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Partea I

Culegerea, prelucrarea
LSUH]HQWDUHD

datelor statistice
*UXSDUHDLFODVLILFDUHDGDWHORUVWDWLVWLFH

'XS

FRQ LQXWXOFDUDFWHULVWLFLLGHJUXSDUH

JUXS

putem avea:

UL FURQRORJLFH vQ FD]XO vQ FDUH VLVWHPDWL]DUHD GDWHORU VH IDFH GXS  R YDULDELO  GH

timp;

JUXS

ULWHULWRULDOH

JUXS

ULDWULEXWLYHSHQWUXWRDWHFDUDFWHULVWLFLOHvQDIDUDFDUDFWHULVWLFLORUGHWLPSLVSD LX

&DUDFWHULVWLFLOH

cnd sistematizaUHDGDWHORUVHIDFHGXS

DWULEXWLYH

SRW

IL

FDUDFWHULVWLFL

RYDULDELO GHVSD LX

FDQWLWDWLYH

QXPHULFH 

L

FDOLWDWLYH

(nenumerice).
*UXS

ULOHVLPSOH GXS

RVLQJXU YDULDELO

 

pot fi:

a) gruparea pe variante GDF  DPSOLWXGLQHD YDULD LHL HVWH PLF  L OD QLYHOXO XQLW
individuale s-DXvQUHJLVWUDWXQQXP UPLFGHYDORULGLVWLQFWH YDULDQWH 
b)

LORU

JUXSDUHD SH LQWHUYDOH GH YDULD LH HJDOH GDF  DPSOLWXGLQHD YDULD LHL HVWH PRGHUDW  Q
DFHVW FD] H QHFHVDU V  VH VWDELOHDVF  QXP UXO GH JUXSH L P ULPHD LQWHUYDOXOXL GH
YDULD LH

1XP

UXOXLGHJUXSH

(k vQFD]XOXQHLFROHFWLYLW

LIRUPDW GLQ

propunerea lui H.A. Sturges: k = 1 + 3,322 lg n

UHOD LHPDLSUDFWLF 

2k n

nXQLW

L

ULPHDLQWHUYDOXOXL

h=

de grupare (h):

x max x min
,
k

unde:
xmax -YDORDUHDPD[LP
xmin -YDORDUHDPLQLP

vQUHJLVWUDW 
vQUHJLVWUDW 

'HUH LQXW

GDF  UDSRUWXO GLQWUH DPSOLWXGLQHD YDULD LHL L QXP UXO GH JUXSH QX HVWH XQ FkW H[DFW
DWXQFLVHURWXQMHWHvQSOXVFHOSX LQODQXP UvQWUHJvQIXQF LHGHRUGLQXOGHP ULPH

al valorilor caracteristicii;

GDF  UH]XOWDWXO HVWH XQ QXP U vQWUHJ VH GHVFKLGH LQWHUYDOXO H[WUHP FRUHVSXQ] WRU
SHQWUX D LQFOXGH L YDORDUHD FDUH FRLQFLGH FX R OLPLW  D LQWHUYDOXOXL FX OLPLWD
VXSHULRDU  D XOWLPXOXL LQWHUYDO GDF  LQWHUYDOHOH VXQW vQFKLVH OD VWkQJD UHVSHFWLY FX
OLPLWDLQIHULRDU DSULPXOXLLQWHUYDOGDF LQWHUYDOHOHVXQWvQFKLVHODGUHD

c)

pta).

JUXSDUHD SH LQWHUYDOH GH YDULD LH QHHJDOH GDF  DPSOLWXGLQHD YDULD LHL HVWH IRDUWH
PDUH Q FD]XO vQ FDUH SULQ JUXSDUHD SH LQWHUYDOH QHHJDOH VH XUP UHWH V  VH
VWUXFWXUH]H FROHFWLYLWDWHD SH WLSXUL FDOLWDWLYH GDF  QX VH FXQRVF YDORULOH SUDJXULOH 

caUH VHSDU

 WLSXULOH FDOLWDWLYH VH SURFHGHD]  PDL vQWkL OD JUXSDUHD SH LQWHUYDOH HJDOH

L DSRL VH SRDWH IRORVL FULWHULXO PHGLHL SHQWUX IRUPDUHD WLSXULORU FDOLWDWLYH PLF

mediu, mare.
d)

JUXSDUHDSHPRGDOLW

L

n cazul unei variabile calitative care presupune includerea n


LORU OD FDUH V-D vQUHJLVWUDW DFHHDL IRUP  GH
manifestare a caracteristicii.
DFHHDL JUXS  FODV  D WXWXURU XQLW

*UXSDUHDFRPELQDW

SUHVXSXQHVLVWHPDWL]DUHDGDWHORUGXS GRX VDXPDLPXOWHFDUDFWHULVWLFL

de grupare care pot fi variDELOH QXPHULFH LVDX FDOLWDWLYH *UXSDUHD FRPELQDW


RUGLQLLGHJUXSDUHSHED]DUHOD LHLGHLQWHUGHSHQGHQ

 LPSXQH VWDELOLUHD

GLQWUHYDULDELOH

,QGLIHUHQW GH VFRSXO L RELHFWXO JUXS ULL DFHDVWD WUHEXLH V  vQGHSOLQHDVF  FHO SX LQ
XUP WRDUHOHFRQGL LL

completitudinea datelor;

RPRJHQLWDWHDJUXSHORULVXEJUXSHORU

XQLFLWDWHDLQFOXGHULLXQLW

LORU

ntr-RVLQJXU

JUXS  FODV GDF JUXSDUHDHVWHVLPSO 

FRQWLQXLWDWHDYDULD LHLJUXSHORUvQFD]XOYDULDELOHORUQXPHULFHFHHDFHSUDFWLFvQVHDPQ 
V QXH[LVWHJUXSHFXIUHFYHQ HQXOHFDUHDUGXFHODvQWUHUXSHUHDJUXS ULL

Clasificarea VH HIHFWXHD]  GXS


caracter oficial (de exemplu CAEN).

 YDULDELOH QHQXPHULFH FDOLWDWLYH  L DUH GH UHJXO  XQ

352%/(0

5(=2/9$7

3HQWUX  GLQ VDODULD LL SH VH[H DL XQHL ILUPH VH FXQRVF GDWHOH SULYLQG YHFKLPHD vQ PXQF 
vQDQL LYHQLWXULOHVDODULDOHV SW PkQDOH vQPLLOHL UHDOL]DWHvQOXQDPDUWLH

9HFKLPHDYHQLWXULOHVDODULDOHV

SW

PkQDOHLVH[XOvQUHJLVWUDWHvQHDQWLRQSHQWUXFHLGHVDODULD L

Tabelul 1.1.
Cod
salariat
A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
Total

Vechimea
(ani)
1
2
23
10
28
3
9
14
25
21
24
24
2
6
9
17
6
24
23
24
19
12
15
18
19
32
34
20
22
30
16
2
24
22
22
16
38
13
24
27
29
748

Venituri salariale
V

SW

PkQDOH PLLOHL

2
740
910
850
920
790
770
770
810
870
900
930
790
730
780
830
730
910
810
810
790
810
820
830
810
870
960
810
860
870
790
720
860
860
860
830
980
840
820
810
990
33440

Sexul
3
F
M
F
F
F
F
M
F
F
M
M
F
F
F
F
M
M
M
F
M
F
F
M
F
F
F
M
M
F
M
F
M
F
F
F
M
F
F
M
M
16 E UED L
24 femei

Se cere:
1.
2.
3.

V VHSUHFL]H]HQR LXQLOHGHED] FXFDUHVHRSHUHD] vQWDEHOXO


V VHHIHFWXH]HWRWDOXULOHLV VHSUHFL]H]HFHRSHUD LHVWDWLVWLF V

-a efectuat;
ndu-se ce fel

V  VH JUXSH]H FHL  GH PXQFLWRUL GXS  ILHFDUH YDULDELO  vQ SDUWH DU W

de grupare s-D IRORVLW L FH IHO GH UHSDUWL LH D UH]XOWDW 6

 VH UHSUH]LQWH JUDILF

UH]XOWDWHOHRE LQXWH

4.

V VHJUXSH]HFRPELQDWFHLGHPXQFLWRULvQIXQF LHGHFHOHWUHLYDULDELOHOXDWHFkWH
GRX LV VHSUHFL]H]HFHIHOGHVHULLGHUHSDUWL LHV DXRE LQXW

5.

V  VH FHQWUDOL]H]H SH JUXSH GH YHFKLPH YHQLWXULOH VDODULDOH V SW PkQDOH L V  VH

reprezinte grafic fondul de salarii pe grupe.


Rezolvare
1. n tabelul 1.1. s-DRSHUDWFXXQHOHQR LXQLVWDWLVWLFHGHED]
este fRUPDW

&ROHFWLYLWDWHD VWDWLVWLF

 GLQ FHL  GH VDODULD L L UHSUH]LQW  R FROHFWLYLWDWH GH

VHOHF LH

Unitatea de observareHVWHVDODULDWXOLUHSUH]LQW
&DUDFWHULVWLFD YDULDELODVWDWLVWLF

RXQLWDWHVLPSO 

. n tabel sunt nregistrate trei variabile:

sexul este o variabila atriEXWLY FDOLWDWLY DOWHUQDWLY 


vechimeaHVWHRYDULDELO DWULEXWLY FDQWLWDWLY LQHDOWHUQDWLY
YHQLWXULOHVDODULDOHV

Variantele

SW

PkQDOHHVWHRYDULDELO DWULEXWLY FDQWLWDWLY LQHDOWHPDWLY 

VXQW YDORULOH LQGLYLGXDOH DOH FHORU GRX  YDULDELOH QXPHULFH L IRUPD GH

PDQLIHVWDUHSHQWUXYDULDELODQHQXPHULF  FDOLWDWLY 

Datele statisticeSRWILLQGLYLGXDOHDGLF

YDORULOHFHORUGRX YDULDELOHFDQWLWDWLYHPHQ LRQDWH

PDLVXVSUHFXPLWRDWHUH]XOWDWHOHFHVHYRURE LQHGLQSUHOXFUDUHDDFHVWRUD

2. n uUPDHIHFWX ULLRSHUD LHLGHFHQWUDOL]DUHVLPSO s-DXRE LQXWXUP


SHQWUXYHFKLPHQRWDW FXX:
n

40

x = x
i =1

i =1

WRDUHOHYDORUL

= 2 + 23 + ... + 27 + 29 = 748 ani vechime

SHQWUXYHQLWXULOHVDODULDOHV SW PkQDOHQRWDWHFX

Y:

40

y =y
i =1

i =1

= 740 + 910 + ... + 810 + 990 = 33440 mii lei

Pentru variabila "sex"

QX VH SRDWH IDFH R FHQWUDOL]DUH VLPSO  FL GRDU SH FHOH GRX  YDULDQWH

E UED LLIHPHL 

3.

*UXSDUHDHIHFWXDW

GXS

RVLQJXU YDULDELO

 JUXSDUHDVLPSO

LRE LQHUHDVHULLORUGH

GLVWULEX LHGHIUHFYHQ H

Q XUPD XQHL JUXS UL VLPSOH UH]XOW  R GLVWULEX LH XQLGLPHQVLRQDO  YH]L GH H[HPSOX

tabelul 1.2.).

3.1. *UXSDUHDPXQFLWRULORUGXS

YHFKLPHLUHSUH]HQWDUHDJUDILF DVHULLORUGHGLVWULEX LHGH

IUHFYHQ H

3.1.1. *UXSDUHDSHLQWHUYDOHGHYDULD LHHJDOH


Etapele de lucru sunt:
a. calculul amplitudinii absolutHDYDULD LHL (Ax)
Ax = x max x min Ax = 38 2 = 36 ani
VWDELOLUHD QXP

b.

UXOXL GH JUXSH LQWHUYDOH GH YDULD LH 

YDULD LHL GH YROXPXO FROHFWLYLW

convenabil uQ QXP

Q IXQF LH GH

amplitudinea

LL vQUHJLVWUDWH L GH VFRSXO SURSXV V D DSUHFLDW F  HVWH

U GH  JUXSH

   'H UH LQXW F  QX WUHEXLH V  VH RE LQ  JUXSH FX

IUHFYHQ HQXOH

c.

1RW

GHWHUPLQDUHDP

ULPLLLQWHUYDOXOXLGHYDULD LH

A
36
hx = x =
= 6 ani
kx
6

(h)

5RWXQMLUHDGDF HVWHFD]XOVHIDFHvQSOXV

Repartizarea muncitorilor pe cele 6


control logic.

LQWHUYDOH GH YDULD LH HVWH SUHFHGDW  GH

1RWkQG OLPLWD LQIHULRDU  D SULPXOXL LQWHUYDO FX

cu xLDSUHFLHPF LQWHUYDOHOHDXIRVWVWDELOLWHFRUHFWGDF
xl x min

xl L OLPLWD VXSHULRDU

efectuarea unui

 D XOWLPXOXL LQWHUYDO

VXQWUHVSHFWDWHFRQGL LLOH

x L x max
6HFRQVWDW F SHQWUXH[HPSOXOOXDWVHUHVSHFW DFHVWHFRQGL LL

d.

SUHFL]DUHDFHORUNLQWHUYDOHGHYDULD LH

2 8 14 20 26 32 n continuare,
s-DRE LQXWXUP

:
8
*UXSDUHD ILLQG FX LQWHUYDOH GH YDULD LH FRQWLQX  WUHEXLH
14
VWDELOLW  FDUH OLPLW  HVWH LQFOXV  vQ LQWHUYDO 6H DOHJH GH RELFHL
20
YDULDQWD GH JUXSDUH FDUH DVLJXU  FHO PDL ELQH WHQGLQ D GH
26
UHSDUWL LH QRUPDO  DGLF  XQ JUDG GH FRQFHQWUDUH D IUHFYHQ HORU
32
F WUH centrul seriei.
38
s-DXUHSDUWL]DWVDODULD LLSHJUXSH FXOLPLWDLQIHULRDU LQFOXV vQLQWHUYDO L

WRDUHDGLVWULEX LHGHIUHFYHQ H YH]LWDEHOXO 

'LVWULEX LDVDODULD LORUGLQHDQWLRQXOvQUHJLVWUDWODILUPD$GXS

YHFKLPH DQL

Tabelul 1.2.
Grupe de muncitori
GXS

1RW

YHFKLPH DQL

1XP

UXO

VDODULD LORU

2-8
8-14
14-20
20-26

6
5
8
14

26-32
32-38

4
3

Total

40

/LPLWDLQIHULRDU LQFOXV vQLQWHUYDO

3.1.2.

5HSUH]HQWDUHD JUDILF

 D VHULHL GH GLVWULEX LH GXS

 YHFKLPH

cu intervale egale de

YDULD LH VH UHDOL]HD]  SULQ KLVWRJUDP  ILJXUD   SROLJRQXO IUHFYHQ HORU ILJXUD   FXUED
FXPXODWLY  ILJXUD LJUDILFXOGHFRQFHQWUDUH ILJXUD 
)LLQG LQWHUYDOH HJDOH SHQWUX KLVWRJUDP  L SROLJRQXO IUHFYHQ HORU VFDUD GH UHSUH]HQWDUH HVWH
XUP WRDUHDSHD[D2[OFP

DQL P ULPHDLQWHUYDOXOXL LDUSH2\ FP

 SHUVRDQH IUHFYHQ D

PD[LP ILLQGGH 

16

14

UVDODULD L

12

1XP

14

10

4
2
0

14

20

26

32

38

Vechime (ani)
)LJXUD'LVWULEX LDVDODULD LORUvQIXQF LHGHYHFKLPH

16

1XP

UVDODULD L

14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
2

14

20

26

32

38

44

Vechime (ani)
)LJXUD'LVWULEX LDVDODULD LORUvQIXQF LHGHYHFKLPH

Pentru curba

FXPXODWLY  L JUDILFXO GH FRQFHQWUDUH WUHEXLH I FXWH XQHOH FDOFXOH YH]L

WDEHOXO SHQWUXIUHFYHQ HFXPXODWHLJUHXW

LVSHFLILFH SDUWHID

GHvQWUHJ 

3H ED]D UHSDUWL LHL GH IUHFYHQ H FXPXODWH FUHVF WRU L GHVFUHVF WRU VH SRDWH FRQVWUXL FXUED

cumuODWLY  D IUHFYHQ HORU RJLY  FkQG WHQGLQ D


Gauss-/DSODFH  3H D[D 2[ VFDUD HVWH HJDO  WRW FX P
VFDUD YD IL  FP

HVWH

F WUH

R

UHSDUWL LH

QRUPDO 

legea

ULPHD LQWHUYDOXOXL GH JUXSDUH GDU SH D[D 2\

  VDODULD L GHRDUHFH QXP UXO PD[LP DO DFHVWRUD HVWH GH  VXPD IUHFYHQ HORU

seriei) (vezi figura 1.3.).

5HSDUWL LDVDODULD LORUGXS YHFKLPH

Tabelul 1.3.
1UVDODULD L

)UHFYHQ HFXPXODWH

*UHXWDWHVSHFLILF

Total vechime

FXPXODW

Intervale
GHYDULD LH

persoane

ID

&UHVF

WRU

Descresc
r

de total
A
2-8
8-14
14-20
20-26

1
6
5
8
14

26-32
32-38

4
3

Total

40

2
15.0
12.5
20.0
35.0

WR

5
40
34
29
21

37
40

100

21
53
134
322

2.8
7.1
17.9
43.1

114
104

15.2
13.9

748

100

Graficul lui Lorenz JUDILFXO GH FRQFHQWUDUH  VH HODERUHD]


IUHFYHQ H L JUHXW

IUHFYHQ H

7
15.0
27.5
47.5
82.5
92.5
100.0
-

vechime
8
2.8
9.9
27.8
70.9
86.1
100.0
-

 SH ED]D FHORU GRX  LUXUL GH

L VSHFLILFH FXPXODWH FRORDQHOH  L  GLQ WDEHOXO   3H DPEHOH D[H VFDUD

 ILH SURSRU LRQDO  FX  L FXUED VH WUDVHD]  XQLQG SXQFWHOH GH FRRUGRQDWH GLQWUH FHOH
LVSHFLILFHSHUHFKL YH]LILJXUD 

1UVDODULD L

GRX JUHXW

45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
2

14

20

26

32

38

Vechime (ani)

)LJXUD5HSDUWL LDIUHFYHQ HORUFXPXODWHvQIXQF LHGHYHFKLPH

100

% vechime cumulate

tUHEXLH V

de total

4
6
11
19
33

10.0
7.5

ID

ani

80

60

40

20

0
0

20

40

60

80

IUHFYHQ HFXPXODWH

100

)LJXUD&XUEDGHFRQFHQWUDUHDIUHFYHQ HORU FXUEDOXL/RUHQ] vQIXQF LHGHYHFKLPH

3.1.3.*UXSDUHDSHLQWHUYDOHGHYDULD LHQHHJDOH.
LvQFD]XOJUXS ULLSHLQWHUYDOHQHHJDOHWUHEXLHV VH LQ VHDPDGHDPSOLWXGLQHDYDULD LHLL
GHVFRSXOSHQWUXFDUHVHHIHFWXHD] DFHDVW RSHUD LH&HOPDLIUHFYHQWJUXSDUHDSHLQWHUYDOHQHHJDOH
VHIDFHFXVFRSXOGHDHYLGHQ LDWLSXULOHFDOLWDWLYHFHVHFRQWXUHD] vQFDGUXOFROHFWLYLW

n cazul nostru, pentru variabila vechime interesea]  V  VH FXQRDVF


cele trei grupe tipice:
VDODULD LFXYHFKLPHPLF 
VDODULD LFXYHFKLPHPHGLH
VDODULD LFXYHFKLPHPDUH
Folosim n acest scop criteriul mediei. Vechimea medie este:

LL

 UHSDUWL LD VDODULD LORU vQ

x=

x
i =1

748
= 18,7 ani vechime/salariat,
40

FDUHVHSODVHD] vQLQWHUYDOXODOWUHLOHD,QWHUYDOHOHQHHJDOHVHRE LQSULQUHJUXSDUHDFHORUHJDOH


*UXSD PLMORFLH VH YD RE LQH GLQ LQWHUYDOXO FDUH FRQ LQH PHGLD SOXV FHOH GRX  LQWHUYDOH
DO WXUDWH LDU FHOHODOWH JUXSH VH FXPXOHD]  SkQ  OD YDORDUHD PLQLP  RE LQkQG SULPD JUXS 
vQWkPSO WRUDLFLHVWHRVLQJXU JUXS LSkQ ODYDORDUHDPD[LP UH]XOWkQGFHDGH DWUHLDJUXS 

&HOH DVH LQWHUYDOH HJDOH OH

-am regrupat astfel: 2-8; 8-26; 26- L D UH]XOWDW XUP

WRDUHD

UHSDUWL LH YH]LWDEHOXO 

5HSDUWL LDVDODULD LORUGXS P ULPHDYHFKLPLL

Tabelul 1.4.
Grupe tipice
A
YHFKLPHPLF

vechime mijlocie
vechime mare

,QWHUYDOXOGHYDULD LH

UXO

VDODULD LORU

al vechimii (ani)
B
2-8
8-26
26-38

Total

1XP

1
6
27
7

40

3.1.4. 5HSUH]HQWDUHD JUDILF  D VHULLORU GH UHSDUWL LH FX LQWHUYDOH QHHJDOH VH IDFHFXDFHOHDL
tipuri de grafice ca n cazul intervalelor egale. Deosebirea apare prin necesitatea de a alege un
LQWHUYDO GH ED]  FDUH GHYLQH XQLWDWH D VF ULL GD UHSUH]HQWDUH L SULQ UHGXFHUHD SURSRU LRQDO  D

freFYHQ HORU $FHVWH FDOFXOH VXQW QHFHVDUH QXPDL SHQWUX KLVWRJUDP

 LVDX SROLJRQXO IUHFYHQ HORU

YH]LWDEHOXOLILJXUD 

5HSDUWL LDVDODULD LORUGXS YHFKLPHSHJUXSHWLSLFH

Tabelul 1.5.
Grupe tipice

,QWHUYDOXOGHYDULD LH

al vechimii (ani)
A
YHFKLPHPLF

vechime mijlocie
vechime mare

B
2-8
8-26
26-38

NuP

UXO

ULPHD

5DSRUWXOID

GH

)UHFYHQ H

VDODULD LORU

intervalului

primul interval

reduse

2
6
18

3
1
3

4
6,0
9,0

12

3,5

6
27
7

Pe axa Ox: 1 diviziune = 6 ani, iar pe axa Oy: 1 diviziuQH

VDODULD L

27

10

1XP

UVDODULD L

26
Vechime (ani)

38

)LJXUD5HSDUWL LDVDODULD LORUSHJUXSHWLSLFHGHYHFKLPH

3.2.*UXSDUHDVDODULD LORUGXS

YHQLWXULOHVDODULDOH

3.2.1. *UXSDUHDSHLQWHUYDOHGHYDULD LHHJDOH


)RORVLQGDFHODLPRGHOVHRE LQH

A y = 990 720 = 270 mii lei


k y = 6; h y =

Ay
ky

270
= 45 mii lei
6

&HOHDVHLQWHUYDOHGHYDULD LHVXQW

-765; 765-810; 810-855; 855-900; 900-945; 945-990.


.

(IHFWXkQGXQUD LRQDPHQWDQDORJFXFHOGHODSXQFWXODPRE LQXWUHSDUWL LDGLQWDEHOXO

5HSDUWL LDVDODULD LORUGXS YHQLWXULOHVDODULDOHV

SW PkQDOH PLLOHL

Tabelul 1.6.
*UXSHGHVDODULD LGXS

YHQLWXULOHVDODULDOH

1XP

UXO

V SWDPkQDOH PLLOHL

VDODULD LORU

720 - 765
765 - 810
810 - 855

1
4
7
14

855-900
900 - 945

7
5

945 - 990

Total

40

5HSUH]HQWDUHD JUDILF  VH IDFH GXS  DFHOHDL SULQFLSLL GDU LQkQG FRQW GH YDORULOH QXPHULFH
DOHYDULDELOHLGHJUXSDUHLDOHIUHFYHQ HORU YH]LILJXULOH

-1.4.).

3.2.2. *UXSDUHDSHLQWHUYDOHGHYDULD LHQHHJDOH


5HSHWkQG UD LRQDPHQWXO GH OD SXQFWXO  L LQkQG VHDPD GH YHQLWXULOH PHGLL VDODULDOH
V SW PkQDOH

y=

y
i =1

33440
= 836 mii lei/salariat
40

DP RE LQXW WUHL LQWHUYDOH GH YDULD LH QHHJDOH 

- 765; 765 - 900; 900 - L D UH]XOWDW UHSDUWL LD

din tabelul 1.7.


5HSDUWL LDVDODULD LORUGXS P ULPHDYHQLWXULORUVDODULDOHV

SW

PkQDOH

Tabelul.1.7.
*UXSHGXS

Grupe tipice

P

VDODULDOHV

SW

ULPHDYHQLWXULORU
PkQDOH PLLOHL

B
720 - 765
765 - 900
900 -990

YHFKLPHPLF

vechime mijlocie
vechime mare
Total

L SHQWUX YHQLWXULOH VDODULDOH V SW PkQDOH

1XP

UXO

VDODULD LORU

1
4
28
8
40

pentru seria cu intervale neegale, reprezentarea

JUDILF VHIDFHGXS PRGHOXOSUH]HQWDWOD ILJXUD 

3.3. Gruparea muncitorilor pe sexe


QDFHVWFD]ILLQGRYDULDELO DOWHUQDWLY QXSRWILIRORVLWHGHFkWGRX JUXSH YH]LWDEHOXO 

5HSDUWL LDVDODULD LORUSHVH[H

Tabelul 1.8.
Sexul

1XP

UXO

VDODULD LORU

A
Feminin
Masculin

1
24
16

Total

40

28
24
20
16
12

24
16

8
4
0

Feminin

Masculin

)LJ5HSDUWL LDVDODULD LORUSHVH[H

4. Gruparea combiQDW
6H SRW IRORVL FHO SX LQ GRX  YDULDELOH &RPELQkQG FkWH GRX  YDULDELOH DP RE LQXW VHULL
ELGLPHQVLRQDOHGHIUHFYHQ H WDEHOHOH

-1.11.).

4.1.*UXSDUHDVDODULD LORUGXS
(vezi tabelul 1.9.)

YHFKLPHLYHQLWXULOHVDODULDOHV

5HSDUWL LDPXQFLWRULORUGXS

YHFKLPHLYHQLWXULOHVDODULDOHV

SW

PkQDOH

SW PkQDOH

Tabelul 1.9.
Vechime
(ani)

9HQLWXULVDODULDOHV

720765
1
4

765810
2
2

810855
3
-

8-14
14-20
20-26
26-32
32-38

2
3
-

Total

A
2-8

4.2.*UXSDUHDVDODULD LORUGXS

SW

PkQDOH PLLOHL

Total

855900
4
-

900945
5
-

945990
6
-

3
5
5
1
-

5
1
1

4
1
-

1
2

5
8
14
4
3

14

40

VH[LYHFKLPH

7
6

(vezi tabelul 1.10.)

5HSDUWL LDVDODULD LORUSHVH[HLYHFKLPH

Tabelul 1.10.
Sexul
A
Feminin
Masculin
Total

Vechime
14-20 20-26

2-8

8-14

1
5
1

2
5
-

3
4
4

4.3. *UXSDUHDVDODULD LORUGXS


(vezi tabelul 1.11.)

VH[LGXS

Total
26-32

32-38

4
6
8

5
2
2

6
2
1

8
24
16

14

40

YHQLWXULOHVDODULDOHV

5HSDUWL LDVDODULD LORUSHVH[HLGXS

YHQLWXULOHVDODULDOHV

SW

SW

PkQDOH

PkQDOH

Tabelul 1.11.
9HQLWXULVDODULDOHV

Sexul
A
Feminin
Masculin
Total

720765
1
3
1

765810
2
4
3

SW

PkQDOH PLLOHL

810855855
900
3
4
10
5
4
2
14

900945
5
1
4
5

945- Total
990
6
7
1
24
2
16
3

40

4.4. Repre]HQWDUHD JUDILF

 D VHULLORU ELGLPHQVLRQDOH GH IUHFYHQ

se face prin graficul de

FRUHOD LHFXQRVFXWLVXEGHQXPLUHDGHFRUHORJUDP VDXJUDILFXOQRUXOXLGHSXQFWH YH]LILJXUD

pe exemplul datelor din tabelul 1.9.).


1035
990
945

mii lei

900
855
810
765
720
675
2

14

20ani

26

32

38

FiJXUD&RUHOD LDGLQWUHYHFKLPHLYHQLWXULOHVDODULDOHV

SW PkQDOH

&HQWUDOL]DUHDSHJUXSHDIUHFYHQ HORULDYDORULORUYDULDELOHORUvQUHJLVWUDWH

5.

)RORVLQG JUXSDUHD VH SRW FHQWUDOL]D QX QXPDL IUHFYHQ HOH FD OD SXQFWHOH  L  FL L YDORULOH

unor caractHULVWLFL FDUH DX IRVW vQUHJLVWUDWH )RORVLQG GUHSW FDUDFWHULVWLF

 GH ED]  YHFKLPHD YRP

FHQWUDOL]D GDWHOH L SHQWUX FHOHODOWH YDULDELOH YH]L WDEHOXO   6FRSXO ILLQG DFHOD GH D FXQRDWH
UHOD LLOHGLQWUHFHOHWUHLYDULDELOH YRPIDFHFHQWUDOL]DUHDGDWHORUPDL vQWkLSH LQWHUYDOHHJDOHLDSRL

pe grupele tipice de vechime (vezi tabelul 1.13.).


5HSDUWL LDVDODULD LORUGXS YHFKLPH

Tabelul 1.13.
Intervalul
Grupe tipice
de vechime
A
YHFKLPHPLF

vechime mijlocie
vechime mare
Total

GHYDULD LH

al vechimii (ani)
B
2-8
8-26
26-38

1XP

UXO

VDODULD LORU

1
6
27
7
40

Date centralizate pentru:


Sexul
Vechime
Venituri salariale
Masculin Feminin
(ani)
V SW PkQDOH PLLOHL
(pers.)
(pers.)
2
3
4
5
1
5
21
4500
12
15
509
22540
3
4
218
6400
16
24
748
33440

3HQWUX D HYLGHQ LD FX PDL PXOW  FODULWDWH UHOD LD GLQWUH YHFKLPH L IRQGXO GH VDODULL YRP
UHSUH]HQWDJUDILFSULQS WUDWHLFHUFXULGDWHOHGLQWDEHOXO3HQWUXDVWDELOLVFDUDGHUHSUH]HQWDUH

sunt necesare unele calcule (vezi tabelul 1.14.).


CalcXOXOVF

ULLGHUHSUH]HQWDUHSHQWUXS

WUDWHLFHUFXUL

Tabelul 1.14.
Fondul de salarii
pe grupe
(lei)

Grupele
A
YHFKLPHPLF

vechime mijlocie
vechime mare
Scara:

1
4.500.000
22.540.000
6.400.000
1) 1 cm = l000 lei

WUDW

Latura de
Latura1)
reprezentare
graficului
2
3
2121
2.1
4748
4.7
2530
2.5
2) 1 cm = 1000 lei

Cerc
Raza de
Raza2)
reprezentare
graficului
4
5
1197
1.2
2679
2.7
1428
1.4

CENTRALIZAREA PE GRUPE
Tabelul 1.12.

Pe intervale egale
2-8
1

8 - 14
2
1
0
9

2
2

3
740

790

790

730

730

720

M=1

21

4500

M=0

14 - 20
2
1
4
1
7
1
9
1
5

3
77
0
83
0
79
0
82
0

1
M

1
8

83
0

2
4

1
9
1
0
1
6
1
3
4

81
0
79
0
83
0
64
70

2
4
2
3
2
4
2
0

1
M

1
2

3
85
0
77
0
78
0
81
0

1
3

84
0

5
3

40
50

F
M
F

F=5

F=5

n1=6

n2=5

M=
4

F
F
M

M
F
M

F=4

n 3=
8

M
F
F
F
M=8

20 - 26
2
2
3
2
5
2
1
2
4

2
2
2
4
2
2
2
2
2
4
3
2
2

26 - 32
1
2
F
2
8
F
3
0
M
2
7
M
2
9

3
92
0
87
0
81
0
99
0

1
F

930

M
=2

35
90

F=
2

910

F
=2
n5
=4

3
910
810
870
900

810

1
1
4

810
810

860
860
860
860
820
120
20

F=6
n4=1
4

Scara: 1 cm = 1000 lei

22540000
4500000

vechime mic

6400000

vechime mijlocie

vechime mare

Figura 1.8. Fondul de salarii pe grupe de vechime

F
M
M
=1

n 6=
3

32 - 38
2
3
2
3
4
3
8
1
0
4

3
87
0
96
0
98
0
28
10

Scara: 1cm = 1000 lei

22540000

4500000

vechime mic

vechime mijlocie

6400000

vechime mare

Figura 1.9. Fondul de salarii pe grupe


QFRQFOX]LHPHQ LRQ PFkWHYDUHJXOLFHWUHEXLHDYXWHvQYHGHUHODHIHFWXDUHDJUXS ULORU

HYLWDUHDDSDUL LHLIUHFYHQ HLPD[LPHODXQXOGLQLQWHUYDOHOHVLWXDWHODH[WUHPHSHQWUXDQX


RE LQH UHSDUWL LL DFFHQWXDW DVLPHWULFH Q DFHVW FD] VH UHLD JUXSDUHD FX DOW QXP U GH
LQWHUYDOH GH YDULD LH L RSHUD LD VH UHSHW  SkQ  OD RE LQHUHD XQHL UHSDUWL LL FH WLQGH VSUH
QRUPDOLWDWH UHSDUWL LHVLPHWULF 

GDF LQWHUYDOHOHH[WUHPHDXIUHFYHQ HIRDUWHPLFLvQUDSRUWFXFHOH

lalte se poate deschide

JUXSDUHD ILH OD XQ FDS W ILH OD DPEHOH FDSHWH Q VLWXD LD vQ FDUH FD]XULOH H[WUHPH VXQW

evenimente rare, printr-R DQDOL]

 SUHDODELO  D GDWHORU SULPDUH VH SRW HOLPLQD DD

-zisele

FD]XUL DEHUDQWH L FDOFXOD R QRX  DPSOLWXGLQH D YDULD LHL SHQWUX VWDELOLUHD P ULPLL

intervalelor;

UHOXDUHDJUXS ULLGDF UHSDUWL LDSUH]LQW  IUHFYHQ HPD[LPHDO WXUDWH

vQ FD]XO JUXS ULORU SH LQWHUYDOH GH YDULD LH QHHJDOH UHJUXSDUHD LQWHUYDOHORU HJDOH VH YD

IDFHvQDDIHOvQFkWJUXSHOHVDXJUXSDGHODPLMORFXOVHULHLV GH LQ RSRQGHUHPDLPDUH


FRPSDUDWLY FX JUXSHOH GH OD H[WUHPH FDUH WUHEXLH V  ILH PDL SX LQ UHSUH]HQWDWH Q DFHVW

scop se va aplica criteriul mediei;

SHFkWSRVLELOODED]DXQHLJUXS ULFRPELQDWHYRUVWDYDULDELOHvQWUHFDUHH[LVW ROHJ WXU 


GHFRUHVSRQGHQ

ORJLF VDXRUHOD LHGHLQWHUGHSHQGHQ

IDFWRUGHLQIOXHQW SHQWUXFHDGH DGRXDYDULDELO 

FDUDFWHULVWLFDSULPDU SXWkQGIL

352%/(0

352386

3HQWUXGHDJHQ LHFRQRPLFLGLQUH HDXDFRPHUFLDO DXQXLRUDV

-au nregistrat datele

SULYLQGSURILWXOvQOXQD;LJUDGXOGHLQVWUXLUHDPDQDJHUXOXL YH]LWDEHOXO 

Tabelul 1.15.
Cod agent economic

Studii

Profitul (mil.lei)

A
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

1
medii
medii
superioare
medii
superioare
medii
medii
medii
medii
superioare
superioare
superioare
medii
medii
medii
medii
medii
superioare
medii
medii
medii
superioare
medii
medii
medii
superioare
medii
medii
medii
superioare

2
210
220
420
240
350
270
310
290
260
350
390
290
270
350
250
280
260
360
270
310
340
380
320
320
290
330
280
230
200
280

&HULQ H

1.
2.

HIHFWXD LFHQWUDOL]DUHDVLPSO DGDWHORUGLQWDEHO


JUXSD L FHL  GH DJHQ L HFRQRPLFL GXS  JUDGXO GH LQVWUXLUH D PDQDJHUXOXL L GXS 
P ULPHDSURILWXOXL SHDVHLQWHUYDOHGHYDULD LHHJDOH 

3.

HYLGHQ LD L WLSXULOH FDOLWDWLYH FH VH SRW FRQWXUD vQ FDGUXO FROHFWLYLW

LL IRORVLQG FULWHULXO

mediei;
4.

JUXSD L FRPELQDW FHL  GH DJHQ L HFRQRPLFL GXS  JUDGXO GH LQVWUXLUH D PDQDJHUXOXL L
GXS P ULPHDSURILWXOXL

5.

FRQVWUXL LJUDILFHOHDGHFYDWHILHF UXLSXQFWLSUHFL]D LWLSXOGHUHSDUWL LHRE LQXW