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FORTELE CARE ACTIONEAZA ASUPRA GRINZIILOR

In calculele statice grinzile sunt considerate rigide.



Figura 1



Forte
Forte Exterioare
Incarcari(actiuni)
Reactiuni
Forte Interioare
Forte de
interactiune
Forte interioare
(solicitari eforturi
sectionale)
1. Notiunea de efort sectional

Figura 2
Grinda se afla in echilibru. Sectionanad grinda cu un plan perpendicular pe aza se obtine doua
corpuri care se vor afla in echilibru, Fig 3

Figura 3
In centrele de greutate S la fiecare parte de grinda I respectiv II va actiona un moment

si
o forta

.
Aceste forte ( ) M F

, pot fi descompuse conform figurii 4.
| |
z y x
M M M M

; ; = si | |
z y x
F F F F

; ; =

Figura 4
Componentele lui M si F

sunt eforturile sectionale pentru o anumita sectiune a grinzii.
| |
| |
z y x
z y x
F F F F
M M M M


; ;
; ;
=
=

Solicitari simple
Intindere- compresiune
Forfecare
Incovoiere
torsiune

De obicei aceste solicitari actioneaza simultan asupra structurilor respective a grinzilor.



Figura 5
S
i
i i
M M M r F

= + +

=
2 1
4
1

2. Echilibrul grinzilor statice determinat
Modalitatea de actionare a fortelor exterioare respective a reactiunilor (figura 6).

Figura 6
Ecuatiile de echilibru pentru o grinda (bara). Cu ajutorul acestor ecuatii de echilibru (Sisteme
de ecuatii) se pot determina reactiunile la grinzile static determinate.

=
=
=

=
=
=

=
=
=

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
iC
iB
iA
iy
iB
iA
iO
iy
ix
M
M
M
sau
F
M
M
sau
M
F
F

3. Determinarea reactiunilor la grinzi statice determinate
a)

Figura 7
A pont ( VA , HA )
B pont (VB)

=
=
=

0
0
0
ix
iB
iA
F
M
M


=
+
=
=


=
l
F
l l
F
V
l
F
l l
F
V
F H
l
F
l
F l V
l
F
l
F l V
F H
A
B
A
A
B
A
4 4
3
2
2
4 4 2
2
2
2
0
4 4
3
45 sin
0
4
3
4
45 sin
0 45 cos


F F F V
F F F
l
l F l F
V
B
A

|
|
.
|

\
|
+

= +

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = + =
+
=
4
1
8
2 3
4
1
8
2 3
4
3
8
2
4
3
8
2
4
3
8
2

= 0
iy
F
F V F V F H
F F F F F F
F F F F
B A A

|
|
.
|

\
|
+

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = =
=

+
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+


|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
4
1
8
2 3
;
4
3
8
2
;
2
2
0
4
1
8
2 3
4
3
8
2
2
2
0
4
1
8
2 3
4
3
8
2
45 sin


b)

Figura 8

=
=
=

0
0
0
iA
iy
ix
M
F
F

8
7
4
3
8
4
3
8
0
2
0
4
3
4 2
0
2
0
2 2
pl pl pl
V
l V
pl l
p
V V pl
l
p
l V l F
l l
p
V V F
l
p
H
B
B
B A
B
B A
A
= + =
= +
= +
= +
= +
=

8
7
;
8
5
8
5
8
7 8 4
8
7
2
pl
V
pl
V
pl pl pl pl pl
pl
pl
V
B A
A
= =
=
+
= + =

0
8
5
8
5
8
2
8
3
8
5
0
4 4
3
2 8
5
0
2 2 2 2 2
= =
=
=

pl pl pl pl pl
l
pl
l pl
l
pl
M
iB

c)

Figura 9

=
=
=

0
0
0
iy
iB
iA
F
M
M

a
M Fa
V
a
M Fa Fa
V
a
M Fa
V
a
Fa Fa M
V
a F M a F a V
a V a F M Fa
H
A A
B B
A
B
A
4
5
4
2 3
4
7
4
6
0 2 3 4
0 4 3 2
0

=
+
=
+
=
+ +
=
= +
= +
=

F F
F
a
M Fa Fa Fa Fa M
F F V V
B A
3 3
3
4
2 3 6
2
=
=
+ + + +
+ = +

d)

Figura 10

=
=
=

0
0
0
ix
iB
iA
F
M
M

l
M
V M M l V
l
M
l
M
V M l V M
A A
B B
= = +
=

= =
0 2
0 2

0 0 = + =

l
M
l
M
F
iy

e)

Figura 11

=
=
=

0
0
0
ix
iB
iA
F
M
M

6
0
3
1
2
3 6
2
0
3
2
2
0
pl
V l V l
pl
pl pl
V l V l
pl
H
A A
B B
A
= = +
= = = +
=

2 6
3
2 3
2
pl pl pl pl
pl
V V
B A
= = +
= +

f)

Figura 12
}
= = =
l
l x
dx x A
0
3 3
2
3 3

=
=
=

0
0
0
ix
iB
iA
F
M
M

12
0
4 3
4
0
4
3
3
0
3 3
3 3
l
V
l l
l V
l
V l
l
l V
H
A A
B B
A
= =
= =
=

a)

Figura 13
0 0
2 2
2 0
2
3
2
0
0
0
0
= = +
= = +
=

=
=
=

A A
B B
A
iB
iA
ix
V
l
F
l
F l V
F V
l
F l V
l
F
H
M
M
F





b)

Figura 14

=
=
=

0
0
0
iB
iA
ix
M
M
F

( )
0 2
2
3
5 , 1 2 3 4
3
3 5 , 1 7
3
3 5 , 1 7
0 8 3 5 , 1
2
3
2
0 2 5 , 1 30 cos 2 3 4
0 4 2 3 5 , 1 30 cos 2
2
1
2 0 60 cos 2
2 2
2 2
2
= + +
+
=
+
=
= +
= + +
= +
= = =
pa pa a V a pa
pa pa
a
pa pa
V
p a V a F a a F
a a p a F a V a F
a a p a V a F a F
F F H F H
A
B
B
A
A
A A


3
3 5 , 1 7
3
3 5 , 1 2
3
3 5 , 1 2
3
3 5 , 1 2
2 2
pa pa
V
pa pa
V
pa F H
pa pa
a
pa pa
V
B
A
A
A
+
=
+
=
= =
+
=
+
=


a)

Figura 15

= =
= + =
= =

0
4
3
2
45 cos 0
0
2
45 cos 0
0 45 cos 0
l l
p l F M M
V
l
p F F
F H F
A iA
A iy
A ix


8
7
8
3
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
8
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
45 cos
2 2
2
pl pl
l pl M
pl
pl
pl V
pl pl H
pl
l F M
l
p
p F V
F F H
A
A
A
A
A
A
= + =
= + =
= =
+ =
+ =
= =


8
7
; ;
2
2
pl
M pl V
pl
H
A A A
= = =


b)

Figura 16

= = + =
= = =
= =

l F M M l F M M M
F V F V F
H F
A A iA
A A iy
A ix
0 0
0 0
0 0

4. Detrminarea functiilor eforturilor sectionale

Figura 17
Schema de calcul pentru determinarea relatiilor dintre eforturile sectionale.

Figura 18
0
0
=
=

iy
iS
F
M

0
2
= + +
dx
pdx Tdx M dM M
T
dx
dM
Tdx dM = =
( )
( ) x T
dx
x dM
=
( )
p
dx
dT
dT T pdx T
dT T pdx T
=
=
= +
0
0

( )
( ) x p
dx
x dT
=
( )
( ) x T
dx
x dM
= =>
( ) ( )
( ) x p
dx
x dT
dx
x M d
= =
2
2

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
} }
+ = =
x
k
x
k
d T M x M si d p T x T
0 0

Conditie 0x
5. Determinarea solicitariilor ( a eforturilor sectionale
N(x),T(x),M(x) ) la grinzi static determinate.
( ) ( )
|
.
|

\
|
= = p
dx
x dV
p
dx
x dT

( )
( )
( )
( )
|
.
|

\
|
= = x V
dx
x dM
x T
dx
x dM

( ) ( )
p
dx
x dT
dx
x M d
= =
2
2













a) Grinda simplu rezemata

Figura 19
l
b F
V b F l V M
l
a F
V l V a F M
A A B
B B A

= = =

= = =

0 0
0 0

( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
l
a F
l
b l F
l
l b F
l
l F b F
F
l
b F
x T
l x a ha F
l
b F
F V x T
a x ha V x T
l x a
A
A

=

=

=

=

=
s <

= =
< s =
s <
0

( )

s <
=
< s
=
l x a ha V
a x ha F
a x ha V
x T
B
A
0

( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) 0
0 0
= =

=

=
s s =

=

= =
=
b F b F a l F
l
l b F
l M
l
a b F
x M
l x a ha a x F x V x M
l
b a F
a
l
b F
a V a M
M
A
A



Figura 20
( )
( )

s s

s s

=
l x a a x F x
l
b F
a x x
l
b F
x M
0
M(x) 0

Figura 21
a = b
4
max
l F
M

=








b)

Figura 22
( )
( )
( )
3
4
2
3
5
2
5 4
3
2
3
5
4 0
3
5
0
3
5
6
10
0 2 2 5 6
0 2 2 5 6
0
3
7
6
14
0 5 4 2 6
0
F
F F
F
F F V x T
a x a
F
F
F
F V x T
a x
F
V x T
a x
F
a
F a
V
a F a F a F a V
a F a F a F a V
M
F
a
F a
V
a F a F a F a V
M
A
A
A
A
A
A
B
B
B
A

= = =
s s
= = =
s s
= =
s s
=

=
=
=
=
=

=
=
=


a x a 6 5 s s
( )
3
7
2
3
5
2
F
F F F
F
F F F V x T
A

= = =
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
3
7
2 4
3
25
5
4 2
3
5
5 4
3
11
3
90 20
3 4
3
5
4
3
5
4
3
5
0
F a
a F a F
a F
a M
a x F a x F x
F
x M
a x a
F a F F a
a F a
F
a M
a x F x
F
x M
a x a
x
F
x M
a x

=
=
s s

=

= =
=
s s
=
s s

c)

Figura 23
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
8 2 2 2 2
0
2 2
0 0
2 2 2 2
2
0
2
0
2 2
2
2
2
0
2
0
0
2
;
2
; 0
2
0
2
2
2
2 2
2
ql l q l ql
M
ql ql
l M
M
x
q
x
ql x
qx x
ql
x M
l
x qx
ql
x T
ql ql ql
ql
ql
l T
ql
T
qx
ql
qx x V x T
l x
M
ql
V
ql
V
l
ql l V
M
l
A
B
A B B
A
= |
.
|

\
|
=
= =
=
= =
= =
=
=

= =
=
= =
s s
=
= = =
=
|
.
|

\
|


T(x) = 0
8
2
max
ql
M =
d)

Figura 24
( )
( ) x
l
p
x p
l
p
x
x p
=
=

2
6
0
3
1
2
1
0
3
0
3
2
2
1
0
pl
V V
pl
V l lp l V M
pl
V l lp l V M
B A
A A B
B B A
= +
= = =
= = =


( ) ( )
( )
( )
3 6
2
6
3
2 6 2 6
6
0 0
2 6 2
1
6 2
1
2
2
pl pl pl pl pl pl
l
pl pl
l T l x
pl
T x
l
px pl
x
l
p
x
pl
x p x V x T
A
=

= = = =
= =
= = =

T(x) = 0
( )
l l
l
x
l l
x
l
px pl
l
px pl
x T
= = =
= = =
= =
577 , 0
3
3
3
3 6
2
2 6
0
2 6
2 2
2
2
2


Figura 25
( ) ( )
l
px
x
pl
x x
l
p
x x
pl
x x p x x V x M
A
6 6 3
1
2
1
6 3
1
2
1
3
= = =
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
2
3
2
3
2
3
max
max
3 2
3
27
3
3 6
3
18
3
3
3
6 3
3
6 3
3
3
3
0
0
6 6
0 0 0
3 6
pl
pl pl
l
l
p
l
pl
M l M
l x x T ahol M x M
l
pl pl
l M l x
M x
x
l
p
x
pl
x M
=

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
= = =
= =
=



e)

Figura 26
( )
( )
( ) F F F F x T
a x a
F F x T
a x a
F x T
F V M
F V
a F a V a F
M
A B
B
B
A
= + + =
< s
= =
s s
=
= =
=
= +
=

5 4
0
4
0
0 4 3
0

( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )

= =
= =
+ + = s s

= = =
= =
+ = s s

= =
= =
= s s
0 5 5
4 4
4 5 4
3 4 4
4
0 0 0
0
a M a x
a F a M a x
a x F a x F x F x M a x a
a F a F a F a M a x
a F a M a x
a x F x F x M a x a
Fa a M a x
M x
x F x M a x

f)

Figura 27
0
2 2 2
0
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
=

b
a b q a V
a
a q
b
q b
M
B
A

VA = VB
qb
qa
V V
B A
+ = =
2

( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
b
a
x
qb
qa
qx x T
qa
qb
qa
qb qa b a T b a x
qa
qb
qa
qb b T b x qb
qa
qx x T
b a x b
qb b T T qx x T
b x
+ =
+ = =
= + + = + + =
= + + = = + + =
+ s s
= = =
s s
2
2
0
2 2
2 2 2
; 0 0
0

( )
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2 8 2 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 2
2
0
2 2
2
2 2 2
2
2 2 2
2
0 0 0
2
0
2 2 2 2
2
2
max
2 2
2 2 2
2
2
2
2
qb qa qab qa a
ab b
q
b
a
b qb
qa a
b
q a
b M M
a
b x
x T
qb
qab
qa
b ab a
q
b b a qb
qa
b a
q
b a M b a x
qb
b M b x
b x qb
qa
x
q
b x V
x
q x M
b a x b
b
q b M b x
M x
x
qx x M
b x
A
= + +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + = |
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ + |
.
|

\
|
+ = |
.
|

\
|
+ =
+ =
=
= + + + + = + |
.
|

\
|
+ + + = + + =
= =
|
.
|

\
|
+ + = + =
+ s s

= =
= =
=
s s
2 8
2 2
max
qb qa
M =
( )( )
b a ha M
b a b a b a
b a
b a qb qa
M
2 0
0 2 2 0 4
4
2 8
0
2 8
0
max
2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2
max
> >
> + >
> > > >








g)

Figura 28
F F F H
F F H
M
l
F
l
F l V l
l l
q
M
l
l F l V
l
F
l l
q
F
M
M
A
A
A
B
x
B
A
2
1 2
2
1
2
2
0
2
1
2
2
0
4 2
3
4
3
2
2
6 3
0
4 2
3
4 2
2
6 3
0
0
0

= =
= +
= + + + |
.
|

\
|
+
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
=
=
=


( )
( )
( )
( ) F F F x N
l
l
l
x l
l
F F F x N l
l
x
l l
F x N
l l
x
l
x N
l
x
2
1
2
2
2
1 2
4 3 3
2
1
2
2
2
1 2
3 4 3
2
1 2
4 3 3
0
3
0
= +

= + + s s +
= +

= + s s +

= + s s
= s s

l
M
ql
Fl
l
M Fl
ql
Fl
l
M
l
F
ql l
F
V
B
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
+ +
=
+ +
=
18 8
3 5
8
2
8
3 5
18 8
2
4
5
2
3
18 4 2
2
2
2 2
l
M
ql
Fl
l
M Fl Fl
ql
l
M
l
F
l
F
l
q
V
A

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
+
=
+
=
18
7
8
3
8
2 3
8
3
8
2 3
18
7
4 2
3
4
3
2
2
18
7
2
2 2

( ) ( )
( )
( )
B A
A
V F V
l
q x T l
l
x
l l
V
l
q x T
l l
x
l
q
l
T
l
x
T x x q x T
l
x
+ + = + s s +
+ = + s s
= |
.
|

\
|
=
= = =
s s
2
2
3 3 4 3
3 3 4 3
1
3 3 3
0 0 0
3
0

( )
( )
( )
4 36
5
4 12
5
3 3 4 3 6 4 3 3 4 3 4 3
18 6 3 6 3 3 3 3
3 6 3 4 3 3
18 2 3 3
0 0 0
2 2
3
0
2
2
2 2
2
l
V
ql l
V
l l
q
l l l
V
l l l l
q
l l
M
l l
x
l
q
l l
q
l l l
q
l
M
l
x
l
x V
l
x
l
q x M
l l
x
l
ql
q
l q l
M
l
x
M x
x
q
x
qx x M
l
x
A A A
A
+ = + = |
.
|

\
|
+ + |
.
|

\
|
+ = |
.
|

\
|
+ + =
= = |
.
|

\
|
= |
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
= + s s
= = |
.
|

\
|
=
= =
= =
s s


Figura 29
( )
( )
Fl M F
l
M
l
M
M M
x F M x M
l
x
8
3
4 3
3
4
0
2
3
4
0
' '
'
= = |
.
|

\
|
=
=
< s

4 3
l l
x + =
a)

Figura 30
Fl M
l F M M
Fl V
F V F
F
F H
F H F
A
A A
A
A y
A
A x
2
3
0
2
3
0
2
3
0 0 cos 0
2 2
1
0 60 cos 0
=
= + =
=
= =
= =
= =



Forta axila:
( )
2
F
H x N
A
= =
Forta taietoare
( ) F x T
2
3
=
Moment incovoietor:
( )
( )
( ) Fl l M l x
M x
Fx x M
2
3
0 0 0
2
3
= =
= =
=

b)

Figura 31
2 8
3
0
4
3
2
0
2
0
2
0
0 0
2 2
ql ql
M M
M M
l l
q M
ql
V V
l
q F
H F
A
A A
A A y
A x
= + =
= + =
= = =
= =


Forta taietoare:
( )
( )
( )
2
2
1
2 2 2
0 0 0
2
0
l
q x T
l x
l
q
l
T
l
x
T x
qx x T
l
x
=
s s
= |
.
|

\
|
=
= =
=
s s



Moment incovoietor:
( )
( )
( )
4 4 4 2 2 4 2 4 2
8 4 2 2 2 2
4 2
4 2 2
8 2 2
0 0 0
2 2
2
0
2
2
2
2
ql l l l l
q
l l
M
l l
x
ql l l l
q
l
M
l
x
l
x
l
q x M
l l
x
l
ql l
M
l
x
M x
x
q x
qx x M
l
x
= |
.
|

\
|
+ = |
.
|

\
|
+ + =
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
+ s s

= |
.
|

\
|
=
= =
= =
s s

( )
( )
2 8 8
3
8 4 2
4 8 4 4 2 4 4 2
4 2
8 4 2 4 2
4 2
2 2 2 2
2 2
2
ql ql ql ql l
l
ql
l M
ql ql l l l ql l l
M
l l
x
ql l
x
ql
M
l
x
ql
x M
l x
l l
= = |
.
|

\
|
=
= |
.
|

\
|
+ = |
.
|

\
|
+
+ =
|
.
|

\
|
= |
.
|

\
|
=
s s
|
.
|

\
|
+

c)

Figura 32
2
0
2
0
0 0
0 0
2
ql
M
l
ql M
M
ql V
ql V F
H F
A
A
A
A
A y
A x
=
= +
=
=
= + =
= =


Forta taietoare
( )
( )
( ) ql l T l x
T x
qx x T
= =
= =
=
0 0 0
Moment incovoietor:
( )
( )
( )
M M
ql
l M l x
M x
qx x
qx x M
A
=
= =
= =
= =
2
0 0 0
2 2
2
2





d)

Figura 33
MA = M

e)

Figura 34
VA = F
MA = Fl




6. Determinarea eforturilo sectionale la o grinda ( N(x), T(x), M(x)

Figura 35
( )
2 2 1 1
cos cos o o + = F F H x N
A
proiectia fortelor din stanga sectiuni pe axa barei
( )
2 2 1 1
sin sin o o = F F V x T
A
proiectia fortelor din stanga sectiuni pe axa perpendicular
pe axa barei
( )
1 2 2 2 1 1 1
sin sin M d F d F x V x M
A
= o o momente incovoietoare fata de punctual
S, de la stanga sectiuni, atuturor fortelor.