Sunteți pe pagina 1din 10

Prepositions - Prepozitii

Prepozitia (Preposition) este o parte de vorbire neflexibila (fixa) care descrie


legatura dintre doua cuvinte din aceeasi propozitie. Prepozitiile nu au un inteles de
sine statator, ele capata diferie sensuri puse in legatura cu alte cuvinte.
Cateva exemple de observare a prepozitiilor (cuvintele evidentiate):
You can sit before the desk. - Puteti s stati n faa biroului.
He can bump into the table. - El se poate lovi in masa.
The bird flies toward the tree. - Pasarea zboara spre pom.
I sit on the armchair. - Eu stau pe fotoliu.
- Verbe precedate de prepozitii iau forma n "-ing".
He's good at remembering peoples names. - El isi aminteste cu usurinta numele
oamenilor.
Exceptii: but si except sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt.
They did nothing but laugh. - N-au facut nimic (altceva) dect sa rda.
De retinut:
In limba engleza nu se va termina niciodata o propozitie cu o prepozitie.
1. Prepozitii de loc: at, on, in
At se foloseste cu adrese exacte.
James lives at 78 English Street in London. - James locueste la nr. 78, Strada
English in Londra.
On desemneaza numele de strazi, sosele, bulevarde, alei, etc.
Her house is on Camp Street. - Casa ei e pe strada Camp.
In se foloseste cu numele regiunilor (orase, judete, tari, state, continente).
She lives in Braila. - Ea locuieste in Braila.
Braila is in Romania - Braila e in romania.
2. Prepozitii de timp: at, on, in
At se foloseste pentru a desemna ora exacta.
The teacher is leaving at 5:15 p.m. - Profesorul pleaca la 5:15 p.m.
On indica zilele si datele calendaristice.
My brother is coming on Monday. - Fratele meu vine luni.
We're having a training on the Fourth of October. - Avem un antrenament pe patru
octombrie.
In se foloseste pentru a desemna ore imprecise din timpul zilei, cat si luna,
anotimpul, anul.
She likes to jog in the morning. - Ei ii place sa alerge (sa faca jogging) dimineata.
It's too cold in winter to run outside. - E prea frig iarna ca sa alergi afara.
He started the english course in 2010. - El a inceput cursul de engleza in anul 2010.
He's going to come in August. - El are de gand sa vina in august.
3. Prepozitii de timp: for si since
For se foloseste atunci cand se masoara timpul
(secunde, minute, ore, zile, luni, ani).
He held his breath for seven minutes. - El si-a inut respiraia timp de apte minute.
She's lived there for seven years. - Ea a trait acolo sapte ani.
Since se foloseste cu data sau ora exacta.

He's worked here since 1976. - El a lucrat aici din anul 1976.
She's been sitting in the waiting room since six-thirty. - Ea statea in camera de
asteptare de la sase-treizeci.
4. Prepozitii de miscare: to si lipsa prepozitiei
To se foloseste pentru a exprima deplasarea, miscarea
catre un loc.
They were walking to work together. - Ei mergeau la (spre) munca impreuna.
She's going to the dentist's office this morning. - Ea se duce la dentist (cabinetul
dentistului) in dimineata asta.
Toward si towards exprima de asemenea miscarea spre ceva.
Acestea doua prepozitii sunt doar variantele ortografice ale aceluiasi cuvant si se pot
folosi indiferent.
We're moving toward the light. - Ne miscam spre lumina.
This is a big step towards the project's completion. - Acesta este un mare pas spre
finalizarea proiectului.
Cu urmatoarele cuvinte: home, downtown, uptown, inside, outside, downstairs,
upstairs, nu se folosesc prepozitii.
Grandma went upstairs Grandpa went home. - Bunica sa dus la etaj bunicul a
plecat acasa.
They both went outside. - Amandoi au iesit afara.
5. Prepozitii cu substantive, adjective si verbe
Numeroase substantive, adjective si mai ales verbe se
folosesc corect numai insotite de prepozitiile care le
intregesc sensul.
Prepozitii si:
Substantive
approval of - aprobarea
awareness of - gradul de
contientizare a
belief in - credinta in
concern for - preocuparea
pentru
confusion about - confuzie cu
privire la
desire for - dorina de
fondness for - toleran pentru
grasp of - stapanire de
hatred of - ura fata de
hope for - speranta pentru
interest in - interes in
love of - dragostea de
need for - necesitatea /nevoia
de a
participation in - participarea la
reason for - motiv pentru

Adjective

Verbe

afraid of - frica de
apologize for - a cere scuze (iertare)
angry at - furios la
pentru
aware of - constient de
ask about - a intreba despre
capable of - capabil sa
ask for - a cere [ceva]
careless about - neatent la /cu
belong to - a apartine [cuiva]
familiar with - familiarizat cu
bring up - a aduce
happy about - fericit in legatura
care for - a avea grija de
cu
find out - a afla
interested in - interesat
give up - a renunta
jealous of - gelos
grow up - a creste
made of - facut /fabricat in (din)
look for - a cauta [ceva]
married to - casatorit /a cu
look forward to - a astepta cu
proud of - mandru de
nerabdare sa
similar to - asemanator cu
look up - a privi in sus
sorry for - imi pare rau pentru ...
make up - a alcatui, a nascoci, a
sure of - sigur de
prepara
tired of - obosit de (satul de)
pay for - a plati pentru
worried about - ingrijorat de / in
prepare for - a se pregati pentru
legatura cu
study for - a invata pentru

talk about - a vorbi despre


think about - a (se) gandi la
trust in - a avea incredere in
work for - a lucra pentru
worry about - a fi ingrijorat de, a-si
face griji pentru

respect for - respectul pentru


success in - succes in
understanding of - intelegerea

- Combinatia dintre verbe si prepozitii se numeste verb frazal.


6. Expresii idiomatice cu prepozitii
ntre folosirea prepozitiilor n limba engleza si limba
romna exista numeroase diferente. Aceeasi prepozitie
poate implica frazelor din care face parte un inteles diferit
de cel obisnuit, formand expresii idiomatice. Unele dintre
acestea sunt:
in the street (Engl. americ. - on the stret) - pe strada
in the playground - pe terenul de sport
in the sky - pe cer
in the sun - la soare
in the open air - la aer curat
on the way to - n drum spre
on the 1st floor - la etajul 1
round the corner - dupa colt
at present - n prezent
at the some time - n acelasi timp
at this moment - n acest moment
at last - n sfrsit
in a year`s time - peste un an
in my opinion - dupa parerea mea
beyond control - independent de vointa ...
in all probability - dupa toate probabilitatile
by my watch - dupa ceasul meu
by heart - pe de rost, pe dinafara
by mistake - din greseala
to go on a trip / on holiday - a merge n calatorie / n vacanta
to go (out) for a walk - a merge la plimare
lo look out of the window - a privi pe fereastra
to get in through the window - a intra pe fereastr
he`s the tallest in the class - e cel mai nalt din clas
outside the garden - n fata gradinii
7. Prepozitii inutile
In vorbirea de zi cu zi se folosesc incorect prepozitii
acolo unde ele nu isi au rostul. Observati urmatoarele
exemple:
She met up with the new coach in the hallway. - Ea sa ntlnit cu noul antrenor pe
hol.
The book fell off of the desk. - Cartea a cazut de pe birou.
He threw the book out of the window. - El a aruncat cartea pe fereastr.
She wouldn't let the cat inside of the house. (sau folositi "in") - Ea nu ar lasa pisica in

casa.
Where did they go to? - Unde s-au dus ei?
Put the lamp in back of the couch. (se va folosi "behind") - Pune lampa n spatele
canapelei.
Where is your college at? - Unde este colegiul dumneavoastra?

Prepozitia descrie legatura dintre doua cuvinte din aceeasi propozitie.


Prepozitiile pot capata diferite sensuri in functie de modul in care se folosesc.
Prepozitia de TIMP in limba engleza: Se utilizeaza pentru a specifica timpul
unei actiuni.
Prepozitii de timp: at, on, in
Prepozitia de LOC in limba engleza: Arata locul in care se situeaza obiectele
definite.
Prepozitii de loc: after, below , in front of , between , among, beside ,behind,
between
in front of, next to, above , beside, by, over, above,
under, from, onto
Prepozitii de miscare in limba engleza
Se foloseste numai cu verbe de miscare
to la, catre (presupune atingerea locului, chiar ajungi acolo):
I go to my house.
towards catre (nu presupune atingerea locului, nu ajungi acolo):
I go towards the light.
into in (se intra fizic intr-un spatiu):
Tom go far into the cave.
onto pe (pentru miscare pe o suprafata; daca nu e miscare se pune on):
The dog is running onto the floor.
along de-a lungul (miscare pe/ pe linga o suprafata):
Im walking along the river. (nu trec riul)
through prin (presupune inrarea/iesire, patrundere):
I walk through the river. (trec riul, prin apa)
across traversare (presupune inrarea/iesire, nu si patrundere):
I run across the road. (trec strada, dar nu intru in asfalt)
off presupune desprinderea de o suprafata:
The plane takes off.
from de la, de pe, din
out of presupune iesirea dintr-un volum.:
Get out of my house !
past langa (presupune apropierea imediata prin miscare)

about prin (arata o miscare nedefinita, fara un tel precis)


around in jurul (presupune o miscare circulara)
Prepozitii cu substantive, verbe in limba engleza
In limba engleza sunt verbe si substantive care tot timpul sunt folosite cu
prepozitii. Iata mai jos citeva exemple:
believe in - cred in. Ex: I belive in God (Eu cred in Dumnezeu)
talk about - a discuta. Ex: What are they talking about ? (Despre ce dicuta
ei ?)
interest in - interesat in/de. Ex: Consumers lose interest in this technology.
(Consumatorii si-au pierdut interesul in aceasta tehnologie.)

Parti de vorbire urmate de prepozitie obligatorie


3 comentarii Publicat de Wladypauly pe martie 1, 2011
Anumite parti de vorbire, mai ales substantive, adjective si verbe, sunt urmate de o
prepozitie obligatorie. De multe ori aceasta prepozitie nu este echivalenta cu cea din
limba romana. Mai jos aveti o lista cu cele mai frecvent parti de vorbire care au
prepozitie obligatorie. ACEST ARTICOL SE VA ACTUALIZA PE PARCURS CE VOM
AVEA INFORMATII NOI!
PREPOZITIA IN
SUBSTANTIVE:
interest, progress, satisfaction, change, deficiency, difference, participation, skill
ADJECTIVE:
disappointed, rich, successful, lacking, interested
VERBE:
abound, believe, end, fail, originate, participate, trust, take part, succeed (+-ing),
trade, be engaged/included/interested, delight, indulge, invest, persist, take pride
PREPOZITIA OF
SUBSTANTIVE:
cause, chance, opportunity, complaint, abundance, capability, certainty, sureness,
conception, discussion, hope, master, opinion, intention, sense, way, means,
knowledge
ADJECTIVE:

afraid, ashamed, aware, characteristic, fond, full, jealous, proud, sure, sick, typical,
worthy, confindent, envious, illustrative, representative, tired, independent, icapable
VERBE:
accuse, boast, cure, deprive, die, remind, rob, suspect, take care, (dis)approve,
admit, think, beware, consist, dream, smell
PREPOZITIA TO
SUBSTANTIVE:
exception, invitation, kindness, danger, ressemblance, lesson, insult, shock,
approach, contribution, resistance, responsability, similarity, answer, solution
ADJECTIVE:
affectionate, appropriate, attentive, cruel, contrary, deaf, indifferent, kind, parallel,
polite, rude, thankful, accustomed, related, important, close, engaged, married,
unfair, similar, specific, particualr, proper, peculiar, due
VERBE:
adapt, adjust, apply, attribute, belong, cling, conform, consent, correspond, direct,
explain, fasten, go, introduce, link, listen, object, prefer, reduce, refer, reply, report,
sail, sell, speak, subscribe, talk, lie, look, forward, accustom, agree, elect, make love,
ressemble
PREPOZITIA FOR:
SUBSTANTIVE:
tendency, reason, reputation, care, capability, gratitude, incapacity, love, opportunity,
responsability, search, respect, love
ADJECTIVE:
bound, eager, famous, fit, sorry, late, responsible, greedy, noted
VERBE:
account, ask, blame, care, leave, long, look, send, set out, start, apply, beg, thank,
wait, wish, call, stand, mistake, feel, pity, apologise (BE)/apologize (AE), hope, pay,
prepare
PREPOZITIA ON:

SUBSTANTIVE:
expert, opinion, report, comment, debate, discussion, insistence, reliance
ADJECTIVE:
severe, keen, hard, dependent
VERBE:
agree, comment, concentrate, depend, congratulate, insist, lecture, live, meditate,
operate, work, take pride, feed, prey, spend, have mercy, act, decide, embark,
experiment, intrude
PREPOZITIA ABOUT:
ADJECTIVE:
anxious, enthusiastic, mad
VERBE:
dream, think, lie
PREPOZITIA AT:
ADJECTIVE:
alrmed, amazed, astonished, good, clever, surprised, annoyed, fast, disappointed,
disgusted, slow
VERBE:
aim, arrive, fire, gaze, glance, glare, look, laugh, rejoice, swear, have a try, knock,
attempt, guess, hint, marvel, peep, peer, stare, wonder, work
PREPOZITIA WITH:
ADJECTIVE:
angry, busy, charmed, consistent, pale, delighted, dizzy, faint, identical, satisfied,
stiff, wet, pleased, bored, annoyed, preoccupied, disappointed, fed up, flushed,
crowded, ill, filled, disguised, content, happy
VERBE:

complete, flush, glow, quiver, shake, overflow, shiver, side, subscribe, supply,
threaten, tremble, trust, interfere, charge, fill, agree, compare, conflict, fight, mix,
reason
PREPOZITIA FROM:
SUBSTANTIVE:
difference, freedom, death
ADJECTIVE:
different, safe, free, dead
VERBE:
conceal, die, differ, escape, hide, prevent, protect, recover, start, free, suffer, benefit,
abstain, emerge, refrain
PREPOZITIA BY:
VERBE:
win, live, mean, multiply, divide, abide
OBSERVATIE: unele dintre aceste parti de vorbire pot fi urmate de mai multe
prepozitii, in functie de sensul intregii expresii. Vezi mai multe aici.
Prepozitia

Prepozitiile sunt cuvintele care fac legatura intre partile de vorbire.


Sunt peste 150 de prepozitii in limba engleza.Lista cu cele mai uzuale prepozitii le
gasiti la
Cuvinte necesare/Prepozitii.
Prepozitii de loc:
In general se tine cont de urmatoarele reguli:
at = pentru un punct, un reper
in = pentru o anumita zona
on = pentru o suprafata
Iata aici cateva exemple :

at

in

on

punct, un reper

zona

suprafata

at the corner

in the garden

on the wall

at the bus stop

in London

on the ceiling

at the door

in France

on the door

at the top of the page

in a box

on the cover

at the end of the road

in my pocket

on the floor

at the entrance

in my wallet

on the carpet

at the crossroads

in a building

on the menu

at the entrance

in a car

on a page

Exista expresii standar cu prepozitiile de loc.Iata-le :


at

in

on

at home

in a car

on a bus

at work

in a taxi

on a train

at school

in a helicopter

on a plane

at university

in a boat

on a ship

at college

in a lift (elevator)

on a bicycle, on a motorbike

at the top

in the newspaper

on a horse, on an elephant

at the bottom

in the sky

on the radio, on television

at the side

in a row

on the left, on the right

at reception

in Oxford Street

on the way

Prepozitiile de timp :
at = atunci cand timpul este precizat
in = pentru luni, ani, secole si perioade lungi
on = pentru zile si date

Iata cateva exemple:


at

in

on

timp precizat

luni, ani, secole si perioade lungi

zile si date

at 3 o'clock

in May

on Sunday

at 10.30am

in summer

on Tuesdays

at noon

in the summer

on 6 March

at dinnertime

in 1990

on 25 Dec. 2010

at bedtime

in the 1990s

on Christmas Day

at sunrise

in the next century

on Independence Day

at sunset

in the Ice Age

on my birthday

at the moment

in the past/future

on New Year's Eve

Atunci cand folosim last, next, every, this - nu folosim si at, in, on.
Exemple:
I went to London last June. (not in last June)
He's coming back next Tuesday. (not on next Tuesday)
I go home every Easter. (not at every Easter)
We'll call you this evening. (not in this evening)