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CHAPTER 11

11.1. THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES


1. Present Tense
Main
Clause

Any logical tense

Subordinate Clause
(that) he

a) is
b) was
used to be

Translation into Romanian


a) este ....
b) era....

a kind-hearted man

c) a fost (ntotdeauna) (pn acum)


d) i revenise/depesc
e) vor petrece.....(formal)

c) has (always) been


I know
(that) they

d) had got it over


e) will spend their summer holidays in the
mountains.
(formal)
f) are going to spend .... (informal)

tiu c
f) au de gnd s petreac.....(informal)
petrec.....
(spoken)
g) urmeaz s se prezinte
se va prezenta.....(formal)
se prezint.....
(spoken)
(pentru c aa s-a stabilit/hotrt)

g) are to sit in for that exam in June

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A.
simultaneity
2. Future tense
be going to
Present Continuous
(with verbs of movement)

anteriority

if
unless
on condition (that)
provided (that)
suppose (that)
supposing (that)
B. as long as
when
till
until
before
C. when =
=as soon as
until
before

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Present Tense
the two actions are simultaneous.

Present Perfect
(formal)
Present Tense
(informal)
The action denoted by the verb in the time
clause is prior to that denoted by the verb in
the main clause

Main Clause

Subordinate Clause

Translation into Romanian


dac mi va da ....

I will buy it

A. condition
if

Voi cumpra
cu condiia s-mi
dea...

he gives me the money


tomorrow
What will happen
What s going to
happen

on condition
Ce se va ntmpla
unless he gives ... ?
suppose he doesnt give ...?
ce-o s se ntmple
ce se ntmpl

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dac nu-mi va
da....
presupunnd c
nu-mi va da....?
nu-mi d...
n-o s-mi dea

Main Clause

Subordinate Clause

Im going to send him


more money

if I have a rise in pay

We are going away for


the weekend

if it is fine

I m coming back in
June

if

things change for the


better
on condition
B. time

I ll give him the book when I see him


back
I ll be waiting
downstairs
I wont leave
I will bring the books
back

as long as you are getting


dressed
till
until
he comes back
before

Translation into Romanian


Am de gnd s-i trimit...
O s-i trimit...
i trimit ...

dac

mi se va mri...
o s mi se mreasc...
mi se mrete...

O s plecm...
Plecm ...

dac

o s fie...
este...

Am s m-ntorc
M ntorc

dac
cu condiia

i voi da ...
Am s-i dau...

dac

Voi atepta....
Am s atept...
Atept...
Nu voi pleca...
N-am s plec...
Nu plec...
Voi aduce...

when
I have read them
as soon as
(formal)

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ct timp
pn cnd
nainte de
cnd
de ndat
ce
dup ce

se vor schimba...
s se schimbe...
se schimb...
l voi vedea...
l vd...
te vei mbrca
ai s te mbraci
te mbraci
nu vine...
a veni/s vin...
le voi citi...
(formal)

Ill bring

when

I read them

Am s aduc...
Aduc ...

cnd

am s citesc
citesc

nainte de
pn cnd
pn

a vorbi
nu voi vorbi
nu vorbesc
(spoken)

(informal)
I wont be able to give before I have talked to him
you a definite answer
(formal)
until
I talk
(spoken)

Nu voi putea da...


N-am s pot da....

3. Future Perfect

Present
by the time when

Main Clause
I will have recorded it
*stress is laid on the result
of the action
compare
I will be recording it
* stress is laid on the progress
of the action

Subordinate Clause
by the time he comes to
take it

till he comes here.

Translation into Romanian


Voi termina de nregistrat
Voi nregistra
Voi fi nregistrat
(voi fi gata [pn] atunci)
voi nregistra
(cu asta m voi ocupa pn
atunci)

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pn cnd

va veni...

pn cnd

va veni...

simultaneity
4. Present Perfect

Present Perfect

since
to mark the beginning
Past Tense
of the period of action

Main Clause
We have been friends since

Subordinate Clause
we have lived here
moved

5. Past Tense

Translation into Romanian


Suntem....

de cnd

locuim...
ne-am mutat...

anteriority

a) Past Perfect

simultaneity

b) Past Tense

posteriority

c) Future-in-the Past

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Main Clause

I knew

Subordinate Clause
(that) he a) had worked on such projects
had been working on that project
for a few weeks

Translation into Romanian


a) a lucrat
lucrase
lucreaz/lucra de cteva sptmni

b) worked...
used to work...
was working...

tiam c

c) would work...
would be working for a whole month.
was to work...

b) lucreaz
lucra
lucra (n perioada aceea)
c)

va lucra
va lucra (timp de o lun)
va lucra
urmeaz/urma s/avea s lucreze

EXCEPTIONS to the sequence of tenses rules:

with general truths of a We learnt at school that gold is a precious metal


Then he talked to himself that necessity is the mother of invention.
scientific and proverbial nature
He remembered his grand father used to say that the coat does not make the gentleman
He couldnt come to my party on Saturday because he is ill.
in clauses of reason
has been ill for a week
is leaving for Paris in a couple of days and now
he is packing up
The girl Jim is talking to was Toms friend.
in attributive clauses
Last year he ran faster than he does now.
in comparative clauses

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6. Past Tense

Main Clause
He said
promised
* compare
He said

Subordinate Clause
(that) he would have recorded it

Future Perfect-in-the Past

+ adverbial
+ time clause
(Past Tense)
*stress is laid on the result of the action

by six oclock
by the time he came to
take it.

(that) he would be recording it till six oclock.


* stress is laid on the development of the action

Translation into Romanian


A spus /a
va termina de nregistrat
promis c
va fi nregistrat pn cnd va
veni
(va fi gata atunci)
A spus
c va nregistra
(cu asta se va ocupa pn
atunci)

simultaneity
Past Perfect
7. Past Perfect

since
Past Perfect
to mark the beginning
of the period of action

* this is relationship 4 when the action is viewed from the past.

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Main Clause
Subordinate Clause
We had worked at since we had lived there
that firm
had signed the contract

Translation into Romanian


Lucram ... de cnd

He said he had worked at that firm since he had lived there


had signed the contract

A spus c

lucreaz
lucra

de cnd

Locuiam...
am semnat/semnaserm...
- locuiete
- locuia
- a semnat

8. Past Perfect

Past Tense
hardly ... when
scarcely ... that
no sooner ... than
*inversion has to be operated
Main Clause
Hardly had we got to the airport

Subordinate Clause
when it began raining.

No sooner had I put on my overcoat

than they called me back.

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Translation into Romanian


De-aba am ajuns..cnd/c...
Nici n-am ajuns bine.c...
De-abia m-am mbrcat .. cnd/c...
Nici n-am apucat s-mi pun.. c..
Nici nu m-am mbrcat bine c

9.

Future

Present

Present Conditional

if
unless
in case
on condition (that)
provided (that)
suppose (that)
supposing (that)

Past Tense

Past Conditional

Main Clause
I will talk to him
should talk
would
should have talked
would

Past Perfect

if I

Subordinate Clause
see him
saw

Voi vorbi
A vorbi

had seen

A fi vorbit
Vorbeam

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Translation into Romanian


l voi vedea
dac
l-a vedea
l-a fi vzut
l vedeam