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Present Simple


 La persoana a III-a sg, se adauga terminatia “s” la sfarsitul verbului de conjugat.

!!! Verbele terminate in: “s”, “ss”, “ch”, “sh”, “x”, “z” si “o” il au pe “es” la persoana
a III-a sg.

Ex: to fix  he fixes

to brush  he brushes

to teach  he teaches

 Verbele terminate in “y” , transforma pe “y” in “i “ la adaugarea terminatiei “es” atunci

cand inaintea lui “y” se afla o consoana
!!! Daca inaintea lui “y” avem vocala, se adauga “s” la persoana a III-a sg


!!! La persoana a III-a sg nu se mai adauga nicio terminatie la interogativ si negative.

 Does se foloseste la pers a III a

Interog: DO/DOES + SB + VB inf ?

Prezentul Simplu se foloseste pentru :

- Actiuni permanente : I work as a doctor

- Actiuni repetate: I go there everyday
!!! Se foloseste foarte des cu adverbele de frecventa
- Adevaruri generale: The sun shines
Water boils at 100C
- Comentarii sportive: He takes the ball and scores
- Instructiuni : You take the eggs and put them in the flour
- Orar, program: The train leaves at four
- Indicatii scenice : You come into the room and sit down.
Adeverbele : everyday, always, never, sometimes, from time to time etc
 Daca sunt formate din mai multe cuvinte, adv de frecventa apar la sfarsitul propozitiei.
Ex: We meet every two days.
 Daca sunt formate dintr-un singur cuvant, acestea stau inaintea verbului. Exceptie face
verbul “TO BE” cand apare in propozitie ca vb lexical, adv de frecventa apar dupa
Ex : He is never here.

You are always telling me what to do.

Present Continuous
Af: SB + Vb TO BE + Vb-ING

 Verbele monosilabice formate dintr-o singura vocala si care se termina intr-o singura
consoana, dubleaza consoana finala la adaugarea terminatiei “ing”
Ex: to run running
 Verbele plurisilabice au acceasi regula pentru silaba finala
Ex : to beginbeginning
 La adaugarea terminatiei “ing”, verbele terminate in “e” pierd aceasta terminatie
Ex: to comecoming
 Exceptie fac verbele terminate in dublu “e” si verbele “die”, “age”, “be”
Ex: to seeseeing

Neg: SB+ Vb TO BE(pres) + NOT+ Vb-ING

Interog: Vb TO BE(pres) + SB + Vb-ING?

Prezentul Continuu se foloseste pentru :

- O actiune desfasurata in momentul vorbirii

Ex: He is sleeping at the moment.
- Actiuni ce se desfasoara pe o perioada limitata
Ex: This week we are staying home.
- Actiuni care supara vorbitorul/actiuni deranjante
Ex: He is always taking my things!
- Planificari personale
Ex: I’m going home tomorrow.
- Trecerea de la o stare la alta
Ex: It’s getting dark.

!!! Adverbe : “now”, “right now”, “at the moment”, “still”, “today”, “this

Af: SB+ HAVE/HAS+ Vb/ed/ f III

 La adaugarea terminatiei “ed” verbele terminate in “y” si care au inaintea lui “y” o
consoana, transforma pe “y” in “i “
Ex: to trytried


Interog: HAVE/HAS+SB+Vb-ED/f III

Prezentul perfect simplu se foloseste pentru:

- Actiuni incheiate recent

Ex: He has just left
- Actiuni trecute ce au avut loc intr-o perioada neincheiata inca
Ex: I have met him this year
- Actiuni ce au avut loc intr-o perioada nespecificata
Ex: I have seen him
- Actiuni ce au avut loc intr-o perioada nedefinita
Ex: Have you ever played tennis?
- Actiuni incepute in trecut si care se continua in present
Ex: I have watched Tv till now
- Actiuni unde accentual se pune pe numar
Ex: I have six red books so far

!!! Adv de frec : just, recently, already, yet, ever, never, it’s the first time, for, since
!!! Poate fi folosit cu “since” si “for”, in special cu verbele care nu se folosesc la
continuu. “SINCE” arata momentul inceperii actiunii, “FOR” arata durata.

Since 1989
For sixt years
Since yesterday
Since we were children
For a long time
Since early morning




 Actiuni incepute in trecut care se afla in desfasurare si in present si care se pot continua si
in viitor.
Ex: He has been singing for an hour
 Se traduce cu indicativul present din lb romana
!!! Adverbe: for, since, just

Af: SB+Vb-ED/ f II


Interog: DID+SB+Vb inf?

Trecutul simplu se foloseste pentru:

- Actiuni trecute ce au avut loc intr-o perioada deja incheiata

Ex: I met him yesterday.
- Actiuni repetate in trecut
Ex: I went to school every day when I was student

!!! Adverbe: yesterday, last, ago, the other day, at the time

Pentru actiuni care s-au desfasurat in trecut si nu mai au loc in present folosim “used
to”/ would.
Ex: Charlie used to be a very good swimmer when he was in college. (…obisnuia sa
Pentru actiuni care au repercursiuni si in present folosim “be/get used to+ vb-ing” ( a se
obisnui cu..)
Ex: I’m used to waking up at 6am every day
I got used to driving on the left in England.




Interog: WAS/WERE + SB+Vb-ING?

Trecutul continuu se foloseste pentru:

- Actiuni in desfasurare intr-un anumit moment din trecut

Ex: yesterday at five I was watching TV.
- Doua sau mai multe actiuni paralele care s-au desfasurat in trecut
Ex: While I was surfing the net, my sister was reading a book.
- Actiune trecuta, in desfasurare, intrerupta de o alta actiune trecuta.
Ex: I was having lunch when the mailman came.
- Se traduce cu imperfectul din lb romana.

!!! Adverbe: while, last Monday at 6, yesterday at 2, yesterday at this time etc




Interog: HAD+ SB+Vb-ED/f III?

Trecutul perfect simplu se foloseste pentru :

- Actiuni trecute ce au avut loc inaintea altor actiuni trecute

Ex: By the time she arrived, I had already finished my lessons.
- Se traduce cu mmcp
!!! Adverbe: by the time, when, already, before, by, after
! Daca dupa “after” si “before” nu apare un subiect exprimat, atunci ele vor fi urmate
de gerunziu.
Ex: After he had eaten, he went to bed



Interog: HAD+SB+BEEN+Vb-ING?

Trecutul perfect continuu

- Arata o actiune trecuta inceputa inaintea altei actiuni trecute si care se continua pana la
- Se foloseste cu “since” si “for”
Ex: I had been studying for 2 hours last night when you called me.
I wasn’t able to meet my friends last night because I had been working hard all day
and I felt exhausted. ( Nu am putut sa ma intalnesc cu prietenii mei aseara pentru ca
lucrasem foarte mult toata ziua si ma simteam frant de obosit)

Af: SB+ WILL+Vb inf

Neg: SB+ WON’T+Vb inf

Interog: WILL+SB+Vb inf?

!!! In locul lui “will” poate sa apara si “shall” la pers 1.

Viitorul simplu arata :

- O actiune ce va avea loc dupa momentul vorbirii

Ex: I will came with you.

Will poate fi folosit pentru:

- Decizii luate pe moment

Ex: I’ll leave.
- Rugaminti
Ex: Will you open the door for me?
- Pareri personale

Ex: He will lose.

Shall se foloseste pentru:

- Obligatii in regulamente
Ex: Each student shall wear a uniform.
- Promisiuni
Ex: You shall have it back
- Cererea unei pareri
Ex: What shall I do?
- Cand ne oferim sa facem ceva
Ex: Shall I open the door for you?




Interog: WILL+SB+BE+Vb-ING?

Viitorul continuu arata:

- O actiune in desfasurare intr-un anumit moment sau intr-o anumita perioada din viitor.
Ex: Tomorrow on this time I will be going out.
!!! Adverb/ locutiune advb: “ next week at this time”, “ tomorrow at 5”, “from 2 to 4
pm next Sunday”, “ this time next Monday”, “all day tomorroe”, “ all the time”.




Interog: WILL+SB+ HAVE+Vb-ED/f III?

Viitorul perfect simplu arata:

- O actiune care se petrece inaintea altei actiuni sau a unui moment din viitor.
Ex: I will have played with my brother before you come home.
! In propozitia temporal nu se foloseste niciodata viitorul. In locul viitorului vom folosi
un timp prezent.
- Daca propozitia cere viitor simplu, folosim prezent simplu
- Daca cere viitor continuu, folosim prezent continuu, daca cere viitor perfect simplu,
folosim prezent perf simplu. Daca cere viitor perf continuu, folosim prezent perf

 Elemente care introduce propozitia temporal: “before”, “after”, “when”, “while (as) “,
“by”, “by the time”, “until”, “as soon as(imediat ce )”





Viitorul perf continuu arata:

- O actiune inceputa inaintea altei actiuni sau altui moment din viitor si care se continua si
in momentul celei de-a doua actiune viitoare.
Ex: Cand vei ajunge tu acasa focul va arde de o ora
When you get home the fire will have been burning for an hour.
Alte modalitati de exprimare a viitorului

- Present Simple: program, orar

ex: the train leaves at four

- Present Continous: planificari personale

ex: Tomorrow I’m meeting him
- TO BE GOING TO: Intentia
Ex: I’m going to meet him tomorrow
Intentionez sa ma intalnesc cu el maine
Predictie bazata pe semne
Ex: There are many clouds on the sky. It is going to rain

- Will: Decizie luata pe moment

Ex: I will have coffee
Parere personala
Ex: He will lose

- TO BE ABOUT TO (a fi pe punctual de a ..)( to be on the bring of, to be on the verge

Ex: He is about to leave.
- TO BE TO(urmeaza sa..) (to be sure to, to be bound to)
Ex: He is to be come president


I me (pe mine)

You you

He him

She her

It it

We us

You you

They them

Pronume posesiv Adj posesiv

Mine my book

Yours your book

His his book

Hers her book

Its its book

Ours our book

Yours your book

Theirs their book

Pronume reflexiv
Myself (eu insumi/insami) Ourselves (noi insine)
Yourself Yourselves
Himself/ herself Themselves
Pronume interogativ
- Whom(cui?), poate fi inlocuit de “who” – Who/ Whom shall I address?
In vorbirea directa “who” este precedat de o prepozitie la sfarsitul propozitiei - Who are
you talking to?
- what
What about+ verb cu ing(ce ai zice de) – folosita pt a face o sugestie - What about going
out for a walk?
What does/do…look like - se foloseste pt a intreba cum arata o persoana sau un lucru –
What does she look like?
What is/are like? – se refera la caracterul oamenilor sau calitatea lucrurilor - What is
your boss like?
Pronume relative
N: who/which
A: whom/which
G: whose/ of which

D: to whom/ to wich

- who/that(care) - se foloseste pentru fiinte, iar “which” pt lucruri

- which – este folosit cand inlocuieste un substantiv, sau echivalentul acestuia

Pronumele nehotarat
- some, any-somebody/anybody; something/anything
- none(nici unul) – are un inteles atat numeric cat si cantitativ - Even a small garden is
better than none
- nobody, no one, nothing - He realised that nobody was listening to him
- everybody, everyone, everything – urmate de singular desi au inteles de plural –
Everybody hopes for the better
- one – folosit cu inteles generic de “cineva”, poate fi inlocuit de “you” - One never
knows/ You never know
- another(un altul/o alta) - se refera la inca o persoana, lucru, idée – Another child has
- others(altii/ altele) – Some were talking about the weather, others about their children

her book

Its its book

Ours our book

Yours your book

Theirs their book

Pronumele demonstrative

(sg) THIS(pl) THESE

(sg) THAT(pl) THOSE

! Cand suntem de acord cu afirmatia unei persoane, folosim constructia: SO+ aux+ sb exprimat
prin pronume

Cand nu suntem de acord cu afirmatia unei persoane, folosim constructia : sb+aux+not

! Cand suntem de acord cu negatia unei persoane, folosim constructia: no/neither +aux+ Sb

Cand nu suntem de acord cu negatia unei persoane, folosim constructia : sb+aux

1. We have finished 5. They didn’t listen

So have I Neither did I
I have not I did
2. He didn’t come 6. He has left
Neither did I So have I
I did I have not
3. She is reading 7. He doesn’t help
So am I Neither do I
I’m not I do
4. He was running
So was I
I was not

Sunt anumite cuvinte negative care atunci cand apar la/ inceputul propozitiei cer dupa ele
ordinea de interogativ a timpurilor

 No sooner………than
(de abia ce)………..(ca)
Ex: No sooner had I finished washing than the doorbell rang
 Barely, hardly, scareely. . . . . .. . . . .when
( de abia ce) (ce)
Ex: Hardly had I opened the door when the dog bit me
 Little
Ex: Little did he know about this subject.
 So+adj
Ex: So interesting was the book that I read it
 Such(=so+adj)
Ex: Such was the book that I read it
 O misiune a lui “if” in prop cond

Ex: If I had time, I wouldcome with you

Did I had time, I would come with you

 Never, rarely,seldom,no way, under, no circumstances, not only . . .. . . . .. .but also

(sub nici o forma) (nu numai ca)
Ex: Never have I seen such a thing
Not only did he leave but he also took the money with him.
 Only+after, than, later, rarely
Ex: Only later did I find out the truth.

While=in timp ce
Until = pana cand

Reported Speech


 Daca avem un imperativ afirmativ atunci la vorbirea indirect folosim infinitivul lung
(precedat de particular “to”)
Ex: Come here!
He told me to go there.
 Daca imperativul este negativ atunci la vb indirect negatia (not) apare inaintea
infinitivului lung
Ex: Don’t call him!
He told me not to call him.
Intrebarile la vorbirea indirecta
- Sunt introduse de verbul “ask”
- Daca intrebarea este de tipul “yes/no quest” atunci la vb indirect va fi introdusa de “if”
Ex: Are you eating?
He asked me if I was eating.
- Ordinea cuvintelor din intrebare nu va mai fi cea de la interogativ la vb indirecta
Ex: Have you finished the book?
He asked me if I had finished the book
- Daca avem “wh-questions” atunci acestea vor fi introduse de un “wh-word”
Wh-questions: When, Why, Where, How, How long, Which, What
Ex: Where hsve you been?
He asked me where I had been
!!! La vorbirea indirect raman neschimbate conditionalele de tip 2 si 3 si subjonctivul

1. Prezentul de la vorbirea directa poate ramane neschimbat la vb indirect

Ex: She is a teacher.
She says she is a teacher.

2. Prezentul(simplu sau continuu) de la vb directa se transforma in past(simplu sau

Ex: I live in London
He said he lived in London
I am going home
She told me she was going home.

3. Past tense(S/C) si Present perfect (S/C) se transforma la vb indirect in Past Perfect (S/C)
Ex: he left yesterday
She told me that he had left the day before
I was working.
She said me she had been working
I have seen her many times
She said she had seen him many times
She has been studying for 4 hours.
She said she had been studying for 4 hours.

4. Future WILL se transforma in WOULD, iar SHALL in SHOULD.

Ex: I will call you tomorrow.
She said she would call me the next day.

Ex: I must finish this before I go.
He said se must finish it before he went.

6. folosim “whether” in loc de “if”(daca) atunci cand avem de ales intre mai multe optiuni.
Ex: She asked me whether I was going home or not. ( M-a intrebat daca merg acasa sau
7. Cand folosim past tense in “reporting clause”, putem folosi fie prezentul, fie trecutul in
“that clause”
Ex: he said that he is/was living in Ohio.
I told Rosa that I don’t/didn’t like going to parties.

- Folosirea unui timp present in “that clause” scoate in evident ca actiunea de la vb

indirect inca exista sau este inca in relevant atunci cand transformam. Daca vrem sa
aratam ca nu suntem siguri ca actiunea trecuta la vb indirect este adevarata sau situatia
s-ar putea sa nu mai existe, preferam sa folosim mai degraba un timp trecut, decat unul
Ex: Sarah told me that she has two houses. (might suggest that this is the case)
Sarah told me that she had two houses. (might suggest that this is perhaps not true, or
that she oche had two houses but doesn’t have two houses now)

8. Cand ne referim la un adevar general folosim intotdeauna prezentul.

Ex: Our teacher told us that the earth is round.

Vorbirea directa Vorbirea indirecta

Now than
Today that day
Yesterday the day before, the previous day
Last week the week before, the previous week
Tomorrow the next day, the following day
Next month the next month, the following month
Can could
May might

Reported Speech II
Verbe urmate de infinitiv si gerunziu

 Verbe urmate de gerunziu(cu terminatia-ing)

Enjoy, consider, suggest, understand, give up, post pone=put off(a amana), can’t bear,
can’t stand, feel like(a avea chef), look forward to(a astepta cu nerabdare) to get used to,
hate, mention, mind, miss, denny, to be used to
 Verbe urmate de inf lung
Attend, decide, offer, refuse, promise, remind, advis, want, wish, begin
 Verbe urmate fara inf scurt
Vb modale: had better(mai degraba), would rather, see
! la diateza pasiva”make” va fi urmat de inf lung, iar “let” va fi inlocuit de be allowed to
Ex: He made me buy the book.
I was made to buy the book
They let him go to the party
He was allowed to go to the party.
 Verbe urmate si de inf si de gerunziu
1. Like, love, hate, dislike, adore, detest – sunt urmate de gerunziu cand ne referim la
ceva in sens general si sunt urmate de infinitiv cand facem referire la o anumita
Ex: I like watching TV
I like to listen to your stories
2. Mean+gerunziu – ceea ce vrea cineva sa spuna= a insemna
Ex: What do you say means skipping classes
Mean+inf = a intentiona
Ex: I meant to tell you but I gave up
3. Go on +gerunziu = a continua pe aceeasi tema
Ex: They went on talking about cars
Go on+inf = a continua o discutie, dar cu un alt subiect.(a schimba subiectul)
Ex: After an hours of cars, ke went on to talk about school
4. Stop+gerunziu = a renunta definitv la ceva
Ex: He stopped smoking
Stop+inf = a intrerupe temporar o actiune
Ex: On my way home I stopped to buy bread
5. Try+gerunziu= experiment
Ex: He tried adding salt.
Try+inf = efort fizic
Ex: He tried to move the rock
6. Remember+gerunziu = amintirea unui moment trecut
Ex: He remembered loocking the door.
Remember+inf = ati aduce aminte sa faci ceva intr-un anumit moment
Ex: I remembered to look the door
7. Regret, forget +gerunziu = regretul/uitarea unui act trecut
Ex: I regret helping you

I forgot metting him before
Regret,forget+inf = regretul fata de o actiune ce are loc in momentul respective
Ex: I regret to tell you that you are rejected
I forget to change the bull

Elementele care introduce prop conditionala: “if”, “unless(if not)”, “on condition that”,
“provided that”, “providing”, “supposing that”, “as long as”

Exista 3 tipuri de prop conditionale.

Type I
PP if PS




- Arata o conditie reala, prezenta, generala sau viitoare.

Ex: I will help you if I have time
If It rains, I stay indoors
Stay there if you don’t want to see him.

Type II
PP if PS

Would+inf Past

- Arata o conditie ireala, prezenta

Ex: I would see a movie if I had time

Type III
PP if PS

Would have+ vb III/ ed Past Perfect

- Arata o conditie ireala, trecuta.

Ex: I would have visited her if I had known

! Verbul “to be” va fi in conditionala a 2a la toate persoanele WERE
! La vorbirea indirect confitionalele II si III raman neschimbate.
! In condit II si III eliminarea lui if duce la inversiune.
! In cond II si III, in propozitia principala apare ca forma standard would, dar acesta
poate fi inlocuit de could si might
! In prop cond pot sa apara si vb modale
! In cond I si II poate sa apara: shall, should, happen to. Happen to si were to pt a
exprima o situatie mult mai teoretica cu sanse slabe de realizare.
Ex: If you happen to see him, ask him to call me
! but for poate inlocui pe if not
Ex: but for his help/ If it hadn’t been for his help, we would have been in trouble.
De n-ar fi fost ajutorul lui, am fi avut necazuri.

CAUZALA: have/get something done – a ti se face ceva / a i se face ceva

Constructiile impersonale
People say that he was killed

  It is said that he was killed

(it+vb la diateza pasiva+that)
  He is said to have been killed
(subst/pronom+vb la d.p+ inf lung)


Este de doua feluri:

- Analitic
- Sintetic
The syntethic subjunctive:
I. Present subjunctive:
- Se aseamana ca forma cu inf scurt : ask, tell, see etc
- Apare in propozitii independente : God be with you!
Si propozitii subordinate:
a. Propozitie SB dupa constructii ca : It is +adj (advisable, essential, important,
Ex: It is important that this mission not fail.
b. Propozitie CD dupa verbe ca: suggest,recomand,require, urge(a grabi), arder
Ex: He suggested that the meeting be postponed.
c. Propozitie AT apozitiva dupa substantive ca : idea, suggestion, tought
Ex: My idea that he leave was good
d. Propozitia conditionala de tip I.

Ex: If anyone be found quilty, he will go to prison
e. Propozitia concesiva
Ex: Though(desi) everyoane desert you, I will not.
II. Past Subjonctive
- Se aseamana la forma cu trecutul simplu si trecutul continuu
- Apare in prop de tipul
a. Prop SB dupa It is (about/high) time
Ex: It’s about time we left
! dupa constructia it’s about time poate sa apara si prep for si atunci aceasta va fi
urmata de inf lung sau poate sa apara doar inf lung
Ex: It’s about time to go
It’s time for us to go
b. Prop CD dupa wish si would rather
Ex: I wish they were here.
He sad that he wished they were there
I’d rather you went there!
*daca dupa would rather urmeaza un alt sb, atunci vom folosi subjonctivul. Daca dupa el
urmeaza acelasi sb atunci se fol inf scurt
Ex: I’d rather go there
c. Prop cond tip II

! vb To Be este in majoritatea cazurilor conjugat la toate persoanele were

Ex: If he come, I would talk to him

! If only este folosit pentru a exprima regretul fata de o situatie prezenta

ex: If only he were here.

d. Propozitie comparative dupa as if, as though

Ex: He acts as if he knew everything
e. Prop concesiva dupa even if, even though
Ex: I will help you even if I were to suffer for it
III. Perfect Subjonctive
- Se aseamana ca forma cu Past Pf
- Apare in prop sub de tipul:
a. Prop CD dupa wish si would rather
Ex: I wish he had bought the car
I’d ratger you left
b. Prop cond de tip III
Ex: If he had studied, he would have succesed
! se poate folosi si if only pt a arata regretul fata de o situatie trecuta.

ex: If only he hadn’t come
c. Prop comparative dupa as if, as thought
Ex: He acts as if he hadn’t been there
d. Prop concesiva dupa even if, even though
Ex: I talk to him even if he hadn’t helped me
The analytic subjunctive
I. Should
- Apare in prop independente
Ex: Why should I do this?
- Si in prop subordinate
a. Prop SB It is+adj(important, essential, advisable, necessary)
!are ca alternative subj present sau constructiile for-to inf
ex: It is necessary that we should be there.
It is necessary that we be there.
It is necessary for us to go there
It is+adj(odd(ciudat) strange, surprising)
! are ca alternative indicativul
Ex: It’s odd that we should go home.
It’s odd that we are going there
It is +subst(a pity(pacat) a shame(rusine), a wonder(minune))
Ex: It is a pity that we should stay here.
b. Prop CD dupa vb ca: suggest, require, recomander, order, urge
Ex: He ordered that we should go there ommediatly.
c. AT positive dupa subst ca idea, suggestion, requestion, advice
Ex: His idea that we should take part to the show, was accepted.
d. Prop cond de tip I si II pt a arata ca sansele ca ceva sa se intample sunt slabe.
Ex: Should you see him, tell him to call me
If you should see him, tell him to call me
e. Prop de scop negative dupa: lest, for fear that(de teama ca), in case, so that, in
order that.
! lest, for fear that si in case sunt cuvinte negative, deci vor fi urmate de vb la
II. May/ Might
- Apare in prop principale
Ex: May you live long!
- Si prop sub ca:
a. Prop SB dup It is + adj(possible, probable, likely)
Ex: It’s possible that he may come
! in prop negative si interogative in locul lui may se foloseste should
b. Prop CD dupa vb: be afraid, fear
Ex: He is afraid that he may lose the game.
c. Prop de scop afirmativa dupa so that si in order that

Ex: He helped me so that he may win
d. Prop concesiva in constructia ca : However hard he may try/come what may
III. Will/Would
- Apare in prop independente
Ex: This car wouldn’t work.
- Prop subordante
a. CD dupa wish pt a arata nemultumirea fata de os ituatie prezenta si de dorinta de a
schimbare pe viitor.
Ex: I wish It would stop raining
b. Prop de scop afirm dupa so that si in order that
Ex: he gave up smoking so that he would be healty.
IV. Can/Could
a. In prop de scop affirmative
Ex: He is saving money so that he can buy a car
! dupa had better urmeaza inf scurt
Ex: You’d better go home.
! would like+inf lung
Ex: I’d like you to start learning
!prefer +vb-ing+to+vb-ing
Ex: I prefer reading to writing.


- Sunt verbe cu mai multe intelesuri

- Sunt intotdeauna urmate de un alt verb la inf
- Nu primesc terminatii, nu fac acord cu verbele si nu pot fi folosite la toate timpurile
I. Verbele modale care arata obligatii: must, have to, have got to, don’t have to,
needn’t, should, ought to, shall
 Must arata obligatia impusa de vorbitor
Ex: You must dp you’re homework
I must stop smoking
 o necesitate impusa de un impuls interior
Ex: Since a feel tired I must take a short holiday.
 o necesitate in opinia subiectului
Ex: My brother thinks he must look for a better job
o invitatie neoficiala
Ex: You must come and see us some time
un sfat insistent
Ex: You must be more tolerant with your neighbours
 siguranta
Ex: He must be my teacher(sunt sigur ca e..)
 Musn’t  interdictia
Ex: You musn’t cross the street when the traffic light is reed
 Have to obligatie impunsa din exterior
Ex: Students have to wear a uniform
 Had to  se foloseste pentru a exprima o obligatie anterioara momentului vorbirii
Ex: He had to wait for a long time
 Have got to  obligatie din exterior limitata
Ex: I have to be at work eight daily but today I have got to be there at seven
 Don’t have to si needn’t  arata absenta obligatiei
Ex: You don’t have to come with me
 Needn’t have +vb form 3  este folosit pentru a arata ceva ce nu era necesar sa se
intample, dar s-a intamplat.
Ex: You needn’t have laught so much milk
 Should  sfat, recomandare
Ex: You should buy the yellow dress
 Ought to  obligatie morala
Ex: Drivers ought not to talk on the phone while driving
 Shall  este folosit in regulamente
Ex: Each competitor in the race shall wear a number
Inlocuitori  be obliged si be necessary

II. Verbe modale cara arata abilitatea: can, could
Ex: I can swim

Inlocuitori: to be able to

III. Verbe modale care arata permisiunea: can, could, may, might
 Can/Could(a putea/a sti)  arata permisiunea ce vine atat din partea vorbitorului cat si
din partea exterioara
Ex:You can park here. It is allowed
 May/Might  arata permisiunea din partea vb
Ex: You may take my place
Atunci cand cerem permisiunea, folosim in situatii formale pe may si might
Inlocuitori: to be allowed to
IV. Verbe modale care arata posibilitatea: can, could, may, might
 Can, Could  arata posibilitatea in sens general
Ex: This road can be blocked If you put some huge stones in the middle
 May, Might  posibilitatea intr-o anumita situatie
Ex: Why have all the cars stopped?
Because the road may be blocked
Inlocuitori: be possible

V.Verbele modale care arata deductia: must, would, should, will

 Must  este cel mai puternic si implica o siguranta foarte mare

Ex: You must be tired
! Imposibilitatea(deductia la neg) este exprimata cu ajutorul lui can’t sau couldn’t
Inlocuitori: be likely

VI.Verbele modale care arata o actiune repetata

 Will  comportament repetat in present

Ex: He will sit for six hours without talking
 Used to  actiune repetata in trecut
Ex: He used to talk a lot
 Would  actiune repetata in trecut
Ex: He would run a lot in the past.


Este de doua feluri:

1. Propozitia relativa restrictiva  este importanta pentru intelesul frazei, nu se desparte

prin virgule de propozitia principala si este introdusa de pronume si adverbe relative,
iar pronumele relative pot fi inlocuite de that.
Ex: The teacher who told us about the test is your friend

2. Propozitia relativa descriptiva: ofera o informatie in plus care nu este neaparat
obligatorie pentru intelesul frazei. Se desparte prin virgula de propozitia principala,
iar that nu poate inlocui pronumele relative.
Ex: Corabia, which is a little town in the banks(mal) of the Danube, was once an
important traiding part.
I. Cand in propozitia relativa avem un verb cu prep atunci poate that poate fi
Ex: The ball I ran after is mine
II. Cand that este complementul direct al prop relative, acesta poate fi omis
Ex: The family I saw is big
I. Pozitiv : beautiful, interesting
II. Comparativ:
1. De egalitate: as….as
Ex: as interesting as
2. De inferioritate: not as… (nu la fel de)
Not so. . . . .as (nu asa de)
Less. . .. . . .than (mai putin de)
3. De superioritate
Pt cuvinte scurte: ….-er than ex: longer
Pt cuvinte lungi: . . .more. … than
III. Superlativul
1. Relativ
Pt cuvinte scurte: the. . . –est ex: the longest
Pt cuvinte lungi: the most . . . . ex: the most beauty
2. Absolut very+… ex” very interesting

Adj/adv cu grade de comparatie neregulate

Positive Comp of superiority Superlative relative
Good Better than The best
Bad Worse than The worst

Ill Worse than The worst
Much/many More than The most
Near Nearer than The nearest
Little Less than The least
Old Older than The oldest
Elder than The eldest
Far Farther than The farthest
Further than The furthest

! Varianta lui “old” cu “e” se foloseste pentru grade de rudenie sau atunci cand ma refer la cei
Ex: My elder brother - fratele meu mai mare
The elders of the village – inteleptii satului
! La “far” varianta cu “a” se foloseste pentru distanta, iar varianta cu “u” o folosim atunci cand
vrem sa spunem ca trecem la un alt nivel sau continuam un subiect sau ne referim la timp.
Ex: The farthest village is Izbiceni
Let’s go further with the subject
! Cand avem un sir de obiecte, primul va fi “the first”, iar ultimul “the last”, dar cand avem
doua obiecte/persoane, primul este “the former”, iar ultimul “the latter”
! Pentru expresia “cu cat….cu atat” folosim constructia : the+comp de superioritate. . .+
Ex: Cu cat citeste mai mult cu atat stie mai mult
The more he reads the more he knows
Adj care au gradul comparative de superioritate pot fi precedate de cuvinte care intensifica a lor
calitate, precum: far, much, by far, a lot, a good deal.
Ex: Vegetables are much cheaper in summer than winter
Now that she has a new job she is far more optimistic
! “din ce in ce mai….” : comp sup +and+comp sup
Ex: More and More people come here
! Atunci cand avem doua lucruri si vrem sa spunem ca unul dintre cele doua este cel mai bun
folosim comparativul, NU superlativul
Adjective demonstrative
- This/that (sg); these/those(pl)
- The same(acelasi) – She has been wearning the same suit

- Such (atat de, asemenea) – urmat de art a/an – She is such a nice person – DAR : They
are such nice person
- The order ( celalalt) – Will you give me the order knife? This one is blunt.
- The very(chiar in) – Th very next day he went to see her
Adjective interogative

- What – folosit pt a cere informatii despre anumite lucruri – What colour are her eyes?
- Which(care) – are un inteles selectiv – Which jacket have you chosen?
- Whose(a cui/ale cui) – Whose are the books on the table?

Adjective relative

- What – to what extent- in ce masura

- Whatever -(orice, indiferent)
- Whichever (oricare anume) – are un caracter selective mai puternic decat “whatever:”

Adjective nehotarate

- Some(niste) – este folosit in propozitii afirmative

Ex: I’ll go and buy some fruit
 in propozitii interogative, cand se ofera ceva sau se foloseste o formula de
Ex: Will you have some more tea?
- Any – folosit in propozitii interogative si negative
Ex: Are there any more fruit?/ Don’t take any food on the trip.
- Each(fiecare) – are inteles selectiv
Ex: Each student has to take this exam
- Every(toti) – se refera la toate persoanele sau lucrurile dintr-un grup
Ex: Every school-leaver has to pass an exam
Fairly, quite, rather, pretty
Fairly (destul de) – este folosit atunci cand nu suntem foarte incantati de un lucru si nu
recunoastem experienta.
Ex: It was a fairly interesting experience
Quite – este mai puternic decat fairly, ceea ce inseamna ca mi-a placut putin mai mult
Ex: It was quite good to be here.
Rather - e folosit pentru a arata ca ceva ne-a placut foarte mult
Ex: The film was rather interesting
Pretty - are aceeasi putere ca si rather, dar este folosit in limbajul formal.

Pluralul se formeaza adaugand “s” la final

Ex: car – cars

 Subst terminate in “s”;”ss”; “ch”, “sh” ;”x”;”z” si cateodata “o” formeaza pl

adaugand “es”
Bush – bushes
Piano – pianos
 Subst terminate in “y” formeaza pl in s cand inaintea lui se afla o vocala si in esc and
inainte se afla o consoana
Ex: toy- toys
City – cities
 O serie de subst terminate in f/fe formeaza pl in “ves” si pierd terminatia f/fe la pl
Ex: wife – wives
Thief – thieves (hoti)
Knife – knives (cutite)
Calf – calves (vitei)
Shelf – shelves(rafturi)
Wolf – wolves (lupi)
Sheaf –shealves(teama)
Half – halves(jumatate)
Leaf – leaves (frunza)
Loaf – loaves (franzela)
Self – selves
Life – lives
 Subst care au pl neregulat
footfeet(laba piciorului)
 Pl latine
- uma
ex: datumdata

- usi
ex: cactuscacti
- ises
ex: thesistheses
- ixices
ex: apendixapendices
- aae
ex: larvalarvae
 Pluralul subst compuse
- Daca substantivul compus nu contine niciun subst in structura sa, atunci “s” care
marcheaza pl se pune la sf lui
Ex: take-offtake-offs(decolari)
- Daca substantivul compus contine un substantiv in structura sa, atunci pl se face si la
Ex: passer by(trecator) passers by

- Daca substantivul compus este format din cuvinte man/woman + un alt substantive,
pluralul se face la amandoua subst din structura subst compus
Ex: man servantmen servants
- Daca substantivul compus este format din doua subst legate atunci pl se face la sfarsit
Ex: tablecloth(fata de masa)tablecloths.
Substantive defective de singular

 Articole de imbracaminte si obiectele formate din doua parti egale: shorts, trousers
(pantaloni), pyjamas, binoculars, glasses, scissors(foarfeca), tongues(cleste)
 Substantive nemarcate la plural: police, catlle (vite), poultry (pasari de curte)
 Pluralia tantum: stairs, oats (ovaz), fireworks (artificii), arms (arma), surroundings
(imprejurime), outskirts (suburbie), earnings (castiguri), minutes (process verbal), colours
(drapel),funds (fonduri)
 Adjective concrete substantivizate: the rich, the poor (saracii), the unemployed
Substantive defective de plural
 Substantive unice: the Earth, the moon, the sky
 Adjective abstracte substantivizate: the beautiful, the interesting, the unknown
 Substantive care se refera la substantivele lichide si solide: water, juice, tea, milk,
coffee, wine, butter, honey, gam, sugar, salt, vinegan(otet), oil

 Substantive care se refera la materiale: glass, wood, plastic, iron, paper,
velvet(catifea), leather(piele), silk(matase), wool(lana), concrete(beton), coal(carbune),
 Nume de boli: measles(pojar), mumps (oreon), AIDS (sida)
 Nume de jocuri: billiards, cards, darts
 Nume de stiinte si obiecte de studio: physics, acoustics, mathematics, chemistry,
 Substantive ca: money, news, furniture(mobila), luggage(bagaj)
 Substantive astracte: advice, information, knowledge(cunostinte), thought(gandire),
room(spatiu), time

Substantivele nenumarabile pot fi numarabile adaugand in fata lor formule ca: a cup of, a bottle
of, a piece of, a sum of(o suma), a bar of(tablet), a blade of (o lama de) a lump of(o bucata
de ), a sheet of(o foaie), a slice of(o felie), a school of (o scoala de), a spoom of(o lingura de),
on item of(un articol de), a bunch of(un buchet), a great deal of (o multime de)

Much/ Many – apar in propozitii negative si interogative .

Much se foloseste la substantivele nenumarabile, iar many cu cele numarabile.

Few/A few – se fol cu subst numarabile.

Few arata un nr mic si insuficient, iar a few arata un nr mic, dar sufficient

Little/A little – sunt folosite cu substantive nenumarabile

Little arata o cantitate mica si insuficienta, a little o cantitate mica, dar suficienta.

Some apare in propozitii afirmative

Any apare in propozitii neg si interog

A lot of/Lots of se foloseste in propozitii affirmative in locul lui much/many

Substantive care au aceasi forma si la sg si la pl

- fish (cu toate speciile de peste) – trout, salmon

- sheep (oaie, oi)
- fruit
- means(mijloace, mijloc)
- series(serie, serii)
- works
- headqarters( cladire centrala)
- deer
Genul substantivelor

Genul se formeaza in urmatoarele feluri:

I. Prin cuvinte diferite

Feminin Masculin
Woman Man
Girl Boy
Aunt uncle
Lass Lad
Bitch Dog
Bee Drone
Fox Vixen(vulpoi)
Sow Pig
Nun Monk(calugar)
Witch Wizard
Goose Gander
Mare Horse
Filly Colt(manz)
Sheep Ram(berbec)
Hen Rooster(cocos)

II. Prin adaugarea unui sufix la masculine

- Ess
Ex: poetpoetess
- Ine
Ex: heroheroine
- Ix
Ex: administratoradministratorix
- A
- E
Ex: fiancefiancee
- Esse
Ex: cefeurcefeuesse
III. Prin adaugarea de sufix la feminine
- Er
Ex: widow(vaduva)widower
- Groom
Ex: bride(mireasa)bridegroom
IV. Substantive compuse unde diferenta este data de primul cuvant

V. Substantive compuse unde genul este dat de al 2 lea cuvant


I. Articolul hotarat “THE”

Se foloseste inaintea:

- Subst unice: the sun, the sky, the moon

- Inintea numelelor de ziare: The Sun, The Time
- Atunci cand subst este cunoscut de ambii vorbitori: Give me the paper!
- Inaintea institutiilor publice: The Hospital, The School, The Church
- In propozitii sau fraze in care definim sau identificam anumite persoane sau obiecte: The
girl in blu is my cousin.
- Inaintea superlativului sau a numeralelor ordinale: first, second, thirds(primul, al doilea,
al treilea) si only(unic/a, singur/a, numai) : the best day, the first week, the last chapter,
the only way(singura cale)
- Inaintea instrumentelor musicale si a num de dansuri: the piane, the quiter, the samba
- Inaintea numelor de vase: The Titanic, The Queen
- Inaintea numerelor de mari, oceane, raur : The Black Sea, The Pacific Ocean, The
- Inaintea numelor de canale : The English Chanal
- Inaintea num de teatre si cinematografe: The Odeon, The National Theatre
- Inaintea num de hoteluri: The Ibis
- Inaintea numelor de tari formate din mai multe cuvinte sau care se afla la plural: The
USA, The Bahamas, The Netherlands
- Inaintea lanturilor muntoase: The Carpathian
- Inaintea secolelor, grupe de ani, decade
- Inaintea unor adj pt a face referire in general la un grup de oameni care au in comun o
anumita insusire(sunt frumosi, tineri): the young, the beautiful, the old, the best, the
II. Articolul zero

Se spune ca este vorba de articolul zero(sau fara articol) atunci cand nu se foloseste niciun
articol. Se pune inaintea

- Numelor de lacuri: Saint Ana

- Nume de tari formate dintr-un cuvant si care se afla la singular: Romania, Italy
- Nume de continente: Europa

- Varfurilor muntoase si a muntior: Bucegi, Everest.
- Inaintea numelor proprii: Ioana
- Nume de desert
- Inaintea anotimpurilor si a lunilor anului
! Art hot si zero pot sa apara in anumite expresii :
On the wall (pe perete)
On the go (pe fuga)
In the beginning
At the table
In the time being(momentan)
In time, on time
All in all (luand totul in considerare)
In no time(imediat, foarte repede)
From time to time(din cand in cand)
At random(la intamplare)
- Inaintea numelor de mese : lunch, dinner
- Inaintea sarbatorilor din an: Easter
!!!Art hot ajuta la formarea superlativului relative : the longest
!!! Numele de limbi nu primesc art : English, Chinese, roumanian
!!! Numele de nationalitati terminate in ese primesc art hotarat in fata: the Chinese, the
III. Articolul nehotarat(a/an)
! A se foloseste inaintea cuvintelor care încep cu o consoana, iar AN inaintea cuv care încep cu o
vocala. Aceasta diferenta se face in pronuntie: an hours, a European, a university. Se foloseste
atunci cand:
- Se introduce un nou element in discutie: there is a book on table
- In expresii cu unitati de masura: for miles an hour, two pounds a kilo
- Cand ne referim la ceva indefinite: a few days ago, a certain person; in expresii: as fast as
(la fel de repede), in a rush(in graba), in a dilemma;
- Inaintea numelor de profesii


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