Sunteți pe pagina 1din 7

See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.

net/publication/215895424

Geto-dacii, entitate a lumii tracice aşezată la confluenţa dintre Orient şi


Occident

Article · January 2006

CITATIONS READS

0 24

1 author:

Grec Ioan Marius


„Vasile Goldis” Western University of Arad
32 PUBLICATIONS   4 CITATIONS   

SEE PROFILE

Some of the authors of this publication are also working on these related projects:

On the evolution of the legislative system of organization and exploitation of mineral resources in Transylvania (XV-XVIII centuries) View project

All content following this page was uploaded by Grec Ioan Marius on 05 June 2014.

The user has requested enhancement of the downloaded file.





   

Y
e& N&4=('((  4(*+(' *2$ ( (C32&(' 4#&*'!(,$ 4, +(82'( *28-'&' + 1 3+2- 4, $ '$2-9'
'( ='.'*-2L'+#' ';'*('4''!'&(3 ='  !2-2' 21#*+ -(.'$($8' '4 !($'('#$%&(4(( 
4(  +,4, 4+')'+ +( -#.+''&9'1'4, 1#*+ 3(4' +,!(*23($2-1#42-+2 - -9,''!(- N&1''&9 ( 
4,2' */ 2N$3-'&'+&2!($2-+G!( &' *+1(-3#1(*#2-#*'1#-!'.)''+#2-(3'*4#3 1#*+
-(* $($82 4#(*3#&!(&+ 3(&+2 -24,'-( * -( (1('+# ( -  #$ &'+ +(  3#3#2-2' .'  -'$8''
&# *+(F)'4 2-!(-  !( .'1#*+2-3#1(*#!(-  ! *'-( &7  1#*+ -(*$($82+'+2- 
N& II 3(&+2 -24,'-( * -( '*+#'4(F '  1#*+2- !'(4+# - &*+'+2+2-2' +(#-#7'4/3(! 7#7'4 3#'
(3'*4#3 !(  !(  #$ & '##7 '2 (3'*4#32- $'*'#&  '7#'( #$.  .' 3(#+2-/'*+#'4
=(#7=( '2= &!2 2 1#*+ -(.' $($8' !( #&# (  23, (#7 &'< (  4 !($'(' #$%&( N&
II 21#*+ -(.'4 $($8'!(#&# ( -9'+(''( ='4 ( 23,*+#'+-  !A$'+#3#-'+2-'4#- (
#&( &2 -; & +2-2'2&(32+ +3 +#-#7(3'*4#32-$'-' &;'! . 1#*+2&+'$3 ='((2)'4 - 
 ! .' 4+2 -2-3 +' =(#4+'*+,3 .2 
( *($(&(  4#&*'!(,$ 4, $('+, *, 1'( *28-'&' + 1 3+2- 4, $ ' $2-9' 1'' !( 3(#9' !'&
(3 ='   !2-2' */ 2 8242 + !( #&# (  !(  1' -(.' $($8' ' 4 !($'(' #$%&( 3( 8 < 
-24,'-# .+''&9'1'4( 3( 4 ( -(/ 2 (- 8# +  *+( )#8  !(  *'-( #-!'. $($82 !( #&# ( !'&
II $(!'42-8 -&(#-#7 '2*+2< !'&(3(2. #&#  $ +($ +'4' &2- '2* 4#8 +'+2- 
1'2- 3#1(*#2-2' !( +(#-#7'(  <,  4#8  .' '*+#'42- &#& 7(&  #&(-'  ;#!(  2+# (  2&('
$#&#7 1''!(*3(#'*('4# ,.'  -+#-24,' 
)($ 4(+'+2!'&(  4, +#9' 3(#9'' .' 4(!'&4'#.'' (3 ='('  !2-2' )# N&9(-(7( 4 ( *2&+
$ '-( N&! +#'' 4 ( &( .+( 3+, 3( +#9' N&+/# )''+# ( 2#3, 2&'+, !  N& 4 ( *, 1'( (*3(4+ +(
+ !'9''-( & 9'#& -( .' $ '-( ) -#' 42-+2 -( .' +'*+'4( 3( 4 ( &' -(/ 2 -,* + 4  *1%&+, $#.+(&'(
3(42*#''&#.+'  3'*4#3'  !2-2'*(3# +($%&!'4, ( *($(&( ) -#'4( +(N&!(42*2-
+%+#*(4#-(!()' 9,8'*('4( *4,#7 &'< +,.'4,  )2+'( ='.'3(#9')(!&'4'4 ( 24#&+'82'+
- 3#3,.'( 42-+2''.' *3''+2 -'+,9''#$%&(.+' 



72) 
 5))&S( 
)7
: 
'
7
&7))


5"+)
 !"###" 
:,+##&# -8 # %#,8 #"#!

5#45NQ$N+FFF9RK+N+'?
5(#!#+#"ID 

8*+ 4+
38$33)3+9+*O$3 3A33
  *% *' 3   *+ ( 3 4O 7) + 3  7)' 8++
3*)* 3  3 *  % $ 3 +$$ ( 3  3*)*
$+)+3 3+3$34*/'3))3*(
3 4*/ + 3     $ A ( 3 ( 3 3'
3/3(3**)93+$34O7)+9
+)37)'3++3E+)34O+)3
3 $+ $ 3 3 + ** +$$ ( 3 3 $ 3 + $ 3
$+ 


 D




   
 


 #&1#$'&+(3(+,'-#(4(&+(4 (&2 &9( <, +'+2!'&( 1 9,!(3#4(*(-(!((+&#7(&(<,


3#<'9'#&( <, 4(&+2- !( 7(2+ +( - 4(*+('  N& 3- &2- $(&+ - +2&4' 4%&! 8#!( <, .' #!#&( <,
'!(&+'+,9'-(3#3''3(+('&')(-(!'*+'&4+(A(+&#*(+&'(.'42-+2, 
 ((72-,**(4#&*+'+2'(3#&'&!2/*(&2!(- 2&3 +'$#&'24#$2&4'!(- ()#-29''
*#4' -(3#-'+'4(* 2!(+ !'9'(!(<)#-+ +(3( 4( *+,8 <, e& 4(*+4#&+(C+*3# +(1'N&9(-(*
4  2& 3#4(* '&+(&9'#& + !( 1#$ +(  2&(' (&+'+,9' (+&'4(  e& *4='$8  +(82'( 4#&4(32+, 4  #
*28*2$ ( (-($(&+(-#12&49'#& -( -(2&(' *+1(-!((&+'+,9'4 ( (- 8 <,+N '+(''-(!(
!(-'$'+ (N&+(2&'+,9'-((+&'4(&2*2&+"N&3'&4'3 -"4(-((C+('# ( 42-+2 $ +(' -,-'$8 4'
4(-('&+(&9'#& -( '!(&+'+ +( 4#-(4+'), e&3'&4'3 -(*+()#8 !(*3(4#&.+''&9 (+&'4,3#3'(4 (
(*+( 7(1 +, 3( # + !'9'( 4#$2&,  &'+ +(  (+&'4, &2 (*+( -+4()  !(4%+ 2& *3 9'2 *#4' - !(-'$'+ +
3'&+/#4#&.+''&9,!(723 42*(&*2-!( 
 e& !(42*2- +'$32-2' 7(+#/! 4'' 2 *'$'- + 3#32- 9'' )(&'+(!'& <#&(-( )(4'&(A 4'$$('(&'
*4'9' !'&*3( (*+  '-'' 4(-9'  !'&*3( <#&(-( )(*+'4( F *'$'- (  (*+( 2& 1 4+# 4#&*+'+2+') -
+ !'9'('7(+#/! 4( & !'&$ '-(4#$2&'+,9' *'$'- +( 21#*+4(-9'' N&4(32+2-*(4#-2-2' -/-( N 
5 "*1%.'+2-*(4#-2-2' -/-( N 5 1- 9'N&+/2&&2$,4#&*'!( 8'-N&<#& '&+ 4 3 +'4, 
+('+#'2-2'7(+#/! 4 4(.+' - *1%.'+2-3('# !('&2$ '3#+1'!(3'*+ 9' =(#-#7'4 6# +(42%&!
N&4(3(1 < 4- *'4, 4')'-'< 9'('! 4'4( e&4#&1#$'+ +(422&(-('&+(3(+,'(4(&+((*+(2&
4#$3-(C 8'#42-+2 - N& 4 ( '!(&+'1'4 (  7232-2' *( 8 <( <, 3( (-($(&+( !( -'$8, +('+#'2
#7 &'< (*#4' -,1''&!)#8 !(#4#$2&'+ +(!(!(*+'&.'&23(*3(4'1'4'+,9'8'#-#7'4( 1#$,
!( #7 &'< ( *#4' -, *23('# , .' / !( (72-, / $ ' (4(&+, (*+( 4(   * N&+($(' +, 3(
#'7'& -'+ +( .'*3(4'1'4'+ +( *#4'#42-+2 -,.'3(#( -'+ +(+('+#' -, 
 +2&4'4%&!2+'-'<,$+($(&'4 A7(+#/! 4'! 4#/7(9'.'!(') +(!'& 4(*+( &2+(82'(
*, 2'+,$ 4, )($ !(/  1 4( 42 +($(&' $#!(&' 4#&*+249'' )(8 -( -( '*+#'#7 1'(' $#!(&(
$(&'+( *27( #2&'+ +((+&'4,.''*+#'4,F 4(*+(  23#&'+!(- 4#&.+''&9 (C'*+(&9('2&2'(+&#*
2&'+  ($(&''*2&+2<'+ 9'N&'*+#'#7 1' #$%&( *4,4 (4#&*'!(,4,3'&2+'-'< ( N&3  -(-
4(-#!#2,&#9'2&' 7(9'(*3(4+')! 4' N&$(!'2- 2+#'-# &+'4'N&4(3%&!42(3#4 #$ &,
'$3(' -, */  !#)(!' '&!28'+ 8'- 4, N& 4( *+, 3('# !, 7(9'' .' ! 4'' 4#&*+'+2' 2 # 2&'+ +(
4#$2&'+ ,2&'+ , 
 4( *+, 4#&4(39'( &2 (*+( N$3,+,.'+, !( +#9' '*+#'4'' *+,'&' #8'(4+%&!2/*( 4, 7(9''
(*3(4+') ! 4'' *2&+ 723( !( 3#32- 9'' 4 ( N&+#+!( 2&  2 1#*+ !')'< +( N& &2$(# *( +'82'
'&4-2*')N&*(4#-2-! 5 ' !(&2$''-($ '*2* $'&+'+( +(82'1#-#*'+(!# N&*(&*-'&7)'*+'4
-'$'+%&!2/*( !(*($& 723(!(-'$8'(*3(4+')!' -(4+( -(-'$8''+ 4( (4'N&4#&1#$'+ +(42
2< &9(-( &+'4='+,9''N&4(3%&!42*(4#-2-! 5 (*+( !(4) + *(2+'-'< &#9'2&( !(! 4'(C+'&*,
- &')(-2-N&+(72-2'4#$3-(C!(3#32- 9''!(- &#!2-2&,''4 (1,4( 23 +(!'&$ ( 1 $'-'(
+ 4'-# 
 #$(&+2-(C 4+ -!(*3'&!(''3'&'&!')'!2 -'< (  $2''&#!/+ 4'4(!(.'&2(*+(3(
!(3-'& -,$2'+ *( *'+2( <, N&+/2& *3 9'2 +($3# - (*+%&* N& '&+() -2- !( +(4(( !( -  3#4 
8#&<2-2'- 4(  1'(2-2'F&2$(# *(-(4(4(+,' =(#-#7'4( $3-'1'4 +(N&2-+'$'' !( &' +(*+,
*(&*'8'-(-(!(#*(8''!'&+(42-+2'-($ +(' -( 1- +(N&+(<#&(-(!(- &#!.'*2!!(; -4 &' ' 
7(#7 1'4,423'&*,N&+(; -4 &'.'2&,((*+(#<#&,!('&+(1((&9,N&+(4(-(!#2, $2' -(
+ 4'-#N&2!'( !'&+(7232'-(42-+2 -(1''&!()'!(&+,- *1%.'+2-3#4''8#&<2-2'.'$ ' -(*N&
3#4 1'(2-2' -+1(-'&+(3(+ +*(3# +(*32&(4,N&(3#4 $(+ -(-#7,*'$3($'*(-(!'1((&9'(''
(+&#/42-+2 -(N&+(*($'&9''-(+ 4'4(*'+2 +(!(#3 +(.' -+  2&,'' 
 (+#/! 4'' 2 1#*+ N&4#&L2 9' !( *- )' N& <#&(-( &#!/(*+'4(F N& &#! .' &#!/)(*+ *( 1- 2
4(-9''' $ ' 3#'*2(8''7($ &'4'FN&)(*+'-B''3 &&#&''4(-9''FN&*2!+ 4'' $ ' 3#'$3('2-
#$ & F N& (*+ 4#-#&''-( 7(4(.+' *4'9'' $ ' 3#' * $ 9'' .' 8 *+ &''  (#7 1'4 -'$'+(-(
+('+#'2-2'7(+#/! 4*(N&4 ! 2N&+(2$,+# (-(-'$'+(A 3 9''0,!2#.'# ) 2&,('* 
2&9'' 5 ($2* 0#&+2- 2C'&  4(*+ +('+#'2 7(#7 1'4 !(#*(8'+ !( - 7 -#42'+ !( 7(+#/! 4' */ 
!#)(!'+  1' 2& *3 9'2 !( *'&+(<, # <#&  !( '&+(1((&9,  '&1-2(&9(-# )(&'+( !'&*3( '(&+ .'
 

0 5 P $8( #*(SV8"3W# ! #3 * 3,3#+ ,3,3#? ,30#;(& IEG 

P +#8(-, N&)GIIIE3 H .'2$ 
 DD



   

44'!(&+  4(*+(  # ! +, *'$'- +( 2 4#&+'82'+ -  4( (  2&(' 4')'-'< 9'' #'7'& -( 42&#*42+,
!(*+2-!(329'& ('+#'2-3#32- +!(7(+#/! 4'*( 1- - -'$'+ !'&+(2#3 !(-2# *,$2&+# *,.'
*+(3(-(N&+'&*(!(3%&,- 2&9'' -' )%&!1#$ 2&2'8 *+'#&& +2 -$(&'+  3, 2#3 !(
()(&+2 -(-(3('4#-()(&'+(!'& 4( *+,<#&, O
e& 4((  4( 3')(.+( &2$(-( !( 7(+ .' !( ! 4 */ 2 3#32* $ ' $2-+( (+'$#-#7'' !  +# +(
4(*+(  *2&+ 32*( *28 *($&2- N&+(8,''F *2&+ #3'&'' -( 2&# 2+#' $#!(&' 4 ( 4#&*'!(, 4,
$8(-( &#9'2&' 3#)'&!( -  &2$(-(2&# +'82'$ ' 32+(&'4($ ' 3#'(C+'&*( *23  N&+(72-2'
&( $ + 8#& *"0 D
 ,+ +(C+2 -A (9''*2&+4('4 (*(N&+'&!*3(0#&+.'*3(
,*,'+' ! 4''4('4 (-#42'(*4N&3 +( #32*,*3(($ &' .'*3('<)# (-(*+2-2' #4#+4 
(' *( &2$( 2 N& )(4='$( ! )' - +'&(*42- ! )2*F N& -'$8  7( 4, ! #' * 2 ! #*  ( '4' .'
&2$(-(!(*4- )'(+ .' )#*#8'.&2'+(-  +'4' 4( *+,3(*232&(($('+,$ '$2-+,4(< (
!(4%+ 4((  3#+')'+ 4,('  &2$(-(  )(&' !( -  ii*4'9'' ! '[[ 4 ( -#42'(*4 3(  !(3 +( -%&7,
5B4 &' F&23 (!(4(<2+*,*(1' !2*!( 4#-#*4- )'N&+'4 G
'& $2-9'$(  !( '3#+(<( 1#$2- +( !(/  -2&72- +'$32-2' 4(  4 ( */  '$32* N& 3- &
'*+#'#7 1'4 (*+( 1#$2- +, !( '4(  -' !( 3#&'&! !( -  5(*B4='2* 4 ( &( + 7( +(&9'  4,
! #*(*+(- #'7'&(2&42)%&+1'7' &4 ('&*( $&,-23F-' !(*27(( <,#'7'&( +#+($'4, 
&2$(-2'! 4'-# 4(.+'  2+#!(&2$'&!2/*(-23'* 24('4 (*( $,&,42-23'' ( -+1(--23''
( 2 $#!(-2- -23+,+#2-2' (C($3-  7(+#/! 4'' '$'+ 2 4#$3#+ $(&+2- .' *3(4+2- (C+('# -
-232-2' !(4'&2(*+(!(-#4!(3- * +4 &2$(-((+&'4 -! 4'-#*,3#)'&,3'&(C+ 3#- (!(- 
(3'+(+2- '+2 - - 2&(' 4#&1('' ,<8#'&'4(  e& *3'L'&2- 4(*+(' '3#+(<( 4 ( *27(( <, #'7'&( 
+#+($'4, &2$(-2'! 4'-#2& 72$(&+32+(&'4(*+(*+'&! !2-424 3!(-233(4 (/- )( 2! 4'' 
(.' )($!(/ 1 4(42&2$((+&'4"+'8 -(*(3( 3# +(!(#'7'&'!'1('+( 7(9''.'! 4'' 
422&4  4+(<#& -8'&(4#&+2 +!(*($& 22& .' 4(( .'3#32- 9'(4 ()#8( #-'$8,'!(&+'4,
* 24(-329'&1# +( *($,&,+# (A0 +( '&1('# , 1-2)'2-2'3%&,- 0#&+"!(/ -2&72-4,(' 
+,'(*47(9''/('#&2$(*4*+2 ,+,89@,*- 4(.+' *2&+$ '8'&(42&#*429'
!((-(&'!(# (4(*($2+,!(*!(3(#3 +(3( -+  *+2-2'  + 8#& *"0 DD 
4( *+,1#$2- (1# +(*'72, '!(&+'+,9''-'&7)'*+'4(N&+(7(9'.'! 4'3(&+22&#$!(.+''&9, . 
42$( + 8#&&(N&!(3+,9(.+(*,)(!($$ '$2-+!(4%+!# # *($,& (!(-'$8,.'*,4(!($
4,(*+(4(-$ '*#-'! 72$(&+4 (/-4#&+ <'4(3(P +#8(-4 (" . 42$ $ ,+ +329'&$ '
!()($("&2+(4(!(8 '(  *($,&,''-'&7)'*+'4( ,&22'+,$4,4')'-'< 9'  &+'4,7( 4,!(.'
1# +(!')'< +,!'&32&4+!()(!((3#-'+'4 1#*+2'$'+#!(2&'+ ,N&(*(&9( (4(+,'-( =(#-#7'4(
&2$(# *(N&*3(4' -!'&2-+'$(-(!(4(&''*4#+N&-2$'&,!')(*'+ +( 4  4+(2-2'4')'-'< +'('7(+#/
! 4(! .'2'$'+# ( 2&'+ +(  4(*+(' 
 0(&+2  44(3+  '&+(3(+ (  -2' -' !( 1,4%&! 8*+ 49'( !( #'4 ( -+  +(82'( *, &(
8 <,$ 3( 1'$ 9''-( -2' + 8#& .' 5(*B4='2* .' *, &( N&*2.'$ +(#'  -B4 &+=#3'('  -+1(- *32*
() -2 ( 4#&+(C+2-2'(-'7'#*!(3'&!(!(#(+'$#-#7'(&(!($#&*+ +,N&4, ( -+1(-'4( -' !(
  + +4,-23''!(- 2&,( 21#*+N&1%&9'!(1''-23# '4('!'& 3'+#-'2F!'&3(*3(4+') 2&('
'*+#''$'+'4(3#3#2-#$%& *+ +*28*($&2--232-2' !'4, 1#*+3(!(*+'& +- ,<8# '('&) <''
.'$'7 9''  
 (1'&'+') *(3  ( -2$''+ 4'4(*(!(*,)%.(.+(N&4( !(/ !#2 (3#4, 1'(2-2'  +f&(
"3(&+2 4' G@D N 5 "! 5 0(&+22#3  32*( &,.'4(&+ -, 4( *+,(3#4,*+,
*28 *($&2- '&1-2(&9(' 4(-9'-#  e& -2$(  7(+#/! 4'-# *3 9'2- 4 3 +#/!2&,( &#/3#&+'4  3('# ! 
42&# .+(#N&1-#'(4#$3  8'-,424(  4(-9'-#N& &2$'+(3')'&9(4=' *23('# , &1-2(&9(-(
(C+(&( 2)(&'+"N&*3(4' -!'&*3(4(-9'.'7(4'F3'&'&+($(!'2- 4(*+# !'&2$,)#3,+2&!(
N&  <#&, '&1-2(&9( #'&+ -( " *'$'- +( N&+/# $ &'(, #'7'& -, !( 4,+( 7(+#/! 4'    1'&(-(

 
D
 & -'<, '$ 7'&'' 4'('N&*3 9'2-7(#7 1'4 &+'4(*+(1,42+,(4(&+!(  0(+#-(*42N&,8D"+
8 ;242(.+'
3 D/
D 
G
- -'(*42  0#3(*42= +(1 &T!"D"! #"8E )#-  ;242(.+'IG 

 -' !(,+DN&S86 *32; "+2!''4#$3  +')(!(*3((-'7''-(.'1#-4-#2- 4'('
.'2#3(''(&+ -(;242(.+'II 3 /
I 

 4( *+,3#8-($, 1#*++ + +,3(- 7!( #<#) &N&,,";242(.+'III3 / 
 DG



   
 


*(4#-2-2' -/-( N 5 2&'+ +( !($ &'1(*+ ( 4')'-'< +'('7(+#/! 4(( !(L 8'&(4#&+2 +, (
3# +(3(*232&(4, 4(*+3#4(*1# +(4#$3-(C!( *'$'- ( '&1-2(&9(-#(C+(&(&2*/ 3#!2*
3(*+(+#+N&$#!2&'+ ! N& &* $8-22&'+ +( 42-+2 -, 7(+#/! 4'-#(*+(!(&(+,7,!2'+ e&<#& 
!($ C'$,32+(( 4')'-'< 9'('7(+#/! 4(N& &*'-) &' 2&!(*(4#&*+ +,(3'4(&+2-!('&1-2(&+,
3#-'+'4,.'(-'7'# *, 42$.'$ '+%<'2N&(3#4 *+ +2-2' '&1-2(&9(-(4(-+'4(*2&+$ '3(7& &+(! 
&2 !(+($'& &+( !(# (4( (*+( )#8  " N& 3'$2- %&! " !( # *($,& ( N&+( 3#4(*(-( !(
42-+2 9'(N&4(-(!#2,*3 9'' 
0(&+2 *3 9'2- 4 3 +#/!2&,( &#/3#&+'4 !  .' 3(&+2 # 82&, 3 +(  2#3('  !#2 
L2$,+ +(  $'-(&'2-2'  N  5  (3(<'&+, # 3('# !, !( !%&4' 3(1 4(' 4 ( 3%&, *3( *1%.'+2-
*(4#-2-2' -/-( N 5  !(4'3(&+21 <(-('&4'3'(&+,.'$'L-#4'( 4(-('!(/ !#2 )%*+, 1'(2-2' 
 )# 4#&!24( -  '&*+ 2 (  +,*,+2'-# (*(&9' -( -( 4(*+(' (3#4'A # 1#-#*'( (C+'&*, 
2&(-+(-#!(1'('&+#!24(( 3-272-2'428,<! !(1'(3(*4 ,- 7,#*3(4' -'< ( 44(&+2 +, 
$(.+(.272'-#(C+'&!((  3'&7(&( -'< (  3#4(!(2-2'!((C(429'( 4( $'4''-24 +(- # +,
2+'-'< (  $#&(!(' 3( *4 , - 7, / (1-(4+ (  (C+'&!('' 4+')'+,9'-# 4#$(4' -( 3 '9'  2&#
2&'2&'!(+'82'32+(&'4(8'&(4#&*#-'! +(4#&!2*(!(8 *'-(' )%12' -( '*+#4 9''-#+'8 -(
4 ( *( $ &'1(*+, 4  )('+ 8'-' 4#&!24,+#' -( 2&# 1#$ 9'2&' 3#-'+'4( 4( 3   1' N& !2$ *3( #
4#$3-(C,#7 &'< ('&+(&, # +( 4(*+((-($(&+(3#+1'(7,*'+(N&+# +($ '-(<#&(-#42'+(!(
7(+#/! 4' e&<#&(-( 1- +(*28'&1-2(&9 4')'-'< 9'('7(4(.+' 2&,( !(>#* +(4(( *3(&#2 1 <,
!(!(<)#-+ (*() 1 4($ ' 3'!FN& &*'-) &'  4(*+3#4(**()  44(&+2 N&*(4#-2- -/-( N 
5  *28 '&1-2(&9  4(-9'-#  ( 3 ( 4, 4(*+ 3#4(* !( - +(&'< ( 2$ (  '&1-2(&9(' 7232'-#
4(-+'4( ,*3%&!'+( N&  &*'-) &'  &2 (*+( 3(4' + N&4, -  ) -# (  ( -,  '$3#+ &9(' 3( 4 (
4( *+,3#32- 9'(  )2+/#N&4#$3-(C2-3#4(*!((+&'4'< ('*+#'4, ! 4'-#!'&'&+('#2- 42-2'
4 3 +'4 
 0#4(*2- !( '$3-($(&+ (  +2+2# (-($(&+(-# !(1'&'+#'' 3(&+2 4(  !(/  !#2  )%*+, 
1'(2-2'N&3'&4'3 -*284(-(!#2,'&1-2(&9($ L#( 4( 7( 4,.'(-(&'*+'4,(*3(4+')4( 4(-+'4, 
*( N&4=('( 4,+( $'L-#42- *(4#-2-2' - /-(  N  5  4%&! *( 3# +( 4#&*+ + '&+ (  N& 1 <  !(3-'&('
$ +2'+,9'  4(*+('3('# !( 
 0(&+2 '&+() -2- *(4#-(-#  "  N  5  " 3('# !, '&4'3'(&+,  4')'-'< 9'(' 7(+#/! 4( "
4(4(+,'-( =(#-#7'4( #1(, # '$ 7'&( !'1((&9' +,  *#4'(+,9'' 2+#=+#&( 723 +, 3( <#&(A &#!/
8 -4 &'4, N&+( ; -4 &'/ 3 9'/ (  ( 7,  (*+/4 3 +'4, N&+(  3 9' .' '*+2  .'
'&+ 4 3 +'4, '&4-2<%&!.'; & +2-'. & '* *23('# , 0(&+2<#& ; -4 &'/ 3 9'/ ( 
( 7,!'*32&($!('&1#$ 9''&2$(# *(4#&+2%&!2/*(#'$ 7'&((- +')4- ,!(*3(3'&4'3 - 
1#9, !($#7 1'4,  <#&(' 7(9'' 4 ( */ 2 '$32* !'& +# +( 32&4+(-( !( )(!(( 3#-'+'4 (4#&#$'4
42-+2 -  2$(# *(-( .(<,' 4')'-( .' 4(+,9' " 3(*+(   &(4#3#-( 3(*+(   $#$'&+( 
)#8(*4 *'&72( !(*3( !'& $'4  *#4' -, .' !(*3( *+ 8'-'+ +(  !( -#42'(  <#&('  2$(# *(-(
'$3#+2' !( 3#!2*( !'&*3( -2$(  7( 4, .' (-(&'*+'4, !($#&*+( <, (*2*(-( (4#&#$'4( -(
<#&(' !  .' 4,'-( !( 3,+2&!(( -( '&1-2(&9(-# (C+(&(  2 +(82'( *, 2'+,$ '&1-2(&9  3( 4 ( 
)2+/# (7 +2- #!B*'-# *2!/!2&,( &  4 ( N& '&+() -2- *(4#-(-#  "  N  5  .'/  (C+'&*
!#$'& 9'  *23 <#&(-#&#!/8 -4 &'4(.'#8#7( 
 (*4#3(''-( =(#-#7'4( .(<,'-( 4')'-( 4(+,9'-( $#$'&+(-( 3'&4' ( &2$(# *( 
(- +,'-( 2+#'-# &+'4' !(*3( 2&'' 4#&!24,+#' -#4 -' = & 8#& #$'4= '+(* ? -$#!(7'O#*
=($ C#*  !($#&*+( <, 44(&+2 +  *+24+2 ( *#4' -, 2+#=+#&, .' ()#-29'  *3( # 4# 72- (
*#4' -, 44(&+2 +,*281#$ 2&#$ '2&'2&'+'8 -( 
 '& 3,4 +( )($ 329'&( '&1#$ 9'' !(*3( ,+"  ,+# -( 7(9'-# $(&9'#& +( " 3'&
!(*4#3('' / 1''&! !#  '&4'&+  !( -  8#B &#)# .' * &4+2 (-( !( -  ,*4'# (-( L2!  ,-, .' 
!(*4#3(''-( !( '4' 1''&! N&*, 3'(*( !( # ) -# ( !(#*(8'+, 4#&9'& (3(<(&+,' &+#3#$#1( .'
<##$#1( 3 ( *+1(-2&4#&+ *+$ L#N&+((- +,'-( 2+#'-# &+'4''$3(*'#& 9'!(*3(4'1'42-
(-'7'('7(+#/! 4(.' 8*(&9 "4) *'+#+ -," 2&#(!'1'4''!(42-+! + +(N&3('# ! *(4#-(-#"
N 5 H

 
H
 %82N&% #,HIIG3 DI/ I 
 D 



   

 0(&+2<#&(-((*+/4 3 +'4(  3 9''#'(&+ -'"'*+2 '&1#$ 9''-(*2&+#1('+( 3# 3(N&


+#+ -'+ +( !( 4(4(+,'-( =(#-#7'4(  #4'(+ +(  7(+'4, '$3(*'#&( <, 3'& &2$,2- $ ( !(
1#+'1'4 9'' 3(*+( H N& <#&  &#!'4, .' 4(&+ -,  #-!#)(' F 2&(-( !'&+( 4(*+(  '$32& 3'&
!'$(&*'2&' +%&4(.+'#+& ';2&(.+'/)((.+';2+24(&' $3#+2'-(!'&*3(<#& -2$''7(4(.+'
.' (-(&'*+'4( *2&+ '-2*+ +( N& +(=&'4'-( !( 4#&*+249'( !  .' N& &2$(# *(-( '$3#+2' $#&(!(
$1#(h !(*4#3('+(N& .(<,' +%+$ '-( .(<,'4%+.'$#$'&+(-('$32&,+# ( 242+(&' .'
+(< 2(-( +%&4(.+' ;,'4(&'  '-2*+( <, (C'*+(&9  2&# )%12' -( '*+#4 9'(' +'8 -( 4 3 8'-, *,
*2*9'&, *($(&(  (1#+2' 1'& &4' ( !  .' 3#4(*2- !( 4#&4(&+ ( +'8 -, N& *(&*2- N&+($('(''
2&#32+(&'4(2&'2&'+'8 -( 
 e& 4((  4( 3')(.+( ,+"  ,+# -( 7(9'-# !'& 4(*+( <#&( (*+/4 3 +'4( N& 4+2 -2-
*+ !'2!(4(4(+ (*2&+*($& - +(!# * &4+2 2-#+2&!42+ $82'!(3' +,!'&*(4#-(-("
N  5  !( -  ;2+24(&' .''&4'&+ 1#+'1'4 +, 42 +2$2-' !(-  +#-&'4(&'  '#&2-5%&4(.+'  2& +'3 !(
$#&2$(&+!(#4 $! +,*'&72-  E
 ?#&(-( 7(#7 1'4( $ ' *2* $(&9'#& +( 2 +,*,+2' 4#$2&( N& 4((  4( 3')(.+( *#4'((  
+(' +'32' !( $#&2$(&+( *($&'1'4 +')( N& 3('# !  D /
 N  5 A 1#+'1'4 9'' $#$'&+(
'*+#4 +'4(.'+(< 2(!'&$(+ -(3(9'# *( (&+2--+(&'('3(<'&+,# 7-#$( (!(1#+'1'4 9''.'
+(< 22- !( -   '#) F $#$%&+2- !( -  0((+2 L2!  (-(#$ & I (*+( 3- * + N& +('+#'2-
1#+'1'4 9''-# 8( *4  !( 2* ') -( /#.+(&' -8(.+'F 1#+'1'4 9'  !( -  ?'$&'4(  .' &(4#3#- 
!'& 3#3'((F+(< 22-!(- ='&#7' 1- +N&+(,*4'# (-(.' !#) &2F$#$%&+2-3'&4' !(- 
7'7='#- 1- +N&+(1#+'1'4 9''-(!(- ;(.+(3(.';('! 2!F+(< 22-.'$#$'&+(-(!(- ;,'4(&'/
242+(&'N& 3#3'((!(1#+'1'4 9' !(- +%&4(.+' 
 e&4(( 4(3')(.+('&1#$ 9''-((1('+# (- +('+#'2-'&+ 4 3 +'4 4(*+( -'3*(*4 3# 3(
N&+#+ -'+ +( 2*(42&# .+( N&$#$(&+2- 4+2 - -4(4(+,'' &'4'# .(< (1#+'1'4 +,&(4#3#-,
$#$%&++2$2- * 2+(< 2! + 8'-(N&'&+() -2-*(4#-(-#"N 5 4 (*,3# +,1' +'82'+(
4(+3#32- 9'(' 2+#=+#&(! 4'4( e& &2$'+(<#&(*/ 2(1(4+2 +2&(-(!(*4#3('' 3 9'&%&!4(-9'-#
! + +( 3( -  $'L-#42- *(4#-2-2' - /-(  N  5  !  &2 (*+( )#8  !(*3( 1#+'1'4 9'' .' &'4' !(
$#$'&+(3'&4' (* 2+(< 2( 42 ((C4(39''A$#$%&+2-!(- '2$(.+'
* 2*+ +2(+ !(8#&<
(3(<(&+%&!2&$'*+(9!(- 2&4 &'"L2! -2LD4 ( 21#*+! + +(N&*(4#-(-(/N 5 *+(
!(($ 4 +4,!(*4#3(''-(4(-+'4( 21#*+N&*#9'+(N&+#+!( 2& !("#) ' +,4 &+'+ +("4( $'4,
! 4'4, 2+#=+#&,  23, *'$'- (  7232-2' *4B9'-#/ 7 +=B*' N& $ (  $ *,  2+#=+#&'-#
*(4#-(-("N 5 &2 )($! +(!(#*(8'+(!(*3(()#-29' *#4'(+,9''! 4'4( 
 ''+# (-#4(4(+,'-(()'&(* 4'& *,3(4'<(<(! 4,'<)# (-('*+#'4(*4'*(!')(*'+ +( 
!(*4#3(''-# =(#-#7'4( $ &'1(*+,'-( +'*+'4( ($ 4 8'-( -( 7(9'-# !'& <#&(-( (C+ 4 3 +'4(
*(4#-(-(/N 5 .'-'3* 2&#$ &'1(*+,'*'$'- (N&*3 9'2-'&+ 4 3 +'4!'& 4(( .'3('# !,
(C3'$,#( -'+ +('*+#'4,* 2!# 2&*+ !'2&(* +'*1,4,+# -4(4(+,'' 
 e&4(3%&! 42 $'L-#42- *(4#-2-2' - /-(  / 3(&+2 # 3('# !, !( 4'4  2& *(4#- .' L2$,+ +(
4'4 
 "  N  5  / *( '&+, N&+/# 3('# !, !( +(4(( *3( (3#4  2$,+# ( 3('# !  !(
(C'*+(&9, 4')'-'< 9'('4- *'4(7(+#/! 4( 0('# ! !(+ &<'9'((*+(&2$'+,N&'*+#'#7 1'(.')( 42-
N&+2&(4 + - 4')'-'< 9'(' 7(+#/! 4(  0('# !  *( 4  4+('<( <, 3'& &2$'+( + &*1#$,' !(
*28*+ &9, 4 ( *( 3(+(4 -  &')(- *#4' -A '*+#4 9'  +(4( " N& '+2- 12&(  / -  '&4'&( 9'(F
$#$'&+(-( 22&'&)(&+ !'&4(N&4($ '*, 4 3#!# 8(-(.') *(-(!( 2*2&+N&-#42'+(424(-(
!( 7'&+ F 3 (2&&#2+'3!(* &4+2 ( 42+ $82'!(-($&* 23' +, F&#'+'32'!(1#+'1'4 9''
4(+,9' 42 <'!2' !'& 3' +, 1 *#& +, F 4( $'4  -24 +, -  # +, 42&# .+( # $#!'1'4 (  1#$(-#
4  4+('*+'4( 3 ( 1#$  4(.+''/#3 '9 .' 124+'(, h ( 4#&*+ +, " 2& 1(&#$(& !(#*(8'+ !(
 
E
 52* ,D""8 @X #"7" #7,, # -2L/ 3#4 
3 
 
I
 #*4 -2 #3"U2*#,3:V"# *"9! %"#+ +8W  N&/" = ;('4=+!(j$'*4=/
($ &'*4=(&P#$$'**'#&6 &O12+  ;(-'& HIEI 

 ;(4'2"##",2*#,@ ;242(.+'II 

 0(+(*42/%$8#)'9  '&2 #""Y9Z#Y"/@, N&,
IIH 3  "
D 


 2*2 ; &!2- 5"8E #++ ,@D# ,#,)+8#; '  (IHF 5 '. &B *@#+"@
,+#" ,"D,#,)+8#N&5"8-
IH3  /I

D
 5 '. &%"98,+8!,3*"+D,#, " ! N&"*-IHD3 G /HE 
 D



   
 


'$3#+ &+ " !(3- * (  4(&+2-2' !( 32+(( !'& <#&(-( (C+ 4 3 +'4( *3( <#&(-( '&+ 4 3 +'4( 
 2<(-(4 (*+ 2- 8 <  4(*+#*4='$8,'*2&+7(2!(!(*4'1 +! (-(3#+1'32*(N&-(7,+2,42
3(&(+ (  2&# 3#32- 9'' !( #'7'&' *+,'&( 4(-9'' N& 0(&'&*2-  ; -4 &'4, 8 *+ &'' N& #-!#) 
4(&+ -/&#!'4,  +# +( 4(*+( +(82'(*, !,27,$.'*'+2 9' '&+(&, *#4'(+,9''7(+#/! 4(4 (
!23,3('# ! !(!(<)#-+ ('&+(&, &+('# ,'&+,N&+/2&3#4(*& +2 -!((4(*'2&( 
 (3- * (  !'& 32&4+ !( )(!(( '*+#'4  4(&+2-2' !( '&1-2(&9, N& *#4'(+ +(  7(+#/! 4,
*(4#-2- -/-( N 5 *3(<#&(-('&+ 4 3 +'4( N& &*'-) &' *(1 4(N&4#&!'9''&21# +(4- 
(-24'! +(!('*+#'#7 1' &# *+,!#)(!'&!2/*( 1'2&3( $82- -'!'4,''4')'-'< 9'('7(+#/! 4'4(
*3(!(*+'&(-($ C'$ -(N&3('# ! *(4#-(-#N 5 "! 5  3('# ! + +2-2'! 4 
 2$,2--#4 -'+,9'-#+ &*'-) &(N&4 (*(1 4!(*4#3(''!(4( $'4,! 4'4,*(+'3-( <,
3(&+2*(4#-(-("N 5 1 9,!(3('# !  &+('# , &&2$,N&*($& +!( .(<,'7(+#/! 4(
!( $ ' !'$(&*'2&' +'32- ! )   *( N&+($(' <, N& *(4#-2- - /-(  N  5  4#&+'&2%&! " 4(- 329'&
3 9' -"N&(3#4 ! 4'4,4- *'4, + +2-2'! 4 4(-($ ''$3#+ &+(1''&!4(-(!'& &*'-) &' A
0(4'4  0' +   ')'' ,3%-&  '-'.4  #*+(.+' G 4(*+ *3 9'2 +($3# - (*+( !#$'& + " N& $ (
$,*2, N&  &*'-) &'  " !( (&4- )( 4(-+'4( !(), +( 4(&+( !( 32+(( 3#-'+'4, .' $'-'+ , '  N&
4#&+ 3#&!(( *#4'(+ +(  2+#=+#&, ! 4'4, *( (723( <, N& *+24+2' !'& 4( N& 4( $ ' 8'&(
#7 &'< +( 3#-'+'4#/$'-'+ F *( +'&7( 2& *+ !'2 *23('# !( #7 &'< ( 1'( +'8 1'( " .  42$ 
*28-'&' +'4( -' !(/4#&1('($'-'+ ,3(42$4(  -23'-# e&(*(&9,(*+()#8 !(*3(
$#!'1'4,'12&! $(&+ -( 1#$(-#!( 2+#'+ +(3#-'+'4, e&$#$(&+2-N&4 (4(-(!#2,*+24+2'
!( 32+(( 3  -(-( 4(  4(-+'4, .' 4(  2+#=+#&, ! 4'4,  2 L2&* 3( 3#<'9'' '(4#&4'-' 8'-( ' 
*#4'(+ +(  ! 4'4, (  3(7,+'+, N& *3(4' - !'& 32&4+ !( )(!(( $'-'+  !  .' 3#-'+'4  )  )(  -#4
4#&12&+ ( A ;2(8'*+  )  ( -'<  $ (  2&'1'4 (  +2+2# +'82'-# 7(+#/! 4(    N&+/2& $ (
4(&+2!(32+((4 () 1'*+'




7(<)( %%
:
'7<

%+5 %7%7)
:,+##&# -<+",
 !"###"

9#",#
3R+*@H$35R+H+?;*;9*';3''$
3 *) $ 3    (3  3 9% $ 3 5R+ H+
%' 3  * + 3 7) (  + )% $ 3
%IJ0SIJ0+&)+)35R+H+% 

L 8D9" + -"
e&4, !'& !(3+2- #$ & *( .+'( 4, N& 3'&4'3'2 &'$(&' &2 3# +( + &*1(  -+2'  $ ' $2-+(
!(3+2'!(4%+ ( 0'&2$ ( . 42$*/ $ '*32**+ +2-#$%&&2 (42$(&2&9 - !(3+2'3(
4 (&2-(!(9'&( 62&! 9' #L!2*(4  4+('<( <,3'&+/#+#+ -,'&!(3(&!(&9,1 9,!(*+ +2-#$%&

 
G
   5  '. & .' 4#- 8# +#'' @D@#+"   & -+ 5" %,, N& S"! IHEF   #7  T" 
,##,,@D#")"!Z+ 9 N&#+,, 4##!#& +#5  '4#)'4'2 -2L/ 3#4 IE3 
D/F   -#! '2   #7  )## ,,@   )@DE  ;242(.+' IEIF   232 ,  T@"
"3*,)@-@ ;242(.+'IEIF -#! '2  #*- )*4=' 2*2)#@-T@",,X 8+ -
7"@#;242(.+'IEE 

 DH

View publication stats