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BULETINUL TIINIFIC

AL
UNIVERSITII TEHNICE
DE CONSTRUCII
BUCURETI

NR.4/2008

Disclaimer
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implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information,
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does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the UTCB.
The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of UTCB, and shall not be used for
advertising or product endorsement purposes.
. .

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CUPRINS
STUDII
Evaluarea proprietilor de mediu ale unor betoane cu ciment i agregat parial substituite
cu nmol anorganic din industria hrtiei Maria Gheorghe, Nastasia Saca, Lidia Radu----- 5
Studiul cinematic al micrii plane a solidului rigid avnd gradul de mobilitate egal cu 1
Mihail Alexandrescu, Fono Denisa, Emil Alexandrescu -------------------------------------------- 19
Institutul Astronomic al Academiei Romne i tehnologia GPS, Florin Gabriel Pai -------- 32
Investigaii privind posibilitatea aplicrii procesului de reducere biologic a fosforului n staia
de epurare a apelor uzate Constana Sud, Angela Pan, Natalia Rooiu --------------------------- 43
Model de analiz cu elemente finite a structurilor rutiere flexibile, Constantin Romanescu,
tefan Marian Lazr --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 53
Calculul coeficientului de transfer termic al co2, la vaporizarea intr-un schimbator de
caldura cu minicanale, Daniela Maria Eremia-------------------------------------------------------- 71

Evaluarea proprietilor de mediu ale


unor betoane cu ciment i agregat
parial substituite cu nmol
anorganic din industria hrtiei

Evaluation of Environmental
Properties of Some Concretes with
Cement and Aggregate Partially
Substituted by Inorganic Sludge from
Paper Industry

Maria Gheorghe, prof.univ.dr.ing., Catedra de Chimie i Materiale de Construcie (Chemistry and Building
Materials Department) ,Universitatea Tehnic de Construcii Bucureti, maria_gh2001@yahoo.com
Nastasia Saca, asist.drd.ing., Catedra de Chimie i Materiale de Construcie Chemistry and Building Materials
Department),Universitatea Tehnic de Construcii Bucureti, nastasiasaca@gmail.com
Lidia Radu, asist.drd.chim., Catedra de Chimie i Materiale de Construcie Chemistry and Building Materials
Department), Universitatea Tehnic de Construcii Bucureti, lradu31@yahoo.com

Abstract
The paper brings experimental and theoretic data regarding the production, the technical and
leaching characteristics of some composite materials, with matrix cement, including inorganic
wastes from paper industry. In this way we have obtained concretes with aggregate and
cement partially substituted by filler/addition of the inorganic sludge (IS) provided by paper
factory and delivered by CEPROHART for UTCB. Concretes with low compressive strength
have been designed and obtained, potentially to be used for slack traffic pavements and
various non-structurals precast. The environmental properties concerning the evaluation of
dangerous species transfer from the cement matrix into the watery medium were measured
through leaching tests, in specific work conditions regarding pH, solid/liquid ratio, size of
solid particles, liquid-solid contact time in static and dynamic conditions. The leaching tests
used are:
1. Introducere

1. Introduction

Succesul gestionrii corecte a deeurilor se


bazeaz pe o abordare responsabil,
profesionist i realist focalizat pe
caracterizarea complet, valorificarea ca
materie prim secundar (MPS), n
construcii i materiale de construcii,
predictibilitatea impactului asupra mediului
a produselor de construcii cu deeuri
nglobate, i la educaie n coal.
Necesitatea micorrii cantitii de deeuri
industriale, impune o strategie clar i ferm
de reutilizare, n detrimentul obinuinei de
eliminare, n condiii, de cele mai multe ori,
cu risc crescut asupra polurii mediului.
Aciunea de valorificare este nsoit, n mod
firesc, de obiecii care se fac n contextul
riscului de poluare a solului i apei freatice.
Valorificarea local a deeurilor n industria
construciilor a devenit o prioritate
naional, determinat de factori cum sunt:

The success of a correct management of


waste is based on a responsible professional
and realistic approach focused on the
complete characterization, recovery as
secondary raw materials (SRM), in
constructions and building materials, the
impact predictibility over the environment
of the construction products with
incorporated wastes, and on the education in
school.
The necessity to reduce the quantity of
industrial wastes imposes a clear and firm
reuse strategy, instead of eliminating it, with
high risk of environment pollution. The
recovery process is naturally accompanied by
objections concerning ground water and soil
pollution. The local recovery of wastes in the
construction industry has become a national
priority, determined by factors such as:
-non-existent or insufficient elimination

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

- capaciti, la nivel local, inexistente sau


insuficiente de eliminare;
- necesitate imperioas de conservare a
resurselor naturale;
- resurse locale insuficiente de agregate,
creterea preului cimentului;
- investiii de capital pentru valorificare, mai
mici dect pentru eliminare;
- folosirea unui set comun de teste de
lixiviere care definesc i cuantific
mecanismele ce controleaz eliminarea
contaminanilor n condiii diferite de mediu,
n diferite scenarii de utilizare, de reciclare
i eliminare i, prin urmare, de facilitare a
evalurii ciclului de via.
Valorificarea deeurilor implic activiti
economice care au la baz un program de
cercetare laborios, pe termen lung, cu
monitorizarea a dou grupe de proprieti:
a) proprieti tehnice (fizico-chimice,
mecanice) impuse de parametri tehnici i
tehnologici ai domeniului de utilizare lucrri de beton, geotehnice, construcii
rutiere, care se ncadreaz cerinelor
standardelor i normelor tehnice existente;
b) proprieti de mediu (environmental
properties) care prognozeaz i evalueaz
riscul de poluare.
Riscul polurii mediului, la utilizarea
deeurilor industriale provine, n principiu,
din mprtierea/diluarea contaminanilor i
din transferul n apele de suprafa i
subterane. Definirea procesului de lixiviere
este dat de mecanismul transferului de
mas, influenat de factorii de mediu.
Trecerea substanelor poluante, n soluia
apoas din porii materialului monolit se
efectueaz preponderent prin difuzie, pe
seama gradienilor de concentraie ntre
soluia apoas din porii materialului i cea
din mediul de expunere. Difuzia este
condiionat de solubilitatea substanelor
poluante. Solubilizarea depinde de structura
chimic a substanei (de exemplu, hidroxizii
unor metale toxice sunt practic insolubili),
de
caracteristicile
soluiei
(pH-ul,
temperatura).
Utilizarea deeurilor ca MPS - substitueni
pariali ai agregatului i cimentului n beton
pentru lucrri inginereti n construcii i
materiale de constucii este o alternativ
6

local abilities;
-the urgent need to protect the natural
resources;
-insufficient local aggregate resources, the
raise in the cement price;
-capital investments for recovery , lower
than the ones for elimination;
-the use of a common set of leaching tests
which define and quantify the mechanisms
controlling the elimination of polluting
materials,
in
various
environment
conditions, in various utilization, recycling
and elimination scenarios, and therefore
making easier the evaluation of the life
cycle.
Waste recovery implies economic activities
based on a laborious research programme,
on long term, which examines two groups
of properties:
a) technical properties (physical,
chemical, mechanic) imposed by the
technical and technological parameters of
the utilization field concrete works,
geotechnical, road constructions, which
combine with the existent standards and
technical norms.
b) environmental properties which
predict and evaluate the pollution risk.
The environment pollution risk, when using
industrial wastes, comes mainly from
scattering/diluting the pollution materials
and from their transfer into the surface and
underground waters.
The definition of the leaching process is
given by the mass transfer mechanism,
influenced by environment agents. The
passing of pollution substances into the
watery solution from the solid material
pores is done mainly through diffusion,
based on the concentration gradients
between the watery solution from the
material pores and the one from the
exposure medium. The diffusion is
conditioned by the solubility of the
polluting substances. The solubility depends
on the chemical structure of the substance
(for example, the hydroxide of some toxic
materials are practically insoluble), on the
features of the solution (pH, temperature).
The use of wastes as SRM - partially
substitues of aggregate and cement in

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

viabil ecologic i atractiv economic.


Valorificarea se poate direciona ctre
lucrri de geotehnic i fundaii - drumuri,
de umplere a cavitilor subterane (mine,
tuneluri abandonate) i a celor de suprafa
(foste cariere de piatr, de minereuri sau
agregate), lucrri de recuperare a terenurilor
de depozitare a deeurilor menajere i de
realizare a depozitelor de stocare controlat
a deeurilor. n aceste lucrri sunt utilizate
cantiti mari de materiale, ceea ce face ca
acest domeniu de valorificare a nmolurilor
din industria hrtiei s fie atractiv pentru
productor. Cea mai frecvent utilizare se
refer la lucrri de geotehnic - ca strat de
acoperire la nchiderea depozitelor de
deeuri.
Materialele i lucrrile de construcii,
inclusiv cele care valorific deeuri
industriale, au utilizare conditionat de
ndeplinirea cerinei 3 - Igiena, sntatea i
mediul din Directiva 89/106, numit
Directiva Produselor pentru Construcii
DPC [1]. Pentru valorificarea deeurilor n
lucrri geotehnice sunt aplicate reglementri
de referin privind concentraiile limit
admisibile ale contaminanilor, stabilite la
nivelul rilor EU care valorific aceste
deeuri.
Pe de alt parte, utilizarea deeurilor i
subproduselor industriale ca adaosuri n
mortare i betoane poate s modifice negativ
proprietile tehnice i de mediu ale acestora
[2-9].
Obiectivele principale ale acestei lucrri se
refer la:
- evaluarea preliminar a compatibilitii
tehnice a nmolului verde (de la S.C.
AMBRO S.A.) cu liani anorganici, pentru
realizarea de materiale compozite;
- evaluarea compatibilitii cu mediul a
produselor de construcii cu materii prime
secundare din recuperarea deeurilor din
industria hrtiei n corelaie cu Directiva
Produselor pentru Construcii (89/106 EEC
Cerina 3)
- abordarea selectiv i critic a direciilor de
valorificare, innd cont de compatibilitatea
matricei
de
ciment
cu
parametri
compoziionali ai nmolului, conform BAT
(Best Available Techniques) [10].

concrete for engineering works in


constructions and building materials is an
ecologically viable and economically attractive
alternantive. The recovery can be directed
towards geotechnical works and foundations
roads, towards filling the underground cavities
(mines, abandoned tunnels) and those at the
surface (ancient quarries, ores or aggregates),
towards recovery works of storage places for
domestic wastes and obtaining deposits of
controlled waste stock. There are huge
quantities of materials in these works, so the
recovery of sludge from the paper industry is
more attractive for the producer. The most
frequent use is related to geotechnical works
as a cover layer when the waste deposits are
closed.
The materials and the construction works,
inclusively those that recover the industrial
wastes, are used only if the third demand
Hygiene, Health and the Environment from
the Directive 89/106/EEC, called the
Construction Products Directive CPD is
accomplished [1]. For waste recovery in the
geotechnical works, reference regulations
are established, concerning the admissible
limit concentrations of the contaminant
materials, established by the European
countries that recover these wastes.
On the other hand, the use of wastes and
industrial sub-products as additions in
mortars and concretes can negatively
modify their technical and ecological
properties [2-9].
The main objectives of this paper refer to:
-the preliminary evaluation of the technical
match between the green sludge (from S.C.
AMBRO S.A.) and the inorganic binders, in
order to obtain composite materials;
-the evaluation of the compatibility with the
environment for the building materials with
secondary raw materials from the waste
recovery in the paper industry in correlation
with the Construction Products Directive CPD
(89/106 EEC Demand 3);
-the selective and critical approach of the
recovery directions, taking into account the
compatibility of the cement matrix with the
composition parameters of the sludge,
according to BAT (Best Available
Techniques) [10].

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

Materialele compozite cu matrice de ciment


sunt compatibile cu deeurile anorganice
rezultate din industria celulozei i hrtiei
cenui, reziduu anorganic rezultat la
stingerea varului i nmoluri tratate termic.
Aceste deeuri, n stare granular sau
pulverulent, au rol de agregat, filer
(substituie a nisipului fin) i/sau rol de
subtituie parial sau total a cimentului,
conform tipului de aplicaie n construcii.
Coninutul de materie organic duneaz
evoluiei procesului de priz i ntrire.
Lucrarea prezent include o parte din
rezultatele experimentale obinute la
Universitatea Tehnic de Construcii
Bucureti, n cadrul activitilor de cercetare
aferente proiectului CEEX MENER cu
titlul Ecotehnologii de integrare avansat a
deeurilor industriale pentru susinerea
dezvoltrii durabile, durata de derulare
2006-2008.

The composite materials with the cement


matrix are compatible with the inorganic
wastes resulted from the cellulose and paper
industry ashes, inorganic residuum,
obtained after the slaking of lime and
thermically treated sludge. These wastes,
granular or powder, are used as aggregate,
filler, (substitution of fine sand) and/or
partial or total substitues of cement,
according to the type of application in
constructions. The organic matter content
affects the evolution of setting and
hardening.
This paper includes some of the
experimental results obtained at the
Technical University of Civil Engineering
of Bucharest, as part of the reseerch
activities of the CEEX MENER project
called Ecotechnologies of advanced
integration of industrial wastes for a durable
development, 2006-2008.

2. Materiale si metode

2. Materials and Methods

2.1 Materiale
Conform datelor CEPROHART deeurile
din industria celulozei i hrtiei sunt:
- deeuri anorganice
de la fabricarea
celulozei i cenu de la arderea deeurilor
proprii de lemn, depozitate n haldele
proprii;
-deeuri cu coninut organic de la fabricarea
hrtiei i prelucrarea maculaturii, care se
depoziteaz sub control n haldele proprii ale
unitilor productoare sau mpreun cu
deeurile municipale.
Nmol anorganic, nmolul verde+steril, NA,
conine alcalii, oxizi de siliciu i de aluminiu
provenii din antrenarea nisipului i
pmntului cu materia prim lemnoas,
impuriti de la cuptorul de var, respectiv
CaCO3, oxizi de siliciu i aluminiu din piatra
de var, dar i oxizi de fier n stare coloidal
(de culoare verde) din procesele de
coroziune ale utilajelor i conductelor.

2.1 Materials
According to the CEPROHART data,
wastes from the cellulose and paper industry
are:
- inorganic wastes from the cellulose
fabrication and ash from the burning of the
wooden wastes, stocked in their own
dumps;
- wastes having organic content from the
fabrication of paper and manufacturing of
waste sheets which are deposited under
control in the dumps of the production units
or together with town dumps.
The inorganic sludge, the green + the sterile
sludge, contains alkalis, silicate and
aluminium oxides resulted from the drawing
of sand and ground with the wooden raw
material, impurities from the hovel, CaCO3,
silicate and aluminium oxides from the
limestone respectively, but also iron oxides
in colloidal state (the colour green) from the
corrosion processes of equipment and pipes.
Physical determinations were made on the
inorganic sludge, the results being shown, in
comparison with those of the natural
materials currently used in concrete as
aggregate (sand, limestone filler or addition

Asupra nmolului anorganic s-au efectuat


determinri
fizice,
rezultatele
fiind
prezentate, comparativ cu cele ale
materialelor naturale folosite curent n beton
ca agregat, (nisip, filer de calcar sau adaos
8

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

cu activitate hidraulic - tuful vulcanic


mcinat), n tabelul 1.

with hydraulic activity - volcanic tuff) in


table1.

Tabel 1. Caracteristicile fizice ale nmolului anorganic NA, comparativ cu alte materiale utilizate ca filere
n beton/The physical characteristics of inorganic sludge comparative with other materials used as fillers
in concrete

Nr.
crt.
1
2
3
4

Material/Material

Nisip de ru splat/
Sand
Filer calcar /
Limestone filler
Tuf volcanic Perani/
Volcanic tufa
Nmol /Sludge

Particule, % , cu
D/Particles %, with D
< 0,125
< 0,25
< 0,5
mm
mm
mm
2,0

Densitatea
absolut,
absolute
density,
kg/m3

Densitate
n
grmad,
bulk
density,
kg/m3

100

Activitatea
puzzolanic/
Pozuolanic
activity
index, %
-

53,6

96,8

100

2678

1023

81

100

100

2098

780

90,5

85,4

96,8

99,8

2133

691

43,0

Informaii cu privire la compoziia


nmolului au fost obinute prin: analiz
termic complex, analiza DRX, pierdere la
calcinare, coninut de metale grele, sulfat,
Ca, Si, Al. Compoziia chimic a nmolului
este dat n tabelul 2 i se refer n special la
poluani, componenii care determin
activitatea hidraulic (SiO2 i Al2O3) precum
i la coninutul de carbonat de calciu.
Metalele grele cu o concentraie ridicat sunt
Cr, Pb i Cu. Se observ coninutul ridicat
de ioni de calciu ca efect al sterilului de
calcar coninut (calculat CaO=50,12%) de
nmolul anorganic. Concentraia alcaliilor i
anionului sulfat este ridicat, aspect care este
nefavorabil pentru durabilitatea betonului.
Se tie c sulfatul de sodiu conduce la
distrugerea prin expansiune a pastelor,
mortarelor, betoanelor.

Information about the sludge composition


was obtained through complex chemical
analysis, DRX analysis, calcination loss,
heavy metals content, sulphate, Ca, Si, and
Al. The sludge chemical composition is
given in table 2 and it refers especially to
pollution materials, components that
determine the hydraulic activity (SiO2 and
Al2O3), but also to the calcium carbonate
content. Heavy metals having a high
concentration are Cr, Pb and Cu. The high
content of calcium ions can be observed as a
result of the calcium waste obtained
(calculate CaO =50,12%) by the inorganic
sludge. The concentration of the alkalis and
of the sulphate anion is high, aspect, which
is unfavourable to concrete durability. It is
known that the sodium sulphate leads to
distruction through the expansion of the
pastes, mortars, and concretes.

Tabelul 2. Compoziia chimic a nmolului anorganic/Chemical composition of anorganic sludge


Component/
Cu
Cr
Pb
Cd
Na
K
Component
%//mg/kg
0,016//160
0,092//920
0,028//280
0,004//40
1,94
0,04
Component
Ni
Ca
Si
Al
ClSO42%//mg/kg
0,006//60
35,8
0,015//150
1,50//15000

Analiza prin difracie RX a evideniat


prezena n nmol a carbonatului de calciu, a
oxidului de aluminiu, a silicailor de calciu
precum i a unor hidroaluminai de calciu (de
ex. C4AH19). Informaii complementare au fost

The RX diffraction analysis emphasized that


sludge contains calcium carbonate, aluminium
oxides, calcium silicates and some calcium
hydroaluminates (for example C4AH19).
Complementary information was obtained by

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

obinute prin analiz termic. Nmolul


anorganic, NA, prezint pe curba DTG un
singur efect endoterm n intervalul 670-900C,
cu maxim la 881C, corespunztor
decarbonatrii carbonatului de calciu, nsoit de
o pierdere de mas de 38,28%. Pn la 670C
pierderea de mas este mic, de 3,32%,
nenregistrndu-se nici un efect endoterm
vizibil. Pierderea total, PC, n intervalul 20900C este de 41,6%, valoare datorat i arderii
materialului organic n intervalul 400-600oC.
De asemenea, s-au determinat proprietile de
mediu pentru nmolul anorganic prin metodele
FLM i TLM.
Tipul de ciment portland utilizat este CEM II
A-S 32,5R, conform SR-EN 197-1 [11].
Agregatele utilizate au avut distribuia
granulometric determinat conform SR EN
933-1: 2002 [12]: nisip de balastier splat,
densitatea n vrac de 1690 kg/m3 fracia
granular 0/4 mm; agregat de concasare fracia
granular 4/8mm.
S-au folosit aditivi superplastifiani/reductori
de ap precum i un aditiv puternic reductor
de ap i accelerator de ntrire, pe baz de eter
policarboxilic.

thermic analysis. Inorganic sludge, IS, presents


on the DTG curve just one endothermic effect
in the interval 670-900C, with the maximum
at 881C, according to the decomposition of
the calcium carbonate, accompanied by a mass
loss of 38,28%. Up to 670C the mass loss is
little, of 3,32%, without any endothermic
effect. The total loss, TL, in the interval 20900C is 41,6%, due to the burning of the
inorganic material, too, in the interval 400600oC. Also, the environment properties for the
organic sludge were measured by FLM and
TLM methods.
Portland cement used is CEM II A-S 32,5R,
according to SR-EN 197-1 [11].
The aggregates used had the granularity
determined according to SR EN 933-1: 2002
[12]: washed river sand, 1690 kg/m3 bulk
density, 0/4 mm granular fraction, crushing
aggregate 4/8mm granular fraction.
Superplasticized additives /water reducers
were used., as well as high water reducing and
hardening
accelerator
additive,
with
polycarboxylate ether.

2.2 Metode de investigare

The valuation of the environment properties


was made through the leaching maximum
fraction, LMF, (of the pulluting maximum
fraction, potentially leaching [13, 14], which
represents the maximum quantity of
contaminant material in mg/kg, which can be
leached soluble from the untreated or inert
waste. Ground materials were used (<1 mm),
which were introduced in distilled water at
proper natural pH, for the materials and in
NaOH 0,1n solution with pH=12, like the one
from the solution which is in the pores of the
Portland cement matrix. The suspension was
agitated for 24 hours, in 4 sequences. L/S
raports were used, taken in big groups: L/S=10,
the first sequence, L/S=30, the second and
L/S=100, the third. The leaching extracts were
used to measure the pH, the electric
conductivity and the concentration of heavy
metals
(through
AAS
and
ICPAES
spectrometry). The leaching test of the
monolith materials was used in order to
characterize the transfer mechanism through
solubility of the polluting materials from the

Aprecierea proprietilor de mediu s-a


realizat prin intermediul fraciei maxime
lixiviabile FML, (a fraciei maxime de
poluant, potenial lixiviabile) [13, 14],
aceasta reprezentnd cantitatea maxim de
contaminant n mg/kg, care poate fi
solubilizat din deeul netratat sau inertizat.
S-au utilizat probe mrunite (<1 mm), care
s-au introdus n ap distilat la pH-ul
propriu, natural al materialelor i n soluie
de NaOH 0,1n cu pH=12, asemntor cu cel
din soluia care se afl n porii matricei de
ciment portland. Suspensia a fost agitat 24
ore, n patru secvene. S-au utilizat rapoarte
L/S cumulate mari: L/S=10, prima secven,
L/S=30, a doua i L/S=100, a treia secven.
Extractele apoase de lixiviere au fost
utilizate pentru msurarea pH-ului, a
conductivitii electrice i a concentraiei
metalelor grele (prin spectrometrie AAS i
ICPAES).
Pentru caracterizarea mecanismului de transfer
10

2.2 Investigation Methods

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

prin solubilizare a poluanilor din blocul de


deeu solidificat, sau din beton cu adaos de
deeu mineral, la interfaa solid (deeu solidificat
sau beton)/mediu apos i predicia pe termen
lung pe baza coeficienilor de difuzie a
transferului de contaminani din materialul
monolit s-a folosit testul de lixiviere a
materialelor monolitice (TLM) [15].
Testul de lixiviere pe material monolitic este un
test dinamic. Acesta se caracterizeaz prin
rennoirea lixiviantului la durate de timp
prestabilite. Lixiviantul (apa distilat) este
introdus la un raport Lichid/Suprafa total
prob (L/Sf) de 10 cm3/cm2, raport suficient
pentru a asigura o comportare dinamic. Aceasta
nseamn c nu se atinge starea staionar, de
echilibru, nainte de rennoirea soluiei de
lixiviere. Probele de beton ntrit folosite n
determinri au vrsta mai mare dect 28 zile.

solidified waste block, or from concrete with


mineral waste addition, at the interface solid
(solidified waste or concrete)/ watery
environment and the long term prediction on
the basis of the diffusion coefficients of the
polluting materials transfer from the monolith
material [15].
The leaching test is a dynamic one. It is
characterized by the renewal of the leaching
material at regular times. The distilled water is
introduced at a Liquid / total Surface proof
ratio (L/Sf) of 10 cm3/cm2, a ratio enough to
ensure a dynamic behavior. This means that the
stationary state, of equilibrium, is not reached
before the renewal of the leaching solution.
The hardening concrete samples used in
measurements have an age bigger than 28 days.

Pentru caracterizarea materialelor s-au mai


folosit: analiza termic complex (efectuat cu
un analizor Shimadzu DTG_TA_51H), analiza
fazal, prin difracie de raze X (DRX), s-a
realizat prin metoda de difracie Bragg pe probe
pulverulente cu ajutorul unui difractometru
DRON 2,0 utiliznd radiaia caracteristic
CuK1&2.

In order to characterize the materials the


following analyses were also used: the
complex thermic analysis (done with a
Shimadzu DTG_TA_51H analyser), the phasal
analysis, through X-ray diffraction (XRD) that
was realized through the Bragg diffraction
method on pulverulent samples with the help
of a DRON 2,0 difractometer, using the
characteristic radiation CuK1&2.

3. Compoziii de mortare/betoane cu
nmol anorganic

3. Mortar/Concrete
Inorganic Sludge

Procesarea nmolului n vederea utilizrii ca


materie prim secundar de substituie a
nisipului i a cimentului, s-a efectuat prin
uscare i clasare pe fraciuni granulometrice.

The transformation of sludge in order to be


used as secondary raw matter of substitution
for sand and cement was made by drying and
classifying on granulometric fractions.

n tabelul 3 sunt prezentate compoziiile de


beton n care NA substitue parial cimentul
i/sau nisipul fin. Activitatea hidraulic a
nmolului anorganic NA, este confirmat de
solubilizarea important a silicei n soluii cu
pH bazic, 12,1- 12,5, asemntor cu cel din
porii matricei de ciment portland.

In table 3 are presented the concrete


compositions where IS partially substitutes
cement and/or fine sand. The hydraulic activity
of the inorganic sludge IS is confirmed by the
important solubility of silica in basic pH
solutions 12,1- 12,5, like the one from the
pores of the Portland cement matrix.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

Compositions

with

11

Tabel 3. Compoziii de beton cu adaos de nmol anorganic, NA i proprietile betonelor n stare


proaspt/Compositions of concrete with addition of anorganic sludge, NA and the properties of fresh
concrete
A25
A05
A22
Nmol A substituent
Nmol A
Nmol A substituent
R
a 20% ciment
substituent a
a 20% ciment
Compozii
Indicativ beton/Code of concrete
i 50% nisip 0-1
50% nisip 0a de
i 20% nisip 0-1
Compoziie/Compostion
mm/20% cement
1 mm/ 20%
referin/R mm/20% cement and
and 50% sand 0sand 0-1mm
20% sand 0-1mm
eference
1mm substituted by
substituted
substituted by sludge
sludge
by sludge
CEM IIA-S 42,5
1
0,8
0,8
1
Nmol anorganic s.u./Inorganic
0
0,35
0,58
0,35
sludge
0-1 mm
0,75
0,60
0,37
0,60
Nisip/Sand
1-2 mm
1
1
1
1
2-4 mm
1
1
1
1
Pietri/Gravel
4-8 mm
2,25
2,25
2,25
2,25
Raport Ap/Ciment/Water/cement
0,49
0,60
0,65
0,60
ratio
Aditiv
glenium
ACE30,
0,7
0,7
0,7
0,9
%/additive
Densitatea, Kg/m3/density
2196
2197
2201
Rspndirea
pe
masa
de
14
12
13
16
oc/Dispersion on the table of
shock, cm

4 . Rezultate i discuii

4. Results and Discussions

4.1 Evaluarea activitii hidraulice a NA

4.1 The Evaluation of the IS Hydraulic


Activity

Posibilitatea valorificrii nmolului NA ca


adaos de tip II - puzzolanic s-a investigat
prin compararea sa cu pulberea de sticl,
care are confirmat activitatea hidraulic
datorat silicei reactive, n stare vitroas.
Astfel, s-au preparat paste cu 25% ciment i
75% puzzolan, respectiv, sticl i nmolul
NA. Rezistenele la compresiune ale
probelor cu 25% ciment portland i 75%
nmol anorganic (A2E) i a compoziiei de
referin cu 25% ciment portland i 75%
filer din pulbere de sticl (A2) sunt date n
tabelul 4. Datele prezentate confirm
activitatea hidraulic a nmolului.
Deeul selectat pentru cercetare, nmolul
anorganic (NA), este compatibil din punct
de vedere tehnic i ecologic cu matricea de
ciment portland dac nu perturb
semnificativ dezvoltarea structurii de ntrire
i, respectiv, imobilizeaz potenialii
constitueni periculoi pentru ap i sol.

12

The possibility to recover the IS sludge as a


II type addition puzzuolanic was
investigated by comparing it with glass
powder, which has the hydraulic activity
confirmed, due to the reactive silica, in
vitreous state. In this way, there were made
25% cement and 75% pozzuolana,
respectively glass and IS sludge. The
compression strength of compositions with
25% portland cement and 75% inorganic
sludge (A2E) and of the reference
composition with 25% portland cement and
75% filler from glass powder (A2) are
given in table 4. The presented data confirm
the hydraulic activity of the sludge.
The waste choosen for reaserch, the
inorganic sludge IS, is compatible from the
technical and ecological point of view with
the Portland cement matrix if it does not
considerably modify the development of the
hardening structure and, if it doe snot
immobilize the potential constituents
dangerous for water and soil respectively.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

Tabel 4. Rezistena la compresiune (MPa) a pastelor cu nmol verde/Compressive strenghts of pastes with
green sludge
2zile/days
7 zile/days
28 zile/days
6 luni/months
Cod matrice
A2E(referin) cu puzzolana sticl
5,5
7,5
12,2
38,5
E/Reference with glass E content
A2- cu puzzolan nmol NA/A2 with
6,6
8,6
13,4
28,25
sludge

4.2 Proprietile de mediu determinate prin


testul FML

4.2 The Environment Properties Determined


Through LMF Test

Conform testului de lixiviere FML, la pH ul


propriu materialului, n sistemul ciment portlandnmol, levigarea metalelor grele, Zn Cu, Pb i
Cd din matricea de ciment portland - nmol NA,
este nesemnificativ. Concentraiile eluatelor
dup fiecare din cele patru secvene ale testului
FML, sunt sub limita de detecie, de 0,02 mg/L.
Probele din beton A25, cu cel mai mare coninut
de nmol anorganic, au fost investigate asupra
capacitii de trimitere n soluie apoas a
speciilor chimice poluante - metale grele i ioni
sulfat. Concentraiile acestora n soluiile de
lixiviere sunt date n tabelul 5.
n figurile 1, 2 este prezentat variaia
concentaiei Si i Al n soluiile de lixiviere cu
pH neutru i pH bazic.

According to the LMF leaching test, at a pH


specific to the material, in the Portland
cement-sludge system, the leaching of heavy
metals, Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd from the Portland
cement-sludge matrix is of little importance.
The eluate concentrations after each of the
four sequences of the LMF test are under the
detection limit of 0,02 mg/L. The samples
from the A25 concrete with the biggest
content of inorganic sludge were investigated
on their capacity of dispatching in watery
solution the polluting chemical species
heavy metals and sulphate ions. Their
concentrations in the leaching solutions are
given in table 5.

Tabel 5. Proprieti de lixiviere ale nmolului anorganic NA, determinate prin metoda FML, la pH propriu,
n ap distilat i la pH = 12 n soluie de NaOH 0,1n/Leaching properties of inorganic sludge NA, obtained
by FMM method, at specific pH and at pH=12 in 0,1 n NaOH solution

Concentraia/Concentration, mg/L
L/S

Al

Cd

Ca

Mg

Cu

Ni

Pb
0,0
12

Si

<0,05

Datele experimentale prezentate n tabelul 5 i


figurile 1 i 2 conduc la urmtoarele afirmaii:
concentraia speciilor chimice n
extractele de lixiviere este semnificativ
influenat de pH;
concentraia Ni, Pb i Zn este sub limita
de detecie;
concentraia Cd i Cu scade n condiii
de pH bazic, ceea ce denot influena

<0,001

10
0,69
0,07
35
1,82
0,12
25,31
30
0,63
0,019
37
1,6
<0,001
7,98
100
0,28
0,003
37
0,73
0,008
4,33
10
12,37 0,005
48
0,43
0,19
100,3
AB
30
4,65
0,015
11
0,5
0,084
43,76
15,51
100
2,14
0,001 5,7
0,22
0,011
A-deeu AMBRO lixiviere ap distilat/A waste form AMBRO leaching in distillate water
AB-deeu AMBRO lixiviere n soluie de NaOH 0,1n/ waste form AMBRO leaching in NaOH solution
A

Zn

<0,05

Indicativ

The experimental data presented in table 5


and figures 1 and 2 lead to the following
statements:
- the concentration of the chemical species in
the leaching extracts is significantly
influenced by pH;
- the Ni, Pb and Zn concentration is under the
detection limit;
- the Cd and Cu concentration drops in bazic

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

13

Na

180
2
2,3
22
7,1
3,3

60
20
62
2670
2250
2200

favorabil a matricei de ciment asupra


imobilizrii acestor metale toxice din nmolul
verde.

pH conditions, which shows the favourable


influence of the cement matrix on the
immobilization of these toxic metals from the
green sludge.

sistem NA-apa distilata (pH=8,79-9,22)

sistem NA-apa distilata (pH=8,79-9,22)


sistem NA-solutie NaOH 0,1n (pH=12-12,42)
14

120

Concentraia Al, , mg/L

Concentratia Si, mg/L

sistem NA-solutie NaOH 0,1n (pH=12-12,42)


100
80
60
40
20
0

12
10
8
6
4
2
0

10

50

100

10

50

100

Raportul L/S

Raport L/S

Fig. 2. Solubilizarea Al n funcie de pH-ul soluiei de


lixiviere i raportul L/S/ The solubilization of Al
depending by pH of leaching solution and L/S ratio,
too.

Se constat c Si i Al au concentraii mult


mai mari n soluia de lixiviere cu pH = 12,
asemntor cu cel al soluiei din porii matricei
de ciment. Solubilizarea Si i Al este o
premis favorabil a participrii la reacii de
precipitare a compuilor hidrosilicatici C-S-H
i hidroaluminatici, care definesc structura de
ntrire a pastelor de ciment. Valorile pH-ului
precum i ale conductivitii electrice ale
extractelor de lixiviere sunt redate grafic n
figura 3 i 4.

It is recorded that Si and Al have much bigger


concentrations in the leaching solution with pH
= 12, like the one of the solution from the pores
of the cement matrix. The Si and Al solubility is
a favourable premise of the participation at the
precipitation reactions of the C-S-H silicate
hydrates and hydroaluminates, which define the
hardening structure of cement pastes. The pH
values and those of the electrical conductivity of
the leaching extracts are presented in figures 3
and 4.

14
12

pH

10
8

AB

4
2
0
10

50

100

Conductivitate electrica (mS/cm)

Fig. 1. Solubilizarea Si n funcie de pH-ul soluiei de


lixiviere i raportul L/S/The solubilization of Si
depending by pH of leaching solution and L/S ratio,
too.

22000
20000
18000
16000
14000
12000
10000
8000
6000
4000
2000
0

A
AB

10

Raport L/S

50
Raport L/S

Fig. 3. Valori ale pH-ului extractelor de lixiviere


utiliznd testul FML/Values of pH of leaching filtrate
using FMM method.

Fig. 4. Valori ale conductivitii electrice a extractelor


de lixiviere utiliznd testul FML/Values of electrical
conductivity of leaching filtrate using FMM method
.

14

100

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

4.2. Proprietile de mediu determinate


prin testul pe probe monolitice (TLM)

4.2 The
Environmental
Properties
Determined by the Diffusion Test on
Moulded Samples

Testul TLM caracterizeaz comportarea unui


material n stare de bloc monolit n decursul
timpului. Proba de o geometrie regulat s-a
aflat n contact cu o soluie de lixiviere.
Ritmul de rennoire a soluiei este impus de
timpii de contact epruvet/soluie, care sunt,
succesiv: 6 h, 24 h, 54 h, 4 zile, 16 zile, 36
zile, 64 zile. Soluia de lixiviere (eluatul sau
extractul apos) este recuperat dup filtrarea
pe filtru membran de 0,45m i folosit
pentru determinarea concentraiei speciilor
chimice poluante dar i pentru msurtori de
pH i conductivitate electric.
Concentraia unor specii chimice, exprimat
n mg/m2 este dat n tabelul 6.

The TLM test characterizes the conduct of a


monolith (moulded) material in time. The
sample, having a regular geometry, was in
contact with a leaching solution. The renewal
rhythm is imposed by the test tubes /solution
contact timings, which are, successively: 6 h,
24 h, 54 h, 4 days, 16 days, 36 days, 64 days.
The leaching solution (the eluate or the
watery extract) is recovered after the filtration
on the membrane filter of 0,45m and used to
determine the concentrations of the polluting
chemical species, but also to measure the pH
and the electrical conductivity. The
concentrations of some chemical species,
mg/m2, are given in table 6.

655

Cr

Ca
3,7
42
49
150
60
7,4
10
322,1

5240
0

Valorile prezentate n tabelul 6, arat c mai


semnificative sunt concentraiile de sodiu i
sulfat. Concentraia relativ sczut de ion sulfat
solubil (din sulfatul de sodiu) poate fi
considerat efect al fixrii pariale a acestuia n
precipitatul
voluminos
etringitul,
3CaOAl2O33CaSO432H2O care produce
procese de expansiune a betonului A25,
conform unor reacii de tipul:
Ca(OH)2 + Na2SO4 +2H2O CaSO42H2O +
2NaOH
(1)
4CaOAl2O3 13H2O +3(CaSO42H2O) +
14H2O

(2)
3CaOAl2O33CaSO432H2O+Ca(OH)2

mg/L
Cu

Cl-

< 0,5

NH4 +

< 0,1

Pb

< 100

A25 6 ore/hours
A25 24 ore/ hours
A25 54 ore/ hours
A25 4 zile/days
A 25 16 zile/ days
A25 36 zile/ days
A 25 62 zile/ days
Concentraii
cumulate/Cumulative
concentration, ml/L
Concentraii cumulate/
Cumulative
concentration, mg/m2

Na
21
88
84
100
240
110
12

< 0,1

Proba/Sample

< 0,1

Tabel 6. Concentraiile de lixiviere pentru fiecare secven i cumulate, proba A25, MLT/Concentration
for each sequence and cumulative values, A25 sample

Si
2,6
2,6
2,4
2,6
4,5
5,2
8

2480
310
< 100
< 100

SO4 211,6
7,5
9,4
9,4
8,3
8,1
11

2790

65,3

239200

5224

NO3-

Al
0,4
0,4
0,5
0,5
1
0,8
1,1

27,
9

The values presented in table 6 show that


the sodium and sulphate concentrations are
more important. The relatively low
concentration of soluble sulphate ion (from
the sodium sulphate) can be considered an
effect of its partial fixation in the
voluminous
precipitate

ettringite,
which
3CaOAl2O33CaSO432H2O
produces expansion processes of A25
concrete, corresponding to some reactions
such as:
Ca(OH)2 + Na2SO4 +2H2O CaSO42H2O
+ 2NaOH
(1)
4CaOAl2O3 13H2O +3(CaSO42H2O) +

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

15

Ghipsul format prin reacia (1) este deja


expansiv, dar mai mult, poate reaciona dup
cum este artat n (2), cu aluminaii de calciu cu
formare de etringit, cristalohidrat voluminos, ce
produce eforturi mari de expansiune.
Hidroxidul de calciu format prin aceast reacie
particip n continuare la reacia de formare a
ghipsului, acesta participnd n continuare la
reacii al cror produs este etringitul. Ca
urmare, procesul de coroziune continu.
Aadar, formarea etringitului prin reacii ntre
sulfatul de sodiu coninut de NA i componenii
matricei de ciment, poate fi una dintre cauzele
majore ale expansiunii sulfatice care provoac
tensiuni interne i fisurarea matricei de beton.
Valorile de pH i conductivitate electric ale
soluiilor de lixiviere sunt fluctuante, dar scad
n timp, ca urmare a micorrii concentraiei
soluiei dup fiecare secven (cnd se
colecteaz eluatul i se rennoiete apa de
imersare), dup cum reiese din figura 5.
Transportul apei/soluiilor apoase, n i din
porii deschii ai betonului este factorul
distructiv decisiv prin nghe-dezghe i prin
coroziune.

12.0
11.8
11.6
11.4
11.2
11.0
10.8
10.6
10.4
10.2
10.0
9.8
6 ore

24 ore

Conductivitate electric (S/cm

54 ore

4 zile

16 zile

36 zile

1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
64 zile

Conductivitate
electric (S/cm)

pH

pH

14H2O

3CaOAl2O33CaSO432H2O+Ca(OH)2
(2)
The gypsum formed through reaction (1) is
already expansive, but moreover, it can
react as shown in (2), with the calcium
aluminate hydrates forming ettringite,
which is a voluminous crystal hydrate,
which produces great expansion efforts. The
calcium hydroxide formed through this
reaction continues to take part in the
formation of gypsum, this one also
continuing to participate to reactions whose
product is the ettringite. As a result, the
corrosion process continues.
So, the formation of etringitte through the
reactions between sodium sulphate from the
IS and the components of the cement matrix
can be one of the major causes of the
sulphatic expansion which has as
consequences internal tensions and the
cracking of the cement matrix.
The pH values and the electric conductivity
of the leaching solutions are fluctuant, but
they drop in time, as a result of the
reduction of the solution concentration after
each sequence (when the eluate is collected
and the immersion water is renewed), as
shown in figure 5.

Termen de msurare

Fig. 5. Variatia pH-ului i a conductivitii electrice a soluiei de lixiviere prin testul monolitic/difuzional, pentru
probele de beton A25/The evolution of pH of the leaching solution by TLM test, of A25 concrete.

Prin urmare, porozitatea i absorbia apei


constituie premize importante de apreciere a
comportrii fa de ap a materialelor poroase.
Evoluia n timp a absorbiei apei i a
16

The transport of water/watery solutions in


and from the open pores of the concrete is
the decisive destructive factor through
frost-defrost and corrosion. Consequently,
porosity and water absorption represent
important premises to appreciate the porous

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

porozitii probei A25, care prezint valori mari


ale expansiunii, este prezentat n figura 6.
Se constat c absorbia apei are o tendin
cresctoare avnd valori de pn la 5% n timp
ce porozitatea deschis are valori de pn la 8
% dup 100 zile de imersie n ap.

materials behavior towards water.


The evolution in time of water absorption
and the porosity of the A25 sample, which
presents high values of expansion, is shown
in figure 6. It is observed that water
absorption has an increasing tendency
having values up to 5% while the open
porosity has values up to 8 % after 10 days
of immersion into water.

Abs (% vol)

Porozitate (% vol)

% volum

7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0

6h

24h

54 h

4
zile

9
zile

16
zile

36
zile

64
zile

100
zile

Perioada de masurare

Fig. 6. Porozitatea i absorbia apei determinate pe o perioad de imersare n ap de 100 de zile, proba
A25/The porosity and water absorption obtained on a period of 100 days of afloat, sample A25.

Creterea absorbiei apei n proba A25,


meninut n ap pn la 100 de zile, se
coreleaz cu creterea expansiunii (ce produce
tensiuni interne i fisurarea matricei).

The increase of water absorption in A25


sample, kept in water up to 100 days, is
correlated with the expansion increase
(which produces internal tensions and the
cracking of the matrix).

Concluzii

Conclusions

Prin testul FML s-a constatat c, n


extractele de lixiviere, valorile concentraiei
speciilor chimice au fost semnificativ
influenate de pH, iar concentraia metalelor
grele avut valori sub 0,1mg/L;
n extractele de lixiviere, obinute prin
TLM, concentraia relativ sczut de ion sulfat
solubil (din sulfatul de sodiu) poate fi efectul
fixrii pariale a acestuia n etringit,
3CaOAl2O3 3CaSO432H2O, care produce
expansiunea betonului A25;
Absorbia apei a avut o tendin
cresctoare pn la 5%, n timp ce porozitatea
deschis a crescut pn la 8 % dup 100 zile de
imersie n ap;
Tratamentul prin splare al nmolului,
pentru eliminarea sulfatului de sodiu, ar fi
benefic
pentru
valorificarea
nmolului
anorganic ca adaos cu funcie de puzzolan
(Tip II) n beton.

TheLMF test revealed that in the


leaching extracts the concentration values
of the chemical species were considerably
influenced by pH, and the concentration of
heavy metals had values under 0,1mg/L;
In the leaching extracts, obtained
through
MLT,
the
relative
low
concentration of soluble suphalte ion (from
the sodium sulphate) can be the effect of its
partial
fixation
in
ettringite,
which
3CaOAl2O33CaSO432H2O,
produces the expansion of A25 concrete;
The absorption of water had a
growing tendency up to 5%, while the open
porosity increase to 8 % after 100 days of
immersion into water;
The washing out treatment of the
sludge in order to eliminate the sodium
sulphate would be profitable for the recovery

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

17

Matricea de ciment a avut rol decisiv n


imobilizarea metalelor grele;
n consecin, betoanele si mortarele cu
adaos de nmol anorganic substituent a 20%
ciment i 50% nisip 0-1 mm, conform
ncercarilor de laborator, au un potenial sever
diminuat de poluare a mediului, comparabil cu
cel al betonului cu materii prime tradiionale.

of the inorganic sludge as an addition with


puzzuolanic properties (II Type) in concrete;
The concrete matrix had a decisive role
in the immobilization of heavy metals;
Consequently, concretes and mortars
with inorganic sludge addition substitution of
20% cement and 50% sand 0-1 mm,
according to the lab tests, have a reduced
potential of environment pollution, in
comparison with that of concrete with
traditional components.

References
Bibliografie
[1].

Directiva 89/106/EEC Produse pentru construcii.

[2].

TEOREANU I., MOLDOVAN V., NICOLESCU L. - Durability of concrete, (in Romanian) Editura Tehnic,
Bucureti, 1982.

[3].

NEVILLE A.M. - Properties of Concrete (in Romanian), Ed. Tehnic, Bucureti, 2002, p. 322-327.

[4].

IDORN G.M. - Expansive Mechanisms of Concrete, Cement and Concrete Research, 1992, 22 (6), 1039-1046.

[5].

MOLDOVAN V. - Admixtures in concretes (in Romanian) . Editura Tehnica, Bucharest, 1978.

[6].

BALASUBRAMANIAN J., SABUMON P.C., LAZAR JOHN U., ILANGOVAN R. - Reuse of textile effluent
treatment plant sludge in building materials, Waste Management, 2006, 26(1) , 22-28 .

[7].

VEGAS I., URRETA J., FRIAS M., RODRIGUEZ O., GARCIA R., VIGIL R. - Scientific and Technical Aspects
on the Use of Thermally-Treated Paper Sludge in Cement, Proceedings of WASCON, Montenegro, 2006.

[8].

GHEORGHE M., PANAIT N., RADU L. - Some consideration regarding Cr and Mo immobilization in
hydraulic matrix, Romanian Journal of Materials, 2003, 33(1), 59-70.

[9].

GHEORGHE M., PANAIT N., RADU L. - Some consideration regarding Cr and Mo immobilization in
hydraulic matrix, 1st International Conference on Engineering for Waste Treatment, Albi, Frana 2005.

[10].

IPPC document on BAT in the Pulp and Paper Industry - Waste minimization in the pulp and paper industry EU
Directive 96/61/EC, Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC), Reference Document on Best Available
Techniques (BAT) in the Pulp and Paper Industry, December 2001.

[11].

SR EN 197-1:1995, Cements: Definition, Composition, Specification and Conformity Criteria: Part 1: Usual
cements (in Romanian).

[12].

SR EN 933-1: 2002 ncercri pentru determinarea caracteristicilor geometrice ale agregatelor: Partea 1:
Determinarea granulozitii-Analiza granulometric prin cernere.

[13].

NEN 7341, Determinations of Availability for leaching From Granular and Monolithic Construction Materials
and Waste Materials, 1994.

[14].

CEN TC 292 WG 6 - New modeling developments to guide the development of a dynamic leaching test for
monolhitic materials, Published by Hans van der Sloot and Hans Meeussen).

[15].

NEN 7345, Determination of the release of inorganic constituents from construction materials and stabilised
waste products, NNI, Delft, Netherlands Formerly Draft NEN 5432, 1993.

18

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

Studiul cinematic al micrii plane a


solidului rigid avnd gradul de
mobilitate egal cu 1

Kinematic study on the planar motion


of a rigid body having one mobility
degree

Mihail Alexandrescu, prof. dr. ing., Universitatea Tehnic de Construcii Bucureti (Technical University Civil
Engineering Bucharest), Catedra de Mecanic, Statica i Dinamica Construciilor (Mechanics, Statics and
Dynamics Engineering Department)
Mina-Denisa Fono, asist. drd. ing., Universitatea Tehnic de Construcii Bucureti (Technical University Civil
Engineering Bucharest), Catedra de Mecanic, Statica i Dinamica Construciilor (Mechanics, Statics and
Dynamics Engineering Department)
Emil Alexandrescu, ing. absolvent Institutul de Construcii Bucureti (eng. graduated Institute Civil Engineeering
Bucharest)

1.Obiectul studiului
Folosind un reper de calcul Oxyz , solidar cu
solidul rigid aflat n micare plan cu gradul de
mobilitate NGL = 1 (fig. 1) , vor fi studiate:

1.Purpose of the study


By using a calculus mark Oxyz , solid with a
rigid body in planar motion of a 1 mobility
degree, NGL = 1 (fig. 1), we shall study:

traiectoriile punctelor constitutive ale solidului rigid n raport cu un reper fix, O x y z ;

the trajectories of that rigid body's steady


points, relative to a fixed mark, O x y z ;

traiectoriile punctelor reperului fix O x y z


1 1 1 1
n raport cu un reper mobil Oxyz , solidar cu

that O x y z fixed mark points' trajectories


1 1 1 1
relative to a mobile mark Oxyz , which is solid

solidul rigid.

with the rigid body.

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

O1 A = x1O
A O = y1O
O1 B = x1i
OD = xi
BQi = y1i
DQi = yi

Fig. 1 Planul fix i planul mobil , solidar cu solidul rigid


The fixed plane and the mobile plane , solid with the rigid body

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

19

2.Traiectoriile
punctelor
constitutive
ale solidului rigid aflat n micare
plan, cu gradul de mobilitate egal cu
1, NGL = 1 , n raport cu un reper fix,

2.The trajectories of a rigid body's


constitutive points engaged in a planar
motion,having the mobility degree equal with
1, NGL = 1 , relative to an immobile mark

O1 x 1 y 1 z 1

O1 x 1 y 1 z 1

Urmrind figura 1, rezult expresiile coordonatelor punctului Qi n raport cu reperul fix

Q
According to figure 1, the point i
coordinates results , relative to the immobile

O1 x1 y1 z1 :

mark O1 x1 y1 z1 :

x1i = x1O + xi cos yi sin ; y1i = y1O + xi sin + yi cos


(1)
n care coordonatele dublu indexate se raporin which the double indexed coordinates are
teaz la reperul fix, iar cele simplu indexate la relative to the immobile mark, while the simple
reperul mobil. Din motive de oportunitate
indexed ones to the mobile mark. For
notm:
simplicity we note:

x1i = xi* , y1i = yi*

x1O = xO* , y1O = yO*

cu care relaiile (1) devin:

(2)

according to which, the relations (1) become:

(3)
x = x + xi cos y i sin ; y i* = y O* + xi sin + y i cos
Forma definitiv a relaiilor (3), pe care o vom
The final form of the equations (3) which we
will deduce and utilize in this article is the result
utiliza n acest studiu, rezult exploatnd
urmtoarele observaii:
of the following observations:
*
i

*
O

relaiile (3) definesc, pentru fiecare i fixat,


poziia unui punct mobil Qi n raport cu repe-rul

the equations (3) define,for each fixed i ,the


position of one mobile point Qi relative to the

fix; acest punct se mic fa de ambele plane


suprapuse O1 x1 y1 i Oxy (fig. 1);

fixed mark; this point moves in heteronymous


planes O1 x1 y1 and Oxy (fig.1);

*
*
xi i yi din relaiile (3) definesc micarea
absolut a punctului Qi , n raport cu sistemul de

referin fix O1 x1 y1 z1 , n funcie de cei trei


y
parametrii xi , i i .
Pentru a adapta relaiile (3) la micarea plan,
observm c Qi aparine solidului rigid, solidar
cu reperul mobil, deci are o poziie invariabil
n raport cu acesta din urm (nu exist micare
relativ n acest caz). Se noteaz:
xi = a i ,

y i = bi

unde ai i bi sunt constante care definesc


Q
poziia punctului i al solidului rigid n raport
cu reperul solidar, Oxyz .
Prin urmare relaiile (3) se sriu sub urmtoarea
form final:
20

xi* and yi* from the equations (3) define the

absolute motion of the point Qi relative to the


fixed reference system O1 x1 y1 z1 ,according to

x y
the parameters i , i and . For a better
adequation of the equations (3) to the planar
motion we notice that the point Qi is part of that
rigid which is solid with the mobile reference
so it has an invariable position relative to that
(there is no relative motion in this case).It is
noted:
(4)
(i = 1,2,... , )
where ai and bi are constants which define the

Q
position of the point i of the rigid body with
reference to the solidary mark, Oxyz .
Therefore the equations (3) are written as
follows:

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

(5)
(i = 1,2,... ,)
xi* = xO* + ai cos bi sin ; yi* = yO* + ai sin + bi cos
known from the treatises on heoretical
cunoscut din tratatele de mecanic teoretic ; mechanics ; they express parametrically the
ea exprim parametric traiectoriile fiecrui
( )
trajectories of each point Qi ai , bi of the rigid
(
)
Q
a
,
b
i
i
i
punct
al solidului rigid , n manier
body , in a discrete manner , relative to the
discretizat , fa de reperul fix. Vom denumi
immobile reference point.This shall be called
acest model lagrangean.
a lagrangean model.
Observm c , n fiecare clip , respectiv
Q
pentru fiecare (t ) punctul material i , solidar
cu solidul rigid i cu planul Oxy , se
suprapune peste un punct fix, plasat n planul
O1 x1 y1 , pe care-l vom nota cu L*1 , avnd
aceleai coordonate n raport cu reperul fix:

(Q , L )(x , y )
i

*
i

*
i

*
i

Astfel rezult c traiectoria punctului Qi n


raport cu reperul fix este reprezentat de
*
succesiunea spaio-temporal de puncte fixe L1
definite conform relaiilor (5) i (6).
n fine, vom formula un model lagrangean
complet discret, selectnd un numr arbitrar
m de puncte materiale Qi care aparin
solidului rigid i nregistrnd perechile (6) n
momentele t1 , t2 ,... , t j ,... , tn , alese n mod
arbitrar. Relaiile (6) se scriu n acest caz sub
forma:

(Q , L )(x , y )
ij

*
ij

*
ij

*
ij

We notice that in every

moment for
(t ) the material point Qi , solid with
each
the rigid body and with the plane , overlaps a
fixed point placed in the plane O1 x1 y1 , noted
*

with L1 , having the same coordinates


reference to the fixed mark:

with

(i = 1,2,... ,)

(6)

Thus it results that the trajectories of the point


Qi with reference to the fixed mark are
represented by the succession space-time of
*
fixed points L1 defined by relations (5) and
(6).Finally we will define a complete discrete
lagrangean model by taking an arbitrary
Q
number m of material points i belonging to
the rigid body and noticing the pairs (6) in the
arbitrarily chosen moments t1 , t2 ,... , t j ,... , tn .
The relations (6) are written in this case as
follows:

(i = 1,2,... ,m); ( j = 1,2,... ,n )

iar traiectoriile discretizate ale perechilor de


puncte materiale (7) se vor exprima introducnd (7) n (5):

and the discreted trajectories of the material


points pairs (7) will be expressed by substituting
(7) into (5):

*
*
xij* = xOj
+ ai cos j b i sin j ; yij* = yOj
+ ai sin j +b i cos j ;

Distribuiile complet discretizate de viteze i


acceleraii pe solidul rigid rezult din relaiile
(8) prin derivarea lor n raport cu timpul, ca
variante ale celor dou formule fundamentale
ale cinematicii solidului rigid.

(7)

(i = 1,2,... , m); ( j = 1,2,... , n)

(8)

The complete discrete speed and acceleration


distribution on the rigid body result from (8) by
derivation relative to time as an alternate option
to the two fundamental formulas for the
kinematic of the rigid body.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

21

NGL = 1

3.Trajectories of the points belonging to the


fixed reference point O1 x1 y1 z1 relative to a
mark which is solid with the rigid body
having a plane motion NGL = 1

Coordonatele punctului Qi al solidului rigid, n


raport cu reperul mobil Oxyz solidar cu rigidul,
rezult fie dintr-o analiz a figurii 1, fie
rezolvnd sistemul (1) n raport cu necunoscutele xi i yi :

The coordinates of the point Qi of the rigid


body with reference to the mobile mark Oxyz ,
solid with the body, result the from the analysis
of figure 1 or by solving the system of equations
(1) related to xi and yi :

3.Traiectoriile punctelor reperului fix,


O1 x1 y1 z1 , n raport cu un reper solidar cu
rigidul care efectueaz o micare plan cu

xi = xO1 + x1i cos + y1i sin ; yi = yO1 x1i sin + y1i cos

( x ) ( y )

(9)

( xO1 ) and yO1 are the coordinates


in which
of the fixed reference origin related to the
mobile mark. With the notations (2), the
equations (9) become:

O1
O1
n care
i
sunt coordonatele
originii reperului fix n raport cu reperul mobil.
Cu notaiile (2), relaiile (9) devin:

(10)

xi = xO1 + x*i cos + yi* sin ; yi = yO1 xi* sin + y*i cos
n continuare reformulm relaiile (10) n mod
analog celui adoptat pentru relaiile (3) care au
devenit (8). Pentru a realiza aceasta vom
*
y*
considera c n (10) coordonatele xi , i ,
msurate n raport cu reperul fix, desemneaz
*
un numr m de puncte fixe Qi aparinnd

In the following we shall reformulate the


equations (10) as for the equations (3) which
became (8). For this purpose it is considered
*
x*
that in (10) the coordinates i and yi measured

planului fix i astfel rezult:

plane and thus the result


xi* = a i* ,

with reference to the immobile mark points a


*
number m of fixed points Qi of the immobile

(i = 1,2,... , m)

y i* = bi*

iar xi i yi din (10) vor reprezenta coordonatele


Q*
punctelor fixe i , n raport cu reperul mobil,
deci poziiile acestor puncte fixe, nregistrate de
un observator plasat n reperul mobil. ns,
observatorul respectiv va identifica punctele
*
fixe Qi cu perechile lor mobile, solidare cu
propriul su reper, Oxyz , peste care se suprapun
n fiecare clip i pe care le notm cu Ei:

(Q , E )(x , y )
*
i

i respectiv

(11)

while xi and y i in (10) will be the coordinates


Q*
of fixed points i related to the mobile mark;
the position of those fixed points is recorded by
an observer placed in the mobile mark. But the
*
observer will identify the fixed points Qi
with their mobile pairs, solid with its own mark,
Oxyz , overlapped each moment and noted with
Ei :

(i = 1,2,... m)

(12)

and respectively:

(Q , E )(x , y )
*
ij

ij

ij

ij

Acum putem scrie direct forma complet


discretizat a relaiilor (10)

22

is:

(i = 1,2,... ,m); ( j = 1,2,... ,n)

(13)

Now we ca write the complete discretized form


of the equations (10)

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

xij = xO1 j + ai* cos j + bi* sin j ;

(14)

yij = yO1 j ai* sin j + bi* cos j ;


(i = 1,2,... , m); ( j = 1,2,... , n)

Relaiile (14) sunt ecuaiile parametrice complet


*
discretizate ale traiectoriilor punctelor fixe Qi ,
nregistrate fa de reperul mobil, prin imaginile
E
lor ij , conform (13). Deoarece acest model se
apropie de cel folosit n mecanica fluidelor, l
vom denumi eulerian.

The equations (14) are the completely


discretized parametric equations of the
*
trajectories of fixed points Qi noted with
reference to the mobile mark through their
E
images ij , according to (13). This model
being so close to the one used in fluid
mechanics we shall call it eulerian.

4.O reprezentare compact a modelelor


lagrangean i eulerian

4.A compact representation of lagran-gean


and eulerian models

innd seama de cele de mai sus, putem realiza


dou reprezentri compacte ale micrii plane a
solidului rigid, complet discretizate, conform
modelelor lagrangean (8) i eulerian (14).

Considering the above written data, we could


write two compact representations of the plane
motion of the rigid body completely discretized
according to the lagrangean (8) and eulerian
(14) models.

n acest scop vom construi dou tablouri pe care


le vom denumi:
pseudomatricea [L*] de tip lagrangean,
raportat la reperul fix;
pseudomatricea [E] de tip eulerian, raportat la
reperul mobil.
4.1.Construcia pseudomatricii [L*]
n spiritul modelului lagrangean se
consider date sau alese n mod arbitrar
urmtoarele:
reperul fix , O1 x1 y1 z1 i cel solidar cu
rigidul , Oxyz, rotit fa de primul cu unghiul
j = (t j )
;
( )
punctele mobile Qi ai , bi unde i = 1,2 ,... ,m ;

a
b
coordonatele fixe i i i sunt raportate la
reperul solidar Oxyz , iar " m" se alege n
funcie de specificul aplicaiei concrete care
se rezolv, astfel nct solidul rigid cruia i
aparine
s fie
reprezentat
n
mod
satisfctor;
t
momentele j , unde j = 1,2 ,... ,n n care se
nregistreaz micarea plan a solidului rigid,
sau unghiurile

corespunztoare; n virtutea

For this purpose we shall build 2 tables called:


pseudomatrix [L*] of lagrangean type related
to the fixed mark;
pseudomatrix [E] eulerian type related to the
mobile mark.
4.1.The pseudomatrix [L*] construction
According to the lagrangean model the
following are thought as being given or chosen
arbitrarily:
the immobile mark O1 x1 y1 z1 and the one being
solid with the rigid body, Oxyz, rotated from the
= (t j )
;
first with an angle j
Q
i (ai , bi ) , where
the
mobile
points
i = 1,2 ,... ,m ; the immobile coordinates ai and
bi are relative to the solidary mark Oxyz , and
" m" is chosen by the concrete application being
solved, so that the rigid body it belongs to will
be represented satisfactorily;
t
the moments j , where j = 1,2 ,... ,n in which
the rigid body's plane motion is recorded or the

respective angles

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

; according to hypothesis
23


ipotezei NGL = 1 , unghiurile j pot fi alese ca
t
argumente n locul momentelor j , fr a fi
necesar cunoaterea structurii analitice a
funciei (t ) .

NGL = 1 the angles j could be chosen as


t
arguments instead of the moments j , without
the necessity of knowing the analytical structure
of the function (t ) .

Numrul de momente j , respectiv de valori j


este n , ales suficient de mare, astfel nct
traiectoria discretizat a fiecrui punct Qi s

The number of moments j , and of values j


respectively is n , chosen as large enough, so
that the discretized trajectory of each point Qi

reprezinte ct mai fidel traiectoria real. Astfel,


*
(Q , L* )
elementul ij ij al pseudomatricii L este

represents the real trajectory with as much


fidelity as possible. This way the element
(Qij , L*ij ) of the pseudomatrix L* is the material

[ ]

[ ]

L
perechea de puncte materiale Qi i i
t
suprapuse n momentul j , reprezentat prin

L*

pair of points Qi and i overlapping in the


t
moment j , represented by the common

(x , y )
*

(x , y ) measured relative to the


coordinates

coordonatele comune ij ij msurate n


raport cu reperul fix, conform relaiilor (7) i
(8). Expresia matematic a pseudomatricii [L*]
este:

(
(

)(
)(

)
)

)(

Q11 , L*11 x11* , y11* ...

*
*
*
Q21 , L21 x 21 , y 21 ...

......
L* =
*
*
*
Qi1 , Li1 xi1 , y i1 ...

......

*
*
*
Qm1 , Lm1 x m1 , y m1 ...

[ ]

)(

(
(

*
ij

*
ij

fixed mark - see relations (7) and (8). The


mathematical expression of the pseudomatrix
[L*] is:

)(
)(

)
)

(
(

)(
)(

)
)

)(

... Q1 j , L*1 j x1*j , y1*j ...


... Q1n , L*1n x1*n , y1*n
... Q2 j , L*2 j x 2* j , y 2* j ... ... Q2 n , L*2 n x 2*n , y 2*n
......
......
*
*
*
... Qij , Lij xij , y ij ...
... Qin , L*in xin* , y in*
......
......
*
*
*
*
*
*
... Qmj , Lmj x mj , y mj ... ... Qmn , Lmn x mn
, y mn

)(

)(

)(

(15)

n pseudomatricea [L*]:

In the pseudomatrix [L*]:

linia

reprezint traiectoria punctului


material mobil Qi , care aparine solidului rigid,
nregistrat n raport cu reperul fix O1 x1 y1 z1 ,

line i is the trajectory of the mobile material


point Qi , which belongs to the rigid body
relative to the immobile mark O1 x1 y1 z1 ,

t
discretizat n momentele t1 , t2 ,... , j ,... , tn n
Qij
i nregistrat de observatorul
punctele
plasat n reperul fix, prin succesiunea spaio-

t
discretized in the moments t1 , t2 ,... , j ,... , tn in
Q
the points ij and recorded as noted by the
observer in the immobile mark by the space

L*

temporal de perechi fixe, ij , ale punctelor


Q
mobile ij ;
coloana j reprezint
configuraia
static a tuturor punctelor materiale mobile
alese Qi , (i = 1,2 ,... ,m ) , care aparin solidului
rigid, n raport cu reperul fix i nregistrat de
24

L*

time sequence of fixed pairs ij of the mobile


Q
points ij ;
column j is the static configuration of
all material mobile points chosen Qi ,

(i = 1,2 ,... ,m ) ,the

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

rigid body relative to the

observatorul

plasat

prin perechile fixe

*
ij

n momentul

immobile mark and recorded by an observer in


this immobile mark, through the immobile pairs
t
L*ij
at the moment j .

acest reper,
tj

4.2.Construcia pseudomatricii [E ]

4.2.The pseudomatricex [E ] construction

n spiritul modelului eulerian se consider date


sau alese urmtoarele:

Following the Eulerian model we consider as


given or chosen the following:

reperele fix, O1 x1 y1 z1 , i cel mobil, Oxyz ,


solidar cu solidul rigid i rotit fa de cel fix cu

unghiul j , ( j = 1,2 ,... ,n) ;

the immobile marks, O1 x1 y1 z1 , and the mobile


one, Oxyz , solid with the rigid body and rotated
against the immobile one with an angle of
( j = 1,2 ,... ,n) ;

( )
punctele fixe Q a , b , (i = 1,2 ,... ,m) , unde
m se alege n funcie de specificul fiecrei
aplicaii, astfel nct discretizarea micrii
solidului rigid s nu afecteze n mod
semnificativ fidelitatea fa de fenomenul
*
*
natural; coordonatele ai i bi sunt constante i
*
i

*
i

*
i

constant and are relative to the fixed mark;


t
moments j , ( j = 1,2 ,... ,n) too are chosen
according to the specificity of each application.
(Q* , E )
The element ij ij of the pseudomatrix [E ]

perechea de puncte materiale Qi i Ei


t
suprapuse n momentul j , reprezentat prin
(x , y )
coordonatele comune ij ij , msurate n
raport cu reperul mobil, conform relaiilor (13)
i (14).

is the pair of the material points Qi and Ei


t
overlapped in the j moment , represented by
(x , y )
the common coordinates ij ij ,measured
varying with the mobile data, according to the
relations (13) and (14).

Expresia matematic a pseudomatricei [E] este:

(
(

)
)

(
(

The mathematical expression of the pseudo


matrix [E ] is:

)
)

(
(

)
)

... Q1*j , E1 j (x1 j , y1 j )...


... Q2* j , E2 j (x2 j , y 2 j )...

... Q1*n , E1n ( x1n , y1n )

... Q2*n , E2 n ( x2 n , y 2 n )

......
......

... Qij* , Eij (xij , yij )...


... Qi*n , Ein ( xin , yin )

......
......

... Qm* j , Emj (xmj , y mj )... ... Qm* n , Emn ( xmn , y mn )

* *
( *)
the immobile points Qi ai , bi , (i = 1,2 ,... ,m) ,
where m is chosen according to the specificity
of each application, so that the discrete motion
won't significantly affect the accuracy of the
*
*
natural phenomenon; coordinates ai and bi are

se raporteaz la reperul fix;


t
momentele j , unde ( j = 1,2 ,... ,n) se aleg tot
n funcie de specificul fiecrei aplicaii n parte.
(Q* , E )
Elementul ij ij al pseudomatricei [E ] este

Q11* , E11 ( x11 , y11 )...

*
Q21 , E21 ( x21 , y 21 )...

......
[E ] =
*
Qi1 , Ei1 ( xi1 , yi1 )...

......
*
Qm1 , Em1 ( xm1 , y m1 )...

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

(16)

25

n pseudomatricea [E ] :

In the pseudomatrix [E]:

linia

line i

pseudomatricii

reprezint
*
n
traiectoria punctului material fix Qi
Oxyz
raport cu reperul mobil
, discretizat n
(t , t ,..., t j ,... t n ) n punctele Qij* i
momentele 1 2
nregistrat
de
observatorul plasat n
Oxyz ,
reperul
mobil
denumit
prin
intermediul succesiunii spaio-temporal de
E
Q
puncte mobile ij , perechi ale punctelor ij ;
traiectoria respectiv este rigid i mobil,
deoarece este solidar cu reperul mobil.
Coloana j reprezint configuraia static a
*
tuturor punctelor materiale fixe alese Qi ,

(i = 1, 2 ,... n)

n raport cu reperul mobil, deci


nregistrat de observatorul plasat n acest reper
t
n momentul j , prin intermediul imaginii sale
E
format din punctele ij , solidare cu acelai
reper mobil.
Observaii asupra celor dou pseudomatrici
Datorit
posibilitii alegerii arbitrare a
elementelor de baz , nici una dintre cele dou
pseudomatrici nu este definit
n mod unic
i, prin urmare, n principiu ele sunt formal
independente. O comparare a lor se poate
realiza totui considernd de exemplu aceleai
*
puncte mobile Qi , aceleai puncte fixe Qi i
t
aceleai momente j , caz n care cele dou
pseudomatrici au aceleai dimensiuni, m n ;
existena acelorai dimensiuni ale celor dou
pseudomatrici se poate
realiza n condiii
mult mai largi dect cele formulate mai sus.
Desigur ns c , odat construite, cele dou
pseudomatrici care se refer la acelai solid
rigid avnd o micare plan dat, conin
elemente ntre care exist relaii bine
determinate.
ntre cele dou pseudomatrici exist o relaie
de complementaritate n sensul urmtor:
n pseudomatricea [L*] rolul principal, n
calitate de date ale problemei, revine punctelor
Qi (ai , bi ) solidare cu reperul mobil, iar
elementele pseudomatricii respective se refer
n mod direct la perechile fixe i sincrone ale
26

represents the

trajectory of the
Qi* varying with

fixed material point


the mobile mark Oxyz ,

discretized in
(t , t ,... , t j ,... t n ), in points Qij* and
the moments 1 2
recorded by the observer placed in the mobile
mark , using the space-time succession of the
Eij
Qij
of the
point; the
mobile pairs
trajectory is mobile but also rigid because it is
solid with the mobile mark , so
unchangeable for the observer placed in the
mobile mark.
Column j column represents the static
configuration of all material fixed points chosen
Qi* , (i = 1, 2 ,... n) relative to the mobile mark,
and registered by the observer placed in the
t
mobile mark in j moment, using its image
E
formed by the ij points, solid with the same
mobile mark.
Remarks on the two pseudomatrices

Because it is possible to make an arbitrary


selection of the basic elements , none of the two
pseudomatrices is defined in only one way and
therefore, as a principle they are formally
independent. It is possible to compare the two,
considering for example the same mobile points
Qi , the same fixed points Qi* and the same t j
moments and , in this case , the two
pseudomatrices would have the same
dimensions, m n ; the existence of the same
dimensions of the two pseudomatrices could be
achieved under a larger range of terms than the
ones mentioned above. Of course, once
constructed , since the two pseudomatrices that
refer to the same rigid solid have a given plane
motion, there are elements that have well
determined relations.
There is a complementary relation between the
two of the pseudomatrices as follows:
in the [L*] pseudomatrix the main role as the
( )
problem data is played by Qi ai , bi points that
are solid to the mobile mark, while the elements
of the pseudomatrix directly refer to the fixed
sincrone pairs of the Qi points, marked with

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

L* (x* , y* )
punctelor Qi, notate cu ij ij ij , ale cror
coordonate se raporteaz la reperul fix, conform
relaiei (8);
n pseudomatricea [E] rolul principal revine
* *
( *)
punctelor fixe Qi ai , bi solidare cu reperul fix,

iar elementele pseudomatricii respective se


refer n mod direct la perechile mobile i
[E ](x , y )
sincrone ale punctelor Q*i, notate cu ij ij ij
ale cror coordonate se raporteaz la reperul
mobil, conform relaiei (14).
La construcia pseudomatricii [L*] folosim
expresia traiectorie absolut, iar
la [E]
expresia traiectorie relativ.
Precizm aici c:
n concept lagrangean micarea solidului rigid
are caracter absolut, n sensul c se raporteaz la
reperul obiectiv fix, fa de reperul solidar nu
exist micare, astfel nct noiunea de micare
relativ nu are sens n acest caz;
n concept eulerian micarea solidului rigid
este descris de micarea punctelor fixe ale
reperului O1 x1 y1 z1 n raport cu reperul solidar,
justificnd astfel denumirea de micare relativ,
desigur c n acest caz nu exist micare

Q*

absolut a punctelor i .
Conform celor de mai sus rezult c:
n concept lagrangean se calculeaz mrimile
absolute care caracterizeaz micarea solidului
rigid (discretizat n timp i spaiu) n raport cu
reperul fix;
n concept eulerian urmeaza s se calculeze
mrimile relative care caracterizeaz micarea
mediului fix (care a fost discretizat n timp i
spaiu) n raport cu reperul solidar; aceast
micare relativ este descris (materializat) de
ctre succesiunea spaio-temporal de puncte
materiale ale solidului rigid care se suprapun
peste fiecare punct fix.
5.Exemplu ilustrativ

aceeai

whose coordinates are relative to the


fixed mark, according to relation (8);
in the [E] pseudomatrix the main role as the
* *
( *)
problem data is taken by Qi ai , bi points that
are solid to the fixed mark, while the elements
of the pseudomatrix directly refer to the mobile
and sincrone pairs of the Q*i points, marked

[E ](x

,y

with ij ij ij whose coordinates are relative


to the mobile mark, according to relation (14);
In the the [L*] pseudomatrix construction we
use the expression the absolute trajectory ,
while , for the [E] pseudomatrix the relative
trajectory.
Note that:
according to the langragean concept the motion of the rigid solid is of an absolute type, that
is , it is relative to the fixed mark; relative to
the solidary mark there is no motion, so the
notion of relative motion has no meaning in this
case;
according to the eulerian concept the motion
of the rigid solid is described by the motion of
the fixed points of the mark O1 x1 y1 z1 relative to
the solidary mark, justifying the name of
relative motion; of course that , in this case,

Q*

there is no absolute motion of the points i .


According to the above we can conclude that:
according to the langragean concept the
absolute measures characterizing the motion of
the rigid(discretised in time and space) relative
to the fixed mark are calculated;
according to the eulerian concept the relative
measures that characterizes the motion of the
fixed environment (discretised in time and
space) relative to the solidary mark are
calculated;
this
motion
is
described
(materialized) by the space-time succession of
material points of the rigid solid overlapping on
each fixed point.
5.Reference example

n prezentarea care urmeaz armonizm mai


nti cele dou pseudomatrici adoptnd
urmtoarele ipoteze simplificatoare :
alegem

L*ij (xij* , yij* )

succesiune

temporal:

t1 ,

In the next sub-chapter we harmonize the


two pseudomatrices adopting the following
simplifying hypotheses:
we choose the same temporal succesion: t1 , t2 ,

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

27

t2 , t3 1 , 2 , 3 (n = n = 3) ;

t3 1 , 2 , 3 (n = n = 3) ;

alegem punctele Qi i Qi* n poziii suprapuse n


momentul t1 , Qi 1 Qi*1 , astfel nct rezult :

Qi and Qi* in overlapping


(Q Qi*1 ), so that
positions in the moment t1 , i 1

i = 1, 2, 3, 4 (m = m = 4 )

we choose the points

i = 1, 2, 3, 4 (m = m = 4 ) ;

;
n momentul t1 reperele fix i mobil se suprapun,
astfel
nct
rezult:

for the t1 moment, the fixed and mobile marks


overlap, so that:

ai* = ai ; bi* = bi ; xO* 1 = yO* 1 = 0; xO1 1 = yO1 1 = 0

ai* = ai ; bi* = bi ; xO* 1 = yO* 1 = 0; xO1 1 = yO1 1 = 0

Enunul aplicaiei

Terms of application:
There is a rectangular board Q1Q2Q3Q4 with sides

QQ QQ
Se consider o plac dreptunghiular 1 2 3 4 de
Q1Q2 = l 3 i Q2Q3 = l , unde l este dat,

Q1Q2 = l 3 and Q2Q3 = l , where l is known,


that has a plane motion so that the angle Q1 is

laturi
care efectueaz o micare plan astfel nct vrful
Q1 se mic pe axa fix O1 x1 , iar vrful Q3 se

Q
moving on the fixed axis O1 x1 , and the angle 3 is
moving on the fixed axis O1 y1 . At the initial

mic pe axa fix O1 y1 . n momentul iniial t1 ,


placa ocup poziia din figura 2.a, marcat de
vrfurile sale.

moment t1, the board occupies the position in the

Se aleg ca puncte fixe Q , (i = 1, 2, 3, 4 ) , cele peste


care se suprapun vrfurile plcii, Qi (i = 1, 2, 3, 4 )
*
i

, are chosen as fixed points, with

Qi

, (i = 1, 2, 3, 4 )

in the initial moment, when the mobile mark Oxyz


solidary with the board , is the same as the fixed
mark O1 x1 y1 z1
(fig.3.a) .

Se cere s se

[ ]

*
construiasc pseudomatricile L i [E ] pentru:

[ ]

*
It is required for pseudomatrices L and [E ] to be

(t1 ) = 1 = 0 , (t2 ) = 2 = 6 i
(t3 ) = 3 = 2 .

Q31

Qi*

(i = 1, 2, 3, 4 ) , overlapping the angles of the board

n momentul iniial, cnd reperul mobil Oxyz ,


solidar cu placa, coincide cu reperul fix O1 x1 y1 z1

(fig.3.a).

figure 2.a, marked by its angles.

built for: (t1 ) = 1 = 0 , (t2 ) = 2 = 6 i

(t3 ) = 3 = 2 .

y1

y1

y1

Q32

Q22

Q21
Q23
Q41
O1 = Q42

O1 = Q33

(t 2 ) = 2 =

(t1 ) = 1 = 0
(a)

2 x1

Q12

1 = 0 x1
O1 = Q11

(b)

x1

Q13

(t3 ) = 3 =

(c)

Q43

(
)
Fig. 2. Punctele mobile Qi i = 1, 2, 3, 4 ale plcii n micare plan-paralel raportate la reperul fix,
O1 x1 y1 z1 .

The mobile points Qi i = 1, 2, 3, 4 of the plate engaged in a planar parallel motion relative to the
immobile mark , O1 x1 y1 z1

28

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

*
(
)
Fig. 3.Punctele fixe Qi i = 1, 2, 3, 4 care coincid la momentul iniial t1 cu punctele plcii Qi1 raportate la

reperul mobil Oxyz .


*
(
)
The immobile points Qi i = 1, 2, 3, 4 which coincide at the innitial time t1 with the plate points Qi1
relative to the mobile mark Oxyz .

5.1.Organigrama
pentru
construirea
*
pseudomatricilor L i [E ] n cazul plcii
dreptunghiulare Q1Q2 Q3Q4 n micare plan
cu NGL = 1

5.1.Diagram
for
constructing
the
*
pseudomatrices L and [E ] for the case of
rectangular board Q1Q2 Q3Q4 in a plane

A.Se identific gradul de mobilitate al plcii


conform formulei structurale:

A.The degree of mobility of the board is


identified, according to the structural formula:

[ ]

[ ]

motion with NGL = 1

N .G.L. = N .MAX .G.L. N .LEG.S.IND. = 3 (1 + 1) = 1

unde N.MAX.G..L. este Numrul Maxim al


Gradelor de Libertate pentru placa dat;
N.LEG..S.IND. este Numrul Legturilor
Simple Independente; se alege parametrul
cinematic (t ) .

B.Se calculeaz coordonatele punctelor mobile

Qi (i = 1, 2, 3, 4 )
, n raport cu reperul fix,

*
i

O1 x1 y1 z1 , i cele ale perechilor lor fixe, Q

(i = 1, 2, 3, 4 ) n raport cu reperul mobil Oxyz ,

solidar cu placa (fig. 2 i 3), n momentul

t j = t1

C.Se calculeaz traiectoria absolut a fiecruia

Qi (i = 1, 2, 3, 4 ) ,
dintre punctele mobile
(fig.2), conform relaiilor (8).

(17)

where N.MAX.G..L. is the Maximum Number


of the Mobility Degrees for the given board;
N.LEG..S.IND. is the Number of Simple and
Independent Connections; the kinetic parameter

(t ) is chosen.

B.First the coordonates of the mobile points

Qi

(i = 1, 2, 3, 4) , are calculated, relative to the

fixed mark O1 x1 y1 z1 , along with those of the

fixed pairs i (i = 1, 2, 3, 4 ) relative to the


mobile mark Oxyz , solid with the board (fig 2

Q*

and 3) at the moment

t j = t1

C.The absolute trajectory of each of the mobile

points i (i = 1, 2, 3, 4 ) is calculated, (fig.2)


according to the relations (8).

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

29

[ ]

*
Astfel, pseudomatricea L

are dimensiunile

m n 4 3 , conform (15). O redm mai jos

reinnd

numai perechile de coordonate ale

punctelor materiale

Qi*

, conform (8):

[ ]

*
As a result, the pseudomatrix L , according to

(15) has the dimensions m n 4 3 . It is


shown below with only the pairs of coordinates
of the material points

(0 , 0 )

3 3l
l
,
2 2
*
L =
(0 , 2l )

l 3 , l

2 2

(l , 0 )

(l , l 3 )

[ ]

(0 , l 3 )
(0 , 0 )

D. Se calculeaz traiectoria relativ a fiecruia

, according to (8):

3 = 2

2 = 6

1 = 0

Qi*

l
3
,l

2

2

(0 , 0 )

3l
3
,l

(2l , 0 )

(18)

D. The relative trajectory of each of the fixed

, (i = 1, 2, 3, 4 ) (fig. 3),
dintre punctele fixe
conform relaiilor (14). Astfel pseudomatricea

points i , (i = 1, 2, 3, 4 ) (fig 3) is calculated


accordind to (14) relations. As a result,

(16). O redm mai jos, (19), reinnd numai


perechile de coordonate ale punctelor materiale

dimensions m n 4 3 . It is shown below,


(19), with only the pairs of coordinates of the

*
i

[E ] are dimensiunile m n 4 3 , conform

Qi , conform (14).

pseudomatrix [E ] , according to (16) has the

material points

(0 , 0 )

l 3 3l

2 ,2

[E ] =
(0 , 2l )

l 3 l
,

2 2

Qi , according to (14):

l 3 l

(
)
,
0
,
2
l

2 2

l 3
3l l
l

, 4 3
3
1
,
3
1

+
2
2 2
2

l
l

(2l , 2l )
2 3 , 1+ 2 3
2
2

l
l
l
l

3 +1 ,
3 +1 , 4 + 3

2
2
2 2

) (

) (

Pe figurile (4a) i (4b) sunt reprezentate cele


dou pseudomatrici, (18) i (19),
corespunztoare problemei enunate.
30

Q*

) (

(19)

On figures (4a) and (4b) the 2 pseudomatrices


(18) and (19) are shown according to the above
stated problem.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

Fig. 4.Reprezentarea elementelor celor dou pseudomatrici

[L ] i [E ] [fig.4b conine numai


*

traiectoriile relative ale punctelor fixe Q* ( 1,2,3 ) i Q* ( 1,2,3 )]


11
41
Representations of the elements of the two pseudomatrices L* and E [fig.4b contains only

[ ]

the relative trajectories the fixed points

* (
Q11

1,2,3 ) and

*
Q41

[ ]

( 1,2,3 )]

L'tude cinmatique du mouvement plan du solide rigide ayant le degr de mobilit gal 1
Resum
L'article tudie les trajectoires des points constitutifs d'un solide rigide qui a un mouvement plan et le degr de
mobilit gal 1, par rapport un repre fixe, O1 x1 y1 z1 ainsi que les trajectoires des points de ce repre fixe, par
rapport un repre mobile Oxyz , solidaire du solide rigide.

[ ]

*
Pour l'expression analytique de ces trajectoires on a construit deux pseudomatrices L et [E ] partir des
modles de Lagrange et d'Euler. On prsente aussi un exemple dmonstratif o ces deux pseudomatrices ont les
mmes dimensions m n 4 3 .

Bibliografie
References
[1].

ALEXANDRESCU M., Mecanica teoretic, vol.II, Cinematica, Universitatea Tehnic de Construcii


Bucureti, 1997

[2].

VLCOVICI V., BLAN T., VOINEA R., Mecanica teoretic, Editura Tehnic, Bucureti, 1968.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

31

Institutul Astronomic al

The Astronomical Institute of the

Academiei Romne i tehnologia

Romanian Academy and the GPS

GPS

Technology

Drd. Ing. Florin Gabriel PAI, Centrul Naional de Geodezie, Cartografie,Fotogrammetrie i Teledetecie,
National Center of Geodesy, Cartography,Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing
florinpais@yahoo.com

1. Istoric al Institutului Astronomic al


Academiei Romne i activiti de
cercetare

1. History of the Astronomical Institute


of the Romanian Academy and
Research Activities

1.1. Istoric al Institutului Astronomic al


Academiei Romane

1.1.
History of the Astronomic
Institute of the Romanian Academy

Dezvoltarea economiei i a culturii


naionale a fost influenat n mare msur
de evenimentele social-politice care au
determinat unirea Principatelor Romne n
1859 i de rzboiul de independen din
1877.

The development of the national economy


and culture was markedly influenced by
the social and political events that led to
the unification of the Romanian
Principalities in 1859 and to the
Independence war in 1877.
The activities carried out in the astronomy
field were in the charge of the
Meteorologic Institute founded in 1884,
until 1908 when the Astronomic Institute
was set up in Bucharest.
It was director Stefan Hepites who laid
the basis of the first meteorologic
stations in 1878, a process that continued
until 1907, eventually counting as many
as 350 stations.
He also introduced the metric system
(measures and weights) and initiated the
first studies in the seismologic and
terrestrial magnetism in Romania.
The unification of the Romanian mean
time required that Hepites should order
at
Socit
genvoise
pour
la
construction
des
instruments
de
physique a small meridian telescope,
having a 67 mm diameter objective lens
and 1 m focal distance.
This
installation
provided
the
determination of time, keeping and
broadcasting until 1926 when the modern
hourly installation was put into service in
the new Astronomical Institute of
Bucharest.
Some rigorous conditions, quoted below,

Realizarea
unor
activiti
pentru
astronomie s-au efectuat n cadrul
Institutului Meteorologic care a fost
nfiinat n 1884, pn la nfiinarea n 1908
a Institutului Astronomic din Bucureti.
Directorul tefan Hepites a nfiinat
primele staii meteorologice n 1878,
proces ce a durat pn n 1907 ajungnduse la un numr de 350 staii.
De asemenea, Hepites a introdus sistemul
metric (msuri i greuti) i a realizat
primele lucrri de magnetism terestru i
seismologic din Romnia.
Pentru a realiza unificarea orei pe teritoriul
Romniei, Hepites a comandat la Socit
genvoise pour la construction des
instruments de physique o lunet
meridian cu diametrul de 67 mm.
Aceast instalaie a asigurat determinarea,
pstrarea i difuzarea orei pn n 1926
cnd a intrat n funciune instalaia orar
modern la noul Institut Astronomic din
Bucureti.
La efectuarea msurtorilor astronomii i32

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

au impus cteva condiii de rigurozitate


printre care amintim:
determinrile s-au executat
numai pe pilatrii stabili i bine ncastrai
n pmnt
nu erau utilizai un timp dup
construcie, pentru a se usca i tasa
corespunztor
n acest mod s-a nlturat pericolul
apariiei unor erori ce ar fi putut afecta
calitatea msurtorilor.
Punctele n care se efectau msurtorile
astronomice erau poziionate astfel nct
influenta ceei, prafului, luminii electrice
i circulaiei s fie minim. Aparatele
utilizate pentru msurtori erau studiate
riguros, pentru a li se elimina eventualele
erori instrumentale.
Institutul Astronomic din Bucureti a
participat la determinrile mondiale de
longitudini care s-au efectuat n lunile
octombrie-noiembrie 1933. Pentru aceasta,
a fost instalat prima staie de
radiorecepie a semnalelor orare i o
pendulet Leroy de timp sideral i una
Riefler de timp solar mijlociu, n condiii
de presiune i temperatur constante.

were demanded by the astronomers in


making the measurements:
the measurements were made only
on the well driven and stable pilasters
when the construction was over
they were left in stand-by condition to get
dried and settle properly
Thus some errors that could endanger the
quality of the measurements were avoided.
The astronomic measurement points were
arranged so that fog, dust, electric light
and traffic should be minimized.
The
instruments
used
for
the
measurements were rigorously examined
so that possible instrumental errors could
be eliminated.
The Astronomical Institute in Bucharest
participated
in
the
worldwide
determinations of the longitudes carried out
in October and November 1933. To this end,
the first radio station receiving the hourly
signals as well as a Leroy pendulum of
sideral time and a mean solar time Riefler
pendulum were installed under steady
pressure and temperature conditions.

Scopul urmrit prin aceste determinri


mondiale de longitudini, la care au
participat un numr mare de observatoare
astronomice, a fost s verifice ipoteza lui
Wegener n ceea ce privete deplasarea
continentelor, fapt care nu s-a putut
constata, ceea ce rezult c aceste
deplasri snt foarte mici i necesit
intervale mari de timp pentru a putea fi
puse n eviden. Aceast aciune a cuprins
trei trasee fundamentale circumterestre:
Greenwich-Tokyo-Vancouver-Ottawa
Alger-Zikavei-San Diego
Cap Adelaide-Rio de Janeiro

The goal of these determinations of


longitudes on an international scale with
the participation of a great many
astronomical observatories aimed at
checking up Wegeners hypothesis on the
continents drifting which was not
ascertained; it resulted that these drifts
were insignificant and long time periods
were required for them to be taken into
consideration. This action covered three
fundamental
circumterrestrial
routesGreenwich-Tokyo-VancouverOttawa
Alger-Zikavei-San Diego
Cap Adelaide-Rio de Janeiro

S-au executat i diferite determinri


astronomice de latitudine, longitudine i
azimut necesare constrngerii, controlului
i orientrii lanurilor primordiale de
triangulaie, elaborndu-se n 1940 primele
Instruciuni de astronomie geodezic.

Various astronomical determinations of


latitude, longitude and azimuth were
carried out as they were required in the
compulsion, control and orientation of the
triangulation primordial chains. Thus, the
first Instructions for geodesic astronomy

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

33

Azimutele
astronomice
erau
slab
determinate n acea perioad, deoarece se
determinau pe o latur de triangulaie
numai ntr-un singur sens; deci, indiferent
de precizia msurtorilor, valoarea
obinut avea incoveniente n prelucrarea
triangulaiei, deoarece nu se inea seama
de influena deviaiei verticale. Dup un
deceniu de la primul rzboi mondial a fost
remediat valoarea azimutului utilizat n
triangulaie, ca fiind rezultatul unei
compensri a azimutelor, direct i invers,
n capetele laturii de triangulaie.
Perioada rzboiului (19411945) a avut
implicaii importante asupra Institutului
Astronomic, reducnd i ntrerupnd
activitatea acestuia.
Dup terminarea rzboiului reformele
iniiate au avut consecine favorabile
pentru dezvoltarea Institutului Astronomic,
primindu-se un sprijin substanial din
partea Academiei Romne pentru creterea
bazei materiale, a numrului de cercettori
si a temelor de cercetare pe plan
internaional.
Institutul Astronomic a nceput o
colaborare internaional n mai 1954, cu
numeroase ri cu tradiie n domeniu,
bazat pe un program de schimburi de
experien reciproc i stagii de
specializare.
De asemenea, o contribuie substanial la
dezvoltarea Institutului Astronomic l-a
avut
programul
Anului
Geofizic
Internaional (AGI) a crui scop a constat
din studiul Pmntului cu cele mai
moderne mijloace, din toate punctele de
vedere: interior, suprafa, atmosfer i o
vecintate a Pmntului care trebuia
explorat cu ajutorul sateliilor artificiali.
Cu aceast ocazie s-a nfiinat la Institut un
sector orar modern, dotat cu o lunet
reversibil ZEISS (10-100 cm), cu dou
oscilatoare cu cuar BELIN i cu un post
de radiorecepie a semnalelor orare.

34

were drawn up in 1940. At that time the


astronomical azimuths were inaccurately
established because they were determined
on one side of triangulation and only in
one direction; thus, however accurate the
measurements might be, the resulting
value seemed inconvenient in the
processing of triangulation, because the
influence of the vertical deflection was
neglected. A decade after the world war I,
the value of the azimuth was remedied, as
it was used in the triangulation and as the
outcome of a compensation of the
azimuths, directly or reversely, at the ends
of the triangulation side.
The world war II period (1941-1945)
brought about important consequences to
the Astronomical Institute, restraining and
ceasing its activity.
In the post war years the reforms initiated
were favorably acting upon the
development of the Astronomical Institute
with the substantial assistance of the
Romanian Academy by increasing the
financial support and the number of
researchers and research-work themes
approached on a worldwide scale.
The Astronomical Institute had a good
start in May 1954 in the international
cooperation involving a great number of
countries with long lived traditions in the
field and based on an experience exchange
specialization program.
Another substantial contribution to the
development of the Astronomical Institute
was the IAG program (International
Geophysic Year) the goal being the study
of the Earth by using the latest
achievements in the matter and from all
standpoints: inner, surface, atmosphere
and the proximity to other space bodies to
be explored by the Earths artificial
satellites.
This was a welcome opportunity to
develop a modern hourly sector within the
Institute, equipped with a Zeiss telescope
(10-100cm) two BELIN quartz oscillators
and a radio receiver of hourly signals.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

Sectorul orar a fost inclus pe lista


Observatorului Mondial Mijlociu, Biroul
Internaional al Orei (Paris) i este i
colaborator permanent al Serviciului
Internaional
al
Micrii
Polului
(Mizusawa Japonia).
Institutul Astronomic era alctuit din dou
secii: secia de astronomie i secia de
astrofizic. Secia de astronomie era
format la rindul ei din trei sectoare:
astrometrie
meridian,
astrometrie
fotografic i orar. Secia de astrofizic era
format din urmtoarele sectoare: solar,
fotometrie i satelii.
De asemenea, dezvoltarea seismologiei s-a
intesificat
n
cadrul
Institutului
Astronomic
prin
intermediul
academicianului Demetrescu care a
organizat o reea de staii pentru
nregistrarea cutremurelor de pmnt pe
teritoriul Romniei, la Focani i Bacu n
1942, la Cmpulung-Muscel n 1943, la
Iai n 1951, la Vrncioaia n 1952, i staia
central la Bucureti.
Alte lucrri de cercetare, cu colaborare
internaional, la care a participat Institutul
au fost urmtoarele: cercetri solare, n
colaborare cu Centrele Mondiale de la
Kislovodsk, Zrich, Freiburg, Meudon,
Boulder, crearea unui sistem de repere
extragalactice care s-a executat de 11-12
observatoare sub directivele Academiei de
tiine din U.R.S.S., cercetri asupra
sateliilor
artificiali,
i
cercetri
seismologice cu privire la seismicitatea
globului pmntesc i a Romniei, studiul
constituiei scoarei terestre, studiul
mecanismului producerii cutremurelor din
ar, al energiei dezvoltate de aceste
fenomene i al magnitudinilor lor.
Institutul Astronomic din Bucureti a
aparinut Academiei R.S.R. pn la 1
ianuarie 1975 cnd a fost transferat la
Ministerul Educaiei i nvmntului pn
la 1 februarie 1977. De la aceast dat
Institutul Astronomic s-a organizat sub o
alt conducere a crei activitate este
centralizat de ctre Centrul de astronomie
i tiine Spaiale (CASS) i un Consiliu
tiinific n care snt reprezentai astronomi

The hourly sector was included on the list


of the International Mean Time
Observatory, the International Hourly
Bureau (Paris). It is also a permanent
collaborator of the International Service of
International Service of the Pole
Movement (Mizusawa Japonia).
The Astronomical Institute consisted of
two sections: astronomy and astrophysics.
The astronomy section was in its turn
made up of three sectors: astrometry
meridian, photographic and hourly
astrometry. The astrophysic section
consisted of: solar, photometry and
satellite sectors.
Likewise, the development of seismology
stepped up with the support of
academician Demetrescu who organized a
network of stations designed to record the
earthquakes on the Romanian territory in
Focani and Bacu in 1942, Cimpulung
Muscel in 1943 and in Iasi in 1951 and in
Vrincioaia in 1952, as well as the central
seismic station in Bucharest.
Further research work was carried out on
an international cooperation basis, such as:
solar research jointly with the World
Centers in Kislovodsk, Zrich, Freiburg,
Meudon, Boulder; development of an
extragalactic marks system built by 11-12
observatories under the auspices of the
USSR Academy of Science; research of
artificial satellites; seismologic studies of
the Earths and Romanias seismicity; the
study of the earths crust structure; the
study
of
the
earthquake
trigger
mechanisms and of the energy released by
seisms as well as of their magnitudes.
The Astronomical Institute in Bucharest
was part of the Romanian Socialist
Republic Academy until January 1st 1975
when it was transferred to the Ministry of
Education and Instruction up to February
1st 1977. Since then, the Astronomical
Institute has been organized under another
authority whose activity is centralized by
the Space Science and Astronomical

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

35

din ntreaga ar. CASS aparine


Institutului Central de Fizic. CASS a
ntocmit un studiu de dezvoltare pe
perioada 1977-2010, n care se prevd
necesitile corespunztoare.
1.2 Activitile actuale de cercetare

Center (SSAC) and by a scientific Council


represented byastronomers from all over
the country. SSAC is part of the Central
Institute of Physics.
1.2 Present Research Activities

Activitaile de cercetare ale Institutului


Astronomic al Academiei Romne sunt
urmtoarele:

The research activities of the Astronomical


Institute under the authority of the
Romanian Academy are as follows:

Activiti de cercetare n domeniul


fizicii solare
Activiti de cercetare asupra studiului
stelelor variabile
Activiti de cercetare n domeniul
astronomiei i cosmologiei extragalactice
Activiti de cercetare n domeniul
astrometriei
Activiti de cercetare n domeniul
mecanicii cereti

Research work in the field of solar


physics
Research work upon the study of the
variable stars
Research work in the field of
astronomy
and
the
extragalactic
cosmology
Research work in the field of
astrometry
Research work in the field of celestial
mechanics

De asemenea, tehnologia GPS a avut un


rol semnificativ n dezvoltarea Institutului
Astronomic, prin introducerea unui
receptor GPS/GLONASS de timp, numit
GNSS-300T cu codul C/A modulat pe o
singur frecven L1. Acest receptor a fost
introdus cu scopul de a mbuntii
precizia standardelor de timp, i permite
comparaii de timp (transfer de timp) cu o
precizie de 60 ns, coordonatele antenei
fiind determinate cu o precizie de 30 cm.

Moreover, the GPS technology played a


significant part in the development of the
Astronomical Institute by implementing a
GPS/GLONASS time receiver, termed as
GNSS-300T with the C/A code modulated
on a single frequency L1. This receiver
was operated to improve the accuracy of
the time standards, thus facilitating time
comparisons (transfer of time) with 60 ns
accuracy, the coordinates of the antennae
being determined at a 30 cm accuracy.

Pentru a determina coordonatele antenei


receptorului de timp cu o precizie ct mai
bun s-a recurs la integrarea Institutului
Astronomic n sistemul geodezic global,
utiliznd pentru determinare coordonatele
ITRF2000 epoca 2005,43679 ale staiilor
permanente GPS din reeaua naional,
reeaua EUREF (European Reference
Frame) i reeaua IGS (International GPS
Service), prin utilizarea unui receptor GPS
geodezic.

To further improve the accuracy in


determining the coordinates of the time
receiver antennae, the integration of the
Astronomical Institute into the global
geodesic system has been resorted to by
using for the determination the ITRF2000
coordinates, epoch 2005,43679, of the
GPS permanent stations of the national
network, the EUREF network (European
Reference Frame) and the IGS network
(International GPS Service), by using a
geodesic GPS receiver.

36

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

2. Integrarea Institutului Astronomic n


reeaua naional, EUREF i IGS de
staii permanente GPS

n cadrul acestei lucrri s-au realizat


observaii GPS pe un pilastru din cadrul
Institutului Astronomic al Academiei
Romane (IAAR) cu scopul integrrii
acestuia n reeaua naional de staii
permanente GPS, reeaua EUREF de staii
permanente GPS i reeaua IGS de staii
permanente GPS. Pentru a asigura o
precizie ridicat a determinrii punctului
IAAR s-a impus utilizarea metodei statice
de msurare, aceasta fiind singura metod
pretabil pentru integrare.
Astfel, s-au executat observaii GPS n
campania de msurtori din anul 2005,
observaiile fiind executate timp de 6 zile
n perioada 07.06.2005-13.06.2005, zilele
iuliene 158-164 cu sesiuni de 24 ore,
masc de elevaie de 15 i interval de
nregistrare a observaiilor de 10s.

2. Integration of the Astronomical


Institute in the National, EUREF and
IGS Network of GPS Permanent
Stations

These studies involved GPS observations


on a pilaster of the Astronomical Institute
under the authority of the Romanian
Academy (AIRA) with a view to its
integration in the national, EUREF, and
IGS network of GPS permanent stations.
To provide a higher accuracy in the
determination of the AIRA point, the static
method of measurement was used because
it is the only suitable method of
integration.
The GPS observations were performed in
the 2005 campaign for measurements, the
observations were performed for 6 days,
between June 6 th 2005 and June 13 th
2005, Julian days 158-164 on a 24 hour
session basis, 15 elevation mask and 10s
recording time interval
of the
observations.
2.1. Activity Stages

2.1. Etapele lucrrii

Lucrrile pentru realizarea acestui proiect


au fost ealonate n urmtoarele etape:
Lucrri de recunoatere la teren a
punctului ce urma s fie staionat
Lucrri de observaii GPS
2.1.1. Lucrri de recunoatere la teren
a punctului ce urma s fie
staionat

Punctul pe care s-au efectuat observaiile


GPS este un pilastru situat ntr-o zon
central a Institutului Astronomic al
Academiei Romane (IAAR) care s poat
permite din el, determinarea coordonatelor
la toate instrumentele astronomice i
antenele din dotarea acestuia, respectnduse cerinele tehnice solicitate din punct de
vedere a tehnologiei GPS.
Punctul determinat cu tehnologia GPS are
ID-ul punctului format din 4 caractere n
care cele 4 litere indic acronimul

The works done to carry out this project,


were performed stepwise, as follows:
land recognition works of the
AIRA point
GPS observations works
office works
2.1.1

Land Recognition Works of the


AIRA Point

The spot where GPS observations were


made is a pilaster located in a central area
of the Astronomical Institute of the
Romanian Academy (AIRA) that may
allow the determination of the coordinates
of all astronomical instruments and
antennae belonging to the Astronomical
Institute. The technical requirements
demanded from GPS technological stand
point were observed.
The point determined by the GPS
technology has the ID of the point made
up of four letters standing for the

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

37

Institutului Astronomic
Romane (IAAR).

al

Academiei

Astronomical Institute of the Romanian


Academy (AIRA).

2.1.2 Lucrri de observaii GPS

2.1.2 GPS Observation Works

Pentru realizarea acestei lucrri s-a format


o echip de teren alcatuit din 2 specialiti
dotat corespunztor campaniei de teren,
pentru realizarea observaiilor cu ajutorul
tehnologiei GPS. Determinrile s-au
efectuat
cu
receptoare
TRIMBLE
4000SSE,
sesiunile
de
observaii
executatndu-se prin metoda static timp
de 24 ore, cu masca de elevaie de 15 i
intervalul de nregistrare de 10s,
acordndu-se o atenie deosebit i
msurrii nlimii antenei la ARP
(Antenna Reference Point).

To accomplish this work, a site team was


organized consisting of two specialists and
equipped accordingly to the site campaign in
view of carrying out the observations by GPS
technology.
The determinations were performed by
means of Trimble 4000SSE receivers, the
observation sessions being performed by the
24 hour static method, with 15 elevation
mask and 10s recording time interval. A
special attention was also paid to the
measurment of the height of the antenna at
ARP (Antenna Reference Point).
During the preparation stage of the site
observations, the GPS receiver antenna was
located on the pilaster, checking up
rigorously the most accurate centering on the
pilaster, checking up rigorously the most
accurate centering on the mathematical point.
Also, the most correct determination of the
antenna height at ARP was checked up, both
at the beginning and at the end of the
observations.

n faza de pregtire a observaiilor de


teren, antena receptorului GPS a fost
amplasat pe pilastru urmrindu-se cu
toat rigurozitatea centrarea ct mai
perfect pe punctul matematic i de
asemenea determinarea ct mai corect a
nalimii antenei la ARP, la nceputul i
sfritul observaiilor.
2.1.3. Lucrri de birou

2.1.3

n cadrul lucrrilor de birou, prelucrarea


observaiilor GPS a cuprins etapa
descrcrii
datelor, centralizrii i
verificrii ntregii documentaii realizate
pe teren i etapa propriu-zis a prelucrrii
observaiilor GPS.
n etapa de centralizare i verificare a
documentaiei realizat la teren, datele au
fost centralizate n directoare denumite cu
ziua iulian respectiv, iar transformarea
observaiilor brute n date RINEX s-a
realizat prin intermediul programului de
procesare GPS, Trimble Geomatics Office.
Procesarea efectiv s-a realizat n trei
situaii:
ca reea constrns pe coordonatele
ITRF2000 epoca 2005,43679 pentru
staiile permanente GPS din reeaua
naional
ca reea constrns pe coordonatele
ITRF2000 epoca 2005,43679 pentru
38

Office Works

As for the office works, the processing of


the GPS observations included: data
transfer stage, the centralization and
checking up of the whole site
documentation and the processing as such
of the GPS observations.
Along the centralizing and checking up of
the site documentation stage, the data were
centralized in folders called by the Julian
day respectively while the turning of the
raw observations into Rinex data was
performed by the GPS processing program
that is named Trimble Geomatics Office.
The processing was effectively performed
in three situations:
as a network calculated on the
coordinates
ITRF2000
epoch
2005,43679 for the GPS permanent
stations of the national network
as a network calculated on the

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

staiile permanente GPS din reeaua


EUREF
ca reea constrns pe coordonatele
ITRF2000 epoca 2005,43679 pentru
staiile permanente GPS din reeaua
IGS
Coordonatele utilizate n prelucrare sunt
coordonatele staiilor permanente din
fiierele SNX din sptmna GPS 1326,
procesarea realizndu-se la momentul
observaiei. De asemenea, pentru a asigura
o precizie ct mai bun de determinare a
punctului IAAR s-au utilizat n prelucrare
efemeridele precise finale IGS (igs.sp3c)
din cadrul saptmnii respective iar pentru
a estima ct mai bine efectul troposferic s-a
folosit ca model matematic al atmosferei,
modelul Hopfield.
Staiile permanente GPS alese pentru
procesare, din reeaua naional de staii
permanente GPS, reeaua EUREF de staii
permanente GPS i reeaua IGS de staii
permanente GPS sunt prezentate n figurile
respective. Acestea sunt:
pentru reeaua naional : Bril
(BRAI), Suceava (SUCE), Constana
(CONT), Cluj (CLUJ), Sibiu (SIBI),
Deva (DEVA), Timioara (TIMI),
Craiova (CRAI) i Bucureti (BUCU)
pentru reeaua EUREF: Matera
(MATE)-Italia,
Graz
(GRAZ)Austria, Trabzon (TRAB)-Turcia,
Poltava (POLV)-Ucraina, Jozefoslaw
(JOZE)-Polonia.
pentru reeaua IGS : Ny-Alesund
(NYA1)-Norvegia, Ponta Delgada
(PDEL)-Portugalia,
Maspalomas
(MAS1)-Spania,
Kitab
(KIT3)Uzbekistan.
nainte de procesarea efectiv, datele s-au
analizat i testat pentru a se stabili un mod
unitar de prelucrare a reelei.
In continuare sunt prezentate rezultatele
obinute dup prelucrare i precizia de
poziionare a punctului IAAR, funcie de
aceste grupuri de statii.
mB - precizia de determinare a
coordonatelor

coordinates
ITRF2000
epoch
2005,43679 for the GPS permanent
stations of the EUREF network
as a network calculated on the
ITRF2000
epoch
coordinates
2005,43679 for the GPS permanent
stations of the IGS network
The coordinates used in the processing are
the coordinates of the permanent stations
from the SNX files of the GPS week 1326,
the processing being performed at the
moment of the observations.
Likewise, to provide the best accuracy
possible in the determination of the AIRA
point, the IGS final accurate ephemerides of
the respective week (igs.sp3c) were used in
the process.
To estimate the tropospheric effect as
accurate as possible, the Hopfield model was
used as a mathematical model of the
atmosphere.
The GPS permanent stations selected for
processing, from the national, Euref and IGS
network of GPS permanent stations are
illustrated in the following figures. These are:
for the national network: Bril
(BRAI), Suceava (SUCE), Constana
(CONT), Cluj (CLUJ), Sibiu (SIBI),
Deva (DEVA), Timioara (TIMI),
Craiova (CRAI) i Bucureti (BUCU)
for the EUREF network: Matera
(MATE)-Italia, Graz (GRAZ)-Austria,
Trabzon (TRAB)-Turcia, Poltava
(POLV)-Ucraina,
Jozefoslaw
(JOZE)-Polonia.
for the IGS network: Ny-Alesund
(NYA1)-Norvegia, Ponta Delgada
(PDEL)-Portugalia,
Maspalomas
(MAS1)-Spania, Kitab (KIT3)Uzbekistan.
Before processing, the data were analyzed
and tested in order to establish a network
processing unitary method. Furthermore,
the results obtained after processing are
presented as well as the accuracy of the
AIRA point positioning, depending on
these groups of stations.
mB the accuracy in the
determination of the coordinates

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

39

v abaterea fa de medie ;
mm=mB /n
vi= mm- mBi (i=15)
Un indicator de precizie l
reprezint eroarea medie ptratic a mediei
aritmetice eM, conform relaiei:
[vv]
eMB=
,
unde n
n(n 1)
numrul de observaii

v deviation from the average ;


mm=mB /n
vi= mm- mBi (i=15)
An accuracy indicator stands for
the mean square error of the arithmetic
mean eM, according to the relation:
[vv]
eMB=
, where n the number
n(n 1)
of observations

2.2 Concluzii

2.2 Conclusions

In cadrul acestei lucrri putem considera


c integrarea pilastrului IAAR s-a realizat
cu acurateea necesar, respectnd toate
condiiile impuse de lucrare i de
standardele internaionale, observaiile
GPS executndu-se n condiii de

This work covers considerations stating


that the integration of the AIRA pilaster
was performed under the required
accuracy, by observing all the conditions
imposed by the work and by the international
standards, considering that GPS observations

40

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

Avantajul utilizrii tehnologiei GPS fa


de metodele clasice, la crearea reelelor
geodezice i la determinarea unor puncte
izolate const n faptul c se pot obine
precizii ridicate fa de puncte de sprijin
apropriate i n special fa de puncte de
sprijin ndeprtate. Acest lucru depinde n
esen de durata observaiilor i de
performana instrumentelor. In urma
procesrii i dup analiza rezultatelor din
tabelele 1,2,3, se constat urmtoarele :

were performed under favorable atmospheric


steady conditions.
The advantage of using the GPS technology
in setting up the geodetic networks and in the
determinations of the isolated points as
against the classic methods lies in the fact that
high accuracies can be obtained not only at
proximate points but also at remote
supporting points particularly.
This essentially depends on the observation
time and on the instruments performance.
On having the processed and analyzed results
in tables 1,2,3, the followings can be stated:

indiferent de lungimea vectorilor din


diferite situaii, valorile coordonatelor i
precizia de determinare a punctului IAAR
sunt aproximativ similare, avnd valori de
cca. 1 cm pe B i L i circa 2 cm pe
cot.

the coordinate values and the accuracy of


determining
the
AIRA
point
are
approximately similar, having values of about
1 cm on B and L and about 2 cm on
height, regardless of the length of the vectors
in various situations

se constat c eroarea medie ptratic a


mediei aritmetice pe B, L, H este din ce in
ce mai mare pe msura ce distana fa de
punctul IAAR crete.
se pot proiecta configuraii de reele,
inacceptabile din punct de vedere clasic,
neinfluennd nivelul de precizie (vezi
schia reelei naionale de staii
permanente GPS).

the mean square error of the arithmetic


mean eM on B, L H, becomes greater and
greater as the distance against AIRA grows.
network configurations, unacceptable
from the classic point of view can be
designed, the level of accuracy still staying
unaffected (see the sketch of the national
network of GPS permanent stations).

stabilitate atmosferic bun.

Schia reelei naionale de staii


permanente GPS

The sketch of the national network of GPS


permanent stations

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

28

27

29

30

RET EAU A D E STAT II PERM AN EN T E G PS


DIN ROM AN IA
LEGENDA

48

48

S ta tii Perma nente


Na tio nale
Statie Perman enta
I GS
In stitutul Astron omic
al Academiei Ro mane
Statie Permanen ta
EUREF

S UCE

47

47

CLUJ

46

46

DE VA

TIMI

S IBI

BRA I
45

IAA R

B UCU

MA
RE
AN

CR AI

EA
GR
A

45

44

20

21

22

23

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

24

25

26

27

28

29

44

30

41

Bibliografie
References
[1].

Atudorei M. Astronomie partea II, Institutul de Constructii, Bucuresti, 1975.

[2].

Beutler G., R. Weber, U. Hugentobler, M. Rothacher i A. Verdun GPS for Geodesy, Chapter 2:
GPS Satellite Orbits, Springer-Verlag 1998

[3].

Braasch, M. i F.van Graas Guidance Accuracy Considerations for Real time GPS Interferometry.
Proceedings of ION GPS-91, Albuquerque, New Mexico, september 9-13, 1991

[4].

Bruton A. Improving the Accuracy and Resolution of SINS/DGPS Airborne Gravimetry. PhD
thesis, Department of Geomatics Engineering, University of Calgary, December 2000.

[5].

Bue I. Utilizarea tehnologiei GPS la modernizarea reelelor geodezice-Teza de doctorat, 2002

[6].

Draper, C.S.(1977). Inertial technology for surveying and geodesy. Proc.1st. International
Symposium on Inertial Technology for Surveying and Geodesy, IAG and CIS, Ottawa, Canada,
October. Canadian Institute of Surveying.

[7].

Hofmann-Wellenhof B., Lichtenegger H., Collins J. Global Positioning System, May 1992.

[8].

Kaula, W.(1966). Theory of Satellite Geodesy: Applications of Satellites to Geodesy, Blaisdell.

[9].

Martin, E. H., "GPS User Equipment Error Models," Global Positioning System Papers, Vol.

[10].

I, Institute of Navigation, Washington, DC, 1980, pp. 109-118.

[11].

Neuner J.- Sisteme de Poziionare Global, Matrix Rom

[12].

www.astro.ro

42

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

Investigaii privind posibilitatea


aplicrii procesului de reducere
biologic a fosforului n staia de
epurare a apelor uzate Constana
Sud

Investigations on the Assessment


of Biological Phosphorus Removal
Possibilities at Constantza South
Municipal
Waste
Water
Treatment Plant

Angela PAN, drd. ing. Universitatea Ovidius Constana (Ovidius University of Constanta), Facultatea de
tiine ale Naturii i tiine Agricole (Faculty of Natural Sciences and Agriculture), e-mail:
panaangela@yahoo.com
Natalia ROOIU, Prof. Univ. Dr., CP I, Universitatea Ovidius Constana (Ovidius University of
Constanta), Facultatea de tiine ale Naturii i tiine Agricole (Faculty of Natural Sciences and Agriculture),
e-mail: natalia_rosoiu@yahoo.com

1. Introducere

1. Introduction

Terminologia uzual privind epurarea


apelor uzate reducerea biologica a
nutrienilor (epurare teriar) se refer la
azot i fosfor, ntruct aceste doua
elemente sunt considerate a fi elementele
limitative ale dezvoltrii algelor i
bacteriilor n apele de suprafa.
Gsirea
unei
soluii
optime
de
implementare a epurrii teriare n cazul
staiei de epurare Constana Sud care face
obiectul acestui studiu este nu numai de
strict actualitate, dar i foarte urgent,
avnd n vedere legislaia de mediu n
vigoare i angajamentul asumat de
Guvernul Romniei n cadrul procesului
de negociere a Capitolului 22 Protecia
Mediului - care impun epurarea teriar n
localitile cu peste 10000 locuitori
echivaleni pn n anul 2015, respectiv
pentru municipiul Constana pn n anul
2013. Conform cu prevederile legislative
n vigoare, n cazul apei uzate evacuate din
statia de epurare Constana Sud, limita
maxim admisibil
la evacuarea n
receptorul natural Marea Neagr pentru
indicatorul fosfor total este de 1mg/l.
S-a demonstrat c reducerea biologic a
fosforului din apa uzat are la baz doua
metabolisme microbiene. Cum fosforul
este un element cheie n n sinteza de
biomas, o parte din fosfatul prezent n apa
uzat este ndeprtat prin procesul de
cretere microbian. Al doilea mecanism

In the current terminology regarding


wastewater treatment, Biological Nutrient
Removal (tertiary treatment) refers to
nitrogen and phosphorus, because these
two elements are considered limitative to
alga and bacteria growth in the surface
waters.
Finding an optimum solution to apply the
tertiary treatment at the Constana Sud
water treatment plant, which is the object
of this study, is not only of present
interest, but also of great emergency
considering the environmental protection
legislation and the commitment that the
Romanian government
took while
negotiating Chapter 22 Environmental
Protection which enforces tertiary
treatment for all localities with more than
10000 inhabitants until 2015 and until
2013 for Contana respectively. In
accordance with the active legislation, the
maximum accepted phosphorus indicator
for the Constana Sud WWTP effluent is
1mg/l in natural aquatic receiver, the
Black Sea.
It has been proven that biological
phosphorus removal from wastewater is
based on two microbial metabolisms.
Because phosphorus is a key element in
biomass synthesis, part of the phosphate in
wastewater is removed in the microbial
growth process. The second phosphorus
removal mechanism is realised by intra-

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

43

de reducere a coninutului de fosfor se


concretizeaz n stocarea intracelular sub
form de polifosfat.
Capabilitatea organismelor acumulatoare
de fosfor de a desfura aceste doua
mecanisme reprezint aspectul cheie al
procesului de reducere biologic avansat
a fosforului.
Caracteristica principal a procesului
tehnologic cu nmol activ o reprezint
utilizarea unui bioreactor compartimentat;
zona anaerob este prevzut naintea
zonei aerobe i cu un timp de retenie
hidraulic relativ mic (45-60 min.). Apa
uzat netratat biologic mpreun cu
nmolul recirculat se amestec n partea
anaerob a bioreactorului, nainte de a
trece n partea aerat.. Succesiunea celor
dou zone va permite dezvoltarea
organismelor acumulatoare de fosfor n
sistemul considerat.
n
faza
anaerob,
organismele
acumulatoare de fosfor asimileaz
carbonul organic din apa uzat, n special
acizii grai cu caten scurt i l stocheaz
intracelular sub form de acizi hidroxilici
polimerizai. Energia necesar acestui
proces este asigurat prin degradarea
polifosfailor intracelulari, rezultnd de
aici o eliminare de ortofosfat (PO4-3) in
mediul apos.
n faza aerob, organismele acumulatoare
de fosfor utilizeaz acizii hidroxilici
polimerizai stocai n celul n faza
anterioar (anaerob) ca surs de energie
pentru creterea celular i pentru
refacerea rezervelor de polifosfai
i
glicogen. Pentru refacerea rezervelor de
polifosfai aceste organisme vor utiliza
fosforul din fosfaii solubili coninui n
mediul apos.
ntruct PAO sunt capabile s acumuleze
mai mult fosfat n faza aerob dect au
eliberat n faza anaerob, rezult c
succesiunea celor doua faze n ordinea
anaerob - aerob va conduce la o reducere
net a fosfatului coninut n apa uzat.
ndeprtarea fosforului din sistem se
realizeaz
practic
prin
eliminarea
nmolului n exces.
Staia de epurare Constana Sud apainnd
44

cellular accumulation as polyphosphate.


The Phosphorus Accumulating Organisms
ability (PAOs-) to run these two
mechanisms is the key aspect in the
Enhanced Phosphate Biological Removal
(EBPR).
The main characteristic of the classic
sludge technological process is the use of a
compartmented bioreactor; the anaerobic
area is set in front of the aerobic area with
a relatively short hydraulic retention time
(45-60 min). Biologically untreated
wastewater and recirculated sludge is
mixed in the anaerobic compartment of the
reactor, before flowing into the aerobic
compartment. The sequence of the two
compartments will allow the growth of the
Phosphorus Accumulating Organisms
inside the system.
In the anaerobic phase the Phosphorus
Accumulating Organisms will assimilate
organic
carbon
from
wastewater,
especially the short-chain fatty acids and
will accumulate it inter-cellularly as polyhydroxy-alkanoate (PHA). The energy
demand for this process is provided by
intracellular polyphosphates degradation,
resulting in an ortophosphate (PO4-3)
release in the aquatic environment.
In the aerobic phase, Phosphorus
Accumulating Organisms use polyhydroxy-alkanoate, deposited inside the
cell during the previous phase (anaerobic),
as an energy source for cellular growth
and
to
replenish
glycogen
and
polyphosphates reserves. In order to
replenish the polyphosphate reserves,
these organisms will use the phosphorus
from soluble phosphates in the aqueous
environment.
Since PAOs are capable to accumulate
more phosphate during the aerobic phase
than they release during the anaerobic
phase, the two-phase anaerobic-aerobic
sequence, will lead to a flat removal of the
wastewater phosphate.
Removal of the phosphorus from the
system is practically done by removing the
excess sludge.
The Constana South waste water
treatment plant, owned by SC RAJA SA

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

SC RAJA SA CONSTANTA are rolul de


a recepiona i epura apele menajere,
industriale i pluviale de pe cea mai mare
parte a teritoriului oraului. Caracterul
apelor uzate este preponderent menajer
deoarece n ultimii ani a sczut mult
activitatea industrial. Procesul tehnologic
de epurare aplicat asigur reducerea
ncarcrii apei uzate n substane poluante
(treapt mecanic i biologic clasic cu
nmol activ) i stabilizarea anaerob a
namolurilor prin fermentare metanic.
Debitul maxim (proiectat) de apa uzat ce
intr n staie n conditii normale de
exploatare este de Q = 3200 l/s, dar pe
timp de ploaie poate ajunge pna la 6400
l/s ( 2Q ).
Scopul prezentei lucrri este evaluarea
posibilitii aplicrii procesului de
reducere a fosforului n staia de epurare
Constana Sud, avnd n vedere situaia
existent i s investigheze o serie de
factori i modul n care intervin acetia n
desfurarea proceselor de epurare
biologic.

CONSTANA
accepts
and
treats
domestic,
industrial
and
pluvial
wastewater from most of the city area. The
nature of the wastewater is mostly
domestic since industrial activity has much
decreased in the past years. The
technological treatment process ensures
the removal of polluting substances from
the wastewater (classic mechanical and
biological stage with active sludge) and
anaerobic sludge stabilization by methanic
fermentation. The maximum volume of
wastewater flowing into the plant under
normal
functioning
parameters
is
Q=3200l/s, but is can reach 6400l/s (2Q)
in rain conditions.
The scope of this study is to assess the
possibility of biological phosphorus
removal in the Constana Sud WWTP,
considering the existing state and to
examine a series of factors and the way
that these affect the biological treatment
process.

2. Materiale i metode

2. Experimental

Pentru o perioad de o lun s-a analizat


funcionarea bioreactorul instalaiei de
tratare al staiei de epurare Constana Sud.
Studiul s-a realizat pe seciunile
bioreactorului, respectiv zona anaerob
(selector) i zona aerob (aerare cu bule
fine). Cercetarea a vizat n principal
caracterizarea apei uzate care intr n
bioreactor
i
evaluarea
influenei
oxigenului i nitratului prezent n cele
dou zone ale bioreactorului asupra
procesului biochimic.
S-au analizat 10 probe n perioada 7
februarie 7 martie; la recoltarea probelor
s-a respectat standardul de metod SR ISO
5667-2/1998, Partea 2: Ghid general
pentru tehnicile de prelevare. S-a utilizat o
schem de lucru cu cinci puncte de
recoltare (a se vedea Fig. 1). Determinrile
s-au efectuat pe probe momentane; s-a
recoltat un volum de prob de 2l; probele
nu au fost conservate, analizele fiind
efectuate imediat dup recoltare; fac

For a one month period, the proper


operation of the Constana South WWTP
bioreactor was tested. The study was
extensive on the bioreactor compartments,
the anaerobic area (selector) and the
aerobic area (fine bubble aerator). The
research targeted mainly the nature of
wastewater entering the bioreactor and to
assess the effect that the oxygen and
nitrate found in the two sections of the
bioreactor
have on the biochemical
process.
Ten samples were analyzed during
February the 7th March the 7th; SR ISO
5667 2/1998, Part 2: Sample Collection
Techniques - General Guide standard
protocol was considered when collecting
the samples. A five-collection point
working diagram was used (see Fig. 1).
Measurements were carried out on
temporary samples; a 2l sample was taken;
samples were not preserved, but they were
analyzed
immediately
after
being

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

45

collected; except for the samples for acetic


acid measurement, which were kept frozen
during transport to the analysis laboratory.
The following indicators were determined:
pH, COD, acetic acid, dissolved O2, NO3-,
NO2-, TKN, Ptotal; collection points and
determined indicators for each of them are
shown in Fig. 1.
For quantity determinations, standard
methods were applied.

excepie probele din care s-a dozat acidul


acetic care au fost congelate pe perioada
pstrrii i transportului pn la
laboratorul care a efectuat analiza.
S-au determinat indicatorii: pH, CCO, acid
acetic, CBO, O2 dizolvat, NO3-, NO2-,
NKT, Ptotal; punctele de recoltare i
indicatorii determinai pentru fiecare din
aceste puncte sunt prezentate n Fig. 1 .
La determinrile cantitative s-au aplicat
metodele
standardizate
n
vigoare
aplicabile pentru apa uzat.

Indicator

4
2

pH
CCO
acetic
CBO
O2
NO3NO2NKT
N total
P total

Punct de recoltare/collection point


1
2
3
4
5
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x

Fig. 1 Schema de lucru cu punctele de recoltare i indicatorii determinai: 1 intrare bioreactor (bazin de
aerare); 2 zona anaerob (AN); 3 zona aerob (A); 4 evacuare final; 5 nmol recirculat n bioreactor
Working diagram of collection points and indicators: 1 bioreactor input (aerator); 2 anaerobic
area (AN); 3 aerobic area (A); 4 final discharge; 5 recirculated sludge

2.

Rezultate i discuii

2. Results and Discussions

Punctul nr. 1 intrare bioreactor - valorile


medii obinute pentru indicatorii CCO,
CBO i P la intrarea n treapta biologic au
fost respectiv de 159,3 mg/l, 89,1mg/l i
3,74 mg/l.
Pentru o mai bun caracterizare a
compoziiei apei uzate, s-au determinat
CCO solubil i CBO solubil, respectiv s-au
efectuat determinrile de CCO i CBO pe
probele de ap dup filtrarea pe hrtie de
filtru de porozitate mic (0,4 m).
Rezultatele arat c CCOsolubil reprezint
61,83 % din CCOtotal i are valoare de
98,50 mg/l, iar CBOsolubil reprezint
45,20 % din CBOtotal i are valoarea de
41,30 mg/l.
S-au calculat fraciunile CCO, urmnd
modelul prezentat de Janssen, 2002, [5];
fraciunea non-biodegradabil solubil se
refer la acea parte a CCO care este
46

Point no.1 bioreactor entry average


values for COD, BOD and P for the
biological stage entry were 159.3mg/l,
89.1mg/l and 3.74mg/l respectively.
For a better determination of wastewater
characteristics, soluble COD and BOD
were determined after filtering water
through a low porosity paper filter
(0.4m). Results show that soluble COD is
61.83% of the total COD and measures
98.50mg/l, while the soluble BOD is
45.20% of the total BOD and measures
41.30mg/l.
COD fractions were calculated by
following Janssen`s model ,2002, [5]; nonbiodegradable soluble ratio refers to the
amount of COD that is inert and goes
through the entire treatment process
without suffering any changes, therefore it

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

solubil i inert, i care traverseaz


ntregul proces de epurare fr a suferi
modificri, deci se regsete n efluent. S-a
considerat c fraciunea de CCO solubil
non-biodegradabil este 90% din CCO
solubil al efluentului, deci restul va fi CCO
solubil biodegradabil, adic partea cea mai
important din CCO (a se vedea Fig. 2).
S-a obinut o valoare de 74,47 mg/l CCO
solubil biodegradabil i 24,03 mg/l CCO
solubil non-biodegradabil, care reprezint
75,6 % i respectiv 24,4 % din CCO
solubil. Cea mai eficient surs de carbon
uor biodegradabil este acidul acetic, prin
dozarea acestuia s-a obinut o valoare
medie de 8,43 mg/l.

is contained in the effluent. It was


considered that the soluble nonbiodegradable COD ratio is 90 % of the
effluent soluble COD, therefore the rest of
the COD, which is the most usefull of it,
will be soluble and biodegradable (see
Fig.2).
The following measures were made:
74.47mg/l soluble biodegradable COD and
24.03mg/l soluble non-biodegradable
COD, which account for 75.6% and 24.4%
respectively, of the soluble COD. The
most efficient biodegradable source of
carbon is the acetic acid, its dosage
resulting in an average value of 8.43mg/l.

CCO total
159,3 mg/l
CCO solubil
98,5 mg/l

biodegradabil
74,47 mg/l

Acizi C2-C5
C2 = 8,43 mg/l

non-biodegradabil
24,03 mg/l

CCO insolubil
60,8 mg/l

biodegradabil

non-biodegradabil

ali compui
organici

Fig. 2 Fraciunile CCO n apa uzat influent n bioreactor


COD ratio in bioreactor influent

Din rezultatele obinute se observ de


asemenea c influentul are un coninut
mediu de nitrat de 3,05 mg/l care nu
trebuie neglijat n continuare. n schimb
coninutul de nitrit este nesemnificativ,
valoarea de 0,52 mg/l fiind cu mult sub
limita de 5-8 mg/l considerat a fi nociv
desfurrii procesului.
Punctul nr. 2 zona anaerob bioreactor
n aceast seciune unde are loc prima faz
a procesului, concentraia fosforului are o
valoare medie de 4,09 mg/l ; n aceast
zon are loc eliberarea de fosfor n ap din
mediul intracelular, dar tot aici influentul

The results also show that the influent has


an average nitrate quantity of 3.05 mg/l
which is not to be neglected. On the other
hand the nitrite quantity is insignificant,
0.52mg/l being way under the 5-8mg/l
which is considered to be harmful for the
process.
Point no.2 anaerobic bioreactor area in
this compartment, where the first phase of
the process takes place, the average value
for phosphorus concentration is 4.09mg/l;
here is where the phosphorus is released
into water from cells, and this is also
where the influent is mixed with re-

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

47

este amestecat cu suspensia ap-nmol


recirculat din decantorul secundar, care
conine i ea o cantitate de fosfor. S-au
detreminat concentraiile de oxigen
dizolvat i toate formele de azot, pentru c
n zona anaerob se desfoar i procesul
de denitrificare; concentraia de oxigen
dizolvat este de 0,03 mg/l, iar valoarea
medie a nitratului este de 11,69 mg/l.

circulated sludge from the secondary


clarifier, which also contains some
phosphorus.
Dissolved
oxygen
concentrations and all forms of nitrogen
were determined, because the anaerobic
area is where the de-nitrification process
takes
place;
dissolved
oxygen
concentration is 0.03mg/l, and the nitrate
average value is 11.69mg/l.

Punctul nr. 3 zona aerob bioreactor


este zona n care trebuie asigurat o
cantitate suficient de oxigen pentru a se
produce fosforilarea oxidativ i generarea
de ATP care s fac posibil acumularea
fosforului
intracelular
sub
forma
polifosfailor. De asemenea, oxigenul
dizolvat trebuie s fie suficient pentru a
permite nitrificarea n faza aerob a
procesului. S-a obinut o valoare medie de
2,58 mg/l O2, valoarea concentraiei medii
a nitratului a crescut la 38,15 mg/l, iar cea
a fosforului total a sczut la 3,61 mg/l.

Point no.3 aerobic bioreactor area is the


section that must be supplied with a
sufficient quantity of oxygen in order to
allow oxidative phosphorilation and ATP
generation which will make possible intracellular phosphorus accumulation as
polyphosphates. Also dissolved oxygen
must be sufficient to allow nitrification in
the aerobic phase of the process. An
average O2 of 2.58mg/l was obtained, the
average concentration of nitrate raised to
38.15mg/l, and the total phosphorus
decreased to 3.61mg/l.

Punctul nr. 4 evacuarea final proba


este recoltat la finalizarea etapei
biologice de tratare, adic dup decantorul
secundar. Parametrul care este urmrit n
acest studiu, fosforul total are o valoare de
2,90 mg/l n efluentul final, reducerea
obinut fiind insuficient. Ulterior se vor
analiza i celelalte valori, corelnd valorile
la intrare cu cele la ieire.

Point no.4 final discharge sample is


collected at the end of the biological
treatment stage, which is after the
secondary clarifier. The studied parameter,
total phosphorus, is 2.90mg/l in the final
effluent, removal being insufficient.
Further analysis of the other measurements
will be discussed, correlating the input
with the output measurements.

Punctul nr. 5 nmolul recirculat


prezint o foarte mare importan n
desfurarea proceselor din zona anaerob
cantitatea i calitatea suspensiei ap-nmol
recicirculat
n
bioreactor;
pentru
interpretarea final a rezultatelor prezint
interes indicatorii O2, NO3 - i P , pentru
care s-au obinut respectiv valorile de 0,05
mg/l, 24,94 mg/l i 3,82 mg/l.
Toate valorile medii obinute n aceast
campanie sunt centralizate n Tab. 1 de
mai jos.

Point no.5 re-circulated sludge the


quantity and the quality of the bioreactor
re-circulated sludge suspension is very
important for the anaerobic area processes;
for the final reading of the results the
following indicators are of great interest:
O2, NO3- and P, for which the following
values were obtained 0.05mg/l, 24.94mg/l
and 3.82mg/l respectively.
All the average values obtained in this
study are show in Tab. 1 below

48

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

Tab. 1 Valori medii obinute pentru fiecare punct de recoltare din schema de lucru
Average values obtained from each collection point in the work diagram
Nr.
Pct.

COD

COD
solubil

VFA

mg/l

mg/l

acetic
mg/l

159,30

98,50

8,43

BOD

BOD

O2

NO3-

NNO3

NO2-

NNO2

NKT

N
total

P
total

mg/l

mg/l

mg/l

mg/l

mg/l

mg/l

mg/l

mg/l

3,05

0,69

0,52

0,16

24,09

24,93

3,74

solubil

mg/l

mg/l

89,10

41,30

0,03

11,69

2,64

1,22

0,37

6,53

9,54

4,09

2,58

38,15

8,62

0,11

0,03

1,86

10,52

3,61

35,73

8,08

0,15

0,04

1,99

10,10

2,90

24,94

5,64

43,30

26,70

15,00

7,00

0,05

n Fig. 3 sunt figurate ntr-o schem de


flux valorile finale ale concentraiilor
indicatorilor de interes, precum i debitele
Qi pentru apa influent n bazinul de
aerare i Qr pentru nmolul recirculat.
Utiliznd rezultatele obinute se poate face
o balan masic pentru fosfor i nitrat,
astfel:

2,27

3,82

Final results for the studied parameters and


also influent waste water and recirculated
sludge flows into bioreactor are figured in
a process diagram in Fig. 3. It is possible
to make a mass-balance for the nitrogen
and phosphorus, as it follows:

Qi = 1085 l/s
Pi = 3,74 mg/l
NO3i = 3,05 mg/l

Pf = 2,90 mg/l
NO3f =35,73 mg/l
O2 = 0,03 mg/l
PAN = 4,09 mg/l
NO3AN 11,69mg/l

O2 = 0,05 mg/l
Pr = 3,82 mg/l
NO3r = 24,94 mg/l

O2 = 2,58 mg/l
PA = 3,61 mg/l
NO3A = 38,15 mg/l

Qr = 1545 l/s

Fig. 4 - Rezultate finale pe seciuni de control


Final results displayed on control sections

a) Cantitatea de fosfor care intr n


bioreactor se insumeaz din influent i
nmol recirculat:
Pi x Qi + Pr x Qr = (3,74 x 1085 + 3,82 x
1545 ) x 3600 x 10-6 = 35,85 kg/h
Conc. = 35,85 : 9468 x 1000 = 3,78 mg/l
Concentraia de fosfor determinat n
seciunea nearerat (AN) = 4,09 mg/l
Se elibereaz n ap o cantitate de fosfor

a)
The amount of phosphorus entering
the bioreactor is the sum of the influent
and the re-circulated sludge:
Pi x Qi + Pr x Qr = (3.74 x 1085 + 3.82 x
1545 ) x 3600 x 10-6 = 35.85 kg/h
Conc. = 35.85 : 9468 x 1000 = 3.78 mg/l
The phosphorus concentration determined
in the non-aired compartment (AN) =

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

49

de 4,09-3,78 = 0,31 mg/l


In zona aerat se reduce din ap o cantitate
de fosfor de 4,09-3,61 = 0,48 mg/l
b) Cantitatea de nitrat care intr n
bioreactor se insumeaz din influent i
nmol recirculat:
NO3i x Qi + NO3r x Qr = (3,05 x 1085 +
24,94 x 1545 ) x 3600 x 10-6 = 150,63
kg/h
Conc. = 150,63 : 9468 x 1000 = 15,90
mg/l
Concentraia de nitrat determinat n
seciunea nearerat (AN) = 11,69 mg/l
In zona neaerat se reduce o cantitate de
nitrat de 15,90 11,69 = 4,21 mg/l prin
denitrificare
In zona aerat cantitatea de nitrat din apa
crete cu 38,15-11,69 = 26,46 mg/l
datorit nitrificrii
c) Concentraia de carbon solubil
biodegradabil n influent = 74,47 mg/l
Dup amestecarea cu nmolul recirculat
= 74,47 x 1085 : 2630 = 30,72 mg/l
Deci, la intrare avem: 30,72 mg/l CCO
solubil biodegradabil, 3,78 mg/l fosfor i
15,90 mg/l nitrat
Dup Janssen (1999) citat de Baetens D.
[1] , pentru a reduce 1 mg de fosfor este
nevoie de 10 mg CCO solubil
biodegradabil i de asemenea dup Janssen
.a. 2002 [5] pentru 1 mg de nitrat n zona
anaerob se consum 4 mg de CCO
solubil biodegradabil.
Rezult de aici c necesarul teoretic de
carbon este de 3,78 x10 +15,90 x 4 =
101,4mg/l, iar din datele experimentale a
rezultat o valoare de 30,72 mg/l, ceea ce
explic eficiena sczut a reducerii de
nutrieni.

4.09mg/l.
A quantity of phosphorus of 4.09 3.78
= 0.31mg/l is released into the water
In the aired compartment a quantity of
phosphorus of 4.09 3.61= 0.48mg/l is
removed from water.
b)The amount of nitrate entering the
bioreactor is the sum of the influent and
the re-circulated sludge:
NO3i x Qi + NO3r x Qr = (3.05 x 1085 +
24.94 x 1545 ) x 3600 x 10-6 = 150.63 kg/h
Concentration = 150.63 : 9468 x 1000 =
15.90 mg/l
Nitrate concentration determined in the
non-aired compartment (AN) = 11.69mg/l
A quantity of nitrate of 15.90 11.69 =
4.21 mg/l is removed in the non-aired
compartment by denitrification
In the aired compartment the quantity of
nitrate in the water rises by 38.15-11.69 =
26.46 mg/l because of nitrification
c)Influent concentration of solvable
biodegradable carbon = 74.47 mg/l
After mixing with the re-circulated mud =
74.47 x 1085 : 2630 = 30.72 mg/l
Input
values:
30.72mg/l
solvable
biodegradable
COD,
3.78mg/l
of
phosphorus and 15.90 mg/l nitrate.
According to Janssen (1999) quoted by
Baetens D. [1], in order to remove 1mg of
phosphorus,
10mg
of
solvable
biodegradable COD is needed, and also
according to Janssen et al. 2002 [5] 4 mg
of solvable biodegradable COD is needed
for 1mg of nitrate in the anaerobic area.
Therefore, theoretically, the carbon
demand is 3.78 x 10 + 15.90 x 4 =
101.4mg/l, while from experiment data
resulted 30.72mg/l, which explains the low
efficiency of the nutrient removal.

4.Concluzii

4. Conclusions

O prim concluzie a studiului efectuat este


aceea c efluentul staiei de epurare nu
ndeplinete cerinele legislaiei n vigoare
att n cazul coninutului de fosfor total,
ct i n cazul coninutului de nitrai,
aceste limite fiind de 1mg/l pentru fosfor
i respectiv 25 mg/l pentru nitrai, iar
valorile obinute experimental sunt de 2,90

A first conclusion of this study is that the


effluent of the treatment plant does not
meet the demands of the active legislation,
both for the total phosphorus content and
the nitrate content, the thresholds being
1mg/l for phosphorus and 25mg/l for
nitrates, while the experiment results show
2.90mg/l and 35.73mg/l, respectively.

50

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

mg/l i respectiv 35,73 mg/l.


Analiznd datele
experimentale i
comparnd rezultatele cu bazele teoretice ale
procesului i cu rezultatele cercetrilor
anterioare n domeniu, se constat
urmtoarele:
-sunt ndeplinite condiiile legate de lipsa
oxigenului dizolvat n zona anaerob i n
nmolul recirculat, precum i prezena lui n
zona aerob;
-nitratul este prezent att n apa influent, ct
i n nmolul recirculat, astfel nct zona
anaerob a bioreactorului este de fapt o zon
anox;
-n prima seciune a bioreactorului are loc
eliberarea unei cantiti mici de fosfor n
mediu;
-cantitatea de carbon asimilabil coninut n
apa influent este insuficient, i este
consumat preferenial de bacteriile
denitrificatoare, ns nici denitrificarea nu
este complet;
-n zona aerob are loc nitrificarea, dar faptul
c nu exist o zon pentru denitrificare
(intercalat ntre anaerob i aerob) duce la
depiri ale valorii nitratului n efluentul final,
iar prezena nitratului n nmolul recirculat
micoreaz semnificativ eficiena procesului
de reducere biologic a fosforului;
-se constat o reducere net de 4,9 % a
coninutului de fosfor n treapta biologic, dar
aceast reducere se datoreaz n principal
eliminrii din sistem a nmolului n exces
dup decantarea secundar, i mai puin
proceselor biochimice.
Din aceste constatri referitoare la factorii
care influeneaz procesul biochimic de
reducere a fosforului din apa uzat se
desprind urmtoarele concluzii finale:
1. n configuraia actual instalaia nu se
preteaz la o reducere de fosfor pe cale
biologic, soluia ar fi reducerea prin
precipitare chimic;
2. Pentru a face posibil realizarea proceselor
biochimice de reducere a fosforului elementele
cheie care trebuie proiectate sunt: asigurarea
unei surse suficiente de carbon asimilabil i
aplicarea unei variante tehnologice cu
nitrificare denitrificare reducere de fosfor.

By analyzing the experiment data and


comparing the results with the theoretic base
of the process and with the previous research
results, the following can be observed:
- the requirements regarding the lack of
dissolved oxygen in the anaerobic area and in
the re-circulated mud and the presence of
oxygen in the aerobic area, are met;
- nitrate is found both in the influent water
and the re-circulated mud, so that the
anaerobic section of the bioreactor is, in fact,
anoxic;
- in the first section of the bioreactor, the
release of a small quantity of phosphorus into
the environment takes place;
- the amount of carbon that can be
assimilated, contained in the influent water is
insufficient, and is consumed preferentially
by the de-nitrification bacteria, which is also
an incomplete process ;
- nitrification takes place in the aerobic area,
but since there is no area for de-nitrification
(interlaced between the aerobic and
anaerobic) exceeding of the nitrate levels in
the final effluent take place and the presence
of the nitrate in the re-circulated mud
significantly decreases the efficiency of the
biological phosphorus removal process;
- a flat removal of phosphorus content of
4.9% can be observed in the biological stage,
but this is due mainly to the excess mud
removal from the system after the secondary
decantation, and less to the biochemical
processes.
These observations of the factors that
influence the biochemical phosphorus
removal process from wastewater, lead to the
following final conclusions:
1.The existing configuration of the plant does
not allow for biological phosphorus removal,
a more practical solution being phosphorus
removal by chemical precipitation;
2. In order to make possible the carrying out
of the phosphorus removal biochemical
processes, key elements must be designed
such as: to provide a sufficient
biodegradable carbon source and a
technological solution for nitrification
de-nitrification - phosphorus removal.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

51

Investigaii privind posibilitatea aplicrii procesului de reducere biologic a fosforului n staia de epurare a
apelor uzate Constana Sud
Rsum
L'limination du phosphore est une activit du traitement tertiaire. Le principe de la dphosphoration biologique
consiste dans une suraccumulation de phosphore dans la biomasse. Un aspect dterminant de lefficacit de la
dphosphoration biologique est la quantit de substrats assimilables par les bactries dphosphatantes dans les eaux
uses. Lobjectif final de ce travail est de pouvoir valuer la possibilit d'effectuer une dphosphoration biologique
dans une station dpuration existante. Nous avons faites des recherches sur le bio racteur de linstallation pendant
une mois et les rsultes sont: 74,47 mg/l DCO soluble biodegradable et 24,03 mg/l DCO soluble nonbiodegradable dans leau use, qui represente 75,6% et respectivement 24,4 % du DCO soluble de leau. Les
calcules teoretiques demonstrent que pour obtenir un bon resultat il faut avoir 101,4mg/l DCO soluble
biodegradable pendant que leau use contient 30,72 mg/l DCO soluble biodegradable, ce qui explique lefficacit
rduite dans la station dpuration.
Bibliografie
References
[1] BAETENS D. Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal: modelling and experimental design; Ph.D.Thesis,
2001;
[2] ERDAL U.G. The effects of temperature on system performance and bacterial community structure in
biological phosphorus removal system dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, 2002;
[3] ERDAL Z.K., ERDAL U.G., RANDALL C.W. - Biochemistry of EBPR and anaerobic COD stabilization,
paper ID 117600, IWA 4th World Water Congress, Marrakech, 2004;
[4] JANSSEN P.M.J., MEINEMA K, VAN DER ROEST H.F Biological Phosphorus Removal. Manual of
design and operation. Stowa Report, IWA Publishing. 2002;
[5] JOHNSON B.R, NARAYANAN B., BAUR R,, MENGELKOCH M. High level biological phosphorus
removal failure and recovery WEFTEC, 2006 (www.environmental-expert.com);
[6] KEASLING J.D, S.J VAN DIEN, TRELSTAD P, RENNINGER N, MCMAHON K Application of
Polyphosphate Metabolism to Environmental and Biotechnological Problems, Biochemistry (Moscow), 2000,
vol.65, No.3, p.324-331;
[7] KORTSTEE G.J.J, APPELDOORN K.J, BONTING C.F.G, E.W.J VAN NIEL, H.W VAN VEEN Recent
Developments in the Biochemistry and Ecology of EBPR, Biochemistry (Moscow), 2000, vol.65, No.3, p.332340;
[8] MACHNICKA A, SUSCHKA J, GRUBEL K Phosphorous uptake by filamentous bacteria, paper ID
117101, IWA 4th World Water Congress, Marrakech, 2004;
[9] MEINHOLD J. Biological Phosphorus Removal from municipal Waste Water. Interactions in the anoxic
zone and consequences on process operations, Ph.D.Thesis, 2001;
[10] MINO T Microbial selection of Polyphosphate-Accumulating bacteria in activated sludge wastewater
treatment process, Biochemistry (Moscow), 2000, vol.65, No.3, p.341-348;
[11] PAN A., ROOIU N. - Studiu privind reducerea biologic a fosforului din apa uzat la staia de epurare
Constana Sud (I), revista ROMAQUA, 2007, vol.52, nr.4, p. 64-67;
[12] PUNRATTANASIN W. Investigation of the effects of COD/P ratio on the performance of a biological
nutrient removal system Ph.D Thesis, 1997;
[13] VABOLIENE G., MATUZEVICIUS A.B. Investigation into biological nutrient removal from wastewater
Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management, 2005, Vol.XIII, No.4, p.177-181;
[14] VABOLIENE G., MATUZEVICIUS A. B., VALENTUKEVICIENE M. Effect of nitrogen on phosphate
reduction in biological phosphorus removal from wastewater; Ekologija , 2007, Vol.53. No.1, p.80-88;
[15}VAICUM L. Epurarea apelor uzate cu nmol activ. Bazele biochimice. Ed.Academiei Republicii Socialiste
Romnia, Bucureti, 1981;
[16] VILALTA M.P. Effect of different carbon sources and continuous aerobic conditions on the EBPR process,
Ph.D.Thesis, 2004.
52

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

Model de analiz cu elemente finite


a structurilor rutiere flexibile

Finite Element Analysis Model of


the Flexible Pavement Structures

Constantin Romanescu, prof.dr.ing., Universitatea Tehnic de Construcii Bucureti (Technical University of Civil
Engineering Bucharest), Catedra de Drumuri i Ci Ferate (Department of Roads and Railways), e-mail:
romanescu@cfdp.utcb.ro
tefan Marian Lazr, asist.drd.ing., Universitatea Tehnic de Construcii Bucureti (Technical University of Civil
Engineering Bucharest), Catedra de Drumuri i Ci Ferate (Department of Roads and Railways), e-mail:
lazar@cfdp.utcb.ro

1. Introducere

1. Introduction

Pentru analiza unui sistem stratificat, cum este


structura rutier, exist n prezent diferite
abordri printre care amintim: Metoda
Grosimilor Echivalente (Odemark, 1949 [1]),
Modele Analitice Stratificate (Burmister, 1943
[2]) i Modele cu Elemente Finite
(Zienkiewicz O.C. i Taylor R.L., 1967) [3]).
Metoda Elementelor Distincte (Cundall, 1978
[4]) nu a fost nc dezvoltat pn la punctul
n care s poat fi inclus ntr-o procedur de
proiectare a structurilor rutiere.

For the analysis of a layered system, like a


pavement, different approaches exist at
present, among which we mention: the
Method of Equivalent Thicknesses (Odemark,
1949 [1]), Layered Analytical Models
(Burmister, 1943 [2]) and Finite Element
Models (Zienkiewicz O.C. and Taylor R.L.,
1967 [3]). The Distinct Element Method
(Cundall, 1978 [4]) has not yet been
developed to a point where it can be included
in a pavement design procedure.

Modelele curente de proiectare a structurilor


rutiere consider structurile rutiere i
fundaiile lor ca un ansamblu de straturi
orizontale continuue, izotrope, linear elastice
extinse infinit n direciile orizontale.

Current pavement design models treat the


pavement and its foundation as a set of
horizontal, continuous, isotropic, linear elastic
layers extending infinitely in horizontal
directions.

Recent au fost dezvoltate mai multe modele


mecanice, care ncorporeaz unele aspecte de
comportare nelinear, vscoas/plastic a
materialelor, cu
anizotropie, ncrcri
dinamice, materiale granulare (discontinuue)
etc. Totui, aceste modele avansate nu sunt
nc aplicate n practica curent de proiectare
a structurilor rutiere. Ele trebuie s fie
apreciate critic n condiii bine definite.

Recently a number of mechanistic models


have been developed, which incorporate some
aspects
of
non-linear,
viscous/plastic
behaviour of materials, with anisotropy,
dynamic loads, granular (non-continous)
materials etc. However, these advanced
models are not yet applied in current daily
pavement design practice. They need to be
critically assessed under well defined
conditions.

Scopul acestei lucrri este de a dezvolta un


model cu elemente finite pentru analiza strii
de tensiuni i deformaii a structurilor rutiere
flexibile. Astfel, utiliznd un program bazat pe
Modelare cu Elemente Finite (MEF) a fost
dezvoltat i analizat un model cu elemente
finite 2D axialsimetrice.

The objective of this paper is to develop a


finite element model for the states of stress
and strain analysis of flexible pavement
structures. Thus, using a software based on
Finite Element Modeling (FEM) a 2D
axisymmetric finite element model was
developed and analysed.

Pentru validarea modelului rezultatele obinute

For the validation of the model, the results

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

53

cu programul LUSAS n domeniul elastic au


fost comparate cu cele obinute n aceleai
ipoteze i condiii utiliznd programele
CALDEROM 2000 i ALIZE bazate pe teoria
multistrat elastic.

obtained in the elastic domain with the


LUSAS program were compared with those
obtained in the same assumptions and
conditions using the CALDEROM 2000 and
ALIZE programmes based on the elastic
multilayer theory.

Metodele tradiionale de proiectare a


structurilor rutiere, precum i cea romneasc
din PD 177-2001 [5] consider c sistemul
rutier este solicitat de o sarcin circular cu
presiunea vertical uniform, reprezentnd
greutatea semiosiei standard cu roi gemene,
transmis pe o suprafa circular echivalent
suprafeei de contact pneu-drum i aplicat n
axa de simetrie a modelului.

The traditional design methods of the flexible


pavement structures, as well the Romanian
method from PD 177-2001 [5] consider that
the pavement system is subjected to a circular
load with uniform vertical pressure,
representing the weight of standard semi-axle
with dual wheels, transmited on a circular
surface equivalent to the tire-road contact
surface and applied in the symmetry axis of
the model.

Adoptarea acestor ipoteze simplificatoare i


pentru modelul cu elemente finte permite
rezolvarea problemei distribuiei strii de
tensiune a unei structuri rutiere printr-o
analiz axialsimetric. Din aceste considerente
s-a urmrit dezvoltarea unui model cu
elemente finite axialsimetrice.

The adoption of these simplified assumptions


also for the finite element model allow the
stress state distribution problem resolving of a
pavement structure by an axisymmetrical
analysis. From this considerations the
development of a model with axisymmetric
finite elements was intended.

2. Analiza strii de tensiune axialsimetric

2. Axisymmetric Stress Analysis

Problema distribuiei strii de tensiune n


corpuri de revoluie (solide axialsimetrice) sub
ncrcare axialsimetric este de un
considerabil interes practic.

The problem of stress distribution in bodies of


revolution (axisymmetric solids) under
axisymmetric loading is of considerable
practical interest.

Datorit simetriei, componentele deplasrilor


ntr-o seciune ce trece prin axa de simetrie
definesc complet starea de deformare i de
tensiuni din structura tridimensional. Aceast
particularitate permite ca starea de tensiuni s
nu mai fie tratat printr-o analiz 3D, ci un caz
particular al problemelor 2D de stare plan de
deformaie. Modelarea solidului axialsimetric
se face cu elemente finite speciale de forma
unor inele cu seciune transversal constant.
O asemenea seciune transversal este
prezentat n Figura 1.

Due to symmetry, the displacement


components in a section which passes through
the axis of symmetry define completely the
state of strain and stress from the
tridimensional structure. This singularity
allows the state of stresses to be no longer
treated by a 3D analysis, but as a particular
case of the 2D plane strain problems. The
axisymmetric solid modeling is made with
special finite elements in the form of some
rings with constant cross-section. Such a
cross-section is shown in Figure 1.

Dac r i z indic coordonatele radiale


respectiv axiale ale unui punct, cu u i v fiind
deplasrile corespunztoare, se poate observa
cu uurin c exact aceleai funcii de
deplasare ca n cazul strii plane de tensiune i

If r and z denote the radial and axial


coordinates of a point respectively, with u and
v being the corresponding displacements, it
can readily be seen that precisely the same
displacement functions as, in case of the plane

54

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

stress and plane strain state, can be used to


define the displacements within the
quadrilateral finite element (i, j , m, n ) .

strii plane de deformaie pot fi folosite pentru


a defini deplasrile din interiorul elementului
finit patrulater (i, j , m, n ) .

z(v)

r(u)
Fig. 2.1. Element finit al unui solid axialsimetric
Finite element of an axisymmetric solid

Volumul de material asociat unui element finit


este acum ca cel al unui corp de revoluie
(Figura 1) i toate integralele se vor referi la
acesta.

The volume of material associated with a


finite element is now that of a body of
revolution (Figure 1) and all integrations have
to be referred to this.

Problema axialsimetric difer de starea plan


de deformaie prin faptul c deformaia
specific normal pe planul seciunii
transversale este diferit de zero i trebuie
explicitat n vectorul deformaiilor specifice.
n consecin i tensiunile n aceast direcie
vor fi diferite de zero.

The axisymmetrical problem differs from the


plane strain state by the fact that the normal
strain on the cross-section plane is non-zero
and must be explained in the strains vector. In
consequence the stresses in this direction will
also be non-zero.

2.1. Funcia deplasare

2.1. Displacement Function

Folosind un element finit de form patrulater


(Figura 1) cu nodurile i, j , m, n numerotate n
sens antiorar, se definesc deplasrile nodale
prin cele dou componente ale lor:

Using the quadrilateral shape of a finite


element (Figure 1) with the nodes i, j , m, n
numbered in the anticlockwise sense, the
nodal displacement are defined by its two
components as:

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

55

u
vi

i = i
i deplasarea elementului prin vectorul:

(2.1)

and the element displacements by the vector:

i


= j
m
n

Cmpul deplasrilor din interiorul elementului


este dat de ecuaiile:

(2.2)

The displacement field within the element is


given by the equations:
n

u (r, z ) = N i ( , )u i
i =1

v(r, z ) = N i ( , )vi

(2.3)

i =1

sau

or

u
= [N ]{}
v

(2.4)

2.2. Deformaia specific

2.2. Strain

n analiza axialsimetric sunt considerate doar


patru componente ale deformaiei. Figura 2
ilustreaz aceste deformaii i tensiunile
corespunztoare.

In the axisymmetrical analysis only four


components of strain are considered. Figure 2
illustrates these strains and associated stresses.

Fig. 2.2. Deformaiile i tensiunile implicate n analiza solidelor axialsimetrice


Strains and stresses involved in the analysis of axisymmetric solids

56

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

n continuare este definit vectorul deformaie


cu componentele sale exprimate n raport cu
deplasrile unui punct.

Next, the strain vector is defined with its


components expressed in terms of the
displacements of a point.

u
r
r v

z z
= =
u

rz r
u + v
z r
Folosind funciile deplasrii definite prin
ecuaiile (2.3) sau (2.4) obinem:

n care

(2.5)

Using the displacement functions defined by


equations (2.3) or (2.4) we have:
= B
(2.6)
in which

N i
r

0
Bi =
Ni
r
N i

0
N i

z , etc.;
0

N i

(2.7)

analog pentru fiecare nod al elementului.

analogue for each node of the element.

2.3. Deformaia specific iniial (deformaia


specific termic)

2.3. Initial Strain (thermal strain)

n general, se pot lua n considerare toate cele


patru componente independente ale vectorului
deformaiei specifice iniiale:

In general, four independent components of


the initial strain vector can be envisaged:

r0


0 = z0
0
rz 0

Cea mai frecvent situaie ntlnit de


deformaie specific iniial este cea datorat
expansiunii termice. Pentru un material
izotrop vom avea:

(2.8)

The most frequently encountered case of


initial strain is that due to thermal expansion.
For an isotropic material we will have:

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

57

1
1
e
0 =
1
0

(2.9)

unde este creterea medie de temperatur


ntr-un element finit i este coeficientul
expansiunii termice.

where is the average temperature rise in a


finite element and is the coefficient of
thermal expansion.

2.4. Matricea de elasticitate

2.4. Elasticity Matrix

Matricea de elasticitate D, stabilete legtura


dintre deformaiile specifice i tensiunile
sub forma standard:

The elasticity matrix D introduce the link


between the strains and the stresses in
the standard form:

r


= z = D( 0 ) + 0 .

rz

(2.10)

Pentru un material izotrop putem obine


For an isotropic material we can obtain the D
matricea D de forma:
matrix of the form:

1
0
E

D=
(2.11)

1
0
(1 + )(1 2 )

(1 2 ) / 2
0
0
0

2.5. Matricea de rigiditate

2.5. The Stiffness Matrix

Matricea de rigiditate a elementului finit ijmn


The stiffness matrix of the finite element ijm
poate fi calculat n conformitate cu relaia
can be computed according to the following
general urmtoare:
general relationship:
e
T
T
e
e

2
K = V B DBd (vol ) = A 0 B DBrddA = 2 Ae B T DBrdA
(2.12)
with B given by equation (2.7) and D by
cu B dat de ecuaia (2.7) i D de ecuaia
(2.11), depinznd de material.
equation (2.11), depending on the material.

2.6. Evaluarea tensiunilor

2.6. Evaluation of Stresses

Matricea tensiunilor va fi de forma:

The stress matrix will be of the form:


= DB D 0 + 0
(2.13)
3. Prezentarea modelului cu elemente finite
3. 2D Axisymmetric Finite Element Model
2D axialsimetrice
Presentation
e

n continuare este prezentat modelul cu elemente


finite 2D axialsimetrice realizat utiliznd
elemente finite axialsimetrice din biblioteca
programului de calcul automat LUSAS [6].
58

Next, the 2D axisymmetric finite element


model is presented developed by using
axisymmetric finite elements from the LUSAS
computer program library [6].

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

Modelul se afl n momentul de fa n etapa


de evaluare a capacitii sale de rezolvare a
problemelor de analiz a structurilor rutiere
flexibile.

Actually, the model is in the evaluation stage


of its capacity to solve the analysis problems
of flexible pavement structures.

3.1. Modelul cu elemente finite

3.1. The Finite Element Model

Straturile structurii rutiere au fost modelate cu


elemente finite 2D de tip solid axialsimetric,
n form de patrulater, cu 8 noduri n
formulare izoparametric.

The pavement structure layers have been


modeled with 2D finite elements of
axisymmetric solid type, of quadrilateral form,
with eight nodes in isoparametric formulation.

Pentru structura rutier s-a ales o discretizare


de form aproape regulat. Pentru terenul de
fundare s-a folosit acelai tip de elemente
finite dar cu discretizare neregulat.

For the pavement structure a mesh was


selected of an almost regular form. For the
subgrade the same type of finite elements was
used, but with non-regular mesh.

n scopul de a optimiza performana


programului de calcul i pentru a mbunti
rspunsul modelului la solicitarea osiei
standard numai structura rutier de sub
ncrcare i de lng axa de simetrie are o
discretizare foarte dens.

In order to optimize the software capacity and


to improve the model response to the standard
axle load only the pavement under the load
and near the symmetry axis has a very dense
mesh.

Dimensiunile finale ale modelului cu


elemente finite s-au stabilit prin ncercri
succesive avnd n vedere satisfacerea
condiiilor de margine (de rezemare) care
impun atingerea la o anumit distan pe
vertical i pe orizontal fa de ncrcare a
unei stri de tensiuni i deformaii nule aa
cum se ntmpl i n realitate.

The final dimensions of the finite element


model have been established by successive
tests having in view the border (support)
conditions which impose the reach of a zero
state of stresses and strains to a certain
distance on vertical and horizontal direction
vis a vis of the load as it happens in reality.

Fig. 3.1. Modelul cu elemente finite 2D axialsimetrice


2D axisymmetric finite element model

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

59

3.2. Ipotezele de calcul

3.2. Calculation Assumptions

Pentru studiul strii de tensiuni i deformaii


specifice, s-au fcut urmtoarele ipoteze:
- uniti de msur: N, m, kg, s, C;
- discretizarea s-a realizat cu elemente
finite izoparametrice axialsimetrice de
tip QAX8;
- toate straturile sistemului rutier
lucreaz n domeniul elastic;
- straturile sunt perfect legate la
interfa;
- solicitarea osiei standard de 115 kN
este aplicat pe amprenta pneului;
de
tensiune
este
una
- starea
axialsimetric;

For the study of the stress and strain state, the


following assumptions were made:
- measure units: N, m, kg, s, C;
was
performed
with
- meshing
isoparametric finite elements of QAX8
axisymmetrical type;
- all the pavement structure layers work
in the elastic domain;
- the layers are perfect bonded at the
interface;
- the 115 kN standard axle loading is
applied on the tire contact area
(footprint);
- the state of stress is an axisymmetrical
one;

Caracteristicile ncrcrii cu osia standard de


115 kN sunt urmtoarele:
- sarcina pe roile gemene:
57,5 kN;
- presiunea de contact:
0,625 MPa;
- raza suprafeei de contact: 17,1 cm.

The standard axle load characteristics of 115


kN are the following:
- dual wheel load:
57,5 kN;
- contact pressure:
0,625 MPa;
- contact surface radius: 17,1 cm.

3.3. Structura rutier analizat

3.3. The Analysed Pavement Structure

Alctuirea structurii rutiere flexibile supuse


analizei prin metoda elementelor finite,
precum i caracteristicile materialelor sunt
prezentate n tabelul 3.1.

The structure of the flexible pavement system


subjected to analysis by the finite element
method, as well as the material characteristics
are presented in the table 3.1.

Tabelul 3.1. Caracteristicile structurii rutiere


Table 3.1. Properties of the pavement structure
Material n strat structur rutier/
Material in pavement structure layer

Grosime/
Thickness,
h, cm

Beton asfaltic/ Asphalt concrete, BAR 16


Binder/ Binder, BAD 25
Anrobat bituminos/ Bituminous coated, AB 2
Material granular/ Granular material
Teren de fundare tip/ Subgrade type P5

4
5
8
15

Modul de elasticitate
dinamic/
Dynamic elasticity modulus,
E, MPa
3600
3000
5000
300
70

Coeficientul lui
Poisson/
Poissons ratio,

0,35
0,35
0,35
0,27
0,42

4. Rezultatele evalurii modelului cu


elemente finite

4. Results of the Finite Element Model


Evaluation

S-a urmrit estimarea rspunsului structurii


rutiere n puncte sale critice:
r ( E x ) = deformaia specific orizontal
la partea de jos a straturilor asfaltice;
z ( E y ) = deformaia specific vertical

The estimation of the pavement response at its


critical points was intended:
r ( E x ) = horizontal strain at the bottom
of the asphalt layers;
z ( E y ) = vertical strain at the top of the

60

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

la partea de sus a terenului de fundare.

subgrade.

n plus la fiecare interfa dintre straturi s-au


calculat urmtorii parametri:
D y = deplasrile verticale;

In addition at each interface between layers


the following parameters were calculated:
D y = vertical displacements;

S y , S x = tensiunile verticale, respectiv

S y , S x = vertical, respectively horizontal

orizontale;
E y , E x = deformaiile specifice verticale,

stresses;
E y , E x = vertical, respectively horizontal

respectiv orizontale.

strains.

n urma efecturii analizei a rezultat starea de


tensiuni i deformaii specifice n stadiul de
comportare linear elastic.

After performing the analysis the stresses and


strains state in the elastic linear behaviour
stage resulted.

n figurile 7, 9, 11, 13, 15 sunt prezentate


variaia strii de deplasare, respectiv de
tensiuni i deformaii specifice n trei seciuni
situate fa de axa de simetrie a modelului:
- n axa de ncrcare, la distana l = 0
m;
- la marginea suprafeei de ncrcare, la
distana l = 0,171 m;
- la limita de influen a ncrcrii, la
distana l = 1 m.

In figures 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, the displacement


state variation, the stresses and strains state
variation respectively are presented in three
sections situated from the model axis of
symmetry:
- in the loading axis, at the distance
l = 0 m;
- at the loading surface border, at the
distance l = 0,171 m;
- at the loading influence limit, at the
distance l = 1 m.

4.1. Forma deformat a structurii analizate

4.1. Deformed Shape of the Analysed


Structure

Fig. 4.1. Deformata modelului cu elemente finite


Finite element model deformed mesh

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

61

Fig. 4.2. Forma deformat comparativ cu cea nedeformat a modelului


Deformed mesh compared to the undeformed one of the model

4.2. Starea de deplasare n direcie vertical

4.2. The State of Displacement in Vertical


Direction

Fig. 4.3. Starea de deplasare vertical a modelului


Vertical displacement state of the model

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Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

Deplasarea verticala

Vertical displacement

Dy, microdef.
0,000
0,00

50,000

100,000

150,000

200,000

250,000

300,000

350,000

0,20

0,40

0,60
h, m

Dy l=0m
Dy l=0,171m
Dy l=1m

0,80

1,00

1,20

1,40

Fig. 4.4. Deplasarea vertical a modelului n diferite seciuni


Vertical displacement of the model in different sections

4.3. Starea de tensiuni i deformaii specifice

4.3. The State of Stresses and Strains

Figura 4.5. Variaia tensiunii n direcie vertical;


Convenie de semne n LUSAS: (+) ntindere; (-) compresiune.
Stress variation in vertical direction;
Signs convention in LUSAS: (+) tension; (-) compression.
Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

63

Tensiunea verticala

Vertical stress

Sy, MPa
-0,100

0,000
0,00

0,100

0,200

0,300

0,400

0,500

0,600

0,700

0,20

0,40

0,60
h, m

Sy l=0m
Sy l=0,171m
Sy l=1m

0,80

1,00

1,20

1,40

Figura 4.6. Variaia tensiunii n direcie vertical n diferite seciuni;


Convenie de semne: (-) ntindere; (+) compresiune.
Stress variation in vertical direction in different sections;
Signs convention: (-) tension; (+) compression.

Fig. 4.7. Variaia tensiunii n direcie orizontal;


Convenie de semne n LUSAS: (+) ntindere;(-) compresiune.
Variaia tensiunii n direcie orizontal;
Convenie de semne n LUSAS: (+) ntindere;(-) (-) compression.
64

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

Tensiunea orizontala

Horizontal stress

Sx, MPa
-1,000

-0,500

0,000
0,00

0,500

1,000

1,500

2,000

0,20

0,40

h, m

0,60

0,80

Sx l=0m
Sx l=0,171m
Sx l=1m

1,00

1,20

1,40

Fig. 4.8. Variaia tensiunii n direcie orizontal n diferite seciuni;


Convenie de semne: (-) ntindere; (+) compresiune.
Stress variation in horizontal direction in different sections;
Signs convention: (-) tension; (+) compression

Fig. 4.9. Variaia deformaiei specifice n direcie vertical;


Convenie de semne n LUSAS: (+) ntindere;(-) compresiune.
Strain variation in vertical direction;
Signs convention in LUSAS: (+) tension; (-) compression.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

65

Deformatia specifica verticala

Vertical strain

Ey, microdef.
-200,000

-100,000

0,000
0,00

100,000

200,000

300,000

400,000

500,000

600,000

0,20

0,40

0,60
h, m

Ey l=0m
Ey l=0,171m
Ey l=1m

0,80

1,00

1,20

1,40

Fig. 4.10. Variaia deformaiei specifice n direcie vertical n diferite seciuni;


Convenie de semne: (-) ntindere; (+) compresiune
Strain variation in vertical direction in different sections;
Signs convention: (-) tension; (+) compression.

Fig. 4.11. Variaia deformaiei specifice n direcie orizontal;


Convenie de semne n LUSAS: (+) ntindere;(-) compresiune.
Strain variation in horizontal direction;
Signs convention in LUSAS: (+) tension;(-) compression.

66

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

Deformatia specifica orizontala

Horizontal strain

Ex, microdef.
-300,000 -250,000 -200,000 -150,000 -100,000 -50,000

0,000
0,00

50,000

100,000 150,000

200,000

250,000

0,20

0,40

0,60
h, m

Ex l=0m
Ex l=0,171m
Ex l=1m

0,80

1,00

1,20

1,40

Fig. 4.12. Variaia deformaiei specifice n direcie orizontal n diferite seciuni;


Convenie de semne: (-) ntindere; (+) compresiune
Strain variation in horizontal direction in different sections;
Signs convention: (-) tension; (+) compression.
.5. Validarea modelului cu elemente finite

5. Finite Element Model Validation

Pentru validarea modelului cu elemente finite


2D axialsimetrice rezultatele obinute cu
programul LUSAS n domeniul elastic au fost
comparate cu cele obinute n aceleai ipoteze
i condiii utiliznd programele CALDEROM
2000 i ALIZE.

For validation of the 2D axisymmetric finite


element model, the results obtained in the
elastic domain with the LUSAS program were
compared with those obtained in the same
assumptions and conditions using the
CALDEROM 2000 and ALIZE programmes.

Programul CALDEROM 2000 face parte


integrant
din
Normativul
pentru
dimensionarea sistemelor rutiere suple i
semirigide [5], el fiind utilizat n practica
curent de proiectare.

The CALDEROM 2000 program is an integral


part of the Norm for structural design of
flexible and semirigid pavement systems [5],
which is being used in the current design
practice.

Programul de calcul ALIZ [7], dezvoltat de


ctre LCPC (Laboratoire Central des Ponts et
Chausses) n anii 1965 [8], este programul de
referin utilizat n Metoda francez de
dimensionare a structurilor rutiere (LCPC,
1994) [9].

The ALIZ calculation program [7],


developed by the LCPC (Central Bridges and
Roads Laboratory) in the years 1965 [8], is
the reference program used in the French
method of pavement structural design
(LCPC, 1994) [9].

Programele CALDEROM 2000 i ALIZE se


bazeaz ambele pe rezolvarea analitic, cu
ajutorul modelului multistrat elastic Burmister
[2], a strii de tensiune i de deformaie sub

The CALDEROM 2000 and ALIZE


programmes are based both on the analytical
solution of the stress and strain pavement
system state under load, with the aid of

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

67

sarcin a sistemului rutier.

Burmister elastic multilayer model [2].

Structura este modelat prin straturi elastice


lineare izotrope i omogene infinite n plan, de
grosime finit, cu excepia terenului de
fundare semiinfinit, iar solicitrile date de
pneuri sunt asimilate cu ncrcri circulare
statice, exercitate ca eforturi verticale
(greutatea vehiculului).

The structure is modelled by linear elastic,


isotropic and homogeneous layers extending
infinitely in plan, of finite thickness, except
for the semiinfinite subgrade soil, and the tire
loads are assimilated with static circular loads
applied as vertical efforts (vehicle weight).

Problema mecanic, n forma sa general, este


cea a unui solid elastic linear izotrop. Ecuaiile
de echilibru i relaiile ntre tensiuni i
deformaii conform Mecanicii Mediului
Continuu conduc la rezolvarea ntr-un reper
axialsimetric (Figura 16) a unei ecuaii de
tipul:

The mechanic problem, in its general form, is


one of a linear elastic isotropic solid. The
equilibrium equations and the relationships
between stresses and strains according to the
Continuous Medium Mechanics lead to the
solution into an axisymmetric landmark
(Figure 16) of an equation of the type:

2 (r, z ) = 0

unde:

este operatorul biarmonic

where:

(5.1)

2 1
2
= 2 +
+ 2
r
r
r
z

is the biharmonic operator


2

(5.2)

Fig. 5.1. Tensiunile n reperul axialsimetric - Coordonate cilindrice


Stresses in axisymmetric landmark - Cylindrical coordinates

Studiul comparativ al modelului cu elemente


finite 2D axialsimetrice dezvoltat de ctre
autori cu cele dou modele multistrat elastice
Burmister const din analiza n stadiul linear
elastic al unei structuri rutiere flexibile supuse
ncrcrii osie standard de 115 kN. Ipotezele
referitoare la proprietile materialelor din
alctuirea straturilor, parametri de proiectare
utilizai, condiiile de ncrcare sunt aceleai

68

The comparative study of the 2D


axisymmetric finite element model developed
by the authors with the two Burmister elastic
multilayer models consists from the analysis
in the linear elastic stage of a flexible
pavement structure subjected to the standard
axle loading of 115 kN. The assumptions
referring to the materials properties from the
layers structure, the design parameters used,
pentru cele trei modele comparate. n plus,
modelele apeleaz la un reper axialsimetric.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

Diferena fundamental o constituie modul de


rezolvare al problemei, nti prin metoda
elemetului finit i apoi prin teoria multistrat
elastic.
n cadrul prezentului studiu comparativ s-a
urmrit estimarea rspunsului structurii rutiere
n puncte sale critice:

r = deformaia specific orizontal la


partea de jos a straturilor asfaltice;
z = deformaia specific vertical la
partea de sus a terenului de fundare.
Rezultatele analizei structurii rutiere suple n
stadiul de comportare linear elastic cu cele
trei programe de calcul sunt prezentate n
tabelul 5.1.

the loading conditions are the same for the


three compared models. In addition, the
models appeal to an axisymmetric landmark.
The fundamental difference is made by the
problem solving manner, first by the finite
element method and then by the elastic
multilayer theory.
Within the framework of the present
comparative study the evaluation of the
pavement structure response in its critical
locations has been pursue:
r = horizontal strain at the bottom of the
asphalt layers;
z = vertical strain at the top of the
subgrade.
The analysis results of the flexible pavement
structure in the stage of the linear elastic
behaviour with the three calculation
programmes are presented in table 5.1.

Tabelul 5.1. Compararea rezultatelor LUSAS versus CALDEROM 2000 i ALIZE


Table 5.1. Comparison of the LUSAS results versus CALDEROM 2000 and ALIZE

Numele
programului/
Software name

Metoda folosit
n modelul de
tip rspuns/
Method used in
response model
type

Deformaia specific orizontal


de ntindere la baza straturilor
bituminoase/
Horizontal tensile strain at the
bottom of the asphalt layers,
r*, microdef.

MEF Axialsimetrice/
LUSAS
FEM Axisymmetric
Multistrat/
CALDEROM 2000
Multilayer
Multistrat/
ALIZE
Multilayer
* valori absolute/ absolute values

Deformaia specific vertical


de compresiune la nivelul
patului drumului/
Vertical compressive strain at
the top of the subgrade,
z*, microdef.

184,36

470,56

194,00

687,00

193,10

683,60

Din analiza tabelului 2 rezult c valorile


modelului
cu
elemente
finite
2D
axialsimetrice calculate cu programul LUSAS
se conformeaz rezultatelor calculelor
efectuate cu programele CALDEROM 2000 i
ALIZE ale cror valori sunt luate drept etalon.

From the analysis in Table 2 it results that the


2D axisymmetric finite element model values
calculated by LUSAS program conformed
well to the calculation results performed with
CALDEROM 2000 and ALIZE programmes
of which values are taken as standard.

6. Concluzii

6. Conclusions

n urma acestui studiu reiese capacitatea


modelului
cu
elemente
finite
2D
axialsimetrice de rezolvare a problemelor de

As a result of this study the capability of the


2D axisymmetric finite element model to
resolving the pavement structures analysis

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

69

analiz a structurilor rutiere.

problems is revealed.

Validarea modelului cu elemente finite


permite utilizarea acestuia la viitoare calcule
numerice a altor structuri rutiere.

The finite element model validation allows its


use into further numerical calculations of other
pavement structures.

Pentru utilizarea modelului la proiectarea


structurilor rutiere flexibile este ns nevoie de
calibrarea acestuia prin compararea valorilor
obinute n urma analizei cu msurtorile
efectuate pe sectoare experimentale la scar
real.

For the use of the model to the design of


flexible pavement structures its calibration is
also needed by comparison to the values
obtained after analysis with the measurements
performed to a real scale on experimental
sections.

Modle de lanalyse avec des lments finis des structures de chausses souples
Rsum
Lobjectif de ce papier est dvelopper un modle avec des lments finis pour les analyse de ltats des contraintes
et des dformations spcifiques des structures de chausses souples. Donc, utiliser un logiciel bas sur le
Modlisation par lments Finis il a t dvelopp et a analys un modle avec des lments finis 2D
axisymtrique. Pour validation du modle, les rsultats obtenus dans domaine lastique avec le programme LUSAS
ont t compars avec ceux obtenus dans les mmes suppositions et conditions utilisent les programmes
CALDEROM 2000 et ALIZE bases sur la thorie du multicouche lastique. Dans ltude a rsult validation du
modle par lments finis et la possibilit de son usage dans calculs numriques supplmentaires dautres structures
des chausses. Pour lusage du modle la dimensionnement des chausses souples il est aussi exig de son
calibrage.
Bibliografie
References
[1] ODEMARK, N., Underskning av elasticitetegenskaperna hos olika jordarter saint teori fr belkning av
behigningar enligt elasticitetsteorin, Statens Vginstitut, meddelande 77, 1949.
[2] BURMISTER, D.M., The theory of the stress and displacements in layered systems and applications of design
of airport runway, Proceeding of the Highway Research Board, 23, 1943, pp. 126-148.
[3] ZIENKIEWICZ, O.C. i TAYLOR, R.L., The Finite Element Method, 1st ed., Vol. 1: The Basis, McGraw-Hill,
1967
[4] CUNDALL, P.A., BALL - A Programme to Model Granular Media using the Distinct Element Method, Dames
& Moore, Advanced Technology Group, Technical Note No. TN-LN-13, 1978.
[5] ***, Normativ pentru dimensionarea sistemelor rutiere suple i semirigide. (Metoda analitic), ind. PD
177-2001
[6] ***, Lusas Theory Manual, FEA Ltd., Forge House, Kingston Upon Thames, United Kingdom, 1999.
[7] Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussees L.C.P.C., Aliz, Logiciel de calcul des contraintes et deformations
dans un milieu multi-couches elastique lineaire applique aux structures de chaussees, Hugues Odon,
novembre 1991.
[8] LCPC, Comportement statique des chausses - Problmes symtrie axiale - Mthode de Burmister - Rapport
n2 du SEMA, Rapport technique, LCPC-SEMA, 1964.
[9] LCPC, Conception et dimensionnement des structures de chausses, Guide Technique, LCPC-SETRA, 1994.
[10] LAZR, .M., i BALCU, M., Studiul comportrii structurilor rutiere utiliznd diverse modele matematice de
calcul, Simpozionul tiinific Investigarea Strii Tehnice i Procedee de Remediere Utilizate la Drumuri,
U.T.C.B., Bucureti 28 iunie 2002
70

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

Calculul coeficientului de transfer


termic al co2, la vaporizarea intrun schimbator de caldura cu
minicanale

Calculation Of The Co2 Thermal


Transfer Coefficient For Vaporization
Inside A Heat Exchanger With MiniChannels

Daniela Maria EREMIA- drd.ing. Universitatea Tehnica de Constructii Bucuresti (Technical University of Civil
Engineering Bucharest), Catedra de Termotehnica (Termotehnical Department), e-mail: danaeremia@gmail.com

I. Introducere

I. Introduction

Domeniu utilizrii fluidelor naturale ca ageni


frigorifici este un domeniu foarte variat, n
sensul c ,n locul
celor din grupa
substanelor de tip cloro+floro+carboni, la
care suntem nevoii s renunm n urma
restriciilor impuse de reglementrile
referitoare la protectia mediului: Protocolul de
la Montreal si Protocolul de la Kyoto. Este
cunoscut c freonii au o aciune agresiv
asupra stratului de Ozon din stratosfer (cei de
tip CFC sau HCFC) i sunt gaze cu efect de
ser, contribuind la nclzirea atmosferei
terestre, nct o soluie la nlocuirea lor cu alte
substane mai prietenoase o constituie
utilizarea fluidelor naturale: amoniacul,
bioxidul de carbon, apa, etc.

The usage of natural fluids as cooling agents


constitutes a diverse field, as a consequence of
the replacement of agents of type Chlor + Fluor
+ Brom, which are restricted by the
environment protection provisions of the Kyoto
Protocol and Montreal Protocol. It is known
that freons are aggressive to the ozone layer
from stratosphere (those of type CFC and
HCFC) and that they are greenhouse effect
gases, contributing to the warming of the
terrestrial atmosphere, and therefore, a solution
would be given by their replacement with more
environmental friendly substances, like the
natural fluids: ammonia, carbon dioxide,
water, etc.

II. Standul experimental

II. Experimental Setup

Anii de cercetare au determinat curiozitatea


autorului de a investiga experimental
performantele tehnice ale unui vaporizator
cu minicanale, la curgerea bifazic a CO2.
Pentru analiz, s-a realizat un stand
experimental,
special
amenajat
n
Laboratorul de Termotehic din cadrul
Facultii de Instalaii a Universitii
Tehnice de Construcii Bucureti.
n ceea ce privete concepia standului,
acesta ofer posibilitatea confirmrii
suprafeei optime a vaporizatorului la
funcionarea n circuit deschis, atat pentru
aer cat si pentru CO2 (vaporii produsi sunt
evacuati in atmosfera). Avantajul acestui
sistem este simplitatea, nefiind necesara
decat o butelie de CO2 lichid, un ventil de
laminare si un vaporizator racit cu aer, deci
portiunea de joasa presiune a unei instalatii
frigorifice.

The years spent in research have triggered the


authors curiosity to investigate experimentally
the technical performances of a minichannel
vaporizer, for biphasic flow of CO2. An
experimental setup was built in the Laboratory
for Thermotechnics from the Faculty of
Building Services of the Technical University
of Civil Engineering Bucharest.
Related to the setup design, this offers the
possibility to confirm the optimal surface of
vaporizer functioning in open circuit, for both air
and CO2 (the produced vapors are released into the
atmosphere). The advantage associated with this
system is its simplicity, requiring only a vessel of
liquid CO2, a lamination valve and an air-cooled
vaporizer therefore, the low-pressure part of a
refrigeration machine.

The testing setup contains ALP pipe work, on


which it was mounted a heat exchanger with

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

71

Standul de testare cuprinde o tubulatura din


ALP pe care a fost montat un schimbator de
cldur cu minicanale, 16 tevi pe prima
trecere, 9 tevi pe a doua trecere, 6 tevi pe a
treia trecere si cu 4 treceri pe trecerea patru.
Tronsonul orizontal n interiorul cruia este
montat vaporizatorul este prevzut ctre
exterior cu un geam din plexiglas, n scopul
vizualizrii distribuiei vaporilor de apa
continuti in aer pe suprafaa rece a
vaporizatorului. Acest loc de montaj ofer
posibilitatea curgerii n contracurent a
fluidului frigorific i a aerului rcit.

mini-channels, 16 pipes on the first passage, 9


pipes on the second passage, 6 pipes on the
third passage, and 4 for the forth passage.
The horizontal section on which the vaporizer
is mounted is fitted on the outer side with a
Plexiglas window for the purpose of
visualizing the distribution of the water vapors
contained in air on the cold surface of the
vaporizer. This gives the possibility of a
countercurrent flow of the cooling agent and of
the cooled air.

Fig.1. Standul experimental


Experimental setup

Au fost msurai parametrii urmtori:


pe circuitul CO2:
presiunea din rezervorul de CO2;
presiunea la intrare in schimbator;
presiunea la iesire din schimbator;
temperatura CO2 la intrare in schimbatorul
cu minicanale;
temperatura peretelui tevii n punctele
stabilite schimbatorului de caldura;
temperatura CO2 la iesire din schimbatorul
cu minicanale ;
pe circuitul de aer
temperatura aerului la intrarea in baterie;
temperatura aerului la ieirea din baterie;
umiditatea aerului la intrarea in baterie;
umiditatea aerului la ieirea din baterie;
viteza aerului in diferite puncte din grila;
grosimea stratului de bruma;
Din punct de vedere constructiv,
vaporizatorul din aluminiu cu minicanale
este constituit din 35 tuburi orizontale,
paralele, pozitionate ntre un colector si un
distribuitor vertical. ntre canale sunt
72

The following parameters have been measured:


on the CO2 circuit:
pressure inside the CO2 tank;
pressure at the exchanger inlet;
pressure at the exchanger outlet;
CO2 temperature at the admission in the
minichannel exchanger;
temperature of the pipe wall in the points
assigned to the heat exchanger;
CO2 temperature at the minichannel exchanger
outlet;
on the air circuit
air temperature at the battery entrance;
air temperature at the battery exit;
air humidity at the battery entrance;
air humidity at the battery exit;
air speed in different points from grid;
frost layer thickness;
From the construction point of view, the
aluminum vaporizer with mini-channels is
formed of 35 parallel, horizontal tubes,
positioned between a collector and a vertical
distributor. Between the channels there are

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

aripioare sudate, cu fante de 1mm ntre ele,


lamele din aluminiu extrudate, cu grosimea
de 0.1 mm.
La montaj s-a inut seama de reglementrile
ISO 5149/1998 (Instalaii frigorifice
Prescripii de siguran)..

welded winglets, with 1 mm slits in between,


aluminum lamella, with thickness of 0.1 mm.
Regulation ISO 5149/1998 (Refrigerating
systems Safety requirements) has been
considered for building the setup.

Fig.2. Schema instalatiei alctuit din butelia cu CO2 lichid, ventilul de laminare, vaporizatorul
Drawing of the system: liquid CO2 cylinder, lamination valve, vaporizer

Vaporizatorul este de tip cu minicanale,


constituit din mai multe tuburi orizontale,
paralele, pozitionate ntre un colector si un
distribuitor vertical. ntre canale sunt
sudate, cu fante de 10mm ntre ele, lamele
din aluminiu extrudate, cu grosimea de
0.1mm, numr randuri aripioare 36, limea
de 18 mm, grosimea de 0,1 mm i aria unei
fee: 52.189 mm2, aria exterioar
61.219mm2.
alimentarea tuturor tuburilor din
distribuitorul vertical, ntr-o singur
trecere;
alimentarea cu lichid s-a realizat pe la
partea inferioara a acestuia printr-un
racord drept, fr zvor hidraulic;
numrul total de tuburi paralele: 35;
numrul de treceri: trecerea I= 16,
trecerea II = 9, trecerea III = 6 i
trecerea IV = 4;
lungimea unui tub: 645mm;
ieirea vaporilor de CO2 din schimbtor
s-a realizat printr-un racord aflat la
partea superioar a colectorului, la cota
maxim posibil. Conducta de evacuare
a vaporilor este dirijat astfel nct s
fie pe aceeai parte cu intrarea
lichidului.

The vaporizer is of the mini-channel type, with


several parallel, horizontal tubes positioned
between the collector and a vertical distributor.
Extruded aluminum lamella are welded
between the channels, with 1-mm slits; the
lamellae have the thickness 0.1 mm, the
number of winglets rows is 36, the width of 18
mm, thickness 0,1 mm and the area of one side:
52.189 mm2, outer area 61.219mm2.
all tubes supply from the vertical
distributor, in a single pass;
liquid supply was done on the lower side
with a right connecting pipe, without
hydraulic lock;
total number of parallel tubes: 35;
passages number: passage I= 16, passage II
= 9, passage III = 6 and passage IV = 4;
single tube length: 645mm;
evacuation of CO2 vapours from the
exchanger was done through a connecting
pipe on the upper side of the collector, at
the maximum possible height. The vapor
evacuation pipe is designed to be on the
same side with the liquid inlet.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

73

III. Calculul coeficientului de transfer de


cldur

III. Calculation of the Heat Transfer


Coefficient

Pentru a calcula coeficientul de transfer de


cldur aferent bioxidului de carbon la
vaporizarea n schimbtorul de cdur cu
minicanale au fost aplicate diferite corelatii
care definesc acest proces, respectiv
corelatia CHEN, corelatia SHAH si
corelatia KANDLIKAR. n calculul
coeficientului de transfer de cldur trebuie
sa tinem seama de faptul c diametrul
hidraulic al vaporizatorului cu minicanale
este mult diminuat n comparatie cu
schimbtoarele multitubulare fapt care
explic de ce curgerea este laminara.

In order to calculate the heat transfer


coefficient associated with the carbon dioxide
at vaporization inside the mini-channel heat
exchanger, several correlations defining this
process have been applied: CHEN, SHAH and
KANDLIKAR correlations. For the calculation
of the heat transfer coefficient, it must be
considered that the hydraulic diameter of the
mini-channel vaporizer is largely diminished in
comparison with the multi-tubes exchangers,
which explains the laminar flow.

Fig.3. Instalatia pus n funciune


The operation setup

Pentru un minicanal circular, n care


curgerea este de tip laminar, numrul
Nusselt, calculat pentru condiii la limit de
tip flux de cldur constant este: Nu = 4.36,
iar pentru pentru condiii la limit de tip
temperatur constant este: Nu = 3.66.
Dac seciunea transversal a minicanalului
este ptrat i curgerea este de tip laminar,
numrul Nusselt, calculat pentru condiii la
limit de tip flux de cldur constant este:
Nu = 3.61, iar pentru pentru condiii la
limit de tip temperatur constant este:
Nu = 2.98. Aceste valori sunt utilizate
pentru determinarea coeficientului de
transfer de cldur convectiv la curgerea
monofazic ( lichid ).
Bo - numrul fierberii:

74

For a circular mini-channel, for which the


flow is laminar, the Nusselt number,
calculated for the constant heat flux boundary
conditions is: Nu = 4.36, while for constant
temperature boundary conditions is: Nu =
3.66. If the mini-channel cross-section is a
square and the flow is laminar, the Nusselt
number, calculated with boundary conditions
for the constant heat flux is: Nu = 3.61, while
for constant temperature boundary conditions
is: Nu = 2.98. These values are used for the
determination of the convective heat transfer
coefficient at monophasic flow (liquid).
Bo - boiling number

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

q
, [-],
G r0
n care:q- densitatea de flux termic,
(W/m2);G viteza masica,(kg/m2s);r0
caldura latent de vaporizare, (J/kg).
Valoarea numarului Froude este mica in
cazul microcanalelor, iar functia f2 Frl
din cadrul corelatiei poate fi considerata
egala cu unitatea. Coeficientul de transfer
de caldura la curgerea monofazica se poate
calcula cu relatiile oferite de specialisti (
Peturhov si Popov, Gnielinski) in functie
de valoarea lui Re (regim turbulent de
curgere).
In cazul microcanalelor se obtin valori
scazute pentru Re, ce ne situeaza in
domeniul regimului laminar, iar Nu este dat
de relatia:
Bo =

Nu =

(1.)
where q is the thermal flux density, (W/m2); G
mass flux speed ,(kg/m2s);r0 vaporization
latent heat, (J/kg).
The value of the Froude number is small for
micro-channels, and the function f2 Frl from
the correlation can be considered equal to one.
The heat transfer coefficient for the
monophasic flow can be calculated with the
Peturhov and Popov, and Gnielinski formulae
based on the value of Re (turbulent flow
regime).
For micro-channels, lower values are obtained
for Re, in the laminar flow regime, while Nu is
given by the equation:

l d hidraulic
=C
l

where C is a constant depending on the


unde C este o constanta in functie de
geometry of the channel and the temperature
geometria canalului si conditiile de
boundary conditions.
temperatura la limita.

fierberea convectiv
convective boil
0.8
0.9
0.7
(2.)
= 1.136Co (1 x) f 2 (Frl ) l + 667.2Bo (1 x)0.8 Ffl l
Daca Re > 3000 se poate utiliza corelatia
If Re > 3000, the Gnielinski correlation can be
lui Gnielinski, in timp ce pentru Re < 1600
used, while for Re < 1600, the correlations for
se pot utiliza cu succes corelatiile din
the laminar flow can be successfully used. If
domeniul laminar. Daca Re < 300
Re < 300 Kandlikar and Balasubramanian have
Kandlikar si Balasubramanian au aratatat
shown that the nucleate boiling is dominant
ca fierberea nucleat este dominanant n
compared with the convective boiling, and
raport cu cea convectiv, de aceea se va lua
therefore, only this component will be
n calcul doar aceast component.
considered for calculations.
Curbele au fost trasate pentru fluidul
frigorific R744. Diametrul hidraulic al
The curves have been drawn for the frigorific
minicanalelor vaporizatorului testat, a fost
fluid R744. The hydraulic diameter of the minide 0.000158 m, iar densitatea de flux
channels of the tested vaporizer was 0.000158
2
termic a avut valoarea de 1.2 kW/m ,
m, and the thermal flux density was 1.2
Reynolds pentru faza lichid a avut
kW/m2, and the liquid area Reynolds number
valoarea de 663.4.
had the value 663.4.
Pentru urmtoarele date
t0 = 180C, G
= 55.69 kg/m2s, Re = 663.4, dh=0.000158
For the following data t0 = 180C, G = 55.69
2,
m, qp=1.2 kW/m am calculat coeficientul
kg/m2s, Re = 663.4, dh=0.000158 m, qp=1.2
de transfer de caldura in functie de titlul
kW/m2, the heat transfer coefficient was
vaporilor cu corelatia SHAH si corelatia
calculated based on the vapor concentration
CHEN. Rezultatul este c valorile
with the SHAH and CHEN correlations. It
experimentale calculate cu corelatia
resulted that the experimental values calculated
Kandlikar sunt apropiate de rezultatele
with the Kandlikar correlation are close to the
obinute cu celelalte doua corelatii.
results obtained with the other two correlations.
Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

75

1500

alfa_SHAH

1000

alfa_exp
alfa_CHEN

500

0,
5
0,
6
0,
7
0,
8
0,
9

0,
1
0,
2
0,
3
0,
4

0
0,
01

The thermal transfer coefficient


(W/m2K)

2000

The vapours title (-)

Fig.4.Variatia coeficientului de transfer termic n functie de variatia titlului vaporilor


The variation of the thermal transfer coefficient as a function of the vapour title

Experimentul a evideniat scderea


coeficientului convectiv la vaporizarea
R744 odat cu creterea titlului de vapori.
n condiiile menionate fierberea nucleic
este aadar dominant.
Astfel se pot evidentia urmatoarele
concluzii:
- rolul componentei convective a
coeficientul de transfer de cldur la
vaporizare (vaporizarea convectiva) este
nesemnificativ n acest caz.
- componenta vaporizarii nucleate joac un
rol important n calcularea valorii finale a
coeficientului.
Calculul coeficientului global de transfer
de caldura, k s-a realizat n cele doua
situatii care apar , cea initial, moment n
care nu a aparut brumare si etapa imediat
urmatoare cu brumare.
Pentru calculul coeficientului global de
transfer de cldur, k (fara brumare):
S 1
S
1
1
=
+ ext
+ tub

k
ext aer S int CO2 Al
n care: ext aer = a , (W/m2K);
Cnd temperatura suprafeei de rcire scade
sub punctul de rou al aerului, vaporii de
ap din aer condenseaz parial pe
suprafaa rece, iar la temperaturi negative,
condensatul se transform n zapad i prin
topiri i rengheri repetate zpada devine
ghea.
Umezirea suprafeei conductei conduce
iniial la creterea coeficientului de transfer
termic,
dar
zpada
introduce
o
conductivitate termic foarte sczut. Pe
msur ce zpada nghea, fiind mai
compact, conductivitatea termic a
76

The experiment showed the decrease of the


convective coefficient for the R744
vaporization with the increase of the vapors
concentration. In the mentioned conditions, the
nucleate boiling is dominant.
Thus, the following conclusions can be drawn:
- the role of the convective component of the
vaporization
heat
transfer
coefficient
(convective vaporization) is not significant for
this case.
- the nucleate vaporization component has an
important contribution for the calculation of the
final value of the coefficient.
The calculation of the global heat transfer
coefficient, k, was performed for the two
situations the initial one, a moment with no
frosting and the step immediately following,
with frosting.
For the calculation of the global heat transfer
coefficient, k, (without frosting):

,
(W/m2K)-1
(3.)

where: ext aer = a , (W/m2K);


When the temperature of the cooling surface
decreases under the dew point of air, the water
vapors from the air condense partially on the
cold surface, and at negative temperatures, the
condensate transforms into snow and through
repeated melting and freezing processes
becomes ice.
The damping of the pipe surface leads initially
to an increase of the thermal transfer
coefficient, but snow introduces a very low
thermal conductivity. As snow is freezing,
becoming more compact, the thermal
conductivity of the deposited layer increases,

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

stratului depus crete, rmnnd ns


sczut, depunerea, comportandu-se ca o
izolaie termic, diminund substanial
transferul de cldur. Ca urmare,
temperatura bioxidului de carbon tinde s
scad, diminund puterea frigorific a
instalaiei i mrind consumul de energie
de comprimare; diferena de temperatur a
aerului rcit scade, pe msura dezvoltarii
stratului de ghea.

remaining though low, since the deposition


behaves as a thermal insulation, diminishing
significantly the heat transfer. As a
consequence, the carbon dioxide temperature
has the tendency to decrease, lowering the
frigorific power of the machine and increasing
the compression energy consumption; the
cooled air temperature difference decreases, as
the ice layer develops.

a.

b.

d.

c.

Fig.5. Etapele de formare a ghetii


a apariia condensului, b mrirea cantitii de condens, c apariia primelor cristale de ghea,
d formarea cristalelor de zapad; d- formarea stratului compact de ghea.
Stage forming of ice
a occurrence of condensate, b increase of condensate amount, c occurrence of the first ice crystals,
d forming of snow crystals; d- forming of the ice compact layer.

In acelai timp gheaa format obtureaz


spaiul pentru circulatia aerului (Fig.5,d)
conducnd la creterea pierderii de sarcin
pe acest circuit i deci la scderea debitului
de aer vehiculat; la rciri sub 00C, se alege
un pas mai mare al aripioarelor, acest lucru
diminund suprafaa de transfer termic.
Este deci necesara o dezghetare periodica a
suprafetei vaporizatorului.
Coeficientul global de transfer termic
depinde de starea aerului, de viteza, de
geometria bateriei, si de fluidul frigorific.
Asadar, fluxul total de cldur schimbat de
aer cu CO2 care circul printr-o suprafata
aripat de transfer, n cursul unui proces de
rcire a lui, cu formare si acumulare de
brum este dat de relatia :

At the same time, the formed ice blocks the


space for air circulation (Fig.5, d) leading to
an increase of the load loss on this circuit and
therefore, to a decrease of the circulated air
flow; for temperatures under 00C, a larger
winglet pitch will be chosen, lowering in this
way the thermal transfer surface. Therefore a
periodical defrosting process of the vaporizer
surface is necessary.
The global thermal transfer coefficient
depends on the state of the air, on speed,
geometry of the battery and on the frigorific
fluid.
Therefore, the total heat flux exchanged by air
with the CO2 circulating through a winged
transfer surface, during its cooling process,
with formation and accumulation of frost is
given by the equation:

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

77

Q=

k
c paer

ln

h9 h11
S Tarip
h9 hvap

(W)

h11 hvap

asadar:h9 i h11 sunt entalpiile specifice ale


aerului la intrarea respective iesirea de pe
vaporizator (kJ/kg) ; STarip suprafata total a
aripioarelor (m2);hvap entalpia specific a
aerului corespunztoare strii lui de saturatie
la temperatura R744.(kJ/kg); k coeficientul
global de transfer termic de la aer la agentul
frigorific prin stratul de brum, raportat la
suprafata exterior a aripioarelor (nu a fost
luat n calcul rezistenta termic a peretelui
tevii) (W/m2K).
Tinnd cont de relatia lui Sanders C.Th (1974)

with: h9 and h11 the air specific enthalpies and


the entrance and the exist of the vaporizer,
respectively, (kJ/kg); STarip the winglet total
surfaces (m2);hvap the air specific enthalpy
corresponding to saturation at temperature
R744.(kJ/kg); k global thermal transfer
coefficient from air to the frigorific agent
through the frost layer, reported to the winglet
outer surface (the pipe wall thermal resistance
was not considered) (W/m2K).
Taking into account the Sanders C.Th
equation (1974)

q t = q s + ql

unde: q s este densitatea de flux de cldur


sensibil transmis prin convectie de la aer

la suprafata brumei (W/m2); q l densitatea de


flux de cldur latent, transferat ca
urmare a schimbrii de faz(W/m2).
n baza metodei potentialului entalpic pot
scrie urmtoarea relatie numita si ecuatia
lui Merkel:

qt =

a
cp

(5.)

where q s is the heat flux density transmitted


through convection from air to the frost surface

(W/m2); q l latent heat flux density, transferred


as a consequence of phase change (W/m2).
Based on the enthalpy potential method the
following equation, named the Merkel equation
can be written:

(h9 hvap )

n care :a este coeficientul convectiv de


transfer de cldur de la aer la suprafata
brumei W/(m2 K);h9 entalpia specific a
aerului la intrarea pe vaporizator
(kJ/kg);hvap entalpia specific a aerului la
temperatura suprafetei brumei(kJ/kg);
Aceasta ecuatie exprim transferul
combinat de cldur i mas de la aerul
umed la suprafaa rece cu ajutorul metodei
potenialului entalpic, al crei avantaj
evident const n aceea c reduce ecuatia
de transfer separat de cldur i mas, la o
ecuaie simpl, a coeficientului de transfer
de cldur de la aer la suprafaa brumat .
Ecuatia fluxului total de cldur se poate
scrie:

(W/m2)

n care Q aer este fluxul elementar de


cldur cedat de aer suprafetei aripioarelor
78

(6.)

where a is the convective heat transfer


coefficient from air to the frost surface W/(m2
K);h9 is the air specific enthalpy at the inlet of
the vaporizer (kJ/kg); hvap the air specific
enthalpy of air at the temperature of the frost
surface (kJ/kg);
This equation gives the combined transfer of
heat and mass from the humid air to the cold
surface with the help of the enthalpy potential
method, whose obvious advantage consists in
the reduction of the equation for the heat and
mass transfer to a simple equation for the heat
transfer coefficient from air to the frosted
surface.
The total heat flux equation can be written as:

Q t = Q aer + Q tv

(4.)

(7.)

where Q aer is the elementary heat flux


transferred from air to the winglet surface (W)

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

(W); Q tv este fluxul elementar de cldur


cedat de aer suprafetei evilor.

and Q tv is the elementary heat flux


transferred from air to the pipes surface.

Fig.6. Inceperea brumrii


The start of the frosting process

Asadar se poate scrie urmtoarea ecuatie:

k a br
hvap h10 S ar
c pa
n care: ka-br este coeficientul global de
transfer termic de la aer la aripioar prin
stratul de brum W/m2K ; h10 entalpia
specific a aerului corespunztoare starii de
saturatie, la temperatura medie a aripioarei
(kJ/kg);hvap entalpia specific a aerului la
temperatura ta (kJ/kg);Sar suprafata
aripioarelor din volumul elementar
considerat m2

k
Q tv = a tv h9 h11 Stv
c pa

Q aer =

unde:ka-tv este coeficientul global de


transfer termic de la aer la suprafaa tevii
prin stratul de brum W/m2K; h11 entalpia
specific a aerului corespunztoare starii de
saturatie, la temperatura peretelui tevii de
rcire (kJ/kg); Stv suprafata tubului neted
din volumul elementar considerat m2..
Deci fluxul elementar de cldur devine:

Qt =

Subsequently, the following equation can be


written:
(W)

(8.)

where ka-br is the global heat transfer


coefficient from air to the winglet through the
frost layer W/m2K , h10 is the air specific
enthalpy for saturation, for the average winglet
temperature (kJ/kg), hvap is the air specific
enthalpy for the temperature ta (kJ/kg), and
Sar is the winglet surface from the considered
elementary volume (m2).
(W)

(9.)

where ka-tv is the global thermal transfer


coefficient from air to the pipe surface through
the frost layer W/m2K, h11 is the air specific
enthalpy for saturation, at the temperature of
the cooling pipe wall (kJ/kg), Stv is the
surface of the even tube from the considered
elementary volume (m2)..
Therefore, the elementary heat flux becomes:

k
S aer
S
(h9 h11 ) ka br b + a tv tv
c pa
ka br S ar

n care: b este eficienta aripioarei brumate


care tine seama de rezistenta termic medie
a stratului de brum i care se calculeaz cu
relatia :
tanh (m L )
b =
mL
unde L este nlimea echivalenta a
aripioarei,

(W)
(10.)

where b is the efficiency of the frosted


winglet, taking into account the average
thermal resistance of the frost layer, which is
calculated with the equation:

(11.)
where L is the equivalent height of the winglet,

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

79

m=

c
br
+ pa
br a b

1
arip arip

unde:br grosimea stratului de brum (m);


br conductivitatea termic a brumei
W/(mK); b panta dreptei care reprezint
variatia entalpiei aerului la saturatie, n
raport cu temperatura lui kJ/(kgK); arip
conductivitatea termic a materialului din
care este confectionata aripioara W/(mK);
arip grosimea aripioarei (m)
randamentului suprafeei aripate nainte de
apartiia brumei se calculeaz cu relaia:
Sarip
(1 a ) ;
= 1
Sext
arip - randamentul aripioarei, [-], care se
calculeaz cu relaia:

arip =

th(m ri
m ri

m=

2 a
arip arip

ri =
D echiv tub
tubului

Dechiv

(m-1)

(12.)

with br the thickness of the frost layer (m);


br the frost thermal conductivity W/(mK); b
the slope of the line representing the variation
of the air enthalpy at saturation, as a function
of its temperature kJ/(kgK); arip the thermal
conductivity of the material of the winglet
W/(mK); arip the winglet thickness (m)
The efficiency of the winged surface before the
occurrence of frost is calculated with the
equation:
(13.)

arip - Winglet efficiency, [-], calculated with

(14.)
(15.)

tub

(16.)

= diametrul echivalent al

D echiv tub = equivalent diameter of the tube

4 S transv / 1tub
= 4 L H
(17.)
2(L + H)
P

r
r
(18.)
= e 11 + 0.35 ln e
ri

ri
- a - coeficient de transfer de cldur
a - convective heat transfer coefficient on the
convectiv pe partea aerului exterior
outer side [W/m2K] calculated with:
[W/m2K] care se calculeaza cu relaia
H tub
(19.)
Nu a = a
a
D echiv tub =

CO 2

a = 0.91 a Re 0a.5 Pr1 3 H tub , (W/m2K)


(20.)
- coeficient de transfer de cldur
CO 2 - convective heat transfer coefficient on

convectiv pe partea fluidului frigorific


[W/m2K] care se calculeaza cu relaia
menionat anterior.
n cursul procesului de rcirea aerului
printr-o suprafata aripat pe care are loc
formare de brum fluxul total de cldur
80

the side of the frigorific fluid [W/m2K],


calculated with the above mentioned equation.
During the air cooling process through a
winged surface on which frosting occurs, the
total heat flux is given by:

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

este dat de relatia :

h9 h11
S
h9 hvap Tarip
ln
h11 hvap
n care : h9 i h11 sunt entalpiile specifice
ale aerului la intrarea respectiv iesirea de
pe rcitorul de aer (kJ/kg) ;STarip suprafata
total a aripioarelor (m2) ;hvap entalpia
specific a aerului corespunztoare strii de
vaporizare (kJ/kg)kb coeficientul global
de transfer termic de la aer la agentul de
rcire prin stratul de brum, raportat la
suprafata exterioar a aripioarelor, n
ipoteza neglijrii rezistentei termice a
peretelui tevii (W/m2K).
k
Qt = br
c pa

(W)

(21.)

where h9 i h11 are the air specific enthalpy at


the entrance and the exit of the air cooler,
respectively, (kJ/kg) ;STarip total winglet
surface (m2) ;hvap air specific enthalpy at
vaporization (kJ/kg)kb global thermal transfer
coefficient from air to the cooling agent
through the frost layer, as a function of the
outer surface of the winglets, provided that the
thermal resistance of the pipe wall is neglected
(W/m2K).
1

STarip

b
S ag

1
kbr =
(W/m2K).
(22.)
+

k
S
pa
co
2
k

+ a br tv
a ar br k a ar ST arip

where STarip the total winglet surface


n care :STarip suprafata total a
aripioarelor (m2) ;CO2 coeficientul de
(m2) ;CO2 the convective heat transfer
transfer convectiv de cldur pe partea CO2
coefficient on the CO2 side (W/m2K).
(W/m2K).
Based on the enthalpy potential equation
Sanders C.Th.(1974), the equation can be
Pe baza ecuatiei potentialului entalpic
written for the saturated air enthalpy, at the
Sanders C.Th.(1974) reiese relatia entalpiei
temperature of the frost surface, at the exit
aerului saturat, la temperatura suprafetei
from the transfer element.
brumei, la iesirea de pe elementul de
transfer
k br S arip
D c
kbr H
h10 = h11 (h9 hvap ) e ma p
(kJ/kg)
(23.)

aer

In care :H este un factor adimensional,


Where H is a dimensionless factor, taking
care tine seama de modificarea continu a
into account the continuous changing of
geometriei, ca urmare a depunerii de brum
geometry, as a consequence of frost deposition.
S
H = br Tarip br
(-)
(24.)
S arip + Steava
br
n care : S arip
este suprafata exterioar a

br
with S arip
the outer surface of the layer of frost

stratului de brum depus pe aripioarele


br
este suprafata
vaporizatorului (m2); Steava
exterioar a stratului de brum depus pe
tuburile vaporizatorului (m2)

br
deposited on the vaporizer winglets (m2); Steava
the outer surface of the layer of frost deposited
on the vaporizer tubes (m2).

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

81

Fig.7. Inceperea brumarii pe suprafata tevilor vaporizatorului


Start of the frosting process on the vaporizer tube surfaces

IV.Calculul depunerii de bruma

IV. Calculation of Frost Deposition

Se realizeaz n funcie de Masa de bruma


depus pe vaporizator intr-un interval de
timp conform relatiei lui Sanders.
C.Th(1974) este :

This is done as a function of the mass of


deposited frost on the vaporizer in a time
interval according to C.Th. Sanders
equation (1974):

The increase of the frost


layer thickness (m)

Mbr = ma (x9-x10)
Cunoscnd densitatea medie a brumei
depuse br, se calculeaz cu relatia
urmtoare grosimea medie a stratului de
brum:
M
1
(m)
br = br
br S arip + Steava

(kg)
(25.)
Knowing the average density of the deposited
frost br, the thickness of the deposited frost is
calculated as follows:
(26.)

0,0025
0,002
0,0015
0,001
0,0005
0
160

230

235

310

320

The time (s)

Fig.8. Creterea grosimii stratului de brum n functie de timpul notat pe parcursul masurtorilor
The increase of the frost layer thickness as a function of the time recorded during measurements

82

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

The thermal transfer


coefficient (W/m2K)

800,00
600,00
400,00
200,00
0,00
0

0,0015

0,002

0,0025

0,003

The snow layer thickness (m)

Fig.9. Variatia coeficientului de transfer termic n funcie de grosimea stratului de zpad


The variation of the thermal transfer coefficient as a function of the snow layer thickness

Valorile coeficientului de transfer termic


experimental au fost comparate cu valorile
obtinute cu corelatia Chen i corelatia Shah
pentru aceleai conditii la o vitez medie de
vm = 0.3528 m/s i dh = 0.0015842 m

The values of the experimental thermal transfer


coefficient have been compared with the values
obtained with the Chen and Shah correlations
for the same conditions, at an average speed of
vm = 0.3528 m/s and dh = 0.0015842 m.

The thermal transfer


coefficient (W/m2K)

1200
1000
800

alfa_CHEN

600

alfa_exp

400

alfa_SHAH

200
0
-18,4 -15,5 -12,3 -8,5 -2,3 11,4 14,6 17,5
Vaporation temperature (C)

Fig.11. Variatia coeficientului de transfer termic n funcie de temperatura de vaporizare


The dependence of the thermal transfer coefficient on the vaporization temperature

In acelasi timp coeficientul de transfer de


cldur scade o dat cu scaderea titlului
vaporilor, deoarece densitatea de flux
termic a avut valoarea de 1.2 kW/m2,
Reynolds pentru faza lichid a avut
valoarea de 663.4 titlul vaporilor cuprins
ntre 0 0.9.
Valorile rezultatelor experimentale obtinute
n laborator sunt apropiate de rezultatele
obtinute cu corelatiile celorlalti cercetatori.

At the same time, the heat transfer coefficient


decreases with the decreasing of the vapors
concentration, since the thermal flux density
had the value 1.2 kW/m2, the liquid area
Reynolds number had the value of 663.4 and
the concentrations of vapors was 0 0.9.
The experimental values obtained in lab are
close to those obtained with the correlations
used by the other researchers.

V. Concluzii

V. Conclusions

Instalatia frigorific experimentala realizata


n laboratorul de Termotehnic al Facultii
de Instalaii din cadrul Universitii
Tehnice de Construcii Bucureti, in care sa utilizat ca fluid de lucru R744, a
demonstrat ca rezultatele experimentale au
verificat valorile teoretice. Rezultatele

The experimental frigorific setup made in the


Laboratory for Thermotechnics of the Faculty
of Building Services from the Technical
University of Civil Engineering Bucharest,
using R744 as a working fluid, has
demonstrated that the experimental results
confirmed the theoretical values. The results

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.4 2008

83

obtinute pe standul de incercari au fost


comparate cu cele ale altor cercetatori
precum Shah si Chen pentru aceleasi
conditii de lucru. Acest fapt este prezentat
in graficele comparative, unde, curba
experimentala se situeaza intre cele doua
curbe teoretice realizate dupa Shah si Chen.

obtained with the mentioned setup have been


compared with the results of Shah and Chen for
the same working conditions. This is presented
in the comparison graphs, where the obtained
experimental data curve is situated between the
two theoretical curves obtained by Shah and
Chen.

Die berechnung des thermischen versezten faktor des co2, bei verdunsten in einem veranderlichen
verdampfer mit microrohre.
Zusammenfassung
Das Werk stellt eine Einfhrung in die Studie von CO2 als Arbeitsflssigkeit fr einen Dmpfer mit Minikanlen in
einem Khlaggregat, aufgrund der Energie- und Wrmeeigenschaften fr gegenwrtige und zuknftige technische
Anwendungen, dar.
Die Anwendung von CO2 als Arbeitsflssigkeit bentigt eine ausfhrliche Studie der Bestandteile der Anlage,
insbesondere der Verdichter und der Regelventile, die eine Steigerung der Leistungsfhigkeit und der
Betriebssicherheit der Anlage ermglichen.
CO2 ist eine zukunftsweisende Khlflssigkeit mit einer aufwendigen Eigenschaft, wodurch die Arbeit bei
Hochdruck mglich ist. Aus diesem Grund ist eine ausfhrliche Studie der Bestandteile der Anlage, insbesondere
der Verdichter und der Regelventile, die eine Steigerung der Leistungsfhigkeit und der Betriebssicherheit der
Anlage ermglichen, notwendig. Die Anwendung von CO2 nach einem superkritischen Arbeitslauf bringt Vorteile
fr die Anlage, weil die Abmessungen (geminderte Strke) des Verdichters geringer sind sehr dnne Leitungen
von nur 1,58 mm und geringe Hhe der Flgel, was ein besserer Wrmeaustausch ermglicht.
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