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AGORA

Revist editat de Facultatea de tiine ale Educaiei i Asisten Social, sub egida Universitii Aurel Vlaicu Arad. Colegiul de redacie: Acad. prof.univ. dr. Grozdanka Gojkov Universitatea din Belgrad, coala nalt de la Vre membru al Academiei Srbe de tiine ale Educaiei Acad. prof. univ. dr. Lizica Mihu Universitatea Aurel Vlaicu, Arad membru al Academiei Srbe de tiine ale Educaiei Acad. prof.univ. dr. Viorel Soran Universitatea Babe-Bolyai Cluj-Napoca membru al Academiei Romne Prof.univ.dr. Elena Zamfir Universitatea din Bucureti Prof. univ. Catherine Sellenet Universitatea din Nantes Psih. dr. Sabine Parmentier Diplomat n psihologie clinic a Universitii Paris III, Doctor n lingvistic Secretar al asociaiei LEspace dAnalyse Paris Prof. univ. dr. Anton Ilica Universitatea Aurel Vlaicu, Arad Conf. univ. dr. Olivier Douville Psihanalist i antropolog, Universitatea Paris X Nanterre Preedinte al Institutului de Psihanaliza Adolescentului-Paris Directorul publicaiei de Psihologie clinic Dr. Didier Lauru Doctor n Psihopatologie i Psihanaliz Medic director al CMPP Etienne Marcel Responsabil de curs la Universitatea Paris VII Prof. univ. dr. Dorel Ungurean Universitatea de Vest, Timioara Reprezentare grafic: Coperta: Tudor Moldovan (Nebula FX Image Agency) Colectivul redacional: Redactor ef: Conf. univ. dr. Olga D. MOLDOVAN Redactor ef adjunct: Asist. univ. drd. Sonia Ignat Secretar de redacie: lect. univ. dr. Mihaela Gavril Membri n colectivul de redacie: as. univ.drd. Dana Bla-Timar as. univ.drd. Alina Costin as. univ. dr. Gabriela Kelemen lect. univ. drd. Camelia Angela Jurcu Adresa redaciei: Str. Elena Drgoi, nr. 2, Arad Tel.: (0257) 219 555 e-mail: agora.arad@gmail.com Fax: (0257) 219 555 ISSN: 1842 - 6840

REVIST TRIMESTRIAL ASISTEN SOCIAL PSIHOPEDAGOGIE

CUPRINS:
DESPRE PEDAGOGIA ASISTENEI SOCIALE Prof. univ. dr. Anton ILICA.... XENOFOBIA O BOAL A APARTENENEI DE SINE Prof.univ.dr. Gheorghe SCHWARTZ... ERIK ERIKSON I TEORIA SA DESPRE DEZVOLTAREA PERSONALITII Conf. univ. dr. Olga D. MOLDOVAN.. CONTRACTUL MUTUAL DE CONSUM Conf. univ. dr. Petru TRCHIL..... ASPECTE ETICE I MORALE ALE GENETICII Lect.univ. dr. Emil VANCU... DINAMICA CUPLULUI I FAMILIEI MODERNE Lect.univ.drd. Camelia JURCU.... CEL MAI BUN MANAGEMENT AL SERVICIILOR DE SNTATE PENTRU BOLILE CARDIOVASCULARE N JUDEUL ARAD Lect.univ.Dr. Mihaela GAVRIL-ARDELEAN... ROLURILE EDUCAIEI FIZICE Lect. univ. drd. Laureniu LEUCEA. RELAIA PRINI-COPII I RELAIILE ROMANTICE As.univ.drd. Sonia IGNAT. CAI DE IDENTIFICARE A COPIILOR CAPABILI DE PERFORMANE SUPERIOARE As.univ.dr. Gabriela KELEMEN... DISCRIMINAREA POZITIVA IN INTEGRAREA PROFESIONALA A TINERILOR INSTITUTIONLIZATI, SUBLINIATA IN PROGRAME, PROIECTE SI ACTIUNI Asist. univ. drd. Alina COSTIN... POSTMODERNITATE I ASISTEN SOCIAL Prep.univ.drd. Simina Iulia DUMELE FEED-BACK EMOIONAL I ABILITATEA DE ESTIMARE N TESTAREA FUZZY ADAPTAT PE CALCULATOR EVOLUIA POPULAIEI DIN ROMNIA NTRE 1990-2002 Prep. univ. drd. Alina BREAZ... EDUCAIA I ROLUL EI Institutor Ioana Ligia STANCA. 5 10 16 22 28 31

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CONTENT:
ABOUT A PEDAGOGY OF SOCIAL WORK Prof. univ. dr. Anton ILICA........ THE XENOPHOBIA A DISEASE OF SELF BELONGING Prof.univ.dr. Gheorghe SCHWARTZ......... ERIK ERIKSON AND HIS THEORY ABOUT THE PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT Conf. univ. dr. Olga D. MOLDOVAN.. CONSUMPTION LOAN AGREEMENT Conf. univ. dr. Petru TRCHIL... ETHIC AND MORAL ASPECT OF GENETICS Lect.univ.dr. Emil VANCU... THE DYNAMICS OF MODERN COUPLE AND FAMILY Lect. univ. drd. Camelia JURCU. THE BEST MANAGEMENT OF HEALTH SERVICES TO CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES IN ARAD COUNTY Lect.univ.dr. Mihaela GAVRIL-ARDELEAN.. THE ROLES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Lect. univ. drd. Laureniu LEUCEA. PARENT-CHILD RELATIONSHIP AND ROMANTIC RELATIONSHIPS As.univ.drd. Sonia IGNAT WAYS OF IDENTIFYING CHILDREN CAPABLE OF HIGH PERFORMANCE As.univ.dr. Gabriela KELEMEN... POSITIVE DISCRIMINATION ON THE PROFESSIONAL INTEGRATION OF THE INSTITUTIONALIZED YOUNG PEOPLE EMPHASIZED IN PROGRAMS, PROJECTS AND ACTIONS Asist. univ. drd. Alina COSTIN POSTMODERNITY AND SOCIAL ASSISTANCE Prep. univ. drd. Simina Iulia DUMELE EMOTIONAL FEED-BACK AND ABILITY ESTIMATION IN FUZZY COMPUTER ADAPTIVE TESTING Asist. univ. drd. Dana BLA TIMAR.................................................... THE EVOLUTION OF THE ROMANIAN POPULATION BETWEEN 1990 2002 Prep. univ. drd. Alina BREAZ... EDUCATION AND ITS ROLL Institutor Ioana Ligia STANCA. 5 10 16 22 28 31 47 53 59 65

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ABOUT A PEDAGOGY OF SOCIAL WORK DESPRE PEDAGOGIA ASISTENEI SOCIALE Prof.dr. Anton ILICA Aurel Vlaicu University, Arad Abstract: The author discusses the initial confusion between social pedagogy and social work. The influence of the society on the becoming of children and also in the continuous education of adults is treated from the perspective of both scientific fields: pedagogy and social work Key words: social pedagogy, education, continuous education society, initial and

The social pedagogy was synonym with social work. When the word pedagogy improved its signification, meaning more than child formation, the assertion social pedagogy becomes a domain of education sciences, which regards the adults education, permanent education, but also the education realized by the society in its advantage. The social pedagogy is an education science which analyses the implication way of the society in young people initial formation and the development of human personality all over its way life. The social pedagogy has its philosophy in the influence that socio/cultural environment exercises on the educability. The education fortress or the educational society are concepts which support the social pedagogy coherence, considering that the impact that the society and the communities have on the individual, from the formation proceedings till those of permanent development, is fundamental, so that representative. Each individual is the consequence of social environment configuration to which he belongs. The man is accepted in the community only if he shares, through his attitude and behavior, the values proposed by the making up society. The personality mentality derives from the public mentality and the two realities are in a didactic interdependence. The changing of society values determines the adjustment of individual attitude and behavior. A readjustment of social
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values leads to a shake/up of the individual behavior. For instance, the European society proposed itself a dilution till over the conflict of historical relations between nations, especially under their conflictual dimension, for each individual who considers himself from the administrative point of view as an European citizen. Belonging to this new reality, the man reorganize its attitudes and puts a new order in the semantic of his personality. The enmity towards the over border neighbour is diminished and replaced by tolerance. The ponderation of some historical memories, loaded with hate and vendetta signification, is more reasonable than their land maintenance. The society acts, directly or subsidiary, in its existential dynamic, influencing each composing member, indifferent of age, of social and cultural state, or civic behavior. It maintains its coherence (the dynamic of composing forces and of the contents which give it personality) through the capacity to keep its defining nucleus. Therefore, the society acts by the medium of social psychology and of exclusion. The sharing of social values is the warranty of inclusion in the community culture and the rejection of them leads to exclusion. For example, the mentioned principled is similar to what happen in a monachal community. The monk who does not respect the cohabitation norms of monastery was drove and on the other side of the gates closed from now one for him, he built for himself a hut (mitoc in Romanian), a kind of hermitage, in which he lives followings his own rules. He was named churl (mitocan in Romanian) because he does not respect the community culture and neither its consequences. The acceptance of the given social engineering is realized as an exercise of coercion (external one), of pressure, which harasses the behavioral individual and natural balance. The resistances were punished even by the society through public obloquy or law. From educative point of view the individual self refined its balance only in a social order, where the personality becomes almost synonymous with that of the Others. The individual biography is crossed with the collective biography. The man is the God creation, but he becomes what the society desires. The new-born baby does not remain He, because the society members impose him the imperative: be as us, and us represents the social, coercitive, normalized , regulated and legislated order, but moreover it is exterior to his individual conscience. This is the education: it socializes the biologic individual making him desirable
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in a collectivity. A Robinson Crusoe excluded from the society has no valuable signs and neither comparative mirror. A monk, crossing over the monastery rules, becomes mitocan (churl), a border inhabitant, longing for the Others. Even if it is not obviously normative the education is restrictive. It builds positive coercition: respect, work, morality, sparing obedience, cooperation, courtesy, calm, comprehension, tolerance, valorization etc. The adult (and responsible) generation transmits to the young generation shared experiences, verified models, rituals, language, culture, signs and significations. Its coercition come across with the genetic structure, but the iteration of social experiences leads to habitude, which eliminates the coercition resistance as a rule, but justifies it by legitimating it. So, the social integration was already realized. It is, for the individual, a new birth, a recognition christening of the normal man of the given community, maybe a model for those under integration way. Which would be the education content to build a social being? The man says the sociologist E. Durkheim (1980), is not a man than because he lives in society. To can live, even unhappy, in collectivity his individual biography will concedes its instinctual and biological liberty until the limits of trespassing of Other or Others liberty. When the individual self has excessive manifestations towards the Others, it is regarded as selfish and the selfishness is not tolerable between the personality features. The education refers to the common and shared acquisitions, which the members of a society valuable identify with the options generating personal satisfactions, but also civic ones. They belong to the identification culture as a common good so that habits, traditions, rituals, symbols, decency, desirable relations, cohabitation, art, science, representative conscience, but especially of referential language. Therefore, even it is a coercitive fact, the education represents a positive liaison between the individual and the community, and, if we accept that the pedagogy is the art education science, this realizes the link between psychology and sociology. A social career is determined by the adherence to the collective conscience, to the civic spirit, to the internalization of the representative culture. The role of social cohesion is defining and puts its mark on the education rhythm. Through communication are undertook the gestures and the behaviors of those with whom one interacts, are changed roles
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and encouraged the daily models creation. To belong becomes to refer and the communication means ontological production because each reconstructs itself by the interaction with the Others. The considerations allow us to give to education another definition, which permits us to discern in the confusion with learning. The education is an ontogenetic process, thanks to which an individual incorporates himself legitimate to a society. In the same way in which the man is a cultural being he is also an educable being, so that he is capable to adjust himself to the social environment and its requirements. The majority, by selection built socles of values typical for them, a certain mentality in promoting models that means a stylistic matrix (L.Blaga), a mark which guides inconsciently it seems, the individual in his social actions and individual gestures. The influence of the society on each member means social education and the theorization of it belongs to social pedagogy. The pedagogy continues its semantic echo, remaining only a domain for learning realization and children, pupils and eventually students education. The word pedagogy maintains the interest for school, the primary institutions of education, organized on the basis of study programs and didactic disciplines. Therefore on utilize the concepts initial formation and continuous formation as if the two processes would be distinct realities. In fact, we talk about information, and not formation. The initial formation regards the institutional didactic proceedings and the continuous formation regards the proceedings, institutional or not, of the society. The first one is addressed to the apprentices and the second one to the adults. The adults education is related to continuous education, but the continuous education regards much more the continuity of qualification during the professional career (Palos, Sava, Ungureanu, 2007), and the adults education refers to more general aspects, alternative educational dimensions, which must be covered (civic, cultural, for leisure, for unorganized social groups, or specific educative interventions for different adults groups: older, housewives, unemployed workers, immigrants etc. Bibliography: Comnescu, Ioan, Autoeducaia azi i mine, Editura Imprimeriei de Vest, Oradea, 1996.
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Cuco, Constantin, Pedagogie, Editura Polirom, Iai, 1996, 2002. Delors, Jacques (coord.), Comoara luntric, Editura Polirom, Iai, 2000. Dewey John, Trei scrieri despre educaie: Copilul i curriculum-ul, coala i societatea, experiena i educaia, Editura Didactic i Pedagogic, Bucureti, 1977. Drobot, Loredana, Pedagogie social, Editura Didactic i Pedagogic, R.A., Bucureti, 2008. Dumitru, Al. Ion, Educaie i nvare, Editura Eurostampa, Timioara, 2001. Durkheim, Emile, Educaie i sociologie, Editura Didactic i Pedagogic, Bucureti, 1980. Durkheim, Emile, Sociologia. Regulile metodei sociologice, Cultura Naional, Bucureti, 1924. Faure, Edgar, A nva s fii, Editura Didactic i Pedagogic, Bucureti, 1974. Hatos, Adrian, Sociologia educaiei, Editura Polirom, Iai, 2006. Herlo, Dorin, Didactica, Editura Universitii Aurel Vlaicu, Arad, 2006. Ilica, Anton, Pedagogie modern, Editura Universitii Aurel Vlaicu, Arad, 2007. Ionescu, Miron, Instrucie i educaie, Editura Garamont, Cluj-Napoca, 2003. Lobront, M., Pedagogia instituional, Editura Triade, ClujNapoca, 2001. Moscovici, Serge, Psihologia social sau maina de fabrica zei, Editura Universitii Al. I. Cuza, Iai, 1997. Palo, Ramona, Sava, Simona, Ungureanu, Dorel, Educaia adulilor. Baze teoretice i repere practice, Editura Polirom, Iai, 2007. Peretti, de Andr, Educaia n schimbare, Editura Spiru Haret, Iai, 1996. Toma, Steliana, Autoeducaia, sens i devenire, Editura Didactic i Pedagogic, Bucureti, 1983. Videanu, George, Educaia la frontiera dintre milenii, Editura Politic, Bucureti, 1998.
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THE XENOPHOBIA A DISEASE OF SELF BELONGING XENOFOBIA O BOAL A APARTENENEI DE SINE Prof.univ.dr. Gheorghe SCHWARTZ Aurel Vlaicu University, Arad Abstract: The xenophobia and its effects on the society is analysis from the point of view of transversal psychology. The disposition and behavior level are taking into account to explain the xenophobia. The author considers that the behavior manifestations of xenophobia existed all over the history and will exist as long as the human being will exist. Key words: to the disposition level: the long catena reflex; intruders inside the disposition; self-compassion - to the behavior level: latency prevalence; the suffering of the alternative; the gregarious impetus; the revenge failure; education and instruction; punishment.

For the beginning, two words on the transversal psychology1: starting from the idea that the general psychology and, in the same time, the other fundamental branches of the sciences, dont do anything else but to define the notions and concepts leaving the tendencies and the applications on the charge of the specialized disciplines, having as consequence the crumbling of the whole, the transversal psychology try to create channels of communication able to explain the human being behavior, free and healthy, in the state and in the progress of his sentiments and actions. On the basis of eight parameters of the disposition2 and on twenty four parameters of behavior3, the transversal
See Gheorghe Schwartz, Psihologia transversala. Partea generala, Editura Universitatii Aurel Vlaicu, Arad, 2007 2 The disposition defined not as a spirit state, emotive, conceptual or mixed, defining the individual in a given moment. The dispositions or an accentuate and pressing orientation toward the action, or a lake of desire or acting possibility in a kind of
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psychology is ready to offer the comprehension clues of the moment behavior and of the actions. Accepting the xenophobia as being the hate of the strangers toward all that is strange must situate ourselves in the center of the group (from given adoption to the wanted adoption)4, a group which defines its members tracing a limitation between I (we) and you (you).The report between the two parts can be established on horizontal and on vertical, without any differences, they can be of mutual collaboration, tolerance or ignorance (in the case when the two parts tend to divergent ideals or purposes, but crossing each other) and adversity (when the two parts tend to divergent ideals or purposes, but crossing each other). We must make a statement: only when they do not cross or there is no chance of crossing the marines of Marseille and the tailors from Brasov will be never in an adversity relation. Never ? In the case, much probable, that they never will cross each other this statement remain sure. But what happen when they cross ? If they cross, they can continue to live together or they can disturb each other. Their relations could develop alliances which, as eternal as they are, evolve in function of conjunctures, or adversities, submitted also to the conjunctures. The Friedrich Hackers example is very enlightening: the fans of Bayern Munchen will fight around the stadium with the fans of SV Hamburg, but they will become allies when the German representative team confront the Great Britain team, case in which the fans of Munchen and Hamburg, united, will fight with all their forces against the British hooligans. The xenophobia represents a particular kind of conflict between groups, referring in an explicit manner to the ethnic belonging. The rejection of the ethnic group, the desire to cancel it, have their roots in the mentioned parameters (but other parameters are not stranger from
manner with the purpose to solve a given situation (Wikipedia, September 2007), neither as good or bad spirit state (DEX), but as an elementary state of behavior. 3 If we accept the disposition as the moment and the behavior as the movement, the first one could be compared with a photography and the second one with a movie in its being on. 4 Given adoption group, desired adoption group we are born with the first without being consulted: belonging to his species, to his gender, to his nation. The second group is choose. We do not have to take any decision to belong to the given adoption group. The desired adoption group represents the ideal, or at least an option and require a voluntary effort..

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our theme). In the disposition frame, we shall stand out the long catena reflex, because it can pull out from the deepest background, the memories concerning a conflict referring to somewhat or someone just meet, the intruder inside the disposition because they can be always disturb by another presence and also the self-compassion, like a kind of panacea for finding the satisfaction in the dissatisfaction. But the disposition parameters are only states at the moment (which can or cannot start actions xenophobes). As an example the selfcompassion can find satisfaction in the dissatisfaction of a failure when the error can be ascribe to another in our case to another ethnic. We are abjectly living because of the strangers who appropriate all our natural riches it is said, the strangers could be the Russians - after 1944, the international concerns in the present, or the Jews from all the times. All these can produce instantaneous reactions with or without a development potential. But the practicing xenophobia shows clearly within the framework of the behavior. The state becomes action. The subject tendency to live in group, his dependence from the society represents not only a vital necessity, but also an answer to the self-insufficiency. As a distinct and unrepeatable individual, each man constitutes by his affective biography, a mirror for a different universe. Knowing very well that the world will not disappear in the same time with him, the subject knows as well that this universe his own universe and only his will not survive after him. The belonging to the self oblige him to remain faithful to his personal universe, while his private biography, his habitudes, his education and his convictions do not allow his escape, even if besides the given adoption group (that in which he was born), he has still the wanted adoption group, considered as ideal and being a dream for a great number of people. In the same time, but in the other hand, the individual needs those who are surrounding him. The individuals from each species become so much independent from the others as the species is more developed. On the development scale, the man needs the longest period of assistance before being able to have an autonomous existence. The reasons are not only of strict biologic nature even if these seem to be primary but also of social and information order. The science exponential development leads to a longer and longer period of formation needed for an autonomous existence in the modern society. The ordinary objects manipulation of common usage requires their correct
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identification and a special education, even of the understanding of their working mechanisms became previously less important for their practical use. Leaving aside the problems analysis of a globalization more and more hasten, which in our days perform essential transformations on the human individual and which make us in the same time involved witnesses and subjects in the modifications of the ancients characteristics of the failure revenge, we cannot neglect what it was and what it remains from the this general human parameter, which remind us in each instant that the universe center couldnt be what it is, if the universe did not exist as a real fact, and where we can situate the so called center. We must start from the null hypothesis which states that the human individual permanent keeps the two tendencies: the self-preservation and the dissolution in the community of his similar. The simplest explication of those tendencies, contradictory only in appearance, is provided by the security sentiment that we find in the group. (The group contaminates you but it also preserves you). Though the gregarious impetus does not respond only on the basis of the security feeling, but also on the routine indolence, on the exemption of the obligation to take alone a decision, on the diluted crimes responsibility, on the education, on the fact that you can find yourself in the others, on the hope that you can obtain without any effort all you want. The gregarious impetus is manifested inside the group, inside the nations inside the society. It results from a belonging desire, but because there is no an unique group and an unique nation it is delimitated from another group or another nation. I mentioned above about the failure revenge. It must be remembered that the failure can be assumed or it must find a guilty person to get rid of the entire culpability. To assume the culpability can be unconditional, but in most of the cases, is resorted to a multitude of diminished circumstances. In the first case the subject will have the tendency to impose himself a self-punishment, in the second case the subject will exaggerated insists on his apologies, that he will finish by finding someone else on whom he will transfer, at least a part of his responsibility and than his entire culpability (the ancestral scapegoat). And this is not all: we must add something which belongs to the ancestral desire to mark with a stigma, than to punish another, another chooses at random or another who persists in being different. The punishment (in this case also) has a particular impact on the self
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belonging, on the place occupied by the individual in the society. A slap in public make more ill by the offence to which the subject was submit than by the physical pain. The affliction of that who received the slap and the satisfaction of that who made it or of that who was witness results in the discredit of social reputation of the punished, in his humiliation. Even without physical brutality, the humiliation was always one of the most efficient aspects of the punishment. The humiliation an the physical pain complete each other, the first one affecting the self belonging and the second one affects the physiology and not only it. All these punishment elements can be find not only in the security need but also in the dialogue with the eternity and in the sexuality. The three domains are interrelated and the satisfaction of determine suffering is one of the most profound property of the human individual, resulting maybe, from his animal state. We speak about the punishment and not about pure suffering because the last one provoke to the normal human individual, pity and not satisfaction. To appear the satisfaction is need to humiliate the victim and to want to punish. If the victim does not manifest his humiliation than the executioner satisfaction will not appear. What makes yet possible, in the twenty first century, the appearance of physical aggression phenomena toward another, only because he is not one of ours ? The answer comes from the fact that, unfortunately, the cruelty is not related to a precocious phase of evolution and it does not disappear during the human development. All along the history and even in the most flourishing cultural periods the sovereigns entertain themselves to enjoy the arts but also the executions of an extreme bestiality. The last years of the second millennium after Jesus Christ are not poorer in examples difficult to explain: Srebenica, Vukovar, Jedwabue were between the most mediated but not the only exceptions. The same thing can be said about the Nazi camps or about the goulag horrors of the countries from the Soviet block. Could we annihilate the danger only by the conscience of its profound antimoral aspect, knowing that the absence of morality was too often the history engine ?5
See also Gheorghe Schwartz, Situatia in Italia, un test pentru Europa, in Revista 22, nr. 959, 22-28, July 2008
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Bibliography: Schwartz, G., (2007), Psihologia transversal. Partea general, Editura Universitii Aurel Vlaicu, Arad Schwarty, G., (2008), Situaiadin Italia, un test pentru Europa, n Revista 22, nr. 959, pp. 22-28, iulie ***, (1998), Dicionarul explicativ al limbii romne, Ediia a IIa, Editura Univers Enciclopedic, Bucureti ***, (2007)Wikipedia, septembrie

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ERIK ERIKSON AND HIS THEORY ABOUT THE PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT ERIK ERIKSON I TEORIA SA DESPRE DEZVOLTAREA PERSONALITII

Conf. univ.dr. Olga MOLDOVAN Aurel Vlaicu University, Arad Abstract: Some important signs about Eriksons life and activity are presented in the beginning of the article. There is also a presentation of the eight stages underlined by Erikson in his theory about the personality development. His theory meets some of the most important standards of the personality theories Key words: personality, stages of development, virtues. Erik Erikson was born at 15 June 1902 in Frankfurt, Germany. He wrote in 1950 the book Childhood and society a work which contains studies regarding the native Americans, discussions about the American personality and the culture influence on personality. He made a lot of researches on some primitive tribes which habitudes and culture he studied. Based on these researches he will develop later his own theory about the personality development. He received more rewards for his work and from 1970 he continued to write until 1994 when he died. Erikson accepts Freud ideas, adding and developing some themes; he is much more oriented towards culture and society. He is well-known because of the pointing out of the eight stages of human personality development. These are predefined and the evolution in one stage may affect the evolution in the following stages. Each stage involves the development of much many tasks which are regarding two antithetic words. For example the task in the infantile period is to develop the trust and the distrust. To the first regard, we could believe that we must learn in this period only about trust and nothing about distrust. Erikson underlined very clear that it must exist a balance between the two aspects; we must have a lot of trust, but to be
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not silly we must know when we need to manifest distrust. If this stage is correctly learned we will remain with a virtue that can help us in the following stages. The biggest merit of Erikson is that he offered eight stages instead of five as Freud mentioned. He underlined also the influence between generations which he named reciprocity. If Freud assumed that the parents dramatically determine the children evolution, Erikson states that the parents are influenced, at their turn, by the children; this mutual influences can affect many generations. The first stage is called the infantile stage and is situated in the first year of life. The task is to develop the trust without entirely eliminate the distrust. If the parents can offer to the new-born child a certain degree of familiarity, consistency, continuity he will develop the feeling that the world is sure and he can trust the people. He learn in this stage to have trust in his own body. If the parents are not accurate or they reject or hurt him, he will develop much more distrust, becoming worried and suspicious in the presence of other men. This does not mean that the parents must be perfect. Too much care and attention could lead to an exaggerate trust and than the individual will be not able to defend himself in front of some people who will try to hurt him. It is worse if the balance is inclined in the part of distrust. This fact could determine later depressions, paranoia and possible psychoses. If it is acquired a correct balance the child will develop the virtue of hope, in the other words the belief that if the things are not so good in this moment, later it will be better. An important signal that the new-born acquired this quality is when he does not show too much anger when he is obliged to wait for some minutes till his needs are satisfied. He is now able to understand that if the parents did not come when he called them, they will surely appear in some moments. This ability to wait will help him to surpass easier the future disappointments in love, career money or other domains. The second stage is the early childhood, from eight month till three or four years old. The task in this stage is to achieve a degree of autonomy diminishing the shame and the doubt. If the parents or those who take care of the child allow him to walk alone, to explore the envir4onment in which he is, this will develop in him the feeling of autonomy and independence. Here, also, is need a balance. If the child is not allowed to do anything, he will renounce, soon to any attempt to find something new, being persuaded that he is unable to do something
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alone. We must know that even the innocent things, like to laugh for his clumsy attempts to walk alone, will make him to be ashamed for his abilities. Though it is needed a little shame or moderation, otherwise, later the adult will be impulsive and he will hurry to do some things without thinking to the existent alternatives. The third stage is the locomotion one or the game age. From three, four years and till five or six, the task is the initiative, without feeling too much guilt. The initiative means to answer to the world challenges, to have responsibilities, to learn new things. The parents must encourage his new ideas and so he will develop his curiosity and imagination. The initiative is a trial to make the unreal, a reality. The inhibition appears to the persons who suffer for too much guilt. An individual who has an inhibition do never try his own actions because if there is no adventure than there is nothing to loose, in other words there is nothing for which he can feel guilt or responsibility. From sexual point of view these persons may be impotent or frigid. The fourth stage, It is a latent period or the school age in which are included the children between 6 and 12 years. In this period the task is to develop a capacity for industry, avoiding an excessive feeling of inferiority. The children must restrain their imagination and must focus on the education and the behavior that the society requires from them. The children must understand that there is pleasure not only in the plan conception but also in its realization. They must learn the success feeling, no matter if this appear in school or in kindergarten, is academic or social. Too much industry leads to a bad adaptive tendency named limited power. In this category are included the children who are not allowed to be children; their professors and parents push them to a competition zone without accepting the development of the own interests of the child. For example, the artists children, or musicians children etc. An illness frequently meet between the children of this age is the inertia. This includes all those who are suffering from complex inferiority. For example, someone never go in public or never establish relations with the other men. A happy case will be to find an equilibrium between industry and inferiority, to become more sensible to the people around him. In this case, in Erikson opinion he will achieve the virtue named competence.
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The fifth stage. This represents the adolescence, beginning with the puberty and ending about the age of 18-20 years. The task during the adolescence is to obtain the identity of the Self and to avoid its confounding. The self identity means to know his own personality and to realize how he can cope with the society. The role confounding appear in the moment in which an adolescent is not sure about his place in society and in the world. In this case, after Erikson theory, he is suffering from a personality crisis. There is the possibility that a person has a grater Self identity, and because of that he involves himself in a certain role or social activity, so that there is no place for tolerance. This kind of situation is named by Erikson fanaticism. A fanatical thinks that the only way which exists is that on which he goes. The adolescents are known for their idealism and for their tendency to see all the things in black or white. The identity absence is more difficult and Erikson named it rejection. The adolescents often use drugs, alcohol, or do some destructive activities to obtain the permission to belong to a group, thinking that in this way they can obtain an identity. After all, to be bad or to be nobody is better than to do not know who he is. If the individual surpasses well this period, he will have a virtue named by Erikson faithfulness. The faithfulness means loyalty, the ability to live taking into account the society standards, against the imperfection, the inconsequence and its lacks. The faithfulness means that he find a place in the community, a place which permits him to bring his contribution for a better society. The sixth stage. This period is the stage of the young adult and it is situated between 18 and 30 years. The main task of this time is to obtain a degree of intimacy, as opposite to the isolation. The intimacy is the ability to be close from the other as lover, friend and as a participant in the society. In this period Erikson names two states which can appear and which are harmful for the individual. The first is the disorder, referring especially to the situations in which the men become intimate too easy, too libertine, without any profound implication. The second one is the exclusion which refers to the tendency to isolate him alone from the love; the friendship or the community and the individual let himself to the self-compassion. If the individual gets over this period with success, he will take with him, for the rest of his life, the virtue named love. Love, in the
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Erikson context theory, means to be able to let beside the differences and the anonymity, by mutual dedication. This means love not only for the friends, but for all those whom he meet everyday. The seventh stage is the period of middle age. It is difficult to establish a frame of years, but here is included the period when the individual takes care of his children. The main task is to find a balance between production and stagnation. Though the majority of people choose the production (having and educating children) there are many other way to realize this thing. Erikson considers the learning, the writing, the invention, the arts and the sciences, the social activities and the general contribution to the welfare of future generations as modalities of production. The excessive stagnation, on the other hand, is an attitude of protection and responsibility only toward his own person. But, there is also the opposite of stagnation which is exhaustion present to the very active men, which do not have anymore time for themselves, for rest and relaxation. Much more evident is the rejection. Too much production and too much stagnation lead to the lack of participation of the individual in the society. In this period can be manifest the so called middle age crisis, when the individual realize that he becomes older and wants to experiment new things, to feel more young. This crisis is more obvious to the men than to the women. But if the individual surpass this stage he will achieve a responsive capacity which will help him all the long of his life. The eighth stage is the last one, it is known under the name of maturity and begins in the same time with the retreat, that means about 60 years. The main trial of this period is to develop the Self integrity with the minimum quantity of desperation. The last one can appear because of the pensioning and the renouncement to a work carry on for years, or because of the children departure from home, or also because the illnesses, more frequent in this period. Because all of these, many aged people become depressed, mischievous, with a permanent fear of illness, senile without a psychic background. The Self integrity means to realize the limitation of the world in which he lives. If the individual is capable to look in the past and to accept the
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course of the events, the choices made and the manner in which he lived his life, than there is no reason to be afraid of death. The individual who approaches the death without fear has the virtue named by Erikson sagacity. He said about this virtue that it is a gift for children because if the aged people do not have fear of death neither the children will not have fear of life. * * * The stages presented by Erikson seems to offer a framework. We can talk about our culture in comparing it with that of other nations, about the society of our days comparing with that from two century ago. Taking into account the manner in which we differ from the standards, the theory of Erikson is proved by the practice. Erikson and other researchers discovered that the general model is always the same, insensible to the culture or time, and for the majority of people this is even familiar. In the other words, his conception about the personality development includes one of the most important standards of personality theories.

Bibliography: David. D., (2004), Prelucrarea incontient a informaiei, Editura Tritonic, Bucureti Erikson, E., (1982) , The life cycle completed, A review, Ed. Norton, New York Erikson, E., (2001), Psihanaliz i istorie. Tnrul Luther, Editura Trei, Bucureti Horney K., (1995), Direcii noi n psihanaliz, Editura Univers Enciclopedic, Bucureti Moldovan, O.D., (coord.), (2006), Sinteze conceptuale de psihopedagogie special, Editura Universitii Aurel Vlaicu, Arad Pervin, L.A., Johm, O.P., (1997) Personality. Theory and research, John Wiley & Sons, New York andor V., (2005), Itinerar de psihanaliz, Editura Fundaiei Generaia, Bucureti Zamfirescu V.D., (2003), Introducere n psihanaliza freudian i postfreudian, Editura Trei, Bucureti
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CONSUMPTION LOAN AGREEMENT CONTRACTUL MUTUAL DE CONSUM Conf. univ. dr. Petru TRCHIL Abstract: The author presents the contracts, their nature and classification, especially the agreement contract. Then he mentions the consumption loan agreement with its legal features, validity conditions, agreement proof, agreement effects an the termination of the loan agreement Key words: contract, loan contract, consumption loan agreement The Romanian Civil proceedings code of 1865, as other European civil proceedings codes, this task returned to judicial doctrines. This is also due to the fact that the authors of the civil proceedings code have adopted the definition from IUSTINIANs INSTITUTES: ,,obligation est juris vinculum vinculum quo necessitate adstringimur , alicuius solvendae rei , secundum nostrae civitatis jura . The doctrine defined the liability mainly as the judicial report based on which the creditor is entitled to claim that the debtor performs the correlative performance of giving, doing, or not doing something, under the obligation to the state. The most important origin of liabilities, legal reports is the contract or agreement defined by art.942 of the Civil Proceedings Code as the willingness agreement between two or more persons to set up or annul the legal relations between them. Thus, the contract is a judicial document, a manifestation of will with the intention to produce legal effects, a voluntary agreement between two or more parties, with the intention of establishing a legal relation between them. Being one of the two civil law basic institutions, along with the property, the contract suffered the changes determined by the historic evolution of the company, from the conception of full autonomy, of the parties absolute freedom of will specific for the liberal period until the
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period when a contract crisis started being discussed determined by the practice of standard agreements, of adhesion and by the states increasingly strong intervention in the contracts field by means of imperative norms. The contract liberty, the possibility that the subjects conclude contracts between themselves, of establishing their contents, of amending or annul them finds its legal grounds in the Civil Proceedings Code orders but it was considered indirectly acknowledged and guaranteed by constitutional means. The terminology of agreement/contract is a generic notion with a vast meaning including a large variety of special contracts. Nevertheless the number of contracts is not limited and they can be concluded by parties with no other restriction than that of not violating public order good behavior (art.5 of the Civil Code). Along with the contract expressly regulated by the law, the current civil law also acknowledges the category of contracts not nominated that do not have a legal regulation but are valid and produce mandatory effects complying with art. 969 of the Civil Code. Contracts classification The vast variety of contracts that may be at the origin of liability legal reports determines their useful classification in order to understand what is common and what is specific to each category of contracts and the determination of the applicable legal system. Thus, depending on the formation modality, they can be consensual when concluded by the mere agreement of the parties, solemn if their conclusion and validity requires the compliance with a certain form provided by the law and real contracts the form of which requires besides the parties agreement also the material transmission of the object of the performance of one of the parties. By their content, the contracts are classified into unilateral contracts giving birth to obligations only for one party (art.944 civil code) and bilateral contracts that complying with art.943 of the civil code is the contract in which the parties commit to one another. Depending on the purpose aimed by the parties, the contracts can be onerous, that complying with art.945 civil code is the contract in which each party wishes to procure an advantage, and free contracts by means of which a patrimonial advantage is procured without aiming at obtaining another patrimonial advantage in return (art.946 civil code).
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Also, onerous contracts are under-classified into commutative contracts upon the conclusion of which the parties are aware of the existence and scope of the obligations and casual contracts upon the conclusion of which the parties are aware only of the existence of the obligations not of their scope, and there is the chance of gain or the risk of loss due to uncertain future circumstances. Free contracts are under-classified into disinterested contracts by which one of the parties obtains a patrimonial benefit to the other party without decreasing its patrimony and liberties by which one of the parties decreases its patrimony by means of the patrimony benefit obtained for the other party (e.g. the donation contract). Depending on the legal effects the fulfillment of which is watched by the parties by means of contracts conclusion, contracts can be rights grating or rights transference, i.e. granting new rights or transmitting existing rights and producing only future effects and rights declarative contracts that do not create, nor do they transmit right, they only acknowledge the existing ones. Some contracts such as sale, exchange, donation are executed at once, by a sole document, being called immediate execution contracts, others, such as the tenancy or maintenance are executed step by step in time being successive execution contracts. There are differences between the two categories of contracts in terms of the effects their annulment and resolution produces, effects that in the case of successive contracts only act for the future and have no retrospective action. Also, the incidence of the unpredicted theory can only be imagined for this toe of contracts. Although most contracts have an independent existence and are main contracts, there are also accessory contracts that can only exist along a main contract they accompany (e.g. the pledge contract or the mortgage agreement). Except for the classical, negotiable contracts, upon the conclusion of which the parties negotiate with one another, discuss and agree on all the contract clauses, in the evolution of contracts also appeared new contract categories that are not negotiable: the adhesion contracts and the mandatory contracts, the so called institution contracts. The adhesion contracts are entirely written by one of the parties, while the other party does not have the possibility to change it only of deciding whether it accepts the entire contract, of adhesion to it. The party making the offer under these circumstances takes advantage
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of a dominant economic position allowing it to impose its will, and for this reason, in order to provide a balance between the parties, the regulators intervention is required. The mandatory contracts are the contracts the clauses of which are imposed by law, and the law determines the content of the resulting legal report, the rights and liabilities of the parties, who no longer have the liberty to establish or change them as they wish. The consumption loan agreement (the actual loan) Notion and legal features The (actual) consumption loan is a contract by which a person, called lender, transmits in the property of another person, called borrower, a quantity of fungible and consumption goods, with the borrowers obligation to reimburse an equal quantity of goods of the same type and quality by a due date. The consumption loan agreement, as well as the commodate agreement, has the following legal features: real contract; unilateral contract; free contract, but it can also be onerous, known as interest loan; property transfer contract. Validity conditions The consumption loan agreement is subject to the general rules in terms of validity conditions, but has its own features in what regards the capacity, approval and object. Considering the property transferring nature of the contract, the lender must have the capacity required by law in order to conclude order documents and must own the good representing the object of the agreement, while the borrower must have the capacity to conclude order documents. The parties consent must be expressed freely not affected by any vices under the sanction of contract voidable. The object of the consumption loan agreement solely consists of mobile goods, of kind, fungible and consumable according to their nature. Agreement proof The proof of the consumption loan agreement is made, complying with the general rules, only by authentic document or by
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document under private signature. By exception, the witnesses probation is admissible in two situations: when the borrower agreed to it; if the borrower proves that at the moment when the contract was concluded a document could not be drawn up. The private signature document must be fully written by the borrower or carry the mention good and approved for, followed by the borrowed amount, written in letters and by the signature (art. 1180 civil code). Agreement effects The borrowers obligations. Complying with art. 1584 civil code, the borrower has the obligation to hand to the lender on the due date the same quantity of goods he received, of the same quality regardless of the increase or decrease of their value between the contract date and the payment date. The failure to comply with this obligation entitles the lender to initiate an action against the borrower or his rightful successors, action that prescribes in the 3 years general prescription term. The prescription term begins to be considered beginning with the date provided by the parties in the contract , as term for the reimbursement, and if such a term has not been provided, from the date the contract was concluded. The interest payment obligation. This obligation only exists in onerous consumption loan contracts, also known as interest loan. If by means of the contract, the parties stipulated that the borrower owes interest, not mentioning the total amount of the interest, the borrower owes the legal interest, set by Government Ordinance no. 9/2000 regarding the legal interest level for money liabilities, approved with amendments by means of Law no. 356/20025. In civil matters, the legal interest is set at the level of the reference interest of the National Bank of Romania, diminished by 20 %, complying with art. 3 paragraph 3 of the Government Ordinance no. 9/2000. The National Bank of Romanias reference interest level is the one of the last working day of each quarter, valid for the next quarter and must be published in the National Gazette. Complying with art. 5 of the Government Ordinance no. 9/2000, the conventional interest cannot exceed the legal interest by more than 50% per year.

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Termination of the loan agreement The consumption loan terminates by: the reimbursement of the good on the due date set in the contract ; annulment, in the case of failure to comply by fault with the contract liabilities; compensation. i.e. the writing off modality specific to mutual liabilities, within which, the same persons are, at the same time creditor and debtor to one another, by which the liabilities are written off up to the amount of the smallest; the debt remittance, i.e. the creditors free waiver of revaluating the debenture he holds against his debtor; confusion the modality of writing off liabilities consisting of the in the same person having the quality of creditor and of debtor of the same liability; Bibliography: Alunaru, C., (2005), Contractele civile, Editura Oscar Print, Bucureti Beleiu, G., (2002), Drept civil i Obligaiile civile, Editura ansa, Bucureti Carbonnier, J., (2002), Droit civil, Presses Universitaires de France, Paris Chelariu, E., (2004), Teoria general a obligaiilor, Editura All Beck, Bucureti Turianu, C., (2007), Obligaiile civile i Contractele speciale, Editura All Beck, Bucureti

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ETHIC AND MORAL ASPECT OF GENETICS ASPECTE ETICE I MORALE ALE GENETICII Lect. univ. dr. Emil VANCU Aurel Vlaicu University, Arad

Abstract: Researchers and genetic engineers generated in the last decades an informational avalanche that had a huge influence on the issue of our existence in the Universe. The great scientific evolution of genetics generated debates regarding Christianity and morals. Biogenetics may become the number one tool of civilization of the new Millennium, if we think of the ethical, moral, professional and religious aspects of genetics. Key words: genetics, ethic in genetics Social biologists demonstrated that genetics will change our worlds destiny. Jean Bernard showed in 1990, that there are three temptations in human biology: control of reproduction, control of genes and control of mind. Biogenetics can manipulate genetic inheritance, reproduction and human mind. Researchers and genetic engineers generated in the last decades an informational avalanche that had a huge influence on the issue of our existence in the Universe. The first researchers tried to maintain a pure material aspect in the study of genetics. This aspect is confronted by Jens Reich through his molecular biology studies. The fundamental rights of the human being start from the fact that our existence takes place in a community. The great scientific evolution of genetics generated debates regarding Christianity and morals. We live in the ages of the genes. Up to which level are the studies useful and where lie the boundaries of genetic technology? These are the reasons why morality, ethics and professional deontology can and have to influence the development of genetics.
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Biologists affirm that our behaviors and our culture are influenced by genes. Richard Dawkins says: We are what we are because of our genes for violence. They have defined our evolution. Moments of calmness were concordant with rebuilding our physical potential. If we can control anger by education on a family level and then in the society, human pathology can be cured. Human pathology is under genetic influence at this moment. This aspect appeared after we managed to confront the major infectious diseases that once were the main cause of illness. What is the prevalence of genetic diseases? WHO (The World Health Organization) states that 3% of all children have a major hereditary disorder. 43% of children with a low IQ level have a gene or chromosomal mutation. One of each 20 people under the age of 25 has a genetic disorder. Most of mutations are situated on the autosomes. Many mutations have also been discovered at the level of X-chromosome, but very few at the Y-chromosome. The world alliance of organizations regarding prevention of congenital malformations struggled in 1994 for: - respect for the impaired persons - better information regarding prevention of congenital malformations for future parents - primary prevention - involvement of all the countries in the prevention of congenital malformations - universal access to preventive, therapeutic and psychological care - an amount of the health budget for prevention of congenital malformations - professional help - involvement of families and honorary workers in prevention - education of professionals and public. Renato Dulbeco suggested in 1986 sequencing of our genetic universe, alignment of genes on the chromosomes and then discovery of the genes functions. The project was launched in 1989 and was coordinated by HUGO (Human Genome Organization).

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The aims of the project were: - identification of all the genes in human DNA - sequencing the 3 billion chemical elements that form the human DNA - make a data base with these information - development of faster and more efficient techniques of sequencing - development of data analyzing methods - determine of ethic, legal and social aspects that may appear during the project Despite all the critics and discouragements, it was stated on the 12th of February 2001 that all the data have been assembled and a nearly complete map of the human genome was published. This map is the genetic print of the human being. Ethics discuss the moral issues. These moral issues develop traditionally from the moral and religious statement of a few important members of the society. A human being has to know all the information that concern him regarding the ethical and genetically point of view, he has to have access to information and medical options and his confidentiality must be maintained. Biogenetics may become the number one tool of civilization of the 3rd Millennium, if we think of the ethical, moral, professional and religious aspects of genetics. Bibliography: ***, (1994), The Danish council of ethics; 6th Annual Report 1993-Copenhagen 1994 Abraham, P., Crciun, A., Rizon, L., (2003) Legislaie n asisten social, vol I, Editura pentru tiine Sociale, Bucureti Bernard, J., (1992), Loi ethique, destin bilogique, n Ethique du diagnostique genetique, Doin, Paris Maximilian, C., Bembea, M., Belengeanu, V., (2001), Genetica nceput fr sfrit, Editura de Vest, Timioara *** (2001), The Genom International Sequencing ConsortiumNature 409, 15 February ***, (1994), WHO ethical guidlines for provision of genetics sevices, WHO, Geneva
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THE DYNAMICS OF MODERN COUPLE AND FAMILY DINAMICA CUPLULUI I FAMILIEI MODERNE Lect. univ. drd. Camelia JURCU Aurel Vlaicu University Arad Abstract: By couple, we understand a generative nucleus of the familial micro group structurally and functionally expressing the way in which two opposite sex persons, after getting married are creatively moulding each other, mutually growing, motivating and determining each other by inter-accomodation and inter-assimilation in simultaneously biological, psychological and social levels. Key words:dynamics, modern-couple, family The couple is a biopsychosocial bipolar structure based on mutual inter-determinism (the partners are satisfying, stimulating, sustaining, growing and realizing themselves as biological, affective and social individualities one with the help of the other); the couple is the result of a creative, multi-connecting, multi-level interactional process. The couple relationship is simultaneously developing in many plans: inter-motivational (sexual-procreative, social-affective); intercommunicational, inter-cognitive and inter-evoluative, inter-functional (cooperation, competition, conflict and the decision-execution rapport of the familial duties); inter-relational and of biopsychosocial interdevelopment of the marital personalities. The evolutive sense may be harmonious, satisfactory and stabilizing or disharmonious, unsatisfactory and distorted, tending to dissociation. The marital interactions have a dynamic character, orientating the couple either towards stability, cohesion and progress (when they are positive and gratifying) or towards instability, dissension and possibly dissolution (when they are negatives and mutually frustrating). The couple development is based on a succession of specific psychosocial mechanism of pre-accomodation, inter-accomodation, inter-assimilation
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and stratification, having as a result the harmonization, synchronization and gradual compatibilization of marital and parental conducts, which instruments the satisfaction of internal and external family functions. (Iolanda Mitrofan , N. Mitrofan , 1991). The social psychology has elaborated a series of theories which tries to explain the formation of the couple (the similarity theory versus the complementarity of characteristics theory etc.), but they dont integrally satisfy, because even if they explain the chance of choosing the partner, they dont sufficiently justify the decisional act. The most credible of these emphasize the dynamic perspective of the couple, insisting on the psychological and physical factor. The couple may be defined as a biopsychosocial bipolar structure based on mutual inter-determinism (the partners are satisfying, stimulating, sustaining, growing and realizing themselves as biological, affective and social individualities one with the help of the other). Couples tend to oscillate, either towards stability, cohesion and progress or towards instability, dissension and possibly dissolution. Mitrofan I. and Ciuperc C. explains the couple functionality in the book Incursiune n Psihosociologia i psihosexologia familiei( 1998 ) (Foray in the Family Psychology and Psychosexology), using a series of paradigms each of them having their own concepts, positions and methods of investigation. 1. The Development Theory (of the Life Cycles) The theorists of development think of the individual and familial life cycles in terms of specific degrees. The degrees follow a sequential order, similar for anyone, but within the framework of each degree, the human psychological reactions vary very much. R. Hill (1970) elaborates a scheme of family life cycles in which he specifies the intervals in which changes in the development of family occurs, giving from the methodological point of view the possibility of focusing the research on the problems of the family in one of its degrees of development. These degrees are the following: 1. the initial degree of the family relationships of the couple without children; 2. the degree of life of the couple with pre-school children; 3. the degree of the family with school age children; 4. the degree of the family left by the grown ups; 5. the degree of the family of the single man (the widowhood).
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The adult coupe must continue to develop itself individually and together in order to be able to face the new situations which appear in the next degrees. The development theory includes a systematic analysis of the changes which the family members can expect on their existence. (Aldons, 1978). 2. The Structural Theory (The Dynamics of Role and Power) The structural theory insists on the concept of role. The social role represents the ensemble of behaviors that the others expect from the individual who occupies a decisive social position, a social status. ( Stoetzel, 1963 ). The structuring of the conjugal roles is conditioned by the general situation from the society but also by the instructional and cultural level of the partners, by the social-professional category to which they belong to, and also by the network of the external relationships of the conjugal nucleus with the extended family, the friends and the neighborhood. T. Parsons and R. Bales (1955) emphasized the structure of the couple in accordance with the axis of power (inferior/superior) and the axis of role (instrumental /expressive). A classification which better pinpoints the structure of authority and power in a couple was realized by H. Touzard (1965). Starting from two variables (action and decision) the author obtained two types of possible interactions which define the conduct of role within the couple: The male autonomy (the man acts and decides); The female autonomy (the women acts and decides); The male autocracy (the man decides, the women acts); The female autocracy (the man acts, the woman decides); The male leadership (the man decides, they act together); The female leadership (the women decides, they act together); The syncretic division of roles (the man acts, they decide together); The syncretic division of roles (the woman acts, they decide together); The syncretic cooperation (they act together, they decide together).
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Olson, Sprenkle i Russel (1979) gave us a very interesting model, starting in their analysis from two dimensions of the couple life: the cohesion and the adaptability. By cohesion they mean the emotional connection between the members of the couple, a connection that can be seen as a continuum from the total break to total involvement. By adaptability they mean the capacity of the couple to change the roles, a change that can be seen as a continuum, from the chaotic structure to the rigid structure. S. Minuchin (1974) considers the couple as a system that puts up resistance to changes and maintains the patterns as long as possible, yet being capable of transforming in order to be able to face the new conditions, without losing its continuity. This pattern about which does Minuchin speak is sustained by two types of organizational structures: idiosyncratic (specific to each family) and general (common to each family). The mechanisms of the formation of the conjugal-parental role have a special importance for the understanding of the problems that occur in the couple. The conjugal and/or the parental role is initially formed by imitation (taking over) or negation (conscious or/and unconscious) of the corresponding role models, learned in the original family (of belonging), from during the childhood. The aberration of the partner from the expected conjugal role leads to the increasing of a frustrating and anxious feeling. The structural theory analyzes the roles and the relations of power of the components of the familial system. From the point of view of the contemporary social reality, the structural paradigm appears to us to be useful and imperiously necessary in the couple approach. 3. The Functional Theory (processual) The theory starts from the premise that the couple must realize certain functions. In rapport with the fulfillment/ unfulfillment of these functions, families were classified in functional and dysfunctional. V. Satir (1976) considers that the functional family is an opened system and the dysfunctional family is a closed system. But a family cannot be considered as a closed system, because even the most dysfunctional families interact with the environment and have a certain degree of organization. Thus we will consider the family an opened social- cultural and interpersonal system.
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The functional paradigm has great implications on other four great approaches. a. The Communicational Approach This approach intends to reveal the types, the quantity, and the quality of the marital intercommunications. The types of intercommunication are in connection with the types of interactions specific to the couple: sensual-sensitive and eroticaffective, social educational, decisional, practical domestic, of spending the leisure time and the budget planning. The quantity of intercommunication refers to the frequency of the simultaneously and successively broadcast and received messages on different channels, according to the individual needs and availabilities of relating. So, for example, in a couple the emotional psychic and verbal messages may prevail in quantity, while in another couple the empathic non verbal messages are dominant. Definitive for the communicational style and its efficiency in a couple is the communicational quality. Knowing what, when and how to communicate in the partnership situation is an essential availability for the continuation of the couple life and for the successive correction of the interactional style. In the process of the familial intercommunication, in the majority of cases, two, three, four or many more social actors may participate. We will expound on three models of communication, emphasizing the fact that the number of social actors which enter the communicational process has a direct impact on the family relationships quality. The model o two persons (Sluzki and Beavin, 1972) describe the marital interaction. This interaction may generate an equalitarian functional communication or an inequalitarian (dys)functional communication. W. N. Ackerman (1967, apud. F. Levant, 1984) formulates a possible model of three players, trying to emphasize the scapegoat theme. The three roles are: the persecutor, the victim and the healer. V. Satir (1972) proposes a model consisting in four players, with the following roles: the prosecutor, the peace-maker, the one who evaluates and the muddle-headed (the one who brings confusion). The alternative for these dysfunctional roles is, for V. Satir,
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the congruent communication, in which each one says what he feels and wants to say. Kantor and Lehr (1975) build a model of four players, valid both for the functional and the dysfunctional situations. It includes: the initiator, the opponent, the subaltern and the witness. As the roles proposed by the V. Stir, these roles too may appear in any combination within the family. The measure in which these roles are generalized represents an indicator of disfunction. b. The Interactionist-Symbolic Approach The interactionist paradigm was developed by Thomas, R. Park and G. Mead at the beginning of the XX century at the University of Chicago. The main idea of this paradigm is that the family offers the possibility of communication of the self with himself and with the others, by the transfer of symbols. The symbols mediate the understanding and the communication within the reciprocal interactions. They may be verbal or nonverbal. The study of the family from the interactionist point of view also means the study of the interactions of the conduct of role of the members of the family system. From this point of view, the roles are defined (built) in two ways: 1. by the normative expectations of the reference group (resented on the individual by rote taking); 2. by the own meaning given to the role by the one who plays it (individuals self-concept), which implies the active construction of the own role. But one must not ignore the fact that this product of building of meanings or of the appropriation of these to the reference group is constituted and it is developing within the interaction. On the other hand, the interpretations given to these meanings vary depending on the conditions of the interaction, depending on the concrete situations in which the members of the members of the family system are implied. But beyond the way in which the meaning is being built, beyond the interpretations put on it, people refer to the social reality depending on the meaning that this has for them. As a conclusion, the interaction, the symbol, the meaning, ;the situation, are the basic concepts of this paradigm. They try to explain the family functionality, try to bring an increase of knowledge in the study of family.
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c. The Approach from the Point of View of the Conflict This paradigm conceive the family as a system of permanent conflictual regulations. The constant state of conflict is generated by the competition of needs of the marital partners and by the disagreements concerning the goals and the values. Starting from the delimitation between the normal dinamogen versus pathogen disorganizator, a typology of conflict can be built. This typology indicate eight types of conflict, which are just possibilities of combinations among three parameters considered to be important in the analysis of the conflict (I. Mitrofan, 1989): The tension degree generated by the nature of the conflict (high/normal/low); The predominant way of the manifestation of the conflict (manifested/latently); The duration of the conflict (continually/imminent). Beyond this typology, but not independent of it, we can emphasize the fact that a series of factors (of micro and macro group) generates the interpersonal conflict. Among the most significant microsocial interfamily conflict generating factors may be enumerated: tensioned couple relationships (by one or both partners) with the family of orientation (belonging), the most frequent conflicts met are the daughter-in law mother-in-law and son-in-law father-in-law; critical relationships with the group of friends, mates, neighbors etc. (of one or both spouses), which encourage the conjugal dysfunctions, increasing the risk of conflict; lack of balance in the budget of income and expenses, which may stimulate and sustain some conjugal-familial dysfunctions, but in direct connection with the level of interpersonal functionality; the incident situational factor, which may actualize some latent dysfunctions. A special characteristic of this is the fact that it generally cannot be controlled, being harder to operate on it in comparison with the others factors. As a conclusion, the approach from the point of view of the conflict is essential for the understanding of the problems that appear in the familial system. Moreover, in the conditions in which the contemporary social reality favors the conflict (either general or familial), this paradigm is of main actuality.

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d. The Social Exchange Approach The social exchange paradigm is based on the idea that the interpersonal relation is formed on the purpose of meeting the individual needs of each other. So the intimate relationship is reduced to a transactional situation in which the costs are counterbalanced by benefits. The basic principles of the exchange paradigm are the following: 1) The persons enter a relationship with the purpose of raising the level of utility on the other for the case of remaining alone (Becker, 1994) and stay in this relationship as long as they perceive that the rapport costs/benefits is satisfactory; 2) In order for the mentioned rapport to be satisfactory, it can function on the reciprocity law (as much as you have given me that much Im giving you) or on the equity law (which ignore the simple equality and calls the rapport equality as much I give, as I receive/as much you give as you receive); 3) The two laws correlate very closely with the resources brought by each of them in the analyzed situation; these resources are very diverse, from the material conditions or physical attractiveness to the emotional feelings and social prestige. In conclusion, the exchange theory applies the economic principles at the interpersonal market economy. It is largely used both in the explanation of the interpersonal attraction and in the analysis of the maintaining or of the developing of the intimate relationship. 4. The Systematic Theory (Holistic) The systematic paradigm is a comprehensive approach of the living systems behavior from the individuals and marital dyads to organizations and nations. In general, by system we mean a lot of objects which operate on each other so intensively, that their states are interdependent, the modification of one of them causing changes in all the others. (C. Zamfir, 1993) From the structural point of view, the systematic paradigm concentrates on the behavioral characteristics of each partner in the assumption of the sex-role, of the common scope and interests, of the communicational and relational modalities among the members of the familial system. From the point of view of the functionality, the systematic paradigm also takes into account the effects of communication and the
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methods of solving the problems, the marital/parental competence of each of them and of the couple, the quality and stability of the marital relationship, the success and deficits of bringing into accord the goals and interests. From the point of view of the field of property and characteristics, the systematic paradigm concentrates on the effects of the external environment on the marital relationship, on the capacity of facing the conjectural psychosocial stress, the impact of the social political ideological etc. regulations and constraints on the couple development and on solving the familial problems. The systematic paradigm approaches the family from a holistic perspective. The systematic approach also analysis the states of internal lack of balance (the defective families, the pathological families etc.). By the analysis of these forms it offers large perspectives of empirical theoretical investigations of the family, regarded both as an amount of subsystems and as an element of the social global system. 5. The Historical Theory (Intergenerationist) This paradigm regards family in its different degrees, explaining the present from the point of view of the former generations or, on the contrary, offering new values to the past family systems by the point of view of their evolution towards modernity. The historical approach allows the conceptualization both of the changing and of the stability of a family. Specific to the historical paradigm is the usage of the longitudinal method, which concentrates on micro-history and on the family genealogy. The genealogical tree is the instrument with the help of which we can realize interferences, we can elaborate hypothesis concerning the behaviors and attitudes of the younger generations, in the relation with their ancestors. J. Framo (1970), B. Nagy (1973) and M. Bowen (1976) developed a series of models which analyzes even these inter and intragenerational connections, across the conflict and/or dysfunction. They start from the premise that family is an emotional system within which the partners depending on their maturity will present different degrees of emotional fusion. But with the appearance of the tensions and divergent points of view, the emotional fusion meets new different erosion degrees.
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Consequently, we consider that the familial system, in order to be functional, from the point of view of the intergenerational rapports must build and consolidate to itself a state of equilibrium among the cultural models of the compounding generations. In conclusion, the historical paradigm is not only useful but even necessary in the analysis of the intergenerational connections, in the analysis of the changing or of the stability of the family systems. The Characteristic of the Modern Couple the Instability The renouncement of these verbal patterns with pretentiousness of defining the familial phenomenon, could give us the chance of a more adequate understanding of the meaning and the reasons of marriage, as a result of the fundamental meeting between the sexes. The condition of the modern marriage is profoundly characterized by the freedom of choice, of the decision by and for love, in and for the discovery and fulfillment of good with the help of the other. A characteristic of the contemporary couple also results from here: its great instability and mobility due to the vulnerability and profoundly humane dynamics of affective motivations in continuous metamorphose. The instability of the modern couple leads with a considerable frequency at the raising of the divorce rate. The incomplete family, formed by one of the parents and the child or his children, the family formed by divorced persons (with or without children) and the singleness are the competing family formulas in the contemporary world which tend to undermine in the social life the weight of the stable and symmetrical nucleus marriages (spouses and their children). The reality of this phenomenon can reveal its motivations rather in a psychological analysis of the relationship between partners, which far away of remaining a traditional way of preserving a social structure destined to satisfy the needs of solidarity and social economical security, becomes today an essential experience of growing up and developing a human personality, of each sex with the help of the other. Thus marriage appears as a real school of psychological auto and inter-acquaintance, of the formation and education of the inter-sexes relational behavior, of learning the science and art of dialogue, negotiation and cohabitating. The marital partnership constitute more and more a chance of each other of growing socially, of knowing and complete each other by their own psychological resources. It concomitantly requires the constant exercise of self-regulation and self40

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control, of perfecting the capacities of efficient cooperation, of acquiring an ability of feminine and masculine role which to confirm equilibrium, safety and satisfaction to the individual. Thats why the modern marriage gets a sense only in the conditions of a dynamic experiment, sometimes definitively, sometimes transitory, in which the unforeseeable is provoked in order to develop and apply real interhuman resolutive strategies in which the solution of maintaining the couple structure depends on the perpetuation of the mirage of self discovering and of the other. A real psychological practice of cohabitating with unfailing satisfactions and dissatisfactions continually oscillating between fusion and autonomy, between the alternative of admiration and of the mutual disappointment, between the trap of identification and the psychological distance imposed by the boundaries of the personality In this experiment of self discovery and development, through the relationship with the partner, the two can receive a common conscience of their insertion in the environment which implies also common ways of being, of acting in the world. This does not mean that they become depersonalized as individuals, but their unity gives them the chance of a more profound personalization and self assertion. In other words, the interpersonal harmony secure to each of them the possibility of a self surpass, it is a psycho-energetic spring in the fulfillment of the purposes of the individual. But as any psychological experiment, the experiment of accommodation between the spouses is not devoid of the danger of the action of some uncontrollable variables (external but also internal) which can lead to the annulment of the hypothesis of compatibility, so also of the effect of harmony. Three of the most important disharmony causes seems to be: the psychological ignorance, in correlation with the immaturity, which favors chaotic behaviors, increases the hostile aggressive latency and gradually replaces the mirage of fusion, amorous cooperation with the anxiety of losing the object of love and, implicitly with the one of self losing; the power contest, which alters the dialog and the negotiation, metamorphosing the love feelings into instruments of emotional blackmail and later on the moral, spiritual and sexual essence are degrading; the behavioral inabilities in the play role, verging on the absence of rational imagination and empathic abilities. One can state that the inadequacy or the degradation of the mechanisms of accommodation and stratification between the two personalities hinders the good functionality and destabilize the couple,
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predisposing it to destructuration and psycho social alienation (I. Mitrofan, N. Mitrofan, 1996). The Quality of the Family Life The quality of life undoubtedly circumscribe the degree and evolution of the family not only as an institutional model, sanctioned by the history of social organization, but especially as a dynamic, lively, opened and dramatically transformative psychosocial model, in the perspective of producing, molding and self realization of the human being. The quality of family life is determined both from the exterior the social cultural background, the level of satisfaction of the material needs (from food and a place to stay, to budget, comfort, possibilities of cultural consumption and civilized living) and from the interior the quality of interpersonal relationships. The last one may be evaluated by the means of many so called subjective indicators, but of which impact is essential in any familial prediction: the social emotional climate; the sexual wellness; the authenticity and completeness of communication among the partners and their children; the preservation of a dynamic equilibrium between fusion and psychological autonomy; the fluency of inter-generational boundaries; the coherence and the consensus of the conjugal and parental model roles offered to children in the process of education; the level of comfort and psychical security resulted from the feeling of familial belonging, as an antidote of loneliness and of unbalancing abandonment; the psychical and somatical health of the family members; the ability of keeping and transmitting the pro-social positive spiritual valuation models. Nowadays, more than anytime, family remains FAMILY as long as it can secure a psycho moral hygiene and a continuous psychosocial therapy to its members, as long as it is developing its resources of facing the multiple stresses (internal and external). It keeps its integrity and longevity as long as it offers its members a coevolutive sense, a stage
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of acknowledgement, valuation and self-assertion, but most of all a mean of ensuring the psychical and social health. Unfortunately, the spontaneously tendencies of the familial phenomenon in the 7 and 8 decades, world wide, seem to argue with the impressive and sometimes alarming force of the statistics that family is nowadays dramatically facing the symptoms of a real psychosocial crisis (D. Perlman, S. Duck, 1986 , J. Dumas, 1985, L. Roussel, 1989). Our studies, more or less systematized (1984, 1989, 1995), have identified on the Romanian some of these tendencies. Returning to the specific tendencies of the contemporary family, we mention: the imminent danger of the deinstitutionalization and depolarization as a result of the significant increasing of the phenomenon of instability and increasing of the numbers of divorces, in connection with the decreasing of the numbers of the remarrying. The direct consequence is the weakening and most of the times the psychological decay of the relationships between spouses and especially among parents and children. Moreover, beyond the appearance of the family institution established by marriage, we witness transformations of the structures of the feminine and masculine roles, some of them with a strong pathogenic risk, forced substitutes and inversions in relation with the sex prerogatives, distortions or amputations of the exertion of the family roles, evasion or abandon of role so that the hiatus between the statute and role is increasing, favoring the entropic tendencies of the martial cell, and through them the entire familial micro-group. There is a clear tendency to proliferate of new models or pseudo familial models, which bear the stamp of a psychosocial transiency, apparently showing efforts to adapt, but in fact announcing sounding dysfunctions which may endanger the psychological and social equilibrium of the spouses, false spouses, ex-spouses and most of all their children. Many of these children are the following adults floating in the confusion of the multiple, successive, incomplete parental models, often being deprived of the warm and emotional communication, of the coherence and competence of the masculine or feminine but also parental role models. Set at social emotional immaturity, they will be tempted to deny the values of familial cohabitation, searching for new life formulas, less depriving, restrictive and threatening. The monoparental families are asymmetric (usually being composed by mother, her child or children from a marriage, from a free union or even from an
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accidentally relationship), the free unions with or without children from former relationships), the singleness more and more preferred are the new formulas which more and more persons choose. The alternative which is more and more referred by the young couples, in the last decade in the free union, which tends to replace for a quite long period of time (5-10 years) the family established by marriage; not certifying the familial relationship is the second tendency specific to many of the contemporary couples, in the institutional frame which continues to have the greatest weight the marriage. This phenomenon emphasizes itself by marginal social pathogenic proliferations the half-marriage and the pseudo-marriage, which shows the first signals of the psychological social pathologic family. The infidelity, the sexual-emotional dysfunctions, alcoholism, the pathogenic conflict are not the first causes of divorce, (even if they are registered in the legal documents), but they are consequences of a frequent process of marital inadaptation. The causes of this process must be looked for in the core of the formation of the personality, in its difficulty of becoming emotionally, socially and moral-spiritually mature, in its relational ignorance, in the lack of a minimal cultivation of satisfactory and civilized relationships between the sexes. Often the precariousness of the social economical condition under the level of satisfying the basic security needs and biological and psychological health, in connection with incomplete or critical instruction and educative system emphasize, maintain and increase the deficits of social familial habitation of today and tomorrow. We cannot ignore the fact that a sick family from the interpersonal point of view generates in perspective a fragile society from the psychosocial point of view. It profoundly distort the roles, the goals, the yearning and the behavior of its members, it consequently endanger not only the efficiency, coherence and psycho-moral equilibrium of the society as a whole. The effect of recurrence is undoubtedly the dynamic of existence. The psychosocial crisis of the family reflects undoubtedly (and not only) the moral crisis of society, but it may become a stimulus in the maintaining and increasing of the social structures and functionality crisis. But we cannot answer to the question what are the factors that generally explain, secure and potentiate the quality of life? evading the psychological social and pathologic proliferation of the current familial nucleus or ignoring its means of protection, psychosocial therapy, education and rational culture.
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The international experience of the specialists in this field gives us patterns of complex assistance of the family having been in difficulties for about 40-50 years. We mention from these some of the most well known: - The British System own the historical priority by the establishment in 1948 of a section of research and solving of the family situations (Family Discussion Bureau), within the Institute of human relationships Tavistok in London, the Organism Marriage Guidance Council, which possess branches in the majority of the countries; - The System of consultation of genetical advice and family planning which develops after 1965, having as a goal the problem of births regulation, fecundity and the treatment of the psychosexual dysfunctions; -The French System of Conjugal Conciliation, founded since 1961 (LAsociation Francaise de Centres de Consultations Conjugales); - Parents School, system of profamilial formative influence initiated by M. A. Isambert (LEcole des Parents et des Educateurs de Paris); - The multi-branched System of Familial Counseling from Switzerland, initiated by E. Sordet in 1974; - American Experience in premarital counsel J. Trainer, 1979; - Programs of psychosexual therapy initiated after the 60s in the USA (W. Masters, V. Johnson, S. Kaplan etc.), and also the typical practice of family psychotherapy (V. Satir, D. Bloch, D. Jackson, J. Haley, S. Minuchin, J. Perez, Framo etc. ). The human being carries the happiness vocation with it. Most of the times it pursues its self affirmation, self fulfillment, self achievement. This is the expression of its authentic freedom. The emotional way love and harmony between sexes and between parents and children, the knowledge and interpersonal stimulation for the common welfare, as indicators of the intergenerational relationships and implicitly, of the quality of life is as important as the material prosperity, being in a strong interdependence with it. In a hostile and frustrating socioeconomic framework, man defends himself by sacrificing and making his own emotional, spiritual, moral resources and becomes lonely among his owns, estranging himself from among them, and acting sometimes against them. The dispute towards power, the style of negotiation, the strategies of cooperation, competition and conflict, the competence of assuming the targets and role-status responsibilities (masculine,
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feminine parental, filial, civic, or others) detach, are learned and form in the familial nucleus. The first cohabitation exercises, more or less civilized, unfurl in family and the dowry of adaptive psychosocial availabilities, the dowry of social efficiency (marital, parental, but also professional) are achieved primordially in and through the family. At this beginning of millennium, at this crucial moment of the family transformations from and for it, during the dramatic search for new lifestyles, a prospective meditation would light us up maybe, regarding its contents and evolutional tendencies. Thinking about its psychological avatars, its emotional, moral, cultural, biological resources, in coping with the present and the future, the FAMILY remains a question for each of us that cannot be answered to, but with love! Bibliography: Mitrofan, I., Ciuperc, C., (1997), Psihologia relaiilor dintre sexe. Mutaii i alternative, Editura Alternative, Bucureti Mitrofan, I., Ciuperc, C., (1998), Introducere n psihosexologie i psihosexologia familiei, Editura Press Mihaela, Bucureti Ciuperc, C., (2000), Cuplul modern ntre emancipare i disoluie, Editura Altipex, Bucureti Mitrofan, N., Mitrofan, I., (1991), Familia de la A la Z, Editura tiinific i Enciclopedic, Bucureti Mitrofan, I., (1989) Cuplul conjugal armonie i dizarmonie, Editura tiinific i Enciclopedic, Bucureti Mitrofan, I., Vasile, D., (2001), Terapii de familie, Editura SPER, Bucureti Bishop C, Osthelder X., (2001) Sexualia. From prehistory to cyberspace, Koenemann Verlagsgesellschaft, Cologne Bancroft C., (1983), Human sexuality and its problems, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh Enchescu C., (2003), Tratat de psihosexologie, Editura Polirom, Iai Foucault M., (1995), Istoria Sexualitii Editura de Vest, Timioara Stekel W., (1997), Psihologia eroticii feminine, Editura TREI, Bucureti
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THE BEST MANAGEMENT OF HEALTH SERVICES TO CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES IN ARAD COUNTY CEL MAI BUN MANAGEMENT AL SERVICIILOR DE SNTATE PENTRU BOLILE CARDIOVASCULARE N JUDEUL ARAD Lect. univ. dr. Mihaela GAVRIL-ARDELEAN Aurel Vlaicu University, Arad

Abstract: Cardiovascular diseases represent a major issue regarding public health, situation which has become more serious not only in Romania, but also world-wide. It is estimated that in the XXI century, coronary diseases will surpass contagious diseases, and will be the main cause for morbidity and specific mortality. The patients emergency medical assistance is imperious in all cases that need vascular obstruction (the promptitude of the Ambulance Service from Arad, the fibrinolytic therapy administration). A good management of health services shows a good social-professional reinsertion of the patient, reducing the period pf convalescence and of absenteeism with TWI (temporary work incapacity) and implicitly the cost reduction for the health system, justifies one more time the advantages of this therapy for the individual and public (system) health. Key words: cardiovascular diseases, the management of health services, Arad county. At the end of the last century more than half of the deaths from our country were the result of cardiovascular diseases, a quarter being the cause of acute myocardial infarction. The standard mortality rate due to cardiovascular diseases, in Romania, was in a ratio of 2 to 1 compared to Europe, situation that has been influenced by 2 causes. On the one hand, there is the different incidence of atherosclerosis and, on the other hand, there is the efficiency of the treatment in the actual stage of cardiovascular diseases. The acute coronary diseases mortality has been reduced in the last few years as a result of the progress achieved in
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the emergency therapy in the intensive coronary unities of therapy, and in the modern reperfusion techniques. Nowadays, the centers that provide various medical-surgical facilities, available non-stop reduce this number below 5-7% (Braunwald, 2005). The Purpose of the Study This paper intends to analyzed, for a period of 7 years, prehospital and hospital management of the patients who suffer from acute coronary diseases, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), in order to identify the features of present medical assistance in Arad county, the management of health services in AMI, the identification of the sanitary education level and the patients who show great factors of cardiovascular risk, the logistics of ambulance assistance on case of coronary emergencies, for an efficient prophylaxis and therapy, reducing the specific indicators of AMI mortality and the socialprofessional reinstatement of the patient. In Arad, in 2002 for example, at a population of 462.427 citizens, the mortality rate due to cardiovascular diseases has been more superior to the specific cardiovascular mortality, in Romania, and it was recorded at values which went beyond the standardized OMS mortality rate for cardiovascular diseases. The mortality, too, due ischemic cardiopathy in the same year, represented 30% of all the deaths as a result of cardiovascular diseases. Taking into account these observations, I have started a wide evaluative research of: the prevalence of ischemic cardiopathy, the acute myocardial infarction incidence at the citizens from Arad, the specific mortality correlated with the patients biological parameters and the logistics parameters of health system (the promptitude of the Ambulance Service from Arad, the fibrinolytic therapy administration), the complications that may occur, the present management of the primary medical assistance in AMI, with the determination of strong and weak points in prehospital/primary management in AMI, in Arad. Materials and Working Methods: - the informational and the written records of the ambulance service from Arad; - the informational records of the demographic data from the University Hospital from Arad;
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the registers with the consultations/hospitalizations belonging to the Hospitals Emergency Unit; - observation files of the hospitalized patients from the Department of Intensive Coronary Therapy (ICT); - the evidence register with cases of thrombolysis, from the ICT section. In order to process the data, there had been used statistical and graphical programs: SPSS 12.0 and 14.0 for Windows, EXCEL, EPIDATA. The methods of research used for the epidemiological diseases, which are not contagious for the population study. The quantitative and qualitative data have been used as statistical units. Due to the fact that in the research of morbidity there is always difference between the evident, subjective, diagnosed, declared, recorded, known examination and the real level of the affection of the population, I have chosen to refer to the medium error calculation (the standard error), the application of the statistical significance tests and the establishment of the trust level, when it came to discuss the results (Bucur, 2006; Colton, 1974; Constantin, 1997). Results The death rates due to cardiovascular ischemic disease for the population of Arad, in 2000-2006, shows a linear increase along with the age for both sexes, but strongly to the male sex. In 2000-2006, there has existed a report, between the acute myocardial infarction and ischemic cardiopathy, of 1,53 in favor of AMI. This research shows an increase in morbidity due to AMI, in Arad, at the beginning of 2005, with a seasonal variation (the warm months), a weekly variation (pick at the beginning of the week), and circadian (maximum at 9 a.m.). In Arad, the AMI incidence increases on case of young men that belong to the urban society. From all the patients who had called for an ambulance in case of an AMI symptomatology, only 41% have received thrombolytic treatment. The management of the patients who suffer from acute myocardial infarction shows an average period of at least 3 hours from the start of the symptoms and the transport to the hospital, most patients arrive at the hospital around 12-14-15 p.m.
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Thrombolytic therapy improves very much the evolution of the patients who suffer from AMI, leading to a decrease of mortality. In case of AMI, the thrombolytic therapy must be applied with the shortest time possible since its start (Braunwald, 2005). For the study groups, there is the statistical significance below the setting up of thrombosis in less than 2 hours since the start of the AMI symptoms as compared to a period of 5 hours and even more, reported to death in case of 1 day to 30 days, being recommended the fibrinolysin therapy in less than 1 hour from the beginning of AMI in order to improve the left ventricul performance and the survival. The application of the thrombolytic treatment, as soon as possible, after the beginning of the symptoms, ensures a high efficiency, and it offers the possibility of a normal coronary flow. The hospitalization periods lasts, on an average, for 6 days compared to 11 days in case of the witness group, due to a better evolution of a myocardial post infarction. The comparison between the deaths and the lost years of life, taking into account the 32 sexes and the age, shows that specific mortality caused by cardiovascular diseases is inversely proportional to the lost years of life for the OMS age classes, most of those who still have chance, belong to the male population, being 45-55 years old. It has been noticed a general decrease in the population of Arad county. Conclusions In Arad county: - The addressability and accessibility to the specialized health services is more superior of the urban area than for the rural area; - The thrombolytic application in AMI takes place at a low rate (41%) in Arad, beyond the relative and absolute counter-indications of this therapy, a low percent is the result of a poor time management (the addressability and accessibility of patients, especially those from the rural are), but it also depends on other logistics elements: the disponibility for the fibrinolytic medication (factors which are part of the economical management of the hospital), the technical resources (ambulance equipped with ECG in 12 derivations, the possibility of radio/wireless transmission TV medicine) and the human resources used for the setting up of the prehospital fibrinolysis (which doesnt exist at present in Arad);
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- Addressability during the peak period: 12-15p.m., involves, for the improvement of a hospitals management in AMI, a supplementary medical staff for all UPU units, and the organization of eligible cases of a fast access to the TIC unit. It is also necessary the establishment of a laboratory of interventional cardiology in case of medical thrombolytic ineligibility, and also for further surveillance of the patients, through angiocoronarography, used if the thrombolytic treatment fails; - The hospitalization period is reduced almost to half of the time, in case of thrombolytic patients, compared to the witness group, due to a positive evaluation of a myocardial post infarction, shows a good social-professional reinsertion of the patient, reducing the period pf convalescence and of absenteeism with TWI (temporary work incapacity) and implicitly the cost reduction for the health system, justifies one more time the advantages of this therapy for the individual and public (system) health. Discutions: The results and observations of the research made in this paper can be materialized through the necessity of improving the prevention measures and through the control of the acute coronary incident, in Arad. It is extremely important to inform and make the population aware of the cardiovascular risk factors which depend a lot on the populations addressability and accessibility, especially in the rural area, to the special medical services and the improvement of the logistics system in case of this pathology assistance (ambulances of type C, with TV medicine possibilities, the development of afferent human resources, the establishment of a cardiology center for intervention with angiocoronarography benefits). For a longer period of time, benefits imply the improvement of the health care of the citizens from Arad, the reduction of morbidity and special mortality due to AMI, the growth of the quality o life in case of the patients with post infarction, through the decrease of hospitalization indicators and of the temporary work incapacity, the improvement of the health system costs, the growth of work productivity due to the reduction of absenteeism with temporary work incapacity (TWI) and the improvement of the social-economic level of the citizens in Arad county.

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Bibliography: Braunwald E., Zipes D.P., Libby P., Bonnow R.O. (ed), (2005): ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction: Pathology, Pathophysiology and Clinical Features; Management in Heart Disease, a Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, W.B. Saunders Company, 7th ed.; 46,47: 1141-1226; Bucur A., Dragomir L., et al, (2006): An Annual of Sanitary Statistics 2005, Bucharest; Colton T., (1974): Statistics in Medicine, Boston, Little, Brown &Co;

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THE ROLES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION ROLURILE EDUCAIEI FIZICE Lect. univ. drd. Laureniu LEUCEA Aurel Vlaicu University Arad Abstract: Physical education plays a critical role in educating the whole student. Research supports the importance of movement in educating both mind and body. Physical education contributes directly to development of physical competence and fitness. It also helps students to make informed choices and understand the value of leading a physically active lifestyle. The benefits of physical education can affect both academic learning and physical activity patterns of students. The healthy, physically active student is more likely to be academically motivated, alert, and successful. In the preschool and primary years, active play may be positively related to motor abilities and cognitive development. As children grow older and enter adolescence, physical activity may enhance the development of a positive self-concept as well as the ability to pursue intellectual, social and emotional challenges. Throughout the school years, quality physical education can promote social, cooperative and problem solving competencies. Quality physical education programs in our nations schools are essential in developing motor skills, physical fitness and understanding of concepts that foster lifelong healthy lifestyles. Key words: physical education, physical competence, schools PHYSICAL BENEFITS Physical education is unique to the school curriculum as the only program that provides students with opportunities to learn motor skills, develop fitness and gain understanding about physical activity. Physical benefits gained from physical activity include: disease prevention, safety and injury avoidance, decreased morbidity and premature mortality, and increased mental health. The physical education program is the place where students learn about all of the benefits gained from
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being physically active as well as the skills and knowledge to incorporate safe, satisfying physical activity into their lives. Elementary In the elementary grades, the physical education program emphasizes the development of fundamental locomotor, non-locomotor, and manipulative skills through the main content areas of educational games, dance, and gymnastics. The movement framework, (i.e., body, space, effort, and relationship) is also a part of the core content and is the basis for developing, expanding, and refining childrens range of motor skills and awareness. Quality instruction by physical education professionals is critical if children are to develop fundamental motor patterns (e.g. jump, throw, skip, hop, catch, and kick). The motor skill foundations established during the elementary grades may enhance childrens social, cognitive and physical development and increase the likelihood of continued interest and participation in physical activity. Fitness at elementary grades is supported by a rich experience in many basic movement forms. Middle School The middle school student is ready to experience a wide variety of applications of fundamental movements, including traditional sports, adventure activities (e.g., rock climbing, ropes, kayak, skiing), and lifetime or leisure-oriented activities (e.g., roller-blading, biking, dance). It is during this period when students are capable of refining, combining and applying a variety of sport-related and lifetime skills. Students may explore after-school opportunities for specialized or/and competitive physical activity programs. Rapid growth during the pre-adolescent years may affect students interests, choices, and activity patterns. Therefore physical education programs offer a variety of activities to meet and expand student interests. Fitness development becomes more systematic. Students develop specific fitness components, set goals and assess personal fitness levels. High School High school students become increasingly more independent as their daily lives become more complex and diversified. High school students begin to make decisions and choices in taking increased responsibility for themselves. Quality high school physical education programs provide students conceptual and practical understanding of: 1) health-related physical fitness, and 2) how to maintain a health-related
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level of physical fitness. Physical education plays a vital part in helping high school students maintain and refine the skills and knowledge needed to select physical activities to use throughout their lives. A COGNITIVE BENEFITS Children learn through a variety of modalities (e.g., visual, auditory, tactile, physical). Teaching academic concepts through the physical modality may nurture childrens kinesthetic intelligence. Academic constructs have greater meaning for children when they are taught across the three realms of learning, including the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains. Greater depth and relevance can be achieved when the subject matter constructs are related to each domain of learning. Research has demonstrated that children engaged in daily physical education show superior motor fitness, academic performance, and attitude towards school versus their counterparts who did not participate in daily physical education. Physical education learning experiences also offer a unique opportunity for problem solving, selfexpression, socialization, and conflict resolution. Elementary Research suggests that young children learn through active engagement with the stuff of their world. Children in elementary school acquire knowledge through physical exploration of their environment. Physical education may provide children with learning experiences essential to the formation of mental schemes (i.e., mental patterns or systems that describe the ways people think about the world; building blocks of thinking). Children form more effective schemes by physically interacting with their environment. Quality physical education programs facilitate exploration of movement in various contexts that enhance acquisition of knowledge. Middle School Middle school students are intensely curious, prefer active to passive learning, and definitely favor interaction with peers during learning activities. The early adolescent exhibits a strong willingness to learn things they consider useful. They enjoy using skills to solve real life problems. Quality physical education programs provide a medium through which middle school students can refine and expand upon their physical repertoire of skills. It has been shown that students miss fewer days of school because of illness and exhibit greater academic achievement because of the physical vitality gained in physical education.
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High School During the high school years students should be given more indepth learning opportunities so they can understand the mechanical, physiological and social-psychological aspects of physical activity. High school students growing ability to compare and contrast, analyze, and synthesize information enables them to apply movement principles in new and meaningful ways. Students can more fully understand the role of physical activity in preventive health and analyze the pros and cons of various types of physical activity in lifelong health. AFFECTIVE BENEFITS Physical competence builds self-esteem. Quality physical education programs enhance the development of both competence and confidence in performing motor skills. Attitudes, habits, and perceptions are critical prerequisites for persistent participation in physical activity. Appropriate levels of health-related fitness enhance feelings of well being and efficacy. Elementary Quality physical education programs can contribute to the development of self-esteem among children. Children who are more active may have greater social success and positive relations with peers. Children need many opportunities to experience personal feelings of success and achievement in physical activity settings. Explorations of various movement capabilities contribute to feelings of joy and accomplishment. Middle School Quality middle school physical education programs provide students unique opportunities for demonstrating leadership, socialization, and goal setting skills. Involvement in physical activity has shown a consistent relationship with mood, self-esteem, and other indices of psychological well-being in early adolescence. Student preferences become more specialized at this age and the preference influences students motivation to continue in physical activities. A youngsters feelings of perceived competence also affect future participation and self-esteem. Despite the physiological changes that occur at this age, students are generally willing to work cooperatively toward common goals because the desire for peer group acceptance is strong. Risk taking is attractive and students accept the challenge of setting and achieving personal goals. Physical education programs have
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a unique opportunity to provide learning experiences that enhance middle school students self-esteem. High School During this phase of development, students begin to select activities based more on personal interests. Other factors affecting students choices of physical activity may be their level of health-related physical fitness, body type, geographical location, and socio-economic group or circle of peers. Physical education programs must continue to enhance students fitness development and offer an array of activities from which students can select. Attitudes, habits, and perceptions are critical prerequisites for persistent participation in physical activities. To help students achieve self-realization through physical activity, the physical education program can guide student choices and help them become self-directed in the selection of activities that are satisfying. The importance of commitment and dedication in achieving success may be emphasized in physical education. Physical activity habits and preferences are not static, but are continually in a state of flux throughout ones lifetime. High school is a time when students can establish habits and attitudes about the role physical activity will play in their lifetime. This is the time for students to explore their preferences related to physical activity and perhaps specialize based on abilities and interests. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IMPROVES THE QUALITY OF LIFE Regular physical activity improves functional status and limits disability during the middle and later adult years. Physical activity contributes to quality of life, psychological health, and the ability to meet physical work demands. Physical education can serve as a vehicle for helping students to develop the knowledge, attitudes, motor skills, behavioral skills, and confidence needed to adopt and maintain physically active lifestyles. The outcomes of a quality physical education program include the development of students physical competence, health-related fitness, self-esteem, and overall enjoyment of physical activity. These outcomes enable students to make informed decisions and choices about leading a physically active lifestyle. In early years children derive pleasure from movement sensations and experience challenge and joy as they sense a growing competence in their movement ability. Evidence suggests that the level of participation, the degree of skill, and the
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number of activities mastered as a child directly influences the extent to which children will continue to participate in physical activity as an adult. In early adolescence participation in physical activity provides important opportunities for challenge, social interaction, group membership, as well as opportunities for continued personal growth in physical skill. Participation for high school students continues to provide enjoyment and challenge as young people express preferences for activities that meet their specific interests. A comprehensive, wellimplemented physical education program is an essential component to the total education of students. Physical education prepares students to maintain healthy, active lifestyles and engage in enjoyable, meaningful leisure-time pursuits. Bibliography: Alexe N., (1981), Potenialul biomotric al populaiei colare, clasele V VIII. CNEFS Bucureti Crstea, Gh., (1993), Teoria i metodica educaiei fizice i sportului, Editura Sport Turism, Bucureti. Crstea, Gh., (1997), Educaia fizic -Teoria i bazele metodicii, Editura Sport Turism, Bucureti. Crstea, Gh., (2000), Teoria i metodica educaiei fizice i sportului, Editura An-Da, Bucureti. Dragomir, P., Scarlat, E., (2004), Educaie fizic colar repere noi, mutaii necesare, Editura Didactic i Pedagogic, R.A. Bucureti Mitra M., Mogo Al. (1980), Teoria i metodica educaiei fizice, Sport-Turism, Bucureti.

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PARENT-CHILD RELATIONSHIP AND ROMANTIC RELATIONSHIPS RELAIA PRINI-COPII I RELAIILE ROMANTICE Asist. univ. drd. Sonia IGNAT Aurel Vlaicu University Arad

Abstract: During the time, studies revealed that there are both common aspects and differences between the parent-child relationship and the romantic relationships. More and more, we get the conclusion that to be a parent is a difficult, complex and responsible issue. The responsibility is even bigger because the parent-child relationship and also the parents marriage affect the child all his life his life with his parents, but his future romantic relationship with the chosen partner, too. There are three categories: permissive parents, authoritative parents and democratic parents. The first and the second are have opposite aspects, but the result is the same: children with behavior issues. They have difficulties in solving the conflicts, they dont know how to negotiate in a constructive way, they dont know how to make compromises, or they solve the problems by obedience or using the power (punishment). Democratic parent are the best example here because they use rules to raise children, but these rules and the their effects are explained to them, and by this way parents give children the possibility to make their own decisions. Key words: parent-child relationship, romantic relationship, permissive parents, authoritative parents, democratic parents. Between the parent-child relationship and the romantic relationship, there are a few common aspects, but also a few differences. Hazan and Shaver (1987, apud. Wyndol Furman & V. A. Simon, 1999) think that both of them can be considered attachment relationships, because they have similar functions. For example, both the child involved in a parent-child relationship, and the adult involved in a romantic relationship try to find the proximity of the partner. A parent or a romantic partner can be a safety source, therefore when the child or
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the person involved in the romantic relationship experience an unpleasant situation or feel a threat, they return to the parent or to the partner for comfort and protection. Both the child and the person involved in the romantic relationship can use his partner as a safety source to permit the exploring of the environment and the accenting of new challenges. No matter if we refer to the parent-child relationship or to the romantic one, the fear that the relationship can be affected produces reactions of protest. Even more, losing the parent or the romantic partner produces suffering. There are also differences regarding these two types of relationships. In the parent-child relationship the rolls are asymmetric, the parent is responsible for taking care of the child, but the child is lack of this kind of responsibility (at least when he is just a child). The childs behavior attachment system and the parents providing system are coordinated one through another. When the child is in dangers, he is searching for his parent, and by this way he has an attachment behavior; when the parent feels his child in danger, he activates the taking care system. In the romantic relationships, the rolls are mutual. Either can search for the care of the other one in some situations and either can take care of the other one in some situations. Thus, either can be an attachment figure for the other one. Hazan and Zeifman (apud. Wyndol Furman & V. A. Simon, 1999) consider that another difference between the two types of relationship is the sexual element. The sexual attraction has a central role in choosing the romantic partners. Once the sexual partner is chosen, the sexual behavior becomes a central element of the relationship and it can develop the attachment bond. People consider that the romantic love implies the systems of attachment, providing and sexual one. But, Furman and Wehner think that together with these three systems it is, also, involved the affiliation one, and this thing is explained with the biological predisposition of the people to search and to interact with the others. In conclusion, the attachment processes have a central role both in the parent-child relationship and in the romantic relationship, but the romantic relationships impose also, elements of affiliation, reciprocal providing and sexuality.

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The influence of the parent-child relationship on the romantic relationships Its no new information that the parent-child relationship influences the romantic relationships. For example, Freud (1940, apud. Heather A. Bouchey & Wyndol Furman, 2002) thought that the motherchild relationship is a model for all the following love relationships. In this certain sense, there were discovered many mechanisms that can be the base for all these influences. It is considered that the parents have effect on the way the teenager experiments the romantic relationship through the parental behaviors. Thus, they consider that the care and the sensibility of the parents grow the self esteem of the teenager giving him the sentiment of usefulness and, in this way, giving him the possibility to have trust in the new domain of experiences and the romantic relationships. They discovered that there are three types of parental models: permissive, authoritative and democratic. Permissive parents offer their children the freedom to organize their activities as they decide, interfering just a little bit. Sometimes, they chose to act like this because they believe that a child needs more freedom then external control, in order to discover his own identity. Yet other times, parents are much too busy with other problems then to get involved in the childrens education. In the authoritative parents case, they think that the childrens obedience is necessary, otherwise they need punishment. They impose certain standards and a rough control of the behavior. Both styles are problematical, and in spite of the fact that they differ a lot, they tend to create similar problems. Thus, these parental models produce insecurity. Children with authoritative parents live under the criticism, their initiatives are destroyed and also the capacity of taking decisions. Therefore, their trust is destroyed and they have big questions regarding their chances to be successful in life. With the same issues are confronted also the children whos parents are permissive, but from different reasons. Children know intuitively that they need guidance and this is the reason for testing the limits all the time. They can have an insecure feeling because they dont know when to stop. Even more, neither the first group of children, nor the second one feel loved. Children with authoritative parents learn that love is conditioned and it has to be gained by obedience and sometimes, by giving up. Without showing the directions or the missing support determine the permissive parents children to feel the absence of love.
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The two groups of children show issues also in the interpersonal relationships. They can have difficulties in solving the conflicts. Permissive parents usually avoid conflicts, tolerating the mistakes and protecting their children for the consequences of their actions. Therefore, for these children it is taken the opportunity to learn how to get and how to give in relationships, they dont know how to negotiate in a constructive way; they dont know how to make compromises. On the other hand, authoritative parents stop the conflict even from the beginning using the force. Thus, children learn that a conflict is solved by obedience, if u are the person with less power, or by imposing, if u represent the authority. A permissive climate does not support the development of a healthy and moral life philosophy. It is the same situation in a climate with excessive control and punishments. Sometimes, the authoritative parents understand wrong the punishments purpose. By using the punishment, the child doesnt learn to correct his behavior; he thinks that using a certain kind of behavior, the punishment comes. In the same time, that kind of behavior will be avoided only till the person who punished him is present. On the other hand, the intrinsic motivation of the child can be affected. As long as the punishment comes from outside, the child learns to find a direction depending on what is outside himself, and not depending on his own believes about what is right or wrong. Therefore, when the parent is not near him, the child is in a big deadlock, not knowing what to do and analyzing what can happen to him if he acts in a certain way or not knowing what would other people do in the same situation. When they are punished, children experience a terrible sadness, they are afraid and they life with a helpless feeling. In time, they learn to have these feeling in their parents presence even when they are not punishing them. It is difficult for them to feel loved in these circumstances. There is also the risk that these models to be taken over by the person who experienced them during the childhood. As a consequence of this fact, the person punishes the others when he is furious or when they dont do what he whishes. The subject of aggressiveness transmission from one generation to another, shows that there are connections between the conducts used by parents, in the childhood period, and the teenagers aggressiveness with their romantic partner. The rough parental customs conduct to an
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antisocial behavior, which is in close relation with the violence in the couple. Besides this, even from the kindergarten period, children with authoritative parents are more aggressive with the other kids; they are less capable to get involved in cooperative activities and they use beating as a main strategy for solving the conflicts. In this context, children who were raised in a permissive family have difficulties to adapt to the rules of the class and they tend to be less adapted even then the children with authoritative parents. We can notice that, for having a healthy development, children need a stabile life environment. This can be offered by a democratic parental style, which puts in balance the guidance, the experience of love and the support. Democratic parents use rules for guiding their childrens behavior, but both the used rules and the motives are explained to them. Even more, rules can be changed when they decide together. In this kind of climate, children are encouraged to take their own decisions. Evidently, parents interfere when this is needed. By this way, children gain a safety feeling, having the unconditional support of their parents. They learn to solve the conflicts using judgment, negotiation and compromise. Researches showed that this category of children adapt easily to the school climate, they conform themselves quickly to the new rules and school situations. Parents can also influence the development regarding the close relationships. Bowlby (1973, apud. Heather A. Bouchey & Wyndol Furman, 2002) thinks that both the self model and the other ones model formed in the context of the initial parent-child relationship are continued in the future relationships. Thus, a child who gets sensibility and good care in the early stage of his life, he is capable to bond secure and close relationships by getting involved in these relationships hoping to gain intimacy and closeness. On the other hand, a person who was rejected and had an improper or intrusive education can develop negative representation of the close relationships. These bonds become more significant in the late teenage and early adult period, when the attachment system and the providing one are represented better then in the early teenage. The parents marriage can be another factor that influences in different ways the teenagers romantic relationships. Parents can use certain models of communication, models for solving the conflicts, and also, models for finding support in their relationship teenagers can imitate these models in future with their own romantic partners.
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Because parents marriage represents a prominent model for the teenagers close relationships, they can depend on their perceptions over the parents couple relationship to understand and to get a sense for their new romantic experiences. Even more, parents marriage may have also, an indirect effect on the teenagers romantic relationships because of the effect on the parent-teenager relationship. Parents marriage may affect the teenagers behavior, which in turn affects the romantic experiences. Bibliography: Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, & Wall (1987), Patterns of Attachment: A Psychological Study of the Strange Situation, Hillsdale, N. J.: Erlbaum Associates Anghelescu, C. (1989), Elemente practice de psihologie a copilului, Editura Medical, Bucureti Berk, L. E. (2002), Infants and Children. Prenatal throught middle childhood, 4th end., Ally and Bacon Hazan, C., & Shaver, P. R. (1987), Romantic love conceptualized as an attachment process, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Ilu, P. (1995), Familia. Cunoatere i asisten, Editura Argonaut, Cluj-Napoca Main, M., Kaplan, N., & Cassidy, J. (1985), Security in infancy, childhood, and adulthood: A move to the level of representation, Child Development Mitrofan, I., Ciuperc, C. (1998), Incursiune n psihosociologia i psihosexologia familiei, Editura Press ,,Mihaela,, S.R.L. Bucureti Mitrofan, I. (2003), Cursa cu obstacole a dezvoltrii umane psihologie, psihopatologie, psihodiagnoz, psihoterapie centrat pe copil i familie, Editura Polirom, Iai Santrock, J. W. (2002), Life-Span Development, New York: Mc Graw Hill Inc Schaffer, H. R. (2005), Introducere n psihologia copilului, Editura ASCR, Cluj- Napoca Sears, R. R., Maccoby, E. E., & Levin, H. (1957), Patterns of child rearing, Evanston, IL: Row, Peterson

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WAYS OF IDENTIFYING CHILDREN CAPABLE OF HIGH PERFORMANCE CI DE IDENTIFICARE A COPIILOR CAPABILI DE PERFORMANE SUPERIOARE Asist. univ. dr. Gabriela KELEMEN Aurel Vlaicu University. Arad
Abstract:

Gifted children are driven by a special curiosity, they are eager to understand the way the whole universe operates, being capable of imagining improvements or reforms, of producing socially useful values. Gifted children show individual development characteristics, so that an identification and educational system has been built all over the world that observes these individual characteristics and that can turn to account the enormous intellectual and ability potential of the gifted, directing the educational influences away from mass education, towards their stimulation Key words: responsibility gifted children, identification, methods,

I.1.The need for identifying gifted children Identification of gifted children should be performed as early as possible for subsequent pedagogical investment in these children, for their development in accordance with their personal abilities. According to the studies carried out by Romanian psychologists, gifted persons represent 4-6% of Romanias population, while among schoolchildren, 15% have over-the-average intelligence. This evidence is in favour of the need for identifying gifted children so as not to lose these capacities and to offer them most adequate conditions for developing their potentialities. I.2.Procedures for identifying the gifted I.2.1.A set of subjective procedures for identifying the gifted Among the most frequently used subjective procedures for identifying the gifted we list the following: denomination, observation,
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questionnaires, lists, case studies, analysis and assessment of works completed by schoolchildren based on homework assignment or of their free choice, analysis and comparison of grades obtained in various subjects, monitoring. I.2.2.Identification by learning performance Identification of gifted children is more than establishing an IQ percentage on the Gauss curve. Integrative methodologies are needed to recognize gifted children. Gifted children appear in all cultures, in both sexes and at different ages. A form of doubtless identification of gifted children is represented by that capacity for fast and effortless learning we readily observe with these children. The intervening problem is that the higher their intellectual abilities are, the more difficult it is to integrate them into some pattern of academic assessment; these children are so different in the structure of their personality that they must be treated individually. I.2.3. The Total talent portfolio method A method of identification known to specialists in the field is the Total talent portfolio method, devised by S. Renzulli (1997)1 aiming to: collect various types of information that allow building a portrait of the pupil; classify the information into the following categories: general abilities, interests, learning styles and indicators of success in learning (organizational habits, preference for some content, personal and social abilities, preference for creative productivity and abilities concerning how to learn); periodically revise and analyse the information with a view to optimal decisions referring to experience in enriching school activity (in normal classes)or out-of-school activity (in enrichment groups) and a continuum of special services; negotiate various options for accelerated or enriched learning between teacher and pupil, by the latters participation beside the formers.

Renzulii, J. S., The total talent portofolio: looking at the best in every student. n: Gifted Education International, Vol. 12, pag. 58-63. 1997.

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use the information as a vehicle in personal, educational and career counselling, as well as to communicate to parents the possibilities of talent development in school.

I.3. Determining the level of giftedness by psycho diagnostic investigation methods One of the most accredited directions for a scientific identification of the gifted is psychometric, a method by which the defining characteristics of intelligence are measurable. The best known and most frequently used intelligence tests are: WISC-III, Stanford- Binet: Fourth Edition (SB:IV), Stanford- Binet: Form L-M (SB:LM), H.P., the Domino 70. H.SP.Q. intelligence test, the W.M. test and the two-criterion psychometric test, as well as, the Guide for the identification of gifted children. However, psycho diagnostic tests are well defined, easy to administer means, which makes them useful in the large systems of education, where many children have to be tested. We exemplify with: psychometric tests, creative ability standardized tests, IQ, EQ, SQ tests, supplementary tests, and other standardized tests. I.4. Methods for interpreting psycho diagnostic investigation data Experimental research practice has revealed that there are correlations between the concept of intelligence and that of culture, thought and innovation. If the intelligence coefficient is over 150, one can see a correlation between intelligence and culture, in the sense that education has marked the profile of the childrens personality. From this value, the individual uses an enriched cultural substratum. Verbal nontime-limited tests are used in measuring this correlation. They are efficient because they give access to encyclopaedic knowledge; they facilitate expression of cultural aspects or mental projections of children/youths. I.5. Contrasting aspects within the group of gifted children I.5.1. Children with learning disabilities Children with learning disabilities can be defined as children who show extraordinary abilities in some domains and difficulties in other domains. The most usual method for identifying pupils with learning disabilities is to compare the difference between their analytical and verbal intelligence by IQ tests.
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I.5.2. Children from different cultural milieu Identification of gifted children coming from different cultural milieu must be done considering the cultural factor specific to that culture, which most often encourages the development of certain specific abilities. In some cultural milieu, sensorial-motor abilities are primarily turned to account, in others, the analytical ones are stressed, and in still others, only the academic ones are praised. Often the results in IQ tests are irrelevant in these groups coming from different cultural milieu out of emotional reasons or of insufficient metacognitive development. The criteria for evaluation of the gifted must consider: the manipulation of the system of symbolic values in their culture, the different logical thinking, the use of knowledge accumulated for solving problems and the use of analogical thinking, the transfer and extrapolation of knowledge into new situations. I.5.3. Types of visual-spatial children Among gifted children we meet this typology, too. There are two types of visual-spatial children, those who favour thinking in images and those who must think in images because of sequential deficiencies. The former type can use sequential thinking, too, and have an increased adaptability to teaching style, while the latter type cannot adapt to the sequential teaching style, regardless of the amplitude of intellectual abilities. I.5.4. Implications related to childrens sex These problems must be considered in identifying gifted and talented children. Sex differences do not constitute a differential criterion; both boys and girls can equally have high levels of intelligence, or can be highly creative. Differences may appear by wrong interpretation of some patterns of behaviour. At early ages, girls are more emancipated than boys, more courageous and self-controlled. The boys development is achieved more slowly, this aspect being observable not only as regards the evolution of their psychic processes, but also as regards their physical evolution I.5.5. Particular aspects of early identification of gifted children Identification of gifted children must be done early, from early childhood. The arguments are of both psychological nature and of
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pedagogical nature. It is known that the shaping of the childs personality is achieved in childhood, when the grounds of intellectual and practical abilities are laid through educational influence. Gifted children identified early will be able to benefit from all opportunities offered by the society to evolve along the line of their giftedness and to maximally develop their inborn potential. The development capacity in childhood has proven to be the most accelerated in the whole life-course of a human being; character is being shaped during this period, the grounds for the future social being are being laid, the child is highly adaptable and influenced now in the formative-educational aspect. I.6. Conclusions In general, the gifted child has his/her capacities distributed, at a high level, along all directions and shows abilities in many areas; this characteristic should make him/her easily identifiable. However, as to actual fact, things are different; the complexity of their personality makes these children hard to identify, some of them are endowed with high general intelligence distributed along all directions and, if these children have support, they will develop along an ascending direction. The types of intelligence are unequally represented in gifted children, in various areas of development. In general, sensorial intelligence positively correlates with emotional intelligence, which can be tested. On the basis of emotional intelligence, the layers of analytical, critical, spiritual etc. intelligence are developed. This is relevant for the development of didactic strategy, in which the capacity for absorption of the processed information is being trained in parallel with the capacity for logical processing of this information and with the development of abilities. Bibliography: Bowlby, J. (1988) A Secure Base: Parent-Child Attachment and Healthy Human Development. London: Routledge; New York Berar, I. (1998), Dotare general i dotare special, n vol. Studii i cercetri din domeniul tiinelor socio-umane, Cluj-Napoca, Editura Argonaut, p. 34-38. Berar, I. (2001), Supradotare n domeniul artelor plastice, n vol. Studii i cercetri din domeniul tiinelor socio-umane, ClujNapoca, Editura Argonaut, p. 11-15. Chelcea, A., (coord.), (1995), Psihoteste (vol. I), Editura Societii tiin i Tehnic S.A., Bucureti.
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Creu, C., (1995), Politica promovrii talentelor, Editura Cronica, Iai. Creu, C., (1997), Psihopedagogia succesului, Editura Polirom, Iai. Dinc, M., (2001), Teste de Creativitate, Editura Paideia, Bucureti. Freud, S., (1992), Introduction in psystencho analysis. Psystencho phatology, EDP, Bucureti. Jigu, M., (1994), Copiii supradotai, Editura tiin i Tehnic, Bucureti. Kelemen, G., (2007), Copiii supradotai i nvmntul asistat de calculator, n Revista de informatic social nr. 7/ iunie p.109-113, pe www.ris.uvt.ro. Kelemen, G., (2007), Toward a new psychology of education concerning gifted children. In Studia Universitas www.studia.ubbcluj.ro Popovici, D.V., Balot, A., (2004), Introducere n Psihopedagogia Supradotailor, Editura Fundaiei Humanitas, Bucureti. Serdenciuc, N., L., (2001), Sexul feminin cu disponibiliti aptitudinale nalte (riscuri i posibiliti de intervenie), n "Misiunea femeilor n promovarea talentelor"- ghid pentru prini i profesori, Editat de CJAPP Suceava i RO-Talent, Iai. ***Centrul pentru Educaie i Dezvoltarea Creativitii, (1991), Teste pentru Abiliti Intelectuale Generale, Editura Anima, Bucureti. www.historycluj.ro/SU/cercet/CimpianErika/TALENTUL%20MUZI CAL.pdf http://www.haverford.edu/psych/ddavis/p109g97/erikson.stages.html .

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POSITIVE DISCRIMINATION ON THE PROFESSIONAL INTEGRATION OF THE INSTITUTIONALIZED YOUNG PEOPLE EMPHASIZED IN PROGRAMS, PROJECTS AND ACTIONS DISCRIMINAREA POZITIV N INTEGRAREA PROFESIONALA A TINERILOR INSTITUTIONLIZAI, SUBLINIATA IN PROGRAME, PROIECTE I ACIUNI Asist. univ. drd. Alina COSTIN Aurel Vlaicu University Arad Abstract: In the entire world the labor market knows significant changes on the occupational structure, changes produced as a result of the process of globalization. The need of continuous training is shaped in order to actualize the aptitudes of the labor force, as it is emphasized more and more the risk of exclusion from the labor market of those people without financial possibilities. In this context, the young people who have to leave the protection system benefit from positive discrimination which is reflected in a number of projects and social programs. Key words: discrimination, stimulation of the labor force, professional integration. Arguments on the necessity of positive discrimination of the post institutionalized young people Oxford dictionary of sociology observes that the discrimination term appears more often in sociology in the context of interethnic and interracial relationships (p. 179). The first sociologists thought that discrimination was the expression of ethnocentrism, so it was considered the despicable cultural phenomenon of that one who was different. In this context, the different treatment of the children from institutions is explained by the fact that they are different then other children. In the last years, the concept of discrimination was applied in the study of the relationships between the sexes and also, in the
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relationships with the persons with disabilities. G. Marshall (2003, p. 179). Discrimination in the largest sense of the word means a different reporting with negative consequences for the out-group members. People consider that discrimination is any situation in which a person (or a group) is treated different from the others because he belongs to a different social class. We have to consider the fact that this difference in treatment is discrimination only if it is considered undesirable or illegal in relation to the system rules. With the establishment of policies and practices that favor disadvantaged groups (women, ethnic groups, persons with disabilities), more and more it is used the concept of positive discrimination or reverse discrimination. Supporters of positive discrimination sustain that the existing inequalities and stereotypes are necessary to create equality in chances with the privileged groups during the history (Oxford Dictionary, p. 180). Positive discrimination of the institutionalized young people is expressed through a series of policies designed to encourage their social insertion into society and to ensure the access to their rights without obstacles. All over the world there are categories of persons, groups, communities that are in situations with accentuated risks; if for various reasons it is not established any measure to output or to overcome the difficult crisis in what they live in, there is a risk of exclusion from the various spheres of social, economic and political life. In Romania, the intensification of exclusion was due, specially, to the long transition period what we have lived in, and what was accompanied by a series of devastating effects from economic and social point of view, which have directly or indirectly influenced the welfare and quality of life: the explosion of political conflicts, economic collapse, increased collective insecurity, poorness explosion (Zamfir, C., 2004). The economic imbalance induced serious social disintegration processes (about which the author thinks that they are more difficult to absorb than a falling economy): disintegration of families, child abandonment, degradation of the labor force, increased delinquency, drug penetration, low citizen security, increased violence, increased the phenomenon of children of the street, increasing the difficulty of social integration of young people from poor environments.
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The issue of vulnerable people in the process of exclusion was examined in the National Plan of Anti-Poverty and Promotion of Social Inclusion, a collective awareness of the problems of the Romanian society and the social construction directions. In this plan, the considered areas are: The child, Youth, People with disabilities, Gypsies, Inhabiting, Health, Education and Employment. From all categories of persons exposed to the risk, children are most affected because they dont have the resources to overcome the difficulty in which they are in. The child, who cant live its life environment, represents the category that is the most vulnerable to the phenomenon of exclusion, for which all countries in the world have instituted protective substitution measures. According to the definition used in regulations, a child is in difficulty if his development, safety or physical or moral integrity is endangered. Thus, the categories of children in difficulty are: institutionalized children, children who are abandoned or in risk to be abandoned by their own family, neglected children, mistreated or abused children, children from institutions or substitute families with special needs, children infected with HIV or AIDS patients, children who reach the age of majority in protection institutions, street children, children who commit criminal acts. The statistics provided by countrys DGASPC management show that the total number of children in institutions decreased by about 19, 58% in 2005 compared to the beginning of the year, and in most districts it decreased the number of children in this form of protection. But, we notice an increasing of the number of children from the familial type of protection system (15.3% since the beginning of 2005 till the end of the year). In this context, these young peoples issue was an area with interest and it was treated in many projects and programs. 1. The European Pact for the Youth The basis for the cooperation between EU member states regarding the youth was the Article 149 of the Agreement establishing the European Community. The article examines the issues of education, mobility, training, cultural exchanges and accessing the new technologies. Regarding all these, at community level, the first actions were the following: Achievement of the Action Program for youth
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training and preparation for adult life and professional progress and program of community action regarding the Erasmus students mobility. In the year 2005, in Brussels, the European Youth Pact was signed, which aims were to improve education, training, mobility and professional integration of young European people. It seeks, also, to reconcile professional life with family life and social inclusion of young people. Starting from the fact that young people are key actors in achieving social and economic progress, fact recognized in collective way in the context of the Strategy from Lisbon, it was developed a list of priorities that Member States, priorities what were pursued in 2008, like: conferring special attention to young people during the transition period between school education, professional training and employment, providing quality measures for a better social and professional integration of young people by using local and regional strategies in implementing the Pact. A paradox happens in the labor market: there are not enough jobs for young people; however there are not enough persons to fill the existing jobs. The European Union insists that, this situation must disappear; everyone must have a role in society. Statistics show that one from 10 young people with the age between 25 and 29 years is unemployed; one young European from six leaves early his studies. In total, in the year 2006, young people between 15 and 29 years represented approximately 40% of the unemployed people of the European Union. Member States are encouraged to increase efforts to reduce the school drop out and improve the professional prospects for young people who are leaving the school and to consolidate the relationship between business and education. Although there are improvements in employment area in Europe at legislative level, at the examination of the national reform programs from the perspective of young people, it comes out that, on average, young people tend to benefit less from these improvements than adults. In 20 of February 2008 The Council of European Union met in the context of Education, Youth and Culture, analyzing developments in the policies set at Lisbon in the domain of education and training. The principle which is guiding the activities of the Council is: "Investing in youth to ensure a prosperous future both economically and socially." Therefore, Member States should recognize the common problems on long-term objective of the accountability of youth and to adapt social and economic policies accordingly. Since 2005, from the Adaptation of
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the European Youth Pact, unemployment among young people varies from one country to another, maintaining on a high level (17.4%), currently about 4.7 million young people are in a socio-professional unstable situation. Member States are encouraged to apply the European Youth Pact and to follow a list of some proposals which are regarding to the young people with disadvantaged backgrounds. It is considered that young people from disadvantaged categories should receive special attention, which may result in multidisciplinary support and adapted measures. 2. The objectives of government policy regarding the young people who leave protection institutions Annually, approximately 5.000 young people leave the shelter; they represent the labor force and who, according to the Center rules, they have information about the labor market and they received professional guidance. The importance of social and professional integration of these young people is recognized and it is always a topic of interest, aiming the identification of the best methods and opportunities for the mentioned purposes. The Romanian Government addresses to the issues of social and professional integration of the youth with priority; they require an immediate intervention, this concern is concretized in the Governance Program from 2005-2008. Also, in the Community Aquis, our country made a commitment regarding the preparation and implementation of some "strategies to protect the institutionalized children". Social inclusion and professional integration are an issue with maximum interest, thing recognized also by the European institutions. In this respect, the European Youth Pact was developed in the year 2005, in Brussels. The main aimed objectives of the government policy regarding this category of young people are: to create a coherent and coordinated system, to reduce the risk of social marginalization and exclusion, integration and active participation in the community. 3. The Government Policy 2005-2008 In the chapter Social Protection Policy, the Government is committed to the social integration of the institutionalized children; it is promoting measures for social integration. The first document prepared in the field of youth policy, The National Plan of Action for Youth is developed under the National Program for Romania's Accession to the EU. In the chapter Policy in the
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youth domain, there are provided measures for this category of young people who are in difficulty. 3.1. The Program of national interest in the domain of the protection of the childs rights Regarding the issues related to the target group, the National Authority for Protection of the Childs Rights established measures for socio-professional integration of the children in a protection system and for increasing the number of socio-professionally integrated young people. Also, a concern was the improvement of the life in the shelter centers for children regarding the attitude and the general behavior on childs specific issues, the efficient management of financial resources involved in the childs protection system (National Institute for Scientific Research on Labor Domain and Social Protection). For this purpose, there were implemented minimum standards of quality. 3.2. The National Plan for Employment, launched by the NAE is another act that proofs the intense concerns regarding a proper integration of these young people. It is structured on several pillars; the first refers to The preventing and combating the unemployment between the youth and the long-term unemployment. 3.3. The employment of socially marginalized people for the year 2005 (which is, in fact, part of The Program of Employment in 2005), is also prepared by NAE according to its duties powered by the Law no. 116/2002 for preventing and combating social exclusion. This program contains, perhaps, the most concrete measures for stimulating their employment, such as: - To provide mediation services through the preparation of an individual plan of mediation; - Services of professional advice on employment opportunities on the labor market and possibilities of participation to training courses; - Identification of the insertion employers. Bibliography: Cojocaru, ., Cojocaru , D., (2008), Managementul de caz n protecia copilului, Editura Polirom, Iai; Cojocaru, ., (2006), Proiectul de intervenie n asistena social. De la propunerea de finanare l aplanurile individualizate de intervenie, Editura Polirom, Iai Marshall, G., ( 2003), Dicionar de Sociologie Oxford, EdituraUnivers Enciclopedic
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Neamu,G., Stan,D.,(2005), Asistena social-Studii i aplicaii-, Editura Polirom, Iai. Neamu, G., ( 2003), Tratat de Asisten Social, Editura Polirom, Iai Zamfir, E., Zamfir, C.,( 1997), Pentru o societate centrat pe copil, Editura Alternative, Bucureti Zamfir, E., ( 2000), Strategii antisrcie i dezvoltare comunitar, Editura Expert, Bucureti; Zamfir, E., Zamfir, C., (1995), Romnia n context european, Editura Alternative, Bucureti. ***, (2005), Comunicarea Comisiei Europene referitoare la Politicile europene privind tineretul ***, Ghidul Metodologic privind Dezinstituionalizarea Serviciilor de Protecie a Copilului din Romnia ***, Cercetare statistic asupra forei de munc n gospodrii AMIGO Strategia Guvernului Romniei privind Protecia Copilului aflat n Dificultate;

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POSTMODERNITY AND SOCIAL ASSISTANCE POSTMODERNITATE I ASISTEN SOCIAL Prep. univ. drd. Simina Iulia DUMELE Aurel Vlaicu University, Arad Abstract: For human activity to be recognized as a profession, it has to be stated in the report between the cause behavior and society in general. The society of this XXI century is a society of the postmodernism where everything is possible and almost nothing certain. It is considered that people have an existence that is "in crisis" (this crisis is nothing but a natural sequence of the stages of imbalance and dynamic balance), which uses opportunities, anticipates obstacles and expresses requirements that all are in close contact with the environment (surroundings). Through its social activity, social assistance concentrates the social resources for the construction and activation of the solutions for people, who face difficulties in the interrelation with their surroundings. The social assistant delimitates his/her profession, through the specific intervention in regard to the challenge of a change of the clients level or as whole, and respecting the ethical standards of the profession, especially using assessment instruments and intervention specific for that profession. Key words: postmodernity, family, reinventing, ethics, methods and techniques Vclav Havel -President of the Czech Republic and renowned playwright - gave a hopeful description of the postmodern world as one based on science, and yet paradoxically where everything is possible and almost nothing is certain. It is known that man is in great measure a product of social relations, but this raises the problem of the dialectic relation between the interest of the individual and the social one, between these two types of interest there are naturally labile relations, of coincidence or conflict.
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An efficient adjustment to the social environment and to all his requirements ensures the survival of the individual. The adaptation to the human scale is a complex process that engages different instances of integration: from the biological to the psychological and the sociocultural. The objective world offers resistance, raising various obstacles on mans path of the tendencies of self-perfectionism, of the enlargement of the sphere of information and creating personality. How does this objective world of the present look like and manifest itself? It is a world of tendencies, a world of contrasts, a world of religion and non-religion, a real world, a virtual one, a postmodern world. But what is postmodernism? A general and wide-ranging term which is applied to literature, art, philosophy, architecture, fiction, and cultural and literary criticism, among others. Postmodernism is largely a reaction to the assumed certainty of scientific, or objective, efforts to explain reality. In essence, it stems from a recognition that reality is not simply mirrored in human understanding of it, but rather, is constructed as the mind tries to understand its own particular and personal reality. For this reason, postmodernism is highly skeptical of explanations which claim to be valid for all groups, cultures, traditions, or races, and instead focuses on the relative truths of each person. In the postmodern understanding, interpretation is everything; reality only comes into being through our interpretations of what the world means to us individually. Postmodernism relies on concrete experience over abstract principles, knowing always that the outcome of one's own experience will necessarily be fallible and relative, rather than certain and universal. Postmodernism is "post" because it is denies the existence of any ultimate principles, and it lacks the optimism of there being a scientific, philosophical, or religious truth which will explain everything for everybody - a characterisitic of the so-called "modern" mind. Largely influenced by the Western European "disillusionment" induced by World War II, postmodernism tends to refer to a cultural, intellectual, or artistic state lacking a clear central hierarchy or organizing principle and embodying extreme complexity, contradiction, ambiguity, diversity, interconnectedness or interreferentiality, in a way that is often indistinguishable from a parody of itself.
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Postmodernity is a derivative referring to non-art aspects of history that were influenced by the new movement, namely developments in society, economy and culture since the 1960s. When the idea of a reaction or rejection of modernism was borrowed by other fields, it became synonymous in some contexts with postmodernity. The term is closely linked with poststructuralism (cf. Michel Foucault) and with modernism, in terms of a rejection of its bourgeois, elitist culture. Postmodernist ideas in philosophy and the analysis of culture and society expanded the importance of critical theory and has been the point of departure for works of literature, architecture, and design, as well as being visible in marketing/business and the interpretation of history, law and culture, starting in the late 20th century. These developments re-evaluation of the entire Western value system (love, marriage, popular culture, shift from industrial to service economy) that took place since 1950's and 1960's, with a peak in the Social Revolution of 1968 are described with the term postmodernity, as opposed to postmodernism, a term referring to an opinion or movement. Where as something being "postmodernist" would make it part of the movement, its being "postmodern" would place it in the period of time since the 1950s, making it a part of contemporary history. Alvin Toffler, speaks about a society of "the third wave (a society based on knowledge and information), which is unlike the society of "the first wave" (based on agriculture) and that of "the second wave (based on industry). If the first two forms of society are characterized by the patriarchys sovereignty of divine law, the information society of the third wave, which is the postmodern society of the present, is an explosion of the feminism, with extreme accents of the feminist /antifeminist movements, etc. The family whit its current formula basic cell of society is practically deconstructed, cloned, becoming monoparental and homoparental. Our epoch generates a profound confusion in regard to family. The principle of authority and of the separator logos, on which the family always had been grounded on, is in a crisis today in the occidental society. This global informational society, which unifies worlds and disestablishes borders, condemns human to the horizontality of a market
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economy, that is more and more devastating, in which everything is thought in terms of purchase/sale, profit/loss consumption/production. And still, the family is loved and many people dream of having one. It is desired by men, women and children of all ages, all sexual orientations and all conditions. The family of the coming time has to be reinvented. And what will the implication of the social assistant though be? A good diagnostician of societal problems and family problems of the postmodern society can not and should not be missing in this process of reinventing the family How he has to participate in this reconstruction? Appealing to the ethics of the profession of a social assistant and particularly to the ethical responsibilities of the social assistant towards society. The social assistant pleads for life conditions which should lead to the satisfaction of the basic human needs, and he should promote the social, economical, political and cultural values, which are compatible with the principles of social justice. The social assistant pleads for change that contributes to improve social conditions in regard to the basic needs of human and the promotion of social justice. The social assistant should facilitate acces to specific services, and chose for people in need, who are vulneable or disadvantaged. The social assistant promotes the conditions, which encourage the respect for social and cultural diversity, in Romania as well as globally. The social assistant facilitates and informs the public about the participation in community life and the changes that occur. The social assistant ensures that the fundamental human rights are respected. Once these responsibilities are established, the activity of the social assistant is manifested like a direct activity that has to be adapted to the clients needs, by applying the methods and techniques of social assistance: Documentation Observation Meetings
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Interview Telephone calls Genogram Eco-map Analysis of field strengths Counseling Group support Case Study And using the assessment and intervention instruments in social assistance: the initial case file, the opening file of the case, the individual assessment file, report from the meetings, the social history, the social survey, the permanent, individual contract, the contract/plan of intervention, report of necessity/situation, the file of the supervisory cases, the closing file of the cases. Bibliography: Chelcea, S., (2008), Psihosociologie-teorii, cercetati, aplicatii, Editura Polirom, Iai Malin, T., (2003), Psihologie sociala, Editura Tehnic, Bucuresti Neamtu, G., (2003), Tratat de asistenta sociala, Editura Polirom, Iai Neculau, A., (2004), Manual de psihologie social, Editura Polirom, Iai Pasti,V., (2003), Ultima inegalitate-Relatiilde de gen din Romania, Editura Polirom, Iai Roudinesco,E., (2006), Familia in dezordine, Editura Trei, Bucuresti Toffler,A., (1973), Socul viitorului, Editura Politica, Bucuresti Toffler,A., (1983), Al treilea val, Editura Politica, Bucuresti

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EMOTIONAL FEED-BACK AND ABILITY ESTIMATION IN FUZZY COMPUTER ADAPTIVE TESTING FEED-BACK EMOIONAL I ABILITATEA DE ESTIMARE N TESTAREA FUZZY ADAPTAT PE CALCULATOR Asist. univ. drd. Dana BLA TIMAR Aurel Vlaicu University, Arad Abstract: A tailored (Computer Adaptive Test) test is one in which items are chosen for administration on the basis of an examinee's responses to previous items. Computerized adaptive testing attempts to provide the most suitable question for an examinee depending on the examinees ability to achieve the best result. Although Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) and Bayesian Likelihood Estimation (BLE) have been provided to solve ability estimation and have good results in the literature, little attention has been paid to the situation when the answer of an item does not conform with the examinees ability as expected nor standard derivation changes of the ability estimation. We hypothesize that the Adaptive-Network-Based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) can be used to infer flexible examinees ability estimation by analyzing the relevant data of the examinee in a test. Key words: computerized adaptive testing, ability estimation, fuzzy, emotional feed-back Computer-adaptive testing A computer-adaptive testing (CAT) is a method for administering tests that adapts to the examinee's ability level. For this reason, it has also been called tailored testing. CAT successively selects questions so as to maximize the precision of the exam based on what is known about the examinee from previous questions. From the examinee's perspective, the difficulty of the exam seems to tailor itself to their level of ability. For example, if an examinee performs well on an item of intermediate difficulty, he will then be presented with a more difficult question. Or, if he performed poorly, he would be presented with a simpler question. Compared to
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static multiple choice tests that nearly everyone has experienced, with a fixed set of items administered to all examinees, computer-adaptive tests require fewer test items to arrive at equally accurate scores. The basic computer-adaptive testing method is an iterative algorithm with the following steps: 1. The pool of available items is searched for the optimal item, based on the examinee's current ability estimate 2. The chosen item is presented to the examinee, who then answers it correctly or incorrectly 3. The ability estimate is updated, based upon all prior answers 4. Steps 13 are repeated until a termination criterion is met. Nothing is known about the examinee prior to the administration of the first item, so the algorithm is generally started by selecting an item of medium, or medium-easy, difficulty as the first item. As a result of adaptive administration, different examinees receive quite different tests. The psychometric technology that allows equitable scores to be computed across different sets of items is item response theory (IRT). IRT is also the preferred methodology for selecting optimal items which are typically selected on the basis of information rather than difficulty. Advantages Adaptive tests can provide uniformly precise scores for most test-takers. In contrast, standard fixed tests almost always provide the best precision for test-takers of medium ability and increasingly poorer precision for test-takers with more extreme test scores. An adaptive test can typically be shortened by 50% and still maintain a higher level of precision than a fixed version. This translates into a time savings for the test-taker. Test-takers do not waste their time attempting items that are too hard or trivially easy. Additionally, the testing organization benefits from the time savings; the cost of examinee seat time is substantially reduced. However, because the development of a CAT involves much more expense that a standard fixed-form test, a large population is necessary for a CAT testing program to be financially fruitful. Like any computer-based test, adaptive tests may show results immediately after testing.
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Adaptive testing, depending on the item selection algorithm, may reduce exposure of some items because examinees typically receive different sets of items rather than the whole population being administered a single set. However, it may increase the exposure of others (namely the medium or medium/easy items presented to most examinees at the beginning of the test). Disadvantages The first issue encountered in CAT is the calibration of the item pool. In order to model the characteristics of the items (e.g., to pick the optimal item), all the items of the test must be pre-administered to a sizable sample and then analyzed. To achieve this, new items must be mixed into the operational items of an exam (the responses are recorded but do not contribute to the test-takers' scores), called "pilot testing," "pre-testing," or "seeding." This presents logistical, ethical, and security issues. For example, it is impossible to field an operational adaptive test with brand-new, unseen items; all items must be pretested with a large enough sample to obtain stable item statistics. This sample may be required to be as large as 1,000 examinees. Each program must decide what percentage of the test can reasonably be composed of unscored pilot test items. Although adaptive tests have exposure control algorithms to prevent overuse of a few items, the exposure conditioned upon ability is often not controlled and can easily become close to 1. That is, it is common for some items to become very common on tests for people of the same ability. This is a serious security concern because groups sharing items may well have a similar functional ability level. In fact, a completely randomized exam is the most secure (but also least efficient). Review of past items is generally disallowed. Adaptive tests tend to administer easier items after a person answers incorrectly. Supposedly, an astute test-taker could use such clues to detect incorrect answers and correct them. Or, test-takers could be coached to deliberately pick wrong answers, leading to an increasingly easier test. After tricking the adaptive test into building a maximally easy exam, they could then review the items and answer them correctly--possibly achieving a very high score. Test-takers frequently complain about the inability to review.

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CAT Components There are five technical components in building a CAT (the following is adapted from Weiss & Kingsbury, 1984 ). This list does not include practical issues, such as item pretesting or live field release. 1. Calibrated item pool 2. Starting point or entry level 3. Item selection algorithm 4. Scoring procedure 5. Termination criterion Calibrated Item Pool A pool of items must be available for the CAT to choose from. The pool must be calibrated with a psychometric model, which is used as a basis for the remaining four components. Typically, item response theory is employed as the psychometric model. One reason item response theory is popular is because it places persons and items on the same metric (denoted by the Greek letter theta), which is helpful for issues in item selection. Item response theory is a body of theory used in the field of psychometrics. Pychometrics is concerned with the theory and technique of educational and psychological measurement. In item response theory (IRT), mathematical models are applied to analyze data from questionnaires and tests as a basis for measuring things such as abilities and attitudes studied in psychometrics. IRT models are mathematical functions that specify the probability of a discrete outcome, such as a correct response to an item, in terms of person and item parameters. Person parameters may, for example, represent the ability of a student or the strength of a person's attitude. Item parameters include difficulty (location), discrimination (slope), and pseudoguessing (lower asymptote). Items may be questions that have incorrect and correct responses, or statements on questionnaires that allow respondents to indicate level of agreement. Among other things, as a body of theory, IRT provides a basis for evaluating how well assessments work, and how well individual questions on assessments work. In education, Psychometricians apply IRT in order to achieve tasks such as developing and refining exams, maintaining banks of items for exams, and equating for the difficulties of successive versions of exams (for example, to allow comparisons between results over time).
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IRT is often referred to as latent trait theory, strong true score theory, or modern mental test theory and is distinguished from Classical test theory. IRT models are used as a basis for statistical estimation of parameters that represent the 'locations' of persons and items on a latent continuum or, more correctly, the magnitude of the latent trait attributable to the persons and items. For example, in attainment testing, estimates may be of the magnitude of a person's ability within a specific domain, such as reading comprehension. Once estimates of relevant parameters have been obtained, statistical tests are usually conducted to gauge the extent to which the parameters predict item responses given the model used. Stated somewhat differently, such tests are used to ascertain the degree to which the model and parameter estimates can account for the structure of and statistical patterns within the response data, either as a whole, or by considering specific subsets of the data such as response vectors pertaining to individual items or persons. This approach permits the central hypothesis represented by a particular model to be subjected to empirical testing, as well as providing information about the psychometric properties of a given assessment, and therefore also the quality of estimates. From the perspective of more traditional approaches, such as classical test theory, an advantage of IRT is that it potentially provides information that enables a researcher to improve the reliability of an assessment. This is achieved through the extraction of more sophisticated information regarding psychometric properties of individual assessment items. IRT is sometimes referred to using the word strong as in strong true score theory or modern as in modern mental test theory because IRT is a more recent body of theory and makes more explicit the hypotheses that are implicit within Classical test theory. IRT models are often referred to as latent trait models. The term latent is used to emphasise that discrete item responses are taken to be observable manifestations of the trait or attribute, the existence of which is hypothesized and must be inferred from the manifest responses. The other major body of psychometric theory of relevance to IRT is classical test theory. For tasks that can be accomplished using classical test theory, IRT generally brings greater flexibility and provides more sophisticated information. Some applications, such as computerized
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adaptive testing are enabled by IRT and cannot reasonably be performed using only classical test theory. One of the major contributions of item response theory is the extension of the concept of reliability. Traditionally, reliability refers to the precision of measurement (i.e., the degree to which measurement is free of error). And traditionally, it is measured using a single index defined in various ways, such as the ratio of true and observed score variance. This index is helpful in characterizing a test's average reliability, for example in order to compare two tests. But IRT makes it clear that precision is not uniform across the entire range of test scores. Scores at the edges of the test's range, for example, generally have more error associated with them than scores closer to the middle of the range. In general, item information functions tend to look bell-shaped. Highly discriminating items have tall, narrow information functions; they contribute greatly but over a narrow range. Less discriminating items provide less information but over a wider range. Plots of item information can be used to see how much information an item contributes and to what portion of the scale score range. Because of local independence, item information functions are additive. Thus, the test information function is simply the sum of the information functions of the items on the exam. Using this property with a large item bank, test information functions can be shaped to control measurement error very precisely. Characterizing the accuracy of test scores is perhaps the central issue in psychometric theory and is a chief difference between IRT and CTT. IRT findings reveal that the CTT concept of reliability is a simplification. In the place of reliability, IRT offers the test information function which shows the degree of precision at different values of theta. These results allow psychometricians to (potentially) carefully shape the level of reliability for different ranges of ability by including carefully chosen items. For example, in a certification situation in which a test can only be passed or failed, where there is only a single "cutscore," and where the actually passing score is unimportant, a very efficient test can be developed by selecting only items that have high information near the cut-score. These items generally correspond to items whose difficulty is about the same as that of the cut-score.

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Scoring The "IRT score" is computed and interpreted in a very different manner as compared to traditional scores like number or percent correct. However, for most tests, the (linear) correlation between the theta estimate and a traditional score is very high (often it is .95 or more). A graph of IRT scores against traditional scores shows an ogive shape implying that the IRT estimates separate individuals at the borders of the range more than in the middle. It is worth noting the implications of IRT for test-takers. Tests are imprecise tools and the score achieved by an individual (the observed score) is always the true score occluded by some degree of error. This error may push the observed score higher or lower. Also, nothing about these models refutes human development or improvement. A person may learn skills, knowledge or even so called "test-taking skills" which may translate to a higher true-score. Starting Point In CAT, items are selected based on the examinee's performance up to a given point in the test. However, the CAT is obviously not able to make any specific estimate of examinee ability when no items have been administered. So some other initial estimate of examinee ability is necessary. If some previous information regarding the examinee is known, it can be used, but often the CAT just assumes that the examinee is of average ability - hence the first item often being of medium difficulty. Item Selection Algorithm As mentioned previously, item response theory places examinees and items on the same metric. Therefore, if the CAT has an estimate of examinee ability, it is able to select an item that is most appropriate for that estimate. Technically, this is done by selecting the item with the greatest information at that point. Information is a function of the discrimination parameter of the item, as well as the conditional variance and pseudoguessing parameter (if used). Scoring Procedure After an item is administered, the CAT updates its estimate of the examinee's ability level. If the examinee answered the item correctly, the CAT will likely estimate their ability to be somewhat higher, and vice versa. This is done by using the item response function from item response theory to obtain a likelihood function of the examinee's ability. Two methods for this are called maximum likelihood
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estimation and Bayesian estimation. The latter assumes an a priori distribution of examinee ability, and has two commonly used estimators: expectation a posteriori and maximum a posteriori. Maximum likelihood is equivalent to a Bayes maximum a posterior estimate if a uniform (f(x)=1) prior is assumed. Maximum likelihood is asymptotically unbiased, but cannot provide a theta estimate for a nonmixed (all correct or incorrect) response vector, in which case a Bayesian method may have to be used temporarily. Termination Criterion The CAT algorithm is designed to repeatedly administer items and update the estimate of examinee ability. This will continue until the item pool is exhausted unless a termination criterion is incorporated into the CAT. Often, the test is terminated when the examinee's standard error of measurement falls below a certain user-specified value, hence the statement above that an advantage is that examinee scores will be uniformly precise or "equiprecise." Other termination criteria exist for different purposes of the test, such as if the test is designed only to determine if the examinee is should "Pass" or "Fail" the test, rather than obtaining a precise estimate of their ability. Pass-Fail CAT In many situations, the purpose of the test is to classify examinees into two or more mutually exclusive and exhaustive categories. This includes the common "mastery test" where the two classifications are "Pass" and "Fail," but also includes situations where there are three or more classifications, such as "Insufficient," "Basic," and "Advanced" levels of knowledge or competency. The kind of "itemlevel adaptive" CAT described in this article is most appropriate for tests that are not "Pass/Fail." (Or, for Pass/Fail tests where providing good feedback is extremely important.) Some modifications are necessary for a Pass/Fail CAT, also known as a computerized classification test (CCT). For examinees with true scores very close to the passing score, computerized classification tests will result in long tests while those with true scores far above or below the passing score will have shortest exams. For example, a new termination criterion and scoring algorithm must be applied that classifies the examinee into a category rather than providing a point estimate of ability. There are two primary methodologies available for this. The more prominent of the two is the sequential probability ratio test (SPRT). This formulates the examinee
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classification problem as a hypothesis test that the examinee's ability is equal to either some specified point above the cutscore or another specified point below the cutscore. Note that this is a point hypothesis formulation rather than a composite hypothesis formulation that is more conceptually appropriate. A composite hypothesis formulation would be that the examinee's ability is in the region above the cutscore or the region below the cutscore. A confidence interval approach is also used, where after each item is administered, the algorithm determines the probability that the examinee's true-score is above or below the passing score. For example, the algorithm may continue until the 95% confidence interval for the true score no longer contains the passing score. At that point, no further items are needed because the pass-fail decision is already 95% accurate (assuming that the psychometric models underlying the adaptive testing fit the examinee and test). As a practical matter, the algorithm is generally programmed to have a minimum and a maximum test length (or a minimum and maximum administration time). This approach was originally called "adaptive mastery testing" but it can be applied to non-adaptive item selection and classification situations of two or more cutscores (the typical mastery test has a single cutscore). The item selection algorithm utilized depends on the termination criterion. Maximizing information at the cutscore is more appropriate for the SPRT because it maximizes the difference in the probabilities used in the likelihood ratio. Maximizing information at the ability estimate is more appropriate for the confidence interval approach because it minimizes the conditional standard error of measurement, which decreases the width of the confidence interval needed to make a classification. Emotional Feedback in CAT Vygotsky (1987) observed that the study of psychology had been damaged by the separation of the intellectual from the motivational and emotional (or affective) aspects of thinking. The terms emotions and affect refer to states such as happiness, shame, fear, disgust, annoyance, sadness, anger, equanimity, anxiety, depression, surprise, and love. It is well known that emotional upsets can interfere with mental activities. Students who are anxious, angry, or depressed do not learn.
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Poor learning can produce negative emotions; negative emotions can impair learning; and positive emotions can contribute to learning achievement and vice versa. Induced negative emotions have been shown to hamper performance on cognitive tasks, whereas positive emotions have an opposite effect. Also, inducing a sad mood in very young children increased the time it took them to learn to respond to a task, and also increased their number of errors; inverse results were achieved by inducing happiness. Numerous studies have demonstrated a connection between anxiety and academic performance: the more anxious a person is the poorer his academic performance. Preschool children in a positive mood mastered a shape discrimination task more quickly and with fewer errors than did children in an induced negative mood. Youngsters identified as at risk for school failure were found to complete mathematical problems significantly more accurately under induced positive-mood conditions. However, it is not an easy task to recognize and measure emotions. There is evidence from the neuroscience about the close relationship between emotion and homeostasis. Positive affect is associated with increased brain dopamine levels and influences olfaction, the consolidation of long-term (i.e. episodic) memories, working memory, and creative problem solving. Fear, anger, sadness, and joy show up in the brain as different patterns of blood flow, providing one possible explanation for how affect influences brain activity. Different regions of the brain participate in happiness, sadness, and disgust. Having documented the influence of emotions on learning, we proceed to frame the use of emotional feedback in CAT. The computer continually senses, measures and recognizes the examinees current state. At appropriate instances, it provides to the examinee personalized emotional feedback according to his current state. First, we classify the emotional feedback with respect to the emotion type. Then, we classify it with respect to the triggering instance. In the classification with respect to the emotion type, we consider three emotional feedback categories: A. Positive emotions feedback, B. Control of Negative emotions feedback, and C. Negative emotions feedback. Let first define these emotional feedback categories.
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Depending on the appearance time of the emotional feedback, we classify the emotional feedback into the following categories: A. In advance emotional feedback: it supports emotionally the examinee beforehand of an action. For example, it may enhance his enthusiasm, hope and optimism before the test start. It may reduce his stress; relax his anxiety and fear before presenting a question. B. Immediate emotional feedback: it supports emotionally the examinee immediately after of an action. For example, it may comfort the examinee after the test start. It may reduce his panic after a wrong answer. It may encourage, praise and congratulate him on his effort, on his results, etc. However, it may also criticize and blame him for not studying enough after a wrong answer to an easy question. C. Delayed emotional feedback: it supports emotionally the examinee after some time of an action. For example, it may try to cool down him after the test. Or, it may try to tranquilize an agitated examinee. It may congratulate or criticize him about his effort or results. More specifically, for the emotional feedback in CAT, we distinguish: 1. Pre-Test emotional feedback, 2. Pre-Answer emotional feedback, 3. After-the-Answer emotional feedback, and 4. After-theTest emotional feedback. 1. Pre-Test emotional feedback: it is presented to the examinee on his request, or on teachers request, or automatically based on the examinees current state before the test starts. For example, it may excite the examinee about the test subject by presenting real life cases and future perspectives. It may inspire his curiosity asking introductory questions that trigger his imagination. It may challenge him by presenting to him the maximum score achieved by other students previously. It may create a pleased, friendly, comfort, joyful and cheerful environment. It may enhance his optimism about his success in the test by comparing the difficulty level of the test to other tests he succeeded in. It may make him aware of what to expect from the test, the questions, and the result interpretations. It may help his prediction, forecasting and foresight about the test questions (e.g. with respect to the question types, difficulty levels, subjects, format and media). It may prepare him to be ready for the questions by presenting sample questions. It may increase his certainty and surety that the questions will be on the subjects that he had been taught and studied. It may increase his belief on the test usefulness and meaningfulness by showing real life applications. It may increase his trust and confidence
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on the test credibility by showing reliability and validity analysis of the questions. It may relax his concerns about the test fairness by showing statistical results from previous test with respect to discrimination factors (e.g. gender, ethnicity). It may reduce his disgust about the test subject by showing to him its practicality and usefulness. 2. Pre-Answer emotional feedback: it is presented to the examinee on his request, or on teachers request, or automatically based on the examinees current state after a question is presented to him and before he answers it. For example, it may energize and stimulate the examinee by asking to make preliminary selections. It may enjoy and amuse him by providing jokes, cartoons, music, etc. It may encourage him by confirming that he can answer correctly. It may assure him that the question difficulty and subject are appropriate for him. It may clarify what the question is asking for. It may assure him that there are not tricks and hidden traps in the question. It may motivate him about the importance and meaningfulness of the question. It may increase his confidence and belief that he will answer correctly. It may show understanding, empathy and compassion to him about the question difficulty. It may lessen his shame for not understanding the question by showing that other examinees could not also understand the question. It may prepare him for the difficulty and the subject of the next question. It may assure him on the appropriateness and suitability of the next question. 3. After-the-Answer emotional feedback: it is presented to the examinee on his request, or on teachers request, or automatically based on the examinees current state after he answers the question. For example, it may excite it may reward the examinee with entertainment for his correct answer. It may congratulate and praise him for answering correctly. It may feel for and show compassion to him for answering wrongly. It may excuse him for his wrong answer. It may criticize and chide him for his wrong answer. It may allay and appease his irritation and upset in case he does not agree with the question result. It may justify the correct answer in case he strongly disagrees. It may cool down him with music after his strenuous effort to answer the question. It may confirm and assure him that he is doing well. It may assure him that one wrong answer is not a disaster. It may explain to him the importance of his answer in the final score. It may assure him on the right contribution of his answer to his overall score.
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4. After-the-Test emotional feedback: it is presented to the examinee on his request, or on teachers request, or automatically based on the examinees current state after the test end. It may agree with his satisfaction with respect to his effort and his performance. It may support his happiness and joy for succeeding the test. It may honor and flatter him by admiring his performance. It may show understanding and excuse him for failing the test. It may show to him understanding about the test difficulty. It may show to him mercy for failing the test by letting him to take it again. It may alleviate his anger towards himself for failing questions that he knew the correct answer. It may assure that everything is done properly and the result interpretation will be fair. It may assure that this test is not everything in life and that there are also other chances to take it again. It may remove his concerns and doubts about the accurate interpretation of the test results. It may relax his worry about the fair and confidential use of the test results. It may prepare him for what to expect with respect to the test results interpretation and use. It may assure him of the reliability and validity of the test results interpretation. It may positively surprise him by giving to him extra points for good behavior (e.g. short answer times, minimum resource usage). It may recognize his effort. It may decrease his hate about tests by showing to him the benefits from the test. Fuzzy Item Response Theory and Fuzzy Computer-Adaptive Testing Adaptive formative assessment is a new approach to implement computerized adaptive learning based on the cognitive scaffolding principle. In adaptive formative assessment, at any stage of a learning session, the system takes into account a student's demonstrated cognitive level to generate the next appropriate formative testing instrument. This paper emphasizes an appropriate strategy to progress students up the cognitive ladder by adaptive item selection is explored using the non-symbolic fuzzy-neural network technology. The proposed model features to learn and memorize good learning paths for different students, and accordingly provide personalized learning sequence for other similar students. This algorithm can be used to reduce complexity of feature selection and classifier design. A further topic considered in this paper is the development of a feature selection algorithm for the fuzzy integral classifier. The proposed heuristic algorithm is based on two feature95

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evaluation criteria such as the importance and the interaction indexes. They were earlier defined in the literature using the semantic interpretation of the fuzzy measure. The aim of this study is to propose an new approach, fuzzy item response model (FIRM), which combines item response theory (IRT) and fuzzy set theory, in the educational or psychological measurement. Applying FIRM to improve the predictive validity of psychological measurement is verified. With the rapid growth of computer and Internet technologies, elearning has become a major trend in the computer assisted teaching and learning field currently. In past years, many researchers made efforts in developing e-learning systems with personalized learning mechanism to assist on-line learning. However, most of them focused on using learner's behaviors, interests, or habits to provide personalized elearning services. These systems usually neglected to concern if learner's ability and the difficulty of the assessment methodology are matched each other. To promote assessment efficiency and effectiveness, we present a fuzzy computer-adaptive testing based on the proposed fuzzy item response theory (FIRT), which can recommend item selection algorithm with appropriate difficult level. Computerized adaptive testing attempts to provide the most suitable question for an examinee depending on the examinees ability to achieve the best result. Although Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) and Bayesian Likelihood Estimation (BLE) have been provided to solve ability estimation and have good results in the literature, little attention has been paid to the situation when the answer of an item does not conform with the examinees ability as expected nor standard derivation changes of the ability estimation. We hypothesize that the Adaptive-Network-Based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) can be used to infer flexible examinees ability estimation by analyzing the relevant data of the examinee in a test. Taking the item discrimination, difficulty, guessing, and the examinees ability before he/she answers a question as parameters, the proposed method can infer the adjustment of the examinees ability to update its value after he/she answers the question. The ANFIS model of the experiments will be developed using MATLAB. The examinees will be simulated and the training data will be collected under three different situations. Through different combination of ANFIS fuzzy rules, the adjustment of ability is inferred to improve
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the accuracy of the estimated ability. The error between the true ability and the estimated ability obtained by the proposed model will be compared with MLE and BLE. The simulation results assume that the estimated ability error of ANFIS will be smaller than MLE and BLE when the value of the test information will be larger. The proposed method could provide better accuracy of the examinees ability and offer more appropriate questions for examinees. Feedback is an important mechanism in learning. Previous research in computer testing considers only feedback that informs the examinee about the answer to every question. This paper proposes personalized emotional feedback in CAT to emotionally support each individual examinee. It also presents classifications of the emotional feedback according to the emotions induced, as well as according to the triggering instances. The CAT system may present emotional feedback to the examinee before the test start, after the question presentation and before his answer, after his answer, and after the test end. Based on the examinees current state, the most appropriate emotional feedback type should be invoked. For example, if the examinee answers wrongly, a hint or an alternative question version with encouragement comments may help him. It may show understanding to the examinee by agreeing on the question difficulty. It may assure the examinee that he is on the right track and he is doing well in the exam. It may attract his attention and inspire his curiosity about the test. It may challenge him. It may motivate him about the test educational objectives, and the obtained benefits. This is the first attempt to introduce emotional feedback in CAT. As such, it provides the framework on which further practical cases will investigate the actual improvement on examinees performance and satisfaction that is achieved using personalized emotional feedback. It may stimulate future research on specific feedback constructs to generate specific examinees emotions. The presented ideas may trigger further investigation towards emotions supported learning. Designers and developers of CAT systems may include such personalized emotional feedback into their CAT systems. Then, evaluation of real systems will investigate the emotional feedback effect on the examinees satisfaction and performance in real exams.

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Bibliography: Albu, M., Pitariu, H., (1993), Proiectarea testelor de cunotine i examenul asistat de calculator, Ed. Casa crii de tiin, Cluj-Napoca. Chih-Ming Chen, Ling-Jiun Duh, Chao-Yu Liu, (2004), A Personalized Courseware Recommendation System Based on Fuzzy Item Response Theory, Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE International Conference on e-Technology, e-Commerce and eService (EEE'04), IEEE Computer Society, Washington, USA Eggen, T.J.H.M, Straetmans, G.J.J.M., (2000), Computerized adaptive testing for classifying examinees into three categories, Educational and Psychological Measurement, 60, 713-734 Green, B. F., (2000), System design and operation, in Wainer, H. (Ed.) Computerized Adaptive Testing: A Primer. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Lin, C.-J. Spray, J.A., (2000), Effects of item-selection criteria on classification testing with the sequential probability ratio test. (Research Report 2000-8), Iowa City, IA, ACT, Inc Thissen, D., Mislevy, R. J., (2000), Testing Algorithms, in Wainer, H. (Ed.) Computerized Adaptive Testing: A Primer, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Thissen, D., Orlando, M., (2001), Item response theory for items scored in two categories, in D. Thissen, Wainer, H. (Eds.), Test Scoring (pp. 73-140), Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc Van der Linden, W.J., Glas, C.A.W., (Eds.), (2000), Computerized adaptive testing: Theory and practice, Boston, MA, Kluwer Van der Linden, W.J., Veldkamp, B.P., (2004), Constraining item exposure in computerized adaptive testing with shadow tests, Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 29, 273 291 Wainer, H., (Ed.), (2000), Computerized adaptive testing: A Primer (2nd Edition), Mahwah, NJ, ELawrence Erlbaum Associates

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THE EVOLUTION OF THE ROMANIAN POPULATION BETWEEN 1990 2002 EVOLUIA POPULAIEI DIN ROMNIA NTRE 1990-2002 Prep. univ. drd. Alina BREAZ Aurel Vlaicu University Arad

Abstract The ageing of the population its an alarm signal in national and European context.That is why we tried to present in the following article the evolution if the Romanian population between 1990-2002, longevity in demographic context and its importance Key words: statistics, opportunities, strategies, senescence, longevity. Demography is the study of the dynamics of the human population. It contains the study of the size, structure and population distribution, as well as the way in which a population modifies during time as a consequence of the births, deceases, migration and ageing. The demographic analysis may refer to an entire society or groups defined after different criterions: education level, nationality, religion etc. These analyses are elaborated as a result of some censuses carried out at certain periods of time. The census is an administrative operation which consists of the statistic record of the dates exposed under observation, for example: population, animals, vehicles, etc from a country or a specified region. The purpose of the census is to obtain statistics dates relating the number and the territorial distribution of the population, of its demographic and socio-economics structures, dates regarding population householding , as well as about the living conditions of the countrys population, dates about populations income and others. The dates which are being obtain due to the census depend in a direct measure of the questions which are included in the census
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questionnaire, which may be different from a state to another according to the information that needs to be obtained within the census. In Romania national census were made in 1920, 1930, 1941, 1948, 1956, 1966, 1977, 1992 and the last national census took place in 2002. The next census will take place in 2011. We can remind some essential dates in the approach of this subject, provided by the National Institute of Statistics. Those dates disclose information regarding the demographic changes of the elderly population from the whole country territory. Romania has met in last decades, significant modifications, in part due to the scanning period of the demographic transition, but also for the political modifications that have a strong influence upon the evolution of demographic phenomenon. Demographic transition became o more complex process, part and parcel of the social-economic development process, society modernization. The complexity of this demographic process mirrors also into its components: mortality transition, fertility transition, age structure transition, nuptiality transition, family transition, morbidity transition and urbanization transition. In our country the demographic transition was characterized by a specific evolution. During the XX century, excepting the years of the two world wars, the population of the country was in a continuously growing. The transformations interceded after 1989, in the political system, in economy, in social life, as in people mentality influenced the demographic behavior of the population. Beginning from 1990, the population of the country has reduced year in year out from the medium annual rhythm of 0.15%. Only in the last thirteen years the population of the country reduced with 1411, 9 thousands residents, a decrease which represents 1, 5% from the population recorded at the last census in 2002. In demography huge quantities of dates are used collected for example from census and from the registers hold by the statistics bureau of the population, where births, deceases, marriages are recorded. Demographic dates can also result from the surveys performed in commercial interest based on indirect estimation methods. First modern census was managed in the USA in 1790, although some Scandinavian countries for example Island and Denmark carried out census earlier.
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Natural decrease and the negative sold of the extern migration the absolute decrease number of population in the interval 1990-2002. The changing of the demographic behavior of the couples towards their own breeding, mortality rising and also the extern migration, extremely heightened in 1990-2002 period, made the countrys population suffer a constant reduction. So we can graphic underline those aspects in Table number 1:
Population by sex and average on 1st July, from period 1990 2002

Nr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Years 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002

Total 23206,7 22789,0 22730,6 22607,6 22502,8 22435,2 21794,8

Masc. 11449,1 11200,7 11156,8 11080,9 11012,1 10968,8 10642,5

Fem. 11757,6 11588,3 11573,8 11526,7 11490,7 11466,4 11152,3

Urban 12608,8 12367,4 12427,6 12411,2 12347,9 12244,6 11578,8

Rural 10597,9 10421,6 10303,0 10196,4 10154,9 10190,6 10216,0

In the same period remarks the weight of the young population, of 0-14 years, from 23, 6% in 1990 to 17, 3 in 2002 and the growth of the elderly, of 60 and over, from 15, 6% to 19,2% in 2002. The grown up population, of 15-59 years has constantly grew from 60.8% in 1990 to 63.5% in 2002. We remind statistics date regarding the elderly population in Table number 2:
Elderly population by sex and average from the 1st of July, from period 1990-2002

Nr Total

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

3632966 3778153 3901357 4009166 4120569 4220050 4183411

Masc. 1578230 1637641 1689547 1732038 1772420 1808252 1779461

Fem. 2054736 2140512 2211810 2277128 2348149 2411798 2403950

Urban 1435965 1467667 1533108 1601977 1674029 1742481 1734634

Rural 2197001 2310486 2368249 2407189 2446540 2477569 2448777

Year 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002


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The structures on age of the Romanian population reflect a slow process, but continue of demographic ageing primary determined of the birth date decrease which brought to relative and absolutely reduction of young population (0-14 years) and the weight rise of the elderly population of 60 and over. The effects of the ageing upon the deployment of economic and social life, as well as upon the future demographic evolution will appear in time, determining perturbations to scholar population level, fertile population and to the population able to work. At 1 July 2002, Romanian population was 21794, 8 thousands inhabitants, from which 10642, 5 thousands men (48, 8%) and 11152, 3 women (51, 2%). The changing that took place in the population dynamic is the direct result of the tendency recorded at the demographic phenomenon level (birth date, mortality and migration) We can emphasize those changing in Figure 2

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1990 1994 1998 2002 0 -14 years 15 - 59 years 60 years and over

The rise of the elderly population of 60 and over (550, 5 persons) is more accentuated at the feminine sex population (349,2 persons). In 2002 the weight of elderly women (11, 0%) was higher than those of elderly men (8, 2%).
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The elderly population cannot be watched as an uniform entity it consisting the subgroup of elderly younger (60-74 years) and the subgroup of elderly older (75 years and over). In the last years the tendency of rising more of the number of elderly persons younger is observed (from 2,7 millions in 1990 la 3,1 millions in 2002 ) towards the subgroup of elderly older ( from 932 thousands to1049,9 thousands in 2002). From the total of 550, 5 thousands persons with who the elderly population grew in 1990-2002 period, over 76% goes to the group of 60-74 years. In the year of longevity the segment of the population of 80 years and over, represents 2% from the total of the population, in an easy rise comparative with the year 1990(1,8%). Women are more longeval, their number being twice as big as the number of men. At the last census of population from 18 March 2002 in Romania were recorded 310 centenary persons, 228 being women. The structure of elderly population pulls out in evidence this disproportion: at 100 women of 60 years and over accruing 75 elderly men. While in the 60-74 group of age the proportion of masculinity was of 79 at 100 women. In the 85 years and over group, the feminine population was almost twice bigger than the masculine one.
Table nr. 3 The raport of masculanity of eldery people on census from 1992 2002 - men at 1000 women

Year 1992 2002

60-64 years 90 839

65-69 years 807 759

70-74 years 668 742

75 over 631 602

and

Statistic dates provided from NIS

Bibliography: Sources extracted from the National Institute of Statistics National Institute of Statistics 2003, The demographic situation of elderly population in period of 1990-2002
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Trebici, V., (1985), Mic enciclopedie de statistic, Editura Enciclopedic, Bucureti Larousse, (1996), Dicionar de sociologie, EDitura Teora, Bucureti

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EDUCATION AND ITS ROLL EDUCAIA I ROLUL EI Institutor Ioana Ligia STANCA Mihai Viteazul School Group, Ineu

Abstract: Pedagogy is one of the social sciences that study the complex, difficult and profound activity the education. In time, education had many definitions, but in essence, it is the organized and planned activity (formal and non formal education), made by special institutions or the activity made without the implication of the institutions (informal education). The purpose of the education is to form the human being from a biological one to a social one. Every society wants educated people and because of this we have to understand the importance of learning and of the institutions that have this object of activity. Education means forming and transmitting to the new generation our information, experience, knowledge, values, etc, in two words: our culture and civilization. And also, in our days, we judge every society and nation according to the education and culture level. Key words: education, formal, non formal, informal, education, the rolls of education. Education represents the study object specific for the pedagogy (pedagogy sciences). Because of its complexity, profoundness and amplitude, education is studied also by other social sciences related to pedagogy. The purpose of the pedagogical concept of education is the scientific knowledge on a high level of generality of a psychosocial reality with a large extension in time and space and also with a complex and contradictory development at the system and process level.
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Pedagogy is the science which studies the educational fact with all its implications in forming of the human personality for the active integration of the person in the social life. During the history, the society gained the experience for the theoretical and practical knowledge in material and spiritual values which are the social inheritances of the culture and the civilization. The values are preserved and handed over by education, which is, in this case, the institution of forming and transmitting the social heredity of the culture and civilization. On the basis of condensed experience, the education works on all the human forms as user and consumer of values, producer and creator of values. The education is a main and permanent function of the society in two aspects: in training the social heredity of the culture and civilization and being an action instrument in forming the human. In social-historical sense, education is the process of transmitting and assimilating the experience economic, political, religious, philosophical, artistic, scientific and technical from predecessors to successors. In the initial stage of society, the experience was handed down occasionally, orally and in a nonsystematic way in the tribal communities. In the advanced development stages of the society, at some people, like Egyptians, Indians, education was made in temples as initiation, knowledge was a sacred act. In the same time and after this stage, the education was made in schools and universities. No matter which was the level of the culture, civilization and the way of handing over, the dialog existed between the generations and the material and spiritual existence of the human nation continued. In socio-cultural sense, education is the process of training the individual from the biological stage to the cultural one. From a biological being with normal, cognitive, affective and volitional liabilities, in the society, he becomes a cultural being who assimilates and, in some cases, creates culture. Ralph Lintons opinion: the man is nature and education. From the psychology, psychogenetic point of view, the education is a forming process of the humans personality in the cognitive, affective-motivational, volitional, aptitudinal, attitudinal way. The native basis of the biological being is building the psychological structure of the personality, and also, in the educational relationship, this is influenced by the cultural contents of the experience of the adult-parent, teacher, and professor.
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From the pedagogical point of view, there are three ways of considering that education is a complex social fact: - conscious activity of the educational subject (teacher) stimulating, guiding, forming - on the educational object (student); - forming process of the human being for the active integration in the society, intellectual forming, moral, professional, physical, esthetical processes. - it is a result of a selective taking over of the informational actions and including them in personal knowing and acting attitude structures. Platon says that education is an art of forming good skills or of developing native attitudes by virtue of having them. In his writing, Politics, Aristotel considers that education has to be an object of the political supervision, not of a private one. Therefore, it has to train the future citizens. This training has to be done differently because of the three aspects of the soul (vegetative, animal and rational) which are between the people. In his work Didactica Magna, J.A. Comenins, considers that at birth, the nature endows the child only with the seeds of science, morality and religiosity. These do not improve themselves; they become a good for each man only by education. It does follow that, in his opinion, education is the activity of stimulating of these seeds and, implicit, of managing the humanization process, the human cant become a human only if he is educated. In the 17th century, for the English pedagogue, John Locke, education is the interpersonal relationship of supervision and intervention which is established between the preceptor (teacher) and the child (future gentlemen). It is indispensable for the teacher to know the natural dower of the child because this base intervenes with proper methods to influence his in order to become the prototype of the human who has the characteristics of the nobleman and the bourgeoisie (a gentleman in action). German philosopher Imanuel Kant, in his thoughts, says that education contributes to the revaluation of the human nature in the societys benefit: It is nice to think that the human nature will be cultivated by education and it can reach the wanted level. This can discover for us the perspective of the future happiness of the human race.
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In day by day life we are under the influence of wanted or unwanted information and the medias great number of news with or without pedagogical involvement. This great number of influences with or without educative significance can take action in the same time, successively, or complementary, in many forms, spontaneously, incidentally or having organized and systematized aspect. In pedagogy, this reality is reflected using the concept that defines the general forms of education. This refers to the main aspects through which education can be objectified, starting with the variety of the learning situations and from the different level of the purposefulness action. (Constantin Cucos) By this way, it is considered that the general forms of education represent the ways of accomplishing the activity of forming-culturing the personality using some actions and (or) pedagogic influences from the educational/learning system in the conditions of exercising the general functions of education (the function of forming and culturing the personality, economic function, civil function, the culture function of the education), (Gabriela C. Cristea). All the educational influences and actions which intervene in the individuals life, in organized and structured way (in accordance with some general pedagogical standards used in special institutions) or, the opposite, in a spontaneous way (accidental, vague, unofficial) are combined under the name of forms of education. Depending on how organized and how official are the forms of education, we can distinguish three big categories: - formal (official) education; - non formal (extra-curricular) education; - informal (spontaneous) education. The psychological support of the educational relationship is the need to communicate. We communicate not only knowledge, information, but also, attitude, feeling and principle. We communicate using the word, the gesture, the mimic, and all our conduct. The education relationship is complex, caused by many elements. It is realized between global behaviors (educator student). The educators action is straight, premeditated and orientated by purposes and objectives which anticipate transformations in the students actual behavior. He does not assimilate automatically, he
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recognizes, filters, works out actively, includes the things he learned in his own structures. The relationship is asymmetric; it is realized between the already formed personality of the educator and students personality in process. In this context, agreements and disagreement can occur in the action of the educational communication. The forms of education are arranged in the following classes: a) the planning criterion that delimitates between the forms of education from the institutions (their purpose is to have specific results) - formal and non formal education; and the non institutional form of education (realized implicitly without specific institutional purposes) - informal education. b) According to the organizing criterion we establish the education resulted because of the explicit actions and implicit influences (formal and non formal education) and the education achieved only due to the implicit influences (informal education).

A different definition was made by Philip Coombs in 1973, and he said that the formal education is an educational system which is hierarchically structured and chronologically graded, starting with the primary school till the university, which includes in addition to the academic studies, a variety of specialized programs and institutions for the professional and technical training with full time activity. Non formal education is defined by J. Kleis as any kind of educational, premeditated and systematical activity which is made extra traditional curriculum; its content is adapted to the individuals needs and to the special situations in order to maximize the issues confronted by him in the formal system (the stress of marking in the catalogue of the class, the imposed discipline, making tasks). The informal education refers to the day by day experiences that are not planned or organized and conduct to the informal education. When these experiences are interpreted by the older ones or by the members of the community, they form the informal education. Informal education is the process during all the life time, through which the individual obtains information, he forms skills and abilities, he
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structures principles and attitudes, he cultures himself through the daily experiences. The general functions of education represent intrinsic characteristics, specific for the permanent forming and culturing of the human personality; they are expressed on the level of the assumed social consequences in objective way, on the systems level (on the whole society) and on the subsystems level (cultural, economical, political, natural). The main function of the education is to transmit, to select, to actualize, and to revaluate the social experience in order to provide to the individual an efficient and fast integration in the society, and all these, to create premises for the individuals auto determination as a factor in the social progress. Through education, the man passes from the pure biological existence to the social one. If the man had had the possibilities of an adult, there would not have been any education. Regarding the mans process of becoming a social being there is no difference between a child born in a big capital and one in a primeval tribe, because both of them have to learn everything. A part of learning is the spontaneous contact of the man with different aspects of the social life, but the most consistent part of learning is accumulated through training and organized and systematized forms. Piaged considered that school should be conceived as a center of real and practical activities proceeded in a common way in such a way to form the logical intelligence depending on the actions and social changes. Thus, education represents a psycho-social activity with a general function of permanent forming and culturing the human personality for the optimal social integration, in order to get the assumed results, on system and process level, planned, realized and developed through specific actions; it has the main structure correlation subject (educator) object (student, in an open and improvable context. The educational action is the product of the peoples actions, thus, they can be explained and approached only though the wanted intentions and the obtained results; it represents an activity made in order to get obvious and precise finalities. The finalities of the education are orientations assumed on the level of educational politic in order to realize activities of forming and
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culturing the human personality according to certain values aimed in planning the system and the learning process. Finalities are models of the personality that education is going to form. They differentiate and integrate in a system depending on the social needs and the psychological mechanism of learning. Finalities of the educational actions are the educational ideal, the results and educational objectives. They form a system with a well defined internal functionality, offering to any educational action the managing and self adjusting part. Finalities represent directions, orientations of the strategy of learnings functionality in a certain historical period, and also information about the social, economical and cultural development of a society. Between the educational ideal and educational purposes there is a close interdependence. On one hand, the ideal determines the educational purposes, and on the other hand, these materialize the ideal on different ways and on different levels. If the educational ideal is general, the purposes are varied and multiple. Thus, we can notice, the purpose of a lesson, a task, an exercise, of a part of education. The educational purpose and objective are two complementary aspects: the purpose outlines the finality in general and synthetic terms, the objective describes in detail this finality, prescribes the result of the action from the perspective of the psychological learning.

Bibliography: Cucos C., (2001), Pedagie, Editura Polirom, Iai Macavei E., (1997), Pedagogie, Editura Didactic i Pedagogic , Bucureti Nicola I., (2003), Tratat de pedagogie colar, Editura Aramis, Bucureti

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Universitatea Aurel Vlaicu Arad Facultatea de tiine ale Educaiei i Asisten Social, Sesiunea de Comunicrii tiinifice pentru studeni PROBLEMATICA ACTUAL A ASISTENEI SOCIALE, PSIHOLOGIEI I EDUCAIEI 24 aprilie 2009 Facultatea de tiine ale Educaiei i Asisten Social din cadrul Universitii Aurel Vlaicu, Arad, organizeaz la Arad, n data de 24 aprilie 2009 prima ediie a Sesiunii de Comunicri tiinifice pentru studeni PROBLEMATICA ACTUAL A ASISTENEI SOCIALE, PSIHOLOGIEI I EDUCAIEI Ediia I. Agenda evenimentul este: 24 aprilie 2009 - Sesiune de comunicri tiintifice pentru studeni: PROBLEMATICA ACTUAL A ASISTENEI SOCIALE, PSIHOLOGIEI I EDUCAIEI Ediia I - cuprinde 3 sectiuni: Psihopedagogie special Asisten social Pedagogia nvmntului Primar i Precolar Catedra de Psihopedagogie Social acord: - pentru participarea la sesiunea de lucrri tiinifice: diplome de participare - premii pentru 3 dintre cele mai bune lucrri - publicarea lucrrilor ntr-un supliment al revistei Agora NSCRIEREA PARTICIPANILOR se va realiza pe baza formularului de nscriere: Pentru participanii la sesiunea de comunicri tiinifice este necesar rezumatul lucrrii (2000 caractere, inclusiv titlul) redactat n limba romn Trimiterea rezumatului este obligatorie pn la data de 10 aprilie 2009. Confirmarea acceptrii nscrierii: n maxim 5 zile de la receptionarea rezumatului de catre organizatori. Taxa de nscriere este de 10 lei, pltibili la secretariatul Facultii. -

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V adresam invitaia de a participa la eveniment i rugmintea de a va nscrie n timp util. Pentru informaii suplimentare nu ezitai s ne contactati la adresa de e-mail: agora.arad@gmail.com CONDIII DE TEHNOREDACTARE Editor de text Word; Font Times New Roman, size 12", la un rnd, opiunea Justify"; Numr maxim de pagini - 10; Setarea paginilor: format B5, margine stnga 4 cm, margine dreapta 1,9 cm, sus 4 cm, jos 2,5 cm; Dup un spaiu alb de dou rnduri, se scrie titlul lucrrii, amplasat centrat n pagin, urmat de un alt spaiu alb de dou rnduri, de numele i prenumele autorului (autorilor), facultatea/ specializarea/ universitatea, plasate centrat n pagin, Sub nume i prenume, dup un spaiu alb de dou rnduri, se va scrie un rezumat al lucrrii n limba englez de maximum 5 fraze cu size 12, folosindu-se caractere n stilul Italic". Dup un alt spaiu alb de un rnd se vor scrie cuvintele cheie, apoi va urma lucrarea propriu-zis; Titlul lucrrii se va scrie cu majuscule, stilul Bold", size 14", iar al capitolelor sau paragrafelor, cu size 12" stilul Bold"; Dac lucrarea conine grafice, acestea trebuie s fie alb-negru; Numerotarea capitolelor se va face cu cifre romane, iar a paragrafelor cu cifre arabe; Pentru sublinieri n textul lucrrii se va utiliza stilul Italic"; Alineatele, inclusiv titlurile paragrafelor, vor ncepe de la distana de 1,25 cm fa de setarea din stnga paginii (opiunea Paragraf" din meniul Format"); ntre rndul de text i titlul capitolului sau al paragrafului, ca i ntre titlul capitolului sau al paragrafului i primul rnd de text care urmeaz, se va lsa cte un spaiu alb de un rnd; Trimiterile la bibliografie se nscriu ntre paranteze; Bibliografia se va trece la sfritul textului lucrrii; Paginile nu se numeroteaz.

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AGORA Revist trimestrial de psihopedagogie i asisten social Materialele nepublicate nu se napoiaz. Redacia i rezerv dreptul de a corecta eventuale erori i, n cazuri extreme, de a utiliza n funcie de suportul disponibil doar fragmente din textele trimise. Textele dactilografiate, cri pentru recenzii, sau orice alt coresponden vor fi trimise pe adresa redaciei.. Articolele trebuie s aib ntre 6 i 10 pagini n format A4, la un rnd jumtate; pot fi trimise pe adresa de e-mail: agora.arad@gmail.com, ca document ataat. Fiecare text va avea un scurt rezumat n limba englez, precum i cuvinte cheie. Titlul va fi tradus i n limba englez. Autorii vor specifica funcia pe care o dein i unitatea la care lucreaz. Autorii i asum rspunderea pentru coninutul i proveniena materialelor publicate n revist. Informaii suplimentare pe site-ul: www.agora-arad.ro

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