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BULETINUL TIINIFIC

AL
UNIVERSITII TEHNICE
DE CONSTRUCII
BUCURETI

NR.1/2009

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CUPRINS
STUDII

Analize privind sigurana n exploatare a cheurilor portuare de greutate


Alexandru Balcu--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5
Solicitarea dinamic a echipamentelor cilindrice cu perei subiri n timpul
efecturii transportului n industriile de proces sau de materiale pentru
construcii (I) Srbu Laureniu --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 31
O aplicaie a modelrii 3D pentru un monument istoric Geogeta Pop (Manea),
Mirela Daniela Dornescu-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------44
Modificarile reologice ale mixturilor bituminoase in procesul de reciclare Luiza Dobre --52
Criterii economice pentru evaluarea riscului de incendiu Ionel-Puiu Golgojan,
tefan Vintil ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------65
Determinarea submersiei minime necesare evitrii vortexului la pompe.
Aplicaie prin testare fizic pe model la scar redus la pompele NMV1000 i
NMV 2000 utilizate n energetic - Stnescu Petrior------------------------------------------------75
Zonarea teritoriului i co-relaii ntre diveri para-metri geotehnici pentru loessurile
din Dobrogea Gabriela Brndua Cazacu-------------------------------------------------------------94
Studiul oscilaiilor unei nave i ale unei sarcini din crligul macaralei de bord Mirela
Cotrumb, Cosmin Bucur ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 102

Analize privind sigurana n


exploatare a cheurilor portuare de
greutate

Analyses Regarding the Operation


Safety of Port Gravity Quays

Alexandru Balcu, ef de proiect, inginer SC TRAPEC SA, Bucureti, Divizia Infrastructur (Infrastructure
Division), Departamentul Hidrotechnic (Hydro Technical Department), e-mail: alexandru.balcu@trapec.ro

1. Introducere

1. Introduction

n cadrul amenajrilor portuare, comportarea


n exploatare a infrastructurii de acostare
cheurile portuare, reprezint un factor
hotrtor n sigurana de ansamblu a
amenajrii precum i n ceea ce privete
meninerea capacitii de operare a portului
respectiv.
n ultimile decenii dar cu precdere n ultimii
7-8 ani [1], problema siguranei structurale s-a
pus ntr-o legtur tot mai strns cu
activitatea specific portuar, respectiv cu
operarea navelor la cheu i pe platformele
portuare, cu echipamentul portuar precum i
cu infrastructura secundar: platforme
portuare, construcii de depozitare, fundaiile
pentru cile de rulare ale macaralelor, sistemul
feroviar, etc.
O atenie deosebit s-a acordat comportrii
structurilor portuare la aciuni excepionale.
Dintre acestea, aciunea seismic a fost
considerat cea mai important, fiind dovedit
faptul [1] c aceasta poate avea efectele cele
mai distrugtoare asupra acestor tipuri de
structuri. Dei aciunea seismic a fost luat n
calcul nc din cele mai vechi timpuri, fiind
introdus n numeroase coduri i norme, n
ultima perioad s-a produs o revoluie n ceea
ce privete tratarea acestei probleme: analiza
comportrii (strict) a construciei de acostare
cheul propriu-zis, a fost nlocuit de analiza
dual structur capacitate de operare, analiza
structural
extinzndu-se
i
asupra
infrastructurii portuare adiacente.
Lucrarea de fa se nscrie n contextul
analizelor seismice i post seismice ale
comportrii construciilor portuare, utiliznd
diverse metode de analiz. n cadrul acestei
lucrri, este prezentat analiza dinamic
utiliznd metoda elementului finit a unui cheu
de greutate de tip cheson din portul Kobe,

In the port development domain, the


operation behavior of the mooring
infrastructure port quays represents a
vital factor on the overall safety of the port
and on the maintenance of the port
operation capacity as well.
In the last decades but mainly in the last 78 years [1], the structural safety issue has
been closely connected with the port
specific activity, i.e. with the operation on
ships and on the port platform, with the
port equipment and with the secondary
infrastructure: port platforms, storehouses,
crane rail foundations, railway system, etc.
Special attention has been granted to the
port structure behaviour under exceptional
loads. Among these, the seismic load has
been considered the most important, due
the fact that this load could lead to the
most devastating effects on these
structures [1]. Even the seismic load has
been taken into account in the engineering
calculations since the oldest times, being
included in many norms and standards.
Lately, a real revolution has started on this
issue: the analysis of (just) the mooring
structure behaviour the quay proper, has
been replaced by the structure operation
capacity
bi-analysis.
The
analysis
extended itself also on the neighbouring
port infrastructure.
The present paper is part of the different
kind of seismic and post seismic
analyzes of the port structure behaviour.
In this paper, it is presented the dynamic
analysis is presented using the finite
elements method of a caisson gravity quay
from the port of Kobe, Japan, which was
serious damaged during the 17th January

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

Japonia, care n timpul cutremurului din 17


Ianuarie 1995 a suferit avarii grave. Acest tip
de analiz se nscrie n tendina general de
studiu prezentat mai sus, avnd ca scopuri
principale gsirea i evidenierea fenomenelor
care au dus la accidentul seismic precum i
identificarea parametrilor de material care au
avut o contribuie esenial n comportarea
seismic a structurii.

1995 earthquake. This kind of analysis is


part of the study tendency presented
above and has as its main aims the
discovery and presentation of the
phenomena leading to the seismic accident
and the identification of the parameters of
the material with an essential contribution
on the structure seismic behaviour.

2. Studiu de caz. Comportarea la


cutremurul din 17 Ianuarie 1995 a
cheurilor portuare din portul Kobe,
Japonia.

2. Case Study. Behaviour of the Kobe


Port Quays, Japan, under the 17th
January 1995 Earthquake. Finite
Element Analysis

2.1 Introducere

2.1 Introduction

Cutremurul din 17 Ianuarie 1995 a afectat


zona Kansai din jurul oraului Kobe, ora
port reprezentativ din Japonia Central.
Cutremurul, numit i Marele Dezastru,
s-a soldat cu moartea a 5502 de oameni i
cu pagube materiale estimate la zeci de
miliarde de yeni.
Avnd 7,2 grade pe scara japonez MJMA,
corespunztor unei intensiti seismice de
X...XII pe scara Mercalli (distrugere
aproape total), cutremurul a fost
considerat ca fiind cel mai puternic dup
Fukui 1948.

The earthquake from 17th January 1995


affected Kansai area outside the Kobe city,
which is a representative city-port from
Central Japan.

n fig. 2.1 se prezint situaia geologic a


plcilor tectonice din zona portului Kobe.

In figure 2.1 the geological situation of the


tectonic plates from Kobe port region is
presented.

The earthquake, named also The Great


Hanshin, caused the death of 5,502 people
and material loss of 10 milliards yen.
Registering 7.2 degree on MJMA Japanese
scale, which corresponds to XXII seismic
intensity on the Mercalli scale (almost total
destruction), the earthquake was considered
the strongest after Fukui 1948.

Fig. 2.1 Situaia tectonic a oraului Kobe.


Kobe City. Tectonic situation.

Au fost afectate practic toate tipurile de


6

All types of civil structures were affected.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

structuri inginereti. Situat la aproximativ


17 km de epicentru, portul Kobe a fost
printre cele mai afectate zone (fig. 2.2).
Dei nu s-a nregistrat colapsul nici unei
structuri portuare, acestea au suferit avarii
foarte grave. Portul avea la acea vreme
186 de cheuri, din care cca. 90% de tip
cheson. Majoritatea au suferit deplasri
orizontale ctre acvatoriu de max. 5 m i
2,80 m n medie. nclinarea general a fost
de 4o. Tasrile n umplutura din spatele
cheului au avut cam acelai ordin de
mrime. Aceste deplasri sunt considerate
cele mai mari din istoria porturilor din
Japonia.

Located at approximately 17 km from the


epicentre, the Kobe port was one of the
most damaged areas (fig. 2.2). The port
structures suffered very severe damages,
although none collapsed. The port had at
that time 186 quays, of which 90% of the
caisson type.
Most of them registered horizontal
displacements of 5m maximum and 2.80
m in average. The general inclination was
of 40.
The settlements of the backfilling were
almost the same. These displacements are
considered the biggest in the Japan port
history.

Fig. 2.2 Plan de situaie al portului Kobe


General lay-out of Kobe port

2.2 Tipuri constructive de cheu n portul


Kobe (fig. 2.3, 2.4)

2.2 Construction Type Quays at Kobe


Port (fig. 2.3, 2.4)

La proiectare s-a avut n vedere n primul


rnd meninerea stabilitii lor n special
prin frecarea pe talpa de fundaie; la
proiectarea antiseismic s-a utilizat metoda
pseudo-static, cu coeficieni seismici de
0,10 0,25.

The initial design focussed mainly on the


maintenance of the quay stability,
especially with the help of friction on the
foundation; for the anti-seismic design the
pseudo static method was used, with
seismic coefficients of 0.10 0.25.

Doar trei cheuri au rezistat la cutremur,


suferind doar avarii minore. Acestea au
fost proiectate la coeficieni seismici de
0,25. Rezistena acestor cheuri s-a datorat
supradimensionrii i a unor msuri
constructive eficiente.

Only three quays withstood


the
earthquake, registering only minor
damages. These quays were designed for
seismic coefficients of 0.25. The strength
of these quays was given by over-sizing
and by some efficient construction
measures.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

Fig. 2.3 Cheu n Port Island


Port Island quay

Fig. 2.4 Cheu n Rokko Island


Rokko Island quay

2.3 Micarea seismic

2.3 Seismic Movement

Acceleraiile de vrf au avut valori


nsemnate: 525 cm/s2 (N-V), 230 cm/s2 (N
E) si 446 cm/s2 (vertical) (fig. 2.5, 2.6)
Componentele acceleraiilor paralele cu
frontul cheurilor au influenat comportarea
acestora, dar n mod indirect, prin
schimbarea strii pmnturilor de sub/n
spatele cheurilor cresterea presiunii apei
n pori, n primul rand [2].

The peak accelerations were very high:


525 cm/s2 (N-W), 230 cm/s2 (N O) and
446 cm/s2 (vertical) (fig. 2.5, 2.6).
The compounds of the accelerations
parallel with the quay line influenced
indirectly the behaviour of the quays
through the change of the state of the soils
under/behind the quays mainly
increasing the pore water pressure [2].

Fig. 2.5

2.4 Caracterizarea geotehnic

2.4 Geotechnical Characterization

La proiectare s-a hotrt mbuntirea


terenului de sub talpa de fundaie prin
nlocuirea argilei aluviale cu nisipuri
obinute din granite descompuse nisipuri
Masado. Curba granulometric a acestor
nisipuri (fig. 2.6) arat c acestea conin n
mare parte particule fine i grosiere i au
un potenial de lichefiere ridicat [2].

On the initial design the improvement of the


soil from under the foundation was decided
by replacing the alluvial clay with sands
resulted from the un-compound granites.
These sands are called Massado sands,
being selected from this region. The grain
size curve (fig. 2.6) shows that these sands
contain mainly fine and coarse particles and
they have a high liquefaction potential [2].

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

Fig. 2.6 Curba granulometric a nisipurilor Massado


Grain size curve of Massado sands

2.5 Degradri la cheurile de tip cheson

2.5 Quay Deformation and Foundation


Ground Conditions

Dup cum s-a menionat la nceputul


capitolului, cheurile din portul Kobe au
suferit deplasri importante, vizibile mai
ales la nivelul coronamentului. n fig.
2.7...2.10
se
prezint
deformaiile
chesoanelor proiectate pentru coeficieni
seismici de 0,10, respectiv 0,15. n afara
deplasrilor i deformaiilor excesive ale
zidurilor de cheu, se remarc subsidena
umpluturii din spatele cheului i
deformaia patului de fundaie.

As it was mentioned in the section inception,


the Kobe port quays suffered important
displacements, visible mainly on the top. In
figures 2.7 to 2.10 the deformations of the
quays designed for 0.10 and 0.15 seismic
coefficients are presented. More than the
excess displacements and deformations of
the quay walls, one can see the backfilling
subsidence and the foundation bed
deformation.

Fig. 2.7 Deformaia unui cheu n Port Island


Port Island quay deformation

Fig. 2.8 Deformaia unui cheu n Rokko Island


Rokko Island quay deformation

Fig. 2.9

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

Fig. 2.10

2.6 Deformaia cheurilor i condiiile


terenului de fundare

2.6 Quay Deformations and Foundation


Ground Conditions

Deplasrile msurate la cheul fundat pe


prismul de nisip de nlocuire se datoreaz
unor efecte adiionale, legate de natura
subsolului: observaiile efectuate au
sugerat c, n plus fa de efectul forelor
de inerie, al presiunii hidrodinamice i ale
mpingerii umpluturii, condiiile terenului
de sub talpa de fundaie au contribuit
semnificativ la scderea capacitii
portante a structurii portuare.

The displacements registered on the quay


founded on the replacing sand prism are
given by some additional effects connected
with the sub-soil nature: performed
observations suggested that, more than the
effect of the inertial loads, hydrodynamic
pressure and backfilling pressure, the ground
conditions under the quay influenced
significantly the decrease of the bearing
capacity of the port structure.

Poziia relativ a chesonului fa de patul


de piatr spart putea oferi o informaie
important dac deformaia cheului a
fost cauzat n primul rnd de alunecare
sau de deformaia pmnturilor din
fundaie. Investigaiile cu ajutorul
scafandrilor din aprilie 1995 au artat c
zidurile de cheu s-au nclinat i nfipt n
patul de fundare deci, deplasarea
chesonului s-a datorat n primul rnd
deformaiei terenului de fundare.

The relative position of the caisson besides


the crushed stone bed could provide
important information if the quay
deformation was mainly caused by the
sliding or by the deformation of the subsoils. The diver investigations from April
1995 showed that the quay walls inclined
and set themselves in the foundation bed;
thus, the caisson displacement was mainly
caused by the foundation ground
deformation.

2.7 Testul cu masa (placa) vibrant

2.7 The Shaking Table (plate) Test

Chesonul a fost modelat la scara 1:17, sub


forma unui prototip tip container de oel.
Testul cu masa vibrant a artat c dei
creterea presiunii apei n pori este mic
(50%) n prismul de nisip nlocuitor,
aceasta afecteaz serios stabilitatea
cheului.

The caisson was modelled on the 1:17


scale, as a steel container prototype. The
shaking table test indicated that even the
increase of the pore water pressure in the
replacing sand is small (50%), seriously
affecting the quay stability.
2.8 Conclusions

2.8 Concluzii
1) Majoritatea cheurilor de tip cheson au
suferit deplasri de max. 5m (3m n
medie). S-au deplasat aproape uniform,
meninnd i dup deplasare o linie
dreapt a frontului. Nu s-a nregistrat nici
un colaps i nici nclinri excesive.

1) Most of the caisson quays suffered


displacements of 5 m maximum (3 m on
an average). The quays were displaced
almost uniformly, so the mooring line was
straight after the displacement. No
collapse and no extreme inclination were
registered.

2) Cheurile proiectate antiseismic au


rezistat foarte bine la cutremur.

2) The anti-seismic designed quays


resisted very well under the earthquake.

3) Deplasrile zidurilor de cheu au artat o


corelare evident cu grosimea i gradul de
compactare a nisipului de nlocuire de sub

3) The displacements of the quay walls


indicated an obvious correlation with the
thickness and with the compaction ratio of

10

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

cheuri. n particular, chesoanele executate


pe fundaii consolidate cu piloi de nisip
compactat au suferit tasri i deplasri mai
mici dect cele executate pe un pat de
nisip necompactat.
4) testele cu masa vibrant au condus la
concluzia c deplasrile chesoanelor n-au
fost induse imediat, adic n timpul
primelor cicluri de vibraii puternice, ci
s-au dezvoltat mai trziu, gradual, datorit
creterii presiunii apei n pori.

the replacing sand under the quays.


Particularly, the caissons erected on
foundations consolidated with compacted
sand piles suffered settlements and
displacements smaller than those placed
on an un-compacted sand bed.
4) The shaking table tests led to the
conclusion that the caisson displacements
were not induced in the first powerful
vibration cycle period. They gradually
developed later, due to the pore water
increase.

5) Toate investigaiile au artat c


mecanismul deformaiilor chesoanelor nu
a fost alunecarea pe un plan orizontal sau
nclinat, ci deformaia general a terenului
de fundare.

6) All the investigations ahowed that the


mechanism of the caisson deformations
consisted of the general deformation of the
foundation ground and not of the
horizontal or inclined sliding.

3. Analiza dinamic cu elemente finite

3. Finite Element Dynamic Analysis

3.1 Introducere. Scopul analizei

3.1 Introduction. Purpose of the Analysis

Prin analiza dinamic cu elemente finite,


considernd cazul prezentat mai sus, s-au
urmrit:
- simularea comportrii la cutremur a
cheurilor de tip cheson, incluznd aici i
sistemul teren de fundare masiv de
umplutur (faza I);
- identificarea parametrilor de material cu
contribuie major asupra comportrii
seismice a structurii portuare (faza a II-a).

The finite element dynamic analysis on the


case presented above had the following
goals:
- the simulation of the seismic behaviour
of the caisson quays, including the
foundation ground backfilling system
(phase I);
- the identification of the material
parameters with major contribution on the
seismic behaviour of the port structure
(phase II).

3.2 Abordare

3.2 Approach

Analiza dinamic efectuat are la baz


legile de micare i constitutive de
material redate n lucrrile [3] i [4].

The dynamic analysis is based on the


displacement and constitutive laws
described in the papers [3] and [4].

Analiza dinamic s-a efectuat cu ajutorul


modulului QUAKE din cadrul pachetului
GEO<SLOPE [5].

The dynamic analysis was performed with


the QUAKE module from the GEOSLOPE package [5].

Analiza efectuat este de tip bidimensional, aceast alegere avnd la baz


urmtoarele considerente:
- timp i spaiu pe disc mult reduse dect
n cazul unei analize tri-dimensionale;
- comportarea real a cheurilor din portul

A bi-dimensional analysis was performed.


Choosing a bi-dimensional approach was
based on the following considerations:
- time and space on the hard-disk more
reduced than for the 3D analysis;
- the real behaviour of the KOBE port

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

11

KOBE a pus clar n eviden starea de


deformaie plan; n consecin, printr-o
analiz tridimensional nu se ctiga
semnificativ n ceea ce privete
rezultatele obinute.

quays clearly has shown the plane


deformation state; thus, performing a 3D
analysis didnt get important gains on the
provided results.

n modelarea ansamblului structur


teren, n alegerea caracteristicilor de
material i a stratificaiei terenului, n
calarea modelului n funcie de
rezultatele obinute la un moment dat, s-a
inut seama de condiiile reale din
amplasament i de comportarea real la
cutremur a cheurilor de tip cheson.

The ground structure system modelling,


the choice of the material characteristics
and of the soil stratification and the
calibration of the model, took into
account the real site conditions and the
real seismic behaviour of the caisson
quays.

Micarea seismic a fost simulat prin


introducerea automat a accelerogramei
nregistrat n amplasament, adaptat
programului de calcul.
3.3 Modele de material utilizate n cadrul
analizei

Modelul limiar - elastic

Reprezint cel mai simplu model utilizat n


analiza dinamic i n analiza static.
n cazul utilizrii materialelor liniar
elastice, proprietile acestora rmn
constante pe durata analizei i nu sunt
necesare procesele iterative i aplicarea
criteriilor de convergen.
Totui, dei modelul este foarte simplu,
utilizarea acestuia nu d rezultate adecvate
dect n cazul n care interesul este de a
obine rspunsul dinamic al sistemului n
care nivelul eforturilor de forfecare este
sczut i se afl de asemenea n zona liniar
elastic. Utilizarea materialelor liniar
elastice pentru analize complexe, n care este
necesar de exemplu simularea generrii
presiunii apei n pori n timpul micrii
(lichefierea), conduce la rezultate eronate.
n cazul de fa, modelul liniar elastic s-a
utilizat pentru definirea condiiilor statice
iniiale (vezi & 3.4).

Modelul liniar echivalent elastic

Modelul liniar echivalent elastic a fost


introdus n analiza dinamic pentru a putea
12

The seismic movement was simulated by


the electronic processing of the curve of
the acceleration registered on the site,
modified according to the software.
3.3 Material Models used in the Analysis

Linear Elastic Model

It represents the simplest model used in


the dynamic and static analysis. For the
linear elastic model, the material
proprieties are constant along the process
and no iterations and convergence criteria
are necessary during the analysis.
Even the model is very simple, its use
giving good results only if we have an
interest in finding the dynamic response of
the system where the shear stresses level is
low and it also doesnt pass the linear
elastic state. Using linear elastic
materials in the complex analyzes, where
for example, the pore water generation
simulation during the movement is
necessary (liquefaction), leads to wrong
results.
In the present case, the linear elastic
model was used for defining the initial
static conditions only (see & 3.4).

Linear Elastic Equivalent Model

The linear elastic equivalent model was


introduced in the dynamic analysis for

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

surprinde schimbarea parametrilor de


material, care are loc n mod real n timpul
solicitrilor dinamice puternice. Este un
model care este folosit cu succes pentru
analiza sistemelor supuse solicitrii seismice.
n cazul cheurilor portuare, sistemul supus
analizei dinamice este complex, fiind alctuit
din sub-sisteme cu proprieti i respectiv
comportri seismice diferite. Interaciunea
dintre sub-sisteme, n cadrul sistemului,
implic rspunsul seismic dependent al
acestora n funcie de modificrile
parametrilor fiecrui sub-sistem.

surprising the material parameters


change which is really developed during
the strong dynamic actions. It is used with
good results in the analysis of the systems
under seismic loads.

Foarte
des,
accidentele
datorate
cutremurelor puternice se petrec, n cazul
cheurilor portuare, prin cedarea terenului
de fundare i/sau a masivului de umplutur
mai degrab dect prin cedarea propriuzis a structurii. Aceasta implic
introducerea
parametrilor
solurilor
constitutive ale sistemului n calculul
dinamic, a cror modificare n timpul
vibraiei seismice influeneaz hotrtor
rspunsul ntregului sistem.

Very often the strong earthquake accidents


on the port quays are caused by the
foundation ground and/or backfilling
collapse than the damage of the structure
itself. This implies the consideration of the
soil constitutive parameters in the dynamic
calculation. The modification of these
parameters during the seismic vibration
strongly influences the response of the
whole system.

Obiectivele analizei fiind determinarea


rspunsului la cutremur i senzitivitatea
parametrilor de material, o atenie
deosebit s-a acordat n acest sens
parametrilor de material. Pe scurt, mai jos
se prezint funciile de variaie a 3 dintre
aceti parametri.

The port quay system under dynamic


analysis is very complex, consisting of sub
systems with different proprieties and
seismic behaviors. The interaction
between
sub-systems
implies
the
dependent seismic response depending on
the parameter change for each sub-system.

The objectives of the analysis are the


seismic response finding and the
parameter sensitivity of the material, and
for this reason a special attention was
granted to the material parameters. Briefly,
the variation functions of 3 parameters are
presented bellow.

Funcia Gred

Greduction function

Variaia modulului tangenial secant cu


deformaia specific ciclic poate fi
definit de o funcie de reducere, bazat pe
urmtoarea relaie empiric (fig. 3.1):

The variation of the secant tangential


modulus with the cyclic specific
deformation can be defined by a reduction
function, based on the following empirical
relation: see fig. 3.1.

Gmax = k ( m' )

Gmax = k ( m' )

(3.1)

unde: k i n sunt constante iar 'm


reprezint presiunea iniial de confinare.
Dup cum se poate observa, pentru n = 0
modulul de deformaie transversal este
independent de efort. Constanta k depinde
de condiiile iniiale de efort, cum ar fi
condiiile de consolidare i densitatea
terenului.

(32.1)

where: k and n are constants and 'm is the


initial confining stress. As one can see
from the above relation, for n = 0 the
transversal deformation modulus is stress
independent. The constant k depends by
the initial stress conditions, such as
consolidation conditions and soil density.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

13

1.0

G/Gmax

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0
1e-006

1e-005

0.0001

0.001

0.01

0.1

Cyclic Shear Strain

Fig. 3.1

Procentul de amortizare critic n


condiiile de solicitare dinamic ciclic

Critical Damping Ratio in case


ofCyclic Dynamic Load

Odat cu descreterea modulului G n


acelai timp cu creterea deformaiei
specifice ciclice, suprafaa buclelor
hzsterezis crete la rndul ei. Aceasta este
indicaia
creterii
procentului
de
amortizare cu amplitudinea deformaiei.

Once the modulus G decreases at the


same time with the increase of the cyclic
specific deformation, the hysteretic surface
increases as well. This is the indication of
the damping ratio increase with the
specific deformation amplitude.

Presiunea apei n pori n condiiile


ciclurilor de ncrcare dinamic

Pore Water Pressure in the Conditions


of the Dynamic Load Cycles

Presiunea apei n exces poate crete n


porii solului supus ncrcrii ciclice
dinamice. Aceasta duce la descreterea
efortului unitar efectiv. Cnd terenul se
afl n condiii de consolidare izotropic,
presiunea apei n pori n exces poate crete
i efortul unitar efectiv tinde ctre zero. n
aceste condiii, poate apare lichefierea.

Excess pore water pressure can increase in


the pores of the soil under cyclic dynamic
load. This leads to effective stress
decrease. When the soil is in isotropic
consolidation conditions, the excess pore
water pressure can increase and the
effective stress goes to zero. In these
conditions, liquefaction can occurs.

Punctul de nceput al lichefierii poate fi


considerat momentul n care creterea
presiunii apei n pori este egal cu efortul
iniial de fretare (Seed & Lee, 1966). Pe
baza acestei ipoteze, ncrcarea seismic,
exprimat n termenii efortului de
forfecare ciclic, este comparat cu
rezistena la lichefiere a terenului,
exprimat de asemenea n termenii
efortului ciclic.

The liquefaction starting point is the point


where the water pore pressure increase is
equal with the initial confining stress
(Seed & Lee, 1966). In this assumption,
the seismic load, expressed in the terms of
cyclic shear stress, is compared with the
liquefaction soil resistance, expressed also
in terms of cyclic stress.

Aceasta reprezint i presupunerea pe care


se bazeaz cazul prezentat (fig. 3.22).

14

This is the assumption the present case


analysis is based on (fig. 3.2).

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

1.0

Pore Pressure Ratio

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0
0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

Cyclic Number Ratio N/NL

Fig. 3.2 Variaia presiunii apei n pori n condiiile ciclurilor de ncrcare


Pore water pressure variation under cyclic load

3.4 Analiza static iniial

3.4 Initial Static Analysis

A fost utlizat numai n scopul de a stabili


condiiile iniiale de efort nainte de
efectuarea analizei dinamice.
Modelul cu elemente finite este prezentat
n fig. 3.3.
Modelul este alctuit din 10.188 de noduri
i 3.327 de elemente finite. Utilizarea
elementelor izoparametrice de ordinul doi
este obligatorie pentru obinerea de
rezultate bune n analiza dinamic.
n tabelul 3-1 se prezint valorile
parametrilor de material utilizai n analiza
static iniial.

It was used only with the aim of


establishing the initial stress conditions
before making the dynamic analysis .
The finite element model is presented in
fig. 3.3.
The model is made of 10,188 nodes and
3,327 finite elements. The use of
secondary order iso-parameter elements is
compulsory for accurate results in the
dynamic analysis.
Table 3.1 presents the figures of the
material parameters used in the initial
static analysis.

Observaie: n analiza static iniial,


deformaia specific ar trebui ignorat nu
exist n realitate [5]. Deci, proprietile de
rigiditate ale materialului nu influeneaz
aa de mult starea de efort.
Au fost utlizai moduli fictivi de
deformaie n scopul de a evita
concentrrile de eforturi, care pot apare n
special n zonele de contact dintre
materiale diferite. Pentru analiza dinamic
intereseaz numai starea de efort i
distribuia presiunii apei n pori.

Observation: In the initial static analysis,


the specific deformations should be
ignored they do not really exist [5].
Thus, the material strength proprieties
don't influence the stress state so much.
Fictive linear deformation modules were
used in order to avoid stress
concentrations, especially possible on t
different material borders. For the dynamic
analysis only the initial stress state and the
pore water pressure distribution are of
interest.

Material
pietri+ nisip
argil
prism nisip
piatr spart
anrocamente
umplutur
structur

Model material
liniar - elastic
liniar - elastic
liniar - elastic
liniar - elastic
liniar - elastic
liniar - elastic
liniar - elastic

E (kPa)
2,7 x 104
2,0 x 104
2,3 x 104
2,5 x 104
2,5 x 104
2,3 x 104
2,7 x 104

Tabelul/Table 3-1
G (kPa)
Coef. Poisson
0,30
1,0385 x 104
0,40
7,143 x 103
0,30
8,846 x 103
0,30
9,615 x 103
0,30
9,615 x 103
0,30
1,153 x 104
0,27
1,063 x 104

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

(kN/m3)
19,5
18,5
19
20
20
19
23

15

Cheu de tip cheson in portul Kobe


Tipul de analiza: Initial Static
Cheu de tip cheson in portul Kobe
Tipul de analiza: Initial Static

1. Model de calcul cu elemente finite

1. Model de calcul cu elemente finite

Cheson Prism
de piatra

Umplutura din deseuri de cariera

Pat de piatra sparta


Argila

Argila

Prism de inlocuire din


nisip tip "Massado"

Orizont pietris + nisp

Fig. 3.3 Model cu elemente finite pentru analiza static iniial


Finite element model in initial static analysis

Rezultate obinute

Results

For the dynamic analysis, the attention is


focused on the initial stress state and the
initial pore water pressure distribution (fig.
3.4, 3.5 and 3.6).

Pentru efectuarea analizei dinamice,


intereseaz starea de efort (iniial) i
distribuia presiunii apei n pori (fig. 3.4,
3.5 i 3.6)

Efortul unitar vertical efectiv (kPa)


In Situ

Pasul de calcul: 0 (initial)


Presiunea apei in pori (m)
50

100

50

150
350

100
150

200

50

200

0
0
25

10
0
15

250

300

200

300

300

350

2 50

350

0
30

400

400

450

450

500

500

Fig. 3.4 Distribuia presiunii apei n pori la momentul iniial


Initial water pore pressure distribution

Fig. 3.5 Efortul unitar vertical efectiv


Initial effective stress

Efortul unitar orizontal efectiv (kPa)


In Situ

50
100

150
100

10
0

50

100

250

100
15
0

100

150

200

Fig. 3.6 Efortul orizontal efectiv iniial


Initial Horizontal Effective Stress

Diagramele de mai sus indic o distribuie


bun i lin a eforturilor. Apar cteva
16

The pictures indicate good and smooth


stress distribution. However, some minor

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

concentrri minore de eforturi totui, la


piciorul chesonului i la contactul dintre
prismul de nisip umplutur stratul de
argil. Explicaia const n diferena dintre
modulii de deformaie liniar i n utilizarea
unor elemente finite de mici dimensiuni.

stress concentrations can be observed on


the caisson toe and on the sand prism
backfilling clay layer contact. The
explanation is the difference between the
linear deformation modulus values and the
use of small contact finite elements.

3.5 Analiza dinamic

3.5 Dynamic Analysis

Modelul creat pentru analiza static


iniial a fost utilizat i pentru analiza
dinamic, iar starea de efort i distribuia
presiunii apei n pori obinute n pasul
anterior s-au considerat ca stri iniiale
pentru modelul supus analizei dinamice cu
elemente finite. n ceea ce privete
modelarea propriu-zis, foarte important
n acest caz este modificarea condiiilor de
grani, adaptate propagrii undelor
seismice orizontale prin spaiul considerat
semi-infinit.

The model created for the initial static


analysis was used for the dynamic analysis
also, and the stress state and the previous
pore water pressure distribution have been
considered as initial states for the finite
element model under the dynamic
calculation.
As for modelling itself, changing of the
bounder conditions is very important on
this case. The bounder conditions are
adapted for the horizontal seismic waves
through the bi infinite considered space.

Parametrii analizei pot fi rezumai astfel:


Tipul de analiz:
dinamic
liniar
elastic echivalent
Model materiale:
echivalent
liniar
elastic + liniar elastic (zidul de cheu)
Condiii de grani: tipice
analizei
dinamice (conf. Fig. 3.7)
Date geometrice:
adncimea
orizontului de pietri i nisip (stratul de
baz): H = 28 m
Presiunea apei n pori: distribuia obinut
n pasul 1.
Numrul de pai de calcul: 800, cu t =
0,02s pentru fiecare pas de calcul
Micarea seismic: introdus prin
accelerograma KOBE 1995, adaptat
programului de calcul; t = 20 s; Tmax =4 s;
Ahmax= 0,8g; Avmax=0,45g (fig. 3.8).
De mare importan ntr-o analiz
dinamic de acest tip sunt funciile de
variaie (dinamic) ale unor parametri de
material, care au rolul de a simula
modificarea real a caracteristicilor
materialelor n timpul excitaiei dinamice
(seismice) vezi & 3.2.3. n fig. 3.9 sunt
prezentate curbele de rezisten la
lichefiere pentru dou din materialele
utilizate. Se observ c pentru stratul de
argil, efortul iniial necesar nceputului

Analysis type: linear elastic equivalent


dynamic
Material model: linear elastic equivalent
+ elastic linear (quay wall)
Bounder conditions: typical for dynamic
analysis (see fig. 3.7)
Geometrical data: depth of gravel and sand
layers: H = 28 m
Pore water pressure: distribution from the
initial step (step 1)
Steps number: 800, with t = 0.02s for each
step
Seismic movement: KOBE 1995 timeacceleration curve, corresponding to the
program: t = 20 s; Tmax = 4s; Ahmax= 0.8g;
Avmax=0.45g (fig. 3.8).
In the dynamic analysis, the dynamic
variation functions for some parameters
are extremely important. These functions
have the taskof simulation of the real
change of the material characteristics
during the dynamic (seismic) excitation
see & 3.2.3. In fig. 3.9 the liquefaction
resistance curves for two of the used
materials are presented. One can observe
that for the clay layer, the initial stress
necessary for the trigger of liquefaction is

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

17

lichefierii este mult mai mare dect cel


pentru stratul de nisip. Curbele prezentate au
rezultat prin modificarea unor curbe date,
determinate n laborator pentru argile normal
consolidate i nisipuri de ndesare medie,
astfel nct parametrii de rezisten la
lichefiere s fie mai sczui pentru nisipul
din prismul de nlocuire, conform datelor din
teren. n fig. 3.10 se prezint curbele
coeficienilor de corecie a rezistenei la
lichefiere.
Factorul
Ka
reprezint
coeficientul de corecie pentru efortul de
forfecare iniial i este funcie de raportul
dintre efortul de forfecare orizontal iniial i
efortul vertical efectiv iniial. Ks reprezint
coeficientul de corecie pentru efortul iniial
de fretare i este funcie de presiunea de
suprancrcare.
n analiza pe modelul prezentat produsul
KaKs este introdus pentru a ine seama de
influena efortului de forfecare i a
efortului de fretare iniiale asupra efortului
ciclic de forfecare.

much bigger than for the sand layer. The


presented curves resulted through the
modification of some curves by default,
tested in the lab for normal consolidated
clays and medium sands, so that the
replacing sand liquefaction parameters be
lower, according to the in situ data. In
figure 3.10 the curves of liquefaction
resistance
correction
factors
are
presented. The Ka factor represents the
correction coefficient for the initial shear
stress and it depends on the ratio between
the initial horizontal shear stress and the
initial vertical effective stress. KS
represents the correction coefficient for the
initial confining stress and depends on the
overloading pressure.
In the presented model analysis the
product KaKs was introduced to take into
account the influence of the initial shear
stress and confining stress over the cyclic
shear stress.
Cheu de tip cheson in portul Kobe
Tipul de analiza: Dinamic

1. Model de calcul cu elemente finite

Cheson

Umplutura din deseuri de cariera

Prism
de piatra

Pat din piatra sparta


Argila

Argila
Prism de inlocuire din
nisip tip "Massado"

Orizont din nisip si pietris

Fig. 3.7 Model de calcul n analiza dinamic


Dynamic analysis calculation model
Accelerograma verticala
0.5

0.8

0.4

0.6

0.3
Acceleration ( g )

Acceleration ( g )

Accelerograma orizontala
1.0

0.4
0.2
0.0

0.2
0.1
0.0

-0.2

-0.1

-0.4

-0.2
-0.3

-0.6

-0.4

-0.8
0

10

15

20

10

15

20

Time (sec)

Time (sec)

Fig. 3.8 Accelerograma nregistrat n amplasamentul portului Kobe, adaptat programului de calcul
Kobe port registered time-acceleration, .for the calculation software

18

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

a)

b)
350

450

Shear Stress Ratio (x 0.001)

Shear Stress Ratio (x 0.001)

400
350
300
250
200
150

300

250

200

150

100

100
50

50

10

100

1000

10

100

1000

Number of Cycles to Cause Liquefaction (log10)

Number of Cycles to Cause Liquefaction (log10)

Fig. 3.9 Curba de rezisten la lichefiere: a) orizont argil; b) prism de nisip


Liquefaction resistance curve: a) clay horizon; b) sand prism

a)

b)
2.5

1.2

Correction Factor Ks

Correction Factor Ka

1.1

2.0

1.5

1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6

1.0

100

200

300

400

500

0.5
0

Initial Shear Stress Ratio (x 0.001)

Effective Overburden Pressure (Pa)

Fig. 3.10 Curbele de variaie a parametrilor Ka (a) i KS (b)


Variation curves of Ka (a) and KS (b) parameters.

Rezultate obinute

Exist foarte multe moduri de a privi i


interpreta rezultatele.
Scopurile principale ale analizei dinamice
efectuate cu modulul QUAKE din pachetul
[5] au fost:
- punerea n eviden a mecanismelor care
au condus la degradrile observate ale
cheului;
- determinarea deformaiilor i deplasrilor
la nivelul structurii i al terenului i
compararea acestora cu valorile nregistrate
n urma cutremurului din 17 ianuarie 1995;
- evidenierea fenomenului de lichefiere ca
factor principal n cedarea cheului;
- posibilitatea utilizrii analizei dinamice
liniar echivalente n toate problemele de
acest tip.
Scopul general al analizei dinamice nu a fost
de a produce rezultate exacte ca n realitate,
ci, urmrind obinerea unor valori n eforturi
i deplasri apropiate ca ordin de mrime, de

Results

We can look and interpret the obtained


results in several ways.
The main purposes of the dynamic
analysis performed with the QUAKE
modulus from t package [5] were the
followings:
- showing the mechanisms leading to the
observed quay damages;
- finding the displacements and
deformations of the structure and soil and
comparing them with the figures registered
after the 17th January 1995 earthquake;
- laying the emphasize on the liquefaction
phenomenon as a main factor on the quay
damage;
- equivalent elastic linear dynamic
analysis using all problems of this kind.
The general scope of the dynamic analysis
was not to provide results as in reality but,
aiming at obtaining some stress and
displacement figures of the same range
with those registered in situ, to discover

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

19

a surprinde i identifica mecanismele care


au condus la aceste eforturi i deplasri.

and identify the mechanisms leading to


these stresses and displacements.

a) Deformaii/deplasri

a) Deformations/Displacements

Dup cum s-a artat n sub-capitolul 2.1,


deplasrile
nregistrate
la
nivelul
coronamentului cheului au avut valori de
ordinul metrilor, att pe orizontal ct i pe
vertical (fig. 3.11, 3.12, 3.13).

As it was shown in sub-chapter 2.1, the


quay top registered displacements were of
some meters, both on the horizontal and on
the vertical (fig. 3.11, 3.12 and 3.13).

Pasul de timp (calcul) : 200 ; T = 4,0 s


Deformata

Fig. 3.11 Epura deformatei la momentul acceleraiei maxime


Maximum accelaretaion deformation shape
Cheu de tip cheson in portul Kobe

Cheu de tip cheson in portul Kobe

Tipul de analiza: Dinamic

Tipul de analiza: Dinamic


1. Model de calcul cu elemente finite

1. Model de calcul cu elemente finite

Pasul de timp: 200 ; T = 4s

Pasul de timp: 200 ; T = 4s


Diagrama deplasarilor verticale (m)

Diagrama deplasarilor orizontale (m)


-1.2

5
-0.1

-1

-0.8

0.2

-0.25

-0.8

0.15

-0.2

0.05
0

-0.1

-0.15

-0.05

-0.35

-0.1

.1

-0.3
-0.25
-0.2

-0

-0.4

0.1

-0.15
-0.6

-0.05
-0.2

Fig. 3.12 Diagrama deplasrilor orizontale la


momentul t = 4,00 s
Horizontal displacement diagram for t = 4.00 s

Fig. 3.13 Diagrama deplasrilor verticale la


momentul t = 4,00 s
Vertical displacement diagram for t = 4.00 s

Deplasarea orizontala coronament

Deplasare verticala coronament

1.0

0.15
0.10
0.05
Deplasare verticala (m)

Deplasare orizontala (m)

0.5

0.0

-0.5

0.00
-0.05
-0.10
-0.15
-0.20

-1.0

-0.25

-1.5

-0.30

10

15

20

Timp (s)

10

15

20

Timp (s)

Fig. 3.14 Graficul deplasrii orizontale la nivelul


coronamentului
Horizontal displacement graph

20

Fig. 3.15 Graficul deplasrii verticale la nivelul


coronamentului
Vertical displacement graph

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

b)Lichefierea/ Variaia presiunii apei n


pori

b) Liquefaction/ Pore Water Pressure


Variation

Dup cum s-a specificat la nceputul subcapitolului, fenomenul principal n cedarea


cheurilor de tip cheson din portul Kobe l-a
constituit lichefierea nisipului din prismul
de nlocuire de sub fundaia cheului i a
materialului de umplutur din spatele
zidului de cheu.
Analiza dinamic cu elemente finite a pus
n eviden evoluia i extinderea
lichefierii n terenul de fundaie i n
masivul de umplutur, odat cu
evidenierea variaiei presiunii apei n pori
pe durata excitaiei seismice.
Pentru analiza fenomenului, s-a urmrit
creterea presiunii apei n pori (vezi
graficele urmtoare) i s-a comparat
variaia presiunii (diferena ntre valorile
presiunii apei n pori la momentul de
calcul i la momentul iniial) cu efortul
unitar de fretare iniial.

As it was specified in the begining of the


sub-chapter, the main phenomenon leading
to the Kobe caisson quay damage was the
liquefaction of the replacing sand prism
under the quay foundation and of the
backfilling material.
The finite element dynamic analysis has
shown the evolution and the extension of
the liquefaction into the foundation ground
and backfilling together with the pore
water pressure variation during the seismic
excitation.
The phenomenon analysis comprises the
pore water pressure increase observation
(see the graphs bellow) and the
comparison between the pressure variation
(difference between the calculation/initial
time pore water pressures) and the initial
confining stress.
Pasul de timp (calcul) : 60 ; T = 1,20 s
Extinderea lichefierii in umplutura si
prismul din nisipuri "Massado"

Pasul de timp (calcul) : 40 ; T = 0,80 s


Inceputul lichefierii

Pasul de timp (calcul) : 100 ; T = 2,00 s


Lichefierea (aproape) completa a
prismului de nisip

Fig. 3.16 Evoluia lichefierii pe durata excitaiei seismice


Liquefaction evolution during seismic excitation

Evoluia lichefierii n terenul de fundare


este n corelaie cu variaiaia presiunii
apei n pori (fig. 3.17).

The liquefaction evolution in the


foundation ground is correlated with the
pore water pressure variation (fig. 3.17).

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

21

Cheu de tip cheson in portul Kobe

Cheu de tip cheson in portul Kobe

Tipul de analiza: Dinamic

Tipul de analiza: Dinamic

1. Model de calcul cu elemente finite

Pasul de timp: 100 ; T = 2s

Pasul de timp: 200 ; T = 4s

1. Model de calcul cu elemente finite

Presiunea apei in pori (m)

Presiunea apei in pori (m)

50

50

0
10

0
20

150
200

200

250

250

300

0
25

350

350

350

300

250

45

250

200

150

100

400
450

400
450

500

550
600

600
650

650

700

Fig. 3.17 Presiunea apei n pori la momentul t = 2s i la t = 4s


Pore water pressure for time t = 2 s and t = 4 s

n fig. 3.18 se prezint variaia presiunii


apei n pori n nodul 3176, localizat n
interiorul prismului de nisip de nlocuire,
comparativ cu presiunea n dou noduri
situate dedesubt, pe aceeai vertical.

In fig. 3.18 the pore water pressure


variation in node 3176 is presented, and
compared with other nodes located behind
on the same vertical. The node 3176 is
located inside the sand prism.

Presiunea apei in pori


350

P.a..p (kPa)

Node 2004

300

Node 3176
250

Node 5582
200
0

10

15

20

Timp (s)

Fig. 3.18 Variaia n timp a presiunii apei n pori


Pore water pressure time variation

Din graficul de mai sus se poate observa


creterea rapid a presiunii apei n pori
pn la momentul acceleraiei maxime (t =
4s), dup care valoarea presiunii rmne
constant (materialul este saturat). Este
evident similitutidinea cu rezultatele
cercetrilor n teren i laborator (vezi
subcap. 2.1)

From the graph presented above one can


observe the rapid pore water pressure
increase till the maximum acceleration
moment (t = 4 s), afterwards the pressure
remains stable (the material is saturated).
The similitude with the lab and in situ
results is evident (see sub-chapter 2.1).

c) Starea de efort

c) Stress State

n analiza stabilitii locale i generale a


cheului, de mare importan este
determinarea strii de efort efectiv, mai
ales n zona tlpii de fundaie i la
contactul ntre diferitele materiale. n fig.

The effective stress state determination is


very important for the general and local
stability analysis, especially on the
foundation area and on different materials
contact. In fig. 3.19 the effective vertical

22

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

3.19 se prezint epura efortului efectiv


vertical la diferii pai de calcul.
a)

stress diagram is presented for different


time steps.
b)
Pasul de timp (calcul) : 100 ; T = 2,00 s
Epura efortului vertical efectiv

Efortul unitar vertical efectiv (kPa)


In Situ
50

15
0
0
20

150
350

50

10
0

100

2 00

100

250

50

0
15

300

300

200

250

0
25

0
10

100

50

150

350

200

0
30

250

2 50

400

0
20

450

300

350

500

Fig. 3.19 Efortul vertical efectiv: a) la momentul t = 0; b) la momentul t = 2,00 s


Effective vertical stress: a) for time step t = 0; b) for time step t = 2.00 s.

O imagine sugestiv a variaiei efortului


vertical efectiv se obine printr-un profil
vertical prin terenul de fundare, pornind
imediat sub talpa zidului de cheu (fig.
3.20).

A clear picture of the effective vertical


stress variation is given by a foundation
ground
vertical
profile,
starting
immediately under the quay wall (fig.
3.20).

Efort vertical efectiv/timp


500
Node 3138
Efort vertical efectiv (kPa)

400
Node 3152
Node 3170

300

Node 3178
200
Node 3188
100

Node 3196
Node 3230

0
0

10

15

20

Timp (s)

Fig. 3.20 Variaia efortului vertical n timp


Time effective vertical stress variation

Din fig. 3.20 se observ scderea drastic


a efortului vertical efectiv ncepnd de la
nivelul tlpii de fundaie i apoi n prismul
de nisip i n sub-orizontul de pietri cu
nisip. Acest fapt, datorat creterii presiunii
apei n pori, a fost hotrtor n deformaia
excesiv a sistemului structur teren.

From fig. 3.20 one can notice the dramatic


decrease of the effective vertical stress, starting
from the quay bottom and then in the sand
prism and in the sand gravel sub layer. This
happened because of the pore water pressure
increase and it was decisive for the excess
deformation of the soil structure system.

3.6 Influena parametrilor de material


asupra comportrii seismice a cheului de
tip cheson din portul Kobe

3.6 Material Parameter Influence over


the Seismic Behaviour of the Kobe Port
Caisson uay

Analiza dinamic prezentat n subcapitolul precedent a artat c cedrile la


cheurile de tip cheson din portul Kobe s-au
datorat unor fenomene legate de natura
terenului de fundare i a umpluturii din

The dynamic analysis presented in the


previous sub-chapter showed that the
damages of the Kobe port caisson quays
were given by some phenomena related
with the foundation ground and backfilling

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

23

spatele cheului, i nu de caracteristicile


zidului de cheu propriu-zis. De aceea, s-a
considerat foarte important continuarea
analizei cazului real cu o analiz de
senzitivitate a comportrii seismice a
cheului fa de variaia unor parametri de
material. S-a studiat i influena altor
parametri de alt natur, cum ar fi nivelul
apei n acvatoriu sau limea bazei cheului.

nature, and not with the characteristics of


the quay wall itself. That is the
continuationof the sensitivity analysis of
the quay seismic behaviour regarding the
variation of some material parameters why
was considered very important. The
influence of other kind of parameters was
studied too, as the water level in front of
the quay and the width of the quay base.

n cele ce urmeaz se prezint succint


rezultatele i concluziile obinute n urma
analizei de sensitivitate, efectuat pe
modelul dinamic n elemente finite.

The results and the conclusions obtained


on account of the sensitivity analysis
performed on the finite element dynamic
model are briefly presented below.

Analiza de senzitivitate a pus n eviden


dou tipuri de parametri: parametri cu
influen major asupra comportrii
dinamice a cheului i parametri cu
influen nesemnificativ.

The sensitivity analysis showed two kinds


of parameters: major and minor dynamic
behaviour influence parameters.

1. Parametri cu influen minor

1. Minor Influence Parameters

Variaia modulului de deformaie


transversal G

Prin modulul de deformaie transversal G se


introduce, n cazul modelului cu elemente
finite, rezistena la forfecare a materialului
(solului) respectiv. Valoarea modulului de
deformaie transversal introdus ca dat de
intrare reprezint valoarea maxim pe care o
poate avea modulul de deformaie
transversal (valoarea iniial la nceputul
analizei dinamice).
Valoarea modulului de deformaie transversal
este dat de relaia:
E
G=
(3.2)
2(1 + )
n analiza iniial (sub-cap. 3.5) s-a adoptat E
= 23.000 kPa i = 0,32, rezultnd G = 8712
kPa, corespunztor datelor furnizate pentru
nisipul tip Massado din care este alctuit
prismul de la baza cheului.
Meninnd aceeai valoare a coeficientului lui
Poisson, s-au adoptat o serie de valori pentru
modulul E, mai mari dect valoarea iniial,
mergnd pn la o valoare de 50.000 kPa, ceea
ce corespunde unui nisip mare, ndesat, cu o
curb granulometric continu. Valoarea
modulului G n acest caz este 18.940 kPa.
24

G modulus variation

Through the transversal deformation


modulus G the shear strength of the soil is
taken into consideration in the finite
element model. The G modulus figure as
input data represents the maximum value
G modulus can have (initial figure on the
start of the dynamic analysis).
Transversal deformation modulus
calculated with the relation:
G=

E
2(1 + )

is

(3.2)

In the initial analysis (sub-chapter 3.5), we


assumed E = 23,000 kPa and = 0.32,
resulting G = 8,712 kPa, corresponding to
the data for the Massado sand the prism
under the quay is made of.
Keeping the same figure for Poisson
coefficient, we assumed for E modulus
several figures higher than the initial one,
till 50,000 kPa (corresponding to a coarse
dense sand with continuous grain size
distribution). G is 18,940 kPa in this case.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

Foarte important n acest caz este faptul c nu


s-a modificat curba G/Gmax. Aceasta nseamn
c pierderea capacitii de rezisten la
forfecare n timpul aciunii dinamice este
aceeai ca n cazul iniial.
Rezultate obinute: Practic, din vizualizarea
rezultatelor n urma analizei dinamice nu se
observ nici o modificare a principalilor
parametri. Deplasrile orizontal i vertical
i evoluia fenomenului de lichefiere rmn
identice ca n cazul iniial.

Variaia inidicelui de plasticitate IP

Curbele de variaie ale amortizrii critice i


ale modulului de deformaie transversal
depind de valoarea indicelui de plasticitate i
de cea a efortului iniial de fretare.
Se cunoate c valoarea indicelui de
plasticitate este dat de diferena dintre limita
de curgere i limita de plasticitate:
IP = LL LP
(3.3)
Fa de situaia avut n vedere iniial (subcap. 3.5), pentru prismul de nisip de la baza
cheului s-a modificat indicele de plasticitate,
respectiv IP = 0 fa de IP = 3 iniial.
Valoarea presiunii de fretare este de 60 kPa,
considerat ca medie pentru cteva elemente
din zona central a prismului. Trasarea
funciilor de material s-a fcut pentru
valoarea 3/Pa = 0,60, acceai ca n cazul
prezentat anterior.
Indicele de plasticitate este unul din
parametrii importani care st la baza
sistemului de clasificare a solurilor propus de
Casagrande n 1942.
Aceast nou valoare a indicelui de
plasticitate corespunde unui nisip grosier cu
curba granulometric continu, cu S200 <5
(procentul care trece prin sita cu ochiuri de
200mm), coeficientul de uniformitate Cu > 6
(granulatie bun, uniform) iar coeficientul
de gradaie 1<Cz<3.

It is very important to note that G/Gmax


curve was not changes in this case. This
means that the loss of the shear resistance
capacity is the same as in the initial case.
Results: Practically, the results after the
dynamic analysis show no change of the
main parameters. The horizontal and
vertical displacements and the liquefaction
phenomenon evolution are the same as in
the initial case.

Plaxticity Index (PI) Variation

The variation curves of the critical


dumping and the transversal deformation
modulus depend on the plasticity index
and initial confining stress values.
We know that the plasticity index value is
given by the difference between liquid and
plasticity limits:
IP = LL LP (3.3)
Compared to the initial situation (subchapter 3.5), we modified the plasticity
index value for the sand prism,
respectively
IP = 0 instead IP = 3 initially. The
confining pressure is 60 kPa, considered as
an average for some elements from the
central area of the prism.
The materials functions were created for
3/Pa = 0.60, the same as in the initial
case.
The plasticity index is one of the important
parameters from the basis of Cassagrande
soil clasification system from 1942.
This new value of the plasticity index
coresponds to a coarse sand with
continuous grain size distribution, with
S200 < 5 (the ratio passing the 200 mm
sieve), uniformity coefficient Cu > 6 (good
uniform
granulation)
and
grading
coefficient 1<Cz<3.

2. Parametri cu influen seminificativ


Presiunea iniial de fretare

2. Major Influence Parameters


Initial Confining Stress

Conform algoritmului programului utilizat,


presiunea de fretare iniial, exprimat n
kilopascali, reprezint cel de-al doilea
parametru de care depind variaia

According to the algorithm of the used


software the initial confining stress,
expressed in kilopascals, represents the
second parameter the variation of cross

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

25

modulului de deformaie transversal i a


amortizrii critice.
Presiunea iniial de fretare reprezint un
factor important n caracterizarea unui
pmnt n ceea ce privete starea sa la
momentul iniial, mai ales n cazul
nisipurilor i argilelor neconsolidate.
Pentru exemplul considerat, s-a mrit
valoarea presiunii de fretare iniiale luat
ca medie pentru ntregul strat de dou ori,
respectiv 3/Pa = 1,20.
n fig. 3.21 i 3.22 se prezint comparativ
funciile de variaie ale amortizrii critice
respectiv ale modulului de deformaie
transversal din situaia iniial i din
situaia nou considerat.

deformation modulus and critical dumping


ratio depend on
The initial confining stress represents an
important factor for the characterization of
a soil regarding its initial time state,
especially for the sands and for the nonconsolidated clays.
For this case, we increased twice the initial
figure for the confining stress, considered
as average for the layer: 3/Pa = 1.20.
In figures 3.21 and 3.22 there, for
comparison, the critical dumping ratio and
the transversal modulus variation functions
are presented comparatively for the initial
case and for the new one.
b)

350

350

300

300

Damping Ratio (x 0.001)

Damping Ratio (x 0.001)

a)

250
200
150
100
50

250
200
150
100
50

0
1e-006

1e-005

0.0001

0.001

0.01

0
1e-006

0.1

1e-005

Cyclic Shear Strain

0.0001

0.001

0.01

0.1

Cyclic Shear Strain

Fig. 3.21 Funcia de variaie a amortizrii critice: a) noua situaie; b) situaia iniial
Critical dumping variation function: a) new situation; b) initial situation

b)
1.0

1.0

0.8

0.8

0.6

0.6

G/Gmax

G/Gmax

a)

0.4

0.2

0.0
1e-006

0.4

0.2

1e-005

0.0001

0.001

0.01

0.0
1e-006

0.1

Cyclic Shear Strain

1e-005

0.0001

0.001

0.01

0.1

Cyclic Shear Strain

Fig. 3.22 Funcia de variaie a modulului G: a) noua situaie; b) situaia iniial


G modulus variation function: a) new situation; b) initial situation

Factorul de corecie a efortului iniial


de forfecare Ka. Coeficientul de
corecie pentru efortul iniial de
fretare Ks.

O dat cu variaia efortului iniial de


fretare, se introduce i variaia acestor doi
coeficieni, de altfel cu influen
semnificativ asupra efortului de fretare.
Funcia Ka este o funcie foarte complex,
26

Initial Shear Stress Correction Factor


Ka. Initial Confining Stress Correction
Factor Ks.

Together with the variation of the initial


confining stress we also introduce the
variation of these two coefficients, with
major influence over the initial confining
stress. Ka function is very complex,

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

depinznd de densitatea materialului, i


este foarte util n cazul structurilor de
retenie a pmnturilor [6].
n cadrul [6], funcia Ka este ataat
funciei numrului de cicluri de ncrcare.
Pentru cazul considerat s-a modificat
funcia Ka pentru prismul de nisip de la
baz i pentru umplutura din spatele
cheului, adic pentru masivele care s-au
lichefiat primele i la nivel profund. Acest
fapt este echivalent cu nlocuirea
materialelor slabe cu materiale mai
rezistente, de densitate mai mare
Efortul de forfecare ciclic necesar
dezvoltrii lichefierii crete odat cu
efortul de fretare. Modulul QUAKE din
[5] permite considerarea acestui fapt prin
funcia Ks. La fel ca i n cazul factorului
Ka, valorile supraunitare ale Ks corespund
unor soluri necoezive, ndesate i de
densitate mare.
n fig. 3.23 i 3.24 este prezentat variaia
comparativ a acestor doi parametri.

depending on the material density, and it is


very useful for the soil retaining
structures [6].
In [6] the Ka function is attached to the
cycle number function.
For this case, Ka was modified for the base
sand prism and for the quay backfilling,
that is for the massifs which deeply
liquefied first. This is equivalent to the
replacement of the weak materials with
more resistant higher density materials.
The cyclic shear stress necessary for the
liquefaction development increases with
the confining stress. QUAKE module from
[5] permits the consideration of this
phenomenon through the Ks function. As
for Ka, the over-unit Ks figures correspond
to the un-cohesive high density soils.
In figures 3.23 and 3.24 the comparative
variation of these two parameters is given.

Correction Factor Ka

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

100

200

300

400

500

Initial Shear Stress Ratio (x 0.001)

Fig. 3.23 Funcia Ka pentru prismul de nisip i umplutur n cazul considerat


Ka function for the sand prism and for the backfilling in the present conditions
a)

b)
3.1

1.2
1.1

Correction Factor Ks

Correction Factor Ks

3.0

2.9

2.8

2.7

2.6

1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6

2.5
0

Effective Overburden Pressure (Pa)

0.5

Effective Overburden Pressure (Pa)

Fig. 3.24 Funcia Ks pentru prismul mde nisip i umplutur: a) noile condiii; b) cazul iniial

Valorile presiunii de pe abscisa graficului din


fig. 3.24 a) sunt normalizate la presiunea
atmosferic, acrei valoare este de 101,30
kPa. Funcia Ks, ataat curbei de rezisten la
lichefiere, influeneaz numrul de cicluri
necesar nceperii lichefierii NL i deci i
presiunea apei din pori.
Eforturile dinamice calculate n cadrul
programului dup definirea factorilor Ka i

The pressure values from the abscissa of


graph from fig. 3.24 a) are normalized to
the atmospheric pressure of 110.30 kPa. Ks
function, attached to the liquefaction
resistance
curve,
influences
the
liquefaction start necessary number NL,
and so the pore water pressure.
The dynamic stresses calculated within the
software after defining Ka and Ks factors

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

27

Ks pot fi considerate ca eforturile n cmp


dup corecie, conform formulei:
(CSRreal)corectat = (CSRreal)KaKs (3.4)

can be considered as the field stresses after


correction, according to the expression:
(CSRreal)corectat = (CSRreal)KaKs (3.4)

Noile rezultate difer seminificativ fa de


cele din cazul iniial.
Evoluia fenomenului de lichefiere (mai
ales la nivelul prismului de nisip) arat c,
practic, nisipul nu s-a lichefiat pentru noii
parametri de calcul (fig. 3.25).

The new results are very different tfon


those of the initial case.
Liquefaction
phenomenon
evolution
(especially on the sand prism level) shows
that practically the sand doesnt liquefy for
the new calculation parameters (fig. 3.25.

Fig. 3.25 Evoluia fenomenului de lichefiere n noile condiii


Evolution of liquefaction phenomenon in the new conditions

Pasul de timp (calcul) 200: T = 4,00s


Presiunea apei in pori (kpa)

50
100
150

200

300

0
35

350

350

200

400
450

500
550

Fig. 3.26 Presiunea apei n pori la t = 4,00s


Pore water pressure at time t = 4.00 s

Mai sugestiv, n fig. 3.27 se prezint


comparativ graficele de variaie ale
presiunii apei n pori pentru aceleai
noduri din prismul de nisip. Se observ
valoarea mult mai sczut a valorilor ct
mai ales faptul c materialul nu este
saturat.

28

More significantly, in fig. 3.27 the


variation graphs of the pore water pressure
are presented comparatively for the same
nodes from the sand prism. One can
observe the much lower level of the
figures and mainly that the material is not
saturated.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

a)

b)

Presiunea apei in pori

240

Presiunea apei in pori


350

Node 2004

230

Node 3176

P.a..p (kPa)

Presiunea apei in pori (k Pa)

Node 2004
235

300

Node 3176
250

225

Node 5582

Node 5582
220
0

10

15

20

200
0

Timp (s)

10

15

20

Timp (s)

Fig. 3.27 Evoluia presiunii apei n pori: a) cazul considerat; b) condiiile iniiale
Pore water pressure evolution: a) present case; b) initial conditions

The top horizontal displacement is slowly


decreasing as compared to the initial case,
from 1.40 m maximum to 0.60 m (fig.
3.28).

Deplasarea la nivelul coronamentului


prezint o uoar descretere, de la max.
1.40 m la 0.60 m (fig. 3.28).
a)

b)
Deplasarea orizontala la nivelul
coronamentului

Deplasarea orizontala coronament

0.6

1.0

0.5
0.5
Deplasare orizontala (m)

X-Displacement

0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1

0.0

-0.5

0.0
-1.0

-0.1
-0.2

10

15

20

Time

-1.5
0

10

15

20

Timp (s)

Fig. 3.28 Deplasarea orizontal la nivelul coronamentului: a) cazul considerat; b) situaia iniial
Horizontal top displacement: a) considered case; b) initial situation

4. Concluzii

4. Conclusions

Cutremurul din 17 Ianuarie 1995, care a dus


la pierderea a mai mult de 6000 de viei
omeneti, a fost unul dintre cele mai
dezastruoase care a lovit Japonia de la
marele cutremur Kanto din 1923.
ntrebarea care s-a pus acut dup
inventarierea pagubelor a fost de ce au
avut loc asemenea pierderi n Japonia care
era considerat vrful de lance al ingineriei
seismice mondiale? []. Cutremurul din
Kobe a demonstrat dou lucruri: ncrederea
prea mare a inginerilor japonezi att n
structurile executate n sine ct i n
capacitatea de a face fa unor asemenea
dezastre, precum i neluarea n considerare,
dect n mic msur, a factorului teren n

The earthquake from 17 January 1995,


which caused more than 6,000 human life
losses, was one of the most disastrous
from Japan since the great Kanto
earthquake from 1923.
The question after the disaster was why
this level of losses in Japan, considered as
the leader of worldwide seismic
engineering?
The Kobe earthquake showed two things:
the Japan engineers over-trust in the
structures themselves and in the disaster
handling capacity as well, and the neglect,
with minor exceptions, of the soil factor in

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

29

stabilitatea i rezistena construciilor.

the structure stability and resistance.

Pentru cheurile din portul Kobe, cauza


principal a micrii terenului de fundaie
a reprezentat-o lichefierea nisipurilor de
tip Massado; este important de reinut c
aceste nisipuri grosiere conineau o
cantitate nsemnat de pietri.

For the Kobe quays, the main cause of the


foundation ground movement was the
Massado sands liquefaction; it is
important to note that these coarse sands
were containing a high gravel rate.

Analiza dinamic cu elemente finite i-a


atins scopurile principale, i anume:
- modelarea comportrii dinamice a
materialelor s-a fcut printr-un model
echivalent elastic, care a permis
introducerea unor funcii de variaie a unor
parametri de material; n acest mod, a fost
posbil i analiza de senzitivate;
- a introdus o funcie de variaie a presiunii
apei n pori;
- graniele laterale au fost lsate libere,
pentru eliminarea pe ct posibil a efectului
de cutie;
- a fost pus n eviden cu claritate
fenomenul de lichefiere;
- alura deformatei i valorile obinute sunt
asemntoare celor din realitate.

The finite element dynamic analysis


achieved its main aims:

Analiza dinamic cu elemente finite


aplicat n acest caz se nscrie n linia
metodologiei de analiz antiseismic a
structurilor
portuare
bazat
pe
comportarea n exploatare [1].

The dynamic analysis applied in this case


is in the line with the anti-seismic analysis
methodology of the port structures based
on the operation behaviour [1].

- the modeling of the dynamic behavior of


the materials was set-up by an elastic
equivalent model, which permitted the
introduction of some variation functions of
the materials; the sensitivity analysis was
also possible in these conditions;
- the introduction of the pore water
pressure variation function;
- the release of the lateral borders in order
to eliminate the possible box effect;
- the clear emphasis of the liquefaction
phenomenon;
- the deformation shape and the results
similar to those from the reality.

Analyzes regarding the safety operation of the port gravity quays


Abstract
In this paper, it the dynamic analysis with finite elements method of a caisson gravity quay from the port of
Kobe, Japan, which was serious damaged during the 17th January 1995 earthquake, is presented. This kind of
analysis aligns itself to the new methodology of anti-seismic analysis of the port structures based on their
operation behaviour [1]. The analysis achieved its main aims, to find and to show the phenomena which led to
the seismic accident and to identify of the parameters of the materials with the essential contribution to the
seismic behaviour of the structure.
Bibliografie
References
[1] *** Guidelines for anti-seismic design of port structures, P.I.A.N.C, Bruselles, 2001.
[2] HAMADA M. Lessons learned from the 1995 Hyogoken Nanbu (Kobe) eartquake. JSCEs proposals on
measures against future earthquakes. 1996.
[3] ALYAMI M., WILKINSON S.M, ROUAINIA M., CAI F. Simulation of seismic behaviour of gravity quay
wall using a generalized plasticity model.
[4] BALCU A. Analize privind sigurana n exploatare a cheurilor portuare de greutate. Tez de doctorat,
Bucureti, iulie 2008.
[5] *** GEO-SLOPE/W. Manuals/ Chapter 9 Theory; Calgary, Canada, 2004.
[6] *** GEO-SLOPE/W/QUAKE. Quake engineering book; Calgary, Canada, 2004.

30

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

Solicitarea dinamic a
echipamentelor cilindrice cu perei
subiri n timpul efecturii
transportului n industriile de proces
sau de materiale pentru construcii (I)

Dynamic stress of thin wall


cylindrical equipment during
transport in process or building
materials industries (I)

Srbu Lureniu, prof.univ.dr.ing. Facultatea de Utilaj Tehnologic, Universitatea Tehnic de Construcii


Bucureti Professor Dr., Faculty of Machine Tools, Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest
e-mail: laurentiusarbu_utcb@yahoo.com

1. Introducere

1. Introduction

Efectuarea unor transporturi tehnologice


speciale de aparate sau instalaii n sistem
combinat din poart n poart , cu gabarit
depit, se fac pentru lucrri de construcii
montaj n industriile specifice ca: industria
chimic, de materiale pentru construcii (de
exemplu usctoare cilindrice rotative pentru
uscarea argilelor i a nisipului n industria
ceramicii i n industria sticlriei, unde
temperatura maxim a gazelor depete 11001200 grade Celsius), energetic sau alimentar.
Piaa transportatorilor de echipamente grele
agabaritice din Romnia,
reflect astzi
imaginea economiei naionale, caracterizat de
o dinamic important i de un proces de
modernizare rapid, foarte concurenial, n
profund schimbare i adaptare la noile
condiii, impuse de creterea economic
precum i de reglementrile UE n domeniu.

Special technological door to door


transports for over-dimensioned combined
installations or machinery are specific for
construction mounting works in specific
industries, such as: chemical, building
materials (e.g. rotary cylindrical dryers for
clay and sand in ceramics and glass
industry, where the maximum gas
temperature
exceeds
1100-1200C),
energy and food industries. The Romanian
market for the heavy over-dimensioned
equipment now mirrors the image of the
national economy, characterised by a
significant dynamism and a fast growing,
competition
focused
modernization
process, undergoing deep changes and
adapting to the new conditions imposed
by the economic growth, as well as by EU
regulations in the field.

2. Tehnologia transportrii unor rezervoare


gigant i solicitarea lor.

2. Transport technology for giant tanks


and their stress

Mai nti, sunt prezentate cteva din soluiile


practice ntlnite pentru
transporturile
tehnologice n sistem combinat, din poart n
poart, unde echipamentele au forme i
caracteristici unicat. Se urmrete prezentarea
condiiilor
specifice
de
solicitare
a
echipamentelor, care
apar
n timpul
transportrii lor, n diferite domenii
de
activitate ale economiei [1,4,5,8].
n timpul transportului elementelor cilindrice cu
perei subiri, sau al coloanelor industriale, de la
uzina constructoare la locul de montaj pe utilaje
speciale de transport rutier, nvelisul cilindric al
acestora este supus la solicitri dinamice
generate de profilul ci de rulare.

First of all, several practical solutions are


presented, specific for technological door to
door transports in a combined system, a
case in which all equipment has unique
forms and characteristics. The aim is to show
the specific equipment stress conditions,
noticeable during their transport, in various
fields of economic activity [1, 4, 5,8].
During the transport of thin wall cylindrical
elements, or of industrial casings, from the
manufacturing company to the mounting
location, on special road transport equipment,
their cylindrical cover undergoes dynamic
stresses generated by the road profile. The road

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

31

Denivelrile prii carosabile a oselelor i


drumurilor, sunt sursa unor ocuri i vibraii,
care n funcie de mrimea denivelrii i de
viteza cu care se efectueaz transportul, pot da
natere la solicitri comparabile i chiar
superioare celor statice, provenite din
greutatea proprie a elementului transportat.
Din aceast cauz, sistemul de rezemare
trebuie astfel proiectat, ca s corespund
solicitrilor dinamice produse n timpul
transportului, n aa fel, nct, efortul
unitar echivalent maxim, dezvoltat n
elementul transportat s se situeze sub
limita de curgere a materialului [7].

and highway humps are the source of various


ones resulting from the individual weight
of the transported element.

2.1. Transportarea unor rezervoare gigant


pentru vase de transport gaze lichefiate( fig.1).

2.1. Transport of giant tanks for liquefied gas


recipients (fig.1)

Rezervoarele au fost fabricate de


KWAERNER-FECNE (fostul IMGB) i s-au
transportat auto de la Bucureti la Oltenita i
apoi mai departe pe Dunare pn la Constana
unde au fost montate n interiorul unor
vapoare cistern [7]. Dou astfel de
rezervoare sunt montate pe un vas de
transport gaze lichefiate LGT- Liquified
Gas Tank. Trei vase de acest tip au fost
construite pe antierul SEVERNAV,
beneficiarul fiind Hartman Reederei,
Germania. Piesa transportat, din fig.1, a
constat dintr-un rezervor care a fost realizat
dintr-un oel special pentru tancuri, NASTRA
56 i NASTRA 70 (import Germania) fiind
premier mondial din punct de vedere al
oelului folosit. Caracteristicile piesei sunt:
diametrul exterior de 10m+2,5m, lungimea
31,5m, nlimea 12m i masa de 350 t.
Aceste transporturi rutiere grele cu gabarit
depit au fost efectuate de V.D. VLIST
Romnia, care are mare experien n
realizarea transporturilor agabaritice pe plan
mondial[8]. Studierea siguranei traseului i
posibilitatea efecturii unui astfel de transport,
s-a nceput cu 9 luni nainte. Efectuarea
transportului a fost autorizat de AVTR
(Autorizatii,Verificare a Transporturilor
Rutiere) din cadrul CNADR (Compania
Naional de Autostrzi i Drumuri Naionale).
shocks and vibrations which, depending
on their size and the speed of the
transport may lead to stresses which are
comparable, or even higher than static

The tanks were manufactured by KWAERNERFECNE (formerly IMGB) and were autotransported from Bucharest to Oltenita and then
further on the Danube to Constantza where they
were mounted inside cistern ships [8]. Two such
tanks are mounted on a liquefied gas transport
ship / LGT. Three such ships were built on
SEVERNAV shipyard, the beneficiary being
Hartman Reederei, Germany.

That is why the system must be so


designed as to be appropriate for dynamic
stresses produced during transport, so that
the maximum unitary equivalent stress
undergone by the transported element
remains below the material flow limit [7].

The part to be transported, shown in Figure 1,


was made of a tank made of special tank steel
NASTRA 56 and NASTRA 70 (imported from
Germany), for the first time in the world from
the point of view of the steel used. The
characteristics of the part are as follows: outside
diameter 10m+2.5 m length 31.5 m height 12 m
and 350 t. in weight.
These heavy over-dimensioned road
transports were made by V.D. VLIST
Romania, with a remarkable experience in
over-dimensioned transports at international
level [8]. The study of road security and the
possibility of making such a transport
started 9 months before. The transport was
authorized by AVTR (Road Transport
Checking and Approval office) of CNADR
(the National Company for National
Highways and Roads). After being loaded
in the working hall, the part was fixed with
security cables. The convoy was made of
two trucks, a MAN and a Scania, 500 HP
each,

Dup ncrcarea piesei n hal, aceasta a fost


amarata cu cabluri de siguran. Convoiul a
fost alctuit din dou camioane, un MAN i o
Scania, fiecare de 500 CP, care trag rezervorul
gigant montat pe un trailerul de 36 m lungime
i 6,3 m lime, avnd n compunerea sa 44 de
axe, fiecare ax avnd 8 roi, iar greutatea
remorcii fiind de 124 t . Un camion Titan de
650CP mpinge convoiul cnd este nevoie.
Convoiul este nsotit de o main de poliie,
trei-cinci maini de excort dotate cu
girofaruri, semnal Atenie, gabarit depit
.Sunt prezente maini de intervenie de la
RENEL, pentru ridicarea i debranarea liniilor
de curent de medie i joas tensiune. O Tatra
debaraseaza drumul, remorcnd camioanele
rmase n pan. Se folosesc i maini de taiat
ramuri i crengi care stnjenesc naintarea
convoiului. Viteza de transport variaz ntre 10
i maxim 25 km/h n funcie de condiiile de
drum. La astfel de transporturi, frnarea se face
la deplasarea n curbe numai de la camionul
din spate (Titan) pentru c, altfel, maina a
doua (Scania) ii pierde echilibrul datorit
presiunii asupra barei de traciune dintre cele
dou camioane din fa. La destinaie s-a fcut

pulling the giant tank mounted on the 36 m


long and 6.3 m wide trailer, having 44 axles,
each with 8 wheels, while the trailer weight
was of 124 t.
A Titan 650 HP truck pulls the convoy when
needed. The convoy is accompanied by a
police car, three-five escort cart provided with
a gyro and the Warning over-dimensioned
sign. RENEL, intervention cars are also
present in order to raise and uncouple medium
and low tension electricity lines. A Tatra clears
the way, by towing trucks having flat tyres.
Bow cutting machines are also used in order to
ease the convoy passage.
The transport speed varies between 10 and
maximum 25 km/hour depending on road
conditions. In such transports, braking in
curves is only applicable for the back truck
(Titan), otherwise the second car (Scania)
loses its balance due to the pressure over its
draw bar between the two front trucks. At the
arrival point the transported recipient was
moved onto the barge (a pontoon ship).

Fig. 1 [8]

amplasarea pe gabara (un vas ponton) a


recipientului transportat Descrcarea se face
astfel: trailerul se ncadreaz n dreptul unor
supori speciali amplasai pe gabara; iar
platforma trailerului este cobort cu ajutorul
suspensiilor hidraulice de la elementele de
rulare, lasnd ncrctura rezemat pe aceti
supori, dup care trailerul este retras din
gabara. In continuare transportul rezervorului
s-a facut pe Dunare.

The unloading is made as follows: the trailer


is placed right in front of the special
supports placed on the barge, while the
trailer platform is lowered with the help of
hydraulic suspensions from the rolling
elements, leaving the load standing on the
supports, and then the trailer is removed
from the barge. From that point on the
transport continued on the Danube River

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

33

2.2.Transportarea unui recipient de 90 t, pe


un trailer cu dou module cuplate la un pod
de transport, pe timp de iarn ( fig.2).

2.2. Transport of a 90 t recipient on a


trailer with two modules coupled at a pod de
transport, in winter (Figure 2)

Un astfel de transport rutier agabaritic s-a


executat de V.D. Vlist Romnia, ncrctura
transportat fiind un rezervor de ap pentru
alimentare, pentru export, care face parte
dintr-un lot de 7-8 piese produse de IMGB
(KWAERNER-FENCE)Bucureti.
Dimensiunile convoiului prezentat n figura
2 sunt: lungimea total - 33m, limea 4,10 m i nlimea - 6,40 m [4].

V.D. Vlist Romania made such an overdimensioned road transport, the load being a
water supply reservoir, for export, as part of
a batch of 7-8 parts manufactured by IMGB
(KWAERNER-FENCE) Bucharest. The
dimensions of the convoy shown in Figure 2
are as follows: total length 33 m, width
4.10 m and height 6.40 m [4].

Fig.2 [4]

Pentru transportul acestui rezervor s-a folosit un


tractor MAN de tipul (6x4) de 500 CP i un
trailer cu 9 axe, fabricat de Broshuis Olanda,
alctuit din dou module, un pod de transport
intermediar i suspensie hidraulic (fig.2).
Pentru acest transport au fost necesare 3 zile,
deoarece transportul s-a efectuat pe timp de
iarn, traseul fiind Slobozia-cu ocolire prin
Brganu spre Brila - Hrova- port Constana.
Din punct de vedere tehnic transportul nu a avut
probleme, dar din cauza zpezii i a condiiilor
de trafic, nu s-a putut respecta termenul strict de
livrare.
Pe timp de iarn, pentru o pies de gabarit mare,
se poate produce un derapaj al trailerului, n
special cnd acesta se deplaseaz n pant sau n
ramp. Trailerul nu se poate opri, i exist
pericolul de a se rsturna. In aceasta, const
dificultatea conducerii unui tractor angajat ntrun transport agabaritic pe timp de iarn.

For the transport of this reservoir a MAN


tractor (6x4) type of 500 HP was used, along
with a 9 axle trailer manufactured by Broshius
Holland, made of two modules, an
intermediary pod de transport and hydraulic
suspension (Fig.2). Three days were
necessary for this transport, because it took
place in winter, from Slobozia with a detour
through Baraganu, to Braila Harsova
Constanta harbour.
From a technical point of view the transport
posed no problems, but the snow and traffic
conditions made it impossible to comply with
the strict supply requirements.
In winter, if a large size part is loaded, the
trailer risks skidding, especially on a slope or
on the loading ramp. The trailer cannot stop
and there is also a danger of being turned
over. This is the main difficulty of driving

2.3. Tranportarea unor rezervoare (pentru


fabricile de bere), aduse pe barje din Germania
pe Dunre, i apoi rutier la beneficiari: n
Craiova sau la Tuborg Bucureti [1, 5].

2.3. The transport of reservoirs (for beer


factories) brought on barges from Germany
on the Danube, and then on the road to their
beneficiaries [1, 5]

Fig.3 [5]

Fig.4 [5]

Fig.5

Transportul agabaritic a ase rezervoare produse n


Germania pentru extinderea fabricii de bere din
Craiova, s-a fcut de Improdex Autotransport 3M.
Fiecare rezervor are o nlime de 7,5 m, lungime
de 30m, lime de 6,6m i masa de 32 t sau mai
mult. Rezervoarele au fost aduse pe Dunre, pe
barje pn la Gura Vii, lng Drobeta Turnu
Serverin. Descrcarea celor ase rezervoare de pe
barje i ncrcarea lor pe trailere s-a efectuat n
dou etape, operaiunile presupunnd intervenia a
dou macarale (fig.3), care s ridice unul din
capetele rezervorului, aciune care se desfoar
simultan. Ridicarea rezervorului din barj se face
pn la o nlime care s permit ntrarea
trailerului sub pies, dup care una din macarale se
deplaseaz pentru a roti rezervorul ntr-o poziie
paralel cu vehiculul. Piesa este poziionat pe
trailer n aa fel nct masa proprie s fie
repartizat pe axe i s fie simetric n raport cu axa
longitudinal, dup care urmeaz amararea piesei
pe trailer. Pentru transport s-au folosit autotractoare
de ultim generaie MAN, Volvo

The over-dimensioned transport of six


reservoirs manufactured in Germany for an
enlargement of the beer factory in Craiova was
made by Improdex Autotransport 3M. Each
reservoir is 7.5m long, 30 m long, 6.6 m wide
and has a weight of 32 t, more or less. They
were brought on the Danube on barges up to
Gura Vaii, near Drobeta Turnu Severin. The
unloading of the six reservoirs from the barges
and their loading onto the trailers was made in
two steps, with the help of two cranes (Fig. 3)
used to lift them at one end simultaneously.
The reservoir is lifted from the barge up to a
certain height, allowing the trailer to move
under the part, and then one of the crane
moves so as to rotate the reservoir until it is
kept parallel to the vehicle. The part is
positioned on the trailer so that its own weight
is supported by the axles and symmetrically to
the longitudinal axis, then the part is lowered
onto the trailer. Latest generation MAN, Volvo
and DAF auto-tractors were used for the

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

35

i DAF i trailere speciale pentru transporturi grele


Goldhofer i Broshuis (fig.5). Capetele tractor
disponibile sunt de tipul (4x2), (6x4) i (8x4), iar
trailerele sunt cu 3,4 i 6 axe, extensibile att n
lungime (15-37m) ct i n lime. Capul tractor
MAN, cu 4 axe este realizat special pe comanda,
pentru a rspunde celor mai dificile cerine de
transport agabaritic. Motorul mainii dezvolt 660
CP, rezervoarele sunt verticale, transmisia este
automat, mai complex i mai puternic, cu
rapoarte foarte mici i precise i un cuplu foarte
bun, dotat
cu un sistem care ajusteaz
traciunea n funcie de greutatea tractat la un
moment dat.

transport, along with special Goldhofer and


Broshuis trailers for heavy load transport. The
available tractor heads are of (4x2), (6x4) and
(8x4) type, while the trailers have 3, 4 and 6
axles which can be extended both in length (1537 m) and in width. The MAN tractor head with
4 axles is specially designed to answer the most
difficult requirements of over-dimensioned
transport. It has a 660 HP engine, vertical tanks,
automatic drive, more complex and more
powerful, with very small and accurate ratios and
a very good coupling, provided with a towing
adjustment system depending on the weight of
the transport load at a certain time.

De asemenea, remorcherul este dotat cu


suspensie pe arcuri, pentru o stabilitate bun n
cazul ncrcrilor cu tonaje foarte mari. Toate
acestea pentru o capacitate maxim de tractare
de 250 t la crlig. Convoiul s-a deplasat cu o
vitez medie de 30km/h, fiind nsoit de escorte
ale Poliiei pe tot parcursul transportului, fiind
foarte necesare pentru dimensiunile convoiului,
att n total ct i individual pe fiecare main.
Echipe de la Romtelecom, Electrica i de la
companiile de televiziune prin cablu i internet
au precedat convoiul, pentru demontarea firelor
i cablajelor joase care traversau strazile, sau s
le ridice pn la o distan suficient pentru a
permite trecerea convoaielor pe dedesupt.

Also, the tow-boat is provided with spring


suspension, for good stability in the case of
very large weights, all for a maximum towing
capacity of 250 t per hook. The convoy
moved with a medium speed of 30 km/h,
being accompanied by police escorts all
through the transport, a necessary action
taking into consideration the convoy
dimensions, both overall and individually, on
each car. Teams from Romtelecom, Electrica
and cable television and Internet companies
preceded the convoy, in order to dismount
wires and low cabling mounted across the
streets, or to raise them enough for the convoy
to pass under them.

Momentele dificile ale transportului, pe ruta


stabilit, au fost subtraversarea unui pod ( fig.4)
ce a necesitat transbordarea cu ajutorul unei
macarale, a fiecrui rezervor n parte pe un
trailer cu o nlime mai mic. Pentru efectuarea
unui transport de o asemenea anvergura este
necesar o pregtire prealabil minuioas.
Studiile s-au ntins pe o perioad de 2 luni,
presupunnd chiar vizionri ale traseului. Prima
faz a proiectului, const n stabilirea traseului,
apoi se ia legatura cu organele locale i
Compania Naional de Autostrzi i Drumuri
Naionale CNADR, care elibereaz autorizaii
speciale de transport. In banca de date a CNADR
exist informaii despre structura drumului, ca
rezisten, lime, nlime a podurilor de pe
traseu, etc. Pentru acest transport a fost necesar
un proiect IPTANA, care a indicat, la un moment
dat, ntrirea structurii de rezisten a unui pod
de pe traseu. Impreun cu organele CNADR,

The difficult moments of the transport, on the


established route, were the passage under a
bridge (Fig. 4), where each reservoir had to be
pulled with the help of a crane, onto a trailer
with a lower height. Such a large size
transport needs a detailed preparation
beforehand. The study covered a period of 2
months, including even visits covering the
entire route. In the first phase of the project
the route was established, and then contacts
were made with local authorities and the
National Company of National Highways and
Roads CNADR, in order to receive the special
transport approvals. The CNADR database
includes information about the road structure,
from the point of view of road structure,
width, bridge height and so on. For this
transport an IPTANA project was necessary
and it showed, at one point, that the strength
structure of a bridge on the way was necessary.

36

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

compania a ntrit acea poriune, operaiune care


a presupus compactri i implementri de
materiale de construcii, dar i un studiu atent al
traseului la faa locului. Recunoasterea n teren
este important, pentru c pot apare lucrri la
carosabil, surpri sau estacade care trebuiesc
montate peste noapte pe ruta respectiv.

Together with a CNADR team the company


reinforced that area, this operation including
compactions and insertions of building
materials, but also a careful in site study. In
situ check ups are important because repair
works may take place on the road, along with
slides or trestles which require overnight
work on the route.

Astfel de transporturi au fost efectuate i de


firma Medfreight pentru rezervoare de
fermentaie comandate din Germania de fabric
Tuborg din Bucureti. Rezervoarele au fost
transportate pe dou barje din Germania la
Oltenita i apoi pe trailere la fabrica Tuborg.
Tuborg a contactat pentru acest transport i o
companie de survey. Astfel de firme sunt
benefice pentru un astfel de transport.

Such transports were also made by Medfreight


for fermentation recipients ordered from
Germany by Tuborg factory in Bucharest. The
recipients were carried on two barges from
Germany to Oltenita, then on trailers to the
Tuborg factory. For this transport Tuborg also
contacted a survey company. Such companies
are useful for such a transport.

In cazul n care, n timpul cursei, survine ceva i


nu este prezent o astfel de firm, apar mari
probleme. Aceste firme reprezint garania
faptului c operaiunile ce implic transportul
sunt realizate corect [1].

In case something happens during the transport


and such a company is not present, big
problems may occur. These companies are a
guarantee of the fact that transport operations
are achieved correctly [1].

Fig.6[1]

3. Transportarea unor subansambluri foarte


grele cu gabarit depsit pentru turbine de
hidrocentraledin poart n poart[1].

3. Long distance door to doortransport of


very heavy over-dimensioned subassemblies
for hydro-electric plant turbines [1]

Transporturile agabartitice cunosc o evoluie


important n prezent n Romnia. Dezvoltarea
infrastructurii rutiere, construirea autostrzilor

At present, over-dimensioned transports have a


significant development in Romania. The
development of road infrastructure and highway

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

37

Medfreight Romnia a transportat piese care fac


parte dintr-o turbin de 400 t (centur i plafon),
de 73 t cu diametrul de 7,5 m i respectiv de 53 t
i diametru de 8,73 m, iar nlimea lor variind
ntre 1,5-2 m; pe ruta Bucureti Constana i mai
departe n Shanghai i Hong Kong [1]. Pentru
Alstrom Power Frana, firma a transportat piese
similare, cu diametru de 10,5 m i masa de 65 t
sau de 9,5 m i masa peste 100 t [1].

building are important premises for an increase of


orders for over-dimensioned transports.
This type of transport is useful for giant tanks,
beams, mechanical subassemblies for hydropower plant turbines, materials etc. On the other
hand there are large companies in the USA,
China, Korea and other countries which have
commercial exchanges with Romania, with parts
that need over-dimensioned transport.
Of late, Medfreight started making the necessary
contacts in order to bring to Constantza harbour
ships which are specialised for the transport of
such parts, due to the large amount of materials it
managed to get together. At the same time, the
infrastructure is expected to be improved, for
these transports to be made in the best conditions
possible. Constantza harbour is not yet provided
with the necessary machine tools for handling
heavy load parts.
When part weight exceeds 100t, for instance in
the case of subassemblies for hydro-power plant
turbines for China, floating cranes are used in
tandem for handling them [1].
Medfreight Romania transported subassemblies
which are part of a 400t turbine (the belt and the
ceiling), which weighed 73t and 53 t respectively,
having a 7.5m diameter and 8.73m diameter
respectively, while their height varied between 1.5
and 2m; they were transported from Bucharest to
Constantza and further on to Shanghai and Hong
Kong [1]. For Alstrom Power France the
company transported similar parts, with a
diameter of 10.5 m and 65 t weight, or of 9.5m
diameter and over 100t weight [1].

3.1. Imbarcarea pieselor pe nav

3.1. Ship loading of the parts

In lucrarea [2], se urmrete gsirea unor soluii


de principiu pentru aezarea sarcinilor de la
bordul navei pe o platform marin sau portuar,
fr producerea de ocuri care ar pune n pericol
integritatea sarcinii sau platformei.

In paper [2] the author is aiming to find


potential solutions to place loads on board the
ship on a marine or harbour platform, without
producing shocks which may endanger the
integrity of the load or of the platform.

Pentru aceasta, au fost studiate:

For this purpose, the study focused on:

sunt premize importante pentru creterea


solicitrilor pentru transportul agabaritic.
Sunt transportate rezervoare gigant, grinzi,
subansambluri mecanice pentru turbine de
hidrocentrale, materiale, etc. Pe de alt parte sunt
firme mari din SUA, China, Coreea i alte ri
care realizeaz schimburi comerciale cu
Romnia, cu piese care implic transporturi
agabaritice
In ultimul timp, Medfreight a fcut demersuri s
aduc n Portul Constana vapoare specializate
pentru transportul unor asemenea piese, deoarece
a reuit s strng destul de mult marf.
Totodat este de ateptat ca i infrastructura s
fie mbuntit pentru ca aceste transporturi s
se realizeze n cele mai bune condiii. Portul
Constana nu este nc dotat pentru manipularea
pieselor cu greutate mare
Cnd masa pieselor depete 100 t, de exemplu
la subansambluri pentru turbine de hidrocentrale
pentru China, se apeleaz la macarale plutitoare
n tandem pentru manipularea lor [1].

38

micarea sarcinii suspendate datorit


oscilaiilor verticale ale unei nave de
7500 tdw pe valurile din Marea Neagr,
stabilind ecuaiile de micare pentru nav
i pentru sarcin;

the suspended load movement due to


the vertical swinging of a 7,500t
deadweight ship on Black Sea waves,
thereby formulating the equations of
movement for the ship and for the load

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

o
soluie
de
automatizare
electrohidraulic
a
sistemului
de
basculare a bratului macaralei de bord, n
vederea compensrii micrii pendulare a
sarcinii datorate oscilaiilor transversale
ale navei pe val.
Pentru a atenua ocurile asupra sarcinii
suspendate la o macara naval se folosesc direct
sisteme care acioneaz asupra cablului de
sarcin, de tipul:
Sisteme pasive, cu acionare indirect asupra
cablului de sarcin, care utilizeaz pistoane
hidraulice care actioneaz ca atenuatoare n
anumite condiii date de masa sarcinii i de
starea mrii. Sunt sisteme n bucla deschis, doar
de comand, nu i de reglarea procesului.
Dezavantajul sistemului este ca modificarile se
folosesc n cazul micrilor la care perturbaiile
au o evoluie cunoscut, iar parametrii de
funcionare au valori constante. Acest tip de
control al pendulrii poate fi ntlnit n operaii
de lansare /recuperare gruie de lansare la ap
brci de salvare de la bordul navei.
Sistemele active de compensare a pendulrii
sarcinii suspendate conin senzori de micare
cuplai cu actuatoare hidraulice (cilindrii
hidraulici), formnd o bucl de reglare pentru a
controla n mod activ micarea de pendulare a
sarcinii, trecnd peste variaiile parametrilor
sistemului. Acest lucru presupune att comanda
ct i reglarea procesului. Acest tip de control a
fost implementat la unele macarale mobile de
cheu, cu deplasare pe enile sau pe roi de cale
ferat. Scopul controlului la macaralele terestre
este de a menine constant unghiul dintre cablul
de sarcin i braul macaralei, controlul rezultnd
pe baza modelrii macaralei fr micarea de
ruliu care este specific navelor, i pentru care
nu exist un sistem de control automat al
pendulrii care s poat fi implementat la
macaralele navale i portuare. Firma Liebherr
-

Austria n 1999-2000, a produs macaraua mobil


portuar LHM, dotat cu sistem automat de
atenuare a balansului sarcinii suspendate la
crlig, constnd din automatizarea sistemului de
ridicare
al
macaralei,
care
produce
nfurarea/desfurarea cablului pe tambur n
scopul micorrii/mririi lungimii cablului de
suspendare, sistemul functionnd pe baza
programului Litronic Liebherr.

a solution for the electro-hydraulic


automation of the crane arm moving
system, in order to compensate the
pendulum movement of the load, due
to the cross swinging of the ship on
waves;
In order to reduce shocks on the load hanging
from a naval crane, systems acting on the load
cable are directly used, as follows:
Passive systems have an indirect action over the
load cable, using hydraulic pistons acting
like mufflers in certain conditions given by the
load weight and by the conditions at sea. These
are open loop dual command systems, but they
do not adjust the process. The disadvantage of
this system is that changes of
load or of disturbance frequencies determine the
malfunction of the entire system. They are
used for movements with potentially known
disturbances, and the operation parameters have
constant values. This type of pendulum
movement
control
is
specific
for
launching/recuperation operations for lifeboat
launching davits.
Active systems which compensate the balancing
of the hanging load include movement sensors
coupled with hydraulic actuators (hydraulic
cylinders), thus forming an adjustment loop used
to actively control the pendulum movement of
the load, over the variations of the system
parameters. This involves both the control and
the adjustment of the process. This type of
control was implemented in some mobile dock
cranes, which must be moved on senile or rails.
The purpose of the control in the case of ground
cranes is to maintain a constant angle between
the load cable and the crane arm; the control
results from the crane modelling without the
rolling movement specific for ships, and for
which there is no automatic movement
control system that could be implemented in
the case of sea and dock cranes.
In 1999-2000 Liebherr Company in Austria
manufactured a mobile harbour crane LHM,
provided with an automatic crane lifting
system,
determining
the
drum
winding/unwinding of the cable in order to
decrease/increase the suspension cable length,
the system using the Litronic Liebherr
program.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

39

Tot n [2], se analizeaz i sinteza optim a unui


controller de conducere optimal liniar ptratic de
la stare. Tehnica gain- scheduling, se utilizeaz
n instalaii automatizate, care i modific
dinamica, adic i modific punctul static de
funcionare, deci i amplitudinea buclei de
reglare n care este introdus procesul. Se
msoar unghiul de basculare al macaralei,
pentru care precizia teoretic i practic este
mare. Unghiul de basculare msurat de un
senzor de unghi, este convertit n semnal electric
de ctre traductorul de unghi i trimis sistemului
standard de reglare logico-programabil, adic
automatului programabil, la nivelul cruia, pe
baza unui program memorat se realizeaz
semnalul de comand sub forma unei acceleraii
liniare sau unghiulare.
Automatul programabil, cuprinde i partea de
software a sistemului, compus din regulatorul
variabil
(gain-scheduling)
i
modulul
matematic al aplicaiei. Programul memorat
asigur aplicaiile de procesare a datelor
principale necesare funcionrii normale a
sistemului, operaii ce pot fi grupate ntr-un
numr de pai ce presupun filtrarea i
verificarea domeniului de lucru astfel nct
sistemul de comand s produc un set de
reacii care s previn comenzile care nu
corespund condiiilor de lucru, limitate de
viteze i acceleraii critice.
-

Modelul de reglare automat se dovedete


eficient pentru compensarea micrii de
balansare a sarcinii suspendate provocat
de perturbaiile iniiale aleatoare, sau de
combinaii ale acestora, n condiiile
micrii de ruliu a navei[2].

Paper [2] also includes an analysis and optimal


synthesis of a linear optimal leading controller. The
gain-scheduling technique is used in automated
installations which modify their dynamics, that is,
they change their static operation point, and thereby
the span of the adjustment loop is also changed in
the process. The crane swinging angle is also
measured, as high theoretical and practical
accuracy is needed in this case. The swinging angle
is also measured, as high theoretical and practical
accuracy is needed in this case. The swinging angle
measured by an angle sensor is converted into an
electrical signal by the angle translator, and sent to
the standard logical-programmable adjustment
system (the automatic programmer) where, based
on a memorised program, the control signal is
operated under the shape of a linear or angular
acceleration.
The automatic programmer also includes the
software part of the system, made of the
variable gain-scheduling regulator and the
mathematical model of the application. The
memorized program ensures the main data
processing as needed for the normal system
operation, and such operations may be
grouped in a number of steps involving the
filtering and verifying of the working domain,
so that the control system produces a set of
reactions meant to prevent controls which are
not appropriate for the working conditions,
limited by speed values and critical
accelerations.
- The automatic adjustment model
proves its efficiency for compensating the
swinging movement of the suspended load,
determined by initial chance disturbances, or
by a combination of the above, during ship
rolling [2].

4. Sisteme de control pentru sigurana


vehiculelor de transport rutier greu [3,9]

4. Control systems for the safety of heavy


load transport vehicles [3, 9]

4.1 Sistemul de control al perimetrului.

4.1. The perimeter control system

Principiul dup care funcioneaz sistemul de


control al perimetrului, este urmtorul: senzorii
transmit distanele fa de obstacolele din jurul
mainii (inclusiv fa de autovehiculele n
micare) avertivndu-l sonor pe ofer i chiar
reducnd viteza de deplasare.
40

The operation principle of the perimeter


control system is the following: sensors
transmit distances to any obstacle surrounding
the vehicle (including to any moving vehicle)
emitting a sound warning to the driver and
even reducing the rolling speed.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

In jurul unui vehicul de mare tonaj exist


ntodeauna zone cunoscute sub numele de
unghiuri moarte . Cu ct vehiculul este mai
mare, lucru frecvent n transportul rutier greu,
cu att zonele care nu sunt acoperite de cmpul
vizual al oferului sunt mai mari. Volvo a
propus un sistem mixt, format dintr-un radar i
camer video. Astfel au aprut sistemele
mbarcate: Blind Spot Support i Lane Change
Support [3].
Primul, Blind Spot Support, ofer printr-un
sistem de camer video posibilitatea oferului s
vad toate zonele din jurul vehiculului, care n
mod normal nu sunt accesibile vederii directe.
Ecranele LCD montate n cabin sunt situate n
zona n care nu se distrage atenia oferului de la
trafic i sunt uor de urmrit.
Al doilea, Lane Change Support, lucreaz ca un
radar de proximitate, alertnd oferul sonor sau
optic n momentul n care un vehicul se apropie
prea mult de vehiculul din fa, spate sau lateral,
dar nu poate fi vzut direct de ofer. Cele dou
sisteme pot funciona separat sau mpreun

Around a heavy load vehicle there are always


areas known as dead angles. The larger the
vehicle quite common in heavy load road
transport the wider the areas which are not
covered by the drivers visual angle. Volvo
proposed a mixed system, made of a radar
system and a video camera. This was the
origin of on-board systems such as Blind Spot
Support and Lane Change Support [3].
The first one, Blind Spot Support helps the
driver see, with the help of a video camera, all
areas around the vehicle, as is normally
impossible by direct view. LCD creens
mounted in the cabin are placed so as not to
disturb the driver in the traffic and they are
easy to watch.
The second one, Lane Change Support, works
as proximity radar, emitting a sound or visual
warning to the driver when a vehicle draws
too near to the vehicle in front, at the back or
on both sides, yet it cannot be seen by the
driver himself. The two systems may work
separately or together.

De asemenea, o camer poate fi montat n


spatele autovehiculului, aceasta intrnd automat
n funciune n cazul manevrelor de parcare cu
spatele .

Also, a camera may be mounted at the back of


the vehicle, and it automatically starts to
function during back parking manoeuvres.

4.2 Sisteme de siguran pentru semiremorci[9]

4.2. Security systems for semi-trailers [9]

In transporturile grele, rsturnarea se poate


produce i cu oferi care parcurg zilnic acelai
traseu, pericolul fiind cu att mai mare cu ct
materialele sau deeurile transportate sunt
periculoase. Pentru astfel de situaii este sistemul
EBS. Acesta are n sarcin funcia ABS, i
reglarea forei de frnare funcie de sarcin.
Sistemul este n stare s creeze presiuni de
frnare diferite ntre partea dreapa, respectiv
cea stng a vehiculului. In plus se monteaz un
cip, cu care s msoare acceleraia lateral n
unitatea electronica de control, dup care se pune
problema de sotware n funcie de complexitatea
sistemului de transport.
Versiunea TEBS lansat de Knorr Bremse
(EBS pentru semiremorci) asigur funcia de
stabilitate a mersului, fiind primul sistem de

In heavy transport, vehicles may turn over


even if the driver takes the same road
everyday, this being the more dangerous as
materials and waste substances it carries are
more hazardous. EBS system is made
especially for such cases. It is provided with an
ABS function and it adjusts the braking force
depending on the load.
The system is able to create different braking
pressures on the right side and left side of the
vehicle respectively. A chip is also mounted in
the electronic control unit, for the measurement
of the side acceleration, and the software is
chosen according to the complexity of the
transport system.
The TEBS version launched by Knorr-Bremse
(EBS for semi-trailers) ensures the movement

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

41

Avantajul acestui sistem, const n faptul c, din


cabin este imposibil de sesizat faza de nceput a
rsturnrii, scznd astfel la minimum ansele de
corecie a vehiculului, dar TRSP reacioneaz
imediat independent de voina oferului, ntre
timp avertizndu-l i pe acesta. In plus, este
posibil i o vitez iniial mult mai mare la
executarea unor manevre.

stability function, being the first such system in


the world [8]. The system is provided with a
TRSP (Trailer Role Stability Program) which
prevents the vehicle to roll over. Starting from
2003 Schmitz, Kogel,
Fliegl and other manufacturers are building
semi-trailers provided with the TRSP system.
The system is now largely appreciated for
vehicles which are carrying hazardous
materials. Moreover, TEBS Knorr has a smaller
number of components, and its diagnosis is
made with the help of laptop software.
The advantage of this system lies in the fact
that, from the cabin, it is impossible to
perceive the initial stage of the roll-over, thus
reducing the chances for correction to a
minimum, but TRSP reacts immediately
irrespective of the drivers will, and warns
him at the same time. Also, it is possible to
reach higher initial speeds during certain
manoeuvres.

5. Concluzii.

5. Conclusions

Transportul agabaritic reprezint doar o mic


parte dintr-un lan, care privit n ansamblu, ne
poate crea o imagine despre modul cum
funcioneaz industria la nivel mondial, care
folosete piese cu dimensiuni i mase mari,
fabricate n uzine specializate i transporetate la
mare distan.
- Ritmul actual al construciilor n
domeniul industriilor de proces sau
energeticii, depinde de transporturile
tehnologice excepionale de echipamente,
adic de livrarea lor la timp pentru
executarea lucrrilor respective.
- Instalaiile pentru astfel de lucrri, sunt
alctuite din subansambluri mecanice
grele, sau din echipamente cu gabarit
depit, care necesit: transportarea lor
optim pe vehicule speciale i montarea
lor, de multe ori la distane foarte mari
fa de locul de execuie.
- Pentru vehiculele care transport aceste
elemente, sistemele de siguran sunt
extrem
de
utile
la
efectuarea
transportului.

Over-dimensioned transports represent just a


small part of a chain which, seen as a whole,
may explain the way in which industry
operates at a world level, using parts with
large sizes and weights, manufactured in
specialized plants and transported over large
distances.
- At present, construction works in
process industries or in the energy
field
depend
on
exceptional
technological
transports
for
equipment, that is, on their delivery in
time for covering the respective
works;
- Installations for such works are made
of heavy mechanical sub-assemblies
or over-dimensioned equipment which
requires an optimal transport on
special vehicles and mounting, often
to very large distances from the
manufacturing location.
- For the vehicles involved in the
transport of such equipment, security
systems are extremely useful during
transport.

acest gen din lume [8]. Sistemul dispune de


TRSP (Trailer Role Stabilty Program),care este
un sistem de stabilitate la rsturnare pentru
semiremorci.
Incepnd din 2003, Schmitz,
Kogel, Fliegl, i ali fabricani construiesc
semiremorci care au n dotare de serie sistemul
TRSP.
Sistemul a devenit foarte apreciat pentru
transportoarele de materiale periculoase. In plus,
TEBS Knorr are mai puine componente, iar
diagnosticarea acestuia se face cu un laptop care
se ncarc cu soft.

42

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

Lefort dynamique soubis par dquipements cylindriques aux murs minces pendant le transport, dans
les industries de procs ou de materiaux pour constructions.
Resum:
On prsente le transport dquipements tchnologiques trs lourds, en systme combin, pour lindustrie
chimique, des materiaux de construction, o alimentaire. On continue avec les performances tchnologiques des
installations de transport et de relve utilises dans ces domaines, qui diminuent les shocks et vibrations qui
passent la charge pendant quelle est manie et transporte, et qui assurent sa scurit.

Bibliografie:
[1]

BORCESCU, R.- Transport agabaritic, O var lung i ferbinte, Revista Cargo Romnia, Bucureti,
nr.5/2007, pag.26-30.

[2]

COTRUMBA, M.R., - Contribuii la studiul automatizrii sistemelor de ridicare ale instalaiilor de


ridicat navale i portuare, Rezumat tez de doctorat, Universitatea Tehnic de Construcii Bucureti,
2007

[3]

CIUBOTARU, D. Cum s iei din situaii extreme, Revista Cargo Romnia & Bus, Bucureti,
nr.6/2005 pag. 54-56.

[4]

MIHAILESCU, R.- Recital pe ghea, un convoi de 90 de tone a strbtut n plin iarn, 350 km,
Revista Cargo Romnia, Bucureti, nr.1/1999, pag.30-31.

[5]

MIHAILESCU,R.- Un convoi excepional, Reportaj, Revista Cargo Romnia & Bus, nr.4/2007,
pag.30-33.

[6]

PAVEL, D. - Caroserii CTE Trailers, S fii cu un pas naintea celorlali, Cargo Romnia& Bus,
nr.6/2005, pag.28.

[7]

SARBU, L.- Utilaje rutiere i tehnologii de transport, Partea a-II-a, Catedra Maini de Construcii,
Universitatea Tehnic de Construcii Bucureti, 2001.

[8]

VOINEA,F, STAUB,M.- Colosul, reportaj, Revista Cargo Romnia, Bucureti, nr.7/1998, pag.57-59.

[9]

x x x TRSP Knorr-Bremse Romania. Hotarat s nu se rstoarne. Material asigurat de KnorrBremse Romnia, Revista Cargo Romnia&Bus, Bucureti, nr.5/2004, pag38.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

43

O aplicaie a modelrii 3D pentru


un monument istoric

A 3D Modelling Application for a


Historical Monument

Georgeta Pop (Manea), ef lucrri univ. dr. ing., Facultatea de Geodezie, Universitatea Tehnic de Construcii
Bucureti, Faculty of Geodesy, Technical University of Civil Engineering, Bucharest
Mirela Daniela Dornescu, Ing.,S.C. Intersect Impex SRL
Abstract: The main aspects of digital photogrammetry and its applications in the architectural
field are illustrated in this paper. The advantages of using modern surveying equipment in
architectural photogrammetry are also described here. Practical aspects are exemplified using
the 3D model of the Triumph Arc from Bucharest. In addition, the aspects of collecting data
using a total station and a digital non-metric photo camera are analyzed, as well as the
processing of this information using AutoCAD and Google SketchUp.

Introducere

Introduction

Noile tehnologii i tehnici de obinere de


date, de prelucrare a datelor, de structurare,
de reprezentare i arhivare, de regsire i
analiz au dat natere unor noi sisteme i
metode de prelucrare i de reprezentare a
rezultatelor .
Datorit progreselor nregistrate de hardware
i software pentru calculatoare, se poate
remarca o dezvoltare rapid a facilitilor de
vizualizare n fotogrammetria arhitectural.
Planele simple de faade nu mai sunt
suficiente pentru cerinele i aplicaiile
multor utilizatori. Aplicaii 3D n timp real
cum ar fi animaiile, survolrile i
deplasrile interactive, care ar fi necesitat
performanele unor staii de lucru de nivel
nalt acum civa ani, sunt acum disponibile
pentru calculatoarele personale.

New technologies and techniques for data


acquisition, data processing, structuring
and representation and archiving, retrieval
and analysis have led to novel systems,
processing
methods
and
result
representation.
Due to the progress in computer hardware
and software, a rapid development in the
facilities of visualization in architectural
photogrammetry can be noticed. Simple
facade plans are no longer suitable for the
demands and applications of many users.
3D-real-time
applications
such
as
animations, interactive fly-over and walkaround, which needed the performance of
high-end workstations a few years ago, are
now also available on personal computers.
Case Study

Studiu de caz

Exemplul practic a fost realizat la Arcul de


Triumf din Bucureti, iar modelul 3D a fost
realizat cu ajutorul programelor AutoCAD
2007 i Google SketchUp Pro 6. n acest
caz, s-au efectuat msurtori cu o staie
total. Imaginile au fost preluate cu camera
nemetric Canon EOS 350D, calibrat cu
distana focal f = 18mm. n total, s-au
preluat 30 de imagini, din care am utilizat
19.
Msurtorile s-au efectuat cu staia total
TPS800 i au fost prelucrate cu softul
SIPREG. Distanele au fost msurate n
domeniul laser, cu o precizie de 2mm2ppm.
44

The study was made using the 3D model


of Triumph Arc from Bucharest and
with the help of software applications like
AutoCAD 2007 and Google SketchUp Pro
6. In this case the measurements were
made with a total station. Pictures of the
site were acquired with a digital nonmetric camera Canon EOS 350D
calibrated for the focal distance of 18mm.
I have used 19 pictures of a total of 30.
The surveying was made with a TPS800Leica total station and processed with
SIPREG software. Laser technology instead
of infrared measurements was used for

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

Pentru generarea modelului 3D au fost


msurate aproximativ 200 de puncte (fig.1).
Punctele rezultate au fost importate n
Autodesk Map 3D cu ajutorul funciilor din
meniul Civil Points utiliznd inventarul de
coordonate X,Y,Z. Modelul 3D a fost
generat din corpuri i suprafee, cu ajutorul
funciilor de modelare disponibile in
AutoCAD 2007 (fig.2).
Modelul 3D (.dxf) generat n AutoCAD
2007 l-am importat n Google SketchUp Pro
6 sub form de puncte i linii (fig.3). De la
aceast form a Arcului de Triumf, dat prin
linii i puncte, s-a trecut la o reprezentare
prin suprafee i corpuri a modelului 3D, cu
ajutorul funciilor de modelare disponibile n
Google SketchUp Pro 6 (fig.4).
Pe faadele monumentului am ataat texturi
(preluate din imaginile realizate cu camera
digital nemetric), obinute printr-o serie de
prelucrri realizate cu soft Adobe Photoshop
CS2. n vederea obinerii unui model 3D
care s fie ct mai "aproape" de modelul real
(Arcul de Triumf), am utilizat programul
Google SketchUp Pro 6. n acest program
am importat cele 19 imagini pe faadele
monumentului.
Rezultatele aplicaiei sunt prezentate n
figurile 1 9 ce ilustreaz modelul 3D din
diferite unghiuri de vedere :

acquiring the points with a 2mm 2ppm


precision.
More than 200 points were measured and
calculated for the 3D model (fig.1). Based on
their X, Y, Z coordinates, the points were
imported in Autodesk Map 3D using Civil
Points menu functions. The 3D model was
generated with solids and surfaces from
measured and digitized points using the
modeling capabilities of AutoCAD 2007
(fig.2).
The 3D model generated with the 2007
version of the popular AutoCAD application
was imported into Google SketchUp Pro 6 as
lines and points (fig.3). Based on this sketch
of the Triumph Arch, defined by points and
lines, and with the help of the functions
available in Google SketchUp Pro 6, a
representation of the 3D model was created
containing surfaces and solids (fig.4).
In the next stage I have attached textures on
the monument facades (from images taken
with a non metric camera), derived through
some stages of editing with the Adobe
Photoshop CS2 software.
With
the
purpose of getting a 3D model as close to
reality as possible I have used all the 19
images of the monument facades in Google
SketchUp Pro 6.
Figures 1- 9 illustrate the resulting model in
different representations and from different
views:

Fig. 1. Puncte msurate


Measured points

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

45

Fig. 2. Modelul 3D obinut n AutoCAD


The 3D model in AutoCAD

.
Fig. 3 Importarea modelului 3D n
Google SketchUp
Importing the 3D model in
Google SketchUp

46

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

Fig. 4. Suprafee i solide n Google SketchUp - Surfaces and solids in Google SketchUp

Fig. 5. Inserarea texturilor (vedere lateral) - Applying the textures (side view)

Fig. 6. Inserarea texturilor (vedere frontal) - Applying the textures (frontal view)

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

47

Fig. 7. Arcul de Triumf (vedere frontal)


Triumph Arc (frontal view)

Fig. 8. Modelul 3D al Arcului de Triumf (vedere lateral)


The 3D model of the Triumph Arc (side view)

Fig. 9. Modelul 3D al Arcului de Triumf (vedere frontal)


The 3D model of Triumph Arc (frontal view)
48

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

Echipamente hardware i software utilizate

Hardware Equipment And Software

a). Staia totala Leica TPS800

a). Leica TPS800 total station

Staia total TPS800 este echipat cu o nou


tastatur, un display nou i o versiune nou
de software. Varietatea de opiuni face ca
TPS800 s fie un instrument deosebit de
performant.

The TPS800 is equipped with new


keyboard, display and software. Various
options make the TPS800 an extremely
powerful instrument.

Display-ul are rezoluie mare i este uor de


citit n orice condiii de iluminare. Softul este
proiectat s fie eficient, intuitiv, flexibil i
uor de nvat. La noul soft sunt adugate
funciile COGO i Road 2D. Aplicaia
Road 2D permite trasarea i determinarea
punctelor de-a lungul aliniamentelor
orizontale.

The display features high resolution and


good readability under all light conditions.
The software is designed to be efficient,
intuitive and flexible with a very short
learning time. The new software additionally
features COGO and Road 2D. Road 2D
allows the stake out and measurement of
points along a horizontal road alignment,
consisting of alignment elements such as
lines, curves and spirals.

Fig. 10. Staia totala Leica TPS800


Leica TPS800 total station

b). Camera digital nemetric Canon EOS


350D

b). Non-metric Digital Camera Canon


EOS 350D

Pentru proiectul nostru am utilizat camera


digital nemetric Canon EOS 350D cu
urmtoarele specificaii tehnice: rezoluie
8.0 megapixeli ce corespunde unei
rezoluii a imaginii de 3456 x 2304 pixeli,
zoom optic de 3X i distana focal ntre
18-55 mm

We used for our project a Canon EOS 350D


photo camera with the following specifications
presented in the technical description of the
manufacturer: a sensor resolution of 8.0
megapixels that matches an image size of
3456 x 2304 pixels and a three times optical
zoom with a focal length between 18-55 mm.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

49

Fig. 11. Camera nemetric, Canon EOS 350D


Non-metric Digital Camera Canon EOS 350D

c). Programul AutoCAD 2007

c). AutoCAD 2007 software

Produs de Autodesk acest software este


folosit n ntreaga lume pentru modelarea 3D.
Aceleai principii CAD de modelare 3D se
folosesc pentru orice obiect de la un toaster
pn la cldirea templului Taj Mahal. De
exemplu modelul 3D n AutoCAD poate fi
generat utiliznd suprafee i solide. Crearea
obiectelor 3D este facil deoarece procesul
este interactiv iar utilizatorul primete mai
multe indicaii vizuale. Este suficient s
deplasezi mausul corespunztor pentru a crea
o baz creia apoi i poi modifica nlimea
prind deplasarea ei n sus (sau n jos).
De asemenea, poi introduce valoarea exact
a dimensiunilor. Alte comenzi utilizeaz
acelai principiu interactiv, permind
utilizarea de solide complexe ca de exemplu
piramida sau elicea.

Made by Autodesk, this is a software


application widely used for 3D modeling.
The same CAD principles of 3D architectural
modeling apply to any object from toasters to
the Taj Mahal building. For example, the
3D model in AutoCAD can be generated
using surfaces and solids. Creating 3D
objects is a lot easier than before, because the
process is more interactive and there is more
visual feedback as you work. You just drag
across the mouse to create the base and drag
up (or down) to modify the height.
Or you can enter exact measurements. Other
commands use the same interactive process
and you can use complex solids like the
pyramid and the helix.

Fig. 12. AutoCAD 2007

d). Programul Google SketchUp

d). Google SketchUp software

Google SketchUp este un program simplu


dar eficient, pentru crearea, vizualizarea i
modificarea obiectelor 3D rapid i cu
uurin. Programul a fost dezvoltat astfel
nct s combine caracteristicile schielor,
cu viteza i flexibilitatea desenelor
digitale.

SketchUp is a 3D software application


used to create everything from 3D massing
models to fully rendered and highly
detailed models. SketchUp is used
predominately on the front-end of the
design process where designs are in a fluid
and tentative state.

50

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

Fig. 13. Google SketchUp Pro 6

Concluzii

Conclusions

Cel mai mare avantaj este realizarea


modelului 3D. Acesta ne d posibilitatea
s extragem orice informaie dorim. De
exemplu, putem s determinm suprafee
i volume, s realizm seciuni sau
proiecii ale obiectului.
Aa cum e uor de observat din studiul de
caz, utilizarea imaginilor nemetrice a oferit
i cteva avantaje: timp sczut n preluarea
imaginii, precizie ridicat, acoperirea
ntregului model.

The greatest advantage is the use of the 3D


model; this gives us the possibility to
extract any information we want. For
example we can determine surfaces and
volumes, make sections or flatten views of
the object.
As it can easily be observed from our case
study the use of non-metric photos had
also offered some advantages: less time in
acquiring the images, high precision and
wide covering of the model.

Une application du modelage 3D pour un monument historique


Rsum
Dans cet article sont prsent les principales caractristiques de la photogrammtrie numrique et ses
applications en domaine architecturel. Sont dcrits de mme, les avantages de lutilisation des quipements
godsiques modernes en photogrammtrie architecturelle. Les aspects pratiques sont exemplifi pour modle
3D du monument Larc de triomphe de Bucarest. Dans cet ouvrage sont analys les tapes du processus de
mesurage, en utilisant une station totale pour lacquisition des donnes et une chambre numrique, nonmtrique, ainsi que linterprtation des informations a laide de logiciel AutoCAD.

[1]

Atkinson, K.B., 2001. Close Range Photogrammetry and Machine Vision, Edited by Atkinson, K.B.,
formerly of Department of Geomatic Engineering University College London.

[2]

Kasser, M., Egels, Y., 2002. Digital photogrammetry. Taylor and Francis, London and New York.

[3]

Leberl, F., 1991. The Promise of Softcopy Photogrammetry, in Digital Photogrammetric Systems.
Wichmann, Karlsruhe.

[4]

Turdeanu, L., 1997. Fotogrametrie analitic. Edit. Academiei Romne, Bucureti

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

51

Modificarile reologice ale


mixturilor bituminoase in procesul
de reciclare

Rheological Modifications of
Bituminous Mixtures in Recycling
Processes

Luiza Dobre, drnd. ing. Universitatea Tehnica de Construcii Bucureti (Lecture Eng. Tehnical University of
Civil Engineering Bucharest), catedra de drumuri (Roads Department), Director calitate al societatii Strabag
SRL (Quality Manager, Strabag SRL Company ).

1. Introducere

1. Introduction

Utilizarea mixturilor asfaltice reciclate in


Tarile Uniunii Europene.

The use of recycled asphalt mixtures in the


Eastern European Countries.

De Ce ?
Motive politice : dezvoltarea statelor
Motive economice : reducerea
costurilor si materiilor prime
Motive impact de mediu :
- optimizarea resurselor naturale
- reducerea consumului de materii
prime
- reutilizarea materialelor provenite din
industria rutiera avand ca obiectiv
principiulzero deseuri .

Why?
Political reasons: country development
Economical reasons: reduction of costs
and basic matters
Environmental impact reasons:
- natural resources optimization
- decrease
of
basic
matter
consumption
- recycling of materials that are
resulting from the road industry
having as a main object the
principle zero waste.

Scurt istoric.

Short history.
1973 Majoritatea statelor dezvoltate au
inceput procesul de reciclare a mixturilor
asfaltice utilizand initial un procent de
maxim 15-20% material frezat, prin reciclare
la rece.
1980- Creterea procentului de material
frezat prin introducerea celui de al doilea
tanc separat, procentul materialului frezat a
crescut de la 20% la 50-80%.
1993 Comisia Europeana EAPA European
Asphalt Pavement Association, aproba
strategia Europeana de implementare a
planului de reducere a materiilor prime,
pentru constructia rutiera.
1995-2003 Planul de reducere a materiilor
prime, a realizat un record in ce privete
reciclarea asfaltului, s-au produs aprox.300
milioane tone, mixturi asfaltice, cu un numar
de aproximativ 4500 statii de preparare.
2. Reologia i factorii care influenteaza imbatranirea bitumului.
Modificarea caracteristicilor bitumului in
timp, duce la durificarea acestuia.
Mixturile asfaltice sufera de imbatranire
52

1973 Most of the developed countries


began the recycling process of asphalt
mixtures using initially a maximum
percentage of 15-20 milling material, by
cold recycling.
1980 The increase in the percentage of the
milling material by introducing the second
separate tank, the milling material
percentage was raised from 20% to 50-80%.
1993 the European Commission
European Asphalt Pavement Association,
approves the Europena strategy for
implementing the plan for the reduction of
basic matters, for the road constructions.
1995-2003 The plan to reduce basic
matters, achieved a record with respect to
asphalt recycling, approx. 300 million tons
of asphalt mixtures being produced, with an
approx. number of 4500 mixing plants.
2. Rheology and Influence Factors
Affecting the Aging of Bitumen
The
modification
of
the
bitumen
characteristics in time leads to its durification.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

datorita modificarilor fizico-chimice din


liant.
In mod schematic, evolutia chimica, intervine
in principal in faza de fabricatie a mixturilor
asfaltice i este rapida, pe cand evolutia
fizica, intervine in situ, in cursul anilor de
exploatare (foto 1).

Asphalt mixtures suffer the aging process


due to the binder physical-chemical
changes. Schematically, the chemical
evolution, mainly occurs in the production
stage of the asphalt mixtures and it is fast,
whereas the physical evolution, occurs on
site, during the years of use (photo 1).

Foto (Photo).1

Cand bitumul i-a pierdut plasticitatea si


procesul de autoreparare nu mai este posibil,
incepe perioada de degradare a mixturii
asfaltice.
Imbatranirea i creterea fragilitatii liantului
sunt strans legate de problema deformatiilor
plastice si de rezistenta la fisurare a
imbracamintilor asfaltice (foto 2).

When the bitumen has lost its plasticity and


the self repair process is no longer possible,
the asphalt mixtures begin the degradation
period. The aging and increase of fragility
of the binder are closely connected to the
problem of plastic deformations and
resistance to cracks of asphalt pavements
(photo 2).

Foto(photo).2

Din pacate acest rezultat al imbatranirii,


propriu liantilor organici, este un fenomen
ireversibil, ce nu poate fi evitat.

Unfortunately this result of aging, specific


to organic binders, is an irreversible
process, which cannot be avoided.

Cele mai importante mecanisme de imbatranire a bitumului.


Reactia cu oxigenul atmosferic
Evaporarea substantelor volatile
Intarirea, datorata modificarii
configuratiei moleculelor, asfel incat aceasta
sa fie reversibila.
Oxigenul din aer, lumina si caldura solara,
apa si oxidantii atmosferici sunt principalii
factori care altereaza proprietatile bitumului.
Imbaranirea pe termen scurt este data de

The most important bitumen aging


mechanisms
Reaction to oxygen in the
atmosphere
Volatile substance evaporation
Hardening, due to the changes of
molecules configuration, which
becomes irreversible.
The air oxygen, sun light and heat, water
and atmosphere oxidants are the main
factors that alter the properties of bitumen.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

53

Short term aging is caused by the


evaporation of volatile substances and by
the reaction to the oxygen in the
atmosphere.
Long term aging is caused by the
modification of bitumen molecules, caused
by the bitumen hardening.
Chemical modifications lead to mass reduction caused the loss if volatile
substances.
In order to highlight the action of the
external agents on bitumen, in the doctorate
thesis I have elaborated I have performed a
study of the binder at the surface and inside
the asphalt mixture layers.
This evolution is manifested by the
transformation of the mixture characteristics
and of its component elements: the bitumen
and mineral aggregate. Bitumen samples
taken from the site storage tanks were
analyzed. They have allowed the defining of
the characteristics of the original bitumen.
The comparison of the initial bitumen
characteristics to the ones of the extracted
binders after various use periods, has
enabled an appreciation

evaporarea substantelor volatile si reactia cu


oxigenul atmosferic.
Imbatranirea pe termen lung este datorata
modificarii configuratiei moleculelor de
bitum, data de intarirea liantului.
Modificarile chimice duc la reducerea de
masa,,datorate pierderii substantelor volatile.
Pentru a pune in evidena actiunea agenilor
exteriori asupra bitumului, in teza de doctorat
pe care am elaborat-o, am efectuat un studiu
al evoluiei liantului la suprafaa i in
interiorul stratului de mixturi asfaltice.
Aceasta evoluie se manifesta printr-o
transformare a caracteristicilor mixturii si a
elementelor sale constructive : bitum i
agregat mineral.
S-au examinat probe de bitum din cisterna de
stocare a antierului, acestea au permis sa se
defineasca caracteristicile bitumului original.
Comparatia caracteristicilor bitumului initial
cu cele ale liantilor extrasi dupa diferite
durate de serviciu, a permis sa se aprecieze
evolutia liantului.

Penetratia la 25C

100

Prelevare din cisterna santierului

90

Influenta metodei de extractie

80

Evolutia datorata anrobarii

70
Partea superficiala a
stratului

Zona de 250 Kg/m2

60

Partea medie a stratului

50
40
30
20
-1

Timp (ani)

Fig.1

Rezultatele au aratat (fig 1), diferena intre


liantul din partea superficiala si cel din partea
medie a stratului.
In masa stratului de mixtura, bitumul nu este
supus efectelor oxidante si foto chimice si nu
inregistreaza decat o slaba variatie a
structurii initiale.Acest fapt poate fi explicat
si prin compactarea ridicata a mixturii, care
limiteaza actiunea agentilor externi.

The results have shown (figure 1) the


differences between the binder in the upper
part and in the lower part.
In the mass of the mixture layer the bitumen is
subject to oxidizers and photo chemical
effects and only record a light variation of the
initial structure. This fact can be explained
also by the high compaction of the mixture,
that limits the action of external agents.

3.Reologia bitumului studiata prin


incercari speciale.

3. Bitumen Rheology Studied Through


Special Tests

Bitumul este un material vascos-elastic.


Incecarile clasice pe bitum : penetraia,
punctul inel-bila, ductilitatea, punctul de
rupere Fraass, nu sunt suficiente.
Pentru a determina caracterul complex al

Bitumen is an elastic viscous material.


The classical bitumen tests like penetration,
the ring and ball point, ductility, Fraas
breaking point, are not sufficient.
To determine the complex nature of

54

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

bitumen we need to implement tests like


SHRP.
At high temperatures, the Dynamic Shear
Rheometer determines the viscous elastic
character of bitumen (figure 2).

bitumului, avem nevoie de incercarile tip


SHRP.
La temperaturi ridicate, reometrul cu forta
dinamica de forfecare ( DSR ), determina
caracterul vascos-elastic a bitumului (fig.2).
G*

Fig.2

Unde : G* este modulul complex de


forfecare, care are doua componente :
- o parte elastica ( ce se recupereaza )
- si una vascoasa ( nerecuperata)
- si este defazajul (intarzierea intre
torsiune si rotatia unghiulara)
Raportul G*/sin este parametrul care
definete fagasuirea.
Incercarea Wheel-Traking, furnizeaza o
corelare mai buna intre viteza de producere a
fagaului si valoarea rigiditatii exprimata prin
raportul G*/sin, pentru diferite viteze de
aplicare a rotii (foto 3).

Where G* is the complex shear module, that


has two component parts:
- an elastic part (retrievable)
- and a viscous party (non retrievable)
- is the dephasing (delay between
torsion and the angular roatation)
The ratio G*/ sin is the parameter that
defines the rutting.
The Wheel- Tracking trial provides a better
correlation between the rutting occurence
speed and the value of the rigidity expressed
by the ratio G*/sin, for different wheel
application speeds (photo3).

Foto(Photo) 3

In zona temperaturilor intermediare,intre


45C si 85C, ca degradare principala apare
ornierajul.Marimea
semnificativa
in
producerea ornierajului este deformatia, care
ramane dupa indepartarea sarcinii.
Viteza de deformatie la ornieraj VDOP ce
rezulta din incercarea wheel-tracking,
determina valoarea de cretere in timp a
adancimii fagasului(mm/h), din ultima treime
a perioadei de incercare, sub actiunea
repetata a unei roi standard, conform SR EN
12697/27.
Sub sarcini de durata, mixturile asfaltice prezinta fenomenul de fluaj si relaxare.
Fluajul actioneaza ca o deformaie plastica si
poate provoca ruperea prematura a structurii.

In the interval of the intermediate


temperatures, between 45C and 85C the
rutting appears as a main damage. The
significant dimension in the occurence of
rutting is a deformation that remains after
the removal of the burden.
The deformation speed VDOP resulting
from wheel-tracking tests, determined the
value in time of the rut depth (mm/h), taken
in the last third of the trial period, under the
continuous action of a standard wheel,
according to SREN 12697/ 27.
For long time burdens, asphalt mixtures
show creeping and relaxation phenomena.
Creeping acts as plastic deformation and it
can cause a premature breaking of road

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

55

O stabilitate insuficienta la solicitarile de


forfecare se manifesta prin apariia
deformaiilor superficiale de fluaj, cu
formarea de valuriri si ondulatii in
imbracamintea drumului (foto 4 ).

structure. An insufficient stability to shear


stress manifested through the appearance of
creeping superficial deformations, with the
occurrence of waving and corrugations of
road pavements (photo 4).

Foto (Photo) 4

Pentru a preveni apariia acestor degradari,


este necesar sa se ina cont ca viteza
efectiva de fluaj sa fie sub viteza de fluaj
admisibila si a regimului de temperatura
stabilit.
La elaborarea reetelor pentru prepararea
mixturilor asfaltice, trebuie sa se ina cont
de: influena caracteristicilor liantului
folosit si in
special al adaosului de
agregate concasate, fara de care anrobatele
nu pot prezenta o structura stabila.

To prevent the occurrence of this


degradations, it is necessary to take into
account that the actual creeping speed must
be below the admissible creeping speed and
the established temperature values.
For the elaboration of the mix designs for the
asphalt mixture recipes the following things
must be taken into account: the influence of
the characteristics of the used binder and
especially of the crushed aggregates addition,
without which the bituminous mixtures
cannot have a stabile structure.

4. Proiectarea si producerea mixturilor


asfaltice reciclate.

4. Design and Preparation of Recycled


Asphalt Mixtures

Principii :

Principles :

Y In toate rile Europei, punctul


principal al realizarii de structuri cu
mixturi
asfaltice
reciclate,
il
constituie performanele in serviciu si
nivelul de calitate.
Y Compoziia
amestecului,
componentele, precum si procesul
tehnologic (compactarea, grosimea
stratului proiectat), sunt condiii
eseniale in realizarea acestor structuri.
Y Anumite state cum sunt : Belgia,
Irlanda, Anglia, Austria, utilizeaza
penetraia bitumului Pextras, ca
indicator principal in calculul
bitumului de aport.
Y State cum sunt :Germania, Suedia,
utilizeaza ca baza de plecare
56

Y In all European countries, the main


point in obtaining recycled mixtures
structures is represented by the
performances in service and the
quality level.
Y The mix composition, components
as well as the technological process
(compaction, thickness of designed
level), are the essential conditions
in achieving such structures.
Y Certain states like: Belgium,
Ireland, England, Austria, use
Pextrax bitumen penetration, as a
main indicator in calculating the
addition bitumen.
Y States such as: Germany, Sweden,
use as a starting point the

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

temperatura
punctului
IB
si
vascozitatea.
Dar toate metodele duc la acelai lucru, si anume realizarea unei noi structuri cu
caracteristici asemanatoare structurii realizate
cu materiale conventionale.

temperature of the IB point and


viscosity.
But all methods lead to the same thing,
which is achieving of a new structure with
similar characteristics to the structure
carried out with conventional materials.

5. Studiu de caz
5. Case Study
In Anglia datorita unor mari dificultai
privind producerea agregatelor de cariera si a
distanelor de transport mari, a fost necesara
aplicarea reciclarii mixturilor asfaltice.
Costurile de producie si energia utilizata in
timpul executiei a fost masurata de
departamentul de energie al Marii Britanii.
Sectoarele analizate, au demonstrat ca
materialul reciclat, se poate compara cu
specificaiile relevante, cand la producerea
acestuia s-au utilizat o staie conventionala
de producere a mixturilor asfaltice.
Performanele obinute cu o structura
coninand 60% material reciclat, este la fel de
buna ca si cea realizata cu materiale
conventionale.
Reducerea costurilor cu pana la 30%, duce la
reducerea consumurilor de energie, materii
prime i proectia mediului.
Cerina eseniala pentru mixturile reciclate,
este aceea ca trebuie sa aiba performane
similare cu o mixtura asfaltica nou fabricata
si cu costuri efectiv mai scazute.
Referitor la performanele in serviciu, ale
straturilor reciclate, tronsonul pilot analizat, a
fost parte a lucrarilor de reconstructie a
autostrazii A20 din Marea Britanie.(fig.3)

In England due to serious difficulties


regarding the production of quarry
aggregates and large transport distances, the
use of asphalt mixtures recycling was a
necessity.
The production costs and the energy used
for execution was measured by Great
Britains energy department.
The analyzed sectors have proved that the
recycled material can be compared to all the
significant specifications, when for its
production a conventional asphalt mixture
production plant is used.
The performances achieved with a structure
containing 60% recycled material, are just
as good as the ones achieved with
conventional materials. The reduction of
costs up to a 30% figure leads to a
consumption in energy costs, raw mterials
costs and environmental protection.
The essential requirement for the recycled
mixtures is that they must have the same
performances as a newly produced asphalt
mixture and with significantly lower costs.
Regarding the performances in service of
the recycled layers, the analyzed trial
section was part of the reconstruction works
for the A20 motorway in Great Britain
(figure 3).

Fig.3

Materialul reciclat a fost comparat cu


mixtura asfaltica nou produsa cu materiale

The recycled material was compared to a


new asphalt mixture prepared with all

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

57

convenionnale.
Primul a fost sectorul pilot, iar cel de-al
doilea sectorul de trafic.

conventional materials.
The first was the trial section, and the
second was the traffic section.

Descrierea sectoarelor:
Pe sectorul pilot s-au utilizat procente
diferite de material frezat, incadrarea s-a
facut conform BS 4987, cu procente de
material reciclat cuprins intre 40-60%.
Sectorul cu material reciclat, cu
grosimea totala a straturilor de
280mm, realizat cu diferite procente
de material reciclat 0%, 40%, 60%, la
care materialul frezat a provenit din
primii 10 cm de la suprafata frezata.
Compoziia materialului reciclat si a
materialului nou fabricat, au fost
similare i echivalente cu condiiile
standard.Singura diferena a aparut la
trecerile pe sita de 0.063mm,
obinandu-se un coninut mai mic de
parte fina.
Calculul bitumului s-a efectuat
conform cu SREN 13108/4; anexa A.
Calculul penetreiei bitumului de
amestec in cazul utilizarii unui bitum
pur de aport se calculeaza cu
formula:
a lg pen1 + b lg pen2 = ( a+b) lg penmixt ( 1)
unde:
penmixt = valoarea calculata a penetraiei
bitumului ce s-ar obtine.
pen1 = penetraia liantului recuperat din
mixtura frezata.
pen2 = penetraia bitumului de aport

Description of Sections:
On the trail section a different percentage of
milling material was used, its ranking being
according to BS 4987, with recylced
material percentage comprised between
40-60%.
The recycled material section, with a
total thickness of layers 280mm,
made by using various percentages of
recycled material 0%, 40%, 60%, the
milling material being taken from the
first 10cm of the milled surface
The compositions of the recycled
material newly prepared, were similar
and equivalent to the standard
conditions. The only difference
occurred at the screening through the
0.063mm sieves, a smaller content of
fine parts being obtained.
The bitumen calculation was
performed according to SREN
13108/4; annex A.
The bitumen penetration calculation inside a
mixture in case a pure addition bitumen is
used is done using the formula:
a lg pen1 + b lg pen2 = ( a+b) lg penmixt ( 1)
where:
penmixt = the calculated value of the
bitumen penetration that may be obtained
pen1 = penetration of the binder retrieved
from the milled mixture.
pen2 = addition bitumen penetration.
In the case of the material from the analysed
sections we have:
pen1 = 35 ( 1/10mm)
pen2 = 90 ( 1/10mm)
a = 0.40 and b = 0.60
penmixt = 62 ( 1/10mm)
The determination of the bitumen content,
the determination of the volume mass and
the reco-very of bitumen from asphalt
mixtures was per-formed according to EN
ISO 12697/ 1,3,5. Starting January 2008
these standards replace the standard 1338/
2-84, for the determination of the asphalt
mixture composition. The values of the
addition bitumen penetration are in
conformity with SR EN 1426.
The compaction degree the level
of compaction on core samples

In cazul materialului din sectoarele analizate


avem : pen1 = 35 ( 1/10mm)
pen2 = 90 ( 1/10mm)
a = 0.40 si b = 0.60
penmixt = 62 ( 1/10mm)
Determinarea coninutului de bitum,
determiarea masei volumice si recuperarea
bitumurilor din mixturile asfaltice au fost
efectuate
conform
EN
ISO
12697/1,3,5.Aceste standarde inlocuiesc
incepand din ianuarie 2008, standardul
1338/2-84, pentru determinarea compoziiei
mixturii
asfaltice.Valorile
penetraiei
bitumului de aport este in conformitate cu
SREN1426
Gradul de compactare nivelul de
compactare pe carotele extrase, a fost
58

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

extracted, was shown by the tests


described in the specifications of
Great
Britains
Transport
Department and are detailed in
figure 4.

redat de testele descrise in


specificatiile Departamentului de
Transport al Marii Britanii si sunt
redate in fig 4.

99
98
97
0%

96

40%

95

60%

94
93
baza

binder

uzura

Fig.4

The norms imposed by this department were


min. 93%.
Density in the wearing course on the trial
section was performed 24 after the
execution of
the asphalt layer with recylced mixture,
using
the density determination with the non
destruc-tive nuclear method (figure 5).

Normele impuse de acest departament au fost


de min.93%.
Densitatea in stratul de uzura pe sectorul
experimental s-a realizat dupa 24ore de la aternerea stratului de mixtura reciclata, folosind determinarea densitaii prin metoda nucleara
nedistructiva ( fig 5).
2500
2450
2400
2350

0%

2300

40%

2250

60%

2200
2150
2100
baza

binder

uzura

Fig.5

Concluzii studiului de caz:


Prin studiul de caz efectuat, am
incercat demonstrarea cu ajutorul
testelor de laborator, ca prin
utilizarea unui procent mai mare de
material reciclat, aprox.60%, s-a
obinut o mixtura asfaltica cu aceleai
performane ca mixtura asfaltica
iniiala.
Reducerea consumului de materii
prime,
a
fost
semnificativa,
aprox.30% din costurile energiei si
materialelor utilizate.
Reducerea consumului de energie a
fost evaluata de Departamentul de
Energie a Marii Britanii, care a facut
un calcul cu privire la energia

Case study conclusions:


By the case study performed, we
tried to show by using laboratory
tests, that the use of a larger
percentage of recycled material,
appr. 60 %, an asphalt mixture with
the same performances as the initial
one was obtained.
The
basic
raw
materials
consumption
reduction
was
significant, appr.30% of the costs of
enery and materials used.
The energy consumption reduction
was evaluated by Great Britains
Energy
Department,
which
perfomed a calcualtion of the energy
consumed to produce and execute

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

59

consumata la producerea si execuia


straturilor de mixtura asfaltica cu
material reciclat si energia salvata
a fost :
- intre 8-14%, in cazul utilizarii a
40% material reciclat
- aproximativ 30%, in cazul utilizarii
a 60% material reciclat.

asphalt mixture layers with recycled


material and the saved energy
was:
- between 8-14%, when using 40%
recycled material
- approximately 30%, when using
60 % recy-led material.

6. Studiu Practic

6. Practical Study

Trebuie subliniat faptul ca datorita :


tendinelor tot mai accentuate de
crestere a traficului

It must be underlined that due to the:


more accentuated tendencies of the
traffic increase
failure of the road transport agents to
observe the admissible total maximal
and axle load limits
as well as the severe climate
conditions as a result of the global
warming, the rutting phenomena was
not kept under control. In the
practical study we performed, we
have studied the appearance of rutts,
when executing a reha- bilitation of
the wearing course with MASF 16
mixture.

nerespectarea de catre transportatorii


rutieri, a limitelor maxime admise a
greutii totale i pe osie

precum i a condiiilor severe de


clima ca efect a incalzirii globale,
fenomenul de apariie a fagaelor, nu
a fost inut sub control.

In studiul practic, pe care l-am efectuat, am


studiat apariia fagaelor, in cazul executiei
unei reabilitari a stratului de uzura cu mixtura
asfaltica tip MASF 16.Dupa un an de la
execuia acestei reabilitari, sectorul de drum
prezenta zone afectate de fenomenul de
ornieraj,
datorat
atat
temperaturilor
exceptionale inregistrate ( 38-40C), cat si
sporirea traficului pe DN1.
In rile Europei de vest, s-au efectuat cercetari de laborator considerabile pentru a
evidenia beneficiile obinute prin adaosul de
var hidratat si performanele din teren ce au
validat concluziile obtinute in laboratoare.
Studiu cuprinde in prima parte determinarea
procentului optim de var hidratat ( Ka 25 ),
care daca s-ar fi utilizat la prepararea iniiala
a mixturii tip MASF 16, ar fi prevenit
fenomenul de formare a fagaelor.
Rezultatele obinute pe mixtura asfaltica
MASF 16, realizata in laborator, cu var
hidratat, confirma faptul ca varianta optima
este varianta cu un procent de 6.2% bitum si
un aport de var hidratat de 2%. In figurile
6,7,8,9 sunt reprezentate graficele variantei
optime (marcajul rosu ).
60

A year after the rehabilitation ended, the the


road section showed areas affected by the
creeeping phenomena, due both the
exceptionally high temperatures registered
(38-40C), and to the increase of heavy traffic
on DN1.In the Western Europe states,
considerbale laboratory research has been
undertaken in order to highlight the benefits
obtained by using the hydrated lime addition
and the performances on site that validated the
conclusions reached in the laboratories.The
study contains in the first part the
determination of the optimal percentage of
hydrated lime (Ka 25 ), which, if used for the
initial preparation of the MASF 16 mixture,
would have prevented the occurrence of rutts.
The results obtained on MASF 16 asphalt
mixture, achieved in laboratory, with hydrated
lime confirm the fact that the optimal version
is that with a 6.2% bitumen percentage and an
addition of 2% hydrated lime. Figures 6,7,8,9
show the graphical representation of the
optimal variant (red line marking)

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

8,8
8,8

S t abi l i t at e (kN )

8,4

8,1
7,9

8,0

8,0

7,7

7,6

7,4

7,8
7,6

7,2

7,3

7,4
7,2

6,8

7,3

7,2

6,9

6,4

6,6

6,0
5,80

6,00

6,20

6,40

6,60

B i tum (%)

MASF 16 +VH1%

MASF 16 + VH1,5%

MASF 16 + VH2%

Fig.6 Variaia stabilitii (stability variation)

4,4
4,4
4,2
3,9

4,0

(m m )
Fluaj

3,8
3,6

3,2

4,1

3,7
3,4
3,5
3,3

2,9

3,8

3,7

3,4

3,4

3,2

3,0
3,0

2,8

2,9

2,6

2,6
2,4

5,80

6,00

6,20

6,40

6,60

B itum (%)

MASF 16 + VH1%

MASF 16 + VH1,5%

MASF 16 + VH2%

V i t e z a d e d e fo r m a t i e l a o r n ie r a j (m m /h )

Fig.7 Fluajul (rutting)

5,0
4,8
4,6
4,4
4,2
4,0
3,8
3,6
3,4
3,2
3,0
2,8
2,6
2,4
2,2
2,0

4,4
4,3
3,7
3,4
3,3

2,8

3,2
3,0
2,6

2,1
5,80

3,7

3,6

3,1

2,9

2,6

6,00

6,20

6,40

6,60

Bitum (%)

MASF 16 + VH1%

MASF 16 + VH1,5%

MASF 16 + VH2%

Fig.8 VDPO viteza de deformatie la ornieraj


VDPO creeping deformation speed, wheel tracking

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

61

7,9

7,6

A d a n c i m e a fa g a s u l u i (m m )

7,5
7,1
6,7
6,3

6,9

6,7

6,7

6,3
5,8
6,1

5,9
5,5
5,3

5,2

4,8

4,7
4,3
3,9

5,7

5,5

5,1

4,6
3,8

4,2

3,5
5,80

6,00

6,20

6,40

6,60

B i tum (%)

MASF 16 + VH1%

MASF 16 + VH1,5%

MASF 16 + VH2%

Fig.9 Adancimea fagasului (rut depth)

Seeing that the road section was executed


with MASF16 asphalt mixture and the
financial
economic costs, as well as the energy ones,
basic matter consumption (aggregates,
bitumen, filler) were large, we considered
efficient thefurther use of the asphalt
mixture to be milled.
We analyzed the milling material on a depth
of 4 cm, and from the mix design study
the optimal variant resulted, that is: the re
use of milling material in a proportion of
79%, chipping sort 4/8 and 8/16 addition,
addition bitumen 1,5% And hydrated lime
2%, shown with purple line marking in
figure 10, 11, 12, 13 graphs.

inand cont de faptul ca sectorul de drum a


fost realizat cu mixtura asfaltica tip MASF i
costurile financiar-economice, cat
si
energetice, de consum a materiilor prime
(gregate, bitum, filer ) au fost mari, am
considerat eficient, reutilizarea mixturii
asfaltice ce urma sa fie frezata.
Am analizat materialul frezat de pe o
adancime de 4 cm, iar din studiul de reeta
arezultat varianta optima si anume :
reutilizarea materialului frezat in proportie de
79%, adaos de criblura sort 4/8 si 8/16, bitum
de aport 1,5% i var hidratat 2%, evidentiata
in marcajul mov al graficelor din figurile
10,11,12,13.

9,6
9,0

9,2

S t a b i l i t a t e (k N )

8,8

8,3

8,4
7,9

7,9

6,8

7,3
7,3

8,0
8,1

7,6
7,2

8,8

7,8

8,0

8,9

7,5

7,7

7,4
7,1

6,4
6,0
5,80

6,00

6,20

6,40

B i tum (%)

MASF 16

BA16 reciclat

MASF 16 +VH 2%

Fig 10 Variatia stabilitatii (stability variaton)

62

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

6,60

4,4
4,2

4,0

4,0

Fluaj (m m )

3,9

3,7

3,8
3,6

3,4

3,3

3,4

3,5

3,3

3,2

2,9

3,0

3,0
2,8

2,8

3,8

3,4
3,2

2,9

2,6

2,6

2,4
5,80

6,00

6,20

6,40

6,60

B itum (%)

MASF 16

BA16 reciclat

MASF 16 + VH 2%

V i t e z a d e d e fo r m a t i e l a o r n i e r a j (m m /h )

Fig.11 Fluajul (rutting)


5,0
4,8
4,6
4,4
4,2
4,0
3,8
3,6
3,4
3,2
3,0
2,8
2,6
2,4
2,2
2,0
1,8

4,1
3,9

3,4
3,2
3,0

2,7
2,7
2,4

3,7
3,3

2,9

3,2
2,9

2,6
2,1

5,80

6,00

6,20

6,40

6,60

Bitum (%)

MASF 16

BA16 reciclat

MASF 16 + VH2%

Fig.12 VDPO viteza de deformatie


VDPO deformation speed
A danc im ea fa g a su lu i (m m )

7,8
7,4
7,0

6,6

6,6

6,0

6,2
5,8
5,4

3,4

5,7

5,0

4,6
3,8

5,3

5,0

5,0
4,2

6,3

5,5

5,2

4,6

4,2

4,6
4,0
3,8

5,80

4,2

6,00

6,20

6,40

6,60

Bitum (%)

MASF 16

BA16 reciclat

MASF 16 + VH2%

Fig.13 Adancimea fagasului (rut depth)

Concluzii studiul practic:


Testele de laborator au demonstrat
ca, daca mixtura asfaltica tip MASF
realizata iniial, ar fi avut in
compoziie un procent de 2% var
hidratat, ar fi avut o comportare in
timp net superioara.

Conclusions of the Practical Study:


Laboratory tests have shown that, if
the asphalt mixture type MASF
initially executed, had contained a
2% hydrated lime, it would have
had
a
significantly
superior
behaviour in time.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

63

Dovada sunt rezultatele de laborator,


care arata ca pana i mixtura realizata
cu aprox 80% material frezat,
provenita din materialul iniial, dar
care are un aport de 2% var hidratat,
a prezentat caracteristici fizicomecanice superioare, mixturii iniiale
realizat numai cu fibra.
Din analiza rezultatelor obinute,
vom remarca faptul ca in cazul
determinarii stabilitatii la 60C, avem
valori superioare mixturii tip MASF.
Fluajul s-a imbunatait remarcabil,
mai ales in cazul unui procent de 6%
bitum, avand valori de 3 mm fata de
3,3mm, iniial.
Adancimea fagaului, determinat prin
incercarea wheel-tracking, prezinta o
scadere intre 0,5-0,9mm, in cazul
utilizarii varului hidratat fata de
mixtura iniiala.
Viteza de deformaii la ornieraj scade
i aceasta in medie cu 0,3mm/h.

7. Incheiere

64

The proof is the laboratory results,


which show that even the mixture
executed with approx. 80% milling
material, originating from the initial
material, but which had a 2%
addition of hydrated lime, showed
superior
physical - mechanical
characteristics, to the ini- tial
mixture executed only with fiber.
From the analysis of the laboratory
results obtained, we can notice that
in case the stability is determined at
60C, we have values superior to the
asphalt mixture type MASF.
The
creeping
significantly
improved, especially in the case of
6% bitumen, having 3 mm values
as compared to 3,3 mm, initialy.
The rut depth, determined by the use
of wheel-tracking tests, shows a
decrease between 0,5 - 0,9mm,
when
using
hydrated
lime
compared to the initial mixture.
The creeping deformation speed
decreases also with an average of
0,3 mm/h.
7. Final Conclusion

Y inand cont de faptul ca Romania


este incepand cu ianuarie 2007
membra a
Uniunii Europene, normele europene
vor deveni norme aplicabile si pentru
ara noastra.

Y Taking into account that Romania is


a member of the European Union
starting from January 2007, the
European Norms will become
applicable norms for our country
too.

Y Utilizarea varului hidratat, in


conformitate cu SR EN 13043,
contribuie
la
imbunatatirea
proprietailor mecanice si reologice a
mixturilor asfaltice, reduce riscul de
imbatranire si oxidare a bitumului.

Y The use of hydrated lime, in


conformity with SR EN 13043, adds
to the improvement of the
mechanical and rheological features
of asphalt mixture, reducing the risk
of aging and oxidation of bitumen.

Y In timp ce costurile bitumului si al


agregatelor continua sa creasca iar
drumurile si autostrazile trebuie sa
fac fa unor mari solicitri,
importana utilizarii tehnologiilor de
reciclare a mixturilor bituminoase i
adaosul de var hidratat, in realizarea
mixturilor asfaltice trebuie sa fie
luata in considerare.

Y While the costs of the bitumen and


of the aggregates continue to rise
and the roads and motorways have
to cope with larger stress, the
importance of using recylcing
technologies
for
bituminous
mixtures
and hydrated lime
addition, in executing asphalt
mixtures must be taken into
consideration.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

Criterii
economice
pentru
evaluarea riscului de incendiu

Economic Criteria For Fire Risk


Assessment

Ionel Puiu Golgojan, cpt. drd. ing., Inspectoratul General pentru Situaii de Urgen (General Inspectorate
for emergency situations), Str. Banu Dumitrache, Nr. 46 Sector 2, cod potal 023765, e-mail:
puiugolgojan@yahoo.com
tefan Vintil, prof. univ. dr. ing., Universitatea Tehnic de Construcii Bucureti, Facultatea de Instalaii
(Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest - The Faculty of Building Services), Bd. Pache
Protopopescu Nr. 66, Sector 2, cod potal 021414, e-mail: vintilastfn@yahoo.com

1. Introducere

1. Introduction

Proiectarea construciilor i a instalaiilor


aferente, n vederea asigurrii cerinei
eseniale securitate la incendiu, implic
analiza criteriilor economice la adoptarea
soluiilor tehnice.
Indiferent dac vorbim despre cldiri noi
sau despre cldiri existente, la care se fac
schimbri de destinaie, pentru stabilirea
nivelului de securitate la incendiu este
necesar efectuarea evalurii riscului de
incendiu.
Pentru cldirile existente, conform
legislaiei n vigoare [1], administratorul
sau conductorul instituiei are ca
obligaie principal, printre altele, s
asigure identificarea i evaluarea
riscurilor de incendiu din unitatea sa i s
asigure corelarea msurilor de aprare
mpotriva incendiilor cu natura i nivelul
riscurilor.
La
construciile
noi
identificarea, evaluarea i controlul
riscurilor de incendiu se realizeaz prin
scenariul de securitate la incendiu [2],
elaborat pentru obiectivul respectiv.
Pe lng Ghidurile deja aprobate n ara
noastr [3], ministerele i celelalte organe
de specialitate ale administraiei publice
centrale pot elabora i emite metode i
proceduri pentru identificarea, evaluarea
i controlul riscurilor de incendiu,
specifice domeniului de competen, pe
baza metodelor i procedurilor elaborate
de organisme de profil din alte ri,
recunoscute prin reglementri europene.
Concret, pentru oportunitatea efecturii
unei investiii financiare ntr-o cldire i
pentru alegerea unei soluii tehnice
optime,
beneficiarul
trebuie
s
contracteze specialiti din domeniul

Designing the buildings and their services


and equipment in accordance with the fire
safety requirements implies an analysis of
economic criteria when adopting the
appropriate technical solutions.
It is necessary to assess the fire risk in
order to establish the level of fire risk even
if we speak about new buildings or
existing buildings with new functions.
According to legal stipulations in force at
present [1], for existing buildings, the
Administrator or the General Manager
have the obligation to identify and to
assess the fire risks from the building and
to ensure the correlation between fire
prevention measures and the level and
nature of fire risks. Identifying, assessing
and controlling of the fire risks in a new
building follow the fire risk scenario [2],
for the respective building.
In addition to the guidelines already
approved in our country [3], Ministeries
and the Public Administration can
elaborate and issue methods and
procedures for identifying, assessing and
controlling fire risks according to their
area of competence, based on methods and
procedures approved in other countries,
documented by the European regulations.
For example, for a financial investment
into a building and for choosing the
optimal technical and financial solution,
the beneficiary has to contact economists,
specialists from the technical and
administrative areas, etc. At present, the
financial issue is the principal criterion

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

65

economic, tehnic, administrativ etc. n


etapa actual, principalul criteriu de care
se ine seama este cel financiar. Sursele
de finanare, la care poate apela un
beneficiar sunt, n general, limitate. n
astfel de situaii limit, beneficiarul
opteaz pentru a investi doar n
elementele productive sau n cele fr de
care cldirea nu poate funciona.
Astfel, beneficiarul poate contracta una
sau mai multe societi de proiectare. n
cazul cel mai fericit, se poate contracta o
societate specializat care acoper i
domeniul construciilor i domeniul
instalaiilor. Dac proiectarea instalaiilor
este atribuit unei alte societi de proiectare
fa de cea care se ocup de partea de
construcii, atunci, sarcina acestei societi
de proiectare de a convinge beneficiarul de a
investi n msuri active de protecie la
incendiu devine dificil. n alt ordine de
idei, se poate spune c, n general,
beneficiarul este mai interesat de elementele
de construcie, compartimentri, climatizare,
iluminat i finisaje dect de msurile active
de protecie mpotriva incendiilor. Dac n
discuie intervin i specialitii n arhitectur
i inginerii de structur atunci munca de
convingere devine i mai dificil. n general
arhitecii, din considerente specifice, evit la
maximum elementele de instalaii aparente
iar inginerii de structur, la rndul lor, evit
goluri n elementele cu rol de rezisten i
stabilitate.
Este unanim acceptat, c exist foarte
multe situaii i, n special, la cldirile cu
aglomerri de persoane, n care un rol
deosebit de important n alegerea unor
soluii tehnice l reprezint societile de
asigurri. Aceste societi vin i cer n
mod expres adoptarea unor soluii tehnice
bazate pe dotarea de msuri active de
protecie mpotriva incendiilor, fapt care
conduce la asigurarea unui nivel de risc
optim sczut i implicit la un nivel de
securitate la incendiu corespunztor.
Decizia final de alegere a soluie tehnice
aparine
indiscutabil
beneficiarului.
Pentru corecta informare asupra viitoarei
investiii, mpreun cu consilierii
specialiti pe diferite domenii, acesta
trebuie s aib posibilitatea de a alege
66

that we take into account. The financing


sources that can be accessed by a
beneficiary
are
generally
limited;
therefore, the beneficiary may choose to
allocate the investment strictly to those
elements which are essential for
performing the building functions.
Thus, the beneficiary may appoint one or
more designing companies. The best
solution is to appoint one which is
specialized
in
construction
and
installations. If the installation design is
provided by other company than the
design company, then the design company
has a difficult mission in determining the
beneficiary to invest in active fire
protection measures. Apart from that,
generally speaking, the beneficiary is more
interested in having the building provided
with
all
necessary
structures,
compartments, lighting and climatic
systems, than to invest in active fire
protection measures.
When the beneficiary contacts the
architects and the structure engineering
specialists, it is even more difficult to
convince them to invest in active fire
protection measures because the architects
avoid as much as possible the apparent
installation elements, while structural
engineers avoid the empty spaces in the
resistance and stability elements.
It is generally accepted that, especially in
the case of big buildings, there are a lot of
situations when the Insurance company
plays an important role in choosing the
proper technical solution. The Insurance
companies require the adoption by the
beneficiary of technical solutions which
are based on implementing active fire
protection measures, to ensure a low level
of the risk and an optimal level of fire
safety.
No doubt, the beneficiary takes the final
decision.
For
correct
information
regarding the future investment, the
beneficiary,
together
with
various
specialists, should have the possibility to
choose from a whole range of options, the

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

dintr-o gam de soluii pe cea care i se


potrivete cel mai bine pe baza unor
criterii de analiz comparativ, inclusiv
cea bazat pe criterii economice.
n sensul celor precizate mai sus,
evaluarea riscului de incendiu reprezint
procesul de comparare a valorii riscului
de incendiu identificat cu o anumit
valoare a nivelului riscului de incendiu
acceptat.

solution that is adequate according to a


comparative analysis based on several
criteria, including the economic criteria.

La evaluarea riscului de incendiu se iau


n considerare factori, dintre care
enumerm:
sursele de aprindere, precum i
msurile prevzute pentru diminuarea
pericolului de incendiu;
iniierea i dezvoltarea incendiilor;
influena sistemelor de securitate la
incendiu, eficacitatea i fiabilitatea
acestora n reducerea consecinelor;
limitarea propagrii fumului sisteme
de evacuare a fumului i de presurizare
pe cile de evacuare;
sisteme de alarmare-alertare n caz de
incendiu;
asigurarea interveniei serviciilor
pentru situaii de urgen.

When the fire risk assessment is


performed, we take into account, among
others, the following factors:

In conformity with the facts presented


above, the fire risk assessment represents
the process of comparing the identified fire
risk values with a certain value of the level
of accepted fire risk.

the ignition sources, as well as the


measures for decreasing the fire risk;
the initialization and growth of fire;
the influence of fire risk systems, their
efficiency in reducing consequences;
the limitation of smoke spreading
smoke and heat exhaust ventilation
systems and pressurization from the
escape ways;
alarm-alert systems in case of fire;
the means of ensuring the intervention
in emergency situations.

G
(Gravitate)
(Gravity) 6
5
4

TH
BO

Domeniul riscului
optim
Optimum risk area

Extrem
de rar
Very
rare

Rar
Rare

PROTEC IE
PROTECTION

Domeniul riscului
innaceptabil

PREVENIRE
PREVENTION

lim i

ta ris c
ul ui - l i m

it risk

Domeniul riscului acceptabil


Acceptable risk area

Improbabil Probabil Posibil Frecvent


Unlikely

Likely Possible Frequently

P
(Probabilitate)
(Likelihood)

Fig. 1 Moduri de reducere a riscului de incendiu


Ways of reducing fire risks

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

67

n situaiile n care riscul de incendiu


existent
depete
limitele
de
acceptabilitate stabilite, este obligatorie
reducerea acestuia prin diminuarea
probabilitii de iniiere a incendiului
i/sau a nivelului de gravitate a
consecinelor, prin msuri de prevenire,
respectiv prin msuri de protecie, care au
ca scop limitarea, localizarea i lichidarea
incendiului, precum i limitarea i/sau
nlturarea
consecinelor
acestuia.
Modelul grafic privind ncadrarea riscului
de incendiu n domeniul acceptabil
precum i modalitile de reducere a
acestuia sunt prevzute n figura 1.
n fapt, problema const n faptul c un
nivel ridicat al gradului de securitate la
incendiu ntr-o cldire, cu alte cuvinte,
stabilirea unui nivel redus al riscului de
incendiu, implic investiii suplimentare
n sisteme de protecie activ i pasiv la
aciunea incendiului.

In cases when the fire risk exceeds the


acceptable limits, it is mandatory to reduce
the fire risk by decreasing the likelihood of
fire initialization and/or to decrease the
level of consequences through prevention
measures, such as protection measures,
with the role of limiting, localizing and
extinguishing the fire, and also of limiting
and/or eliminating potential consequences.

2. Reducerea riscului de incendiu

2. Reducing fire risk

Riscul de incendiu variaz invers


proporional cu msurile de protecie
active i pasive mpotriva incendiului i
direct
proporional
cu
gravitatea
consecinelor posibile ale incendiului i
se calculeaz cu relaia general:

Fire risk varies inversely proportional with


the passive and active protection against
the fire measures, and proportional with
the gravity of possible fire consequences:

Ri =

n care:
Ri reprezint riscul de incendiu existent;
P probabilitatea de producere a
incendiului, care exprim pericolul
potenial de incendiu, generat de factorii
specifici existeni;
G gravitatea consecinelor posibile ale
incendiului (G 1,00);
M totalitatea msurilor asigurate de
protecie active i pasive mpotriva
incendiilor;
A
coeficientul care exprim
probabilitatea de activare a factorilor de
risc specifici, difereniat pe tipuri de
obiective (cldiri nalte, cldiri cu sli
aglomerate, spitale, hoteluri etc) i natura
68

Figure 1 illustrates the way in which the


fire risk lies within the accepted or
unaccepted risk area, and also ways of
reducing fire risks.
In fact, the problem consists in the fact
that a high level of fire safety in a
building, meaning a very low level of fire
risk, involves supplementary investments
in passive and active protection systems
against the fire action.

P G
A
M

(1)

where:
Ri is the existing fire risk;
P the likelihood of fire, the potential fire
danger generated by the specific existing
factors;
G the gravity of possible fire
consequences (G 1,00);
M all passive and active protection
measures ensured against the fire;
A the coefficient representing the
likelihood of activating the specific risk
factors, differentiated according to the
types of objectives (tall buildings,
buildings with crowded halls, hospitals,
hotels, etc) and to the nature of specific
fire risks factors.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

factorilor specifici de risc de incendiu.


Factorii P, G, M i A se exprim prin
relaii de calcul n care necunoscutele
sunt elemente specifice categoriei de
factori.
Factorii de risc de incendiu i de protecie
mpotriva incendiilor ce trebuie luai
obligatoriu n considerare la evaluarea
riscului de incendiu sunt dai n Ghidurile
pentru evaluarea riscului de incendiu i
siguranei la foc [3] elaborate i aflate n
vigoare pentru diferitele categorii de
cldiri.
Pentru orice situaie analizat, n funcie
de parametrii unei soluii tehnice, riscul
de incendiu, Ri , se situeaz n domeniul
riscurilor acceptabile [4], dac se
ndeplinete condiia:

The P, G, M and A factors can be


expressed using the calculus relations
where the unknown factors are specific
elements for each category.
The mandatory factors of fire risk and
protection against the fire that have to be
taken into account for the fire assessment
are stipulated in Guidelines for risk
assessment and fire safety [3] that are in
force for different types of buildings.
For any situation under analysis,
depending on the parameters of the
technical solution, the fire risk Ri is in the
acceptable risk area [4], if it fulfills the
following condition:

Ri Ra
n care
Ra , reprezint riscul de incendiu acceptat
pentru tipul de obiectiv luat n analiz.
Riscul de incendiu acceptat, Ra , se
determin cu relaia:

where:
Ra is the fire risk accepted for the
analyzed objective.
The accepted fire risk Ra is calculated as
follows:

Ra = c Rim
n care:
Rim reprezint riscul minim de incendiu,
cuantificat;
c coeficient de ierarhizare determinat n
funcie de tipul obiectivului respectiv.
Securitatea la incendiu se consider c
este asigurat n toate situaiile n care se
ndeplinete condiia:
Si =

(2)

(3)

where:
Rim is the quantified minimum risk of fire;
c the hierarchic coefficient calculated
according to the objective type.
Fire safety is considered fulfilled in all
situations when the following condition is
met:

Ri
1,00
Ra

(4)

3. Riscul de incendiu acceptat pe


criterii economice

3. Accepted fire risk according to


economic criteria

Metodologia actual pentru determinarea


riscului de incendiu acceptat, bazat
numai pe un coeficient de ierarhizare
care multiplic riscul minim de incendiu

The present methodology for determining


the accepted fire risk, based only on the
hierachic coeficient which multiplies the
cuantified minimum fire risk (calculated

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

69

cuantificat (calculat conform Ghidurilor


de evaluare a riscului de incendiu [4]) nu
ine seama de costurile implicate n
realizarea msurilor de protecie active i
pasive mpotriva incendiului precum i de
costurile consecinelor posibile ale
incendiului i anume pierderile de viei
omeneti.
Ca urmare, autorii subliniaz necesitatea
introducerii n calculul riscului de
incendiu acceptat a unor criterii
economice, exprimate prin funcii
obiectiv de cost specific al msurilor de
protecie pasiv i activ mpotriva
incendiilor, FM ( Ri ) i, respectiv, funcii
de cost specific al consecinelor
(gravitii) produse de incendiu, FG ( Ri ) ,
n care variabila supus optimizrii este
riscul de incendiu Ri :

according to the Guidelines of fire risk


assessmnet [4]), does not take into account
the involved costs for achieving the
passive and active fire protection measures
and also the costs of possible fire
consequences, such as human victims.
The specialists that treat this subject
underline the necessity of introducing in
the accepted fire risk calculus the
economic criteria, expressed by the
FM ( Ri ) , cost specific function for passive
and active fire protection measures, as
well as by FG ( Ri ) , the cost specific
function for the fire consequences, where
Ri is the variable that should be
optimized:

F (Ri ) = FM (Ri ) + FG (Ri )


n care F (Ri ) este funcia obiectiv de
cost total specific care trebuie
minimizat.
Calculele se pot efectua analitic sau
grafo-analitic. Calculul analitic const n
explicitarea funciei obiectiv, F (Ri ) i
verificarea condiiilor necesare i
suficiente de minim:

where F (Ri ) is the total specific cost


function that should be minimized.
The calculus can be made analytically or
graph-analytically. An analytical calculus
consists in detailing the F (Ri ) function
and verifying the necessary and sufficient
minimum conditions:

2 F (Ri )
F (Ri )
=0 ;
>0
Ri
Ri2
F (Ri )
= 0 , permite
Ri
determinarea valorii economice a riscului
acceptat de incendiu, Riea , pentru care
funcia obiectiv de cost total specific
admite o valoare minim:

Condiia necesar,

70

(6)

F (Ri )
= 0,
Ri
allows us to determine the economic value
of an accepted fire risk, Riea , for which the
total specific cost function has the
minimum value:

The necessary condition,

Fmin = F (Riea )
Calculul
grafo-analitic
const
n
nsumarea ordonatelor curbelor de
variaie ale funciilor FM ( Ri ) i FG ( Ri )
n dreptul acelorai abscise, obinndu-se

(5)

(7)

The graph-analitycal calculus consists in


summing up the ordinates of variation
curves FM ( Ri ) and FG ( Ri ) on the same
abscissa, resulting in the variation curves

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

curba de variaie a funciei obiectiv, F (Ri ) ,


care admite o valoare minim n punctul de
abscis Riea , aa dup cum se prezint
sugestiv n figura 2.
Calitativ, din figura 2, se observ c dac
riscul de incendiu este mic (teoretic
Ri
0) atunci costurile msurilor de protecie
pasiv i activ mpotriva incendiului sunt
foarte mari (teoretic FM ( Ri ) ) iar
costul consecinelor produse de incendiu vor
fi evident mici (teoretic FG ( Ri ) 0). Din
contra, dac riscul de incendiu este mare
(teoretic Ri ), acesta nseamn un cost
foarte mic
al msurilor de protecie
mpotriva incendiului (teoretic FM ( Ri )
0) i costuri foarte mari ale consecinelor
incendiului (teoretic FG ( Ri ) ).

of F (Ri ) , which has the minimum value


in the point Riea , as illustrated in Figure 2.
From a qualitative point of view, from
Figure 2 we note that if the fire risk is low
(Ri 0) then the costs of passive and
active fire protection measures are very
expensive ( FM ( Ri ) ) and the cost of
fire
consequences
will
be
low
( FG ( Ri ) 0).
Similarly, if the fire risk is high (Ri )
then the costs of passive and active fire
protection measures are very low
( FM ( Ri ) 0) and the cost of fire
consequences will be high ( FG ( Ri ) ).

F(Ri)

F(Ri)

FG(Ri )

FM(Ri )

Ri

Riea

Fig. 2 Determinarea prin calcul grafo-analitic a valorii economice a riscului acceptat de incendiu
A graph analytical calculation of the economic value of an accepted fire risk

n prezent, proiectarea msurilor de


securitate la incendiu ine seama de
analiza creterii valorilor costurilor
msurilor de protecie i prevenire
FM ( Ri ) i reducerea valorii costurilor
asociate
pierderilor
n
urma
incendiilor FG ( Ri ) . Aceasta este esena
abordrii cost-protecie a securitii la
incendiu. Aceasta poate fi realizat prin
evaluarea pierderilor i a efectelor
diferitelor niveluri de securitate i
rezultatul efectelor asupra FM ( Ri ) . Se
determin astfel, valoarea optim n
punctul n care ecuaia (5) are valoarea
cea mai mic.

At present, the design of fire safety


measures takes into account the analysis of
the prevention and protection measures
cost increase FM ( Ri ) and the fire losses
costs reduction FG ( Ri ) . This is the core of
a costs-benefits analysis for fire risks.
The costs-benefits analysis can be made by
evaluating the losses and the effects of
different levels of security, as well as the
result of the effects on FM ( Ri ) .
In that way we determine the optimum
value at the point where the equation (5)
has the minimum value.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

71

Cu toate c, aceast situaie nu este


invariabil, ea este funcie de modul n
care valoarea pierderilor scade odat cu
creterea valorii msurilor de protecie.
n figura 3 este reprezentat situaia n
care creterea valorii msurilor de
protecie este mai mic dect efectul
iniial pe care acestea l au asupra
pierderilor din urma incendiului. n
aceste condiii este posibil un optim.
n figura 3(a) se prezint situaia n care
valoarea msurilor de protecie este
ntotdeauna mai mare dect valoarea
pierderilor n urma incendiilor, n aceast
situaie nefiind posibil obinerea unui
optim. n figura 3(b) se prezint situaia
n care exist o anumit valoare mare a
costului minim al valorii msurilor de
protecie. Un optim n costul total poate
s apar dar, valoarea pierderilor n caz
de incendiu pentru un spaiu protejat sunt
apropiate fa de cazul absenei msurilor
de protecie. O asemenea situaie poate
aprea n cazul proteciei la incendiu cu
msuri de securitate care au o
substanial component de cost, de
exemplu echiparea construciei cu o
instalaie de stingere a incendiilor cu
sprinklere.
a) Situaii n care valoarea pierderilor este mai
mic dect valoarea msurilor de protecie
a) Situations when the minimum cost is higher
than the maximum fire losses
F(Ri)

This situation is variable, and it depends


on the decrease of the values of losses,
when the protective measures are
increased.
Figure 3 shows the situation in which the
increase in values of protection measures
is less than the initial effect of losses in
case of fire. In this case it is possible to
have an optimum value.
Figure 3(a) shows the situation in which
the value of protection measures is always
grater than the value of fire losses, in this
situation the optimum value being
impossible to determine.
Figure 3(b) shows the situation when there
is a certain maximum value for the
minimal cost of protection measures. An
optimum for the total cost will exist, but
the value of fire losses for a protected area
will be very close to the case in which
protection measures are completely absent.
Such a situation can appear in the case of
fire protection with safety measures that
have a substantial cost component, for
example in the case when the building is
provided with sprinklers.

b) Situaii n care valoarea pierderilor n urma


incendiilor sunt nesemnificative
b) Situations when protection costs increase
faster than the decrease of fire losses
F(Ri)

F(Ri)

F(Ri)

F (Ri )
M

FM (Ri )

FG (Ri)

FG (Ri )

a)

Ri

b)

Ri

Fig.3 Situaii n care nu este posibil un optim al costurilor


Situations when the minimum optimum costs are not possible

Pe baza celor prezentate, autorii au


elaborat o aplicaie informatic, numit
generic, ECORISC, n care, riscul de
72

Based on the situations presented above,


the authors have elaborated an IT
application, bearing the name of

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

incendiu acceptat din punct de vedere


economic se detemin pe baza
variabilelor care intervin n evaluare.
Aceste variabile au un cost iniial, care
este introdus de utilizator i o valoare de
referin a pagubelor asociate unui
eventual incendiu n funcie de msurile
de securitate la incendiu. Aceste valori
pot fi determinate prin mai multe metode
printre care scenariile de incendiu cu
arbori de evenimente.

ECORISC, whereby the economic


accepted risk is calculated based on certain
variables involved in the evaluation.
These variables have an initial cost,
introduced by the user, and a reference
value for the fire losses according to the
fire safety measures taken. These values
can be calculated through various
methods, such as the fire scenarios
including event trees analysis.

4. Concluzii

4. Conclusion

Introducerea criteriilor economice n


calculul riscului de incendiu acceptat,
modific esenial coninutul conceptului
de securitate la incendiu, n relaia (4)
introducndu-se n locul riscului de
incendiu acceptat, Ra , dat de relaia (3),
valoarea economic a riscului acceptat de
incendiu, Riea , determinat prin metodele
de optimizare prezentate mai sus.
ndeplinirea condiiei dat prin relaia (4),
n orice situaie analizat, cu meninerea
condiiei ca riscul efectiv de incendiu,
Ri , calculat conform metodologiei
actuale, s fie mai mic, cel mult egal cu
riscul de incendiu economic acceptat,
Riea :

The introduction of economic criteria in


calculating the acceptable fire risks
modifies essentially the concept of fire
safety, and in (4) instead of accepted fire
risk, Ra , as given in (3), the economic
value of accepted risk, Riea is introduced,
being calculated with the help of the
optimization methods presented above.
In order to fulfill the condition given by
(4), in every analyzed situation, attention
must be paid to maintaining the condition
that the effective fire risk Ri be calculated
according to the actual methodologies, to
be less or equal to the accepted economic
fire risk Riea :

Ri Riea
necesit scenarii de securitate la incendiu
care s satisfac att parametrii tehnici,
ct i cei economici de performan in
concordan
cu
cerina
esenial
securitate la incendiu.

(8)

so that fire safety scenarios comply with


both the technical and economic
parameters, in accordance with the fire
safety requirements.

The authors have treated the same topic in the following works:
Prof. univ. dr. ing. TEFAN VINTIL, drd. ing. IONEL PUIU GOLGOJAN Evaluarea riscului de
incendiu optim asumat la sli aglomerate, a 41-a Conferin de instalaii, Sinaia 2006;
Prof. univ. dr. ing. TEFAN VINTIL, drd. ing. IONEL PUIU GOLGOJAN Riscul de incendiu la sli
aglomerate, Revista Instalatorul nr. 12/2006, pag. 10-13
Prof. univ. dr. ing. Stefan VINTIL, drd. ing. Ionel - Puiu GOLGOJAN Criterii economice pentru
evaluarea riscului de incendiu a 16-a Conferin cu participare internaional Instalaii pentru construcii
i confortul ambiental, Timioara 29-30 martie 2007
drd. ing. IONEL PUIU GOLGOJAN, Prof. univ. dr. ing. TEFAN VINTIL Consideraii privind riscul
de incendiu acceptat din punct de vedere economic a 42-a Conferin naional de instalaii Creterea
performanei energetice a cldirilor i a instalaiilor aferente, pag. 373 382, Sinaia 17-20 octombrie 2007
Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

73

conomique critres pour l'valuation des risques d'incendie


Rsum
En gnral, la scurit incendie conception tend tre un compromis entre augmentation du cot de la
prvention des incendies la protection et l'hbergement des mthodes et un plus bas cot prvu de feu
dtriment. Il peut tre constat par l'enqute perte et l'effet de diffrents niveaux de prcautions contre le feu
et les consquences sur l'existence de cot de la prvention des incendies, de protection et de l'hbergement
une valeur optimale lorsque la somme est un minimum.
Cependant, ce n'est pas toujours, car elle dpend de la vitesse laquelle la feu perte attendues sont rduites
comme feu prcaution, les cots sont augments. Cette situation est illustre dans la Figure indique une
situation dans laquelle la hausse des cots de prcaution est infrieur l'effet initial de ces facteurs sur les
pertes causes par les incendies. Dans ces conditions, le meilleur est possible. Figure 3 a) indique une
situation dans laquelle l'augmentation du cot de la prudence est toujours de plus de la rduction des pertes
causes par les incendies - pas optimale est possible. Figure 3 b) indique une situation dans laquelle il ya un
certain cot minimum lev prcautions.
Un optimum apparat dans le cot total, cet optimum peut encore tre plus lev que le cot total, dans le
absence des prcautions envisages. Une situation de ce type peut survenir dans la protection des risques
avec prcautions qui ont sensiblement le cot rel de base, par exemple, des gicleurs. Trade-off ou de
l'quivalence des exercices peuvent aussi indiquer un ensemble de prcautions dont le cot total cot de la
prvention des incendies la protection et l'hbergement est un minimum compte tenu du fait que Cot de la
prvention des incendies, de protection et de l'hbergement est une constante. Cette approche particulire,
qui est un rapport cot-efficacit approche doit tre adopte o il est difficile d'exprimer en termes financiers
cot de l'incendie dtriment.

Bibliografie
References

74

[1]

Legea nr. 307/2006 privind aprarea mpotriva incendiilor, publicat n Monitorul Oficial al
Romniei nr. 633/2006

[2]

Metodologia de elaborare a scenariilor de securitate la incendiu aprobat prin Ordinul


ministrului administraiei i internelor nr. 130/2007 publicat n Monitorul Oficial al Romniei
nr. 89/2007

[3]

Metodologia privind identificarea, evaluarea i controlul riscurilor de incendiu aprobat prin


Ordinul Ministrului Internelor i Reformei Administrative nr. 210/2007 publicat n Monitorul
Oficial al Romniei nr. 360/2007

[4]

Ghiduri de evaluare a riscului de incendiu (indicative GT 030-01, GT 049-02 i GT 050-02);

[5]

The SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering, 3nd edition, National Fire Protection
Association, Quincy;

[6]

JOHAN LUNDIN & HKAN FRANTZICH Cost-Benefit and Risk Analysis Basis for
Decisions in the Fire Safety Design Process 4th International Conference on Performancebased Codes and Fire Safety Design Methods;

[7]

RAMACHANDRAN, G. The Economics of Fire Protection, E & FN Spon, New York, 1998;

[8]

JOHAN LUNDIN & HKAN FRANTZICH Cost-Benefit and Risk Analysis Basis for
Decisions in the Fire Safety Design Process.

[9]

General de brigad CONSTANTIN ZAMFIR, prof. dr. ing. TEFAN VINTIL, col. dr. ing.
SORIN CALOT, dr. arh. IOAN VOICULESCU Securitatea la incendiu n reglementrile
europene i romneti comentarii, Editura FASTPRINT, Bucureti 2004

[10]

D. RASBASH, G. RAMACHANDRAN, B. KANDOLA, J. WATTS, M. LAW Evaluation of


Fire Safety, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2004

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

Determinarea submersiei minime


necesare evitrii vortexului la
pompe. Aplicaie prin testare fizic
pe model la scar redus la pompele
NMV1000 i NMV 2000 utilizate n
energetic

The establishment of the minimum


necessary submergence for avoiding
the
vortex
at
pump
level.
Application by small scale physical
testing of nmv1000 and nmv2000
pumps used in energetics

Petrior Stnescu, ing. SC Aversa SA, e-mail: stanescupetrisor@gmail.com

1. Introducere

1. Introduction

1.1 Scopul lucrrii de cercetare

1.1 Purpose of the research work

Determinarea nlimii de submersie minim


necesar rotorului pompelor verticale diagonale
pentru evitarea apariiei vortexului n condiiile
utilizrii camerelor de aspiraie uscat cu
seciunea dreptunghiular i echipate cu
hidrocon i hidrodeflector.
Cercetarea a fost destinat stabilirii submer- siei
minime pentru exploatarea de lung durat a
pompelor de alimentare cu ap brut NMV1000
(Q= 10500m3/h, H = 30m) i a pompelor de
rcire condensatori NMV2000 (Q=54720m3/h,
H=21m) destinate unor obiective energetice.

The calculation of the minimum necessary


submergence height for the impeller of vertical
diagonal pumps to avoid a vortex emergence
while using dry suction chambers with a
rectangular section equipped with hydrocone
and hydrodeflector.
The purpose of the research is to establish the
minimum submergence level for a long term
operation of raw water supply pumps NMV1000
(Q = 10500m3/h, H = 30m) and of condenser
cooling pumps NMV2000 (Q=54720m3/h, H =
21m) for energy supply units.

1.2 Necesitatea cunoaterii submersiei minime admise

1.2 The necessity of knowing the minimum


allowed submergence

Valoarea submersiei minime la care pot


funciona pompele verticale pentru debite mari
este determinat de nivelul minim din camera de
aspiraie care asigur simultan urmtoarele dou
condiii:
- NPSHA > NPSHR
- pompa s funcioneze fr formarea de vortex
n camera de aspiraie
Deoarece pompele analizate sunt pompe n
construcie vertical, prevzute cu camer de
aspiraie, iar NPSHR < 12 m pe domeniul de
lucru, submersia minim admis este
determinat de valoarea minim a necrii
rotorului care asigur respectarea celor dou
condiii de mai sus. Literatura de specialitate i
studiile efectuate de furnizorii de pompe
precizeaz c valoarea submersiei necesare
evitrii vortexului depinde n principal de
mrimea debitului i de configuraia camerei de
aspiraie. Pentru siguran, n practic se adopt

The value of the minimum submergence at


which the vertical pumps can operate for high
flows is determined by the minimum level
inside
the
suction
chamber,
which
simultaneously ensures the following two
conditions:
- NPSHA>NPSHR
- the pump must operate without vortex
building in the suction chamber. Since the
analysed pumps have a vertical structure, being
equipped with a suction chamber and NPSHR <
12 m, the minimum allowed submergence is
determined by the minimum value of the
impeller submergence, thus complying with the
two above mentioned conditions. The speciality
literature, and studies made by pump suppliers
state that the submergence value necessary to
avoid vortex formation depends mainly on the
flow magnitude and on the suction chamber
shape. For safety, submergence at least 0.5m

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

75

o submersie cu minimum 0,5 m mai mare dect


valoarea submersiei necesar evitrii apariiei
vortexului dar i a manifestrii cavitaiei,
fenomene a cror apariie este dificil de
determinat. Aceasta motiveaz dispersia mare a
valorilor submersiei minime acceptate de diferite
firme i foruri de reglementare.

greater than the value of the required level is


adopted in practice to avoid vortex formation,
but also cavitations, the emergence of such
phenomena being difficult to determine. This
justifies the significant dispersion of the
minimum submergence values tolerated by
different companies and local authorities.

Apariia vortexului este nsoit de zgomote


hidraulice specifice, de creterea nivelului de
vibraii n zonele pieselor de canal hidraulic i de
influenarea
negativ
a
caracteristicilor
hidraulice.

The emergence of a vortex is accompanied by


specific hydraulic noises, by an increased
vibration level in the area of the hydraulic
channel parts and by a negative influence on the
hydraulic features.

Vortexul de suprafa se poate observa vizual,


relativ uor, dar pentru vizualizarea vortexului de
fund sunt necesare condiii i amenajri speciale.

The surface vortex can be visually observed


quite easily, but for the bottom vortex special
conditions and arrangements are required.

2 Sintez asupra datelor experimentale i


teoretice disponibile privind submergena
minim necesar la pompele NMV1000 i
NMV2000 cunoscute nainte de abordarea
cercetrii experimentale

2 Synthesis of the existing experimental and


theoretical data regarding the minimum
necessary submergence at NMV1000 for
MV2000 pumps, known before the
experimental research approach

2.1 Descrierea camerelor de aspiraie i


stabilirea domeniului debitelor de funcionare
pentru care s-a determinat submersia minim
la pompele NMV1000 i NMV2000

2.1 Description of the suction chambers and


establishment of the operating flow range for
which the minimum submergence was
determined at NMV1000 and NMV2000 pumps

Camerele de aspiraie utilizate la pompele


NMV1000 i NMV2000 sunt camere uscate
profilate special pentru reducerea disipaiilor
hidraulice la intrarea n pomp i sunt prevzute
cu elemente antivortex. S-a avut n vedere pentru
pompa NMV1000 domeniul de debite Q =
7000..10500 m3/h, care, transpus prin
similitudine, conduce pentru modelul de scar
redus, la QM = 1440.2160 m3/h. De
asemenea pentru pompa NMV2000 s-a avut n
vedere domeniul de debite Q = 15,2..11,1
m3/s, ceea ce transpunerea prin similitudine
pentru modelul de scar redus conduce la QM =
1654.2260 m3/h.

The chambers used for NMV1000 and NMV


2000 pumps are dry chambers specially
designed to reduce the hydraulic dissipations at
the pump entrance, and they are provided with
anti-vortex elements. For the NMV1000 pump
the flow range Q = 700010500 m3/h was
taken into account; transposed by similitude, it
leads to a small scale model, at QM =
1440.2160 m3/h. Also the flow range Q =
15.2..11.1 m3/s for the NMV 2000 pump was
taken into account, in which case the
transposition by similitude, for the reduced
scale model, leads to QM = 1654.2260 m3/h.

2.2 Rezultate cunoscute din ncercri de stand


anterioare i din literatura de specialitate

ncercrile efectuate pe 9 pompe NMV1000 s-au


realizat ntr-un stand uzinal la o submergen de
cca. 2,3 m. Toate pompele testate au realizat
caracteristicile hidraulice prevzute prin proiect.
76

2.2 Results known from previous stand tests


and from the specialty literature

The tests on 9 NMV1000 pumps have been performed on a factory stand at a submergence
level of about 2.3m. All the tested pumps
confirmed the designed hydraulic features. Yet
the testing equipment did not allow

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

Instalaia de ncercare nu a permis ns observaii


privind apariia vortexului.
Conform CEN Report CR 13930 [1] rezult
pentru NMV1000 o submersie minim S=1,89
m iar pentru NMV2000 submersia minim este
S= 3,25m ( S = 1.8 1.5D0 ).

observations regarding the vortex emergence.


According to CEN Report CR 13930 [1] for
NMV1000 pumps a minimum submergence S
= 1.89m results, while for the NMV2000
pumps the minimum submergence is S = 3.25m
(S=1.8x1.5D0)

3 Transpunerea rezultatelor i observaiilor


ncercrilor de la modelul la scar redus la
pompa real

3 Transposition of the test results and


observations from the small scale model to
the real pump

Pentru transpunerea rezultatelor ncercrilor de


la modelul la scar redus la pompa real, se au
n vedere urmtoarele:
- principial, pentru transpunerea rezultatelor
ncercrilor de la modelul la scar redus la
prototipul la scar real ar trebui ndeplinite
simultan criteriile de similitudine Froude,
Reynolds i Weber ceea ce practic nu poate fi
realizat. Relaiile ce definesc cele trei criterii de
similitudine menionate aplicate la curgerea n
camerele de aspiraie cercetate sunt :
Criteriul de similitudine Froude,
c B
Fr =
(1)
gDB
Criteriul de similitudine Reynolds,
Q
Re =
(2)
S
Criteriul de similitudine Weber,
(3)
We = c B D B /
unde:
c B este viteza de acces n camera de aspiraie;
DB este diametrul echivalent de intrare n camera
4 BH
de aspiraie DB =
;

For the transposition of the test results from the


small scale model to the real pump the
following elements are taken into account:
- as a principle, for the transposition of the test
results from the small scale model to the
prototype at the real scale Froude, Reynolds and
Webers similitude criteria should be
simultaneous carried out ; in practice, this is
impossible. The relations defining the three
above mentioned similitude criteria applied at
the flow into the suction chambers are:

B este limea la intrare a camerei de aspiraie;


H este nlimea la intrare a camerei de aspiraie;
Q este debitul;
este viscozitatea cinematic a lichidului
vehiculat;
S este submergena muchiei superioare a
camerei de aspiraie;
este densitatea lichidului vehiculat;
este tensiunea superficial normal a
lichidului vehiculat.
- cercetri anterioare precizeaz c influena
omiterii criteriilor de similitudine Reynolds i
Weber din ecuaia de transpunere la scar a
fenomenului de vortex pentru Re>3*104

The Froude similitude criterion,


c B
Fr=
(1)
gDB
The Reynolds similitude criterion,
Q
Re =
(2)
S
The Weber similitude criterion,
(3)
We = c B DB /
where:
c B is the access speed in the suction chamber;
DB is the equivalent input diameter in the
4 BH
;
suction chamber DB =

B is the entrance width of the suction chamber;


H is the height at the entrance point of the
suction chamber;
Q is the flow;
is the kinetics viscosity of the handled liquid;
S is the upper edge submergence of the suction
chamber;
is the density of the handled liquid;
is the normal superficial tension of the
handled liquid;
- Previous research shows that by omitting
Reynolds and Webers similitude criteria from
the transposition equation at scale of the vortex

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

77

respectiv pentru We >120 este neglijabil [4].


- n cazul camerelor de aspiraie pentru pom-pele
NMV1000 respectiv pentru NMV 2000, valorile
rezultate pentru numerele Re i We se
ncadreaz n cerinele de mai sus.
n consecin transpunerea rezultatelor de la
modelul la scar redus la pompa la scar real
se poate realiza strict pe baza criteriului de
similitudine Froude.
n scopul testrii camerelor de aspiraie la
diferite nivele de submersie s-au construit dou
mrimi de camere de aspiraie la scar redus
avnd geometrie similar [2],[3]. Camerele de
aspiraie au fost realizate prin similitudine
geometric dup camerele de aspiraie existente
n staiile de pompare, la scara = 1/2 pentru
pompa NMV1000 i la scara = 1/5 pentru
pompa NMV2000. La testarea acestor camere de
aspiraie s-a utilizat, ca pomp suport de
ncercare, modelul la scar redus al pompei
NMV1000 respectiv cel al pompei NMV2000.
Pompele i camerele de aspiraie au fost supuse
testrii la diferite nivele ale apei n aspiraie
pentru a se determina submersia la care apare
vortexul. Corespunztor acestei valori pentru
submersie s-a calculat numrul Froude i
submersia relativ S/DB. Nivelele de submersie
la care s-a surprins formarea vortexului se
reprezint grafic printr-un punct, avnd pe
ordonat submersia relativ S/DB iar pe abscis
c B
numrul Froude, Fr =
( a se vedea
gDB
fig.1). Acest punct aparine frontierei
(curbei) de separaie a domeniului de
funcionare fr vortex de domeniul de
funcionare cu formare de vortex.
Rezultatele testrii modelului de camer de
aspiraie la scar redus cu = 1/5, pentru
cazul pompei NMV2000, a permis
determinarea a nc unui punct ce aparine
acestei frontiere de demarcaie a celor dou
domenii de funcionare. Frontiera de
separaie a domeniului de funcionare fr
vortex fiind reprezentat n coordonate
adimensionale
permite
determinarea
submersiei de apariie a vortexului pentru
toate camerele de aspiraie construite prin
similitudine cu camera de aspiraie testat,
astfel:
se
calculeaz
numrul
Froude
corespunztor noii camere de aspiraie
78

phenomenon for Re > 3*104 respectively for


We >120, the effect is negligible [4].
- in the case of suction chambers for the NMV
1000 and NMV2000 pumps respectively, the
resulting values for numbers Re and We
comply with the above requirements.
Therefore the transposition of the results from
the small scale model to the real scale pump
can be strictly performed based upon the
Froude similitude criteria.
In order to test the suction chambers at different
submergence levels, there have been built two
sizes of suction chambers at reduced scale
having similar geometry [2], [3]. The suction
chambers were made by geometrical similitude
according to the existing suction chambers in
the pumping station, at scale = 1/2 for the
NMV1000 pump and = 1/5 for the NMV2000
Pump. When testing these suction chambers,
small scale models of the NMV1000 and
NMV2000 pumps were used as testing support
pump. The pumps and the suction chambers
were tested at different suction water levels, in
order to determine the submergence level at
which the vortex appears. According to this
submergence value the Froude number and the
relative submergence S/DB were calculated. The
submergence levels at which the vortex
building was noted are graphically shown by a
point, having on the ordinate the relative
submergence S/DB and on the abscissa the
c B
Froude number, Fr =
( see Fig.1)
gDB
This point belongs to the border (curve) which
separates the operation domain without vortex
from the operation domain with vortex
formation. The testing of the small scale model
of the suction chamber, where = 1/5, for the
NMV2000 pump, resulted in the calculation of
one more point of this line between the two
operating domains.
The separation line of the operating domain
without vortex being represented in dimensionless coordinates allows the calculation of the
submergence level during vortex for all suction
chambers built by similitude with the tested
suction chamber, so that:
- the Froude number is calculated according to
the new suction chamber (geometrically
similar) and to the equivalent diameter DB;

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

(similare geometric) i diametrul echivalent


DB ;
- se determin din curba de separaie a
domeniului de funcionare fr vortex,
pentru numrul Froude calculat, submersia
relativ S/DB i se calculeaz submersia S.
De asemenea dac se cunoate submersia de
funcionare la un moment dat, se poate
determina dac regimul de funcionare este
cu sau fr vortex.
Curba de separare a domeniului de
funcionare far vortex de domeniul de
funcionare cu vortex este reprezentat
principial n fig.1, iar mrimile geometrice i
hidrodinamice ce caracterizeaz o camer de
aspiraie uscat sunt reprezentate n fig.2 [5].

- the relative submergence S/DB is determined


from the separation curve of the operating
domain without vortex, for the calculated
Froude number, and the submergence S will be
calculated.
Also if the operation submergence is known at a
given moment it can be determined if the
operating regime is with or without a vortex.
The curve separating the operating domain
without a vortex from the operating domain
with a vortex is shown in Fig.1, while the
geometrical and hydrodynamic sizes which
characterize a dry suction chamber are shown in
Fig.2 [5].

Fig. 1- Diagrama de principiu pentru separarea domeniului de funcionare fr vortex la camerele de aspiraie
uscate [5]
General diagram for separating the domain which operates without a vortex at dry suction chambers [ 5]

Observaie

Observation

Camera de aspiraie reprezentat n fig. 2


este de tipul camer de aspiraie uscat cu
cot de aspiraie avnd geometrie variabil
n sensul micorrii uniforme a seciunii de
curgere pe direcia apropierii de seciunea
de intrare n pomp. Configuraia camerei
de aspiraie ce face obiectul acestui studiu
este de tipul camer de aspiraie uscat
prevzut cu plnie de aspiraie n plafon
i are caliti de evitare a vortexului
superioare
camerelor
de
aspiraie
recomandate de multe firme productoare
de pompe pentru debite mari.

The suction chamber shown in Fig.2 is typical


for adry suction chamber with suction bend
having a variable geometry for a uniform
reduction of the flow section towards the
entrance section of the pump. The layout of the
suction chamber which is the subject of this
study is typical for a dry suction chamber
provided with a suction bell mouth in the
cover and is able to avoid the vortex above
the suction chamber, being recommended by
many manufacturers of pumps for high flows.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

79

Fig. 2 - Elemente de dimensionare a unei camere de aspiraie uscat [5]


Dimensioning elements of a dry suction chamber [5]

4 Determinarea prin testare fizic a submersiei minime necesare funcionrii


pompelor NMV1000 i NMV2000

4 Physical testing for the calculation of


the minimum submersion level required
for the operation of NMV 1000 and NMV
2000 pumps

4.1 Descrierea succint a instalaiilor de


ncercare

4.1 Concise description of the testing


installations

Camerele de aspiraie la scar redus pentru


pompele NMV1000 i NMV2000 au fost
realizate n construcie sudat din tabl.
Conducta de refulare a fost prevzut cu un
dispozitiv de msurare a debitului prin
micorarea local a seciunii de curgere

The small scale suction chambers for the


NMV1000 and NMV2000 pumps were made
of welded iron sheets. The discharge pipe
was provided with a flow measuring device
by local diminution of the flow section
(diaphragm), and the flow was discharged in

80

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

(diafragm), cu descrcarea debitului n


bazinul de aspiraie al pompei n scopul
pstrrii constante a nivelului de submersie n
timpul experimentrii.
Conducta de refulare a fost prevzut cu o
ramificaie de descrcare n afara bazinului de
lucru, a unei fraciuni reglabile de debit,
pentru modificarea submersiei rotorului.
Schema instalaiei de ncercare a camerei de
aspiraie a pompei NMV1000 este prezentat
n fig.3.

the suction tank of the pump in order to keep


constant the submergence level during
testing.
The discharge pipe was provided with a
discharge branch out of the working tank, of
an adjustable flow fraction, in order to
modify the impeller submergence level.
The layout of the test installation for the
suction chamber of the NMV1000 pump is
shown in Fig.3.

4.2 Msurtori privind curgerea n camera


de aspiraie a pompei NMV1000

4.2 Measurements of the discharge in the


suction chamber of the NMV1000 pump

Testele de stand s-au efectuat n urmtoarele


condiii:

The stand test were performed under the


following conditions:

- submersie rotor S1 = 2,716 m, Q = 1536


m3/h (ceea ce corespunde la pompa
NMV1000 la debitul minim de exploatare, Q
= 7471 m3/h); nu s-a constatat apariia
vortexului.

- impeller submergence S1 = 2.716m, Q =


1536m3/h (corresponding to the NMV1000
pump during the minimum operation flow,
Q = 7471 m3/h); the vortex was not noticed.

- submersie rotor S1 = 0,746 m, Q = 1416


m3/h (ceea ce corespunde la pompa
NMV1000 la un debit Q = 6885 m3/h); s-a
constatat tendina de apariie a vortexului.
- submersie rotor S1 = 1,946 m, Q = 2246
m3/h (ceea ce corespunde la pompa
NMV1000 la un debit Q = 10923 m3/h); nu
s-a constatat apariia vortexului.
- submersie rotor S1 = 1,194 m, Q = 2246
m3/h (ceea ce corespunde la pompa
NMV1000 cu debitul maxim de exploatare Q
= 10923 m3/h); s-a constatat iniializarea
vortexului (dou turbioane de suprafa,
simetrice i cu sensuri de rotire opuse, cu o
extindere redus).

- impeller submergence S1 = 0.746 m, Q =


1416 m3/h (corresponding to the NMV1000
pump at a flow of Q = 6885 m3/h). A
tendency of vortex emergence was noticed.
- impeller submergence S1 = 1.946 m, Q =
2246 m3/h (corresponding to the NMV 1000
pump at a flow of Q = 10923 m3/h); the
vortex was not noticed.
- impeller submergence S1 = 1.194 m, Q =
2246 m3/h (corresponding to the NMV1000
pump with the maximum operation flow Q =
10923 m3/h). A vortex began to form (two
symmetric surface eddies with opposite
rotation directions and small amplitude).

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

81

Fig.3 Schema instalaiei de ncercare a modelului la scara redus a pompei NMV 1000
Design for testing instalation NMV 1000 receded scale pump

82

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

4.3 Transpunerea rezultatelor la scar real,


privind submersia minim necesar evitrii
vortexului la pompa NMV 1000

Transpunerea rezultatelor la pompa la scar


real, privind submersia minim de evitare a
vortexului s-a realizat astfel:
- s-a determinat experimental pe modelele la
scar redus ale camerelor de aspiraie
aferente pompelor NMV1000 i NMV2000
submersia la care apare vortexul.
- valorile determinate experimental pentru
sub-mersia
minim
necesar
evitrii
vortexului, sunt utilizate la trasarea curbei de
separare a domeniul de funcionare sigur
fr votex
a pompei, de domeniul de
funcionare cu vortex,
corespun-ztoare
tipului constructiv al camerelor de aspiraie
supuse cercetrii (a se vedea fig.4). Curba
obinut
n
coordonate
admensionale
S
c
(
,
) este utilizat la determinarea
DB gDB
submersiei minime necesare rotorului
pompelor NMV1000 i NMV2000. Calculul
submersiei este prezentat n tabelele 1 i 2.

4.3 Results transposition at a real scale,


regarding the minimum submergence
required to avoid the vortex at the
NMV1000 pump
The transposition of results from the small
scale model to the real scale of the pump, in
the case of the minimum submergence needed
to avoid the vortex, was achieved as follows:
- the submergence at which the vortex appears
was experimentally determined on the reduced
scale of the suction chambers belonging to the
NMV1000 and NMV2000 pumps.
- the experimentally determined values for the
minimum submergence needed to avoid the
vortex are used for tracing the separation curve
between the safe pump operation without
vortex and the operating domain with a vortex
corresponding to the suction chambers under
study (see Fig.4). The curve obtained in
dimensionless coordinates
S
c
(
,
) is used for calculating the
DB gDB
minimum submergence needed for the
impeller of NMV1000 and NMV 2000 pumps.
The calculation of submergence levels is
shown in Tables 1 and 2.

Tabelul 1 - Determinarea curbei de separare a zonei de funcionare fr vortex la


pompele model redus NMV 400
Table 1 - Calculation of the curve separating the operating area without vortex
for the small scale pump model NMV 400

Pompa
Pump

NMV 1000 model scar


redus (NMV 400)
NMV 1000 small scale model (NMV
400)

NMV 2000
model scar redus
NMV 2000
small scale model

DN [mm]

400

400

Q [m3/h]

2260

2260

D1 [m]

0,327

0,327

B [m]
H [m]
c [m/s]

1,300
0,760
0,635

1
0,53
1,1845

1,12

0,822

c
gDB

0,192

0,417

S
DB

1,180

2,5

S = 3274-L

1,322

2,055

DB=

4 BH

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

83

Tabelul 2 Determinarea submersiei la funcionarea fr vortex la pompa NMV1000


Table 2 Calculation of the submergence for operating without vortex for NMV1000 pump
Pompa
Pump
DN [mm]
Q [m3/h]
D1 [m]
B [m]
H [m]
c [m/s]

NMV 1000 scar real


NMV 1000 real scale
1000
10990
0,700
2,600
1,520
0,772

4 BH

DB=

2,244

c
gDB

0,1645

S
(a se vedea fig.4)
DB

0,95

(see fig.4)
S

2,13

c
gDB The points determined by the coordinates
S
c
and
of Table 1 are used to trace
S
i
din tabelul 1 sunt utilizate la trasarea
DB
gDB
DB
the separation curve of operating without vortex
curbei de separare a funcionrii fr vortex
(fig.4)
(fig.4).
Punctele determinate de coordonatele

S
DB

2,6

Domeniu de
funcionare fr votex
Operating domain
without vortex

2,4
2,2
2
1,8
1,6
1,4
1,2
1
0,8
0,6
0,4
0,2
0
0

0,1

0,2

0,3

0,4

0,5

Fr =

c
gDB

Fig. 4 - Diagrama de separare a domeniului de funcionare fr vortex la camerele de aspiraie pentru pompele
NMV1000 i NMV2000
Separation diagram for the operating domain without vortex at the suction chambers for
NMV1000 and NMV2000 pumps

84

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

Observaii

Remarks

1. Relevant pentru scopul acestui studiu


este valoarea submersiei minime pentru
funci-onarea la debitul maxim, ntruct
pentru o camer de aspirate dat, submersia
rezultat este acoperitoare pentru evitarea
vortexului i la funcionarea la debite mai
mici.

1. Worth mentioning for the purpose of this


study is the minimum submergence value for
operating at maximum flow, because for a
given suction chamber, the resulting
submergence is appropriate for avoiding the
vortex even when operating at smaller flows.

2.Valoarea submersiei minime la care apare


vortexul la modelul la scar redus este S1
=1,194
m,
corespunztoare
valorii
S=1,322 m.
Conform diagramei ridicate experimental,
submersia minim necesar rotorului
pentru evitarea vortexului la pompa real
NMV 1000, corespunztor valorii S = 2,13 m
este S1=1,22 m (calculat conform tabelului 2
i a curbei din fig. 4).
Situaia nivelelor la pompa NMV 1000 este
conform fig.5.

2. The value of minimum submergence at


which the vortex appears at the small scale
model is S1 = 1.194 m corresponding to the
value of S=1.322 m.
According to the experimental diagram, the
minimum submergence needed for the
impeller to avoid vortex at the real pump
NMV1000 corresponding to value S = 2.13
m is S1=1.22 m ( calculated according to
Table 2 and to the curve of Fig. 4)
The level situation at the NMV1000 pump is
according to Fig.5.

4.4
Verificarea condiiei de evitare a
cavitaiei (NPSHA > NPSHR) la pompa
NMV 1000

n punctul nominal conform curbelor de stand


ale pompei NMV 1000RA, avem NPSHR
=9,5 m. n literatura de specialitate se indic
adoptarea pentru NPSHR a unui coeficient de
siguran cS = 1,11,22.
Adoptm valoarea maxim deoarece n caz de
avarie este posibil s se cear pompei un debit
mai mare, n afara domeniului stabilit, ceea ce
implic i o cretere a valorii pentru NPSHR.
NPSHR c = 1,22 NPSHR
Deci NPSHR c = 1,22x9,5 = 11,59 m.
Din relaia: NPSHR c =Hg1 + Hpb - Hj1 - Hpv
rezult submersia minim a rotorului pentru a
evita cavitaia [6]:
Hg1 = NPSHR c Hpb +Hj1+Hpv, unde:
Hg1 - Submersia minim pentru a evita
cavitaia (m)
Hpb presiunea barometric (m)
Hj1 pierderile de sarcin n aspiraie (m)
Hpv presiunea de vaporizare (m)
Corespunztor apei la o temperatur de 30C,
densitatea este = 996kg / m 3 , iar presiunea

4.4 Checking the condition of cavitation


avoidance (NPSHA > NPSHR) at the
NMV1000 pump

In the nominal point according to the stand


curves of the NMV1000 pump, we have a
NPSHR = 9.5m. The speciality literature
suggests adopting, for NPSHR, a safety
coefficient cS = 1.11.22.
The maximum value is adopted because in
case of damage it is possible impose a bigger
flow, beyond the established domain, for the
pump thus resulting in an increase of the
value for NPSHR
NPSHR c = 1.22 NPSHR
Therefore NPSHR c = 1.22 x 9.5 = 11.59 m.
From: NPSHR c =Hg1 + Hpb Hj1 - Hpv ,
results the minimum submergence of the
impeller to avoid cavitation [6]:
Hg1 = NPSHR c Hpb +Hj1+Hpv , where:
Hg1 is the minimum submergence to avoid
cavitation, (m);
Hpb is the barometric pressure, (m);
Hj1 is the loss of head at suction, (m);
Hpv is the evaporation pressure, (m).

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

85

de vaporizare este pv = 0,04325 kg/cm2 ceea


ce corespunde la Hpv = 0,434 m.
Pierderile de sarcin n aspiraie, calculate, au
valoarea de 0,35 m.
Cu aceste valori:
Hg1 = 11,59-10,37+0,35+0,434 = 2,004 m
Hg1 ~ 2 m.
Presiunea atmosferic minim msurat n
zona amplasamentului, nregistrat n ultimii
20 de ani, a fost de 970 mbar = 727,55966
torr = 9,8948 mca.
n cazul n care se suprapun cele dou
evenimente: presiunea atmosferic minim i
nivel minim n aspiraie, atunci:
Hg1 = 11,59-9,8948+0,35+0,434 = 2,4792 m
Hg1 = 2,48 m
n funcie de presiunea atmosferic local
submersia minim pentru evitarea cavitaiei i
a vortexului este conform graficului din fig.6.

For water at a 30C temperature, density is


= 996kg / m 3 and the evaporation pressure
is pv = 0.04325 kg/cm2 corresponding to Hpv
= 0,434 m. The calculated loss of suction
head has the value of 0.35m.
With these values:
Hg1 = 11.59-10.37+0.35+0.434 = 2.004 m
Hg1 ~ 2 m.
The
minimum atmospheric pressure
measured in the area of the location,
registered in the last 20 years was of 970
mbar=727.55966torr = 9.8948mca.
In case of overlapping of the two events - the
minimum
atmospheric
pressure
and
minimum level in suction - then:
Hg1 = 11.59-9.8948+0.35+0.434 = 2.4792 m
Hg1 = 2.48 m
Depending on the local atmospheric pressure
the minimum submergence complies with
the diagram in Fig.6.

Fig. 5 Planul nivelelor la pompa NMV1000 ( presiune atmosferic 762.5 torr)


Levels diagram for the NMV1000 pump (barometric pressure 762.5 torr)

86

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

4.5 Concluziile ncercrilor de stand privind


submersia minim necesar pompei NMV
1000

4.5 Stand test conclusions regarding the


minimum submergence needed for the
NMV1000 pump

A rezultat pentru submersia minim necesar


evitrii vortexului i a fenomenului de
cavitaie la presiunea atmosferic de 762,5
torr, o necare a rotorului de minimum 2 m
ceea ce corespunde cotei de 85,15 pentru
nivelul liber n camera de aspiraie. Se
recomand ca n exploatare s existe o
rezerv de 0,5 m fa de valoarea de 2 m
determinat mai sus.
n aceste condiii se accept funcionarea de
lung durat a pompelor NMV 1000 la o
submersie de 2,5m (msurat de la cota 83,15
de intrare n rotor) fr a se afecta sigurana
n funcionare a pompei.
De asemenea pentru presiunea atmosferic de
762,5 torr se admite funcionarea n domeniul
de submersie de 2-2,5 m (msurat de la cota
83,15 de intrare n rotor), cu supravegherea
nivelului de vibraii al pompei, care trebuie s
se situeze n intervalul acceptat.
Dac presiunea atmosferic este diferit de
valoarea de 762,5 torr, atunci submersia
minim se determin din fig.6.

The result for the minimum submergence


needed to avoid the vortex and the cavitation
phenomenon for a pressure of 762.5 torr was
an impeller flooding of minimum 2m, which
corresponds to the height of 85.15 for the
free level in the suction chamber. It is recommended to maintain a reserve of 0.5m
towards the value of 2m determined above.
Under such conditions a long term operation
of the NMV1000 pumps at a submer-gence
of 2.5m (measured from the height of 83.15
of entrance in the impeller) is acceptable,
since it does not affect the operating safety
of the pump.
Also for a pressure level of 762.5 torr the
operation in the submergence domain of 22.5 m (measured at the height of 83.15 of
entrance in the impeller) is permitted if the
vibration level of the pump is monitored in
order to be maintained within the allowed
interval.
If the atmospheric pressure is different from
762.5 torr, then the minimum submergence
is to be determined from Fig. 6.

Fig. 6 Determinarea submersiei minime la pompa NMV1000 n funcie de presiunea atmosferic


Minimum submergence calculation for the NMV1000 pump depending on the atmospferic pressure
Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

87

4.6 Msurtori privind curgerea n camera


de aspiraie a pompei NMV 2000

4.6 Measurements of the discharge in the


suction chamber of the NMV2000 pump

Testele de stand s-au efectuat pe modelul la


scar redus construit conform fig.7 n urmtoarele condiii:

The tests were made on the small scale


model built according to Fig.7 under the
following conditions:
- impeller submergence S1 = 1.546m, Q =
2262 m3/h (which corresponds to the
NMV2000 pump at a flow Q = 54660
m3/h = 15.18 m3/s)- no vortex emergence
was noticed.
- impeller submergence S1 = 0,646m, Q =
2111 m3/h (which corresponds to the
NMV2000 pump at a flow Q = 51001
m3/h = 14,17 m3/s) - a vortex emergence
was noticed.
- impeller submergence S1 = 0,446 m, Q =
2262 m3/h (which corresponds to the
NMV 2000 pump at a flow Q = 54659
m3/h = 15,18 m3/s) - the vortex was
formed.
- impeller submergence S1 = - 0,154 m, Q
= 2262 m3/h (which corresponds to the
NMV 2000 pump at a flow Q = 54659
m3/h = 15,18 m3/s) - a violent vortex was
formed.
- impeller submergence S1 = 0,246 m, Q =
2125 m3/h (which corresponds to the
NMV 2000 pump at a flow Q = 51343
m3/h = 14,26 m3/s) a violent vortex
was formed.
- impeller submergence S1 = 0,846 m, Q =
2125 m3/h (which corresponds to the
NMV 2000 pump at a flow Q = 54659
m3/h = 14,26 m3/s) - the vortex was
noticed.
- impeller submergence S1 = 1,146 m, Q =
2222 m3/h (which corresponds to the
NMV 2000 pump at a flow Q = 53686
m3/h = 14,91 m3/s) - the vortex was
noticed.
- impeller submergence S1 = 1,596 m, Q =
2222 m3/h (which corresponds to the
NMV 2000 pump at a flow Q = 53686
m3/h = 14,91 m3/s) - the vortex
disappeared.
- impeller submergence S1 = 1,996 m, Q=
2249 m3/h (which corresponds to the
NMV 2000 pump at a flow Q = 54335
m3/h = 15,09 m3/s) - the pump operated
without a vortex.

- submersie rotor S1 = 1.546 m, Q = 2262


m3/h (ceea ce corespunde la pompa NMV
2000 la un debit Q = 54660 m3/h = 15,18
m3/s) - nu s-a constatat apariia
vortexului.
- submersie rotor S1 = 0,646 m, Q = 2111
m3/h (ceea ce corespunde la pompa NMV
2000 la un debit Q = 51001 m3/h = 14,17
m3/s) - s-a constatat apariia vortexului.
- submersie rotor S1 = 0,446 m, Q = 2262
m3/h (ceea ce corespunde la pompa NMV
2000 la un debit Q = 54659 m3/h = 15,18
m3/s) - s-a constatat manifestarea
vortexului.
- submersie rotor S1 = - 0,154 m, Q =
2262 m3/h (ceea ce corespunde la pompa
NMV 2000 la un debit Q = 54659 m3/h =
15,18 m3/s) - s-a constatat manifestarea
violent a vortexului.
- submersie rotor S1 = 0,246 m, Q = 2125
m3/h (ceea ce corespunde la pompa NMV
2000 la un debit Q = 51343 m3/h = 14,26
m3/s). S-a constatat manifestarea violent
a vortexului.
- submersie rotor S1 = 0,846 m, Q = 2125
m3/h (ceea ce corespunde la pompa NMV
2000 la un debit Q = 54659 m3/h = 14,26
m3/s) - s-a constatat existena vortexului.
- submersie rotor S1 = 1,146 m, Q = 2222
m3/h (ceea ce corespunde la pompa NMV
2000 la un debit Q = 53686 m3/h = 14,91
m3/s) - s-a constatat prezena vortexului.
- submersie rotor S1 = 1,596 m, Q = 2222
m3/h (ceea ce corespunde la pompa
NMV2000 la un debit Q = 53686 m3/h =
14,91 m3/s) - s-a constatat dispariia
vortexului.
- Submersie rotor S1 = 1,996 m, Q = 2249
m3/h (ceea ce corespunde la pompa NMV
2000 la un debit Q = 54335 m3/h = 15,09
m3/s) - s-a constatat funcionarea fr
vortex.

88

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

4.7 Interpretarea rezultatelor i transpunerea


acestora la scar real privind submersia
minim necesar evitrii vortexului la pompa
NMV 2000

4.7 Interpretation of the results and their


transposition at real scale for the minimum
submergence needed to avoid vortex at the
NMV2000 pump

Transpunerea rezultatelor de la modelul la


scar

The transposition of the results from the

Fig. 7 - Schema instalaiei de ncercare a modelului la scara redus a pompei NMV 2000
Design for testing instalation NMV 2000 receded scale pump
Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

89

redus la pompa la scar real, privind


submersia minim de evitare a vortexului s-a
realizat similar ca pentru pompa NMV 1000.
Curba obinut n coordonate adimensionale
S
c
,
) conform tabelului 1 i fig.4, s-a
(
DB gDB
utilizat la determinarea submersiei minime
necesare rotorului pompelor NMV 2000.
Calculul submersiei este prezentat n tabelele
1 i 3.

small scale model to the real scale pump, for


the minimum submergence needed to avoid a
vortex formation was similar to that of the
NMV1000 pump.
The curve obtained in dimensionless
S
c
coordinates (
,
) according to
DB gDB
Table 1 and Fig. 4, was used to determine
the minimum submergence needed for the
NMV 2000 pump impeller. The
submergence calculation is shown in Tables
1 and 3.

Tabelul 3 - Determinarea submersiei pentru funcionarea fr vortex la pompa NMV 2000


Table 3 - Calculation of the submergence for NMV2000 pump operation without a vortex
Pompa
Pump
DN [mm]
Q [m3/h]
D1 [m]
B [m]
H [m]
c [m/s]
DB=

4 BH

NMV 2000 - scar real


- real scale
2000
54720
4,6
2,65
1,247
3,94

c
gDB

0,2

S
(conform fig. 4)
DB

1,2

(according fig. 4)
S
S1= S-1,1

4,7
3,6

Observaii

Remarks

1. Valoarea submersiei minime la care apare


vortexul la modelul la scar redus este S1 =
1,69 m, corespunztoare valorii S = 2,05 m.
Conform diagramei din fig.4.9, submersia
minim necesar rotorului pentru evitarea
vortexului la pompa real NMV 2000,
corespunztor valorii
S = 4,7 m este
S1=3,6 m

1 The minimum submergence value at which


the vortex appears at the small scale model
is S1 = 1.69 m corresponding to S = 2.05 m.
According to the diagram of fig. 4.9 the
minimum submergence needed for the
impeller to avoid vortex at the real pump
NMV2000, corresponding to value S = 4.7 m
is S1=3.6 m.

2. Situaia nivelelor la pompa NMV2000 este


conform fig.8.

2. The levels of the NMV2000 pump are


according to Fig. 8.

90

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

4.8
Verificarea condiiei de evitare a
cavitaiei (NPSHA > NPSHR) la pompa
NMV2000
ntruct, nu sunt disponibile ncercri de stand
pentru caracteristica de cavitaie se utilizeaz
valoarea calculat pentru NPSHR = 11,5 m
corespunztoare debitului maxim. n literatur se
indic pentru NPSHR un coeficient de siguran
cS = 1,1 1,22. S-a adoptat valoarea minim
deoarece nu exist posibilitatea ca n exploatare
punctul de funcionare s se situeze la debite
mai mari dect domeniul stabilit.
NPSHR c = 1,1 NPSHR = 12,65 m

4.8 Checking of the condition of avoiding


the cavitation (NPSHA > NPSHR) at the
NMV 2000 pump
Because there no stand tests were available
for the cavitation feature, the value
calculated for NPSHR = 11.5m was used,
corresponding to the maximum flow. The
literature mentions for NPSHR a safety
coefficient cS = 1.1 1.22. The minimum
value was adopted because, during
operation, the operating point cannot reach a
higher flow than the established domain.
NPSHR c = 1,1 NPSHR = 12,65 m

Submersia minim a rotorului pentru a evita


cavitaia este:
Hg1 = NPSHR c Hpb +Hj1+Hpv,
n care simbolurile utilizate sunt aceleai ca la
pompa NMV1000.
Densitatea apei la temperatur de 30C este
= 996kg / m 3 , iar presiunea de vaporizare
este pv = 0,04325 kg/cm2 ceea ce conduce la
Hpv = 0,434m.
Pierderile de sarcin n aspiraie calculate au
valoarea de 0,28 m.
Cu aceste valori Hg1 = 2,994 m ~ 3m.

The minimum submergence of the impeller


to avoid cavitation is:
Hg1= NPSHR c Hpb +Hj1 +Hpv,
in which the symbols used are the same as
for the NMV1000 pump.
The water density at a temperature of 30C is
= 996kg / m 3 and the evaporation pressure
is pv = 0.04325 kg/cm2 which leads to Hpv =
0.434m.
The calculated head losses in suction have
the value of 0.28m.
With these values Hg1 = 2.994 m ~ 3m.

Fig. 8 Planul nivelelor la pompa NMV2000 (pentru funcionare la presiunea atmosferic de 762,5 torr)
Levels diagram for the NMV2000 pump (for operating at 762.5 torr atmospheric pressure )
Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

91

Presiunea atmosferic minim nregistrat n


amplasament, a fost de 970 mbar
=
727,55966 torr = 9,8948 mca, iar n cazul n
care se suprapun cele dou evenimente:
presiunea atmosferic minim i nivel minim
n aspiraie,
Hg1 = 12,65-9,8948+0,28+0,434 = 3,47m
Submersia minim necesar pentru evitarea
cavitaiei i a vortexului n funcie i de presiunea atmosferic local este conform fig. 9.

The
minimum atmospheric pressure
registered in the location was 970torr =
727,55966 torr = 9.8948 m water; if the two
events - the minimum atmospheric pressure
and minimum suction level overlap:
Hg1 = 12.65-9.8948+0.28+0.434 = 3.47m

4.9 Concluzii privind ncercrilor de stand


cu referire la submersia minim necesar
pompei NMV2000

4.9 Conclusions regarding the stand tests


for the minimum submergence needed for
the NMV 2000 pump

Rezult pentru submersia minim necesar


evitrii vortexului i a fenomenului de
cavitaie la presiunea atmosferic de 762,5
torr, o necare a rotorului de minimum 3,6 m.
Se recomand ca n exploatare s existe o
rezerv de 0,25 m fa de valoarea de 3,6 m
determinat mai sus.
Dac presiunea atmosferic este diferit de
valoarea de 762,5 torr, atunci submersia
minim se determin din fig. 9.

In the case of a minimum submergence


needed to avoid the vortex and the cavitation
phenomenon, at the atmospheric pressure of
762.5 torr, an impeller flood of minimum
3.6m is required. During operation a reserve
of 0.25m above the calculated value of 3.6m
is recommended. If the atmospheric pressure
is other than the value of 762.5 torr, then the
minimum submergence is calculated
from Fig. 9.

The minimum submergence needed to avoid


cavitation and vortex, also depending on the
local atmospheric pressure, is as in Fig. 9.

Fig. 9 Determinarea submersiei minime la pompa NMV2000 n funcie de presiunea atmosferic


Submergence calculated for the NMV2000 pump depending on the atmospheric pressure

92

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

Bestimmung der minimum notwendigen Untertauchbarkeit zur Vermeidung der Wirbelbildung bei den
NMV1000 und NMV2000 Pumpen, die in der Energetik benutzt werden
Zusammenfassung
Das Versuchstudium hat als Gegenstand die Bestimung der minimum notwendigen Untertauchbarkeit zur
Vermeidung der Wirbelbildung bei den Vertikalpumpen angebaut in trockenen Einlaufkammer, das
rechteckige Gestaltung hat und mit Hydroconus und hydroabweiser ausgerustet ist, das Ansaugloch ist in der
Decke des Ansaugegehauses angebracht.
Der Versuch Wurde auf ein Modell mit verkleinertem Masstab durchgefuhrt und die Ergebnisse wurden
ubertragen auf das reelle Masstab auf Grund des Ahnlicheitskriteriums Froude. Dies gestaltet die Anwendung
der Ergebnisse bei allen Ansauggehausen die ahnnlich gebaut wurden mit dem getestetem Ansauggehause, auf
grund der Versuchbestimmung der Trennungskurve des Betriebsbereiches ohne Wirbel von dem Betriebsbereich
mit Wirbelbildung. Die Ergebnisse der Forschung wurden angewendet fur die Bestimmung der minimum
notwendigen Untertauchbarkeit die fur einen sicheren Betrieb der NMV1000 und NMV2000 Pumpen die in der
Energetik benutzt werden, notig ist.
Bibliografie
References
[1]

CEN Report CR 13930: Rotodynamic pump. Design of pump intakes. Recomandation for installation of
pumps 2000.

[2]

EUGEN CONSTANTIN ISBOIU, CARMEN ANCA SAFTA, PETRIOR STNESCU: Swirling


Flows in the Suction Sumps of Vertical Pumps. Theoretical approach. Scientific Bulletin of the
Politehnical University of Timisoara,- Transaction of Mechanics - 2006.

[3]

EUGEN CONSTANTIN ISBOIU, PETRIOR STNESCU, MARIA STOIA DESKA,


GEORGIANA DUNCA, MARIA DIANA BUCUR, CLIN GHERGU: Swirling Flow in Suction
Sumps Experimental approach.Scientific Bulletin of the Politehnical University of Timisoara,Transaction of Mechanics- pg. 49-54, Tom 52(66), Fascicula 3 -2007.

[4]

FALK SCHAFER, Physical Model Investigation of Cooling Water Intake Structure for Power Station,
University of Kaiserslautern, Institute of Fluid Machinery and Fluid Mechanics, Departament of
Mechanical Engineering- 3031147, nov. 2006.

[5]

SULZER Centrifugal Pump Handbook. 2nd ed. Elsivier Advanced Technoloy, Oxford, 1997.

[6]

VICTOR BURCHIU, LIVIU GHEORGHIU, ALEXANDRU DUDU: Ghidul utilizatorului de pompe


(Vol. I i II), Ed. Atlas Press, SRL, Bucureti 2006.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

93

Zonarea teritoriului i co-relaii


ntre diveri para-metri geotehnici
pentru loessurile din Dobrogea

Land Zoning and Various


Geotechnical Parameter Correlation
for the Loess in Dobrogea

Gabriela Brndua Cazacu, inginer S.C. PROIECT


S.A. Constana

Gabriela Brndua Cazacu,


PROIECT S.A. Constana

Existena a numeroase studii i prospeciuni


geotehnice efectuate n ultimii 50 de ani
pentru proiectarea i execuia diverselor
obiective industriale i social culturale,
permite elaborarea de studii i de materiale
de sintez, de zonificare geotehnic a
teritoriului Dobrogei, care s fie utilizate la
ntocmirea schielor i planurilor de
sistematizare general precum i a fazelor
preliminare ale proiectelor pentru cldiri
civile i industriale, reele de strzi, lucrri
edilitare etc.

The existence of numerous geotechnical studies and surveys, made in the last 50 years
for the design of different industrial and
social-cultural
buildings,
allows
the
elaboration of studies and syntheses, for the
geotechnical land zoning of Dobrogea. They
are to be used for the realization of the plans
and the general country planning, as well as
of the preliminary stages of the designs for
civil and industrial buildings, street
networks, urban public works.

Majoritatea construciilor din Dobrogea sunt


fundate pe loessuri i pe pmnturi
loessoide, de aici rezultnd necesitatea aprofundrii cunoaterii proprietilor i a
comportrii lor la variaii ale condiiilor din
teren i ale ncrcrilor pe care construcia le
transmite acestuia.

The majority of the buildings in Dobrogea


are founded on loess and loessial soils, and
as a result the necessity of thoroughly
knowing their properties and behaviour to
soilcondition variations and tothe stress, the
building transmits to the soil.

Date fiind caracteristicile


specifice ale
pmnturilor
macroporice
dominante,
diferite de ale altor formaiuni care intr n
alctuirea
terenurilor
de
fundaie,
caracteristici legate de compoziia lor
chimico mineralogice ct i de
comportarea lor specific sub ncrcare i n
contact cu un exces de umiditate, aceste
pmnturi au format obiectul multor teme de
cercetare.
innd seama de importana clasificrii
pmnturilor sensibile la umezire n cele
dou grupe A i B (conform Normativului
P7/ 2000), n vederea aprecierii msurilor ce
trebuiesc luate pentru evitarea degradrii
construciilor n caz de inundare, s-au
efectuat o zonare a loessurilor din Dobrogea.

94

engineer

S.C.

Being given the specific characteristics of


the dominant, macroporic soils, different
from other formations that enter the composition of the soil foundation, these soils have
formed the object of many research
topics.These characteristics are connected to
the
soil
chemicalmineralogical
composition, as well as to its specific
behavior under load and in contact with
excess moisture.
Taking into account the importance of the
classification of soils sensitive to moisture,
in the two classes A and B (according to
Normative P7/2000), with a view to
considering the measures which must be
taken, in order to avoid the degradation of
the buildings, in case of flooding, a zoning of
the loess in Dobrogea has been made.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

Cercetrile au scos n eviden influena celor


doi importani factori - umiditatea i porozitatea - asupra tasrii specifice prin umezire .

The research has emphasized the influence of


the two major factors moisture and porosity
upon the specific subsidence through damping.

Dei gradul de saturaie joac un rol important


n ceea ce privete aprecierea sensibilitii la
umezire a pmnturilor n stare natural, el nu
poate totui constitui singurul criteriu valabil
pentru ntreaga gam de poroziti ce pot fi
ntlnite la pmnturile macroporice.

Although the degree of saturation plays an


important role as regards the sensitivity
estimation at damping of soils in their natural
state, it cannot actually constitute the only valid
criterion for the entire range of porosities,
which can be met at t macroporic soils.

Aprecierea sensibilitii la umezire trebuie s


in seama de influena concomitent a umiditii i porozitii asupra tasrii suplimentare.

The sensibility estimation at damping must take


into account the concomitant influence of the
moisture and porosity upon the additional
settlement.

In plana 1 este reprezentat pentru ntreg


teritoriul Dobrogei de la Vama Veche la Tulcea
i de la Constana la Hrova zonarea n funcie
de valorile im3 ale pmnturilor sensibile la
umezire.

In figure 1 the entire territory of Dobrogea is


represented from Vama Veche to Tulcea and
from Constanta to Harsova, the zo-ning
depending on the values Im3 of the soils
sensitive to damping.

Tasarea total prin umezire se determin lund


n considerare ntregul strat sensibil ncrcat cu
o presiune egal cu cea admisibil.

Settlement due to damping is determined,


taking into account the entire overlay, lightly
loaded with a pressure equal with the one
admitted.

Se permite astfel orientarea asupra categoriei n


care se ncadreaz pmnturile din punct de
vedere al pericolului pe care l reprezint n caz
de inundare i aprecierea valorilor tasrii sub
greutatea proprie.

One can determine, in this way, the category the


soils are integrated into, from the point of view
of the danger they represent,in case of flooding
and the estimation of the settlement values
under its own weight.

Pentru zona cuprins ntre oraul Techirghiol i


oraul Mangalia, din studiile efectuate pentru
aceast zon rezult urmtoarea zonare (pl. 2).

For the area between the Techirghiol town and


Mangalia city, from the studies made for this
area, the following zoning appears (figure 2).

Se observ c exist trei subzone :

There are three sub-zones:

Subzona I n care practic nu vor apare tasri ale


terenului datorit umeziri. Aici sunt incluse
loessurile i pmnturile loessoide care se
ncadreaz conform Normativului P 7/2000 n
grupa A, cu tasri sub greutate proprie de
maximum 5 cm. n aceast zon loessurile au o
grosime de pn la 7 m (cu-loarea maron pe
plan).

Sub-zone 1 where soil settlement practically


will not appear because of damping. Loesses
and loessial soils are included here, which are
placed, according to the Normative P 7/2000 in
the class A, with settlement under their own
weight of maximum 5 cm. Here the loess has a
thickness up to 7 m (the brown colored area in
figure 2).

Subzona II n care sunt posibile tasri la


umezire, grosimea depozitelor loessoide fiind
cuprins ntre 7 i 12 m. Aceast subzon are o
rspndire mai redus dect subzona I. Se
preconizeaz ca depozitele loessoide s aib
tasri de mic amploare 2030 cm care se vor
manifesta n general prin lsarea terenului, fr
producerea de fisuri cu deschideri mari (acest
raion este marcat pe plan prin culoarea
galben ).

Sub-zone 2 where settlement due to damping


is possible, the thickness of the loessial deposits
being included between 7 and 12 m. This subzone is smaller than sub-zone 1. It is estimated
that the loessia il deposits will have settlements
of smaller scale, 2030cm which will display in
general by soil settlement, without producing
rifts with big openings (this section is marked in
yellow).

Subzona III de apariie a rocilor din


fundament la zi (culoarea albastr pe plan).

Sub-zone 3 of the appearance of the


foundation rocks at the moment (the blue area).

Plecndu-se de la premisa c ntre procentul de


argil 0,005 mm i plasticitatea pmnturilor
exist o dependen incontestabil, limita inferioar de plasticitate ct i mai ales limita
superioar de plasticitate sunt dependente de
cantitatea de fraciune argiloas care intr n
alctuirea pmnturilor, s-a efectuat a zonare n
funcie de procentul de argil care intr n
compoziia loessurilor.

Starting from the hypothesis that between the


percentage of clay 0,005 mm and the plasticity
of the soils there is an undeniable dependence,
the inferior limit of plasticity, and especially the
superior limit of plasticity depend on the
quantity of the clayey fraction, which are part of
the composition of the soils, a zoning
depending on the percentage of clay has been
made, which form the loess composition .

Suprafaa a fost mprit n patru zone I; II;


III; IV (plana 3) n funcie de compoziia
granulometric a loessului .

The surface has been divided in four zones I; II;


III; IV (figure
3) depending on the
granulometric loess composition.

Astfel se poate constata o cretere a procen-tului


de argil din pmnturile sensibile la umezire de
la Dunre spre mare i de la nord la sud.

Thus, an increase of the clay percentage from


the sensitive soils at damping from the Danube
to the sea and from north to south.

Dup efectuarea acestei zonri s-a urmrit


stabilirea unor corelaii ntre diveri parametri
geotehnici.

After zoning, a correlation among different


geotechnical parameters has been carried out

Stabilirea corelaiilor s-au efectuat conform


indicaiilor prezentate n "Ghidul pentru sistematizarea, stocarea i reutilizarea informaiilor
privind parametrii geotehnici (GE 044).

The correlations have been made according to


the instructions pre-sented in The guide for the
county planning, storage and reuse of the
information
regarding
the
geotechnical
parameters (GE 044).

Folosirea metodologiei propuse n Ghidul mai


sus menionat permite stabilirea de analogii
ntre pmnturi similare permind astfel
economii la studiile geotehnice i evitarea unor
erori n stabilirea valorilor parametrilor
mecanici ai pmnturilor.

The use of the methodology proposed in the


Guide above mentioned, allows the creation of
analogies among similar soils, allowing the
reduction of the geotechnical studies and the
avoidance of some errors in determining the
values of the mechanical parameters of the soils.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

97

Pe baza bncii de date a parametrilor


geotehnici, existente cu privire la pmnturile
din Dobrogea, dup sistematizarea, analizarea i
prelucrarea datelor statistice s-a evideniat
faptul c ntre procentul de argil 0,005 mm i
plasticitatea pmnturilor exist o dependen
incontestabil.

On the basis
of the database of the
geotechnical parameters, regarding the soils
from Dobrogea, after country planning,
analysis and processing of the statistical data,
one has emphasized the fact that between the
clay percentage 0,005 mm and the plasticity of
the soils there is an undeniable dependence.

Se constat c :
- limita superioar de plasticitate crete
relativ repede odat cu creterea coninutului de particule argiloase .
- valorile limitei inferioare de plasticitate
variaz n mai mic msur cu coninutul de
particule argiloase ;
- valorile indicelui de plasticitate,cresc n
mod corespunztor cu creterea limitei
superioare de plasticitate n funcie de
coninutul de argil.

It results that:
the superior limit of plasticity grows relatively fast at the same time with the growth
of the content of the clayey particles;
the values of the inferior limit of plasticity
vary in a lesser extent with the content of
the clayey particle;
the values of the coefficient of plasticity
grow according to the growth of the superior
limit of plasticity which depends on the clay
content.

Plasticitate ( wL,Wp,Ip )

Corelaii ntre coninutul de argil 0,005 mm i plasticitate


50
40

wP

30

IP

20
10

wP

0
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
Argil 0,005 mm (%)

A. Casagrande a stabilit o relaie de forma


Ip = 0,73 ( wL 20 ). Din aceast relaie rezult
c Ip, wL i wp variaz n acelai sens, aceast
variaie se explic prin faptul c, cu ct argila
are un coninut mai bogat de fraciune foarte
fin, cu att suprafaa sa specific este mai mare
i ca urmare,coninutul de ap necesar pentru
trecerea de la o stare la alta este mai ridicat.

A. Casagrande established a relation of the type Ip =


0,73 (wL 20). From this relation it results, that Ip,wL
and wP vary in the same direction, this variation
being explained through the fact that, the richer the
very fine fraction content of clay, the bigger the
specific surface and as a result, the content of water
necessary for passing from a state to another is
higher.

Aceast dreapt nu este unic pentru toate


pmnturile, astfel Burland a determinat o nou
relaie de forma Ip = 0,8 ( wL 19 ).

Aceast dreapt nu este unic pentru toate


pmnturile, astfel Burland a determinat o nou
relaie de forma Ip = 0,8 ( wL 19 ).

n figura de mai jos sunt reprezentate grafic


relaiile lui Casagrande, Burland i cea obinut
de noi pentru pmnturile din Dobrogea.

n figura de mai jos sunt reprezentate grafic


relaiile lui Casagrande, Burland i cea obinut
de noi pentru pmnturile din Dobrogea.

98

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

Indicele de plasticitate Ip

Se observ c relaia obinut pentru


pmnturile din Dobrogea n unele zone este
mai apropiat de cea obinut de Casagrande iar
n altele este mai apropiat de relaia lui
Burland.
Valorile limitelor variaz n limite foarte largi
n cazul coninuturilor mici de fraciuni
argiloase,limit ce se restrnge pe msur ce
crete ponderea acestora n masa pmnturilor.
This straight line is not unique for all soils, so
Burland has determined a new relationship of
the type Ip = 0,8 (wL 19).

In the figure below the relations of Casagrande


are graphically represented, Burland and the
one we obtained for the soils in Dobrogea.
One can observe that the relation obtained for
the soils in Dobrogea, in some areas is closer to
that of Casagrande, and in other areas it is
closer to that of Burland.
The values of the limits vary in broad limits for
small contents of clayey fractions, limit which
restricts itself as far as their balance grows in
the mass of the soils.

25
Dobrogea

20
15

Burland

10
Casagrande

5
0
28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

Limita superioar de plasticitate w l (%)

In determinarea limitelor de plasticitate, wL,wp


i implicit valoarea indicelui de plasti-citate Ip,
diferenele se datoreaz nu att preparrii
pmntului nainte de ncercare ct mai ales
faptului c se folosesc dispozitive diferite de
ncercare i anume fie cupa Casagrande, fie
penetrarea cu conuri de forme i greuti
diferite.
Datorit existenei diferenelor ntre valorile
indicelui de plasticitate obinut cu diferite
formule este recomandabil ca s se creeze o
banc de date pentru fiecare regiune a rii pe
baza creia s se verifice i dac este cazul s se
stabileasc relaii ntre diferii parametri
geotehnici.
S-a demonstrat existena unei relaii ntre
coninutul de argil 0,005 mm i plasticitatea
pmntului, acest lucru poate fi folositor i la
verificarea unor rezultate care ridic unele
semne de ntrebare precum i n cazul n care
cantitatea de pmnt avut la dispoziie nu
permite realizarea
uneia din determinri,
aceasta poate fi obinut informativ cu ajutorul
rezultatelor prezentate mai sus.

In the determination of the plasticity limits,


wL, wP and implicitly the value of the
plasticity coefficient Ip, the differences are not
due to preparation of the soil before the test, but
to the fact that different machines for tests are
being used, namely either the Casagrande cup,
or the penetration with cones for different
forms and different weights.
Because of the existence of the differences
between the values of the plasticity coefficient,
obtained with different formulae it is
recommended that a databank should be created
for every region of the country with the
possibility to verify and if necessary to establish
relationships among different geotechnical
parameters.
The existence of a relation between the content
of clay 0,005 mm and the plasticity of the soil
has been demonstrated, this being also useful at
checking some results which raise some
questions, and also in the case in which the
quantity of soils available does not permit the
realization of one of the determinations, the
latter being obtained with the help of the results
presented above.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

99

Toate corelaiile determinate nu nlocuiesc


efectuarea ncercrilor de laborator ci le
completeaz.
S-a demonstrat faptul c modul de com-portare
al pmnturilor sub aciunea solicitrilor
hidraulice i mecanice depinde n principal de
urmtorii factori:
- natura materialului constituent ;
- starea sa de umiditate i de ndesare;
- existena unor eventuale legturi diagenetice
ntre particulele materialului
constituent;
Caracterizarea naturii pmntului se face cu
ajutorul unei figuri geometrice simple, denumit amprent, iar caracterizarea strii de
umiditate i de ndesare cu ajutorul diagramei
de stare.
Pentru loessurile din Dobrogea, formula ariei
relative devine :

Ar =

(185 + I P ) ( wL + 0,35 x0,005mm + 43, 75)


7854

Loessurile din Dobrogea au valorile ariilor


relative cuprinse ntre 2,00 i 2,50 .
S-au stabilit corelaii orientative ntre valorile
ariei relative i valorile limitelor de plasticitate :
Ar = 0,066 wL 0,35
Ar = 0,082 Ip + 0,37
Ar = 0,064 wL + 0,0024 Ip 0,331
Ar = 0,073((wL+IP )/2 ) - 0,03
Se poate meniona c stabilirea parametrilor
geotehnici de calcul constituie o problem
complex a crei rezolvare nu este condiionat
numai de culegerea automat a unor date de
laborator ci i de prelucrarea lor cu anumite
metode.
Fiecare prob de pmnt trebuie analizat
complex, de la o simpl observare litologic,
care deseori este concludent, la analizarea mai
multor parametri geotehnici, pentru care s
existe certitudinea utilizrii de date primare
corespunztoare.
Rolul important al proiectantului rezult din
faptul c acesta trebuie s analizeze judicios
datele obinute, fiind nevoit, n anumite situaii
bine motivate, s renune la unele valori sau s
intervin cu corecturi impuse de variaia lor n
timp sau de complexitatea deosebit,n unele
cazuri a situaiei geologo inginereti.
100

All the determined correlations do not replace


the laboratory experiments, but complement
them.
One has demonstrated t=The fact that the
behavior of soils under the action of hydraulic
and mechanical stress depends mainly on the
following factors:
- the nature of the constituent material;
- its state of moisture and jamming;
- the existence of possible diagenetic bonds
among the particles of the constituent
material.
The characterization of the soil nature is
made with the help of a simple geometrical
figure, named soil print, and the characterization of moisture and jamming with the
help of the thermodynamic diagram.
For the loess in Dobrogea, the formula of
the relative area becomes:

Ar =

(185 + I P ) ( wL + 0,35 x0,005mm + 43, 75)

7854
Loess in Dobrogea has the values of the relative
areas between 2,00 and 2,50.
Orientative correlations among the values of the
relative area and the values of the plasticity
limits have been established:
Ar = 0,066 wL 0,35
Ar = 0,082 Ip + 0,37
Ar = 0,064 wL + 0,0024 Ip 0,331
Ar = 0,073 ((wL+IP )/2 ) - 0,03
It can be mentioned that the determination of
the geotechnical calculation parameters of
represents a complex problem, which is not
conditioned only by the automatic collection of
some laboratory data but also by their
processing with certain methods.
Each soil test must be analyzed in a complex
way, from a simple lithological observation,
which is often decisive, to the analysis of
several geotechnical parameters, for which the
certainty of using the adequate primary data
exists.
The designers important role results from the
fact that he must analyze judiciously the
obtained data, being forced, in some situations,
to give up some values or to interfere with
corrections imposed by their variations in time,
or of the special complexity, in some cases, of
the geological engineering situation.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

Prerea de mai sus, justificat de o practic


ndelungat este susinut de o serie de
cercettori, inclusiv Tomlinson care scrie: n
aprecierea rezultatelor ncercrilor este
necesar o contribuie considerabil a bunului
sim i a experienei practice, pentru a se stabili
ct pre se poate pune pe datele obinute i care
dintre ele trebuie lsate la o parte, acolo unde
este cazul. Este periculos s se acorde o
ncredere oarb datelor de laborator, mai cu
seam atunci cnd sunt puine la numr. Ele
trebuie analizate atent n paralel cu fiele de
foraj i cu alte observaii efectuate pe teren, iar
toate evalurile de presiuni admisibile sau de
alte elemente de calcul i proiectare care se
obin pe baza lor trebuie verificate pe ct
posibil cu experiena anterioar.

The above mentioned opinion, justified by a


long practice is sustained by a series of researches, including Tomlinson, who writes: In
the appreciation of the results of the tryouts is
necessary a considerable contribution of the
common sense and of the practical experience,
in order to establish how much can one trust the
obtained data and which of them must be let
aside, there where the case is. It is dangerous
to blindfoldly trust in the laboratory data, especially when there are a few in number. They
must be analyzed carefully in parallel with the
soil log cards and with other observations made
on the field, and all the pressure evaluations or
other calculation and design elements which
are obtained on their base, must be verified as
much as possible with an previous experience.

DIVISION DU TERRITOIRE DE DOBROUDJA ET CORRELATIONS ENTRE LES DIFFERENTS


PARAMETRES GEOTECHNIQUES DES LOESS DE DOBROUDJA
Rsum
Larticle prsente la division du territoire de Dobroudja en fonction des caractristiques gotechniques, ainsi que
les corrlations obtenues pour divers paramtres gotechniques pour les loess de Dobroudja.
La plupart des constructions de Dobroudja sont fondes sur des loess et sols loessodes, do la necessit dun
approfondissement de la connaissance des proprits et comportements des variations de terrain et de charges
apportes par les constructions. Cest la raison pour laquelle il a t souhait davoir une division du territoire en
fonction de lpaisseur de la couche de loess, de la valeur du tassement spcifique lhumidification (im3) de
lentier massif de loess et de sa granulosit. En utilisant la mthodologie prsente dans le Guide pour la
systmatisation, stockage et rutilisation des informations sur les paramtres gotechniques GE 044/200 ont t
tablis des corrlations entre les divers paramtres gotechniques (limites de plasticit et indice de plasticit en
fonction du contenu dargile). Les sols loessodes de Dobroudja ont t caractriss laide des empreintes et
respectivement de la surface relative, tant prsentes aussi des corrlations.
Bibliografie
Rfrences
[1].
[2].

ANDREI, S. (2004). Caracterizarea digital a pmnturilor. Revista Construcii nr.2 /2004.


ANDREI, S. (2000). Prognozarea parametrilor geotehnici. A IX a Conferin de Geotehnic i Fundaii,
Cluj - Napoca.
[3]. ANDREI, S., MANEA, S. (1983) Principii de sistematizare, stocare i reutilizare a informaiilor
geotehnice. A V - a Conferin de Geotehnic i Fundaii, Cluj-Napoca.
[4]. ANDREI S., MANEA, S. (2000) Teaching of knowledge concerning the behavior of unsaturated Soils.
1st Internaionl Conference on Geotehnical Engineering Education and Training, Sinaia.
[5]. CAZACU, G.B. (2006) Formaiuni geologice sensibile la umezire din Dobrogea. Referat de doctorat.
[6]. CAZACU, G.B. (2004) Metode de sistematizare a informaiilor privind parametrii geotehnici. Referat
de doctorat .
[7]. CAZACU, G.B. (2004) Parametrii geotehnici ai pmnturilor din Dobrogea. A X-a Conferin
Naional de Geotehnic i Fundaii, Bucureti.
[8]. CAZACU, G.B. (2004) Stadiul actual al metodelor de ncercare a pmnturilor nesaturate. Referat de
doctorat;
[9]. TOMLINSON, M.J. (1974) Proiectarea i executarea fundailor Editura Tehnic, Bucureti.
[10]. * * * Stasuri i normative n vigoare.
[11]. * * * Studii geotehnice.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

101

Studiul oscilaiilor unei nave i ale


unei sarcini din crligul macaralei de
bord

Study of Oscillations of a Ship and of a


Load Attached to the Hook of the Ship
Crane

Mirela Cotrumb, ef lucr. drd. ing., Universitatea Ovidius Constana (Ovidius University of Constanta), Catedra de
Instalaii i Echipamente Navale (Naval Installations and Equipments Department), e-mail: cotrumba65@yahoo.com
Cosmin Bucur, ef lucr. dr. ing., Universitatea Ovidius Constana (Ovidius University of Constanta), Catedra de
Instalaii i Echipamente Navale (Naval Installations and Equipments Department), e-mail: cosmin75@yahoo.com

1. Introducere

1. Introduction

Exist studii efectuate de ctre specialiti strini


cu privire la influena oscilaiilor combinate ale
navelor asupra sarcinilor suspendate.
Lucrarea de fa cuprinde studiul analitic doar
al micrilor verticale, stabilirea modelului
teoretic rezultat prin compunerea micrilor i
analiza computerizat a acestuia.
Oscilaiile verticale ale sarcinii din crligul unei
macarale navale sunt redate de ecuaia de
micare obinut prin compunerea deplasrilor
pe direcie vertical:
- a navei pe care este poziionat instalaia de
ridicat;
- a captului braului de macara ca urmare a
deformrii elastice a acestuia;
- a crligului ce susine sarcina datorit
deformrii elastice a cablului (fig. 1).

There are studies performed by foreign analysts


regarding the influence of mixed oscillations of
ships on loads attached to the ship hook.
This paper contains only the analytical study of
vertical motions, the determination of the
theoretical model obtained by the composition
of motions and the computerized analysis of the
model.
The vertical oscillations of the load on the hook
of a ship crane are expressed in the motion
equation, obtained by composing the vertical
motion of:
- the ship, the crane is placed on;
- the end of the jib as a result of its elastic
deformation;
- the hook, the load is attached to, as a result of
elastic deformation of the cable (fig. 1).
zs

ce

Ms

z
MN
Fig. 1 Modelul de studiu: nav i macara cu structur elastic
The Study Model: Ship and Crane with Elastic Structure

2. Ipoteze simplificatoare

2. Simplifying Hypotheses

Urmtoarele ipoteze au fost considerate:


- instalaia de ridicat este solidar cu nava;

The following hypotheses have been


considered:
- the lifting gear is considered part of the ship;

102

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

- ce este rigiditatea echivalent a macaralei,


inclusiv palanul;
- micarea apei este regulat i stabilizat,
fiecare val fiind identic cu cel anterior;
- se vor studia numai oscilaiile verticale ale
navei cargou de 7500 tdw, n condiiile
hidrometeorologice ale Mrii Negre;
- nu exist nclinri transversale sau
longitudinale constante ale navei datorate
ncrcrii neuniforme a navei;
- sarcina nu se afl n micare relativ fa de
nav la momentul iniial.

- ce is the equivalent rigidity of the crane, the


hoisting block included;
- water motion is steady and stabilized, all
waves being considered identical;
- only the vertical oscillations of a 7.500 tdw
cargo ship, under the hydro meteorological
conditions typical of the Black Sea are to be
studied;
- no constant transversal or longitudinal ship
inclination due to non-uniform loading is
assumed to appear;
- no relative load motion with respect to the
ship at the initial moment.

3. Ecuaia de micare a navei

3. The Ship Motion Equation

Forele care acioneaz asupra navei sunt situate


n acelai plan longitudinal (planul diametral,
PD) i n acelai plan transversal (planul
cuplului maestru (fig. 2). Prin aceast ipotez se
exclude posibilitatea producerii oscilaiilor
transversale i a celor longitudinale [3].
Datorit asimetriei navei fa de planul cuplului
maestru, componenta suplimentar a forei de
presiune, Fp i fora de inerie a masei de ap,
Fia, antrenat n micare odat cu nava,
acioneaz n planul diametral, dar n seciuni
transversale diferite fa de planul cuplului
maestru.
Conform figurii 2, trebuie s fie ndeplinite
urmtoarele condiii:

The forces applied on the ship are in the same


longitudinal plane (the diametrical plane, DP)
and in the same transversal plane (the midship
plane) (fig.2). This hypothesis excludes the
possibility of transversal and longitudinal
oscillations [3].
Because the ship is asymmetrical with respect
to the midship plane, the additional components
of the pressure force, FP and inertia force of
the water mass involved in motion
simultaneously with the ship, Fia , act in
diametrical plane but in different transversal
sections than the midship plane.
According to figure 2, the following conditions
must be answered:

Fz = 0
Fg - Fp - Fp - FiN - Fia = FR

(1)
(2)

unde: Fg - fora de greutate a navei, aplicat n


G (Fg = MN g [kN]), Fp - componenta
principal a forei de presiune hidrostatic,
aplicat n centrul, B, de caren (Fp = V
[kN]), Fp componenta suplimentar a forei
de presiune hidrostatic, aplicat n c(xc, 0) (Fp
= V [kN]), FiN fora de inerie a masei
navei ( FiN = M N &z& [kN]), Fia fora de inerie
a masei de ap antrenat n micare odat cu
nava, aplicat n c(xc, 0) ( Fia = M a &z& [kN]).

where: Fg is the ship weight force applied in G


(Fg = V [kN]), Fp is the main component of
the hydrostatic pressure force, applied in center,
B, by the hull (Fp = V [kN]), Fp is the
additional component of the hydrostatic pressure
force, applied in c(xc, 0) (Fp = V [kN]), FiN
is the inertia force of the ship ( FiN = M N &z&
[kN]), Fia is the inertia force of the water mass
simultaneously involved in motion with the ship
in c(xc,0) 0) ( Fia = M a &z& [kN]).

Dac se noteaz:

If we note:
M1 = MN + Ma
Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

(3)
103

Fext

FiN
& &&
z; z;
z

Fp
Aw

c
Fia

O
Fg G
B F
R
Fp

L
L

W
W

xc

xc
z
Fig. 2 Reprezentarea navei n PD, scoas din poziia de echilibru
i a forelor care acioneaz asupra acesteia n cazul oscilaiilor neamortizate
Representation of Ship on DP, out of its Equilibrium State
and of Forces Acting on it in Case of Undamped Oscillations

ecuaia diferenial a micrii de oscilaie pe


vertical a navei pe ap linitit capt forma
din relaia (4) sau relaia (5), pentru FR = 0
(micare neamortizat) i pentru condiiile
iniiale t=0, z=z(0) i t=0, z& = z& (0) :

the differential equation of the ship vertical


oscillation on calm sea, becomes equation (4) or
(5), for FR = 0 (undamped motion) and for the
initial conditions t=0, z=z(0) i t=0, z& = z& (0) :

M1 &&z + A w z = 0

(4)

&&z + z = 0

(5)

2
z

Semnificaiile celorlalte mrimi sunt:


greutatea specific a apei, [kN/m3]; Aw este aria
suprafeei plutirii iniiale drepte, [m2].
Rezolvarea ecuaiei difereniale (5) conduce la
forma armonic a soluiei acesteia [3]:

The significance of the other values are: is the


specific water weight, [kN/m3]; Aw is the area of
the flat initial floating surface [m2].
Solving the differential equation (5) leads to its
harmonic solution [3]:

z(t) = zA cos (zt - z) [m]


(6)
unde: z - elongaia oscilaiilor verticale where: z is the elongation of undamped oscillation
amortizate pe ap linitit; [m] zA amplitudinea on calm sea; [m] zA is the oscillation amplitude,
oscilaiilor, [m]; z - pulsaia oscilaiilor, [m]; z is the oscillation pulsation, [rad/s]; z is
the initial phase oscillation, [rad].
[rad/s]; z - faza iniial a oscilaiilor, [rad].
n urma studiului numeric efectuat pentru nava As a result of the numerical study carried out for
aleas, n condiiile hidrometeorologice ale the chosen ship under hydro meteorological
bazinului Mrii Negre i n baza ipotezelor conditions typical of the Black Sea and using the
simplificatoare, s-au obinut urmtoarele simplifying hypotheses, the following ship vertical
deplasri verticale ale navei, considerate n motions, considered at nine wave points, have
been obtained (tab. 1, fig. 3).
nou puncte alese pe val (tab. 1, fig. 3).
4. Stabilirea modelului teoretic de micare a
sarcinii

4. Determination of the Load Motion


Theoretical Model

The calculus hypotheses are:


Ipotezele de calcul sunt urmtoarele:
- both crane and ship oscillate vertically, these
- macaraua mpreun cu nava efectueaz motions being known and expressed by
oscilaii verticale cunoscute, dup ecuaia (6);
equation (6);
- n momentul iniial, t = 0, sarcina oscileaz - at the initial moment, t = 0, the load oscillates
simultaneously with the ship. Thus:
mpreun cu nava. Deci:
zs(0) = z(0)
(7)
&
z& s(0) = z(0)
(8)
104

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

- rigiditatea echivalent, ce, a macaralei


(inclusiv palanul) este [1]:

- the crane equivalent rigidity, ce,(hoisting block


included) is [1]:

1
1 1
1
1
= + = +
,
ce cm c p cm n p cc

unde cm, cp i cc sunt respectiv rigiditatea


macaralei, cea a palanului i cea a cablului, iar
np, este numrul ramurilor portante de cablu ale
palanului;
- sarcina este suficient de mic n raport cu
masa navei nct oscilaiile ei nu le influeneaz
pe cele ale navei.

(9)

where cm, cp and cc stand for the crane, the


hoisting block and the cable rigidity
respectively, np, is the number of the bearer
cable strands of the hoisting block;
- the load is small enough compared to the ship
mass, so that its oscillations do not influence the
ship oscillations.

Tabel 1 Valorile elongaiei oscilaiilor verticale neamortizate ale navei


Table. 1 The elongation values of undamped vertical oscillations of the ship

axa corectat
a valului

O8
G

O7
G

z6

O5

O4

O3

O2
z2

O1
G

z0

z1

O6

z3

z7

z8

h=3m

z5

z4

axa
valului

Momentul
Elongaia
The moment,
The elongation,
tu [s]
z [m]
t0
z0 = 0,7957248
t1
z1 = 0,5863701
t2
z2 = 0,0335277
t3
z3 = - 0,5389547
t4
z4 = - 0,7957248
t5
z5 = - 0,5863701
t6
z6 = - 0,0335277
t7
z7 = 0,5389547
t8
z8 = 0,7957248
unde tu = momentele adecvate punctelor de pe val
where tu = the adequate moments of points wave, u = 1, . . . , 8

O0

= 43m

Fig. 3 Reprezentarea grafic a rezultatelor studiului numeric


The Graphical Representation of the Numerical Study Results

Ca urmare, modelul dinamic are o singur


mas, Ms, cea a sarcinii, un singur element
elastic, al crui punct de legtur efectueaz
micarea de ecuaie z(t) (fig. 1) [2].

Consequently, the dynamic model has a single


mass, Ms, the load mass and a single elastic
element, whose link point performs the equation
motion z(t) (fig. 1) [2].

Ecuaia de micare a sarcinii este:

The load motion equation is:


Ms &&zs + ce (zs - z) = 0
c
&&zs + e (zs - z) = 0
Ms

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

(10)
(11)

105

ce
= 2 reprezint ptratul pulsaiei
Ms
proprii a masei, Ms, a sarcinii din crligul
c n c
macaralei de bord, iar ce = m p c .
cm + n p cc
Atunci, ecuaia diferenial (11) devine:
unde

ce
= 2 represents the squared
Ms
pulsation of the load mass, Ms, attached to the
c n c
ship hook, and ce = m p c .
cm + n p cc
Thus, the differential equation (11) becomes:
where

&&z s + 2 z s = 2 z
&&z s + 2 z s = 2 z A cos (z t - z )

Din condiiile iniiale, la t = 0 (sarcina oscileaz


mpreun cu nava, nu se afl n micare relativ
fa de nav),

(12)

From the initial conditions, for t = 0 (the load


oscillates simultaneously with the ship, no
relative load motion with respect to ship),

zs (0)= z(0)
z(0)= z A cosz
,

&
&
- z A z sinz
z(0)=
z&s (0)= z(0)

(13)

soluia, zs(t), a ecuaiei difereniale (12) este the solution, zs(t), of the differential equation
alctuit din soluia general, zs0(t), a ecuaiei (12) includes the general solution, zs0(t), of the
omogene i o soluie particular, zsp, a ecuaiei homogenous equation and the a particular
complete [2]:
solution, zsp, of the complete equation [2]:
zs (t)= zs0 (t)+ zsp (t)
(14)

cosz 2
(15)
cos( z t - z ) - cos z cos(t + )

Formula (15) stands for the motion law of the


Relaia (15) reprezint legea de micare a load attached on the crane hook, according to
sarcinii din crligul macaralei navale n previously mentioned hypotheses, where is
ipotezele precizate, unde este faza iniial a the initial phase load oscillation.
oscilaiilor sarcinii.
5. The Computerized Analysis of the Load
5 Analiza computerizat a modelului teoretic Motion Theoretical Model
de micare a sarcinii
Using LabVIEW in modeling and simulation
Utilizarea LabVIEW n modelare i simulare a offers the advantage of an efficient accessible
oferit avantajul unei unelte software puternice i software, that can be easily integrated in the
uor de utilizat, extrem de uor de integrat n information system in order to update the
sistemul informaional n scopul asigurrii theoretical model (fig.4 a, b).
actualizrii modelului teoretic (fig.4 a, b).
6. Conclusions
6. Concluzii
The analysis of the vertical load motion
Analiza ecuaiei de micare pe vertical a equation points to the resonance phenomenon
sarcinii atrage atenia asupra fenomenului de (fig. 4 a) that should be studied in detail in order
rezonan (fig. 4 a) care ar trebui studiat n to get rid of its negative effects. The
detaliu n vederea nlturrii efectelor sale observation is that if the pulsation value of the
negative. Se observ c dac valoarea pulsaiei ship motion was closer to the one of the ship,
proprii de micare a sarcinii s-ar apropia de then the load motion elongation, zs, would have
valoarea pulsaiei proprii de micare a navei, the tendency of increasing unnaturally
atunci elongaia micrii sarcinii, zs, tinde s
z
( 2 A 2 ).
zA
creasc anormal ( 2 2 ).
- z
- z
zs (t)=

106

zA
- z2
2

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2009

Fig. 4 Utilizarea Labview pentru simularea relaiei (15):


a) oscilaiile sarcinii (cu linie roie) i oscilaiile navei (cu linie albastr); b) model real
Using LabVIEW in Simulation of Equation (15):
a) The Load Oscillations (with red line) and Ship Oscillations (with blue line); b) Real Model

Studiul demonstreaz c, nc din fazele de


concepie i de proiectare trebuie s se asigure o
rigiditate, ce, a structurii macaralei care s nu
permit creterea valorii pulsaiei proprii a micrii
sarcinii. De asemenea, studiul sugereaz c un
sistem cu elemente de automatizare care, introdus
n circuitul de acionare al mecanismului de
ridicare al macaralei, ar putea compensa
deplasrile datorate oscilaiilor navei n plan
vertical.
Analiznd rezultatele studiului teoretic i al
simulrii prezentate i inndu-se seama de
ipotezele simplificatoare din prezenta lucrare,
studiul poate continua prin rafinarea rezultatului
simulrii pe baza considerrii unui model dinamic
mai complex, analiznd comportarea elastic a
macaralei separat de comportarea elastic a
organului de suspendare a sarcinii. De asemenea,
se pot lua n considerare nu doar micrile pe
vertical ale navei, ci i cele de tangaj sau de ruliu.

The study attests that the crane structure rigidity,


ce, is provided at the concept and the design stage,
in order to avoid the increase of the pulsation value
of the load motion.
Also, the study suggests that a designed
automation system once introduced in the
operational circuit of the crane-hoisting device,
could balance out the vertical motions induced by
the ship oscillations.
The research can be continued by analyzing the
results of the theoretical study of the described
simulation and also by taking into account the
simplifying hypotheses discussed in the paper. The
simulation result can be improved taking a more
complex dynamic model into consideration and
analyzing the crane elastic behavior apart from the
cable elastic behavior.
Not only the ship vertical motions can be taken
into account but also the ship pitch and roll.

Ltude des oscillations dun navire et dune charge du crochet dune grue de bord
Rsum
On a en vue la mise en place de la charge du bord du navire sur une plate-forme marine sans produire de chocs qui
serait dangereux pour lintegrit de la plate-forme et /ou de la charge (figure 1). Les oscillations verticales de la charge
du crochet dune grue navale se retrouvent dans lquation obtenue par la composition des deplacements en direction
verticale du navire ou se trouve linstallation de soulevement, du bout du bras de grue a la suite de la deformation
lastique du celui-ci et du crochet qui soutient la charge a cause de la dformation lastique du cable. Le travail contient
ltude analytique des mouvements, ltablissement du modle thorique obtenu par la composition des mouvements et
lanalyse a laide de lordinateur.
Bibliografie
References
[1]. ALMOREANU, MIRCEA. Introducere n dinamica mainilor de ridicat, Editura Conspress, Bucureti, 2003;
[2] COTRUMBA, MIRELA. Simularea pe calculator a regimurilor de funcionare ale instalaiilor de ridicat navale i
portuare, referat nr. trei doctorat, Bucureti, 2004;
[3] MAIER, VIOREL. Oscilaiile generale ale navei pe valuri, n abordare determinist, Editura Tehnic, Bucureti,
2005

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