nsoit de adverbe de frecven (always, often,

usually, frequently, seldom, rarely etc.) sau de locuiuni adverbiale de
frecven (from time to time, once in a fortnight, once in a blue moon, twice
a month, every weekend, every now and then, every meeting etc.)
Ex. They always play chess in the spare time. Usually, bakers make bread at
night. I go for a walk every evening.

P.S. Instantaneu: apare n demonstraii practice: reete, mod de utilizare,

reparare, administrare, preparare:
Ex. We take a pot, put some water into it, add some coffee and sugar while
the pot is still on the fire and the coffee is ready.
- apare n exclamaii de uimire, dup verbe de micare:
Ex. Here comes the police. Winter arrives.
- apare n comentarii (sportive, diverse ntmplri care au loc chiar n
momentul vorbirii)
Ex. A. Ilie passes the ball to Hagi and the latter scores. Look! The car
runs into the hedge!

Conjugare proprie: Verbul To Be;

I am//You are//he/she/it is// we are//You are // They are//.

Am I ?//Are you?
I am not//You are not
To Have (dubl conjugare, cu sau fr To Do ca auxiliar)
I have//you have//she has
Have I?//Do I have?
I have not// I do not have

Mod de ortografiere a formei de persoana a III - a sg.:

- adaug s majoritatea verbelor: he works / plays / runs / stops /
- adaug es verbele care se termin n : - ch/-tch/-sh/-ss/-zz/-x/-o: she
teaches / watches / washes / misses / buzzes / does / goes;
verbele care se termin n : -voc + y, = voc + y + s: plays / says;
cons + y,= cons.+ i + es: cry: cries; fly: flies

Valorile temporale ale prezentului simplu:

Prezentul simplu se poate utiliza cu valoare de prezent (vezi ex. anterioare),
viitor (n exprimarea datei sau a unor aciuni planificate, sigure) sau trecut
(n evocarea unor personaliti, evocri istorice etc.)
We go to the seaside next summer. Tomorrow is my birthday. Stephen the
Great wins the battle at Vaslui..

Se traduce prin prezent n romn.

Prezentul continuu (Continuous Present Tense)

Exprim o acine care se desfoar n momentul vorbirii (now) sau ntr-o

perioad mai mare de timp, care include momentul vorbirii (this week /
weekend/ month / year)

Mod de conjugare: to be (prez) + (vb de conj. (inf.scurt) + ing)

I am writing a letter to my friends now. What are you doing at this moment?

Verbe durative: exprim aciuni care pot s dureze n timp: work / play /
sleep / draw; acestea accept conjugare la form continu, indiferent de
timpul la care sunt utilizate; majoritatea verbelor sunt durative.

Verbe non-durative: exprim aciuni care dureaz foarte puin n timp;

acestea nu accept conjugare la form continu, dect atunci cnd sunt
utilizate cu sens schimbat fa de cel propriu: secundar, figurat, sau exprim
o exagerare, o participare deosebit a subiectului la realizarea aciunii pe
care o exprim verbul:
Ex. to die, start, begin, clap, knock, slip
The patient dies at 6 p.m. (nregistrarea unei aciuni cu sens propriu)
Look! That little bird is dying! (emoie puternic)
Tom knocks at the door now. (aciune desfurat n mod normal, scurt)
Open the door! Somebody is knocking. (iritare pentru o aciune prelungit
mai mult dect normal)

Alte categorii de verbe care nu accept n mod obinuit form continu:

Verbe de percepie: to see, to hear, to feel, to smell, to taste
I see a little dog in that garden. (sens propriu)
That woman is odd. She is seeing things. (sens figurat, exagerare)
I am seeing my friends every weekend. (sens secundar)
The milk tastes great. (sens propriu, adevr general)
I am tasting the soup to see if it is sour or not. (cnd percepia se realizeaz
n mod voit, verbul se poate utiliza la form continu)
Roses smell nice. (sens propriu, adevr general)
She is smelling the roses because she likes doing it. (percepie voit)

Verbe de cunoatere: to think, realize, understand, imagine, believe,

consider, suggest, know
I think she is not quite right in the head. (sens propriu, efectuarea unei
aciuni intelectuale)

Silence! She is thinking! (exagerare, iritare)
I am thinking at my best friend. (proces durativ de rememorare, participare
afectiv intens)

Verbe de stare: a) stare existenial: to be, live, exist

b) stare emoional: to love, hate, miss, like, dislike
a) She is a teacher, but these days she is being a guide for some German
tourists. (starea normal se exprim prin form simpl, n timp ce starea
excepional, desi mai scurt temporal, se exprim prin form continu).
b) I love modern music, but I dislike the house and rap music. Excepie:
She is loving him more and more. I am still loving him.
Starea existenial obinuit, caracteristic a subiectului se exprim prin
forma simpl a prezentului, n timp ce starea necaracteristic a subiectului se
exprim prin form continu; like i dislike nu apar niciodat la form

Verbe de posesie: To have, to have got, to own, to possess.

- se utilizeaz la form simpl cnd apar cu sens propriu (exprim
posesia): I have / possess a house of my own.
- Have , cnd intr n expresii ca: have a headache / a bath / a shower / a
meeting / a party / breakfast, poate fi utilizat la form continu, dac
este necesar:
I have breakfast at 7 every morning. I cannot answer the phone; I am having

Mod de ortografiere a formei n ing:

Verbele care se termin n:
- (verbe mono- sau bisilabice) terminate n: 1 cons. precedat de 1 voc.
accentuat, dubleaz cons final i adaug ing: run: running;
cut:cutting; control: controlling
- -e, elimin e final i adaug ing: have: having; starve: starving; exc.
See: seeing; dye: dyeing
- ie, transform ie n y i adaug ing: die: dying; lie: lying
- voc / cons y , voc / cons y - ing: say:saying; cry: crying

Valori temporale ale prezentului continuu:

Prezent (aciune n desfurare): They are standing at the blackboard now.
Viitor: They are going to the theatre tomorrow.

Se traduce prin prezent n romn.

Prezentul perfect simplu (Simple Present Perfect)
Este un timp de tranziie ntre trecut i prezent, o definiie complet ar trebui
s enumere toate situaiile de folosire a acestui timp, dup cum urmeaz:

Prezentul perfect simplu exprim:

a) o aciune nelocalizat temporal

b) o aciune ncheiat cu puin timp naintea momentului vorbirii
c) o aciune desfurat ntr-un interval de timp deschis
d) o aciune care reprezint un obicei sau o stare nc actual a subiectului
e) o aciune desfurat naintea momentului vorbirii, care are efecte
concrete, vizibile n prezent.

Mod de conjugare: to have (prezent) + verb de conj. + (III / - ed)

Ex. She has worked a lot lately.
a) Have you read the book? I haven't. Have you met? Yes, we met a week
b) The burglars have just entered the house. Have you already called for the
police? I have not managed to get through to their office yet.
c) You have worked a lot at the office lately / in the last time / this week.
d) I have always eaten a fruit before going to sleep. You have never told a
e) The cat has broken a vase; there is China everywhere.
Cazurile a-e se traduc prin perfect compus n romn.

Prezentul perfect continuu (Continuous Present Perfect)

Exprim o aciune nceput n trecut, care continu n prezent, eventual n

viitor. Se folosete cu verbele care accept form continu;

Mod de conjugare:
Have (prezent) + be (III) + (verb de conj. (inf. scurt ) + ing)
Ex. How long have you been waiting for the bus? I have been waiting for
twenty minutes / since 5:30.
Excepie: How long have you been in the laboratory? I have been here for 3
hours. (verbele de stare, posesie, cunoatere, percepie se folosesc la form
Se traduce n romn prin prezent.

Trecutul simplu (Past Tense Simple)

Exprim o aciune desfurat ntr-o perioad de timp trecut, ncheiat.

Adverbe sau locuiuni adverbiale specifice: yesterday, last week, last

Monday, a week ago, a month ago, in 1946, in January etc

Mod de conjugare: verb de conj (inf. scurt) + ed la toate pers, afirm. pentru
verbele regulate;
Interog.: do (past tense) + sb. + Verb de conj. (inf. scurt); neg. :do (past
tense) + not + verb de conj (inf. scurt)
La verbele neregulate, forma de trecut simplu este echivalent cu coloana a
doua din tabel, pentru afimativ.

Situaii de folosire:
Trecutul simplu se utilizeaz pentru a exprima:

- o aciune trecut, ncheiat la un moment dat n trecut, moment precizat n

Ex. Last year he wrote a lot of articles on this theme. Did he come at the
party a week ago? He did not leave Bucharest in 1935.
Se traduce prin perfect compus n limba romn.

- o aciune reprezentnd un obicei trecut al subiectului, fiind n acest caz

utilizat n variant liber (la alegere) cu: expresia used to ; sau would +
verb de conj (inf. scurt):
Ex. As a child, he ate many junk food. He used to eat junk food as a child.
He would eat junk food as a child.
Se traduce prin imperfect n limba romn.

- o succesiune de aciuni trecute, de obicei n naraiuni, relatri, articole,

biografii etc.
Ex. The old man entered the garden gate, walked to the front door, rang
the bell and waited for somebody to answer him. In the meantime, he sat
down on the porch, as he was exhausted, and put his dusty bag near him. As
nobody answered him for some time, he got up onto his feet and walked
away, visibly sad and worried about his fate in this world.
Se traduce n romn prin perfect simplu la pers a III a singular i plural i
prin perfect compus la celelalte persoane.

Trecutul continuu (Past Tense Continuous)

Exprim o aciune aflat n desfurare n trecut, fr a se preciza perioada

n care aceast aciune are loc.

Mod de conjugare: to be (Past Tense) + (verb de conj (inf. scurt) + -ing)

to be (Past Tense) + sb + (verb de conj (inf. scurt) + -ing) interogativ;
to be (Past Tense) + not + (verb de conj (inf. scurt) +-ing) negativ;

Ex. The little boy was crying when his mother entered the room. While the
girls were preparing something to eat, the boys were cleaning the place for
installing the tent. They finished their job at the same time. Were they
waiting for you?

Se traduce prin imperfect n limba romn.

Nu se poate folosi cu verbe care nu accept form continuu. (non-durative,

percepie, cunoatere cu sens propriu)

Trecutul perfect simplu (Past Perfect Simple)

Exprim o aciune trecut, ncheiat naintea altei aciuni trecute sau a unui
moment trecut.
Mod de conjugare: have (past tense) + verb de conj (a III-a/ed) afirmativ;
have (past tense) + sb + verb de conj (a III-a/ed) interogativ; have + (past
tense) + not + verb de conj (a III-a/ed) negativ.

Ex. He went out only after he had finished his work at the office. (past
perfect este aici obligatoriu datorit prezenei adv. only)
As soon as he( had) realized that the woman was lying, the lawyer gave up
her case. (n acest caz, dei ar fi necesar marcarea anterioritii prin past
perfect, se poate utiliza i past tense simple, anterioritatea fiind cuprins ca
sens n expresia as soon as/after.

Se traduce n limba romn prin mai mult ca perfect sau chiar perfect

Trecutul perfect continuu (Past Perfect Continuous)

Exprim o aciune nceput n trecut, naintea altei aciuni trecute, aciune

aflat n desfurare pe o perioad definit de timp n momentul interseciei
cu aciunea trecut.

Verbul este nsoit de expresii introduse prin: for/ sincen

afirmaii/negaii sau how long, n ntrebri.

Mod de conjugare: have (past tense) + be (III) + (verb de conj(inf. scurt) +

ing) afirmativ; have (past tense) + sb + be (III) + (verb de conj(inf. scurt)
+ ing) interogativ; have (past tense) + not + be (III) + (verb de conj(inf.
scurt) +ing) negativ.

Ex. Sarah had been writing on the computer for two hours when she realized
that she had missed some important paragraphs. How long had you been
waiting when the bus came?

Se traduce n limba romn prin imperfect.

Viitorul simplu (Simple Future Tense)

Exprim o aciune ulterioar momentului vorbirii

Verbul poate fi nsoit de adverbe de timp care exprim perioade de timp

ulterioare: tomorrow, next week, next weekend, next year

Mod de conjugare: shall/will + verb de conj (inf. scurt) afirmativ; shall/will

+ sb + verb de conj (inf. scurt) interogativ; shall/will + not + verb de conj
(inf. scurt) negativ.
Shall se folosete la persoana I singular i plural; will se folosete la
celelalte pers., singular i plural.

Ex. She will come to visit us soon / next summer.

Se traduce prin viitor I n limba romn.

Viitorul continuu (Continuous Future Tense)

Exprim o aciune ulterioar momentului vorbirii, aflat n desfurare n
Mod de conjugare: shall/will + be (inf. scurt) + (verb de conj ( inf. scurt)
+ing) afirmativ; shall/will + sb + be (inf. scurt) + (verb de conj ( inf. scurt)
+ing) interogativ; shall/will + be (inf. scurt) + (verb de conj ( inf. scurt)+
ing) negativ.
Ex. She will be cleaning the house at this time tomorrow. What will you be
doing at 3 o clock in the afternoon?
Se traduce prin viitor I n limba romn.

Viitorul apropiat (The Near Future)

Exprim o aciune imediat urmtoare momentului vorbirii (prin formele de
viitor apropiat exprimate prin "to be about to" / "to be to", sau o intenie (n
cazul viitorului apropiat exprimat prin "going to").
Mod de conjugare: to be (prezent) + about to / to / going to
Ex. She is going to write a letter to her sister. It' s about to rain. The train is
to arrive at the North Station.
Intenia se exprim cu predilecie prin viitorul cu"going to" i are un subiect
personal, traducndu-se n romn prin "a inteniona s", " a avea de gnd
s", "urmeaz s"; celelalte forme ("to be about to" i "to be to") pot avea ca
subiect i abstraciuni sau obiecte, traducndu-se prin: "a fi pe cale s", "a
urma s", "ct pe ce s".

"To be going to" poate s exprime i predicia ( The students are going to
graduate from the faculty in May.) sau aciuni planificate ( My friend is
going to buy a new car next year.)
"To be to" poate s exprime i un plan oficial sau un aranjament (The
Prime Minister is to arrive at the meeting at 6 o' clock.), voina unei
persoane, care este diferit de cea a vorbitorului (The latest news are to be
given by our reporter.), datoria (What exercises are we to do?) sau
posibilitatea, probabilitatea ( Prices are to increase sooner.)

Viitorul perfect simplu (The Future Perfect Simple)

Exprim o aciune care va fi terminat naintea unui anumit moment sau a
unei alte aciuni viitoare. De obicei apare nsoit de construcii introduse prin
by: by Monday, by that time, by the end of
Mod de conjugare: Shall / will + have (inf. sc.) + verb de conj.(part. trecut)
Ex. Mother will have finished the housework by the moment father comes
back home / by eleven o' clock.
Poate exprima i posibilitatea sau presupunerea: If he has taken a taxi, he
will have arrived at the airport in time.
Se traduce prin viitor I sau II n limba romn.

Viitorul perfect continuu (The Future Perfect Continuous)

Exprim durata unei aciuni pn la un anumit moment din viitor.
Mod de conjugare: Shall / will + have (inf. sc.) +be (part. trecut) + verb de
conj. (inf. scurt + ing).
Ex. At 10 o' clock, my children will have been sleeping for two hours.
Se traduce prin viitor I n limba romn.

Viitorul n trecut simplu (The Future-in-the Past Simple)

Exprim o aciune sau o stare ulterioar vzut dintr-o perspectiv trecut,
adic dup un verb la Past Tense n propoziia regent. De obicei apare n
relatri, n vorbirea indirect, deci n subordonate completive directe care
prezint verbul dicendi la Past Tense.
Mod de conjugare: Should / would + verb de conjugat (inf. scurt)
They told me that she would visit us soon.
Se traduce prin viitor I n romn.
Acest timp nu poate exista n afara contextului trecut creat de verbul care
introduce relatarea.

Viitorul n trecut continuu (The Future-in-the-Past Continuous)
Exprim o aciune n desfurare vzut din perspectiva unui punct de
vedere trecut, adic cerut de un verb la Past Tense n regent:
Mod de conjugare: Should / would + be (inf. scurt) + verb de conjugat (inf.
sc. + ing).
Mother told us that, in less than half an hour, our baby-brother would be
sleeping soundly.
Se traduce n romn prin viitor I.
Nu poate exista dect n completive directe cu verbul dicendi la Past Tense.

Viitorul apropiat n trecut (The Near Future in the Past)

Exprim o aciune imediat urmtoare unui moment trecut. Poate exista i n
propoziii principale independente n care raportarea la momentul trecut este
Mod de conjugare: to be (Past Tense) + going to / about to / to.
Ex. They were going to meet the delegation at the railway station.
She said that the Principal was about to leave the country for some time.
Se traduce prin expresiile semnalate la viitorul apropiat, al cror timp se va
corela cu axa trecutului, mai precis prin imperfect n limba romn.

Exprim o aciune posibil, dac se refer la viitor, sau ireal, dac se refer la
Exist dou feluri de subjonctiv: sintetic i analitic. Subjonctivul sintetic nu
are forme proprii, ci mprumut forme de la infinitiv, indicativ (past tense i past
perfect); infinitivul scurt reprezint forma de prezent pentru subjonctivul sintetic,
past tense reprezint forma de trecut I, iar past perfect reprezint forma de trecut II.
Subjonctivul sintetic trecut I se traduce n romn prin condiional optativ sau
conjunctiv prezent, n timp ce subjonctivul sintetic trecut II se traduce n romn
prin condiional optativ sau conjunctiv perfect. Subjonctivul analitic se desparte
n constitueni analizabili care includ: shall, should, would, could, may sau might,
cu valorile de sens ale verbelor modale, nsoite de infinitivul prezent scurt sau
infinitivul perfect scurt al verbului de conjugat, rezultnd un subjonctiv analitic
prezent i, respectiv un subjonctiv analitic trecut. Aceste forme se traduc prin
condiional optativ sau conjunctiv prezent, respectiv condiional optativ sau
conjunctiv perfect n limba romn.
Exist restricii de folosire n aceleai contexte a subjonctivului sintetic i
Mod de utilizare a celor dou forme de subjonctiv:
Subjonctivul sintetic prezent exprimat prin infinitiv scurt apare n:
- urri, exclamaii: So be it! Let it be! God save the Queen! God bless you!
- njurturi: Curse this rain! Damn you!
- expresii ca: It's time / It's high time, cnd aciunea e nc posibil, ntr-o
construcie cu for-to infinitiv: It's time for you to go home.
- expresii ca: If need be, Suffice it to say that
- dup expresii ca: I'd rather / sooner // had better, cnd subiectele n regent
i subordonat sunt comune: I'd rather stay at home than go there.

- dup expresia if only: If only she help me finish my work! ( It's still possible).
If only they had helped me! (past regret, it's too late)
- n condiionala de tip I: If this be true, we must go home.
- n subordonate de tip that clauses, cnd principala exprim o dorin, o cerin,
o obligaie, o necesitate:
1. subiective: It is necessary she stay in bed two weeks longer.
2. atributive: There is no reason that she arrive so late for the classes.
3. completive directe dup verbe ca: suggest, order, demand, urge,
recommend: She insisted / suggested pay a visit to her.
4. concesive: Though she be ill, she will not miss the show.

Subjonctivul sintetic trecut I / II apare n:

- completive directe, dup wish: I wish I were / had been at the seaside.
- concesive: Though / even if she were ill, she wouldn't miss the show.
- condiionale: If this were true, we would go there. If this had been true, we
would have gone there
- circumstaniale de mod comparative: You behave as if you were Jack of all
trades. You look as if you had been seen a ghost.
Nu apare n circumstaniale de scop implicnd un sens negativ, dup: for
fear / lest / in case, circumstaniale de timp, completive prepoziionale
(indirecte, cauzale), principale independente sau care introduc condiionale.

Subjonctivul analitic apare n:

- subiective: It is necessary that she should stay in bed longer.
- atributive: There is no reason that she should come back late.

- completive directe dup verbe ca: suggest, order, demand, urge,
recommend: She insisted we should pay a visit to her, sau dup wish: I wish
you could help me. They wish we should visit them.
- concesive: Whatever you would do, I would help you. Whatever you might
say, I wouldn't change my mind.
- condiionale: If she should come, what would you tell her?
- circumstaniale de scop implicnd un sens negativ, dup: for fear / lest / in
case: She left for fear she could be seen.
- circumstaniale de timp (rar): He was advised to keep a diet till he would feel
- completive prepoziionale (indirecte, cauzale): She was anxious that they
should / could see her dancing.
- principale independente sau care introduc condiionale: Shall I help you?
Next year we might have a house of our own. I should go if I had time. Had I
had money, I would have bought the dictionary.


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