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MINISTERUL EDUCAIEI, CERCETRII, TINERETULUI I SPORTULUI UNIVERSITATEA VALAHIA DIN TRGOVITE FACULTATEA TIINE ECONOMICE Domeniul: Management

CULTURA ORGANIZAIONAL I IMPACTUL SU ASUPRA MANAGEMENTULUI LA NIVEL MICROECONOMIC


- REZUMAT -

CONDUCTOR DE DOCTORAT: Prof.univ.dr. Mioara Delia POPESCU

DOCTORAND : Ioana Raluca I. VLSCEANU (GOLDBACH)

TRGOVITE 2012

CUPRINS AL REZUMATULUI

CUPRINSUL TEZEI.................................................................................................................. 2 INTRODUCERE........................................................................................................................ 4 ACTUALITATEA TEMEI DE CERCETARE ......................................................................... 5 OBIECTIVELE CERCETRII ................................................................................................. 6 STRUCTURA TEZEI ................................................................................................................ 7 METODOLOGIA CERCETRII.............................................................................................. 9 Cadrul metodologic .............................................................................................................. 10 Cadrul epistemologic............................................................................................................ 10 Aria de cercetare................................................................................................................... 12 CERCETRI PRIVIND ANALIZA SCHIMBRII CULTURII LA NIVEL MICROECONOMIC ORGANIZAIONALE 12

Necesitatea schimbrii culturii organizaionale ................................................................... 12 Ipotezele i metodele cercetrii ............................................................................................ 14 Rezultatele cercetrii ............................................................................................................ 15 CONTRIBUII PROPRII ........................................................................................................ 22 LIMITELE STUDIULUI ......................................................................................................... 25 CONCLUZIILE STUDIULUI ................................................................................................. 27 PROPUNERI PRACTICE PENTRU AMELIORAREA SITUAIEI DIN UNITILE INVESTIGATE........................................................................................................................ 29 BIBILIOGRAFIE SELECTIV .............................................................................................. 30 CURRICULUM VITAE .......................................................................................................... 33 LISTA DE LUCRRI PUBLICATE....................................................................................... 38

CUPRINSUL TEZEI

INTRODUCERE STADIUL CUNOATERII PRIVIND CULTURA ORGANIZAIONAL 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2 CONSIDERAII GENERALE PRIVIND CULTURA ORGANIZAIONAL Conceptul de cultur organizaional Factorii determinani ai culturii organizaionale Niveluri ale culturii organizaionale Elemente componente ale culturii organizaionale METODOLOGIA CERCETRII CULTURII ORGANIZAIONALE 2.1 Abordri teoretice ale analizei culturii organizaionale 2.2 Metode de cercetare utilizate n analiza culturii organizaionale 2.2.1 Tipuri de cercetri 2.2.2 Metode calitative ale analizei culturale 2.2.3 Avantajele i limitele metodelor calitative n studierea contextului cultural organizaional 2.3 Elemente de specialitate n evaluarea culturii organizaionale 2.4 Modele de chestionare de evaluare a climatului/culturii organizaionale 3 CULTURA MANAGERIAL - COMPONENT A CULTURII ORGANIZAIONALE 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Cultura managerial - definiie, coninut Leadership-ul i organizaiile multiculturale Funciile culturii manageriale Cultura managerial i performana organizaional Locul i efectele culturii manageriale asupra culturii organizaionale Leadership-ul cultural i influenele sale asupra culturii organizaionale MODELAREA CULTURII ORGANIZAIONALE Procesul de transformare a culturii organizaionale Error! Bookmark not defined. Modelul de schimbare Lewin Modelul Schein de schimbare a culturii organizaionale Modelul Kuczmarski de schimbare a valorilor organizaiei

5 CERCETARE PRIVIND ANALIZA SCHIMBRII CULTURII ORGANIZAIONALE LA NIVEL MICROECONOMIC 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Necesitatea schimbrii culturii organizaionale Aria de cercetare Oportuniti i limite ale cercetrii Cadrul epistemologic

5.5 Cadrul metodologic 5.5.1 Obiectivele cercetrii 5.5.2 Ipotezele i metodele cercetrii 5.5.3 Descrierea organizaiilor cercetate 5.6 Analiza i interpretarea rezultatelor 6 MODEL DE ARMONIZARE A CULTURII ORGANIZAIONALE CONTRIBUIE PERSONAL CONCLUZII I PROPUNERI CONTRIBUII PROPRII BIBLIOGRAFIE LISTA FIGURILOR LISTA TABELELOR ANEXA 1 Organigrame ANEXA 2 Chestionar

INTRODUCERE
Cultura organizaional este un concept dezvoltat de cercettori pentru a explica valorile, psihologia, atitudinile, credinele i experienele dintr-o organizaie. Aproape treizeci de ani de cercetare sistematic a culturii organizaionale n domeniul comportamentului organizaional a transformat-o din concept n teorie. "mprumutat" ca un concept din antropologie, cultura organizaionala, a fost dezvoltat i structurat de-a lungul anilor de cercetare n asociere cu alte concepte din domeniul psihologiei, sociologiei, i al managementului. Acest concept a devenit unul din instrumentele cheie n nelegerea comportamentului angajailor n organizaii. Noiunea de cultur organizaional a fost lansat pentru prima oar de Antony Jay, ce a enunat: Este cunoscut de ceva timp despre organizaii c sunt instituii sociale cu obiceiuri i tabuuri [...] ele sunt instituii politice, autoritare i democratice, pacifiste i rzboinice, liberale i paternaliste. 1 De regul, cultura organizaional este definit ca fiind teoria celor mai importante valori i credine, prin nelegerea faptului c membrii mpart la comun aceeai cultur, ea produce metode mai bune (sau cele mai bune) de gndire, observaie i reacie ce pot ajuta managerii s ia decizii i s organizeze activitile dintr-o companie. O companie de succes ar trebui s aib o cultur puternic ce s atrag, s menin i s recompenseze angajaii pentru ndeplinirea atribuiunilor i atingerea scopurilor organizaiei, culturile puternice fiind de obicei caracterizate prin dedicaia i cooperarea n serviciul atingerii valorilor comune. Cteva caracteristici ale culturii organizaionale: 1. Trebuie definite norme considernd volumul de munc i nivelul de cooperare dintre conducerea organizaiei i angajaii si; 2. Trebuie definite reguli clare pentru comportamentul angajailor n privina productivitii, cooperarea ntre grupuri i relaiile cu clienii; 3. Rutinele comportamentale observate pot defini un limbaj comun ct i proceduri formale; 4. Coordonarea i integrarea diferitelor uniti organizaionale cu scopul de a mbunti eficiena, calitatea i viteza n concepie, producie i prestarea de servicii.

Jay Antony, Management and Machiavelli: An Inguiry intro the Politics of Corporate Life, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Wiston, 1968, pp.79,153.

ACTUALITATEA TEMEI DE CERCETARE


n procesul transformrilor care au loc n societatea contemporan, cultura organizaional reprezint o expresie major de manifestare a factorului uman. Fiind unul dintre factorii care determin performana i succesul activitii organizaiei, cultura reprezint elementul esenial i indispensabil pentru progresul organizaional. Dezvoltarea conceputului de cultur organizaional a fost favorizat i de reconsiderarea major a rolului pe care resursa uman l are n evoluia organizaiei. Cultura organizaional este considerat a fi fora invizibil din spatele lucrurilor uor observabile i tangibile dintr-o organizaie, ea reprezint energia social care determin oamenii s acioneze n vederea atingerii obiectivelor organizaionale. Cultura organizaional a unei firme este adeseori comparat cu personalitatea unui individ, ce ntrunete viziunea, sensul, direcia, motivaia i energia necesar pentru evoluie. Domeniul de studiu al culturii organizaionale are o istorie relativ recent. Terminologia cultur organizaional a nceput s fie utilizat n mod frecvent prin anii `80. Interesul fa de cultura organizaional se explic prin faptul c la momentul actual comunitatea mondial este marcat de foarte multe procese de anvergur, globalizarea economiei i informatizarea societii, ceea ce conduce la apariia unor noi forme i metode de organizare a activitii umane. Ritmul schimbrilor tehnologice i informatice impune noi cerine fa de practicile utilizate n interiorul organizaiilor i fa de resursa uman care activeaz n cadrul lor. n aceste condiii, organizaia modern este concentrat predominant pe informaie i comunicare, dect pe control i ierarhie administrativ. n prezent, se acord o mare atenie manierei n care comportamentele umane sunt condiionate de elemente culturale. De altfel, numeroi specialiti din domeniile economic, managerial, sociologic, psihologic etc. sunt de acord c, ntr-o organizaie, cultura reprezint determinantul major necesar funcionrii organizaiei i obinerii performanelor necesare progresului. Cultura organizaional i managerial reprezint factori importani pentru obinerea avantajului competitiv al firmei, atunci cnd elementele lor sunt cunoscute, analizate i focalizate ctre realizarea obiectivelor stabilite prin strategiile i politicile firmei.

OBIECTIVELE CERCETRII
Investigarea culturii organizaionale efectuate n cadrul prezentei teme de cercetare are ca obiective generale: identificarea influenelor acesteia asupra performanelor angajailor. identificarea i analizarea tipului de cultur organizaional i a congruenei cu celelalte componente organizaionale. Demersul teoretico-tiinific reprezint rezultatul unei analize extinse de opinii ale diverilor specialiti n management, ct i a unui material factologic bogat studiat n cadrul cercetrilor efectuate. Acesta este centrat pe identificarea rspunsului la ntrebarea: Cum trebuie s acioneze managerii unei organizaii pentru a crea o cultura organizaional adaptiv i evolutiv n contextul schimbrilor care marcheaz mediul, genernd dinamism, schimbare, adaptare? Scopul principal al tezei de doctorat este: analiza problematicii culturii organizaionale prin realizarea unei diagnoze organizaionale comprehensive. Conform scopului propus s-au stabilit ca obiective ale cercetrii urmtoarele aspecte: analiza i descrierea modelului de cultur organizaional specific organizaiei studiate; identificarea punctelor forte n cadrul tipului culturii organizaionale dominante; descrierea legturilor dintre tipul culturii organizaionale i factorii care sunt reprezentativi pentru satisfacia n munc a participanilor (angajailor); studiul factorilor care mpiedic organizaia s lucreze la nivelul optim dorit; investigarea tipului de cultur organizaional n ambele variante: varianta real i varianta ideal din perspectiva percepiei subiecilor investigai; studiul percepiei i atitudinilor subiecilor n raport cu influena culturii organizaionale asupra satisfaciei n munc; reliefarea sistemului de valori al organizaiei economice ca esen a culturii organizaionale.

relevarea principalelor tendine n teoria managementului privitor la conceperea organizaiei ca fenomen sociocultural. determinarea factorilor-cheie i a mecanismelor de formare a culturii organizaionale. evidenierea rolului culturii naionale n formarea culturii organizaionale investigarea factorilor motivaionali individuali i a rolului acestora n binomul cultur organizaional satisfacie n munc. n urma acestui studiu tiinific s-a obinut identificarea unor soluii potrivite n soluionarea dificultilor organizaiilor studiate. n faa unui concept complex, cum este cultura organizaional, ce ridic probleme de conceptualizare si operaionalizare, dar i dezvoltarea cunotinelor tiinifice n domeniul managementului, n general; al culturii organizaionale, n particular.

STRUCTURA TEZEI
Lucrarea a fost structurat pe 6 capitole dup cum urmeaz: n capitolul introductiv sunt prezentate actualitatea temei de cercetare, obiectivele, scopul principal i metodologia cercetrii. Stadiul cunoaterii actuale privind cultura organizaional: Capitolul 1 Consideraii generale privind cultura organizaional, prezint diferitele abordri ale specialitilor asupra acestui concept mpreun cu factorii determinani, nivelurile i elementele componente ale culturii organizaionale. Capitolul 2 Metodologia cercetrii culturii organizaionale, abordeaz conceptele teoretico-metodologice care stau la baza studierii culturii organizaionale i care ne pot ajuta s identificm formele sale de manifestare, ct i influena care o exercit asupra comportamentelor i rezultatelor obinute de membrii unei organizaii.Sunt prezentate metode de investigare moderne ce contribuie la stabilirea unor asemneri i deosebiri n abordrile comparative dintre culturile organizaionale. Capitolul 3 Cultura managerial component a culturii organizaionale, arat interdependena dintre cultur i leaderi. Leaderii utilizeaz elemente din clutura organizaional pentru a transmite mesaje eficiente cu scopul de a obine

inmplicarea angajailor n vederea realizrii obiectivelor organizaionale. Ei sunt factorii care reuesc s creeze viziunea asupra viitorului dorit al organizaiei, influeneaz i la rndul lor sunt influenai de cultura organizaional. Capitolul 4 Modelarea culturii organizaionale. n cadrul acestui capitol sunt prezentate cteva modele teoretice de schimbare i studiaz realia dintre cultura organizaional, capacitatea de schimbare i dezvoltare a organizaiilor. Capitolul 5 Abordri metodologice privind cultura organizaional, abordeaz cadrul metodologic, epistemologic, aria de cercetare, oportunitile i limitele cercetrii. Capitolul 6 Model de armonizare a culturii organizaionale - contribuie personal. n ultima parte a lucrrii sunt prezentate: concluziile finale, contribuiile i propunerile personale legate de ameliorarea situaiei din unitile investigate.

METODOLOGIA CERCETRII
Const din ansamblul teoriilor i conceptelor fundamentale clasice i contemporane, existente n literatura de specialitate, n domeniul cercetat. Au fost analizate lucrrile din literatura internaional ct i cea naional care se ncadreaz n domeniul managementului organizaional, managementului general, managementului resurselor umane, comunicrii, comunicrii de grup, sociologiei i psihosociologiei. Partea experimental aplicativ s-a desfurat prin aplicarea unui chestionar la anumite organizaii la nivel macroeconomic. Principalele metode de cercetare folosite n lucrare sunt: metoda analitic i comparativ, deducia, inducia, observaia, interviul semi-structurat, ancheta pe baz de chestionare i inventare de specialitate. Caracterul interdisciplinar al cercetrii a determinat aplicarea n calitate de suport teoretico-tiinific concepiile elaborate n cadrul filosofiei culturii, filosofiei sociale, antropologiei filosofice, sociologiei culturii, psihologiei manageriale, managementul intercultural, teoriei sistemice, teoriei organizaionale. Maturitatea unui concept tiinific este ntotdeauna nsoit de dezvoltarea de metodologii de cercetare. Metodologia de cercetare a cultura organizaional este, n prezent, n faza de maturitate, de dezvoltare, caracteristicile sale de baz se simt ntr-o organizaie
(Taras, Rowney, Steel, 2009); Alvesson, 2002).

Acest lucru se datoreaz unui numr de motive. Prima, cultura organizaional este un fenomen interdisciplinare, i muli cercettori din diferite domenii tiinifice exploreze prin intermediul metodologilor utilizate de obicei pe baz disciplinelor tiinifice. De exemplu, antropologi utilizau n principal metode calitative, n timp ce psihologii folosesc metode cantitative de cercetare. Aceast diversitate de metode folosite pentru a explora cultura organizaional are att avantaje i dezavantaje. Principalul avantaj este ca un fenomen complex i multidimensional poate fi mai bine explorat atunci cnd mai multe metode diferite aplicate. Cultura organizaional, prin natura sa, are multe faete. Unele dintre ei sunt mai bine explorate de calitative si alii prin metode cantitative. Prin urmare, aplicarea de ambele tipuri de metod asigur o mai bun nelegere a fenomenului.

Principalul dezavantaj este diminuarea posibilitatea de compararea a rezultatelor cercetrii, care ncetinete dezvoltarea din domeniul tiinific deoarece rezultatele nu pot fi comparate i nu poate fi adugat la cercetri anterioare rezultatele.

Cadrul metodologic
Studiul s-a efectuat la nivelul marilor organizaii din municipiul Trgovite ct i din municipiul Bucureti, din diferite domenii ale sectorului industrial i a parcurs urmtoarele etape: Etapa 1. A fost instrumentat cercetarea tiinific, iar ca instrument de cercetare a fost folosit chestionarul. Principala metod de transmitere a chestionarului a fost contactul direct, prin efectuarea de vizite n cadrul departamentelor de organizare, iar n cadrul interviului, discuiile au avut loc cu managerii i cadrele de conducere cum ar fi: efi de departamente, angajaii pe diferite funcii de executare din organizaiile supuse cercetrii. Cercetarea a fost proiectat, condus i analizat de ctre autoare, iar chestionarele au fost distribuite personal. Completarea acestui chestionar s-a fcut de ctre aceste persoanele intervievate. Chestionarul este anexat ca model la aceast lucrare (Anexa 1). Analiza chestionarului a furnizat informaii necesare efecturii cercetrii. Interviul a durat aproximativ 30 de minute. Dup colectarea chestionarului s-a efectuat validarea acestora. Pentru a facilita prelucrarea i interpretarea datelor s-a apelat la programul de calcul tabelar Excel ct si a programului SPSS. Metodele de cercetare, sursele de date i informaii folosite: - studiul literaturii de specialitate naionale i internaionale, - analiza surselor statistice: - cercetarea direct: informaii obinute direct de la persoanele chestionare. - dup gradul de acoperire a colectivitii studiate: cercetarea tiinific cuprinde toate organizaiile mari existente la nivelul municipiului Trgovite, - dup locul de realizare al cercetrii: la sediul organizaiilor supuse cercetrii, - dup modul de preluare al informaiilor de la purttori: cercetarea direct, care antreneaz chestionarul scris.

Cadrul epistemologic
Epistemologia trateaz natura cunoaterii umane. n cultura organizaional cercetarea poate fi difereniat pe baza diferenelor epistemologice i a ipotezelor (Eriksson 10

care, Kovalainen, 2008; Martin, 2002). Aceste ipoteze sunt strns legate ontologic, ipotezele cu privire la natura de cultura organizaional. n acest tip de cercetare, numit uneori "tiina normal", scopul este de a generaliza concluziile obinute de la un numr relativ mic de cazuri (Martin, 2002). Demersul tiinific a fost realizat n trei faze: 1. stadiul epistemologic - epistemologia este studiul cunoaterii de tip tiinific. Cercetarea cunoaterii tiinifice se face preponderent inductiv, deoarece fr contribuiile oamenilor ce produc tiin obiectul epistemologiei nu se dezvolt. Astfel, prin studiul efectuat, teza de doctorat se dorete a fi o continuare a dezvoltrii tiinifice n domeniul CO i implicit al studiului privind schimbarea culturii organizaionale, prin rspuns la ntrebri, precum: cum a aprut conceptul de CO?, cum s-a schimbat CO ? i care este aportul lor la atingerea obiectivelor i obinerea avantajului competitiv? 2. stadiul metodologic - prin metodologia cercetrii nelegem existena unei discipline n care se dezvolt modalitile de realizare a cunoaterii tiinifice i privete ansamblul elementelor care intervin n cercetarea vieii sociale. Scopul fundamental al metodologiei este acela de a ne ajuta s nelegem, n termeni ct mai largi posibili, nu att produsele tiinei, ct procesul de cunoatere nsui. Metodologia cercetrii tiinifice cuprinde, deopotriv, definirea adecvat a domeniului studiat, o serie de principii i reguli de desfurare a investigaiilor, instrumentarul de lucru pentru culegerea i interpretarea datelor, precum i strategii de construcie sau reconstrucie teoretic. Studiul acestor metode duce la construirea de noi cunotine i la dezvoltarea cunoaterii tiinifice, prin aportul valoric al cunotinelor, necesar studiului i practicienilor. 3. stadiul paradigmatic paradigma reprezint un model de practic tiinific, ce red soluia concret a unor probleme exemplare pentru o anumit disciplin. Pentru a finaliza o problem i a gsi o rezolvare, se propune parcurgerea ctorva stadii necesarii bunului mers al desfurrii unei cercetri: 1 alegerea problemei ce trebuie rezolvat; 2 investigarea a ceea ce se exista deja i care ar putea fi relevant pentru domeniul cruia i aparine tema de cercetare; 3 stabilirea metodologiei activitii de cercetare tiinific; 4 culegerea i prelucrarea datelor rezultate din cercetrile ntreprinse; 5 analiza i interpretarea datelor rezultate din cercetare efectuat; 6 prezentarea concluziilor i a recomandrilor; 7 prezentarea (redactarea) general a unei lucrri tiinifice. 11

Aria de cercetare
Aria de cercetare este alctuit din marile organizaii din municipiul Trgovite ct i municipiul Bucureti. Culegerea datelor i informaiilor Culegerea datelor s-a efectuat pe o perioad de un an de zile, n perioada septembrie 2010 - septembrie 2011, de la 5 persoane de legtur din cadrul organizaiilor analizate. Respondenii au avut vrsta cuprins ntre 36 i 57 de ani. Organizaiile analizate aparin domeniului industrial din sectorul privat intern i extern. Chestionarul a fost prezentat fiecrei persoane spre completare. ntrebrile au fost structurate, fiind uor de parcurs, efectundu-se n paralel i discuii pe marginea ntrebrilor, crendu-se astfel posibilitatea obinerii unui volum mai mare i relevant de informaii. ntrevederile au fost doar notate, nu i nregistrate, punndu-se la dispoziia autoarei.

CERCETRI PRIVIND ANALIZA SCHIMBRII CULTURII ORGANIZAIONALE LA NIVEL MICROECONOMIC Necesitatea schimbrii culturii organizaionale
Organizaiile se identific prin intermediul unor convingeri, valori i practici specifice care le difereniaz de alte organizaii i care adesea afecteaz succesul sau eecul unei organizaii. Noiunea de cultur organizaional apare la nceputul anilor 1980 cnd cercettorii din domeniul managementului se preocup de descrierea sistemelor de convingeri ale organizaiei pe care le numesc culturi organizaionale sau culturi corporatiste. Interesul pentru culturile organizaionale au fost stimulate de apariia crii lui William Ouchi -Theory Z: How American Business Can Meet the Japanese Challenge. Ouchi considera cultura organizaional ca un element esenial i determinant pentru eficiena organizaional. n 1982 apar alte dou lucrri de mare valoare: Terrance Deal i Allan Kennedy Corporate Cultures: The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life i Thomas Peters i Robert Waterman - In Search of Excellence, ce susin ideea dup care companiile performante tind s aib culturi organizaionale puternic conturate.

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O cultur organizaional este definit drept ansamblul comun de principii, valori i convingeri care orienteaz aciunile membrilor si. Exist mai multe caracteristici ale culturii organizaionale care au fost identificate de cercettori. Spre exemplu, un studiu de cercetare realizat de J. A. Chatman si K. A. Jehn n 1994 identific apte caracteristici primare care definesc cultura unei organizaii: inovaia, stabilitatea, orientarea spre oameni i orientarea spre rezultate, orientarea spre detalii, orientarea spre echip i indolena sau nepsarea. Convingerile organizaionale tind s influeneze normele de munc, practicile comunicaionale i orientrile filosofice ale angajailor. Organizaiile folosesc procesul de socializare pentru adaptarea noilor angajai la cultura organizaiei.. Valorile culturii organizaionale sunt exprimate prin intermediul declaraiilor privind misiunea organizaiei, sau convingerile organizaionale i ntr-o msur mai mic prin sloganuri, simboluri sau campanii de publicitate. Alte elemente ale culturii organizaionale se manifest tacit prin simboluri i comportament simbolic cum ar fi: protocoalele edinelor, modul n care se salut angajaii, alocarea i folosirea spaiului i simboluri ale statusului. Principalele dimensiuni ale culturii organizaionale (John P. Meyer & all, 2012) au fost evideniate prin cercetrile lui Hofstede (2001), Schwartz (2006) i studiul internaional GLOBE (Javidan House & Dorfman, 2004). Cele mai importante dimensiuni ale culturii organizaionale dup Hofstede sunt: distana fa de putere, evitarea incertitudinii, individualismul versus colectivism, masculinitate versus feminitate i orientarea pe termen lung versus orientarea pe termen scurt. Conform teoriei dezvoltate de Schwartz cultura organizaional se concretizeaz prin: armonie, integrare social, ierarhie, miestrie, autonomie afectiv, autonomie intelectual i egalitarism. Studiul internaional asupra culturii organizaionale GLOBE (Global Organizational and Behavioral Effectiveness) consider ca fiind eseniale pentru cultura organizaiei urmtoarele dimensiuni: dorina de afirmare, colectivismul instituional, colectivismul grupurilor de apartenen, orientarea spre viitor, egalitatea dintre sexe, orientarea umanist, orientarea spre performan, distana fa de putere i evitarea incertitudinii. De interes special pentru studiul nostru aplicativ este inovaia sau deschiderea fa de schimbare n cadrul organizaiilor din Romnia.

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Studiul practic-aplicativ realizat i propune s exploreze gradul de prezen al schimbrii organizaionale la unele firme din Romnia. Pe baza rezultatelor studiului de caz am evideniat direciile de aciune ce se impun pentru remodelarea aspectelor deficitare ale culturilor organizaionale din firmele participante la studiu.

Ipotezele i metodele cercetrii


Am investigat un eantion de 169 angajai de la patru firme din municipiul Trgovite i din municipiul Bucureti. n mod specific ne-am propus s testm urmtoarele ipoteze de lucru: H1. Dinamismul culturii organizaionale difer n funcie de firma investigat. H2. Prezena spiritului inovativ se difereniaz n funcie de domeniul de activitate n care activeaz firmele participante la studiu. H3. Exist domenii ale schimbrii culturii organizaionale care sunt mai pregnante, n timp ce alte aspecte ale culturii firmelor investigate sunt caracterizate printr-un grad marcat de inerie. Componena eantionului investigat este redat prin diagramele de structur Figur 5.1 i Figur 5.2.
Distribuia eantionului n funcie de firmele participante la studiu

UPET; 9; 5% BCR; 17; 10% Mechel; 28; 17%

Dedeman; 54; 32%

Erdemir; 61; 36%

Figur 5.1 - Diagrama de structur a eantionului investigat n funcie de firmele participante la studiu

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Figur 5.2 - Diagrama de structur a eantionului investigat n funcie de domeniile de activitate Pe acest eantion am aplicat chestionarul de cultur organizaional, elaborat de autoare, centrat pe evidenierea schimbrii organizaionale. Instrumentul este compus din 18 itemi i se poate vedea n anexa nr. 2. Datele culese au fost prelucrate succesiv cu ajutorul pachetelor statistice Excel 2003, Excel 2007 i SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) versiunea 20. 0

Rezultatele cercetrii
Tabel 5.1 - Rezultate ale prelucrrii statistice descriptive a datelor cantitative ale studiului de caz Variabile 1. Schimbarea ca provocare i oportunitate 2. Eficiena organizaional 3. Adecvarea recompenselor 4. Descoperirea a noi talente de top 3,18 2,38 2,59 3 2 3 0,81 0,93 1,08 3,72N 3,22N 2,79N Media Mediana 2,96 3 Abaterea standard 0,87 Testul de normalitate q 3,44N

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Variabile 5. Deschiderea organizaiei la nou 6. Receptivitatea conducerii la sugestiile angajailor 7. Revizuirea i evaluarea planului strategic 8. Implicarea angajailor n analiza rezultatelor 9. Implicarea angajailor n aplicarea planului strategic 10. Finalizarea sugestiilor oferite de angajai n aplicarea planului strategic 11. Eficacitatea msurilor de remediere a deficienelor 12. Preocuparea pentru servicii adecvate clienilor 13. Valorificarea ideilor noi n aplicarea planului strategic 14. Evaluarea permanent a angajailor 15. Msuri luate n urma evalurilor 16. Accesibilitatea managerilor de top 17. Spiritul novator al managerilor de top 18. Adaptarea planului strategic 19. Scorurile totale la chestionarul de cultur organizaional

Media Mediana 2,99 2,56 2,89 2,84 2,66 2,51 3 3 3 3 3 2

Abaterea standard 0,94 0,94 0,89 0,93 0,93 0,88

Testul de normalitate q 3,17N 3,18N 3,37N 3,21N 3,20N 3,40N

2,83 2,98 2,65 3,11 2,82 2,79 2,76 2,71 50,21

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 52

0,85 0,90 0,87 1,00 0,92 0,99 0,97 0,86 10,28

3,53N 3,32N 3,43N 3,00N 3,28N 3,02N 3,08N 3,48N 4,47N

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Cele mai ridicate scoruri au fost nregistrate la urmtoarele aspecte ale dinamismului culturii organizaionale din firmele investigate: eficiena organizaional, evaluarea permanent a angajailor, deschiderea organizaiei la nou, preocuparea pentru servicii adecvate clienilor i perceperea schimbrii ca provocare i oportunitate. Cele mai mici scoruri se refer la urmtoarele aspecte: adecvarea recompenselor, finalizarea sugestiilor oferite de angajai n aplicarea planului strategic, receptivitatea conducerii la sugestiile angajailor, valorificarea ideilor noi n aplicarea panului strategic i implicarea angajailor n aplicarea planului strategic. Aceste aspecte deficitare constituie motive temeinice de preocupare a managementului organizaiilor investigate pentru remediere i ameliorare rapid. Dinamismul culturii organizaionale privit prin prisma schimbrii ca provocare i oportunitate este mai pronunat la BCR i cel mai redus la UPET, dup cum se vede n Figur 5.3.
Schimbarea ca provocare i oportunitate n funcie de unitate
4 3,5 3 2,5 2 1,5 1 0,5 0 BCR Erdemir Dedeman Mechel UPET 2 3,76 3,15 2,83 2,64

Figur 5.3 - Diagrama de comparaie a scorurilor medii la itemul schimbrii a chestionarului de cultur organizaional n funcie de firmele participante la studiu (p = 0,0000002 ) n schimb eficiena organizaional este apreciat ca fiind cea mai nalt la Dedeman i Mechel, iar UPET se afl din nou pe ultimul loc, aa cum se observ n Figur 5.4.

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Eficiena organizaional n funcie de unitate


4 3,5 3 2,5 2 1,5 1 0,5 0 BCR Erdemir Dedeman Mechel UPET 1,56 3 3,1 3,52 3,36

Figur 5.4 - Diagrama de comparaie a scorurilor medii la itemul eficienei organizaionale a chestionarului de cultur organizaional n funcie de firmele participante la studiu (p = 0,00005) n privina scorurilor totale la chestionarul de schimbare organizaional, putem remarca pe ultimul loc UPET, iar pe primele dou locuri cu scoruri apropiate, BCR i Dedeman. Diferenele extrem de puternic semnificative statistic sunt prezentate n Figur 5.5.
Scorurile totale la chestionarul de cultur organizaional n funcie de unitate UPET Mechel Dedeman 30,33 47,54 55,94

Erdemir BCR 0 10 20 30 40

47,57

56,41 50 60

Figur 5.5 - Diagrama de comparaie a scorurilor medii totale la chestionarul de cultur organizaional n funcie de firmele participante la studiu (p = 0,0000001) Rezultate n funcie de domeniul de activitate Schimbarea ca provocare i oportunitate, sau lipsa fricii de schimbare est mai pronunat n domeniul Bancar i mai redus n servicii, aa cum se observ n Figur 5.6.

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Schimbarea ca provocare i oportunitate n funcie de domeniul de activitate

4 3,78 3 2 1 0 Bancar Producie Servicii 2,89 2,83

Figur 5.6 - Diagrama de comparaie a scorurilor medii la itemul ce privete schimbarea ca provocare i oportunitate a chestionarului de cultur organizaional n funcie de domeniul de activitate al firmelor participante la studiu (p = 0,000009) Acceptarea schimbrii ca un element pozitiv n cadrul firmei se asociaz puternic i direct proporional cu scorurile totale la chestionarul de schimbare organizaional. Acest lucru este vizibil n diagrama de dispersie cu dreapta i ecuaia de regresie din Figur 5.7.
Relaia dintre schimbare ca oportunitate i scorul total la chestionarul de cultur organiza ional 80 Scoruri totale chestionar 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 Scoruri schimbare

y = 5,1827x + 34,849 2 R = 0,1932

Figur 5.7 - Diagrama de dispersie a relaiei de asociere statistic pozitiv dintre scorurile individuale la itemii schimbrii ca oportunitate i scorurile totale la chestionarul de cultur organizaional n cadrul firmelor participante la studiu ( r = 0,44, p = 0,0000002).

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Cea mai puternic asociere a studiului nostru a fost evideniat de relaia dintre promptitudinea msurilor luate n urma evalurilor i scorurile totale la chestionarul de cultur organizaional, cum se observ n diagrama din Figur 5.8.
Relaia dintre msurile luate n urma evalurilor i scorurile totale la chestionar 80 Scoruri totale chestionar 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 Scoruri msurile luate n urma evalurilor

y = 8,5331x + 26,128 2 R = 0,5767

Figur 5.8 - Diagrama de dispersie a relaiei de asociere statistic pozitiv dintre scorurile individuale la itemii despre msurile luate n urma evalurilor i scorurile totale la chestionarul de cultur organizaional n cadrul firmelor participante la studiu ( r = 0,80, p = 0,000000001) Democraia i dinamismul merg mn n mn la firmele studiate. Cu alte cuvinte, accesibilitate i spiritul de inovaie sunt puternic congruente n firmele din Romnia participante la studiul nostru, lucru vizibil n diagrama din Figur 5.9.
Relaia dintre accesibilitatea managerilor de top i spiritul novator al managerilor de top Scoruri spirit novator manageri 4,5 4 3,5 3 2,5 2 1,5 1 0,5 0 0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 Scoruri accesibilitatea managerilor de top

y = 0,6028x + 1,0774 2 R = 0,38

Figur 5.9 - Diagrama de dispersie a relaiei de asociere statistic pozitiv dintre scorurile individuale la itemii accesibilitii managerilor de top i spiritul novator al managerilor de top n cadrul firmelor participante la studiu ( r = 0,62, p = 0,00000009)

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Deosebit de puternic este asocierea dintre atitudinea democratic a managerilor de vrf i scorurile totale la chestionar, dup cum reiese din Figur 5.10.
Rela ia dintre accesibilitatea managerilor de top i scorurile totale la chestionar 80 Scoruri totale chestionar 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 Scoruri accesibilitatea managerilor de top

y = 6,8037x + 31,251 R = 0,4335


2

Figur 5.10 - Diagrama de dispersie a relaiei de asociere statistic pozitiv dintre scorurile individuale la itemii accesibilitii managerilor de top i scorurile totale la chestionarul de cultur organizaional n cadrul firmelor participante la studiu ( r = 0,66, p = 0,00000003) Chiar mai puternic este relaia dintre scorurile totale la chestionar i spiritul novator al managerilor de top. Aceasta deoarece, spiritul novator poate fi considerat chintesena schimbrii din cultura organizaional, aa cum se indic n Figur 5.11.
Rela ia dintre spiritul novator al managerilor de top i scorurile totale chestionar 80 Scoruri totale chestionar 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 Scoruri spiritul novator al managerilor de top

y = 7,4864x + 29,57 2 R = 0,5019

Figur 5.11 - Diagrama de dispersie a relaiei de asociere statistic pozitiv dintre scorurile individuale la itemii spiritului novator al managerilor de top i scorurile totale la chestionarul de cultur organizaional n cadrul firmelor participante la studiu ( r = 0,71, p = 0,000000009).

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CONTRIBUII PROPRII
n procesul transformrilor care au loc n societatea contemporan, cultura organizaional reprezint o expresie major de manifestare a factorului uman. Fiind unul dintre factorii de baz care determin performana i succesul activitii organizaiei, cultura reprezint elementul esenial i indispensabil pentru progresul organizaional. Majoritatea cercetrilor sunt orientate asupra capacitii acestui fenomen organizaional de a participa substanial la evoluia competitiv a firmei prin mobilizarea resurselor acesteia i, n special, a resursei umane. Succesul acestor schimbri ine n mare msur de implicarea managerilor de pe diferitele nivele ierarhice, dar n special a managementului de vrf, ct i de viteza i gradul de internalizare a noilor valori i comportamente n organizaie. Investigarea culturii organizaionale efectuate n cadrul prezentei teme de cercetare are ca obiectiv: identificarea influenelor acesteia asupra performanelor angajailor. identificarea i analizarea tipului de cultur organizaional i a congruenei cu celelalte componente organizaionale. Demersul teoretico-tiinific reprezint rezultatul unei analize extinse de opinii ale diverilor specialiti n management, ct i a unui material factologic bogat studiat n cadrul cercetrilor efectuate. Acesta este centrat pe identificarea rspunsului la ntrebarea: Cum trebuie s acioneze managerii unei organizaii pentru a crea o cultura organizaional adaptiv i evolutiv n contextul schimbrilor care marcheaz mediul, genernd dinamism, schimbare, adaptare? Conform scopului propus s-au stabilit ca obiective ale cercetrii urmtoarele aspecte: analiza i descrierea modelului de cultur organizaional specific organizaiei studiate; identificarea punctelor forte n cadrul tipului culturii organizaionale dominante; descrierea legturilor dintre tipul culturii organizaionale i factorii care sunt reprezentativi pentru satisfacia n munc a participanilor (angajailor); 22

studiul factorilor care mpiedic organizaia s lucreze la nivelul optim dorit; investigarea tipului de cultur organizaional n ambele variante: varianta real i varianta ideal din perspectiva percepiei subiecilor investigai; studiul percepiei i atitudinilor subiecilor n raport cu influena culturii organizaionale asupra satisfaciei n munc; reliefarea sistemului de valori al organizaiei economice ca esen a culturii organizaionale. relevarea principalelor tendine n teoria managementului privitor la conceperea organizaiei ca fenomen sociocultural. determinarea factorilor-cheie i a mecanismelor de formare a culturii organizaionale. evidenierea rolului culturii naionale n formarea culturii organizaionale investigarea factorilor motivaionali individuali i a rolului acestora n binomul cultur organizaional satisfacie n munc. Contribuiile proprii ale autoarei pot fi enumerate dup cum urmeaz: selectarea temei de cercetare; proiectarea studiului de cercetare; elaborarea instrumentului de evaluare; analiza complex a datelor i anume: trecerea de la statistica descriptiv ce se refer la valorile medii ale culturii organizaionale n cele cinci organizaii la statistica inferenial ce pune n lumin asocierile dintre componentele culturii organizaionale, sugernd prezena posibil a unor relaii cauzale dintre acestea. Statistica inferenial sau deductiv folosit ca metod de analiz avansat a datelor cercetrii folosete dreapta i ecuaia de regresie pentru punerea n lumin a dependenei dintre variabilele culturii organizaionale cu performana organizaiilor participante la studiu ; n procesul de validare a culturii organizaionale am evaluat gradul de precizie al msurrii dimensiunilor culturii organizaionale , prin calcularea nivelului de fidelitate intern Cronbach a chestionarului, cu ajutorul unuia din cele mai avansate pachete statistice de analiz a datelor brute ale cercetrii, anume SPSS versiunea 20. formularea unor concluzii pertinente n legtura cu cultura organizaional, prezentate n cele patru organizaii investigate. n fapt, studiul de fa este o diagnoz a culturii organizaionale din cele patru organizaii studiate;

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formularea unor propuneri pentru ameliorarea culturii organizaionale n cele patru organizaii investigate; n prezentarea datelor am folosit doar diagramele de comparaie cu privire la diferenele dintre medii i corelaiile puternic semnificative statistic. Au fost analizate n manier sintetic i critic lucrrile din literatura internaional ct

i cea naional care se ncadreaz n domeniul managementului organizaional, managementului general, managementului resurselor umane, comunicrii, comunicrii de grup, sociologiei i psihosociologiei. Partea aplicativ a studiului s-a desfurat prin aplicarea unui chestionar la anumite organizaii cu proprietate privat i public, din domeniile produciei i serviciilor la nivel macroeconomic. Chestionarul conceput i aplicat de autoare este original, nu s-a folosit pn n prezent n literatura de specialitate, am ncercat s gsesc itemi cei mai relevani. Eantionul este unul cu grad rezonabil de reprezentativitate, deoarece a fost aplicat pe 169 de participani din patru organizaii cu profil diferit. Principalele metode de cercetare folosite n lucrare sunt: metoda analitic i comparativ, deducia, inducia, ancheta pe baz de chestionare i inventare de specialitate. Contribuii n plan conceptual i teoretic: 1. cercetarea manierei de abordare a culturii i redarea sintetic a ideilor eseniale; 2. definirea noiunii de cultur ntr-o perspectiv funcionalist-instrumentalist; 3. explicarea relaiei dintre management i cultur - valorizarea diferenelor culturale organizaionale pornind de la conceptul de cultur organizaional cldit; 4 analiz i sistematizarea celor mai importante cercetri actuale cu privire la specificul i rolul culturii organizaionale n viaa i performana firmelor; 5. relevarea celor mai importante implicaii ale culturii organizaionale n procesele manageriale; 6. clasificarea i gruparea valorilor pe orientri i dimensiuni culturale; 7. adaptarea coninutului dimensiunilor culturale la specificul local; 8. sistematizarea informaiilor legate de metodologia de cercetare specific cercetrii interculturale 9. oferirea de explicaii i soluii riguroase cu privire la fenomenele care pot s apar;

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Contribuii n plan practic: - gsirea unor ci de rezolvare a problemelor legate de structura intim a unei cercetri: - construirea dimensiunilor culturale? - realizarea echivalenei funcionale interioare? - msurarea diferenele culturale? - fundamentarea ipotezele statistice? - culegerea de informaii statistice cu privire la factorii determinani - analiza factorilor determinani pentru fundamentarea ipotezelor statistice; - construirea unui instrument de culegere a datelor; - realizarea unui diagnostic cultural organizaional; - furnizarea de recomandri de valorizare a diferenelor culturale organizaionale; Alte contribuii - sistematizarea unui vast material din domeniul cercetrilor interculturale; analiz i interpretare calitativ consistent; explicaii clare, detaliate; parcurs coerent, logic; analize sofisticate ale datelor culese prin ancheta pe baz de chestionar Direcii viitoare de cercetare: O alt cercetare neexplorat explicit n prezenta contribuie i propus pentru viitor este legtura dintre cultura organizaional i satisfacia salariailor.

LIMITELE STUDIULUI
n mod firesc, structura eantionului dup firme i domenii, era de dorit s fie una echilibrat, lucru datorat ratelor de rspuns la chestionare care au fost foarte reduse la BCR i UPET. Dac am fi avut o distribuie echilibrat pe firme i domenii de activitate, rezultatele studiului ar putut fi mai reprezentative pentru activitatea economic din zona investigat, cu posibiliti mai solide de generalizare chiar i la nivelul ntregii ri. Totui cu caracter scolastic n mod intenionat au fost alese domenii disjuncte de reprezentare astfel nct rezultatele s poat diferi in proporii generoase. Literatura de specialitate a investigat relaia dintre cultura organizaional i performana organizaiilor (Denison, 1990,1995, 2004, Gordon, 1985, 1992, Kotter, 1992, Lim, 1995, Marcoulides, 1993, Ogbonna, 200 Petty 1995 i Wilderom, 2000).

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Aceast relaie pare a fi una deosebit de promitoare i poate constitui obiectul unor cercetri ulterioare. Cunoscnd profitabilitate crescut n vnzri i n domeniul bancar, se pare c studiul nostru confirm indirect influena pozitiv a culturii organizaionale dinamice asupra performanelor financiare a firmelor BCR i Dedeman, n comparaie cu UPET, Mechel i Erdemir. O alt asociere neexplorat explicit de studiul nostru este aceea dintre cultura organizaional i satisfacia salariailor. Parial i indirect, studiul de fa evalueaz o dimensiune a satisfaciei angajailor prin adecvarea recompenselor la cerinele salariailor i receptivitatea conducerii la sugestiile angajailor. O abordare extins a acestor dou noi direcii de cercetare adiacente temei noastre nu a constituit o preocupare expres a tezei de fa. Ea ar reclama folosirea unor chestionare specializate pentru evaluarea performanei economice i pentru satisfacia angajailor, lucru posibil n faze ulterioare ale cercetrii.

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CONCLUZIILE STUDIULUI
Studiul de fa a reuit verificarea ipotezelor majore de lucru propuse. n acest sens, dinamismul i flexibilitatea culturii organizaionale sunt diferite n funcie de organizaiile studiate. Astfel, cel mai accentuat dinamism este prezent la BCR, urmat de Dedeman, iar nivelul de jos al flexibilitii organizaionale este prezent la UPET i Mechel. n funcie de domeniul de activitate al firmelor participante la studiu, cele mai predispuse la schimbare sunt, n opinia participanilor la studiu, cele din domeniul bancar (BCR), urmate de firmele ce activeaz n domeniul serviciilor (Dedeman), iar pe ultimul loc sunt cele a cror obiect principal de activitate este producia metalurgic i de utilaje petroliere (Erdemir, Mechel i UPET). Dei, n mod global, schimbarea, dinamismul, flexibilitatea i inovaia organizaional sunt mai puternice n domeniul bancar la BCR Bucureti, exist cteva situaii notabile unde firma Dedeman din domeniul serviciilor, are un spirit novator mai accentuat. Ne referim cu deosebire la eficiena organizaional, deschiderea organizaiei la nou, receptivitatea conducerii la sugestiile angajailor, revizuirea i evaluarea planului strategic, implicarea angajailor n analiza rezultatelor firmei, implicarea angajailor n aplicarea planului strategic, evaluarea permanent a angajailor, msurile luate n urma evalurilor, spiritul novator al managerilor de top i adaptarea planului strategic la cerinele mediului economic i social. Firma BCR, cea mai mare banc din Romnia, acum cu management austriac, exceleaz la urmtoarele aspecte ale schimbrii culturii organizaionale: considerarea schimbrii ca provocare i oportunitate, adecvarea recompenselor la cerinele salariailor (se tie c n domeniul intermedierilor financiare sunt cele mai ridicate salarii medii pe economie, conform datelor Institutului Naional de Statistic), descoperirea de noi talente de top, deschiderea firmei la nou, finalizarea sugestiilor oferite de angajai n aplicarea planului strategic, eficacitatea msurilor de remediere a deficienelor, preocuparea serioas pentru oferirea de servicii adecvate cerinelor clienilor, valorificarea ideilor noi n aplicarea planului strategic, accesibilitatea managerilor de top n funcie de unitate i scorurile totale la chestionarul de cultur organizaional centrat pe schimbare, dinamism i flexibilitate. Interesant este i faptul c toate scorurile raportate de angajaii de la BCR au peste 50 de puncte, ceea ce denot prezena unui climat favorabil schimbrii foarte puternic, n timp ce toate scorurile angajailor de la UPET sunt sub 41 de puncte. Scorurile raportate de angajaii 27

de la UPET semnific prezena unei culturi organizaionale anchilozate, bazate pe rutin i inerie. La firmele Erdemir i Mechel, aproximativ jumtate din scoruri sunt sub 50 de puncte i jumtate peste 50 de puncte, cu o situaie uor mai favorabil schimbrii la Erdemir, fa de Mechel. Aceste valori orientative de interpretare au fost stabilite n condiiile n care valoarea medie a scorurilor la chestionarul de cultur organizaional a fost de 50,21, cu o abatere standard de 10,28, cu o mrime a intervalului de dispersie de 46 de puncte, cu valoarea minim de 26 puncte i valoarea maxim de 72 de puncte. Aceste date par a fi semnificative dac avem n vedere c scorurile teoretice minime pot fi de 18 puncte, iar scorurile maxime de 72 de punte. De remarcat este i faptul c un singur subiect a acordat scorul maxim de 72 de punte, considernd c exist un climat organizaional perfect pentru dinamismul firmei n care lucreaz, n spe Dedeman i nu BCR. Cele mai ridicate valori au fost raportate de participanii la studiu la: eficiena organizaional, evaluarea permanent a angajailor, deschiderea organizaiei la nou, preocuparea pentru servicii adecvate clienilor i perceperea schimbrii ca provocare i oportunitate. Cele mai mici scoruri se refer la urmtoarele aspecte: adecvarea recompenselor, finalizarea sugestiilor oferite de angajai n aplicarea planului strategic, receptivitatea conducerii la sugestiile angajailor, valorificarea ideilor noi n aplicarea panului strategic i implicarea angajailor n aplicarea planului strategic. Aceste aspecte deficitare constituie motive temeinice de preocupare a managementului organizaiilor investigate pentru remediere i ameliorare rapid. Toate corelaiile semnificative statistic raportate n analiza statistic inferenial sunt pozitive, ceea ce arat c instrumentul utilizat n cadrul studiului de caz are o puternic armonie i consisten intern. Practic, nu exist nicio dimensiune a culturii organizaionale centrat pe schimbare dintre cel 18 care s fie n contradicie cu celelalte. Corelaia dintre aceste dimensiuni ale culturii organizaionale i scorurile totale sunt foarte puternice, aproape toate cu un nivel de semnificaie statistic mai mic dect 0,001. nelesul nivelului de semnificaie de p = 0,001 este acela c exist doar o ans de 1 la mie s greim dac afirmm c o diferen sau o corelaie (r - care este coeficientul de corelaie linear Pearson) este real i nu datorat ntmplrii. De aceea, n prezentarea datelor am folosit doar diferenele dintre medii i corelaiile puternic semnificative statistic.

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n analiza datelor brute cu ajutorul pachetului statistic SPSS, nivelul de fidelitate intern a datelor brute, exprimat prin celebrul Cronbach (Cronbach, 1951, ) este de 0,93, unul foarte ridicat, mult peste pragul minim de 0,70 acceptat de majoritatea specialitilor n statistica aplicat.

PROPUNERI PRACTICE PENTRU AMELIORAREA SITUAIEI DIN UNITILE INVESTIGATE


Unitatea economic cu cea mai fragil cultur organizaional deschis la schimbare care este UPET, aceasta merit o atenie special. Practic aceast firm productoare de utilaj petrolier, care odat era mndria industriei socialiste romneti, trebuie s-i amelioreze n ansamblu cultura organizaional care este mai degrab una rigid i inerial. O atenie deosebit ar trebui s fie acordat de managementul UPET pentru mbuntirea urmtoarelor aspecte: adecvarea recompenselor la cerinele salariailor (un sistem salarial stimulativ i echitabil), descoperirea de noi talente de top, deschiderea organizaiei la nou, msuri mai eficiente pentru remedierea deficienelor, msuri mai prompte iniiate n urma evalurilor i stimularea spiritului novator al managerilor de top. Chiar dac se prezint bine la parametrii culturii organizaionale dinamice i flexibile, fruntaele clasamentului, BCR, Dedeman i Erdemir, au i ele unele puncte vulnerabile: n cazul BCR, se pot ameliora: eficiena organizaional, implicarea angajailor n analiza rezultatelor activitii firmei, implicarea angajailor n aplicarea planului strategic, evaluarea salariailor i msurile ntreprinse n urma evalurilor. n ceea ce privete firma Dedeman ar fi recomandabil s se fac eforturi de ameliorare a activitii n domeniile: considerarea schimbrii ca provocare i oportunitate, adecvarea recompenselor la cerinele angajailor (salarii mai bune i echitabile), descoperirea a noi talente de top, msuri mai potrivite de remediere a deficienelor constatate, creterea preocuprilor pentru furnizarea de servicii la nivelul cerinelor clienilor i o accesibilitate mai pronunat a managerilor de vrf fa de doleanele salariailor. n cazul firmelor Erdemir i Mechel se pot ameliora: receptivitatea conducerii la sugestiile angajailor, finalizarea sugestiilor oferite de angajai n aplicarea planului strategic, valorificarea ideilor noi n aplicarea panului strategic i implicarea angajailor n aplicarea planului strategic.

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BIBILIOGRAFIE SELECTIV
1. Abravanel, H., .a., La culture organisationelle: aspects thoriques, practiques et mthodologiques, Qubec, 1988 2. Abrudan, I., Resursa uman i clivajul dintre generaii, Revista de Management i Inginerie economic, Vol IV, nr.1, 2005 3. Ackerman, Anderson, Linda, S., The change leaders roadmap: how to navigate your organizations transformation, San Francisco, Jossey-Bass/Pfeeiffer, 2001 4. Adler, N. J., International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior, Boston, PWSKent, 1991 5. Albert, S. i Whetten, D.A., Organizational Identity, n L.L. Cummings i M.M. Staw (eds), Research in Organizational Behavior, vol 7, Greenwich, Coon., JAI Press, pp. 263-266, 1985 6. Argyris, C., Personality and Organization: The conflict Between the System and the Individual, New York, Harper &Row, 1957 7. Armstrong, M., Managementul resurselor umane, Manual de practic, Bucureti, Ed.Codecs, 2003 8. Baker, W.E. i Faulkner, R.R., Interorganizational Networks, n Joel A. C. Baum (ed.), Companion to Organizations, Oxford, Blackwell Publishers Ltd., pp.520-540, 2002 9. Baum, J.A.C. i Rao H., Evolutionary dynamics of organizational populations and communities, n M.S. Poole i A. Van de Ven (eds.), Handbook of Organizational Change and Development, New York, Oxford University Press, 2001 10. Bleanu, C., Managementul mbuntirii continue, Bucureti, Ed. Expert, 1996 11. Beck, B.E.F., Moore, L.F., Linking the host culture to organizational variables, Beverly Hills, 1985 12. Bennis, W.G. i Nanus, B., Leaders, New York, Harper &Row, 1985 13. Bertalanffy, L. von, General Systems Theory: Foundations, Development, Applications (editie revzut), New York, George Braziller, 1968 14. Borza, A., Managementul resurselor umane n context european, Cluj-Napoca, Ed. Dacia, 1999 15. Burdu, E., .a., Managementul schimbrii organizaionale, Bucureti, Ed. Economic, 2000 16. Cprrescu, G., Ganovici, R., Cultura organizaiei-o teorie sau un instrument al managementului?, n Tribuna economic, nr. 46, 1994 17. Ctureanu, V., .a., Calitatea serviciilor, Bucureti, Ed Cimer*Es, 2002 18. Chatterjee, S., .a., Cultural differences and shareholder value in related mergers: linking equity and human capital, Strategic management Journal 13, 1992 19. Clark, T.A.R., Mallory, G.R., The cultural relativity of human resource management: is there an universal model? in T.A.R. Clark, Oxford: Blackwell, European Human Resource Management Publishing House,1996 30

20. Clarke, L., Managementul schimbrii, Bucureti, Ed. Teora, 2002 21. Cooke, R.A., Lafferty, Organizational Culture Inventory, Human Synergistics, MI, Playmouth, 1987 22. Deal, T.E., Kennedy, A.A., Corporate Cultures: The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life, Reading, MA: Addison Wesley, 1982 23. Denison, D., Corporate culture and organizational effectiveness, New, York, Wiley, 1990 24. Earley, P.C., Singh, H., International and intercultural management research: whats next?, Academy of Management Journal, 1995 25. Edgerton R.B., Langness, L.L., Methods and Style in the Study of Culture, San Francisco, Chandler, Sharp, 1974 26. Fiol, C.M.&Lyles, M.A., Organizational learning, Academy of Management Review, 1985 27. Gagliardi, p., The creation and change of organizational cultures: a conceptual framework, Organization Studies, 1986 28. Handy, C., Understanding Organizations, ediia a IV-a, London, Penguin Books, 1993 29. Hannan, M.T. i Freeman, J., Structural inertia and orcanizational change, American Sociological Review, 49, pp.149-164,1984 30. Hatch, M.J., Physical barriers, task characteristics and interaction activity in research and development firms, Administrative Science Quarterly, 32, pp. 387399, 1987 31. Hesseelbein, F., Goldsmith, M., Beckhard, R., Organizaia viitorului, Bucureti, Ed. Teora, 2000 32. Hickson, D.J., Pugh, D.S., Management Worldwide: The Impact of Societal Culture on Organizations around the Globe, London , Penguin, 1995 33. Hofstede, G., Cultures Consequences: International Differences in Work Related Values, Beverly Hills, Sage, 1980 34. Huu, C.A., Cultur organizational i transfer de tehnologie, Bucureti, Ed. Economic, 1999 35. Ilie, L., Managementul firmei, Cluj-Napoca, Ed. Dacia, 2001 36. Ilie, L., .a., Managementul resurselor umane, Cluj-Napoca, Ed. Dacia, 2002 37. Ionescu, Gh., Cazan, E., Negrua, A., Managementul organizational, Bucureti, Ed, Economic, 2001 38. Ionescu, Gh. Gh., Toma A., Cultura organizational i managementul tranziiei, Bucureti, Ed Economic, 2001 39. Ionescu, Gh. Gh., Dimensiunile culturale ale managementului, Bucureti, Ed Economic, 1997 40. Ionescu, Gh. Gh., Dimensiunile culturale ale managementului, Bucureti, Ed Economic, 1996 41. Kotter, J.P., Heskett, J.L., Culture et performances, Les Editions Dorganisation, 1992 42. Martin, J., Deconstructing Organizational Taboos: The Suppression of Gender Conflict in Organizations, Organization Science, 1, pp. 339-359, 1990 31

43. Meek, V.L., Organizational culture: origins and weaknesses, Organization Studies, 1998 44. Mihai, A., Relaia dintre leadership i personalitate din perspectiva psihologiei organizaionale, n Revista de psihologie organizaional, vol. I, nr. 2, pp.61-71, 2001 45. Negandhi, A.R., Cross cultural management research: Trends and future directions, Journal of International Business Studies, 14(2), 1983 46. Predican, M., Scimbare organizational. Ce, cnd i cum schimbm, Timioara, Ed. Universitii de Vest, 2004 47. Purdea, D., Jaradat, M., Managementul resurselor umane-formarea i gestionarea resurselor umane, Cluj-Napoca, Ed. Risoprint, 2008 48. Purdea, D., Jaradat, M., Samochi, B., Managementul Resurselor Umane, ClujNapoca, Ed. Risoprint, 2003 49. Schein, E., The Role of the Founder in Creating Organizational Culture, Organizational Studies, 1983 50. Schein, E., Organizational Culture and Leadership, in The Managers Bookshelf A Mosaic of Contemporary Views, Duluth, Harper & Row Publishers, 1988 51. Schneider, S.C., Strategy formulation: the impact of national culture, Organization Studies, 1989 52. Stanciu, t., .a., Schimbare organizational i cultur, Rev. Militar de Management i Educaie, nr.3, 2006 53. State O., Cultura organizaiei i managementul,Ed. ASE, 2004 54. Thevenet, M., Audit de la culture dentreprise, Paris, Les ditions dorganisation, 1986 55. Toma, A., Cultura organizational-factorii determinani, n Buletinul Universitii Petrol-Gaze Ploieti, vol. XLVII-L, nr. 18, 1998 56. Toma, A., Schimbarea culturilor organizaionale-necesitate i etape, n Buletinul Universitii Petrol-Gaze Ploieti, vol. XLVII-L, nr. 18, 1998 57. Trompenaars, F., Riding the waves of culture: understanding cultural diversity in business, London, 1993 58. Vlad, D.V., Schimbare i dezvoltare organizaional, Cluj-Napoca, Ed. Risoprint, 2010 59. Vlsceanu, M., Organizaii i comportament organizaional, Ed. Polirom, 2003

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CURRICULUM VITAE

Informaii personale Nume / Prenume Adres(e) Telefon(oane) Fax(uri) E-mail(uri) Naionalitate(-ti) Data naterii Sex Locul de munc vizat / Domeniul ocupaional Experiena profesional ioanagoldbach@yahoo.com Roman 19.02.1979 feminin Universitatea Valahia din Trgovite Ministerul Educaiei, Cercetrii, Tineretului si Sportului GOLDBACH Ioana Raluca Str. Ing. Gib Constantin, Bl. 1, Sc.A, Etaj 2, Ap.8, Trgovite, Dmbovia Mobil: +40722887838

Perioada Funcia sau postul ocupat Activiti i responsabiliti principale Numele i adresa angajatorului Perioada Funcia sau postul ocupat Activiti i responsabiliti principale Numele i adresa angajatorului

2004-prezent ef birou Realizez raportul de activitate al centrului de multiplicare din cadrul Universitii Valahia, ncheierea contractelor de editare dac este cazul, realizarea programului editorial, planul operaional si strategic. Universitatea Valahia din Trgovite 2008-2009 Asistent universitar Cursuri, seminari, examene cu studenii, specializarea Managementul serviciilor publice. Universitatea Valahia din Trgovite

33

Perioada Funcia sau postul ocupat Tipul activitii sau sectorul de activitate Numele i adresa angajatorului Tipul activitii sau sectorul de activitate Perioada Funcia sau postul ocupat Activiti i responsabiliti principale Numele i adresa angajatorului Tipul activitii sau sectorul de activitate Perioada Funcia sau postul ocupat Activiti i responsabiliti principale Numele i adresa angajatorului Tipul activitii sau sectorul de activitate Perioada

2007-2009 Expert I Politici publice i proiecte comunitare Ministerul Educaiei, Cercetrii i Tineretului Implementarea sistemului strategic, realizarea proiectelor comunitare 2000-2003 Operator calculator Tehnoredactare Universitatea Valahia din Trgovite Tehnoredactare

1998-2000 Laborant Tehnoredactare Universitatea Valahia din Trgovite Tehnoredactare 1998-prezent Organizator al trgurilor de carte i rspunztor al oferte educaionale n domeniul academic.

Educaie i formare Perioada Calificarea / diploma obinut Disciplinele principale studiate / competene profesionale dobndite Numele i tipul instituiei de nvmnt / furnizorului de formare Nivelul n clasificarea naional sau internaional Perioada Calificarea / diploma obinut Disciplinele principale studiate / competene profesionale dobndite Numele i tipul instituiei de nvmnt / furnizorului de formare Nivelul n clasificarea naional sau internaional 2007-prezent Doctorat Management, managementul organizaional, managementul strategic, managementul proiectelor, cultura organizatoare, etc. Universitatea Valahia din Trgovite, coala Doctorala

naional

2008- 2011 Economist Management, managementul resurselor umane, managementul operaional, managementul produciei, managementului IMM, comunicarea in afaceri, management comparat. Universitatea Valahia din Trgovite, Facultatea de tiine Economice naional

34

Perioada Calificarea / diploma obinut Disciplinele principale studiate / competene profesionale dobndite

2009 Certificat privind Implementarea Sistemului de Managementul Calitii ISO 9001/2008 si SR IWA 2/2009. Managementul calitii, Implementarea sistemului de asigurare a calitii, Coordonarea activitii de elaborare a standardelor naionale; Crearea unui climat favorabil aplicrii standardelor naionale n economie; Reprezentarea intereselor economiei naionale n activitile de standardizare internaionale si europene. Implicarea managementului, orientarea ctre client, mbuntirea continu, transferul de cunotine, reducerea costurilor, precum i asupra celor opt principii ale managementului calitii. EDGE CONSULT internaionala

Numele i tipul instituiei de nvmnt / furnizorului de formare Nivelul n clasificarea naional sau internaional Perioada Calificarea / diploma obinut Disciplinele principale studiate / competene profesionale dobndite

2008 Manager de proiect Stabilirea scopului proiectului, stabilirea cerinelor de management integrat al proiectului, planificarea activitilor si jaloanelor proiectului, gestionarea utilizrii costurilor si a resurselor operaionale pentru proiect, realizarea procedurilor de achiziii, managementului riscurilor, managementul echipei de proiect, managementului comunicrii in cadrul proiectului, managementul calitii proiectului. S.C. INTRATEST Bucureti naionala 2008 Expert accesare fonduri structurale si de coeziune europene Paii pentru obinerea unei finanri nerambursabile. Cum completam o cerere de finanare. Ce implica din partea instituiei gestionarea unui proiect finanat din fonduri structurale. Se va lucra pe baza Ghidului Solicitantului, se vor prezenta Exemple de buna practica. S.C. INTRATEST Bucureti naionala

Numele i tipul instituiei de nvmnt / furnizorului de formare Nivelul n clasificarea naional sau internaional Perioada Calificarea / diploma obinut Disciplinele principale studiate / competene profesionale dobndite Numele i tipul instituiei de nvmnt / furnizorului de formare Nivelul n clasificarea naional sau internaional Perioada Calificarea / diploma obinut Disciplinele principale studiate / competene profesionale dobndite Numele i tipul instituiei de nvmnt / furnizorului de formare Nivelul n clasificarea naional sau internaional

2007 Certificare internaionale Xpert personal business skills Xpert european computer passport Managementul proiectelor Negocierea, discutarea si argumentarea Europische Prfungszentrale, Xpert personal business skills, Postfach, Dortmund i Asociaia EOROED Internaional

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Perioada Calificarea / diploma obinut Disciplinele principale studiate / competene profesionale dobndite Numele i tipul instituiei de nvmnt / furnizorului de formare Perioada Calificarea / diploma obinut Disciplinele principale studiate / competene profesionale dobndite Numele i tipul instituiei de nvmnt / furnizorului de formare Nivelul n clasificarea naional sau internaional Perioada Calificarea / diploma obinut Disciplinele principale studiate / competene profesionale dobndite Numele i tipul instituiei de nvmnt / furnizorului de formare Nivelul n clasificarea naional sau internaional Perioada Calificarea / diploma obinut Disciplinele principale studiate / competene profesionale dobndite Numele i tipul instituiei de nvmnt / furnizorului de formare Nivelul n clasificarea naional sau internaional Perioada Calificarea / diploma obinut Disciplinele principale studiate / competene profesionale dobndite Numele i tipul instituiei de nvmnt / furnizorului de formare Nivelul n clasificarea naional sau internaional

2007 Agent de marketing Cunotine teoretice necesare in vederea desfurrilor aciunilor de marketing al fondului de pensii administrat privat. S.C. Alliantz-Tiriac Pensii Private

2005 Postuniversitar Informatic Informatic, Programare, Autocad, Multimedia, Internet, Excel, Word, etc. Universitatea Valahia din Trgovite

naional

2005-2006 Burs Master Euroconsulting Secunda Universit Di Napoli Facult di Gurisprudenza

Intenional

2004-2005 Master Administraie Public European Universitatea Valahia din Trgoviste Facultatea de tiine Juridice,Politice i Sociale Naional

2003-2004 Master Management Universitatea Valahia Din Trgovite Facultatea De tiine Economice Naional

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Perioada Calificarea / diploma obinut Disciplinele principale studiate / competene profesionale dobndite Numele i tipul instituiei de nvmnt / furnizorului de formare Nivelul n clasificarea naional sau internaional Perioada Calificarea / diploma obinut Disciplinele principale studiate / competene profesionale dobndite Numele i tipul instituiei de nvmnt / furnizorului de formare Nivelul n clasificarea naional sau internaional Aptitudini i competene personale Limba(i) matern(e) Limba(i) strin(e) cunoscuta(e) Autoevaluare Nivel european (*) Limba italian Limba englez

1998-2002 Liceniat n tiine juridice Drept civil, drept penal,.procedur civila, procedura penala, drept penal special, etc. Universitatea de Drept Bucureti

Naional

1993-1997 Bacalaureat i atestat Electrotehnic Liceul colar Industrial Fieni

Naional

Precizai limba(i) matern(e) (dac este cazul specificai a doua limb matern, vezi instruciunile) nelegere Ascultare F bine Bine Citire F bine Bine Vorbire Participare la conversaie F bine Bine Discurs oral F bine bine Scriere Exprimare scris F bine bine

(*) Nivelul Cadrului European Comun de Referin Pentru Limbi Strine Competene i aptitudini organizatorice Prin natura profesiei si a funciei ocupate necesar a trebuit sa dezvolt capaciti organizatorice si de coordonare, este o munca de echipa, am derulat proiecte cu caracter cultural si social la nivel naional i internaional. Vicepreedinte a Asociaiei GOLDMUSIC. Competen profesional i tehnic in domeniul juridic, managerial i informatic. Utilizarea calculatorului - nivel f bine. Operare PC (Windows, Corel, Adobe Photoshop Excel, Multimedia, Autocad, Internet) Categoria B din anul 1999 Pot fi oferite la cerere.

Competene i aptitudini tehnice Competene i aptitudini de utilizare a calculatorului Permis(e) de conducere Informaii suplimentare

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LISTA DE LUCRRI PUBLICATE

Constantinescu Lucreia Mariana, Cucui Ion, Cucui Andra, Goldbach Raluca Ioana ,The Influence of Foreign Companies in Developing the Technological Absorbtion Capacity of the Romanian Economy During the Current Financial Crisis, Chinese Business Review, vol.10, no.3, 2011, ISSN 1537-1506, CBSN 270B0069, pp. 157-167, David Publishing Company, Illinois, USA (indexat BDI) www.davidpublishing.com; Constantinescu Lucreia Mariana, Badea Leonardo, Ni Blescu Cezar, Goldbach Raluca; Institutional and organizational innovative solutions to provide an efficient response against the ecological impact of climate change effects in Romania; Conf. Internat. B.EN.A. cu tema "Engineering and Sustanable Development, mai 2011, Universitatea 1 Decembrie 1918 din Alba Iulia, Book of Abstracts pp.47, ISBN 978606-613-014, editura AETERNITAS, Alba Iulia, 2011. www.uab.ro (articol in curs de evaluare pt. Journal JEPE B.EN.A. pt. anul 2013); Constantinescu Lucreia Mariana, Goldbach Raluca; Quality ecotourism services certification an attractiveness factor for the Romanian ecotourism; Conferina internaional B.EN.A. cu tema Environmental, Engineering and Sustainable Development, Universitatea 1 Decembrie 1918, Alba Iulia, Romnia, Abstract Book, pp.673-679, ISBN 978-606-613-014, Editura AETERNITAS, Alba Iulia, 2011; www.uab.ro; Florea Nicoleta-Valentina, Ioana Raluca Goldbach and Felix-Constantin Goldbach; Relationships between Human Resources Management and Organizational Culture, ECMLG 2011, 6-7 October, Nice, France, ISBN: 978-1-908272-17-1 CD Published by Academic Publishing Limited Reading UK 44-118-972-4148 www.academicpublishing.org, pg. 487 (articol n curs de evaluare pentru Jurnalul ICMLG 2013, 7-8 February 2013, Bangkok, Thailand); Constantinescu Lucreia Mariana, Drgoi Violeta, Goldach Raluca Ioana; Dacia- Group Renault: Focus to Costumers Satisfaction; Proceedings of the World WSEAS Conference of George Enescu University, Iai, editura WSEAS Press, 2010, pp.232-237, ISSN 1790-2769, ISBN 978-960-474-194-6, (ISI Book); Constantinescu Lucreia Mariana, Enescu Maria Cristiana, Cucui Floriana Andra, Goldbach Raluca Ioana; University Performance a Result of Total Quality Management; Proceedings of the 11th WSEAS International Conference on Mathematics and Computers in Business and Economics (MCBE10), Kantaoui, Tunisia, WSEAS Press Publishing, 2010, pp.232-237, ISSN 1790-5109, ISBN 978-960-474-184-2 (ISI Book); Ioan Constantin Dima, Janusz Grabara, Mariana Man, Ioana Raluca Goldbach; Applying of mathematics methods in decision taking process concerning replacement of machines and equipments used in flexible manufacturing cells, 15th WSEAS International Conference on APPLIED MATHEMATICS (MATH '10), Vouliagmeni, 38

Athens, Greece, December 29-31, 2010, pages 109-115, World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society (WSEAS) Stevens Point, Wisconsin, USA 2010 ISBN: 978-960-474-263-9, ISSN: 1792-7250. 8 Dima I. Constantin, Andrzej Z. Grzybowski, Janusz K. Grabara, Goldbach Ioana Raluca, Popescu Olivia Roxana; Utilising of mathematics-statistics methods concerning mechanic properties of heavy steel plates: dealing with the ill conditioned data, International Conference on Mathematical Models for Engineering Science (MMES '10, Puerto De La Cruz, Tenerife, November 30-December 2, 2010, Proceeding MMES'10 Proceedings of the 2010 international conference on Mathematical models for engineering science, pages 277-283; World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society (WSEAS) Stevens Point, Wisconsin, USA 2010, ISBN: 978-960-474-252-3. ISSN: 1792-6734. Constantinescu Lucreia Mariana, Gavril Graiela, Goldbach Ioana Raluca; Culture Major Determinant of the European Consumer Behavior; comunicare la The 3rd International Conference ICMEA2009 with theme Challenges of Contemporary Knowledge Based Economy, University "1 Decembrie 1918" of Alba Iulia, Romnia, noiembrie, 2009, revista Annales Universitatis Apulensis Oeconomia, no.11/2009, volum1, pp.96-102, ISSN1454-9409 (indexat BDI);

CRI PUBLICATE CO-AUTOR:


1. Elemente de logistic utilizate n managementului operaional industrial, Valahia University Press, Trgovite, 2010, ISBN 978-793-1955-3 2. Elemente de management operaional industrial, Valahia University Press,Trgovite 2010, ISBN 978-973-19955-64-3

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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, RESEARCH, YOUTH AND SPORT VALAHIA UNIVERSITY OF TARGOVISTE FACULTY OF ECONOMIC SCIENCES Field: Management

ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND ITS IMPACT ON MICROECONOMIC MANAGEMENT


- SUMMARY-

PHD COORDINATOR: Prof. Mioara Delia POPESCU, PhD

PhD CANDIDATE: Ioana Raluca I. VLSCEANU (GOLDBACH)

TARGOVISTE 2012

SUMMARY CONTENTS

CONTENTS OF THE PHD THESIS......................................................................................... 2 INTRODUCTION...................................................................................................................... 4 THE RESEARCH THEME ACTUALITY................................................................................ 5 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES ...................................................................................................... 6 STRUCTURE OF THE THESIS ............................................................................................... 7 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ............................................................................................... 9 Methodological Framework ................................................................................................. 10 Epistemological Framework ................................................................................................ 11 Research Area ...................................................................................................................... 12 RESEARCH REGARDING THE ANALYSIS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE CHANGE AT THE MICROECONOMIC LEVEL........................................................13 The Need to Change the Organizational Culture ................................................................. 13 Research Hypothesis and Methods ...................................................................................... 14 Research Results .................................................................................................................. 16 OWN CONTRIBUTIONS ................................................................................................... 22 Further research directions: ................................................................................................ 26 STUDY LIMITATIONS...................................................................................................... 26 CONCLUSIONS OF THE STUDY..................................................................................... 27 PRACTICAL PROPOSALS FOR IMPROVING THE STATE OF INVESTIGATED COMPANIES....................................................................................................................... 29 SELECTIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY.............................................................................................. 30 LIST OF PUBLISHED WORKS............................................................................................. 38 BOOKS PUBLISHED AS CO-AUTHOR:.............................................................................. 39

CONTENTS OF THE PHD THESIS I. INTRODUCTION THE RESEARCH THEME ACTUALITY 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE The Organizational Culture Concept Key Factors of Organizational Culture Levels of the Organizational Culture Components of the Organizational Culture

2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE 2.1 Theoretical Approaches of Organizational Culture Analysis 2.2 Research Methodology used in Analyzing Organizational Culture 2.2.1 Types of Research 2.2.2 Qualitative Methods of Cultural Analysis 2.2.3 Advantages and Limitations of the Qualitative Methods used to Study the Organizational Culture Context 2.3 Specialized Elements in the Evaluation of Organizational Culture 2.4 Models of Evaluation Questionnaires for the Organizational Context/Culture 3 MANAGERIAL CULTURE A COMPONENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE 3.1 Managerial Culture Definition, Content 3.2 Leadership and Multicultural Organizations 3.3 Functions of Managerial Culture 3.4 Managerial Culture and Organizational Performance 3.5 Role and Effects of Managerial Culture on Organizational Culture 3.6 Cultural Leadership and its Impact on Organizational Culture 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE MODELING Transformation of Organizational Culture The Lewin Change Model The Schein Model of Organizational Culture Change The Kuczmarski Model of Organizational Culture Change

5 RESEARCH OVER THE CHANGE ANALYSIS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AT MICRO-ECONOMICAL LEVEL 5.1 The need to change the organizational culture 5.2 Research Area 5.3 Research Opportunities and Limitations 5.4 Epistemological Framework 5.5 Methodological Framework 5.5.1 Research Objectives 5.5.2 Research Hypothesis and Methods 5.5.3 Description of the studied organizations 5.6 Data analysis and interpretation

6 BLENDING MODEL OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE PERSONAL CONTRIBUTION CONCLUSIONS AND PROPOSALS OWN CONTRIBUTIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY LIST OF DIAGRAMS LIST OF TABLES ANNEX 1 Diagrams ANNEX 2 Questionnaire

INTRODUCTION
Organizational culture is a concept developed by researchers to explain the values, psychology, attitudes, beliefs and experience of an organization. Almost thirty years of systematic research over organizational culture in the field of organizational behavior turned this concept into a theory. A concept "borrowed from anthropology, organizational culture was developed and structured over many years of research and it is now associated with other concepts in the field of psychology, sociology and management. This concept has become one of the key instruments in understanding human behavior in organizations. The concept of organizational culture was launched for the first time by Antony Jay, who alleged: It has been known for some time that organizations are social institutions with habits and taboos [...], they are political, authoritarian or democratic, pacifist or belligerent, liberal or paternalistic institutions. 1 Usually, organizational culture is defined as the theory behind the most important values and beliefs and the understanding of the fact that members of an organization share the same culture, which creates better (or the best) methods of thinking, observing and reacting that can help managers make decisions and organize the activities carried out in the company. A successful company should have a powerful culture that attracts, maintains and rewards its employees for fulfilling their duties and achieving their goals, powerful cultures being usually characterized by their dedication and cooperation for the support of common values. A few characteristics of organizational culture: 1. Norms should be defined taking into account the volume of work and the level of cooperation between the organization management and its employees; 2. Rules on the employees behavior in terms of productivity, group cooperation and client relations should be clearly defined; 3. The behavioral routines established can define a common language, as well as formal procedures; 4. Coordination and integration of the various organizational units in order to improve the efficiency, quality, speed of design, production and delivery of services.
1

Jay Antony, Management and Machiavelli: An Inguiry intro the Politics of Corporate Life, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Wiston, 1968, pp.79,153.

THE RESEARCH THEME ACTUALITY


During the transformations that affect our contemporary society, organizational culture represents a key method of manifestation of the human factor. As one of the factors influencing the performance and success of the activity carried out by an organization, culture represents the main indispensable element for achieving organizational progress. The development of the organizational culture concept was also favored by the rethinking of the major role played by human resources in the organization evolution. Organizational culture is considered to be the invisible force behind all tangible and visible aspects of an organization; it represents the social energy that makes people act in order to achieve the organizational objectives. The organizational culture of a company is often compared with the personality of an individual that brings together the vision, meaning, direction, motivation and energy required for evolution. The study of organizational culture is relatively new, the term organizational culture started to be used frequently in the 1980s. The interest towards organizational culture is explained by the fact that currently the international community is dealing with a multitude of large scale processes such as economic globalization and society informatization, which gave birth to new forms and methods of organizing human activity. The rhythm of technological and IT changes imposes new requirements in terms of practices used at the organization level and of the human resources used by such organizations. Thus, under the circumstances, modern organizations focus more on information and communication than on control and administrative hierarchy. Currently great attention is paid to the manner in which human behavior is determined by cultural elements. In fact, many experts in economics, management, sociology, psychology etc agree that in an organization, culture represents a major factor required for the operation of the organization and for achieving the performance necessary for progress. Organizational culture and managerial culture represent important factors in obtaining the competitive advantage of the company when their elements are known, analyzed and focused towards the achievement of the objectives established through company strategies and policies.

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
The main objectives of the investigation into organizational culture carried out as part of this research theme are presented below: To identify the influence of organizational culture on employee performance. To identify and analyze the type of organizational culture and its degree of matching the other organizational components. This theoretical and scientific paper is the result of an extensive analysis of opinions presented by various management experts, as well as of a vast number of factual data studied during the research. It focuses on answering the question: How do the managers of an organization have to act in order to create an adjustable and evolutionary organizational culture in the context of the changes affecting the environment, so as to generate dynamism, change and adjustment?" The main goal of this PhD thesis is: To analyze the aspects associated with organizational culture by putting together a comprehensive organizational diagnosis. Thus, the research objectives were established as follows: To analyze and describe the organizational culture model of the studied organization; To identify the strong points of the dominant type of organizational culture; To describe the links between the type of organizational culture and the relevant factors for the participants (employees) level of satisfaction at work; To study the factors that prevent the organization to function at the desired optimum level; To investigate the type of organizational culture in both forms: The real and the ideal form of organizational culture from the perspective of the investigated subjects; To study the perception and attitude of the subjects regarding the influence of organizational culture on the work satisfaction level; To outline the system of values characterizing the organization as the core of its specific type of organizational culture.

To outline the main trends in management theory regarding the perception of the organization as a socio-cultural phenomenon. To determine the key factors and mechanisms underlying the formation of organizational culture. To underline the role of national culture in the formation of organizational culture To investigate the individual motivational factors and their impact on the relation between organizational culture and the level of work satisfaction. Based on this scientific study adequate solutions were found in order to settle the difficulties encountered by the organizations under study. Dealing with a complex concept, such as organizational culture, raises conceptualization and operationalization issues, but also the development of scientific knowledge in the management field in general and of organizational culture in particular.

STRUCTURE OF THE THESIS


The PhD thesis includes 6 chapters, as follows: The introductory part of the PhD thesis focuses on the research theme actuality, as well as on the research objectives, main goals and methodology used. Level of current information on organizational culture Chapter 1 General considerations on organizational culture - presents the various approaches adopted by experts regarding this concept, as well as the key factors, levels and components of organizational culture. Chapter 2 Research Methodology of Organizational Culture focuses on the theoretical and methodological concepts underlying the study of organizational culture and which can help us identify its forms of manifestations, as well as the impact on the behavior and results of the organization members. Modern investigation methods which contribute to the identification of similarities and differences of the various organizational cultures compared are outlined. Chapter 3 Managerial Culture - A Component of Organizational Culture presents the interdependence between culture and leaders. Leaders use elements of organizational culture in order to convey efficient messages aimed at getting the 7

employees involved in order to achieve the organizational objectives. These are the factors that manage to create a vision of the desired future of the organization and at the same time they influence and are influenced in turn by organizational culture. Chapter 4 Organizational Culture Modeling This chapter presents several theoretical change models and studies the relation between organizational culture and the organizations capacity to change and develop. Chapter 5 Methodological Approaches to Organizational Culture focuses on the methodological and epistemological framework, the research area, research opportunities and limitations. Chapter 6 - Blending model of organizational culture personal contributions The last part of the thesis includes the final conclusions, the author's contribution and personal proposals for improving the status of the investigated units.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The research methodology includes all classic and contemporary theories and fundamental concepts included in the specialized literature specific to the research field. A series of papers that are part of the specialized international and Romanian literature and that focus on organizational management, general management, human resources management, communication, group communication, sociology and psycho-sociology were analyzed. The applied experimental part was carried out based on a questionnaire filled in by a number of organizations at macroeconomic level. The main research methods used for the purpose of this thesis are indicated below: the analytical and comparative methods, deduction, induction, observation, semi-structured interviews, questionnaire based investigations and specialized inventories. The interdisciplinary nature of the research efforts was materialized in the use of series of concepts specific to the philosophy of culture, social philosophy, philosophical anthropology, culture sociology, managerial psychology, intercultural management, systemic theory, organizational theory as theoretical and scientific basis. The maturity of a scientific concept is always accompanied by the development of a research methodology. The research methodology used in the field of organizational culture is currently in a mature, developed state and the main characteristics of such culture are apparent at the level of the organization (Taras, Rowney, Steel, 2009); Alvesson, 2002). This is the result of a number of reasons. First, organizational culture is an interdisciplinary phenomenon and many researchers from various scientific fields try to explore it using methods usually employed for scientific subjects. For instance, anthropologists mainly use qualitative methods, while psychologists use quantitative methods of research. This diversity of methods used to explore organizational culture has its advantages and disadvantages. The main advantage is that a complex and multidimensional phenomenon can be better explored when several different research methods are used. Organizational culture, by its very nature, has many aspects to be considered. Some of them are better explored using qualitative methods, while others require quantitative

methods. Consequently, using both types of methods ensures a better understanding of the phenomenon. The main disadvantage is the reduced possibility of comparing the research results, which slows down the development of the scientific field since results can not be compared and subsequently added to previous research.

Methodological Framework
The study carried out focuses on a number of large organizations located in Targoviste and Bucharest municipalities, operating in various industrial fields and it includes the following stages: Stage 1. Scientific research was carried out and the research tool used was the questionnaire. The main methods used to apply the questionnaire were direct contact, visits to the organizational departments of the companies and interviews focused on managers and management officers, such as: heads of departments, employees occupying various executive positions in the researched organizations. The research was designed, conducted and analyzed by the author and the questionnaires were personally distributed. The questionnaire was filled in by the interviewed persons. The model of questionnaire used is annexed to this paper (Annex 1). The analysis of the questionnaire provided the information required for research purposes. The interview took approximately 30 minutes. After the questionnaires were collected, they were validated. To facilitate the data processing and interpretation the spreadsheet application Excel and the SPSS software were used. Research methods, data sources and information used: - the study of specialized international and Romanian literature; - analysis of statistical sources: - direct research: information collected directly from the subjects filling in the questionnaire. - according to the representation of the studied collectivity: the scientific research includes all the large organizations located in Targoviste municipality; - according to the place of research: the research was carried out at the headquarters of the targeted organizations;

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- according to the manner of collecting the information from the subjects: direct research, involving the use of a written questionnaire.

Epistemological Framework
Epistemology focuses on the nature of human knowledge. In organizational culture research can be differentiated based on various epistemological concepts and premises (Eriksson Care, Kovalainen, 2008; Martin, 2002). Ontologically, these premises are closely linked and concern the nature of the organizational culture. In this type of research, sometimes called "normal science, the purpose is to generalize the conclusions resulted based on a relative small number of cases (Martin, 2002). The scientific effort included three stages: 1. The epistemological stage epistemology is the study of scientific knowledge. The research of scientific knowledge is mainly induction based, since without the contribution of the people creating knowledge, the object of epistemology cannot develop. Thus, through its underlying study, this PhD thesis is aimed at continuing the effort of scientific development in the field of OC and implicitly the study on the change of organizational culture by answering questions such as: how did the concept of OC occur?, how did OC change? what is its contribution to the attainment of the proposed objectives and the creation of a competitive advantage? 2. The methodological stage research methodology represents a subject that deals with the means of acquiring scientific knowledge and regards the totality of elements to be considered in the research of social life. The main purpose of methodology is to help us understand in as broad a framework as possible, not only the products of science, but mainly the process underlying knowledge itself. The methodology of scientific research also includes the adequate definition of the field under study, a series of principles and rules for the performance of investigations, the tools used to collect and interpret the data, as well as strategies of theoretical construction and reconstruction. The study of these methods is materialized in a new science and in the development of scientific knowledge, based on the value contribution of knowledge, a requisite for study and practitioners.

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3. The paradigmatic stage a paradigm is a model of scientific practice which presents a existing solution for typical problems related to a certain subject. In order to close an issue and find a solution to a problem several stages required for the proper development of scientific research have to be checked: 1 choosing the problem to be solved; 2- investigation of the existing information relevant for the field of the research topic; 3- establishing the methodology of the scientific research activity; 4 collecting and processing the data resulted based on the conducted research; 5- analyzing and interpreting the data resulted based on the conducted research; 6 presenting the conclusions and recommendations reached; 7 general presentation (writing) of a scientific paper.

Research Area
The research area includes the large organizations located in Targoviste and Bucharest municipalities. Collection of Data and Information The data were collected in one year, during September 2010 September 2011 from 5 liaison persons working for the analyzed organizations. The respondents age was between 36 and 57. The analyzed organizations are private internal and external organizations belonging to the industrial field. The questionnaire was presented to each person in order to be filled in. The questions were organized so that they should be easy to read and they were also discussed with the respondents, thus creating the premises for collecting a large volume of relevant information. The interviews were written down but not recorded and they were made available to the author.

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RESEARCH REGARDING THE ANALYSIS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE CHANGE AT THE MICROECONOMIC LEVEL The Need to Change the Organizational Culture
Organizations are identified through their specific beliefs, values and practices, which differentiate them from other organizations and which often have an impact on the success or failure of an organization. The concept of organizational culture emerges at the beginning of 1980s when the researchers in the management field where concerned with the description of the system of beliefs held by an organization, which they call organizational or corporate culture. The interest in organizational culture was stimulated by the publishing of William Ouchi's book - Theory Z: How American Business Can Meet the Japanese Challenge. Ouchi believed organizational culture to be a key essential factor for organizational efficiency. Other two valuable works are published in 1982: Terrance Deal and Allan Kennedy Corporate Cultures: The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life and Thomas Peters and Robert Waterman - In Search of Excellence, which support the theory according to which high performance companies tend to have a strongly outlined organizational culture. Organizational culture is defined as the assembly of principles, values and beliefs that guide the actions of the organization members. Researchers identified several characteristics of organizational culture. For instance, a research study conducted by J. A. Chatman and K. A. Jehn in 1994 identifies seven primary characteristics defining an organizational culture: innovation, stability, people orientation and result orientation, detail orientation, team orientation and indolence or carelessness. Organizational beliefs tend to influence the work standards, communicational practices and philosophic tendencies of the employees. Organizations use the socialization process for the adjustment of the new employees to the organizational culture. The values of organizational culture are expressed through statements on the organization mission or through organizational beliefs and to a lesser extent through slogans, symbols and advertising campaigns.

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Other elements of organizational culture are tacitly at work through symbols and symbolic behavior, such as: meeting protocols, employees greeting habits, space allotment and use and status symbols. The main dimensions of organizational culture (John P. Meyer & all, 2012) were outlined in the research of Hofstede (2001), Schwartz (2006) and in the international study GLOBE (Javidan House & Dorfman, 2004). The most important dimensions of organizational culture according to Hofstede are: power distance, avoiding uncertainty, individualism versus collectivism, masculinity versus femininity and long term versus short term orientation. According to the theory developed by Schwartz, organizational culture is materialized through: harmony, social integration, hierarchy, craftsmanship, affective autonomy, intellectual autonomy and equalitarianism. The international study on organizational culture called GLOBE (Global Organizational and Behavioral Effectiveness) considers the following as essential dimensions of organizational culture: assertion desire, institutional collectivism, the collectivism of appurtenance groups, orientation towards the future, equality between sexes, a humanist orientation, performance orientation, distance to power and avoidance of uncertainty. Innovation or the openness to change in Romanian organizations is a point of special interest for our practical study. The practical and applied study carried out is aimed at exploring the level of organizational change in certain Romanian companies. Based on the results of the case study we outlined the main action directions necessary in order to remodel the deficient aspects of the organizational culture of the companies included in the study.

Research Hypothesis and Methods


We investigated a sample of 169 employees from four companies located in Targoviste and Bucharest municipalities. We mainly proposed to test the following work Hypothesis: H1. The dynamic character of organizational culture differs according to each investigated company. H2. The level of innovative spirit differs according to the field of activity specific to each of the companies included in the study.

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H3. There are fields of organizational culture change which are more prominent, while other aspects of the culture characterizing the investigated companies feature a high level of inertia. The structure diagrams included in Figure 5.1 and 5.2 below present the companies included in the analyzed sample.

Sample distribution according to the companies included in the study


UPET; 9; 5% Mechel; 28; 17%

BCR; 17; 10% Dedeman; 54; 32%

Erdemir; 61; 36%

Figure 5.1 Diagram presenting the structure of the investigated sample according to the companies included in the study

English translation: Sample distribution according to field of activity; Services; Banking; Production Figure 5.2 Diagram presenting the structure of the investigated sample according to fields of activity

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The organizational culture questionnaire drawn up by the author and focused on the outlining of organizational change was applied on this sample. The questionnaire has 18 items and it is included in annex no. 2. The collected data were successively processed using the statistics packages Excel 2003, Excel 2007 and SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) version 20.0.

Research Results
Table 5.1 Results of the descriptive statistical processing of the quantitative data collected in relation to the case study Variables 1. Change as a challenge and an opportunity 2. Organizational efficiency 3. Reward adequacy 4. Identification of new top talents 5. Organizations level of openness to the new 6. Managements receptivity to employees suggestions 7. Review and evaluation of strategic plans 8. Employees involvement in results analysis 9. Employees involvement in the implementation of the strategic plan 10. Implementation of the suggestions offered by the employees in the strategic plan 11. Effectiveness of the deficiency remediation measures 2.83 3 0.85 3.53N 2.51 2 0.88 3.40N 2.66 3 0.93 3.20N 2.84 3 0.93 3.21N 2.89 3 0.89 3.37N 2.56 3 0.94 3.18N 2.99 3 0.94 3.17N 3.18 2.38 2.59 3 2 3 0.81 0.93 1.08 3.72N 3.22N 2.79N Average Median 2.96 3 Standard deviation 0.87 Normality test q 3.44N

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Variables 12. Concern with adequate services for the companys clients 13. Revaluation of new ideas in the implementation of the strategic plan 14. Constant evaluation of the employees 15. Measures taken following the evaluations performed 16. Accessibility of top managers 17. Innovative spirit of top managers 18. Adjustment of the strategic plan 19. Total scores for the culture

Average Median 2.98 2.65 3 3

Standard deviation 0.90 0.87

Normality test q 3.32N 3.43N

3.11 2.82 2.79 2.76 2.71 50.21

3 3 3 3 3 52

1.00 0.92 0.99 0.97 0.86 10.28

3.00N 3.28N 3.02N 3.08N 3.48N 4.47N

organizational questionnaire

The highest scores were obtained for the following aspects characterizing the dynamism of the organizational culture specific to the investigated companies: organizational efficiency, constant evaluation of the employees, level of openness to the new, concern with adequate services for the company's clients and the perception of change as a challenge and an opportunity. The lowest scores are related to the following aspects: reward adequacy, implementation of the suggestions offered by the employees in the strategic plan, managements receptivity to the employees suggestions, revaluation of new ideas in the implementation of the strategic plan and employees involvement in the implementation of the strategic plan. These deficient aspects represent solid reasons for concern on the part of the management of the investigated companies, as they need to be remedied and quickly improved.

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The dynamism of the organizational culture considered in terms of change as a challenge and an opportunity is more prominent in the case of BCR and less so in the case of UPET, as can be seen in Figure 5.3.
Change as a challenge and an opportunity according to company
4 3.76 3.5 3 2.5 2 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 BCR Erdemir Dedeman Mechel UPET 3.15 2.83 2.64

Figure 5.3 Diagram comparing the average scores for the item change included in the organizational culture questionnaire according to the companies participating in the study (p = 0.0000002)

On the other hand the highest values of organizational efficiency are registered in the case of Dedeman and Mechel, while UPET occupies again the last position, as can be seen in Figure 5.4. Analyzing the total scores of the questionnaire on organizational change, we can see that UPET is placed on the last position, while the first two positions are occupied by BCR and Dedeman, with similar scores. The extremely high differences which are statistically significant are outlined in Figure 5.21.

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Total scores for the organizational culture questionnaire according to company UPET Mechel Dedeman 30.33 47.54 55.94

Erdemir

47.57

BCR 0 10 20 30 40 50

56.41 60

Figure 5.21 Diagram comparing the total average scores for the organizational culture questionnaire according to the companies participating in the study (p = 0.0000001)

Results according to field of activity Change as a challenge and an opportunity or the lack of fear in the face of change is more prominent in the banking field and less so in the field of services, as can be seen in Figure 5.22. Accepting change as a positive element in a company is strongly associated and in direct proportion with the total scores obtained for the organizational change questionnaire. This is visible in the dispersion diagram and the regression equation presented in Figure 5.43.
Relation between change as an opportunity and the total score for the organizational culture questionnaire 80 Total scores for the questionnaire 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 Scores for change

y = 5.1827x + 34.849 2 R = 0.1932

Figure 5.43 Dispersion diagram for the positive statistical association relation between the individual scores obtained for the items on change as an opportunity and the total scores obtained for the organizational culture questionnaire for the companies included in the study ( r = 0.44, p = 0.0000002).

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The strongest association of our study was outlined by the relation between the promptness of the measures taken following evaluation and the total scores obtained for the organizational culture questionnaire, as can be seen in Figure 5.102.
Relation between the measures taken following evaluation and the total scores for the questionnaire 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 Scores for measures taken following evaluation

Total scores for questionnaire

y = 8.5331x + 26.128 2 R = 0.5767

Figure 5.102 Dispersion diagram for the positive statistical association relation between the individual scores obtained for the items on measures taken following evaluation and the total scores obtained for the organizational culture questionnaire for the companies included in the study ( r = 0.80 p = 0.000000001)

Democracy and dynamism go hand in hand in the case of the companies studied. In other words, there is a strong correlation between accessibility and the innovative spirit in the Romanian companies that were included in our study, which can be seen in the diagram presented in Figure 5.103.
Relation between the accessibility of top managers and the innovative spirit of the same 4.5 Scores for the managers' innovative spirit 4 3 2 1 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 Scores for the accessibility of top managers 3.5 2.5 1.5 0.5

y = 0.6028x + 1.0774 R2 = 0.38

Figure 5.103 Dispersion diagram for the positive statistical association relation between the individual scores obtained for the items on the accessibility of top managers and the innovative spirit of the same for the companies included in the study ( r = 0.62, p = 0.00000009).

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There is a strong connection between the democratic attitude of top managers and the total scores obtained for the questionnaire, as can be seen in Figure 5.104.
Relation between the accessibility of top managers and total scores for the questionnaire Total scores for questionnaire 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 Scores for accessibility of top managers

y = 6.8037x + 31.251 2 R = 0.4335

Figure 5.104 Dispersion diagram for the positive statistical association relation between the individual scores obtained for the items on accessibility of top managers and the total scores obtained for the organizational culture questionnaire for the companies included in the study ( r = 0.66, p = 0.00000003).

The relation between the total scores obtained for the questionnaire and the innovative spirit of the top managers is even stronger. This is the result of the fact that the innovative spirit can be considered the essence of change in organizational culture, as can be seen in Figure 5.105.
Relation between the innovative spirit of top managers and the total scores for the questionnaire 80 70 Total scores for the questionnaire 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 Scores for the innovative spirit of top managers

y = 7.4864x + 29.57 2 R = 0.5019

Figure 5.105 Dispersion diagram for the positive statistical association relation between the individual scores obtained for the items on the innovative spirit of top managers and the total scores obtained for the organizational culture questionnaire for the companies included in the study ( r = 0.71, p = 0.000000009).

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OWN CONTRIBUTIONS
During the transformations that affect our contemporary society, organizational culture represents a key means of manifestation of the human factor. As one of the key factors influencing the performance and success of the activity carried out by the organization, culture represents the main indispensable element for achieving organizational progress. Most research focuses on the capacity of this organizational phenomenon to play a major part in the competitive evolution of the company by mobilizing its resources, in particular the human resources. The success of these changes depends to a large extent on the involvement of the managers at different hierarchical levels and in particular of top management, as well as on the speed and level of internalization of the new values and types of behavior in the organization.

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The objectives of the investigation of organizational culture carried out as part of this research theme are presented below: To identify the influence of organizational culture on the employees performance. To identify and analyze the type of organizational culture and its degree of matching the other organizational components. This theoretical and scientific paper is the result of an extensive analysis of opinions presented by various management experts, as well as of a vast number of factual data studied during the research. It focuses on answering the question: How do the managers of an organization have to act in order to create an adjustable and evolutionary organizational culture in the context of the changes affecting the environment, so as to generate dynamism, change and adjustment?" The research objectives were established based on the proposed goal as follows: To analyze and describe the organizational culture model specific to the studied organization; To identify the strong points of the dominant type of organizational culture; To describe the links between the type of organizational culture and the relevant factors for the participants (employees) level of satisfaction at work; To study the factors that prevent the organization to function at the desired optimum level; To investigate the type of organizational culture in both forms: The real and the ideal form of organizational culture from the perspective of the investigated subjects; To study the perception and attitude of the subjects regarding the influence of organizational culture on the work satisfaction level; To outline the system of values characterizing the organization as the core of its specific type of organizational culture. To outline the main trends in management theory regarding the perception of the organization as a socio-cultural phenomenon. To determine the key factors and the mechanisms underlying the formation of organizational culture. 23

To underline the role of national culture in the formation of organizational culture To investigate the individual motivational factors and their impact on the relation between organizational culture and the level of work satisfaction. The authors own contributions can be listed as follows: Selection of research topic; Design of research study; Preparation of evaluation instrument; Complex data analysis, in particular: Going from descriptive statistics concerning the average values of the organizational culture characterizing the five companies to inferential statistics, which outlines the associations underlying the components of organizational culture and suggesting the possible presence of causal relations between such components. The inferential or deductive statistics employed as an advanced analysis method of the research data uses the regression line and the regression equation to outline the dependence relation between the variables of organizational culture and the performance of the organizations included in the study; During the process of validating organizational culture we evaluated the level of accuracy for the measures of the dimensions characterizing organizational culture, by calculating the internal consistency coefficient Cronbach of the questionnaire using one of the most advanced statistical analysis packages for raw research data, namely SPSS version 20. Pertinent conclusions on organizational culture presented for the four organizations investigated. In fact, this study is a diagnosis of the organizational culture of the four organizations studied; Proposals aimed at improving the organizational culture of the four organizations investigated; For the data presentation, only de comparison diagrams concerning the differences between the average values and the correlations highly relevant in terms of statistics have been used. A series of papers that are part of the specialized international and Romanian literature and that focus on organizational management, general management, human resources management, communication, group communication, sociology and psycho-sociology were analyzed synthetically and critically.

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The applied part of the study was carried out based on a questionnaire filled by a number of public and private organizations operating in the production and service field, at the macroeconomic level. The questionnaire designed and applied by the author is original, it has never been used before in the specialized literature; we have tried to identity the most relevant items. The sample is reasonably significant since it was applied on 169 participants from four organizations operating in different fields. The main research methods used for the purpose of this thesis are indicated below: the analytical and comparative methods, deduction, induction, observation, semi-structured interviews, questionnaire based investigations and specialized inventories. Conceptual and theoretical contributions: 1. Research of the approaches to organizational culture and a synthetic presentation of the key ideas; 2. Definition of the concept of culture from a functional and instrumentalist perspective; 3. Explanation of the relation between management and culture revaluation of the organizational culture differences starting from the concept of built organizational culture; 4. Analysis and systematic presentation of the most important current research on the specific characteristics and role of organizational culture in the life and performance of companies; 5. Outline of the most important effects of organizational culture on managerial processes; 6. Classifying and grouping the values according to cultural tendencies and dimensions; 7. Adapting the content of the cultural dimensions to the local circumstances; 8. Systematic presentation of the information on the research methodology typical for intercultural research; 9. Explanations and rigorous solutions for the phenomena that may occur; Practical contributions: - finding solutions for the problems related to the intimate research structure: - development of cultural dimensions? - achieving internal functional equivalence? - measuring cultural differences? - substantiating the statistical premises? - collecting statistical information on the key factors - analyzing the key factors in order to substantiate the statistical premises; - developing a data collection tool;

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- preparing an organizational culture diagnosis; - providing recommendations for the revaluation of the organizational culture differences; Other contributions systematization of a large volume of material in the field of intercultural studies; Consistent and qualitative analysis and interpretation; Clear, detailed explanations; Coherent, logical structure; Sophisticated analyses of the data collected during the questionnaire based investigation Further research directions: Another research area that has not been explicitly explored in this thesis and which remains to be tackled in the future is the link between organizational culture and the employees' satisfaction.

STUDY LIMITATIONS
Naturally, the structure of the sample according to companies and fields of activity should have been as balanced as possible but this was not possible on account of the response rates to the questionnaires, which were very low in the case of BCR and UPET. If the structure of the sample according to companies and fields of activity had been a balanced one, the results of the study could have been more relevant for the economic activity specific to the investigated area, with better possibilities of making generalizations at the level of the entire country. However the fields selected were purposefully disjunctive so that the results obtained should be very different. The relation between organizational culture and organization performance is investigated by the specialized literature (Denison, 1990, 1995, 2004, Gordon, 1985, 1992, Kotter, 1992, Lim, 1995, Marcoulides, 1993, Ogbonna, 200 Petty 1995 and Wilderom, 2000). This relation seems to be extremely promising and can represent the object of further research. Since the high profitability of sales and banking is a known fact, it seems that our study indirectly confirms the positive influence of a dynamic organizational culture on the financial performance of BCR and Dedeman as compared to UPET, Mechel and Erdemir. Another connection not explicitly explored by our study is the link between organizational culture and the employees satisfaction. Partially and indirectly, this study

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evaluates a dimension of the employees' satisfaction by adjusting rewards to the employees' requirements and the management's receptivity to the employees' suggestions. An extensive analysis of these two new research directions which are related to our topic does not represent an explicit concern of our thesis. Such an analysis would involve the use of specialized questionnaires on economic performance evaluation and employees satisfaction, which can be accomplished in further research stages.

CONCLUSIONS OF THE STUDY


The study verified the validity of the major work premises. To that effect, the levels of dynamism and flexibility of an organizational culture are different according to the organizations analyzed. Thus, the highest level of dynamism is that characterizing BCR followed by Dedeman, while the lowest level of organizational flexibility is that of UPET and Mechel. According to the activity field of the main companies included in the study, the most prone to change are, in the opinion of the study participants, those operating in the banking field (BCR) followed by companies operating in the service field (Dedeman) and last those whose main object of activity is metallurgical production and the manufacturing of oil equipment (Erdemir, Mechel and UPET). Even if at the global level, change, dynamism, flexibility and organizational innovation are stronger in the banking field, namely the case of BCR Bucharest, there are a few worth mentioning cases in which the innovative spirit is even more prominent, such as Dedeman, which operates in the service field. By this we mainly refer to organizational efficiency, the organizations openness to the new, the managements receptivity to the employees suggestions, the review and analysis of the strategic plan, the employees involvement in the analysis of the company results, the employees involvement in the implementation of the strategic plan, the employees constant evaluation, the measures taken following evaluation, the innovative spirit of top managers and the adjustment of the strategic plan to the requirements of the social and economic environment. BCR, the largest bank in Romania, now led by an Austrian managerial team, excels in the following aspects related to the change of organizational culture: perception of change as a challenge and an opportunity, adjusting the rewards to the employees requirements (it is a known fact that the highest average salaries are recorded in the field of financial brokerage, according to the data provided by the National Statistics Institute), discovering new top

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talents, companys openness to the new, implementing the suggestions made by the employees in the strategic plan, the effectiveness of the deficiency remediation measures, a serious concern with offering services that match the clients requirements, revaluating new ideas in the implementation of the strategic plan, accessibility of top managers according to unit and the total scores obtained for the questionnaire on organizational culture focused on change, dynamism and flexibility. Another interesting fact is that all the scores reported by the BCR employees are over 50 points, which reveals the presence of a climate which favors change, while all the scores of the UPET employees are under 41 points. The scores reported by the UPET employees indicate the presence of a static organizational culture, based on routine and inertia. In the case of Erdemir and Mechel, approximately half of the scores are under 50 points and half over 50 points, with Erdemir slightly more favorable to change as compared to Mechel. These guiding interpretation values were established in the context of an average value of the scores obtained for the organizational culture questionnaire of 50.21, with a standard deviation of 10.28, a dispersion interval of 46 points, a minimum value of 26 points and a maximum value of 72 points. These data seem significant if we take into account that the minimum theoretical score can be 18 points and the maximum score can be 72 points. Another point to mention is that only one subject gave the maximum score of 72 points, believing that the existing organizational climate is perfect for the level of dynamism characterizing its employing companys, namely Dedeman and not BCR. The highest values were reported by the study participants for: organizational efficiency, constant evaluation of the employees, level of openness to the new, concern with adequate services for the company's clients and the perception of change as a challenge and an opportunity. The lowest scores are related to the following aspects: reward adequacy, implementation of the suggestions offered by the employees in the strategic plan, managements receptivity to the employees suggestions, revaluation of new ideas in the implementation of the strategic plan and employees involvement in the implementation of the strategic plan. These deficient aspects represent solid reasons for concern on the part of the management of the investigated companies, as they need to be remedied and quickly improved. All the statistically significant correlations reported as part of the inferential statistical analysis are positive, which indicates that the tool used in this case study is characterized by a high level of harmony and internal consistency.

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Practically, out of the 18 dimensions, there is no element of the change focused organizational culture that contradicts the others. The correlation between these dimensions of organizational culture and the total scores are very strong, almost all having a statistic significance level lower than 0.001. A significance level p = 0.0001 means that there is one chance in a thousand to be wrong when asserting that a difference or a correlation (r is the Pearson linear correlation coefficient) is real and not due to chance. Consequently, when presenting the data we used only the difference between average values and the statistically highly significant correlations. In the analysis of the raw data using the SPSS statistical package, the internal consistency level of the raw data, expressed by the famous Cronbach coefficient (Cronbach, 1951) is 0.93, a very high value, much over the minimum threshold of 0.70 accepted by most experts in applied statistics.

PRACTICAL PROPOSALS FOR IMPROVING THE STATE OF INVESTIGATED COMPANIES


The company with the most fragile organizational culture open to change is UPET and this company is worth paying special attention. Practically this company, which manufactures oil equipment and which used to be the pride of the Romanian socialist industry needs an overall improvement of its organizational culture, which is rather rigid and inert. Special attention should be paid by UPET management to the improvement of the following aspects: adjusting rewards to the employees requirements (a stimulating and equitable salary system), identifying new top talents, organizations level of openness to the new, more efficient measures aimed at remedying the deficiencies, prompter measures initiated following evaluation and the stimulation of the innovative spirit of top managers. Even if the parameters obtained for a dynamic and flexible organizational culture have high values, the top companies in our study, BCR, Dedeman and Erdemir have some vulnerable points: In the case of BCR, the following aspects can be improved: organizational efficiency, employees involvement in the analysis of the companys activity, employees involvement in the implementation of the strategic plan, employees' evaluation, measures taken following evaluation. In the case of Dedeman it is recommendable that efforts should be made in order to improve the activity pursued in the following fields: perception of change as a challenge and an opportunity, adjusting rewards to the employees requirements (better and more equitable salaries),

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discovering new top talents, more adequate measures for the remediation of the deficiencies established, an increased concern for the supply of services that match the clients' requirements and a higher level of accessibility of top managers in relation to the employees' complaints. In the case of Erdemir and Mechel, the following aspects can be improved: managements receptivity to the employees suggestions, implementation of the suggestions offered by the employees in the strategic plan, revaluation of new ideas in the implementation of the strategic plan and employees involvement in the implementation of the strategic plan.

SELECTIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY
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mthodologiques, Qubec, 1988 2. Abrudan, I., Resursa uman i clivajul dintre generaii, Revista de Management i Inginerie economic, Vol IV, no.1, 2005 3. Ackerman, Anderson, Linda, S., The change leaders roadmap: how to navigate your organizations transformation, San Francisco, Jossey-Bass/Pfeeiffer, 2001 4. Adler, N. J., International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior, Boston, PWS-Kent, 1991 5. Albert, S. i Whetten, D.A., Organizational Identity, in L.L. Cummings and M.M. Staw (eds), Research in Organizational Behavior, vol 7, Greenwich, Coon., JAI Press, pp. 263266, 1985 6. Argyris, C., Personality and Organization: The conflict Between the System and the Individual, New York, Harper &Row, 1957 7. Armstrong, M., Managementul resurselor umane, Practice Manual, Bucharest, Codecs Publishing House, 2003 8. Baker, W.E. and Faulkner, R.R., Interorganizational Networks, in Joel A. C. Baum (ed.), Companion to Organizations, Oxford, Blackwell Publishers Ltd., pp.520-540, 2002 9. Baum, J.A.C. and Rao H., Evolutionary dynamics of organizational populations and communities, in M.S. Poole and A. Van de Ven (eds.), Handbook of Organizational Change and Development, New York, Oxford University Press, 2001 10. Bleanu, C., Managementul mbuntirii continue, Bucureti, Expert Publishing House, 1996 11. Beck, B.E.F., Moore, L.F., Linking the host culture to organizational variables, Beverly Hills, 1985 12. Bennis, W.G. and Nanus, B., Leaders, New York, Harper &Row, 1985 13. Bertalanffy, L. von, General Systems Theory: Foundations, Development, Applications (revised edition), New York, George Braziller, 1968 14. Borza, A., Managementul resurselor umane n context european, Cluj-Napoca, Dacia Publishing House, 1999

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15. Burdu, E., et al, Managementul schimbrii organizaionale, Bucureti, Economic Publishing House, 2000 16. Cprrescu, G., Ganovici, R., Cultura organizaiei-o teorie sau un instrument al managementului?, in Tribuna economic, no. 46, 1994 17. Ctureanu, V., et al., Calitatea serviciilor, Bucureti, Cimer*Es Publishing House, 2002 18. Chatterjee, S., et. al., Cultural differences and shareholder value in related mergers: linking equity and human capital, Strategic management Journal 13, 1992 19. Clark, T.A.R., Mallory, G.R., The cultural relativity of human resource management: is there an universal model? in T.A.R. Clark, Oxford: Blackwell, European Human Resource Management Publishing House,1996 20. Clarke, L., Managementul schimbrii, Bucharest, Teora Publishing House, 2002 21. Cooke, R.A., Lafferty, Organizational Culture Inventory, Human Synergistics, MI, Playmouth, 1987 22. Deal, T.E., Kennedy, A.A., Corporate Cultures: The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life, Reading, MA: Addison Wesley, 1982 23. Denison, D., Corporate culture and organizational effectiveness, New, York, Wiley, 1990 24. Earley, P.C., Singh, H., International and intercultural management research: whats next?, Academy of Management Journal, 1995 25. Edgerton R.B., Langness, L.L., Methods and Style in the Study of Culture, San Francisco, Chandler, Sharp, 1974 26. Fiol, C.M.&Lyles, M.A., Organizational learning, Academy of Management Review, 1985 27. Gagliardi, p., The creation and change of organizational cultures: a conceptual framework, Organization Studies, 1986 28. Handy, C., Understanding Organizations, 4th edition, London, Penguin Books, 1993 29. Hannan, M.T. i Freeman, J., Structural inertia and organizational change, American Sociological Review, 49, pp.149-164,1984 30. Hatch, M.J., Physical barriers, task characteristics and interaction activity in research and development firms, Administrative Science Quarterly, 32, pp. 387-399, 1987 31. Hesseelbein, F., Goldsmith, M., Beckhard, R., Organizaia viitorului, Bucharest, Teora Publishing House, 2000 32. Hickson, D.J., Pugh, D.S., Management Worldwide: The Impact of Societal Culture on Organizations around the Globe, London , Penguin, 1995 33. Hofstede, G., Cultures Consequences: International Differences in Work Related Values, Beverly Hills, Sage, 1980 34. Huu, C.A., Cultur organizational i transfer de tehnologie, Bucharest, Economic Publishing House, 1999 35. Ilie, L., Managementul firmei, Cluj-Napoca, Dacia Publishing House, 2001 36. Ilie, L., et al., Managementul resurselor umane, Cluj-Napoca, Dacia Publishing House, 2002 37. Ionescu, Gh., Cazan, E., Negrua, A., Managementul organizational, Bucharest, Economic Publishing House, 2001

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38. Ionescu, Gh. Gh., Toma A., Cultura organizational i managementul tranziiei, Bucharest, Economic Publishing House, 2001 39. Ionescu, Gh. Gh., Dimensiunile culturale ale managementului, Bucharest, Economic Publishing House, 1997 40. Ionescu, Gh. Gh., Dimensiunile culturale ale managementului, Bucharest, Economic Publishing House, 1996 41. Kotter, J.P., Heskett, J.L., Culture et performances, Les Editions Dorganisation, 1992 42. Martin, J., Deconstructing Organizational Taboos: The Suppression of Gender Conflict in Organizations, Organization Science, 1, pp. 339-359, 1990 43. Meek, V.L., Organizational culture: origins and weaknesses, Organization Studies, 1998 44. Mihai, A., Relaia dintre leadership i personalitate din perspectiva psihologiei organizaionale, in Revista de psihologie organizaional, vol. I, no. 2, pp.61-71, 2001 45. Negandhi, A.R., Cross cultural management research: Trends and future directions, Journal of International Business Studies, 14(2), 1983 46. Predican, M., Scimbare organizational. Ce, cnd i cum schimbm, Timioara, Universitatea de Vest University Press, 2004 47. Purdea, D., Jaradat, M., Managementul resurselor umane-formarea i gestionarea resurselor umane, Cluj-Napoca, Risoprint Publishing House, 2008 48. Purdea, D., Jaradat, M., Samochi, B., Managementul Resurselor Umane, Cluj-Napoca, Risoprint Publishing House, 2003 49. Schein, E., The Role of the Founder in Creating Organizational Culture, Organizational Studies, 1983 50. Schein, E., Organizational Culture and Leadership, in The Managers Bookshelf A Mosaic of Contemporary Views, Duluth, Harper & Row Publishers, 1988 51. Schneider, S.C., Strategy formulation: the impact of national culture, Organization Studies, 1989 52. Stanciu, t., et al., Schimbare organizational i cultur, Rev. Militar de Management i Educaie, no.3, 2006 53. State O., Cultura organizaiei i managementul, ASE University Press, 2004 54. Thevenet, M., Audit de la culture dentreprise, Paris, Les ditions dorganisation, 1986 55. Toma, A., Cultura organizational-factorii determinani, in Buletinul Universitii Petrol-Gaze Ploieti, vol. XLVII-L, no. 18, 1998 56. Toma, A., Schimbarea culturilor organizaionale-necesitate i etape, in Buletinul Universitii Petrol-Gaze Ploieti, vol. XLVII-L, no. 18, 1998 57. Trompenaars, F., Riding the waves of culture: understanding cultural diversity in business, London, 1993 58. Vlad, D.V., Schimbare i dezvoltare organizaional, Cluj-Napoca, Risoprint Publishing House, 2010 59. Vlsceanu, M., Organizaii i comportament organizaional, Polirom Publishing House, 2003

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CURRICULUM VITAE

Personal data
Last name/ First name
Address(es) Phone(s) Fax(es) E-mail(s) Nationality Date of birth Sex ioanagoldbach@yahoo.com Romanian 19.02.1979 female

GOLDBACH Ioana Raluca


Ing. Gib Constantin, Block. 1, entrance A, 2nd floor, Apt.8, Trgovite, Dmbovia Mobile: +40722887838

University of Targoviste Job targeted / Occupational Valahia Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sport field Professional experience

Period Function or position occupied Main activities and prerogatives Employers name and address Period Function or position occupied Main activities and prerogatives Employers name and address

2004 to the present Head of unit In charge with preparing the activity report of the multiplication center of Valahia University, concluding publishing contracts if case be, complying with the editorial programme, preparing the operational and strategic plan. Valahia University of Targoviste 2008-2009 Assistant Lecturer Lectures, seminars, exams, specialization Public Service Management Valahia University of Targoviste

Period Function or position occupied Type of field of activity Employers name and address Type of field of activity

2007-2009 Expert I Public policies and community projects Ministry of Education, Research and Youth Implementation of the strategic system, development of community projects

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Period Function or position occupied Main activities and prerogatives Employers name and address Type of field of activity Period Function or position occupied Main activities and prerogatives Employers name and address Type of field of activity Period

2000-2003 Computer operator Computer typing Valahia University of Targoviste Computer typing 1998-2000 Laboratory Assistant Computer typing Valahia University of Targoviste Computer typing 1998 to the present Book fair organizer, in charge with the educational offer in the academic field.

Education and training


Period Qualification/ Degree Main subjects studied / Acquired professional competencies Name and type of education institution/ training provider Level of national or international classification Period Qualification/ Degree Main subjects studied / Acquired professional competencies Name and type of education institution/ training provider Level of national or international classification 2007 to the present PhD Management, organizational management, strategic management, project management, organizational culture etc. Valahia University of Targoviste, Doctoral School National

2008- 2011 Economist Management, human resources management, operational management, production management, SME management, business communication, compared management Valahia University of Targoviste, the Faculty of Economic Sciences National

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Period Qualification/ Degree Main subjects studied / Acquired professional competencies

2009 Certificate on the Implementation of the Quality Management System ISO 9001/2008 and SR IWA 2/2009. Quality management, implementation of quality assurance systems, coordination of the development of national standards, creation of an environment that favors the implementation of national economic standards; representation of the national economy interests in the international and European standardization activities. Management involvement, client orientation, on-going improvement, knowledge transfer, cost reduction, the eight principles of quality management EDGE CONSULT International 2008 Project manager To establish the project goal, to establish the integrated management requirements associated to the project, to plan the project activities and milestones, to manage the use of the project's costs and operational resources, to carry out the acquisition procedure, risk management, project team management, communication management for the project purpose, project quality management. S.C. INTRATEST Bucharest

Name and type of education institution/ training provider Level of national or international classification Period Qualification/ Degree Main subjects studied / Acquired professional competencies

Name and type of education institution/ training provider Level of national or international classification Period Qualification/ Degree Main subjects studied / Acquired professional competencies Name and type of education institution/ training provider Level of national or international classification

National 2008 Expert in accessing European structural and cohesion funds Stages for obtaining a grant How to fill in a financing application. What does an institution have to do to manage a project financed from structural sources. The Applicants Guide shall be used, best practice examples shall be presented. S.C. INTRATEST Bucharest

National

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Period Qualification/ Degree Main subjects studied / Acquired professional competencies Name and type of education institution/ training provider Level of national or international classification

2007 International certificate Expert in Personal Business Skills European expert in computer passport Project management Negotiation, discussion and argumentation Europische Prfungszentrale, Expert personal business skills, Postfach, Dortmund and EOROED Association International

Period Qualification/ Degree Main subjects studied / Acquired professional competencies Name and type of education institution/ training provider Period Qualification/ Degree Main subjects studied / Acquired professional competencies Name and type of education institution/ training provider Level of national or international classification Period Qualification/ Degree Main subjects studied / Acquired professional competencies Name and type of education institution/ training provider Level of national or international classification Period Qualification/ Degree Main subjects studied / Acquired professional competencies Name and type of education institution/ training provider Level of national or international classification

2007 Marketing agent Theoretical knowledge required for pursuing the marketing of a privately administered pension fund S.C. Alliantz-Tiriac Private pensions

2005 Post graduation Degree in Computer Science Computer science, programming, Autocad, Multimedia, Internet, Excel, Word etc Valahia University of Targoviste National

2005-2006 Scholarship Master Studies Euroconsulting Secunda Universit Di Napoli Facult di Gurisprudenza International

2004-2005 Master Degree European Public Administration Valahia University of Targoviste the Faculty of Legal, Political and Social Sciences National

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Period Qualification/ Degree Main subjects studied / Acquired professional competencies Name and type of education institution/ training provider Level of national or international classification Period Qualification/ Degree Main subjects studied / Acquired professional competencies Name and type of education institution/ training provider Level of national or international classification Period Qualification/ Degree Main subjects studied / Acquired professional competencies Name and type of education institution/ training provider Level of national or international classification

2003-2004 Master Degree Management Valahia University of Targoviste, the Faculty of Economic Sciences National

1998-2002 Bachelor Degree in Legal Sciences Civil law, criminal law, civil procedure, criminal procedure, special criminal law etc The Faculty of Law - Bucharest National

1993-1997 High School Graduation Diploma and Certificate Electrical engineering Fieni Industrial High School National

Personal skills and competences


Mother tongue(s) Foreign language(s) spoken Self-evaluation
European level (*) Comprehension Listening
Very good

Indicate mother tongue (if case be, indicate second mother tongue, see instructions)
Speaking Conversation
Very good

Writing Writing
Very good

Reading
Very good

Oral discourse
Very good

Italian English

Good

Good

Good

Good

Good

(*) Level according to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages

Organizational competences and skills

Due to the nature of my profession and position occupied I had to develop a number of organizational and coordination skills; team work; cultural and social projects at the national and international level. Vice-president of GOLDMUSIC Association. Professional and technical competence in the legal, managerial and IT field.

Technical competences and skills

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Computer competences and skills Driving license(s) Additional information

Computer use very good PC operation (Windows, Corel, Adobe Photoshop Excel, Multimedia, Autocad, Internet) B type since 1999 Can be provided upon request.

LIST OF PUBLISHED WORKS


1 Constantinescu Lucreia Mariana, Cucui Ion, Cucui Andra, Goldbach Raluca Ioana ,The Influence of Foreign Companies in Developing the Technological Absorbtion Capacity of the Romanian Economy During the Current Financial Crisis, Chinese Business Review, vol.10, no.3, 2011, ISSN 1537-1506, CBSN 270B0069, pp. 157-167, David Publishing Company, Illinois, USA (BDI index) www.davidpublishing.com; Constantinescu Lucreia Mariana, Badea Leonardo, Ni Blescu Cezar, Goldbach Raluca; Institutional and organizational innovative solutions to provide an efficient response against the ecological impact of climate change effects in Romania; B.EN.A. International Conference entitled "Engineering and Sustanable Development, May 2011, 1 Decembrie 1918 University of din Alba Iulia, Book of Abstracts pp.47, ISBN 978606-613-014, AETERNITAS Publishing House, Alba Iulia, 2011. www.uab.ro (article currently under evaluation in view of publishing in Journal JEPE B.EN.A. for 2013); Constantinescu Lucreia Mariana, Goldbach Raluca; Quality ecotourism services certification an attractiveness factor for the Romanian ecotourism; B.EN.A. International Conference entitled Environmental, Engineering and Sustainable Development, 1 Decembrie 1918 University, Alba Iulia, Romnia, Abstract Book, pp.673-679, ISBN 978-606-613-014, AETERNITAS Publishing House, Alba Iulia, 2011; www.uab.ro; Florea Nicoleta-Valentina, Ioana Raluca Goldbach and Felix-Constantin Goldbach; Relationships between Human Resources Management and Organizational Culture, ECMLG 2011, 6-7 October, Nice, France, ISBN: 978-1-908272-17-1 CD Published by Academic Publishing Limited Reading UK 44-118-972-4148 www.academicpublishing.org, pg. 487 (article currently under evaluation in view of publishing in the Journal ICMLG 2013, 7-8 February 2013, Bangkok, Thailand); Constantinescu Lucreia Mariana, Drgoi Violeta, Goldach Raluca Ioana; Dacia- Group Renault: Focus to Costumers Satisfaction; Proceedings of the World WSEAS Conference of George Enescu University, Iai, WSEAS Press, 2010, pp.232-237, ISSN 1790-2769, ISBN 978-960-474-194-6, (ISI Book); Constantinescu Lucreia Mariana, Enescu Maria Cristiana, Cucui Floriana Andra, Goldbach Raluca Ioana; University Performance a Result of Total Quality Management; Proceedings of the 11th WSEAS International Conference on Mathematics and Computers in Business and Economics (MCBE10), Kantaoui, Tunisia, WSEAS

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Press Publishing, 2010, pp.232-237, ISSN 1790-5109, ISBN 978-960-474-184-2 (ISI Book); 7 Ioan Constantin Dima, Janusz Grabara, Mariana Man, Ioana Raluca Goldbach; Applying of mathematics methods in decision taking process concerning replacement of machines and equipments used in flexible manufacturing cells, 15th WSEAS International Conference on APPLIED MATHEMATICS (MATH '10), Vouliagmeni, Athens, Greece, December 29-31, 2010, pages 109-115, World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society (WSEAS) Stevens Point, Wisconsin, USA 2010 ISBN: 978-960-474-263-9, ISSN: 1792-7250. Dima I. Constantin, http://dl.acm.org/inst_page.cfm?id=1027139&CFID=125208068& CFTOKEN=30593917 Andrzej Z. Grzybowski, Janusz K. Grabara, Goldbach Ioana Raluca, Popescu Olivia Roxana; Utilising of mathematics-statistics methods concerning mechanic properties of heavy steel plates: dealing with the ill conditioned data, International Conference on Mathematical Models for Engineering Science (MMES '10, Puerto De La Cruz, Tenerife, November 30-December 2, 2010, Proceeding MMES'10 Proceedings of the 2010 international conference on Mathematical models for engineering science, pages 277-283; World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society (WSEAS) Stevens Point, Wisconsin, USA 2010, ISBN: 978-960-474-252-3. ISSN: 1792-6734. Constantinescu Lucreia Mariana, Gavril Graiela, Goldbach Ioana Raluca; Culture Major Determinant of the European Consumer Behavior; comunicare la The 3rd International Conference ICMEA2009 with theme Challenges of Contemporary Knowledge Based Economy, University "1 Decembrie 1918" of Alba Iulia, Romnia, November, 2009, the journal Annales Universitatis Apulensis Oeconomia, no.11/2009, volum1, pp.96-102, ISSN1454-9409 (BDI index);

BOOKS PUBLISHED AS CO-AUTHOR:


1. Elemente de logistic utilizate n managementului operaional industrial, Valahia University Press, Trgovite, 2010, ISBN 978-793-1955-3 2. Elemente de management operaional industrial, Valahia University Press,Trgovite 2010, ISBN 978-973-19955-64-3

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