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Scara de intensitate seismica MSK64

Grad Scara de intensitate seismica Medvedev-Sponheuer-Karnik MSK 64

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Intensitatea oscilatiilor ramane sub limita sensibilitatii oamenilor. Cutremurul este detectat si inregistrat numai de seismografe Greu perceptibil Simtit de persoanele in stare de repaus. Nu afecteaza (foarte slab) obiectele. Fara daune la cladiri. Slab ste simtit de putini oameni! care se afla in interiorul locuintei sau afara. "bser#atorii atenti remarca oscilatia usoara a obiectelor atarnate! mult mai pronuntata la eta$ele superioare. Fara daune la cladiri. &oderat ste simtit de multi oameni care se afla in interiorul sau in afara locuintei. 'in cei care dorm! putini pot fi treziti. Ferestrele! usile si #esela zangane. (ardoselile si peretii scartaie! mobila incepe sa uruie. "biectele atarnate! lic)idul din #ase oscileaza usor. Fara daune la cladiri. Suficient de +guduire generala a cladirilor. ste simtit de toti oamenii. (uternic &ulti dintre cei care dorm se trezesc. (utini oameni parasesc locuintele. ,nimalele sunt nelinistite. "biectele atarnate oscileaza considerabil. -ablourile se deplaseaza din loc. ,numite obiecte fi.ate! pot fi deplasate. /sile si ferestrele desc)ise se inc)id si se desc)id cu zgomot. 'in #asele umplute! desc)ise! lic)idul se #arsa. ,#arii usoare la constructii. (uternic ste simtit de toti oamenii. &ulti dintre ei! aflati in interiorul cladirilor se sperie si alearga afara. (utine persoane isi pierd ec)ilibrul. Se pot sparge #ase si obiecte din sticla. Cad tablourile de pe pereti. Fisuri si crapaturi in pereti! desprinderea unor bucati de tencuiala! caderea unor tigle de pe acoperis! crapaturi la constructiile din caramida. Foarte (uternic &a$oritatea oamenilor sunt speriati si parasesc locuintele. Crapaturi mari si adanci in pereti2 caderea cosurilor de fum si distrugerea unor acoperisuri2 surpari ale partilor carosabile pe pante abrupte2 distrugeri ale portiunilor de imbinare a conductelor. Se produc alunecari de teren. 'istrugator &obila se poate rasturna. /nele cladiri (parti de cladire) se
prabusesc. Se obser#a alunecari de teren in zonele depresionare si pe pantele abrupte. ,par crapaturi mari in teren! au loc caderi de roci.

Imperceptibil

'e#astator

(anica generala. "amenii sunt aruncati la pamant. Se produc a#arii importante ale structurilor construite corect! conductele subterane sunt partial distruse! se produce deformarea sinelor de cale ferata si a#arierea partilor

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Nimicitor Catastrofal Foarte Catastrofal

carosabile ale drumurilor. ,u loc caderi de roci si multe alunecari de teren Constructiile se prabusesc partial sau in totalitate. 'egradari importante in bara$e. Sinele de cale ferata se deformeaza. &asi#e alunecari de teren. &a$oritatea cladirilor si structurilor sunt distruse. Fracturi si deplasari ale terenului. -oate constructiile de suprafata si subterane sunt distruse total. Suprafata pamantului este complet sc)imbata! de#ieri ale cursurilor de apa.

Liedu Scale
/nli6e t)e magnitude scales t)at ob$ecti#el7 estimate t)e released seismic energ7! liedu denotes )o8 strongl7 an eart)9ua6e affects a specific place. It is determined b7 a combination of sub$ecti#e e#aluations (suc) as )uman senses and building damages) and ob$ecti#e 6inetic measures. :uilding damages are furt)er refined 8it) a combination of descripti#e 9ualifiers and a numeric e#aluation process. -)e follo8ing is an unofficial translation of t)e ,ppendi. I of G:;- 111%2<1444. Table of Liedu[2] Senses by Liedu people on the (Intensity) ground I II Insensible Sensible b !er fe" still indoor people Sensible b a Slig#t rattle of fe" still doors and indoor people "indo"s Sensible b most people indoors% a fe" 'attle of doors people and "indo"s outdoors& a fe" "ake up from sleep *oise from !ibration of )ommonl doors% "indo"s% sensible b and building people frames& falling indoors% of dusts% small sensible b cracks in most people plasters% falling outdoors& of some roof most "ake up tiles% bricks from sleep falling from a fe" roof+top c#imne s Slig#t s"ing of suspended ob$ects (b!ious s"ing of suspended ob$ects& !essels rattle Degree of building damage Damages Horizontal motion on the ground

Mean Other damages Peak Peak damage acceleration speed index m/s2 m/s

III

IV

'ocking or ,-,. ,-./ flipping of 0,-,2 + 0,-22 + ,-112 unstable ob$ects ,-,12

VI

)racks in ri!er Damages + banks and soft Most unable )racks in t#e soil& occasional to stand "alls% falling of burst of sand ,-,3 stabl % a fe" ,-3. roof tiles% some , + ,-/, and "ater from 0,-,4 + scared to 0,-14 + ,-562 roof+top saturated sand ,-,62 running c#imne s crack la ers& cracks on outdoors or fall apart some standalone c#imne s Ma$orit Slig#t scared to destruction + running locali7ed outdoors% destruction% sensible b crack% ma bic cle riders continue to be and people in used "it# small mo!ing motor repairs or !e#icles "it#out repair )ollapse of ri!er banks& fre8uent burst of sand and "ater from saturated sand ,-/. ,-// + /-24 la ers& man 0,-/, + ,-., 0,-6, + /-992 cracks in soft ,-/52 soils& moderate destruction of most standalone c#imne s )racks appear in #ard dr soils& se!ere destruction of most standalone ,-24 ,-./ + c#imne s& tree 2-4, 0,-/6 + ,-4, tops break& 0/-95 + .-4.2 ,-.42 deat# of people and cattle caused b building destruction

VII

VIII

Most s"ing about% difficult to "alk

Moderate destruction + structural destruction occurs% continued usage re8uires repair

IX

Mo!ing people fall

Man cracks in #ard dr soils& Se!ere possible cracks destruction + and dislocations se!ere structural in bedrock& ,-4, destruction% ,-4/ + 4-,, fre8uent 0,-.3 + locali7ed ,-9, 0.-41 + 9-,92 landslides and ,-9/2 collapse% collapses& difficult to collapse of repair man standalone c#imne s ,-9/ + )racks in ,-6, bedrock and /,-,, 09-,5 + /-,, 0,-92 +

:ic cle riders Most collapse ma fall&

people in unstable state ma fall a"a & sense of being t#ro"n up

eart#8uake fractures& destruction of bridge arc#es founded in bedrock& foundation damage or collapse of most standalone c#imne s <art#8uake fractures extend ,-6/ + a long "a & /-,, man bedrock cracks and landslides Drastic c#ange in landscape% mountains% and ri!ers

/1-/12

/-1/2

XI

;ide spread collapse

XII

S#indo scale [6] Magnitude Shindo !umber (Shindo !umber in "apanese) # Meter reading

$eople

Indoor situations

Outdoor situations

%ooden houses

&einfor'ed 'on'rete buildings

Lifelines

, 0,2 / 0-0.4

Imperceptible to people-

=elt b onl / 0/2 / 0.5- some people 1.4 in t#e building=elt b most people in t#e 2 022 / 1.5building2.4 Some people a"ake=elt b most people in t#e . 0.2 / 2.5- building3.4 Some people are frig#tened1 012 / 3.5- Man people 4.4 are frig#tenedSome people tr to escape from dangerMost >anging ob$ects suc# as lamps s"ing slig#tl -

Dis#es in a <lectric cupboard "ires s"ing rattle slig#tl occasionall -

>anging ob$ects s"ing considerabl and dis#es in a cupboard rattle?nstable

<lectric "ires s"ing considerabl People "alking on a street and some people

sleeping people a"ake-

dri!ing ornaments fall automobiles occasionall - notice t#e tremor-

>anging People notice ob$ects s"ing electric+lig#t !iolentl -Most poles s"ing@ safet de!ice cuts off (ccasionall % Most people ?nstable (ccasionall % (ccasionall % t#e gas ser!ice at some less tr to escape ornaments "indo"panes cracks are #ouses- (n rare eart#8uake+ 4+lo"er 04 from a fallare broken formed in occasions "ater pipes resistant 2 / 4.5- danger- Some (ccasionall % and fall% "alls of less are damaged and "ater #ouses suffer 4.9 people find it dis#es in a unreinforced eart#8uake+ ser!ice is interrupteddamage to difficult to cupboard and concrete+ resistant 0<lectrical ser!ice is "alls and mo!ebooks on a block "alls buildingsinterrupted at some pillarsbooks#elf fall collapse% and #ouses2 and furniture roads suffer mo!esdamage-

( c i g r s f p m d

Most dis#es in a cupboard In man and most cases% books on a unreinforced (ccasionall % books#elf fall- concrete+ large cracks (ccasionall % block "alls are formed in a TA set on a collapse and (ccasionall % "alls% ( rack falls% tombstones less crossbeams c Man people (ccasionall % gas pipes #ea! o!erturneart#8uake+ and pillars of i are and / or "ater mains are furniture suc# Man resistant less g 4+upper 04 considerabl damaged-0(ccasionall % as a c#est of automobiles #ouses suffer eart#8uake+ r 2 / 5.0- frig#tened gas ser!ice and / or dra"ers falls% stop because #ea! resistant s 5.4 and find it "ater ser!ice are sliding doors it becomes damage to buildings and f difficult to interrupted in some slip out of difficult to "alls and e!en #ig#l p mo!eregions2 t#eir groo!e dri!epillars and eart#8uake+ m and t#e (ccasionall % leanresistant d deformation poorl + buildings of a door installed #a!e cracks frame makes !ending in "allsit impossible mac#ines to open t#e falldoor3+lo"er 03 Difficult to @ lot of #ea! In some (ccasionall % (ccasionall % Bas pipes and / or

2 / 5.55.9

keep standing-

less eart#8uake+ resistant and unfixed #ouses furniture buildings% collapse and mo!es and "all tiles and e!en "alls falls- It is "indo"panes and pillars of impossible to are damaged #ig#l open t#e door and falleart#8uake+ in man casesresistant #ouses are damaged-

"alls and pillars of less eart#8uake+ resistant buildings are "ater mains are destro ed damaged-0In some c and e!en regions% gas ser!ice and i #ig#l "ater ser!ice are g eart#8uake+ interrupted and l resistant electrical ser!ice is t buildings interrupted #a!e large occasionall -2 cracks in "alls% crossbeams and pillars(ccasionall less eart#8uake+ resistant buildings collapse- In some cases% e!en #ig#l eart#8uake+ resistant buildings suffer damage to "alls and pillars% (ccasionall % gas mains and / or "ater mains are damaged0<lectrical ser!ice is interrupted in some regions- (ccasionall % gas ser!ice and / or "ater ser!ice are interrupted o!er a large area-2

Man % less eart#8uake+ In man Most #ea! resistant buildings% and unfixed #ouses "all tiles and furniture collapse- In Impossible to "indo"panes mo!es and some cases% 3+upper 03 keep standing are damaged fallse!en "alls 2 / 6.0- and to mo!e and fall(ccasionall % and pillars of 6.4 "it#out Most sliding doors #ig#l cra"lingunreinforced are t#ro"n eart#8uake+ concrete+ from t#eir resistant block "alls groo!e#ouses are collapse#ea!il damaged-

( c i g l t

9 092 / 6.5- T#ro"n b up t#e s#aking and impossible to mo!e at "ill-

Most furniture In most (ccasionall % (ccasionall % <lectrical ser!ice gas mo!es to a buildings% e!en #ig#l e!en #ig#l ser!ice and "ater large extent "all tiles and eart#8uake+ eart#8uake+ ser!ice are interrupted and some "indo"panes resistant resistant o!er a large area$umps upare damaged buildings are buildings are and fall- In se!erel se!erel some cases% damaged and damaged and reinforced leanleanconcrete+ block "alls collapse-

T i c d l a a f l t "

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