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Compensarea dezechilibrelor reelei electrice prin utilizarea unui filtru activ de putere

Electric Utility Unbalance Compensation Using Active Power Filters

Robert Pecsi, ef lucrri drd. ing. Facultatea de Instalaii, Universitatea Tehnic de Construcii, Bucureti, e-mail: Robert.Pecsi@gmail.com Robert Pecsi, Senior Lecturer, Eng. Ph.D. trainee, the Faculty of Building Services and Equipment, Technical University of Civil Engineering, Bucharest, e-mail: Robert.Pecsi@gmail.com

1. Introducere The three-phase systems are designed for the direct Sistemele trifazate au fost concepute pentru a symmetrical sinusoidal operation. For this purpose funciona n regimuri sinusoidale simetrice. n the power system generators have to supply direct astfel de regimuri, att generatoarele, receptoarele, symmetrical e.m.f. and the loads must be balanced. ct i liniile care le leag sunt distribuite echilibrat If an unbalanced three-phase load is connected to pe fazele sistemului. De ndat ce sarcina se the system a non-symmetrical operation takes dezechilibreaz, regimul de tensiuni i cureni place. This non-symmetrical operation can be devine nesimetric. Un asemenea regim nesimetric considered as a superposition on the direct poate fi considerat ca o suprapunere peste regimul symmetrical operation of an inverse and a simetric direct a unuia indirect i a unuia homopolar symmetrical operation. For each of homopolar. Pentru fiecare din cele trei regimuri these three operations, the active and reactive suprapuse puterile activ i reactiv se conserv powers are separately conservative. While the separat. ntruct generatoarele sunt concepute generators are designed to supply power only in pentru a furniza putere numai n regim simetric de direct operation, then, the unbalanced loads succesiune direct, putem considera sarcinile themselves can be considered as power sources for dezechilibrate drept surse ale regimurilor invers i inverse and homopolar operations, though these homopolar, dei ele sunt doar receptoare pasive. loads are passive. O sarcin trifazat dezechilibrat primete de la An unbalanced three-phase load receives more reea mai mult putere de regim simetric direct direct power from the power system than it is dect are nevoie i retrimite n reea diferena sub necessary for itself and sends back into the system forma puterilor de regim invers i homopolar. the difference as inverse and homopolar power. Aceste fluxuri de putere se pot descrie prin puterile These power flows can be described by the nonactiv i reactiv de asimetrie: symmetric active and reactive powers: 1. Introduction (1) Pn = P Pd = 3U i I i cos i 3U 0 I 0 cos 0 Qn = Q Qd = 3U i I i sin i 3U 0 I 0 sin 0 Fluxul acestor mrimi poate fi urmrit i msurat. Puterile de nesimetrie produc pierderi suplimentare n reeaua electric i reduc randamentul acesteia. Fiecare regim nesimetric al reelei trifazate prezint o serie de dezavantaje att pentru reeaua n sine ct i pentru celelalte sarcini conectate la aceeai reea. Articole anterioare ale autorului demonstreaz aceste dezavantaje, prezint metode de evaluare a acestora i subliniaz necesitatea unor metode de simetrizare, unele prezentnd chiar metode i dispozitive care permit obinerea unei reele trifazate simetrice. The flow of these quantities can be followed and measured. The flow of non-symmetrical powers produces supplementary losses in the electric power systems and reduces their efficiency. Every non-symmetrical operation in the three-phase system shows a number of disadvantages both for the system itself and for the other loads connected to the same system. Former studies by the author prove these disadvantages, provide means of evaluating them and emphasize the necessity of balancing methods, while some of them present methods and devices to obtain a

Acest articol prezint metoda de simetrizare a reelei prin utilizarea unui filtru activ de putere. 2. Filtre active de putere Un filtru activ de putere este un dispozitiv bazat pe electronic de putere n mod curent utilizat pentru compensarea armonicilor i a puterii reactive din reeaua trifazat. Se cunosc filtre active de topologie serie i paralel. Filtrele active de topologie paralel au principalul avantaj c sunt tranzitate numai de curentul de compensare, fapt care permite pierderi de putere datorate compensrii foarte reduse. Filtrele active de putere de topologie paralel pot fi concepute cu un invertor de tensiune i un condensator pentru stocarea energiei sau cu un invertor de curent i o inductivitate ca element de stocare a energiei. Figura 1 prezint aceste dou modele de filtru activ paralel. Autorul a utilizat un filtru activ de putere de topologie paralel cu invertor de tensiune, prezentat n figura 2 i a modificat softul central de compensare pentru a compensa curenii trifazai dezechilibrai.

balanced three-phased symmetrical system. This paper presents another method for the same purpose, by means of an active power filter. 2. Active Power Filters An active power filter is a power electronicsbased device currently used to compensate the current harmonics and power factor of the three-phased. Series or parallel topology active filters are commonly known. Parallel active filters have the main advantage that only the compensation current flows through their components, therefore the power consumption and losses of such a device are very low. Parallel active filters can be designed with voltage inverters and a capacitor for energy storage or with current inverters and an inductance as storage element. Figure 1 illustrates these two designs for the parallel active power filter. The author used a parallel active power filter with a voltage inverter, as illustrated in Figure 2, while changing the core soft to obtain the compensation of the unbalanced three-phased currents.

Fig. 1: Filtre active paralel cu invertor de tensiune i de curent

3. Principiul metodei de compensare prezentate Compensarea curenilor reelei trifazate dezechilibrate se realizeaz de ctre filtrul activ la o frecven nalt autorul a utilizat frecvena de 10.800 Hz. Filtrul pasiv din figura 2 are rolul de anula armonicile generate de aceast frecven nalt a semnalelor de comand. Unitatea central a filtrului activ trebuie s realizeze cteva operaii de evaluare
Fig. 1: Parallel active filter with voltage and current inverter

3. Principles of the presented compensation method The compensation of the unbalanced utility currents is made by the active power filter at a high frequency the author used 10800 Hz. The passive filter in figure 2 has the role of canceling the harmonics given by this high frequency command operation. The control unit of the active filter has to perform some operations of evaluating the unbalance, of a dezechilibrului, de calcul al curenilor de compensare necesari i de sintez a semnalului de comand pentru tranzistoarele IGBT ale

invertorului de tensiune. Aceste operaii necesare sunt: calculating the necessary compensation currents and of building the command signal for the
Ua
Ub Uc
FILTRU PASIV

IGBT transistors of the voltage inverter. These necessary operations are the following:

I b_retea I c_retea I a_simetrizor

I b_sarcina I c_sarcina I b_simetrizor I c_simetrizor

SUNT

Q7
BLOC COMANDA

Q1

Q2

Q3

C Q8 Q4 Q5 Q6

Fig. 2: Filtrul activ utilizat pentru compensarea dezechilibrelor reelei trifazate

Fig. 2: The active filter used for the three-phased utility unbalance compensation

- citirea valorii instantanee a curenilor de reea ( ia , ib , ic ), a tensiunilor de reea ( u a , ub , uc ) i a curenilor de sarcin ( ia _ sarcina , ib _ sarcina , ic _ sarcina ); - calculul valorilor efective pentru curenii de sarcin ( I a , I b , I c ) i pentru tensiunile de reea ( U a , U b , U c ); - calculul valorii efective medii a celor trei cureni de sarcin,: I mean =

Measuring the actual currents of the utility ( ia , ib , ic ), the utility voltages ( u a , ub , u c ) and the load currents ( ia _ load ,
ib _ load , ic _ load );

Calculating the rms. values for the load currents ( I a , I b , I c ) and for the utility voltages ( U a , U b , U c ); Calculating the mean rms. of the utility current:

Ia + Ib + Ic (2) 3 -calculul fazei fiecreia din cele trei - Calculating the phases of the utility tensiuni de reea: voltages: u u u a = a , b = b , c = c (3) Ua Ub Uc -calculul celor trei cureni de referin ce - Calculating the reference currents of the se doresc a fi prezeni pe liniile reelei, utility, balanced currents in phase with cureni echilibrai i n faz cu the utility voltages that are to be obtained tensiunile corespunztoare ale reelei: after the compensation: iax = I mean a , ibx = I mean b , icx = I mean c (4) -calculul semnalelor de comand pentru 4. Simularea n Matlab Simulink a metodei de tranzistoarele de putere. compensare propuse Calculating and building the command Metoda utilizrii unui filtru activ paralel bazat pe signals for the inverter transistors. un invertor de tensiune a fost verificat de autor

SARCINA DEZECHILIBRATA

I a_retea

I a_sarcina

n mediul de simulare Matlab Simulink 6.5.0.1. S-au realizat o serie de verificri i simulri pentru diferite sarcini dezechilibrate. Unul dintre cele mai serioase dezechilibre este cauzat de o sarcin legat ntre una dintre fazele reelei i conductorul de nul, celelalte dou faze rmnnd nencrcate. Prezentul articol prezint rezultatele simulate ale echilibrrii reelei de 3 x 380 / 220 V c.a., avnd urmtoarea sarcin monofazat legat ntre faza c i conductorul de nul: 4. Matlab Simulink simulation of the proposed compensation method Z = 0,2 + 2 Figura 3 prezint curenii de reea iar figura 4 coeficientul de asimetrie. Modelul de simulare a fost astfel realizat nct compensarea efectiv s nceap dup o scurt ntrziere care s permit vizualizarea curenilor de reea (identici cu cei de sarcin) i coeficientul de asimetrie naintea efectelor filtrului activ de putere.
200 150 100 Curentii din retea [A] 50 0 -50 -100 -150 -200 0.02

The method of using a parallel active power filter based on a voltage inverter was tested by the author in the Matlab Simulink 6.5.0.1. technical computing language. A lot of tests and simulations were made for various unbalanced loads. One of the highest unbalance values is given by a load connected between a line of the utility and the neutral wire, the other two lines remaining unloaded. This paper will present the results of balancing the utility of 3 x 380 / 220 V AC, with the following load connected between line c and the neutral wire: (5) j Figure 3 shows the line currents of the utility, and Figure 4 - the unbalance factor. The simulation model has been set to start the compensation after a short period to allow the visualization of the utility currents (equal then to the load currents) and the unbalance factor before the effects of the active power filter.

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1 Timp [s]

0.12

0.14

0.16

0.18

Fig. 3: Curenii de reea nainte i dup compensare

Fig. 3: Utility currents before and after compensation

Coeficient de asimetrie

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0 0

500

1000 Timp [0,1 ms]

1500

2000

Fig. 4: Coeficientul de asimetrie nainte i dup compensare

Fig. 4: Unbalance factor before and after compensation

5. Verificarea experimental a metodei de compensare propuse Verificarea experimental a metodei propuse s-a realizat utiliznd ca dispozitiv de compensare un invertor de putere medie, existent n cadrul Facultii de Inginerie Electric, la Laboratorul de Acionri i Maini Electrice Speciale. Schema acestui invertor este ilustrat n figura 5. Sarcina dezechilibrat aleas a fost o rezisten de 7, legat ntre fazele a i b ale reelei. Rezultatele obinute din msurri valideaz metoda i dispozitivul propuse. Dintrun dezechilibru avnd un coeficient de asimetrie de 0,5, se obine un regim simetric echilibrat cu un factor de putere global egal cu unitatea. Figura 6 prezint aceste rezultate. n tabelul de figuri coloana din stnga prezint curenii de reea (culoare albastr) i curenii de sarcin (culoare roie). n coloana din dreapta a tabelului graficele grupeaz cte doi cureni din trei, dovedind defazajul uniform ntre aceti cureni de reea.

5. Experimental results

for the proposed compensation method The proposed method has been tested using a medium power inverter based compensation device, existing in the Actuation and Special Electric Machines Laboratory of the Electrical Engineering Faculty. This inverter circuit is illustrated in figure 5. The chosen unbalanced load was a 7 resistor connected between a and b utility lines. The obtained results of the measurements are validating the proposed method and device. From an initial unbalance of 0.5 unbalance factor, a symmetrical operation is obtained with a unity global power factor. Figure 6 illustrates these results. In the table the left column shows the utility currents (blue color) and the load currents (red color) for the three utility lines. In the right column, the diagrams group together each two of the three utility line currents, proving the same phase alteration between them.

Fig. 3: Dispozitivul de compensare utilizat pentru verificarea experimental a metodei

Fig. 3: The compensation device used for experimental testing of the method

Fig. 6: Rezultate experimentale

Fig. 6: Experimental results

6. Concluzii Rezultatele simulrilor i ale verificrilor experimentale dovedesc echilibrarea reuit a reelei electrice prin utilizarea unui filtru activ de putere. Aceste rezultate ilustreaz compensarea puterii reactive curenii de reea compensai fiind n faz cu tensiunile corespunztoare. Pierderile de putere introduse de prezena filtrului activ sunt foarte mici practic nule, valoarea efectiv medie a curenilor de reea i a curenilor de sarcin fiind aceeai. Coeficientul de asimetrie este sczut sub valoarea limit de 5% impus de normativele internaionale. Prezentul articol introduce o nou metod pentru compensarea regimurilor dezechilibrate ale reelei electrice trifazate. Experiene ulterioare ale autorului dovedesc faptul c acelai filtru activ de putere compenseaz distorsiunile curentului, puterea reactiv i regimurile dezechilibrate ale reelei, fiind un dispozitiv de compensare complex, foarte eficient n meninerea calitii energiei electrice. O bun calitate a energiei electrice nseamn pierderi de putere mai sczute, ceea ce presupune resurse mai puine sacrificate pentru producerea aceleiai energii i, n consecin, o mai bun protecie a mediului n care trim.
La compensation des rgimes non symtriques des rseaux en utilisant un filtre actif de puissance Rsum : Les systmes triphass ont t projets pour fonctionner dans des rgimes symtriques sinusodaux. Mais la symtrie entre les valeurs instantanes des courants du rseau est trs rare. Les rgimes nonsymetriques ont beaucoup deffets ngatifs sur le rseau est sur les charges lies au mme rseau, et produissent des pertes de charge suplimentaire. References [1] Angeles-Camacho, C., Fuerte-Esquivel, C.R., A ThreePhase UPFC Model for Power Flow Control in Unbalanced Transmission Networks, University of Glasgow University of Michoacan. [2] Creang, D. I., Contribuii la funcionarea optimal energetic a sistemelor de acionri electrice. Tez de doctorat, Bucharest, 2004. [3] Kundur, P., Power System Stability and Control McGraw-Hill, 1994. [4] Mgureanu, R., Creang, D., Ambrosi, S., Bostan, V., Particular Aspects of Shunt Power Active

6. Conclusions The simulation and the experimental results both prove the successful balance of the electric utility using a parallel active power filter. These results show the cancellation of the reactive power, too the compensated utility currents being at the same phase as the corresponding utility voltages. The power losses introduced by the presence of the active filter are very low practically nil, the mean rms. values of the utility currents and of the load currents being the same. The unbalance factor is dropped under the limit value of 5% imposed by the international regulations. The present paper introduces a new method for the compensation of the unbalanced states of the three-phased electric utility. Further experiments of the author prove that the same active power filter compensates the current distortions, the reactive power and the unbalanced states of the utility, being a complex compensation device, very effective in maintaining the electric energy quality. Good quality of the electric energy means lower power losses, which in turn involves less resources used to produce the same energy and consequently a better health of the environment we live in.

Cet article prsente une mthode et un dispositif pour quilibrer le rseau triphas a laide dun filtre actif de puissance. Les filtres actifs de puissance sont souvent utiliss pour compenser les distorsions de courant et de la puissance ractive dans les lignes du rseau. Si on change le programme central de commande ces filtres peuvent compenser aussi les rgimes dsquilibrs des rseaux triphass. Filters Control, Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment Optim04, Braov, May 2004. [5] Pecsi, R., Consideraii privind efectele energetice n regimurile armonice asimetrice ale sistemelor trifazate, Proceedings of the CIB 30.10 International Conference Transilvania University, Braov, november 2002.