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Dezvoltarea alerta a industriei hoteliere europene Numeroase orase au raportat in primele sase luni ale acestui an o crestere de doua

cifre Rezultatele studiului Deloitte intitulat HotelBenchmark indica o crestere de 6,8% a venitului pe camera disponibila (revPAR) realizat de hotelierii europeni in prima jumatate a acestui an; un procent usor scazut fata de cel raportat in aceeasi perioada a anului 2006 7.2%. Cu toate ca, in acest an, in Europa nu au avut loc evenimente sportive importante de talia celor organizate in anul 2006 Olimpiada de Iarna de la Turin, Campionatul Mondial de Fotbal FIFA din Germania hotelierii europeni si-au consolidat pozitia pe piata. Aceste performante sunt datorate tarifelor medii pe camera, care pana in momentul de fata au crescut cu aproximativ 5.8%. In fruntea clasamentului s-au situat hotelierii din Valencia cu o crestere de 38,2% a venitului pe camera disponibila. Aceasta evolutie se datoreaza in mare parte Cupei Americii, care reuseste sa atraga ca de fiecare data marinari, spectatori si presa din intrega lume. Hotelierii au crescut tarifele medii pe camera cu 33,4%. Pe locul doi s-au clasat pentru a doua oara consecutiv hotelierii elvetieni reusind in acest fel sa-i surclaseze pe cei din Noua Zeelanda. Hotelierii din Istanbul au inregistrat de asemenea in prima jumatate a acestui an o crestere substantiala de pana la 26% a venitului pe camera disponibila. Oportunitatile pietei au fost numeroase: conferinte, expozitii comerciale, evenimente sportive. In plus, Turcia a depus eforturi considerabile pentru a-si consolida pozitia in topul destinatiilor culturale. Conform datelor puse la dispozitie de catre Organizatia Mondiala a Turismului, toate aceste costuri par sa fie amortizate in proportie de 16% datorita numarului de vizitatori, care au ales Turcia ca destinatie in primele cinci luni ale acestui an. Hotelierii din Lisabona au continuat sa obtina rezultate bune, inregistrand pana in prezent o crestere de 14% a venitului pe camera disponibila. Orasul a gazduit numeroase conferinte, ca de exemplu Alimentaria International Food Show. Aceasta conferinta

bianuala a avut loc in luna mai a.c. si a atras in jur de 40.000 de vizitatori. Cresterea venitului pe camera disponibila se datoreaza in principal tarifelor medii pe camera, acestea reprezentand momentan doar 1 din 100 . Atena este un alt oras sud-european care a raportat o crestere de doua cifre in prima jumatate a anului 2007, cu un venit pe camera disponibila de 10,6%. Luna mai a fost o luna extrem de profitabila pentru orasul gazda a UEFA Champions League. In noaptea finalei, venitul hotelierilor pe camera disponibila a crescut vertiginos cu 116% pana la valoarea de 337 - o crestere de trei ori mai mare decat media inregistrata la inceputul anului 2007 si pana in prezent. Nici hotelierii londonezi nu au fost mai prejos, inregistrand o crestere substantiala de 14,6%. Calatoriile de afaceri si turism in capitala Marii Britanii sunt predominante. Hotelurile din Londra inregistreaza in continuare cel mai ridicat grad de ocupare din Europa 80,5%. Lorna Clarke, Director Executiv al HotelBenchmark din cadrul Deloitte este de parere ca: ..in ciuda faptului ca Europa nu a gazduit in acest an evenimente de amploarea celor organizate anul trecut, industria hoteliera a inceput in forta anul 2007 numeroase orase au inregistrat o crestere de doua cifre a venitului pe camera disponibila. Europa continua sa profite de pe urma performantelor economice in special zona euro care determina o crestere a cererii pentru servicii hoteliere. Perspectivele pentru restul anului sunt promitatoare. Cu toate acestea, identificam preocupari legate de cresterea volumului de credite si valorii ratelor dobanzii. Acest lucru poate conduce la scaderea numarului de calatorii turistice.

De asemenea, potrivit unui studiu Deloitte, remis Ziare.com, tariful mediu pe camera a scuzut cu 12,3 procente, la 108 euro, in timp ce rata de ocupare s-a redus la 61,6 procente. In Romania, s-a inregistra un declin de 6,9 procente a ratei de ocupare si de 17% al indicelui revPAR. Potrivit studiului, Londra este orasul cu cel mai mare grad de ocupare, in timp ce Glasgow si Edinburg sunt singurele orase europene care au inregistrat o crestere a ratei de ocupare.

Dintre tarile din zona euro, Spania a fost lovita cel mai puternic, din cauza faptului ca numarul turistilor provenind din principalele sale piete a scazut. "Industria hoteliera europeana a traversat un an agitat, in contextul in care criza s-a adancit. Cresterea ratei somajului, raspandirea virusului de gripa AH1N1 si cresterea monedei euro fata de alte monede au avut un impact serios asupra performantei operatorilor de profil din Europa", a declarat Alex Kyriakidis, Global Managing Partner, Tourism Hospitality & Leisure Deloitte. "Multi oamenii au preferat sa stea acasa in loc sa calatoreasca peste hotare, iar numarul calatoriilor de afaceri s-a redus, ceea ce a atras scaderea vanzarilor si a rezultatelor operatorilor hotelieri, a companiilor aeriene si a agentiilor de turism. Toate orasele din regiune au inregistrat o scadere a indicelui revPAR pentru anul incheiat in septembrie, unele dintre ele fiind lovite mai rau decat altele", a adaugat Kyriakidis.

Rata de ocupare a hotelurilor din Bucuresti a scazut cu 19,6 procente anul trecut, inregistrand cel mai mare declin din Europa. Potrivit unui studiu realizat de Deloitte, rata de ocupare a hotelurilor din Romania a ajuns la 57 de procente, in contextul in care deteriorarea increderii consumatorilor, lipsa de finantare si diminuarea cheltuielilor de afaceri au afectatindustria hoteliera din toata lumea. Veniturile pe camera disponibila au scazut cu 12,7 procente, la 76 de euro, in timp ce oferta din Bucuresti a crescut semnificativ, prin inaugurarea de noi unitati, precum Ramada Plaza sau Radisson, sau prin extinderea Rin Grand Hotel. "Cum vestile nu sunt bune in perioada urmatoare, industria de turism isi va concentra atentia pe strategii de supravietuire in acest an. Scaderea tarifelor de cazare pare tentanta, dar ea nu reprezinta o solutie pe termen lung," a spus George Mucibabici, presedintele Deloitte Romania. "In acest moment, este important ca autoritatile si industria de profil sa isi indrepte atentia spre proiecte de dezvoltare a infrastructurii de turism, cum sunt extinderile de aeroporturi sau dezvoltarile hoteliere, care vor pune bazele cresterii pe termen lung si ale sustenabilitatii," a adaugat el.

http://www.scritube.com/geografie/turism/REFERAT-INDUSTRIE-HOTELIERA1032411012.php

Hotel and motel industry - History of Business in the U.S. Urban Hotels Adapting to Change The Postwar Era

Definition: Enterprises formed around multiunit buildings that provide temporary lodging to the general public Significance: The lodging industry grew dramatically with the development of national railroad and highway systems, the emergence of a middle class with sufficient leisure time and disposable income

to travel, and an increase in business travel. The demand for public lodging also brought about a push toward standardization that ultimately benefited hotel and motel chains at the expense of small, family-owned establishments and older urban hotels. Catering primarily to travelers, the modern American hotel grew out of the inns and taverns that served as temporary lodging during the colonial period and into the nineteenth century. These establishments typically operated in port cities and along stagecoach roads, often doubling as makeshift meeting halls, courts of law, and convenient locations in which to conduct business deals. Their importance to early American commerce is reflected in a Massachusetts law requiring a tavern in every town. Urban Hotels

The first large urban American hotel, consisting of seventy-three rooms, opened in New York City in 1794, and similar establishments followed in Boston, Baltimore, and Philadelphia. These hotels were often lavish and served as symbols of prosperity and focal points for business activity. In addition, large urban hotels employed substantial numbers of people, contributing to the growth of the service sectors of many American cities. The emergence of railroad transportation during the mid-nineteenth century brought about an increase in business and recreational travel. Hotels were often among the first buildings to be erected in the towns and cities established along railroad lines. They were vital centers of commercial activity that provided the service and retail establishments of booming downtown areas with steady streams of patrons. Builders of urban hotels in emerging midwestern and western cities often sought to outdo rival towns by constructing ever-larger and more lavish establishments. As rail travel became more affordable and increasing numbers of middle-class people began to travel, however, other hoteliers began to emphasize cleanliness, affordability, and simple amenities such as private bathrooms and free newspapers. Resort hotels also began operation in many rural areas, offering seclusion and natural beauty for vacationers and health benefits (such as mineral springs and exotic treatments) for seekers of cures for various ailments. The increase in the variety of accommodations available to travelers fueled a burgeoning travel industry that catered both to the growing middle class and to the expanding American business sector. In addition, hotels of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were often laboratories for new technologies such as electric lights, elevators, telephone systems, and air-conditioning. The rapidly changing technological climate of this period rendered many of these modern hotels prematurely obsolete, and the proliferation of hotels frequently led to market saturation, causing many hotels to close or to convert to other uses. Transitions from stagecoach transportation to railroads, railroads to highways, and highways to superhighways produced a constant underlying volatility in the lodging industry throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

A motel in Helena, Montana, in 1942. (Library of Congress)

Adapting to Change

The arrival of the automobile during the early decades of the twentieth century brought about drastic changes in the American hotel and motel industry. With the development of a system of federal highways and the availability of affordable automobiles such as the Ford Model T, demand increased for inexpensive, convenient lodging catering to motorists. These establishments, known as motor hotels, motels, or motor courts, grew steadily in number as automobile ownership and longdistance travel increased during the pre-World War II era. In this environment, the traditional urban hotels, inconvenient to new highway systems and increasingly located in deteriorating neighborhoods, began to decline both in number and in quality. The quality of motels also varied widely. Most were locally owned and operated in the absence of industry standards regarding cleanliness, roomsize, or amenities offered. Many were located inconveniently to restaurants and local attractions and typically charged extra for children. Motel federations such asTravelodge and BestWestern established before the 1950s referred customers to member establishments but exercised no control over the operation of such member motels. Where Domestic Travelers Stayed Overnight, 2005

Source: Data from the Travel Industry Association Note: The average stay at a hotel, motel, or bed and breakfast is 3.2 nights.

The Postwar Era

The economic boom of the postwar era and the establishment of the Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways (also known as the Interstate Highway System) during the 1950s led to the emergence of motel chains and a resultant trend toward standardization. The Holiday Inn chain, conceived by real estate developer Kemmons Wilson during a 1951 family vacation, was established in Memphis, Tennessee, in 1952. Determined to avoid the problems that he and his family had encountered at numerous motels during their vacation, Wilson designed his motels with standard-size rooms, on-site restaurants, and standard amenities such as televisions, swimming pools, air-conditioning, and free stays for children.

To ensure convenient locations, Wilson purchased building sites along the new interstate highways near exits and on the right side of adjoining roads and streets, so patrons would not have to make left turns to reach the motels. As competing motel chains emerged during the 1950s and 1960s, many merely purchased building sites alongside newly constructed Holiday Inns. These motel chains enjoyed a tremendous competitive advantage over locally owned and operated motels, many of which lacked the capital to upgrade their operations or move to more desirable locations. The standardization of the motel industry increased public trust in motels, as the growing disposable income of Americans and the convenience of interstate highways fueled a steady increase in travel. Newly constructed motel sites along the new superhighways often became magnets for commercial development, attracting retail establishments, restaurants, and other services. As a result, chain motels have sometimes been cited as contributors to the economic decline of downtown business districts and the proliferation of suburban sprawl. The economic boom of the 1990s and concomitant revitalization efforts in many American cities led to a revival of urban hotels toward the end of the twentieth century, prompting the construction of new downtown hotels and the reopening of many old ones. Urban hotels thus reclaimed their historical status as symbols of vitality and focal points for economic activity. Resort hotels continued to thrive in certain cites such as Las Vegas, and lodging establishments offering a variety of amenities and price ranges remained vital to American transportation and commerce. Michael H. Burchett

Further Reading Halberstam, David. The Fifties. New York: Villard Books, 1993. Charts the effects of the lodging industry on American culture within the context of a study of tumult and change during the 1950s. Jakle, J. A., et al. The Motel in America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002. Comprehensive study of the motel industry and its history, including the architecture and design of motels. Sandoval-Strausz, Andrew K. Hotel: An American History. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2007. Part social history, part economic history, part political history, this study details the relationship between the hotel industry, capitalism, and the function of public and private space in American culture. Witzel, Michael K. The American Motel. Osceola,Wis.: Motorbooks International, 2000. Copiously illustrated study of U.S. motels, from the early autocamps through late twentieth century chains and innovations. See also: American Automobile Association; automotive industry; tourism industry. http://american-business.org/2541-hotel-and-motel-industry.html

The start of the hotel industry


At the beginning of the 15th century, the law in France required that hotels keep a register English law also introduced rules for inns at a similar time During the 16th century, more than 600 inns were registered in England The first guide books for travellers were published in France Signs were displayed outside establishments renowned for their refined cuisine At the end of the 1600s, the first stage coaches to follow a regular timetable started operating in EnglandThe industrial revolution, (1760s), triggered the construction of hotels in mainland Europe, England and America In New York and Copenhagen, hotels were established in city centres Early 1800s, the Royal Hotel was built in London and holiday resorts constructed along the French and Italian rivieras In Japan, Ryokan guest houses were established and in India, government-run Dak bungalows provided accommodation for travellers The Tremont House in Boston was the first deluxe hotel in a city centre with inside toilets, locks on the doors and an a la carte menu The Holt Hotel in New York City was the first to provide its guests with a lift for their luggage Highway inns for stage coaches started to decline as trains began to replace horse-drawn transport In New York, the New York Hotel was the first to be equipped with private bathrooms In 1890 Le Grand Hotel, Paris was the first entire hotel to be equipped with electric light The Fifth Avenue Hotel in New York City was the first in that period to provide lifts for its guests In 1880, the Sagamore Hotel in New York was the very first to provide electricity in all its rooms In 1890 the first school for hoteliers was founded in Lausanne, Switzerland

In 1919 the Barcelona Ritz had bathrooms with hot and cold water The Ritz and Savoy in London, le Negresco in Nice the P1aza in New York, the Taj Mahal in Bombay were all constructed during this period 1950s saw Club Mditerrane (G Trigano) develop the club village In the 1960s new tourist resorts grew up around the Mediterranean: Spain, Greece, Yugoslavia thrived with the development of city and beach hotels The 1970s witnessed the construction of hotels or business people 'Black gold' (oil), attracted business people worldwide to the MiddleEast

The third hotel industry boom (1980s) Rise of hotels near airports, hotels for conferences ,health hotels, ski holiday hotels, holiday villages and marina hotels The first Property Management Systems (Fidelio, Hogatex, etc) appeared in the hospitality market The Far East began developing hotels for business people and tourists began to discover China, South Korea, Thailand and Japan American International chains prepared expansion plans to reach into Europe and the Middle- and Far East Environment and energy conservation become important in marketing big chains Reservation systems become more sophisticated enabling hotels to foster customer loyalty through database systems recording guest's Individual history and individualised marketing programmes, satisfying guests' personal needs better than the competition 20th century The third hotel industry boom (1980s) The 1990s: technology starts to make an impact