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Scientific Report

NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ICPE-CA

Bucharest, March 15, 2010

Cuprins
Structura de conducere a INCDIE ICPE-CA_______________________________________________________6 Consiliul de Administraie_________________________________________________________________8 Consiliul tiinific_________________________________________________________________________8 Comitetul director________________________________________________________________________9 Organigrama ICPE-CA_ ___________________________________________________________________10 Scurt prezentare a institutului________________________________________________________________ Istoric_________________________________________________________________________________ Domeniul de specialitate al INCDIE ICPE-CA______________________________________________ Direcii de cercetare-dezvoltare__________________________________________________________ 12 14 15 15

Projects_____________________________________________________________________________________ 16 Projects Interne_ _______________________________________________________________________ 18 Projects Internaionale_________________________________________________________________ 194 Program Operaional Sectorial__________________________________________________________ 208 Fapte i evenimente_________________________________________________________________________ Personaliti tiinifice ce au vizitat institutul_____________________________________________ Manifestri tiinifice organizate de institut______________________________________________ Trguri i expoziii naionale i internaionale la care INCDIE ICPE-CA a participat___________ Lecii invitate, cursuri i seminarii susinute de personalitile tiinifice invitate_____________ Teze de doctorat_ ______________________________________________________________________ Brevete de invenie acordate INCDIE ICPE-CA____________________________________________ Apariii ICPE-CA n mass-media anului 2009_____________________________________________ Lucrri tiinifice / tehnice publicate n reviste de specialitate cotate ISI____________________ Premii i medalii internaionale_ _________________________________________________________ Premii i medalii naionale______________________________________________________________ 214 216 217 217 218 220 221 223 226 231 233

INCDIE ICPE-CA management structure


Administrative Council Board Scientific Council Directory Board ICPE-CA organizational chart

8 8 9 10

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INCDIE ICPE-CA management structure

INCDIE ICPE-CA management structure

1
Kappel Wilhelm Tanasescu Florin Teodor Gavrila Horia

INCDIE ICPE-CA management structure

Teodor Vian Nicolae Vasile Silviu Jipa Nicolae Olariu

Prof. Dr. Eng. Prof. Dr. Eng. Prof. Dr. Prof. Dr. Eng. Dr. Eng. Prof. Dr. Eng. Dr. Chim. Dr. Eng. Eng. Dr. Eng. Dr. Eng. Dr. Fiz. Prof. Dr. Eng. Prof. Dr., General Manager

UPB Faculty of Chemistry President of Academy of Technical Sciences INCDIE ICPE-CA Valahia University - Targoviste INCDIE ICPE-CA INCDIE ICPE-CA INCDIE ICPE-CA INCDIE ICPE-CA INCDIE ICPE-CA INCDIE ICPE-CA INCDIE ICPE-CA INCDIE ICPE-CA INCDIE ICPE-CA INCDIE ICPE-CA

1.1. Administrative Council Board


INCDIE ICPE-CA Administrative Council Board
President General Director of INCDIE ICPE-CA

Georgeta Alecu Constantin Bl Petru Budrugeac Mircea Ignat Cristinel Ilie Mariana Lucaci

Vice-president

Romanian Electrotechnical Committee

Mihai Mihiescu Jenica Neamu Gheorghe Samoilescu

Member

President of Scientific Council

Bala Gheorghe

Member

Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sport

Wilhelm Kappel

Tudor Tatiana

Member

Ministry of Public Finance

1.2.1 Ethics Commission Prof. dr. Eng. Florin Tnsescu Dr. Eng. Mircea Ignat

Cioponea Gheorghe

Member

Ministry of Labor, Family and Equal Opportunities

Opris Marcel

Member

Special Telecommunication Service Eng. Iuliu Popovici Dr. Eng. Mirela Codescu Law Adviser Mariana Lungu

1.2. Scientific Council


incdie icpe-ca SCIENTIFIC CoUNCIL Elena Enescu Iosif Lingvay Florin Filip Emil Burzo Alexandru Morega Horia Gavril Petru Notingher Dr. Eng., Technical Director Dr. Eng., Scientific Secretary Acad. Prof. Dr. Eng. Acad. Prof. Dr. Phys. Prof. Dr. Eng. Prof. Dr. Eng. Prof. Dr. Eng. INCDIE ICPE-CA INCDIE ICPE-CA Vice-president of Romanian Academy Member of Romanian Academy UPB Faculty of Electrical Engineering INCDIE ICPE-CA UPB Faculty of Electrical Engineering

1.3. Directory Board


INCDIE ICPE-CA Directory Board Kappel Wilhelm Enescu Elena STAN Livia LINGVAY Iosif General Manager Technical Director Economic Director Scientific Secretary

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INCDIE ICPE-CA management structure


1.4. Organizational chart of INCDIE ICPE-CA
ADMINISTRATIVE COUNCIL BOARD

GENERAL DIRECTOR

SCIENTIFIC COUNCIL

DIRECTORY BOARD

SCIENTIFIC SECRETARY

Juridical Office, Human Resources, Intellectual Property, Secret Documents, Work Protection and Public Relations

Quality Management, Quality Assurance & Technical Quality Control, Environment Protection Office

Financial Audit

Marketing Office, Linking to Mass-Media, Technical Library

TECHNICAL DIRECTOR

ECONOMIC DIRECTOR

D 1. Research Department

D 2. Technology Testing, Prototypes, Technologic Transfer Department

D 3. Economic Department

D 4. Testing Laboratories
Laboratory for Bioelectromagnetic Compatibility Anechoic Chamber

Laboratory for MEMS and NEMS Measurements

Centre for Technological Transfer CTT ICPE-CA

Group For Polymeric Materials Processed By Irradiation And Luminescence Phenomena

Laboratory for Bioelectromagnetic Compatibility

D 1.5 Group for Gaso Hydro Dynamics

Pilot Station for

Group for

Group for

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Pilot Station for

Laboratory for Cryoelectrotechnics

Laboratory for Thermal Analysis

Pilot Station for

Pilot Station for

Group for

Group for

Group for

Group for

Group for

Group for

Group for

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INCDIE ICPE-CA in brief

History INCDIE ICPE-CA specialized field Research area

14 15 15

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INCDIE ICPE-CA in brief

INCDIE ICPE-CA in brief

2
2.1. History

INCDIE ICPE-CA in brief


2.2. INCDIE ICPE-CA specialized field
a. according to UNESCO classification: 3306 Electrical Engineering and Technology 3312 Technology of materials b. according to CAEN classification: Main activity as coding: 7219 Research development in other natural sciences and engineering Secondary activities as coding: 7211 - Research development in biotechnology 7220 Research development in social sciences and humanities

Based on General Shareholders Association (AGA) decisions of ICPE SA of 03.07.2000 and 16.09.2000 has ordered the division of SC ICPE SA and founding of a new company ICPE - Advanced Researches. This division was implemented in April 2001 when has founded SC ICPE - Advanced Researches SA. Once entered in the Register of Commerce, has acted as a Joint Stock Company until August 2004. The initial share capital subscribed of 3,811,075.00 lei contribution in kind was entirely owned by Romanian state as sole shareholder and was fully paid from the date of the company. Since August 2004, by Government Decision 1282, company ICPE-CA was reorganized as National Institute of Research and Development in Electrical Engineering ICPE-CA Bucharest. Its patrimony, consisting of private state property which passed in institute management and own property, is on December 31 2009 of 36,996,228 lei.

INCDIE ICPE-CA vision


INCDIE ICPE-CA will become the promoter in electrical engineering progress based on knowledge in the electrical engeneering field.

2.3. Research area


a. main research area: Research development in other natural sciences and engineering

INCDIE ICPE-CA mission


INCDIE ICPE-CA promotes and takes applied research in national and international background in electrical engineering (materials, electrotechnology, new energy sources, dynamic balancing and vibration, electromagnetic compatibility, etc.) benefit to companies, private and public, for the benefit of the whole society. Developing technological innovation for customers, ICPE-CA increases their competitiveness both in Romania and in Europe. Research activities carried promotes economic development of society and lead to social welfare, in compatibility with environment. For institute employees, ICPE-CA offers personal development professional qualification which will enable them to occupy positions of responsibility at the level of the institute, in industry and in other scientific fields. The mission is defined, achievable (due ICPE-CA skills and creativity of employees), informative, accurate, reflect reality (values and culture) of ICPE-CA, and is oriented towards beneficiaries. In strategy developed by the institute during the period 2006 - 2013, research activities should contribute to: - reach the level of compatibility and competitiveness necessary for integration into the European research area; - participation in RDT Framework Programme 7 of the European Union for the period 2007-2013; - developing social, economic, competitive and dynamic, oriented high-tech fields, able to meet the strategic long-term development in the globalized economy.

The institute is involved in 3 main research areas: - advanced materials: functional / multifunctional, crystalline and nanostructured materials and composites; - new sources of energy (wind energy, solar energy, fuel cells, hydrogen storage): conversion, economy and recovery; - microelectromechanical technologies and systems. b. secondary research areas: Research development in biotechnology Research development in social sciences and humanities Description of activity: a) basic and applied research in the field of electrical engineering; b) technical support and consultancy in the field of electrical engineering; c) information, documentation and staff training in the field of electrical engineering. c. services / technologic transfer

- technologic transfer of research results in the field of electrical engineering for economy, through the Pilot Stations (Pilot Stations for Functional Material; Pilot Stations for Carbonic Materials; Pilot Stations for Magnetic Materials; Pilot Stations for Ceramic Materials) and the Center for Technology Transfer CTT ICPECA; - technical support, supplying of scientific and technological services for companies or any interested beneficiary, by testing laboratories: Laboratory for Characterization and Testing of Electrotechnical Materials and Products; Laboratory for Bioelectromagnetic Compatibility; Laboratory for Thermal Analysis; Laboratory for MEMS and NEMS Measurements.

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Projects

National projects International projects Sectorial Operational Programme

18 194 212

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Projects

Projects

National Projects

3.1. National Projects 3.1.1 Multifunctional materials with applications in Electrical Engineering
The manufacture of ecological polymeric materials stabilized with natural antioxidants Research staff of the project Traian Zaharescu CS I, doctor, project manager Silviu Jipa, CS I, professor doctor; Tana Setnescu CS I, professor doctor; Marius Lungulescu, CS, PhD student; Adrian Mantsch, ACS, PhD student PROJECT ABSTRACT This project concerns the possibilities of suitable material manufacture destined to the packaging of food, medical wear and pharmaceutics. General objectives foreseen for this investigation are related to the following main objectives through which there may be detached: (a) obtaining and characterization of plant extracts for their antioxidant features, (b) obtaining of multifunctional polymeric materials with high durability provided by natural compounds (c) evaluation of functional characteristics of advanced stabilized materials, (d) manufacture of ecological materials for packaging This year the following were accomplished: determining the effects of composition, concentration, thermal degradation conditions and the nature of the polymer by
Fig 1. FTIR spectra recorded for the EVA samples (unirradiated-full line, aged at 100 kGy dose-dotted line) (a)EVA free of additive; (b) EVA+0.25% rosemary; (c) EVA+0.5% rosemary

presents IR spectral absorption in that region. Figure 2 presents the variations of the peak at 3450 cm-1 for the studied materials. Infrared spectral measurements confirm the experimental results obtained by different physicochemical techniques, like chemiluminescence or oxygen uptake. For the sample with 0.5% rosemary extract, the degradation process of the polymer undergoes at a much slower rate than the sample with 0.25% rosemary extract. To asses the influence of the acetone concentration on the CL signal, aqueous solutions of different acetone concentrations were introduced and the signal absorption was recorded (for example, figure 3). The method of radical scavenging with DPPH allows the direct investigation of extract ability to donate hydrogen and/or electrons to the DPPH radical. The

reaction mechanisms is shown in figure 4. The results show the importance of the presence of catechol groups present in rosmarinic acid, carnosic acid and caffeic acid, group responsible for the donation of hydrogen in the oxydative degradation protection mechanism, all three compounds having a scavenging capacity similar to DPPH (figure 5). A cascade mechanism was proposed for carnosic acid, a powerfull antioxidant due to the presence of two hydrioxil groups connected to two adiacent carbon atoms, which by giving hydrogen transforms into carnosol, a diterpene; neutralizing a radical species, the carnosol, by giving hydrgen transforms in rosmanol, that finaly transforms into galdoxol, an extremely capable compound for radical scavenging (figure 6).

MULTIFUNCTIONAL MATERIALS WITH APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

chemiluminescence, oxygen uptake and FT-IR spectroscopy; characterizing the activity of some pure compounds by chemiluminescence; establishing the stabilization mechanisms; microbiological testing to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of the individual plant extracts, as well as some combination of these extracts on different types of microbial strains; determining the contribution of natural antioxidants to the improvement of UV exposure resistance for application to pharmaceutics; establishing the polymer processing conditions in the presence of natural extracts. RESULTS OF THE PROJECT To evaluate the stabilization effects of the rosemary extract induced in the EVA substrate infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy on 100 m films was used (fig 1). Different variations are observed for the two spectral peaks in the region of hydroperoxyl groups (3450 and 3650cm-1). The evolution of the peak characteristic to the carbonyl group could not be established because EVA

Fig. 3. Graphical representation of the decrease in the CL signal as a fuction of acetone concentration in the analysed sample.

Fig. 4. The stabilization mechanism established for for radical scavengers, for example DPPH

Fig. 2. Variation in the intensity of the 3450 cm-1 band for EVA stabilized with different concentrations of rosemary extracts. (-----) sample free of additive; (-----) sample with 0,25 % rosemary extract; (-----) sample with 0,5 % rosemary extract.

Fig. 5. Stabilization capacity of some compoundsmeasured via the radical scavenging level

Fig. 6 The cascade mechanism by which most antioxidants act in the stabilization process

The research was funded by the National Programme of Research, Development and Innovation - PNCDI II, contract 71079/2007 (4231/2007)

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Projects
02
Composite Materials with Advanced Mechanical Properties (Pa=32,59%) and water absorption (14, 51%), for compacting pressures of 50 MPa were determinate. For the composite material A2, a high density (=1.38 g/cm3) was obtained for a 30 MPa compacting pressure and minimum values of the apparent porosity (Pa=53,05%) and water absorption (27,15%) for a compacting of 50MPa were determined. The results regarding the obtaining of composite materials with metallic matrix based on Al: 12 compositions of composite materials were elaborated from Al-Al2O3 system reinforced with 2, 4 and 6% Al2O3 and 12 compositions of composite materials were elaborated from Al-SiC system reinforced with 2, 4 and 6% SiC, by using powder metallurgy method and concomitantly following two technological fluxes: Mixing-homogenizing-pressing-sintering-calibration (a) mixing-mechanical milling-pressing-sinteringcalibration (b), the mechanical milling being 2, 4 and 6 hours. The metallic composite powders from Al-Al2O3 and Al-SiC have been characterized from the point of view of physical characteristics (theoretical and apparent density, lattice parameters and crystallite size, specific surface) both in un-milled state and milled state. 72 experimental models from Al- Al2O3 (a) reinforced with 2, 4 and 6%vol. Al2O3 and 12 experimental models from Al-SiC (b) reinforced with 2, 4 and 6%vol. SiC were obtained by using dies with different sizes: cylindrical with =11 mm and h= 9,8 mm and rectangular with L=35 mm and l=10 mm, in order to test the mechanical characteristics. The specific optimum pressure of the Al powders was of 5 tf/cm2 and it was determined from the variation of the specific pressure in the interval of P=3-8 tf/cm2. The best behavior at pressing and sintering has been registered for the composite materials of Al2%vol Al2O3 (4h MM): sinterized = 2,330 g/cm3, remanent porosity P=14,68 % , Fig. 2, and for the composites Al-2%volSiC(6h MM): sinterized = 2,610 g/ cm3, remanent porosity P=3,11%. The highest increases of the density values of the composite materials based on Al, after sintering and calibration processes, were the following: 0,320 g/ cm3 for Al-2%vol Al2O3 ( = 2,716 g/ cm3; 2 h MM, P=0,55%) and 0,393 g/cm3 for Al-4%vol Al2O3 ( = 2,736 g/ cm3; 4 h MM and P =0,18%).

Research staff of the project Eng. Florentina Albu project manager Dr. Eng. Violeta Tsakiris project Co-manager Dr. Eng. Elena Enescu, Dr. Eng. M. Lucaci, Dr. Eng. Magdalena Lungu, Eng. Chem. C. Seitan, Eng. Chem. Ch.Tardei, Eng. Chem. G. Velciu, Eng. A. Bratulescu, Phys. Lucia Leonat, Phys G. Sbarcea, Techn. I. Dumitrescu PROJECT ABSTRACT In comparing with metals, un-oxidized ceramics gained field for the most of the ballistics protection systems due to good physical properties, such as: relative small density value, high hardness and modulus of elasticity values. For protection against deadly threats, such as bombs or projectiles, besides Boron Carbide (B4C), silicon nitride (Si3N4) and Boron Titanate (TiB2), the hot pressed Silicon Carbide (SiC) is the typical material of choice. Composite Materials with metallic matrix reinforced particles, in particular those with aluminum matrix are used as structural materials for aerospace industry, automotive industry, railway sector, mechanical and optics ensembles and for thermal management, army, recreational products (baseball bats, golf clubs, skates, bicycle frames etc.). In the last years, researchers were preoccupied on the possibilities to realize metallic matrix composites based on Al, reinforced with ceramics nanoparticles Al2O3, SiC, Si3N4 etc., due to mechanical properties increasing in compare with those reinforced with micro particles. The aim of the project consists in the obtaining of the ceramics composites based on SiC in the form of ceramics plates, and also, in the obtaining of the Al based composite materials for recreational products, with performance mechanical characteristics. In order to realize the proposed aim, the following objectives were proposed: Literature synthesis study regarding to the ceramic composites based on SiC and to the metallic composites based on Al and also, laboratory experiments in order to characterize the experimental powders (Report no. 1 /15.06.2009); Realizing of laboratory models from ceramics composites based on SiC and from metallic composites based on Al (Report no. 2 /15.11.2009); PROJECT RESULTS The following types of results were obtained in order to accomplish the objectives proposed in 2009: The national and international status and the influence of methods and processing parameters on ceramic and metallic composites producing were analyzed The optimal compositions for the obtaining of ceramics plates based on SiC and metallic composites parts based on Al were selected Physical-chemical, technological and morphological characterization of the selected work materials were performed Ceramic based SiC composites and metallic based Al composites reinforced with different fractions of ceramics particles were realized Laboratory models from composite materials with ceramics matrix and with metallic matrix were performed Laboratory models from ceramics and metallic composites were characterized from the physicalstructural characteristics point of view. The results regarding the obtaining of composite materials with ceramics matrix based on SiC: Compositions of ceramics composites A1-78,8%SiC-14,4%TiB26,6%B4C and A2-80%Si3N4-20%SiC, were elaborated and characterized, being realized by using the technological flux: Dosing, Homogenizing, Milling, Drying, Uniaxial Pressing, Heat Treatment 14 laboratory models of ceramics composites were realized from powders mixtures of A1 and A1, by using cylindrical dies of dimensions =11 mm and h= 2,5-5,7 mm, in order to determine the mechanical characteristics For the composite material A1, a high densification (=1.91 g/cm3) was obtained for 30 MPa and 50 MPa compacting pressures, and minimum values of the apparent porosity

MULTIFUNCTIONAL MATERIALS WITH APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

Fig. 1. Laboratory models from Al-Al2O3 and Al-SiC with 2, 4 and 6%vol. Al2O3/ SiC

Fig. 2 Density variation of the Al-Al2O3 with 2, 4 and 6%vol. Al2O3

The research was financed under NUCLEU Programme, contract 0935-5103/2009.

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Projects
03
Phyto-compounds with thermo-, photo- and radio-protective effect in the inhibition of lipidic peroxidation with applications in food and carcinogenesis. Extension to dielectric liquids
7x106 6x106 5x106 Blank Basil Marjoram Balm Mint Thyme Oregano Sage Rosemary

Research staff of the project Madalina Dumitru IDTIII, project manager Traian Zaharescu CS I, doctor; Silviu Jipa, CS I, professor doctor; Tana Setnescu CS I, professor doctor; Adrian Mantsch, ACS, PhD student; Marius Lungulescu, CS, PhD student PROJECT ABSTRACT The use of synthetic or natural antioxidants is widespread in the food industry to prevent rancidity of food products (butter, margarine, milk powder, meat products, canned fish, etc.) in pharmacy and medicine for the conditioning of drugs, cosmetics for cream stabilization; large amounts of synthetic antioxidants are manufactured for use in plastics and elastomers industry, the chemical and petrochemical industry or in the stabilization of mineral or synthetic oils used in industrial units and car engines. The extracts were placed (in 0.25% w/w concentration) in a paraffin substrate for the thermal oxidation stability test. After evaporation, samples were used for chemiluminescence measurements under isothermal (162C) in the presence of air by means of LUMIPOL 3 and OL-94 chemiluminometers. Characterization of the extracts was performed using IR (FT-IR JASCO device; 4000 400 cm-1) and UV-VIZ (JASCO V570 device) spectrometry techniques. PROJECT RESULTS To evaluate the efficiency of the additives in the antioxidant stabilization process a wide range of plants was used (Table I). The chemiluminescence curves recorded for the extracts corresponding to the two families are presented in Figs. 1 and 2. From these figures the relative stabilization potential at oxidation can be deducted depending on the position of the curves. The more they are located to the right; the extract efficiency is more pronounced. There is a particular concern regarding the influence of ionizing radiation on the antioxidant activity of plants. In most cases the interest was dictated by knowing how to conserve the post-irradiation antioxidant properties. Rosemary extract irradiation in air, in the range of doses of 2.5 kGy 40 kGy, with prompt chemiluminescence measurement of paraffin samples with additives, after each dose showed an increase in induction time as shown by data in Figure 3. However, at high pre-irradiation doses there is a decrease in the CL induction time, as in the case of the 80 kGy dose (Fig. 4). The effect of increasing induction time with the exposure dose is amplified by storing the samples after irradiation (Fig. 5).

ICL (Hz/g)

4x106 3x106 2x106 1x106 0

160C
0 100 200 300 400 500

Time (min)

Fig. 1. CL curves (160C, air) for paraffin with extracts from the Lamiaceae family

Fig. 2. CL curves (160C, air) for paraffin with extracts from the Apiaceae family

55000 50000 45000 40000 35000

MULTIFUNCTIONAL MATERIALS WITH APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

2 3

120 110 100 90 80

ICL(r.u./g)

25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

ti (min)

30000

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

Time (min)

Exposure dose (Gy)

Fig. 3. Isothermal CL curves (160C, air) for paraffin with 0.25% concentration of pre-irradiated Rosemary extract. Measurements were taken immediately after terminating the irradiation. (1) without pre-irradiation (2) 10 KGy (3) 40 KGy

Fig. 4. Variation in the isothermal CL induction time (160C, air) with the exposure dose after 40 KGy, for paraffin samples with 0.25% pre-irradiated Rosemary extract. Measurements carried out immediately after terminating the irradiation.

Fig. 5. The induction time from isothermal CL measurements of some paraffin samples with added Rosemary extract at different time periods of storing the samples after irradiation at room temperature. The rosemary extract pre-irradiation dose: 2.5 KGy

Plant name Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) Salvia officinalis (Sage) Origanum vulgare (Oregano) Thymus vulgaris (Thyme) Mentha piperita (Mint) Melissa officinalis (Balm)

Family Lamiaceae Lamiaceae Lamiaceae Lamiaceae Lamiaceae Lamiaceae

Plant name Majorana hortensis (Marjoram) Ocimum basilicum (Basil) Petroselinum crispum (Parsley) Anethum graveolens (Dill) Levisticum officinale (Lovage) Apium graveolens (Celery)

Family Lamiaceae Lamiaceae Apiaceae Apiaceae Apiaceae Apiaceae

Table I. The plant material used in extraction The research was supported in the frame of the NUCLEU Programme, contract 5304/2009.

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Projects
04
Environmentally friendly ionic liquids with applications in electrochemical surface treatments for high performance establishing the optimal working parameters for obtaining coatings with good functional characteristics. In order to establish these parameters, the thickness of Sn deposits was gravimetrically determinated and cathode current efficiency was calculated; a Cu plate with 99.9% purity and OL 37 steel plate were used as cathode substrate and as anodes, Sn soluble anodes were used. The deposits obtained were characterized in terms of appearance, morphology, and chemical composition and deposition characteristics by applying optical microscopy, AFM and X-ray diffraction. Among the variants investigated, can be notice those based on malonic acid, for which very good deposition characteristics were obtained, at well-established technological parameters. Using the system ChCl : malonic acid (1:1 molar) with different mole ratios of SnCl2.2H2O salt: 0.5 M, 0.3 M and 0.1 M, adherent, uniform, compact and bright deposits were obtained, with up to 6-7m thickness and cathodic efficiency up to 92%, especially using a 0.3M SnCl2.2H2O solution (Table 1). X-ray diffraction analysis (Fig. 1) reveals nanocrystalline deposits, with crystallites having average sizes of 54120 nm and higher values at large current densities and long duration of the process. X-ray diffractogram reveals specific some Sn peaks and no any peak for Cu substrate, which means a uniform and crystalline coating; the size of crystallites was about 120nm in dimension. Note also the texturing of crystalline Sn phase (tetragonal system), i.e. a preferred orientation of crystallites, especially on directions (200) and (101). From SEM microscopy, it was noticed an elongated crystal structure and the deposit forms a compact and uniform coverage. Tin deposits on OL37 steel are uniform, adherent, dull gray as color; however, at high current densities dendrites are deposited leading to a lower current efficiency. Given the importance of zinc-tin alloy and the difficulty of its electrodeposition from aqueous solutions (due to the difference between standard Redox potentials of zinc and tin), the electrodeposition of zinc-tin alloy using ionic liquids was investigated. The results have shown that Zn-Sn alloys may be deposited using all four types of ionic liquids tested, their characteristics being varied depending on the working parameters. The appearances of deposits vary from light gray, dark gray, matte or glossy; the best choice was using ChCl + malonic acid system. The electrochemical technologies for electrodeposition of Sn and Zn-Sn alloy in ionic liquids have been completed. Also, the flow diagrams of technology for Sn and zinctin alloy electrodeposition were presented, as well as the technological parameters of deposition process and physico-chemical characteristics of obtained layers. The methods for quality control of deposits, namely: appearance, adhesion, thickness and surface smoothness were presented.

Research team of the project: Chem. Aurora Petica - IDT I, project manager Chem. Eng. Paula Prioteasa - CS Physicist Gabriela Sbarcea - CS PROJECT ABSTRACT The general objective of the project is the synthesis and characterization of new ionic liquid systems based on choline chloride which may be used as electrochemical media for electrodeposition of metals and alloys with a functional role, namely: Ni, Ag, Cu, Sn, Al and their alloys, as well as for electropolishing of stainless steel or some valve metals - Al, Ti. It will be developed a series of technologies for synthesis of these electrochemical media based on ionic liquids, applied for electrodeposition and electropolishing with demonstration of their functionality. The technology is adressed for users who perform surface treatments for metallic parts (stainless steel and copper) in a functional purpose and it represents an ecological alternative to conventional deposition in aqueous media, without the use of pollutants. The specific objectives of this project are the followings: comparative analysis on the synthesis and physico-chemical characteristics of different types of ionic liquids with applications in electrochemical processes; Time,min. 30 30 30 30 60 15 30 60 30 60 30 synthesis and physico-chemical and electrochemical characterization of electrochemical media based on ionic liquids consisting in choline chloride, for electrodeposition of Ni, Ag, Cu Sn, Al and their alloys and for electropolishing processes; development of electrochemical treatments of electrodeposition and electropolishing using ionic liquids based on choline chloride; - completion of technologies to obtain environmentally friendly ionic liquids for electrochemical surface treatments; developing of recommendations for use, technological recipes, work procedures and control. PROJECT RESULTS The experiments were conducted to establish the technological parameters for electrodeposition process of Sn and Zn-Sn alloy using ionic liquids with choline chloride(2-hydroxy-ethyl-trimethyl ammonium chloride, ChCl, known as vitamin B4) as main constituent, in single and binary systems such as: a) choline chloride-malonic acid - tin chloride / zinc chloride; b) choline chloride - tin chloride / zinc chloride; c) choline chloride ethylene glycol - tin chloride / zinc chloride. Electrolyses were carried out at various tin salt concentrations, current densities, temperatures and time durations, Current efficiency, % 87 19 89 85 67 80 72 54 92 63 56

MULTIFUNCTIONAL MATERIALS WITH APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

Intensitate (u.a)

2000

--- Sn

0 20 30 40 50

2 Sn electrodeposited from Fig. 1 X-ray diffractogram for ChCl: malonic acid (1:1)+0,5M SnCl2 x 2H2O at i=4,6 mA/ cm2, 900C, 60 min; 4,6m thickness.

Fig.2 SEM micrography for Sn deposited from ChCl(1):acid malonic(1):0,5M SnCl2 x 2H2O ( i=4,6 mA/cm2, 900C)

Nr. Temperature, oC crt 1 70 2 70 3 80 4 80 5 80 6 80 7 80 8 80 9 90 10 90 11 90

Current density, mA/cm2 1,1 5,71 1.16 1.83 1.93 4.08 3.75 3.97 2.04 2.14 4.2

Layer thickness, m 1.31 1.68 1.4 2.13 3.94 1.67 4.11 6.51 2.57 4.09 3.6

Fig. 3 Photo of Sn deposit on Cu substrate

Sn deposit on OL37 steel substrate

Table 1. Tin deposits obtained from ionic liquids based on ChCl : malonic acid (1:2) mixture with 0.3 M SnCl2.2H2O concentration.

The research was funded by the National Programme of Research, Development and Innovation - PN II Partnerships Programme, project no. 31-066 / 2007 (7005/2007).

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2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 25

Projects
05
Composite textile structures for protection against electromagnetic radiation systems (SIR) strips of copper foil bonded together by building selfsupporting welded steel sheet or obtained through modularized construction of combined elements. In INCDIE ICPE-CA there have been developed three models of shielding structures using FeBSi based microwires, in order to model the fabric for specific applications. Thus the three models had the following geometry, shown in Figure 2, first structure is the form of a dictation-type sheets with 5 mm distance between the lines, the second type structure is also dictationtype sheets with the distance between lines of 2.5 mm, and the third geometry is similar to a math sheet with sides about 5 mm square. (fig.2) The three models were characterized in the frequency range from 0.8 to 10 GHz using the Horn-type antenna for transmitting and receiving signal, a signal generator and a spectrum analyzer. Characterizations were performed in the Anechoic Chamber (Fig. 3) in endowment of INCDIE ICPE-CA. Note that shows the best attenuation structure the dictation-type sheets with 2.5 mm distance between lines (Fig. 4).

Research staff of the project: PhDs. Phys. Eros-Alexandru Patroi CS III project manager Prof. PhDs. Phys. Wilhelm Kappel CS I, PhDs. Eng. Maria-Mirela Codescu CS I, PhDs. Eng. Remus Erdei - CS, PhDs. Eng. Eugen Manta - CS, PhDs. Eng. Alexandru Iorga - ACS, PhDs. Eng. FlorinaEmilia Radulescu - ACS, PhDs. Eng. Phys. Delia Patroi - IDT III, PhDs. EIng. Fiz. Cristian Morari - CS, Techn. Paul Stean, Techn. Florentina Oprea, Techn. Georgeta Margineanu PROJECT ABSTRACT The purpose of the proposed project is obtaining and characterization of composite textile structures, based on microwire, with radiation shielding properties generated by various electromagnetic devices and electronic systems. The research proposed in this project is to conduct research priorities in the field of Materials Science and Engineering. Target - to achieve smart materials in the form of textile composite structures with micron metal wires embedded, usable in systems of protection against electromagnetic radiation - is a nationally novelty and internationally is a priority, by the simple fact that progress in this area are relatively recent. So far there were no funded research projects and there havent been registered any systematic studies on this topic. The new approach comes from consortium partners experience along the years and concern both phenomenological aspects, and the proper handling of the material. The project will address these scientific and technical matters: Technological feasibility study of preparation / characterization of micron metal wires with special magnetic properties, used for the embedded fibers; Technological feasibility study of preparation / characterization of textile composite structures; Complex characterization of microwires in terms of dimensional (length, width), shape and appearance, the magnetic properties (saturation magnetisation, remanence, coercitivity), the electrical properties and other parameters; Complex characterization of the concealed matrix (textile structure) of metal fibers; Incorporate of these fibers with special magnetic properties into the textile composite structures using different methods Design and modelling of magnetic materials for microwires and textile structures materials. Establish technology for test / characterization of the presence of magnetic microwires Build and test experimental models (i) microwires and (ii) screening systems Validation and approval of an experimental model system for screening Proving the functionality of the experimental model PROJECT RESULTS Development of FeBSi microwires; Development of structures screens in order to develop a physicalmathematical model for calculating shielding factor of electromagnetic radiation protection structures. Shielded rooms are used to prevent external electromagnetic interference in sensitive measurements or for limiting harmful emissions from the area in which occur, often combining both functions. A typical example for this dual functionality are the screened high-voltage laboratories, which on the one hand must perform very sensitive measurements of partial discharges and secondly, tests of the lightning impulse voltage must not load additional environment with synthetic lightning. (fig.1) In terms of design, shielded rooms that are made by wrapping areas with

Fig. 2. The three models of shielding structures

Fig. 1. Anechoic room built at INCDIE ICPE-CA

Atenuation dB

MULTIFUNCTIONAL MATERIALS WITH APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

25

20

Atenuation Sample 1 Atenuation Sample 2 Atenuation Sample 3

15

10

0 0 2 4 6 8 10

Frequency GHz
Fig. 3. Measurement points during the screening of the three structures Fig. 4. Measuring attenuation for the three models

Research was funded by PNCDI II programme, contract 81-050/2007 (7015/2007).

PAGINA 26 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 27

Projects
06
Nanostructured systems with applications in high frequency devices (HIFI)

Research staff of the project PhDs. Phys. Eros-Alexandru Patroi CS III project manager PhDs. Eng. Phys. Madalina Negoita- CS, Prof. PhDs. Phys. Wilhelm Kappel CS I, PhDs. Eng. Maria-Mirela Codescu- CS I, PhDs. Eng. Remus Erdei - CS, PhDs. Eng. Eugen Manta- CS, PhDs. Eng. Alexandru Iorga- ACS, PhDs. Eng. Florina-Emilia Radulescu- ACS, PhDs. Eng. Fiz. Delia Patroi IDT III PROJECT ABSTRACT Although significant progress has been achieved, microelectronics is still far from being able to imitate Nature in terms of density of integration, functionality and performance. Experts forecasts say that the present microelectronic technology isnt expected to reach similar levels of alive systems, because of the physical limitations of microelectronic systems. A quite different approach is taken into account regarding the way the science and technology development of materials is led in our century, particularly the advanced electronic materials. (1) The project is dedicated to promoting research in the field of nanostructured materials and to study their possible use in high frequency devices. The project has a strong scientific side that is to study magneto static interactions in nanostructure systems, the energy absorption at high frequencies of these systems and the specific design of microwave devices. The project involves an extensive experimental side: the achievement of nanostructured systems, magnetic measurements, microwave device performance. PROJECT RESULTS Realization of magnetic micrometer wires and sets of systems of nanowire with different magnetic materials and with big distances between magnetic entities. In this context, particular objectives of the project consisted of: Preparation of FeBSi microwires and FeNi. Structural investigation of the samples was made using X-ray type Diffractometers Bruker AXS D8 ADVANCE being endowed by INCDIE ICPE-CA Bucharest (see Figure 1) under the following conditions: X-ray tube with Co anode =1.5406 ; 40kV / 40 mA ; filtre k Ni; speed: 2 sec/pas ; pitch: 0.04o Spectrum obtained is shown in Figure 2. Samples shows a Fe3Si crystal structure of cubical system, structure very similar to that of -Fe, but with a smaller elementary cell, the network parameter a = 2,837 comparing to a = 2,866 for -Fe system. Must take into account the fact that stress in the network is induced by crushing, which can shrink the size of the elementary cell, but the effect is due to the phenomenon of ultrafast solidification of the alloy. Along with this phase also an amorphous phase appears B13Fe82Si5 type, which crystallizes in the tetragonal system. The average size of crystallites Fe3Si phase, calculated using the DebyeScherrer formula based on the diffraction spectrum shown in Figure 2 is 5.4 nm, much smaller than in copperbased microwires. It can be observed that for these wires the structure is not truly crystalline, average size of crystallites calculated with Debye-Scherrer formula is 1.4 nm. Peak intensity is very small-sized and another peak appears that corresponds to a interplanar distance of 6.9 . Samples were also measured using receiver magnet method. In what follow is shown a hysteresis curve of sample FeBSi.

Fig. 1. X-ray type Diffractometers Bruker AXS D8 ADVANCE

1800 1600 1400 1200 1000

-1500 1500 1000 500

-1000

-500

500

1000

1500 1500 1000 500 0

MULTIFUNCTIONAL MATERIALS WITH APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

Intensity (u.a)

J (mT)

800 600

(220)

Fe3Si - cubic

HcJ=17.73 A/m
-500 -1000 -1500 -1500 -500 -1000 -1500 1500

200 0 2 10 20 30 40 50

(422)

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-1000

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2
Fig. 2. Diffraction spectra of the microwires of Fe-Si-B alloy

H (A/m)

Fig. 3. Hysteresis curve of FeBSi sample

Research financed by PNCDI II programme, contract 12-093/2008 (7056/2009)

PAGINA 28 | RAPORT DE ACTIVITATE | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 29

Projects
07
Magnetic nanocomposite materials reinforced by exchange Magnetic characterization of nanocomposite magnets samples was performed by magnetic measurements at room temperature using a special type histerezisgraph installation in continuous magnetic field, with maximum intensity Hmax ~ 20 kOe in a 4 mm air gap. For magnetic measurements, samples were magnetised in pulsed magnetic field initially in a Helmholtz magnetization coil system with a uniform field in a volume space much larger than that occupied by the samples. Magnetic field intensity for coil geometry was 50 kOe, for impulse current of approx. 4000A, time approx. 20 s. The magnetic characterization was performed by determining the demagnetisation curve and graphic material magnetic characteristics Br, HcB si BH(max). Magnetic measurement results show that residual inductions are more than 8.5 kGs, coercive fields exceeding 8 kOe and maximum specific energies bigger than 7 MGOe. Hysteresis cycle of Figure 3 shows the coexistence of two phases Nd2Fe14B : with average size of 20-30 nm, -Fe with dimensions around 20 nm.

Research team of the project: PhDs. Phys. Eros-Alexandru Patroi - CS III project manager PhDs. Eng. Maria-Mirela Codescu CS I, Prof. PhDs. Phys. Wilhelm Kappel CS I, PhDs. Eng. Remus Erdei CS, PhDs. Eng. Eugen Manta CS, PhDs. Eng. Alexandru Iorga ACS, PhDs. Eng. FlorinaEmilia Radulescu ACS, PhDs. Eng. Phys. Delia Patroi - IDT III PROJECT ABSTRACT The overall objective of the project is to increase R & D competitiveness by encouraging partnerships in priority areas in order to establish competitive technologies for innovative products. The main goal of this project is to obtain and study magnetic nanocomposites hard / soft type exchange coupled. We have to research directed towards elucidating the determining influence of microstructure on exchange coupling strength between the hard and soft magnetic phases, topical issue and direct implication in the development of advanced magnetic materials. The efficiency of this coupling is found in coercitivity and magnetic remanence of the composite, and in shape of hysteresis curves. Using magnetic materials in MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) are of particular interest in integrated directly into micro-electro-mechanical devices. Batch fabrication process can be easily adapted to thick films of high performance magnetic materials. Ferromagnetic MEMS design can integrate both the magnetic material soft and hard magnetic materials. Remanent induction hardened composite materials with exchange interaction is even in the case of isotropic magnets compared with the saturation induction ratio Mr/Ms>0.5, which is why these materials satisfy the main requirement imposed on their use in applications such MEMS. Promising materials for permanent magnets used in micro-electromechanical devices are nanocomposite materials of rare earth compounds with 3d transition metals, they are characterized by a high magnetisation remanence and a good coercitivity. Micro-processing can develop processes or deposition of layers. Nanocrystalline magnetic materials / nanostructure show interesting magnetic properties in terms of both fundamental research and applications. They play an important role in the field of hard and soft magnetic materials. PROJECT RESULTS For processing samples of nanocomposite magnets NdFeB alloys prepared by casting drum rotating in the nanocrystalline state, either directly in hardware, or after the recrystallization heat treatment, specific techniques used in powder metallurgy applied to obtain NdFeB permanent magnets. The main stages of processing techniques are: grinding in ball mills with rotating cylinders with an experimentally determined mode grinding, rotary speed of approx. 120 rpm maximum filling volume ratio of 1:3 and 1:10 materials for ball, milling times between 10 and 45 min.; epoxy powder dosing, to a maximum of up to 3-6% (percentage by mass) and mixture of metal powder forming NdFeB and organic binder; uniform mixture of metal powdersresin in the ball mill by the addition of organic binder prior to 5-10 min of completion of grinding operation; for pressing the mixture of metal powders and organic binder is distribute gravimetry, with an appropriate size in order to obtain a compact cylinder of 11.5 mm, H> 2 mm and is compacted with pressures greater than 4.5 tf/ cm2. Unidirectional pressing was performed using a hydraulic press with Fmax =25 tf; mechanical strengthen of the samples occurs through polymerization treatment temperature in the range 120-150oC for 40-60 minutes.;

MULTIFUNCTIONAL MATERIALS WITH APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

Fig.1. AFM microscopy over the Nd10Fe85B5 Ribbon surface before the heat treatments

Fig.2. AFM microscopy over the Nd10Fe85B5 Ribbon surface after 5 min of heat treatments at 650oC

Fig.3. Hysteresis curve of Nd10Fe85B5 Ribbon after 3 min heat treatment 675oC

Research financed by PNCDI II programme, contract 72-186/ 2008 (7059/2008).

PAGINA 30 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 31

Projects
08
Advanced composite structures for aerospace and transportation industry (SUPERSOLID) low concentration of CNT. At a concentration of 2% CNT it can be observed a weak outlining of the specific lines of graphite identified in spectra of individual carbon nanotubes. There is a different behaviour in terms of mechanical strength of the samples according to the type and the concentration of the used CNT.

Research staff of the project Ph.D. Adela Bara CS III, project manager Eng. Cristina Banciu CS III; Ph.D. Ioana Ion CS III; Ph.D. Gimi Rimbu CS II; Eng. phys. Iulian Iordache IDT II; Eng. Aristofan Teisanu CS III; Eng. Radu Vasilescu-Mirea IDT III; Eng. Mihai Iordoc CS; Eng. Elena Chitanu PROJECT ABSTRACT The project objective is to develop carbon-carbon and polymer-carbon advanced composites with high structural, thermo-mechanical and tribological performance, appropriate environmental standards and international requirements, in order to replace conventional materials. Materials technology, complex and multidisciplinary science involving the design and modelling, optimal utilization and materials manufacture for functional applications, has been considered for years as one among the mega t e c h n o l o g i e s . In this context, materials technology for aerospace and transportation industry has gained the recognition of a technology with critical mission (EuMaT - Strategic Research Agenda). So, the project joins the current concerns to achieve the objectives of Strategic Research Agendas in aerospace and transportation domains. The essential aim of the proposal is to create structures from advanced composite materials for the future transports. The project approach the design of two distinct groups of advanced materials: carbon fibres composites and polymeric nanocomposites with organic/inorganic components (carbon nanotubes/montmorillonite) for making components for aerospace and transportation industry. These lightweight composite materials, high temperature resistant, with high mechanical resistance represent the current solutions for braking systems, components of the rocket combustion chamber and the future solutions for hypersonic transportation (conic aircraft nose, fuselage ridge and the components of the veils elements). Using these advanced composites will conduct to decreasing of the weight, fuel consumption and the operating direct costs of the aircraft. RESULTS OF THE PROJECT For the nanocomposites with mesophase matrix, the researches have been based on the importance of using the special properties of mesophase pitch as an important component in the development of carbon carbon composite materials. Using long singlewall carbon nanotubes (LSWNT), long multi-wall carbon nanotubes (LMWNT), and short multi-wall carbon nanotubes (SMWNT) - as nanoscale fillers and pitch (SP) as matrix, mixtures with 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2% weight concentration were made. The samples were heat treated at temperatures of 420C, 440C, 460C and 480C, with a heating rate of 1C/min and maintaining under constant heat for 3 hours at the final temperature. To obtain the nanocomposites with polymeric matrix, the researches have started from the premise that carbon nanotubes, characterized by flexibility, low density and increased dimensional report, excellent combine the mechanical, electrical and thermal properties that determine their candidature to be safe and effective in the manufacture of multifunctional polymeric composites. For their preparation, an epoxy resin P401 (type diglycidyl bisphenol A) was used as matrix. Optical microphotographs presented in Figure 1 (a-m) show the fact that the forming and development of mesophase in the studied samples is dependent on the type of the added CNT in pitch. Differences between the topographic images of polymeric nanocomposites are due to the presence of carbon nanotubes and, also, to their nature. The X-ray diffraction patterns highlight the major contribution of the amorphous component (epoxy resin), due to the

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

a)

b)

f)

g)

h)

i)

j)

k)

l)

m)

c)

d)

MULTIFUNCTIONAL MATERIALS WITH APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

Fig. 1. Optical micrographs of the additived pitch heat treated at 440C: SP (a), 0.5% LSWNT (b), 1% LSWNT (c), 1.5% LSWNT (d), 2% LSWNT (e), 0.5% LMWNT (f), 1% LMWNT (g), 1.5% LMWNT (h), 2% LMWNT (i), 0.5% SMWNT (j), 1% SMWNT (k), 1.5% SMWNT (l), 2% SMWNT (m)

Fig. 2. Topographic AFM images of nanocomposites epoxy resin additived with CNT : P401 (a), P401_2%LSWNT (b), P401_2%LMWNT (c), P401_2%SMWNT (d)

CNT type
7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0

Sample composition P401

R, [N/mm2] 130,04 130,59 139,09 126,21 127,25 124,54 125,23 135,91 89,48 149,73 137,89 115,61 75,75

002

SMWNT P401_0,5 SMWNT P401_1 SMWNT P401_1,5 SMWNT P401_2 SMWNT

LSWNT

P401_0,5 LSWNT P401_1 LSWNT P401_1,5 LSWNT P401_2 LSWNT

intensity (u.a.)

LMWNT
100

P401_0,5 LMWNT P401_1 LMWNT P401_1,5 LMWNT P401_2 LMWNT

SMWNT
10 20 30 40 50 60 70

P401_0,5 SMWNT P401_1 SMWNT P401_1,5 SMWNT P401_2 SMWNT

Fig. 3. X-ray diffraction patterns of the composites epoxy resin additived with SMWNT

Table I. Flexural strength of CNT composites

The research was funded by the National Programme of Research, Development and Innovation - PNCDI II, contract 71-001/2007 (4240/2007).

PAGINA 32 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 33

Projects
Validation of the model of experimental technique:

09
Research staff of the project CS I - PhD eng. Iosif LINGVAY IDT I - PhDs eng. Carmen LINGVAY

Development of environmentally friendly natural inhibitors from plant extracts for thermal installations corrosion and scale control (ICC)

1150 1100

CaCl2 0,1M blank CaCl2 0,1M + ACB brut 2%

Conductivity, S
2. Model of experimental technique for the formation of scale in aqueous environments. The method is based on the fact that the scale crusts such as compact deposits of CaCO3 block the electrochemical activity of immersed metallic surfaces. As working technique, the model is based on ammperometric determination, respectively the determination of time evolution of current at a cathodic polarisation of 0.9Vs. SCE subjected to certain imposed conditions, and the comparison of currents evolution that pass through the interface formed by the studies metal/ electrolyte (in the presence and in the absence of ICC). Work flow: - Preparation of standard solution; - Addition of extracts in controlled concentrations; - Work equipment: glass cell, working electrode, auxiliary electrode, reference electrode, Voltalab 40 potentiostat/galvanostat and the associated computer software for data acquisition and processing. Validation of the model of experimental technique: - One has drawn the chronoammperometric curves using as working electrode OLC45, compared to a standard solution and with the addition of two natural plant extracts. Analysing Fig. 3 one notices that in the case of additions of natural plant extracts inhibitors such as AS 2% and FC2%, the OLC surface exposed to the studied solution is blocked far less than in the case of standard solution, respectively at 420 minutes from immersion, the limiting current increases from 35A (in the case of standard solution) to 140A in the case of inhibitors, so the formed crust in the presence of tested inhibitors is about 4 times less consistent than the crust formed in the absence of inhibitors.

1050 1000 950 900 850

PROJECT ABSTRACT The goal of this project is the elaboration of a novel ICC product on the basis of some indigenous plant extracts. RESULTS OF THE PROJECT Model of experimental technique for the detection of formation of insoluble aqueous products, precursor products of scale depositions. The method is based on the fact that the formation of insoluble solid products (such as CaCO3) is accompanied by the reduction of ions content dissolved in solution and implicitly their effect on the solution conductivity subjected to analysis. The method consists in conductometric titration of solutions subjected to analysis in the presence and in the absence of ICC additives. Work flow: - Preparation of standard saline solution; - Preparation of titration solution; - Analysis equipment: DIP conductivity cell; WA-1000ATC conductometer; - titration in thermostatic system (25.00.1C); - titration curves; Analysing Fig. 1 and 2, it results that: - the efficiency of an inhibitor is better if the precipitation process of CaCO3 (the linear zone below the titration curve) takes place at higher conductivities of the titrated solution or is not present at all (very little noticeable - Fig. 2.); - the inhibitor efficiency of the studied extracts is ranked as follows: crude ACB 2% > selective FS 2% > > crude FS 2%. 1.

800 750 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24

Volum Na2CO3 0,1M, mL


Fig. 1. The Variation of standard solution conductivity (CaCl2 0,1M) versus Na2CO3 0,1M added volume, in the absence and in the presence of crude ACB extract (2%).

Conductivity, S

1150 1100 1050 1000 950 900 850 800 750 0

CaCl2 0.1M blank CaCl2 0.1M + FS brut 2% CaCl2 0.1M + FS selectiv 2%

MULTIFUNCTIONAL MATERIALS WITH APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

10

12

14

Volum Na2CO3 0,1M, mL

16

18

20

22

24

Fig. 2. The Variation of standard solution conductivity (CaCl2 0,1M) versus Na2CO3 0,1M added volume, in the absence and in the presence of crude FB and selective FS 2% extracts.

-600

Intensity, A

-500 -400 -300 -200 -100 0

standard solution - blank standard solution + AS 2% standard solution + FC 2%

50

100

150

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350

Time, minuts

400

450

Fig. 3. Chronoammperograms drawn using OLC 45 polarized at 0,9Vsce,in standard solution, in the absence and in the presence of AS 2%, respectively FC2%, natural plant extracts at 401C.

The research was funded by the National Programme of Research, Development and Innovation PNCDI II, contract 72166 / 2008 (4253 / 2008), acronym PLANTINHIB.

PAGINA 34 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 35

Projects
10
Thermo-insulating coatings with microspheres ceramic conductivity around 0.1 W / (m0K), at amount of ceramic microspheres of 50%. Materials tested in this phase of the project have values from 0.5 to 0.7 W / (m0K), a ceramic microspheres containing 2.5%, values comparable to those in the speciality literature.

Research staff of the project Eng. Georgeta Velciu IDT I project manager Eng. Cristian Seitan IDT I; Eng. Christu Tardei - CP III; Eng. Florentina Grigore - CS; Eng. Virgil Marinescu - CS; Eng. Beatrice Gabriele Sbarcea - ASC; Techn. Elena Nicolaescu

Variation of the conductivity w ith tem perature

1.2

MULTIFUNCTIONAL MATERIALS WITH APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

PROJECT ABSTRACT PROJECT ABSTRACT The project has the aim to achieve a coating material based on miscible polymers with water doped with ceramic microspheres, in order to achieve thermo-insulation properties. In this context, the general objectives of the project are: carrying out some studies and analysis on the compositional areas of ceramic microspheres testing and characterization of the coating suspensions materials and creation of a laboratory model ceramic microspheres coating material establish an experimental model of thermo-insulating coating material with ceramic microspheres approval the thermo-insulating coating material with ceramic microspheres and application for a patent of the material composition of ceramic microspheres thermo-insulating coating. The main scientific results obtained by experimental studies will be communicated to national and international conferences. RESULTS OF THE PROJECT The project results in 2009 include: a) making samples for characterization of ceramic coatings - samples of the ceramic microspheres with size under 50 m - samples of the ceramic coating with microspheres b) establish technological parameters of the process of obtaining coatings ceramic in order to optimize their. Microsphere samples were made by compositions of mulit (AS9-AS14), and

sample of A2O3 type (MA5, MA6), obtained by sol-gel technology and ion extraction. Gel microspheres were calcined and characterized by DTA, TG, XRD and optical microscopy. The results confirm the formation of mulit in AS14 sample and the formation of Al2O3 - rhombohedra with hexagonal axes at 12000C in MA5, MA6 samples. Optical microscopy confirmed the spherical morphology with cavity particle MA6, samples fig.1. Coating materials samples were made based on acrylic aqueous dispersion, with ceramic microspheres of Al2O3 type. Thermo-insulation property is given by filling materials ceramic microspheres type. Thermal conductivity measurement results show that this is changed in function by coating material compositions. (Fig. 2 and 3) Decrease of the thermal conductivity is explained by the presence of ceramic microspheres that made a thermal barrier in material layer structure. Addition of the ceramic microspheres even in small amounts 2.5% in the coating material composition led to changes thermal diffusivity and implicitly a thermal conductivity of the film, obtaining a thermal barrier. Ceramic microspheres unlike ordinary pigments are disposed one above other forming layers where the spaces between them are very small as making a thermal barrier. Diffusion and thermal conductivity tests were conducted from room temperature to 450o C. From the graphs in figure 2 and 3 are observed directly proportional increase in thermal conductivity with increasing temperature. According to information from speciality literature such coating material with ceramic microspheres has a thermal

1.1 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

T e mp e r a t u r e ( o C )

Fig.1 Microspheres powders micrografy MA 6 type

Fig. 2. Variation of the conductivity with temperature for MV and MV1

V ar i at i o n o f t he c o nd uc t i v i t y w i t h t emp er at ur e
1.2 1.1 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

Components (%) Binder Pigment Filling agent Microsfere A6 Microspheres S14 Plasticizer Solvent (water)

MV* 32 17 8 3 40

MV1 31 16 8 3 3 39

MV2 31 16 8 2,5 3 39,5

T e mp e r a t u r e ( o C )

Fig. 3. Variation of the conductivity with temperature for MV and MV2

Table: Sample of coating matrials

The research was funded by the National Programme of Research, Development and Innovation PNCDI II, contract PN-09-35-02-03 (5203/2009).

PAGINA 36 | RAPORT DE ACTIVITATE | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 37

Projects
11
Materials of induced magnetization, controlled by external parameters

50

Intensitate (u.a)

Research staff of the project PhDs. Jenica Neamtu project manager PhDs. eng. Theodora Malaeru, PhDs. eng. Gabriela Georgescu, Eng. Cristian Morari, Eng. Ionut Balan, Technician Adriana Dinu

40

ZnO

B3
Co2SiO4 (Zn0.79Co2.21)O4 CoCo2O4

30

20

B2
Zn2SiO4

MULTIFUNCTIONAL MATERIALS WITH APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

PROJECT ABSTRACT The overall objective of the project is determining the recipes and manufacturing parameters of materials which ferromagnetic ordering is induced by: injection of charge carriers, optical radiation, temperature variations, exposure to certain molecular species. INCDIE ICPE-CA as the partner in the project aimed to achieve the following objectives: Summary of the sol-gel type magnetic oxide semiconductor ZnO: Co thin film form, which is a new world. Structural and magnetic characterization of semiconductor oxide synthesized probing to induce ferromagnetic ordering of Co ions in ZnO matrix. RESULTS OF THE PROJECT A nanocomposite material was developed type magnetic multilayer Co / ZnO (in the form of films that contain cobalt in an array of piezoelectric ZnO). Composite was used to obtain a sol-gel method. Were investigated structural and magnetic properties of films of Co / ZnO (Zn1-xCoxO) (x = 0.04 - 0.1), with different compositions in Co deposited on silicon substrate (100) and optical glass. The choice of calcination temperature

of samples was done based on the analysis of TG-DSC curves which require that the temperature range 700 8000C network is formed of ZnO doped with Co in stable form. Study of structural properties of composite films Co / ZnO was performed using X-ray diffraction analysis (Fig.1) which highlighted the following aspects: - The crystallisation of film samples increases with increasing doping concentration (size of crystallites are between 51.7 - 54.8 nm) - All the films heat treated at a temperature of 7000C (especially samples B1 and B2) for 30 minutes ZnO has the characteristic interference (in its most intense lines from 31.80, 34.40 and 36 respectively, 30) and Co3O4 (the most intense line at 36.80), other lines can be attributed diffractometry present phase of ZnO doped with cobalt (31.250 , 36.750 and 38.50). Study of magnetic properties of composite films Co/ZnO was performed using magneto-optical measurements (Fig.2). Structural properties and ferromagnetic behaviour of magnetic material or type nanocomposite multilayer Co/ ZnO show that it is a ferromagnetic semiconductor at room temperature, a potential material for applications in Spintronics.

10

B1
0 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39

2
Fig. 1.X-ray diffractometry on sample of ZnO doped with Co concentration of 4-10% deposited on Si/SiO2.

Fig.2. Magneto-optical reflectance measurements of film sample studied.

The research was funded by the National Programme of Research, Development and Innovation PNCDI II, contract 71-063/2007 (7020/2007).

PAGINA 38 | RAPORT Scientific DE report ACTIVITATE | 2009 | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 39

Projects
12
Innovative technologies for obtaining of electrical contacts using equal channel angular extrusion Fig. 2. Microstructure image (longitudinal section) of the extruded bars of: a) Ag-SnO2-Bi2O3-CuO 90-9.3-0.5-0.2 (AC), b) Ag-SnO2-Bi2O3-CuO 95-4.3-0.5-0.2 (AC), c) Ag-SnO2-Bi2O3-CuO 90-9.3-0.5-0.2 (AM), d) Ag-SnO2-Bi2O3-CuO 95-4.3-0.5-0.2 (AM).

Project co-ordinator: SC ICPT TEHNOMAG CUG SA, Cluj Napoca Research staff of the project Dr. Eng. Lungu Magdalena, IDT II Dr. Eng. Enescu Elena, CS I; Dr. Chem. Gavriliu Stefania, CS I; Dr. Eng. Lucaci Mariana, CS I; Dr. Eng. Tsakiris Violeta, CS II; Chem. Lungu Paula, IDT II; Phys. Leonat Lucia, CS; Eng. Chem. Bratulescu Alexandra, CS; Phys. Patroi Delia, CS; Phys. Sbarcea Gabriela, CS.

MULTIFUNCTIONAL MATERIALS WITH APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

PROJECT ABSTRACT The project aims to research and achieve some Ag-SnO2 electrical contact materials for electromagnetic contactors of RG type optimized by microstructure improvement of sintered round bars, using a new technique of equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE). Objective II.1. Analysis methods for ultrafine structures obtaining and possibilities of contact materials obtaining from chemical powders mixtures; Objective II.2. - Project elaboration for the experimental model of the angular extruded materials obtaining; Objective II.3. - Elaboration of the new technological solution; Objective II.4. Achievement of the experimental model and of the angular extrusion technology;

Objective II.5. - Characterization of the experimental model. INCDIE ICPE-CA is the P3 partner of the project and was involved in the accomplishment of the Objectives II.1. and II.5. RESULTS OF THE PROJECT Technology for the obtaining of some Ag-SnO2-Bi2O3-CuO powders mixtures by chemical precipitation (AC) and mechanical mixing (AM). Technology for the obtaining of some round bars by pressing-sinteringextrusion of Ag-SnO2-Bi2O3-CuO powders mixtures. Experimental models of extruded round bars obtained from Ag-SnO2-Bi2O3-CuO powders mixtures with the chemical composition of 90-9.3-0.5-0.2 and 95-4.3-0.5-0.2 (AC) and (AM).

Fig. 1. Morphological image of the Ag-SnO2-Bi2O3-CuO powders: a) (AC), b) (AM)

Ag-SnO2-Bi2O3-CuO chemical composition and powders mixtures type 90-9,3-0,5-0,2 (AC) 95-4,3-0,5-0,2 (AC) 90-9,3-0,5-0,2 (AM) 95-4,3-0,5-0,2 (AM)

Density, De [g/cm3] 9,62 9,89 9,44 9,79

Hardness, HV [daN/mm2] 104 100 99 96

Resistivity, e [.cm] 2,88 2,43 2,99 2,54

Table II. Physical - mechanical characteristics of the Ag-SnO2-Bi2O3-CuO extruded bars for ECAE deformation.

Ag-SnO2-Bi2O3-CuO chemical composition and powders mixtures type 95-4,3-0,5-0,2 (AC) 90-9,3-0,5-0,2 (AM)

Density, D [g/cm3] 9,93 9,52

Hardness, HV [daN/mm2] 102 101

Resistivity, [.cm] 1,98 2,71

Ag-SnO2-Bi2O3-CuO chemical composition and powders mixtures type

Theoretical density Dt [g/cm3]

Apparentdensity Da [g/cm3]

Flow rate v [s/50 g]

Table III. Physical - mechanical characteristics of the Ag-SnO2-Bi2O3-CuO extruded bars deformed by ECAE. Patent: S. Gavriliu, M. Lungu, E. Enescu, M. Lucaci, Obtaining procedure of the AgSnO2 sintered electrical contacts with optimized microstructure, RO patent no. 122445/2009. Book: E. Enescu, M. Lungu, S. Gavriliu, Treatise of metal materials science and engineering, Vol. 3 Metals. Alloys. Special materials. Composite materials, Subchapters 20.1 20.4 (Electrical materials), Publisher AGIR, 2009, p. 1069 1113, ISBN 987-973-720-261-1/987-973720-064-0. The research was funded by the INNOVATION Programme, contract 146/11.06.2008 (contract 7060/2008). Published ISI article: S. Gavriliu, M. Lungu, E. Enescu, S. Nitu, D. Patroi, A Comparative Study Concerning the Obtaining and the Using of Some Ag-CdO, Ag-ZnO and Ag-SnO2 Sintered Electrical Contact Materials, Optoelectro-nics and Advanced Materials - Rapid Communications (OAM - RC), vol 3, issue 7, July 2009, p. 688 - 692, ISSN 1842-6573, ISI impact factor in 2009 = 0.451.

90-9,3-0,5-0,2 95-4,3-0,5-0,2 90-9,3-0,5-0,2 95-4,3-0,5-0,2

(AC) (AC) (AM) (AM)

9,99 10,25 9,99 10,25

2,537 2,317 3,092 3,077

9 10 8 8

Table I. Granulometric characteristics of the Ag-SnO2-Bi2O3-CuO (AC) and (AM) granulated powders mixtures.

PAGINA 40 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 41

Projects
13
New nonlinear laser materials for efficent generation of fotonic coherent emission in blue-near ultraviolet domain

Project co-ordinator: SC ICPT TEHNOMAG CUG SA, Cluj Napoca


intensity (u.a.)

Research staff of the project Phys. Gabriela Beatrice Sbarcea project manager; Eng. Sorina Adriana Mitrea; Techn. Carmen Hajdu

MULTIFUNCTIONAL MATERIALS WITH APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

PROJECT ABSTRACT The general objectives of the project were: development of new materials such Ln1-xRxCa4O(BO3)3, Ln = (Y, Gd) si R = (Lu ,Sc),with very good and controllable characteristics, in order to obtain emission in the field blue UV near , demonstration of functionality and performance of the new made crystals, realization of experimental models regarding the obtaining of photon emission sources with efficient blue - UV near emission, based on new nonlinear laser crystal with advanced features. The INCDIE ICPECA objectives in 2009, consisted in analyzing the composition of the crystals obtained by the project coordinator INFLPR, by evaluating structural properties by X-ray diffraction technique and atomic absorption spectrometry.

PROJECT RESULTS The project was addressed interchange ability cationic partial ions Ln3+ with R3+ = (Sc3+, Lu3+) ions, who have numbers of nuclear and radiation ionic much different from those of ions Ln3+ (ZSc = 21, rSc = 0,75, ZLu =71, rLu =0,86), thereby aiming at obtaining new nonlinear crystals Ln1R Ca4O(BO3)3 . x x Investigations conducted by ICPE-CA INCDIE watched highlighting YCa4B3O10 compound and calculating the cell parameters of four samples of material brought to the characterization by the project coordinator - INFLPR Magurele. Samples were analyzed using X-ray Diffractometers Bruker-AXS D8 ADVANCE type and flame atomic absorption spectrometer type SOLAAR. Following the qualitative analysis phase, this phase is confirmed by the majority

of YCa4O(BO3)3 in all four samples. Also, in the first three samples were identified along the major phase YCa4O(BO3)3 the following compounds: Ca3B2O6 si Y2O3 Due the wish to obtain a pure crystal without impurities, only sample number 4 was thoroughly investigated at the request of INCDFLPR- project coordinator Because of network-type monoclinic crystal, cell parameters were calculated for sample number 4 with specialized software Topas once acquired with D8 DISCOVER Diffractometer, by Rietveld calculation method. After analyzing the diffraction spectra are also apparent differences between the relative intensity of the peak do the doping sites by entering the crystalline structure. Cell parameters vary very little from the parameters blank (sample analyzed in phase I of the project). Also identify and calculate by products of cell parameters are consistent with data found in literature. The elemental chemical quantitative analysis performed by atomic absorption spectrometry technique required for sample 4, could not be done except for Ca element (5.14% according to test report) because were not available standard solutions and specific lamps for Lu and Y elements. For this reason, following discussions with INFLPR qualitative analysis was performed by mass spectrometry technique (ICP) in order to highlight to all constituents and mass ratio Y: Lu (item of interest to the project coordinator). The analysis revealed the existence of the majority elements: As, B, Y and Lu are in mass ratio of 4:3:2:2, and traces of Mg, Al, Si and Ti.

Fig.1. XRD spectra of sample number 4

Fig. 2. Simulated XRD spectra for sample number 4Rietveld analysis

The research was funded by the National Programme of Research, Development and Innovation - PNCDI II, contract 7065/2008.

PAGINA 42 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 43

Projects
14
Ferromagnetic components for microelectromechanical systems

Project co-ordinator: SC ICPT TEHNOMAG CUG SA, Cluj Napoca Research staff of the project Dr. M. M. Codescu project manager, prof. dr. fiz. W. Kappel, eng. A. Iorga, phys. I. Iordache, eng. E. Manta, eng. S. Mitrea, eng. L. S. Palii, dr. phys. E-A Patroi, phys. D. Patroi, eng. E. F. Radulescu, phys. G. Sbarcea, eng. N. Stancu, techn. F. Oprea, techn. P. Stean.
Fig. 2. MFM images realized for the thin layers based on Fe, deposited on ceramic substrate (sital). The investigated surface: 50 m x 50 m. Can be observed the magnetic image of the phases and the structure of the domain walls Fig. 3. MFM images realized for the thin layers based on Fe, deposited on ceramic substrate (sital) by the magnetron sputtering technique. The investigated surface: 50 m x 50 m. Can be observed the magnetic image of the phases and the structure of the domain walls

MULTIFUNCTIONAL MATERIALS WITH APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

PROJECT ABSTRACT The project aim is to prepare and to characterize the ferromagnetic components (FC) as thin films, with applications as components for microelectro-mechanical systems (MEMS). Now, the ferromagnetic thin films are the focus of intense interest because of their outstanding potentials for microelectro-mechanical device applications. In order to exploit at maximum the potential of these ferromagnetic thin films is extremely important to know how to manipulate their growth and to learn to design their properties. The ferromagnetic components were prepared and studied as thin films based on intermetallic compounds RE-TM type (where RE rare earth and TM transition metal),

deposited by different techniques: pulse laser deposition - PLD, magnetron sputtering on various substrates (Fe, Mo, Si, Ti, SiO2, Nb, Cr, Ta). PROJECT RESULTS During the first stage of the contract were prepared and characterized materials used as targets (figure 1a), for the further depositions on different substrates, using different techniques: magnetron sputtering (figure 1b) and pulsed laser ablation (in collaboration with INFLPR Bucharest, partner in OMICRON consortium). The thin layers based on iron, deposed by magnetron sputtering technique, were analyzed by MFM and AFM techniques (figures 2 - 4). Based on the targets realized by INCDIE ICPE-CA Bucharest were realized depositions by PLD technique, in different conditions, together with INFLPR partner, which were characterized by AFM (see figures 5 7).

Fig. 4. MFM image of structure of the magnetic domains on (Tb,Dy)Fe2 thin layers Fig. 5. AFM analysis on two films deposited by PLD from NdFeB target, at: a) 4 J/cm2 and 355 nm, RMS: 67 nm and b) 3 J/cm2 and 355 nm, RMS: 139 nm

Fig. 6. AFM analysis on two films deposited by PLD from NdFeB target, at: a) 4 J/cm2 and 355 nm, at room temperature; b) 4 J/cm2 and 355 nm, at 650oC

a)

b)

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

Fig. 7. AFM analysis on samples deposited by PLD from the NdFeB target in various experimental conditions, with and without RF plasma discharge in argon: a) at room temperature, 0 W RF, 532 nm, RMS: 164,32 nm; b) 650oC, 0 W RF, 265 nm, RMS: 49,79 nm; c) 500oC, 0 W RF, 265 nm, RMS: 105,85 nm; d) 685oC, 125W RF, 265 nm, RMS: 74 nm; e) 685oC, 75W RF, 265 nm, RMS: 65 nm

a)

b)

[1] C. Constantinescu, E. Patroi, M. Codescu, M. Dinescu, Magnetic properties of NdFeB thin films deposited by radio frequency plasma beam assisted pulsed laser deposition, in press [2] C. Constantinescu, E. Patroi, M. Codescu, M. Dinescu, Stoechiometry influence on NdFeB thin films and multilayers deposited by pulsed laser deposition, in press The research work was supported by Ministry of Education, Research Youth & Sport - National Authority for Scientific Research, by PN II project no. 12-086/2008. The research was funded by the National Programme of Research, Development and Innovation PNCDI II, no. 12-086/2008 (4258/2008)

Fig. 1. Aspects during the magnetic materials preparation based on rare earths for the targets a); aspects during the magnetron sputtering deposition of the ferromagnetic films b)

PAGINA 44 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 45

Projects
15
Allotropic tin alloy stable at low temperatures used for protection coverings
Cu99,9; 10A, 30 min

Research staff of the project Dr. Eng. Faur Maria CS II project manager Dr. Eng. Enescu Elena CS I; Dr. Eng. Lungu Magdalena, IDT II, Dr. Eng. Tsakiris Violeta, CS II, Drd. Eng. Iordoc Mihai CS, Dr. Eng. Dobrin Ion, CS I, Drd. Phys. Leonat Lucia, CS, Chem. Bratulescu Alexandra, CS, Phys. Patroi Delia CS, Eng. Stancu Nicolae, IDT I; Phys. Sbarcea Gabriela, CS, Eng. Sorina Mitrea, IDT I, Dr. Phys. Patroi Eros CS III, Drd. Eng. George Zarnescu CS

Sn Sn Sn Sn Sn Sn

Sample name 99,9 (-30 0C, 48 h) 99,9 (-70 0C, 96 h) 99,9 (-90 0C, 48 h) 99,85 (-30 0C, 48 h) 99,85 (-70 0C, 96 h) 99,85 (-90 0C, 48 h)

a [] 5,831 5,822 5,819 5,831 5,821 5,821

c [] 3,172 3,175 3,176 3,182 3,177 3,174

Cu/Sn99,9; 10A, 30 min

Table II. Size parameters of the crystalline lattice after cooling treatment

MULTIFUNCTIONAL MATERIALS WITH APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

PROJECT ABSTRACT The project goal is to obtain scientific results of interest for developing advanced materials based on tin used for corrosion protection under environment conditions of low temperatures. Objective I.1. Market study on the use of copper products coated with metallic tin; Objective I.2. Compositional and microstructural parameters of the metallic tin used for protection coverings; Objective I.3. Highlighting the sequence of micro-structures and the imperfections of the crystalline lattice; Objective I.4. Mecha-nism and morphology of the polymorphic transformation of the metalic tin.

RESULTS OF THE PROJECT Market study on the use of Sn and Sn based alloys for protection coverings with anticorrosion role. Experimental report on chemical composition and structural characteristics of Sn and Sn based alloys used for protection coatings. Experimental report on the influence of the chemical composition of the coating on the metallic surface adsorption capacity. Experimental report on the microstructures role in ensuring of the sustainability of Sn coatings under environment conditions of low temperatures. Alotropic transformation mechanism of the tin. Crystalline structure: phase with tetragonal with centred volume crystalline lattice, a0 = 5.836 , c0 = 3.184 . The thickness of the tin deposited on copper sheet (Cu 99.9): 5 m

Sample name Ecor, mV/ icor, A/ SCE cm2 Cu -334 3,99 Cu/Sn 99,9 -422 2,30 Cu/Sn 99,85 -548,3 0,31

Rp, kcm2 4,17 10,34 45,36

Cor, m/year 46,27 31,2 4,2

Table III. Electrochemical parameters determined from polarization curves


Cu/Sn99,85; 10A, 30 min

Fig. 3. Potential evolution in time, electrolyte: NaCl 4M+HCl, pH 3.5.

Sn, % min. As 99,9 10,03

Fe 0,005

Impurities % max. Cu Pb Bi Sb 0,03 0,01 0,001 0,04

Fig. 4. Electronic microscopy image. Sn after cooling treatment: 48 h, -196 0C

Fig. 5. Optical microscopy image. Germination.

Fig. 6. Electronic microscopy image:


dislocations rows.

Zn 0,001

Al 0,001

Table I: Chemical composition of Sn for coverings


2000 1800 1600

Intensitate (u.a)

1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

--- Sn

Fig. 7. Electronic microscopy image: dislocations rows, packing defects, deformation macles.

Fig. 8. Electronic microscopy image: appearance and growth of phase germs.

Fig. 1. X ray diffraction pattern

Fig. 2. Optical microscopy image; x 500

The research was funded by the NUCLEU programme, contract PN09350104/2009 (5104/2009).

PAGINA 46 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 47

Projects
16
Innovative magnetic materials with high applicative potential

Research staff of the project Dr. Eng. Elena Enescu project manager Chem. Paula Lungu, Eng. Alexandra Bratulescu, Dr. Chem. St. Gavriliu, Dr. Phys. Jana Pintea, Dr. Phys. Eros Patroi, Drd. Phys. Delia Patroi, Drd. Phys Gabriela Sbarcea, Drd. Eng. Mihai Iordoc
Fig . 5. SEM images on the surface of Pt/Fe/Si thin film

MULTIFUNCTIONAL MATERIALS WITH APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

PROJECT ABSTRACT In this project, INCDIE ICPECA, as a partner, have had like objectives: preparation of 2D areas by self-organization of FePt bimetallic nanoparticles on Si substrate determination of morpho-topographical and microstructural characteristics of monodispersed nanoparticles areas by atomic force microscopy, elaboration of conductive covers with noble metals for preservation of nanostructures quality, like a first step to their integration in innovativeapplicative devices elaboration of systems, experimental models and ddissemination of the research results. To achieve these objectives, 2D selforganized areas on Si support were obtained by spin-coater deposition of FePt bimetallic particles synthesized by polyol reduction and of FePt core-shell bimetallic particles. Also, successive thin films of Fe and Pt were deposited on Si plate, by vacuum deposition in a Balzers installation. For preservation of FePt nanostructures quality they were protected with silver conductive covers; thus, experimental models of FePt bimetallic nanoparticles covered with silver and

of Ag thin film deposited on the Pt/ Fe/Si plate by vacuum evaporation in Balzers installation were realized. The morph-topographical characteristics of monodispersed nanoparticles areas were determined by atomic force microscopy and the microstructural aspects by SEM and TEM microscopy. The results dissemination was realized by 3 scientific papers presented to national and international conferences and symposia.

Fig. 6. AFM si MFM images of Pt thin film deposited on Fe/Siplate


1000

Fig. 2. SEM micrograph and EDAX spectrum on the layer of FePt bimetallic powder polyol type deposited by spin coating

800

* Ag o Pt *
o

80 72 64 56

Pt-M

Counts

RESULTS OF THE PROJECT Experimental procedure for obtaining of 2D self-organized areas on Si support by spin-coater deposition; Experimental procedure for obtaining of FePt core-shell bimetallic particles, namely, a iron core covered with a platinum shell; Experimental procedure for deposition of Fe and Pt successive thin films on Si plate, by vacuum evaporation; Experimental model of bimetallic FePt nanoparticles covered with Ag shell; Experimental model of successive Ag, Pt and Fe thin films deposited on Si plate by vacuum evaporation.

Intensitate (u.a)
600 400

48 40 32 24 16 8 00.00

Fe-L Cu-L Fe-L Ti-L O-K Cu-L Ti-L Pt-M

Fe-K

Cu-K

o o

Pt-L FeKesc Ti-K Ti-K Fe-K Cu-K Pt-L

200
o o

Pt-M Si-K

1.00

2.00

3.00

4.00

5.00 keV

6.00

7.00

8.00

9.00

10.00

0 30 40 50 60 70 80

Fig. 3. EDAX spectrum on FePt bimetallic powder core-shell type

2
Fig. 7. X-ray diffractogram of FePt nanopowders and FePt covered with Ag

Fig. 4. Profilograme of Pt film deposited on Fe/Si plate in Balzers installation

Fig. 1. TEM images of FePt bimetallic powder at 100.000 and 500.000 X

Fig. 8. Profilograme of Ag film deposited on Pt/Fe/Si plate in Balzers installation

The research was funded by the National Programme of Research, Development and Innovation PNCDI II 4 Partnership Programme, contract 060 /2007.

PAGINA 48 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 49

Projects
17
Nanocrystalline soft magnetic powders and materials, on Fe and Ni basis, obtained by mechanosynthesis. Preparing, properties, nanocrystalline compacts achieving for applications Material index AI1s AI1l A I 1,5 s A I 1,5 l A II 1 s A II 1,5 s A A A A A A A A A A II 1 l II 1,5 l III 1 s III 1,5 s III 1 l III 1,5 l IV 1s IV 1,5 s IV 1l IV 1,5 l Composition of metallic powder + dielectric mixture Ni 36Fe64 (%gr.)(in C6H6) + 1% s Ni 36Fe64 (%gr.)(in C6H6) + 1% l Ni 36Fe64 (%gr.)(in C6H6) + 1,5 % s Ni 36Fe64 (%gr.)(in C6H6) + 1,5 % l Ni50Fe50 (%gr.)(in C6H6) + 1% s Ni50Fe50 (%gr.)(in C6H6) + 1,5% s Ni50Fe50 (%gr.)(in C6H6) + 1% l Ni50Fe50 (%gr.)(in C6H6) + 1,5% l Ni50Fe50 (%gr.) + 1% s Ni50Fe50 (%gr.) + 1,5% s Ni50Fe50 (%gr.) + 1% l Ni50Fe50 (%gr.) + 1,5% l Ni76Fe17Cu5Cr2 (%gr.) + 1% s Ni76Fe17Cu5Cr2 (%gr.) + 1,5% s Ni76Fe17Cu5Cr2 (%gr.) + 1% l Ni76Fe17Cu5Cr2 (%gr.) + 1,5% l Table I. Elaborated composite materials s = solid resin l = liquid resin

Research staff of the project Dr. Eng. Elena Enescu project manager Chem. Paula Lungu, Dr. phys. Jana Pintea, Eng. Alexandra Bratulescu, Dr. phys. Eros Patroi, Drd. phys. Gabriela Sbarcea, Drd. phys. Delia Patroi, drd. phys. Lucia Leonat

Magnetic permeability

MULTIFUNCTIONAL MATERIALS WITH APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

Electrical resistivity

Magnetic Permeability

PROJECT ABSTRACT In this project, INCDIE ICPE-CA, as a partner, has had like objectives: selection of appropriate dielectrics and of obtaining method for nanocrystalline composite powders; determination of powder pressability depending on the type and the quantity of dielectric; obtaining of toroidal and cylindrical compacts from nanocrystalline c o m p o s i t e powders; determi nation of dimen sional variability to polymerization and of density of compacts; determina tion of mechanic properties of com pacts (tensile and compression strength) and correlation with dielectric type and quantity; determination of magnetic properties of nanocrystalline composites in dynamic conditions up to 500 kHz (magnetic permeability, core losses) and correlation with dielectric type and quantity; determination of electrical resistivity and correlation with dielectric type and quantity; dissemination of the research
12

Electrical resistivity

results. To achieve these objectives composite mixtures and compacts were prepared from nanocrystalline metallic powder samples elaborated by project director, to which two epoxidic resins, as dielectric, were added: solid resin and liquid resin, in 1 and 1.5% proportion; on the polymerized compacts dimensional measurements, mechanical, electrical and magnetically tests were performed. The results were correlated with materials composition. The results dissemination was realized by 2 scientific papers presented to international conferences. RESULTS OF THE PROJECT Experimental procedure for obtaining nanocrystalline composite powders and compacts with liquid resin as dielectric; Experimental procedure for obtaining nanocrystalline composite powders and compacts with solid resin as dielectric; Method of selection the optimum material compositions depending on the results of mechanic, magnetic and electric tests.

Fig. 3. Variation of real permeability and dielectric losses for a composite material sample

500000

400000

300000

Sample I with 1,5% solid resin Sample II with 1,5% solid resin Sample III with 1,5% solid resin Sample IV with 1,5% solid resin

Concentration of solid resin [%] Fig. 4. Variation of resistivity vs. solid resin content for the 4 composite material types

200000

100000

0 0 100000 200000 300000 400000 500000

Frequency [Hz]

Fig. 6. Variation of magnetic permeability vs. frequency for each material type, at certain resin content

500000 450000 400000 350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 0 100000 200000 300000 400000 500000

10

Concentration of liquid resin [%] Fig. 5. Variation of resistivity vs.liquid resin content for the 4 composite material types

Sample I with 1% liquid resin Sample I with 1,5% solid resin Sample I with 1% solid resin Sample I with 1,5% liquid resin

Stress in N/mm

Frequency [Hz]

0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Compressive strain in %

The research was funded by PNCD II 4 Partnership Programme, contract 015 (7007/2007)
Fig. 2. Graph of a compression test

Fig. 7. Variation of magnetic permeability vs. frequency depending on the resin type, for a certain material

Fig. 1 .Graph of a tensile test

PAGINA 50 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 51

Projects
18
Nano devices based on oxide materials mill using polyvinyl alcohol as binder. It was formed by uniaxial pressing targets cruel diameter approx. And height 40mm max. 4 mm. Four targets have been selected from zinc oxide no sintered raw use in the experiments. 3. Experimental report on the technology of ultra oxide ZnO films using Zn target. It was experienced deposition of thin Zn layers on various media: glass or ceramic aluminium (Sital). DC magnetron sputtering method has proved a versatile method which can achieve ultra uniform and adherent layer of zinc. Thickness depends on experimental conditions: directly proportional to the time of filing, operating voltage, discharge current and inversely proportional to pressure of work should and distance between target and substrate. While maintaining time in deposit area is 1 min., deposited layer thickness is about 300 nm. If ultra layers, <300nm, air oxidation method at a temperature contact surface of approx. 450oC, layers can be obtained, fully oxidized. The degree of transformation is confirmed by X-ray diffraction method in air oxidation, producing layers of zinc oxide quality, tight, flawless transparent. If ultra layers, oxidized in an oven at a temperature of about 500oC, O2 flow, the layers are not quality defects are visible layers. For both methods, thick layers, obtained from a maintenance area for filing more than one minute, it shows a total oxidation. Most likely due the thin film thickness > 500nm, there is a surface passivity layer, which prevents further oxidation of Zn layer volume. Investigation of evidence presented in Table 2 resulted in selection of technological parameters of processing in the field of ultra layer thickness 100-300 nm: for maintaining plasma < 1min., Followed by oxidation in air at a temperature of contact surface of approx. 450oC for 3h. 4. Experimental report on the technology of ultra oxide ZnO films using ZnO target. To experienced deposition of ZnO thin layers on various media: glass or ceramic alu (Sital). RF magnetron sputtering method has proved a versatile method which can achieve ultra uniform and adherent layer of zinc. Deposition of zinc oxide targets does not produce desired results. Most likely is because energy is needed to process too much to get layers of quality zinc oxide deposit of sintered targets not generate ultra layers, uniform, transparent and adherent to the substrate. This is further confirmed by scanning electron microscopy investigations. Investigation of evidence presented in Table 2 resulted in selection of technological parameters of processing in the field of ultra layer thickness 100-300 nm by RF magnetron puttering method. 5. Experimental report on achieving targets and characterization of Zn - Mn. Were the target sample of Zn and Mn powder at a pressure of 400kgf/cm2. Manganese is obtained by adding increasing diffraction angle and peak Width aa maximum of 002, suggesting the incorporation of manganese atoms. 6. Experimental report on the obtaining and characterization of ZnO targets - MnO2 and ZnO MnO. Of high purity zinc oxide purity 99% and manganese oxide purity 99.995% can be obtained of achieving targets of ZnO-MnO for deposition of thin layers by RF sputtering method. Zinc oxide powder-type ZnO HP Umicore Zinc Chemicals, has been investigated by X-ray diffraction of manganese oxide powder was investigated by X-ray diffraction powders of zinc oxide, manganese oxide and manganese dioxide were processed by a traditional ceramic process by mixing in a planetary ball mill using polyvinyl alcohol as binder. It was formed by pressing targets cruel diameter approx. And height 40mm max. 4 mm. 7. Report obtaining experimental ultra oxide films of Zn-Mn target To experienced deposition of thin layers of Zn-Mn on various media: glass or Si/SiO2 RF magnetron sputtering method has proved a versatile method which can achieve ultra uniform and adherent layers of Zn-Mn. Investigation of evidence resulted in selection of technological parameters of processing in the field of ultra layer thickness 100-300 nm by RF magnetron puttering method. From X-ray diffraction analysis of films was a change in maximum peak from 002 Width of ZnO which suggests the incorporation of manganese ions.

Research staff of the project Eng. Iulian Iordache, project manager Prof. Dr. Wilhelm Kappel - researcher; Eng. Aristofan Teisanu researcher; Eng. Ana Maria Bondar - researcher; Dr. Eng. Gimi Rimbu - researcher; Eng. Radu Vasilescu Mirea - researcher; Eng. Mihai Iordoc - researcher; Eng. Cristina Banciu - researcher; Eng. Sorina Mitrea - researcher

MULTIFUNCTIONAL MATERIALS WITH APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

PROJECT ABSTRACT Nano devices based on oxide materials are currently intensively studied as alternatives to small electronic devices in CMOS integrated circuits and as advanced electronic devices capable of using quantum properties associated with the electronic spin. The project aims to study and obtain nanoelectronics MOSFET demonstrators to use ultra films doped with rare earth oxide (Mox: RE) and transition metals (Mox TM) for the two types of applications. Ultra-doped oxide films were obtained by chemical and physical methods. S t r u c t u r e , composition and local electronic properties, key factors in determining the effectiveness of their use in advanced devices was investigated by methods of microscopy (TEM, EDAX), magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and atomic force (AFM), PL and Raman spectroscopy . Contributions were made to know the micro structural properties, optical and magnetic. Material models were developed for different compositions and stoechiometric phase. Was modelled / simulated device structures by defining key parameters that give them the necessary properties for the phenomenological observation that underlies the operation. The experimentally demonstration devices was allow study of both oxide compounds. The project makes contributions to the development of new materials and device technologies. Contributions were made to understand the phenomena that limit the actual performance of the devices and

to develop a new methodology for manometer and atomic scale modelling of next-generation nano electronics. The project is complex both aiming to obtain new materials and developing new devices and methods involving modelling and simulation at the atomic level. General objectives: 1. Develop models to obtain and characterize oxide film and ultra purchasing equipment. 2. Obtaining and characterization of ultra oxide films. 3. Modelling / simulation and material parameters device. 4. Getting devices demonstrators. The project aim is to make contributions to the development of the country leading the field of Nanoelectronics and represented in perspective, to open new research directions for quantum nanodevices to use new materials, technologies, processes, phenomena, models highlighted in this project. RESULTS OF THE PROJECT Experimentation technology for obtaining ultra oxide films. 1. Experimental report on the obtaining and characterization of Zn targets. Zinc sheet 99.995% high purity can be obtained appropriate targets for development of thin zinc layers. 2. Experimental report on the obtaining and characterization of ZnO targets. Of high purity zinc oxide 99.995% can be obtained appropriate targets for development of zinc oxide thin layers by RF sputtering method. Zinc oxide powder-type ZnO HP Umicore Zinc Chemicals, has been investigated by X-ray diffraction of zinc oxide powder was process a traditional ceramic process by mixing in a planetary ball

The research was financed by the National Programme of Research, Development and Innovation - PNCDI II Partnerships Programme, contract 11048 (7026/2007).

PAGINA 52 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 53

Projects
19
Heat resistant polymer materials with high lifetime for gaskets subjected to irradiation chemiluminescence curves obtained for the unstabilized KELTAN 5580 samples. It can be noted that, for small initial doses, there is a slight improvement in the resistance to thermal oxidation due to a radiation crosslinking process. After accumulating a certain dose, which slightly exceeds the gel dose (7 kGy), the crosslinked phase content decreases, leading to a decrease in the induction time. Moreover, due to the formation of free radicals during radiolysis, two contradictory simultaneous processes occur, crosslinking and cleavage, which may lead to a small variations in the values of oxidation induction times and the higher accumulation of hydroperoxides, as illustrated in Figure 2 by increasing values of maximum chemiluminescence intensity. Corresponding kinetic parameters of the degradation process of the elastomers without antioxidant are listed in table 1. At comparable induction periods in accordance with the principle stated above, the degradation rates for KELTAN 5580 are one order of magnitude smaller than its counterpart and adding antioxidant improves, in particular, the elastomeric material resistance to radiation. Project results will be materialized by developing an experimental model and a patent.

Research staff of the project Traian Zaharescu CS I, doctor, project manager Silviu Jipa, CS I, professor, Adrian Mantsch, ACS, PhD student

MULTIFUNCTIONAL MATERIALS WITH APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

PROJECT ABSTRACT The need to use elastomeric polymer materials as components in facilities that serve nuclear-purpose equipments requires their testing in field conditions and their characterization in terms of sustainability. The project proposed at its end, that the beneficiary of this innovative research, ROSEAL S.A. Odorheiul Secuiesc, to produce sealing parts safely usable on long periods of time in complementary or component equipments used in nuclear power plants. In this sense, the implementation plan has been developed in such way that the studied materials, ethylene-propylene elastomers, to be stabilized with highly efficient antioxidants against radioinduced o x i d a t i v e degradation. RESULTS OF THE PROJECT Ethylene propylene elastomers were KELTAN 5580 and 8340, stabilized with ETHANOX 330, IRGANOX 1010, and a mixture of the two antioxidants in the ratio 1:1. The concentration of stabilizing additives was 2% in weight. Infrared spectra recorded on ethylenepropylene elastomers in different stabilization states and different radiation doses reveal the contribution of the additives to inhibit the oxidation process during the exposure of the polymeric material to the degradation action of ionizing radiation, maintaining the oxidation state at a very low level for the samples in the composition of which the antioxidants are present. In Fig. 1 the FTIR spectra are presented for the ethylene-propylene elastomer stabilized with ETHANOX 330. By comparing the evolution of the 3350

cm-1 band the effect of the presence of stabilizers in the polymer material in the field of ionizing radiation is highlighted. Moreover, the behaviour of the 1720 cm-1 band, which is very wide for the samples without additive, reveals the accumulation of radiolysis products containing ketone function.For the other samples, those containing ETHANOX and IRGANOX insignificant changes can be seen (less than 5%, which are within experimental error). More than that, by adding both antioxidants in the elastomer, the absorbance of the 3350 cm-1 band is lower, that leads to the idea that the hydroperoxides initially existent in the polymeric material indirectly participate in the radiation induced crosslinking process. Practically, the band at 1720 cm-1 remains unchanged and this aspect must be should be correlated with the absence of ketone formation reactions, from hydro peroxides or from the reaction between free radicals and the oxygen diffused during irradiation. For the KELTAN 8340 samples experimental conditions are the same as for the other assortment of ethylene-propylene elastomer. This means that the oxidative degradation inhibitory action displayed by the used antioxidants is highly effective in terms of using these elastomeric compositions in making components for nuclear power plants, even at average doses accumulated over time. Experiments conducted at a lower dose rate (0.1 kGy/h) show the same behaviour. Although it is known that dose rate is a decisive factor in the radio-oxidation, in that a lower dose rate promotes a higher oxidation rate in the cases investigated in this project can be said that the used phenolic antioxidants effectively prevent oxidation of free radicals formed during radiolysis. Figure 2 shows the

without additive

Time [min.] Figure 2. CL curves obtained for unstabilized KELTAN 5580 at different radiation doses.Dose rate: 0.4 kGy/h.

Kinetic parrameter

Fig. 1. FTIR spectra recorded for the samples containing additive (-) initial; (-) irradiated at 50 kGy.

0 7,4 kGy kGy KELTAN 8340 (testing temperature: Induction time 368 308 [min] Oxidation rate 2.21 2.26 [au/(g.min)]*105 KELTAN 5580 (testing temperature: Induction time 21 17 [min] Oxidation rate 3.64 2.25 [a.u./(g.min)] *104 Table 1

14,8 22,2 kGy kGy 1700C) 240 2.50 2200C) 14 2.65 10 2.83 200 3.42

The research was supported in the frame of the INNOVATION programme, contract 235/2008 (7057/2008)

PAGINA 54 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 55

Projects
20
Advanced ceramic materials components of intermediate temperature fuel cells (YSZ). for sample A2 electrical conductivity values are in order of the 970S/cm at 7000C comparable with those from the speciality literature ( =1-102 S/cm), this type of anode material can operate at intermediate temperature of the fuel cell (SOFC -IT) (fig.2)

Grinding Ni-GDC noticed A2. Were obtained an anodes ceramic body as disk by uniaxial pressing with following dimensions: ~ 11 x 1,5mm and ~ 29mm x 1,8mm. Diffraction analysis results on ceramic bodies anode show: formation of the mineralogical composition of samples A1 and A2, depending by the combustion temperature is given in table 2.1 values of the apparent density and porosity depending to the combustion temperature, specific to these SOFC components, namely porosity between 20-40%. It is necessary a high porosity to ensure the transport of reactant and reaction products. Physical characteristics values of the degree of densification show achievement in applied technology conditions of some suitable materials for anodes requirements. Electrical measurements were done by two points method, on a laboratory bench, samples were tested in compositions such as A1 (NiO-ZSY) and A2 (NiO-GDC) as the disk. The results are: for sample A1 at 7000C were obtained conductivity values of the order of 11.5 S / cm, which is explained by the fact that this type of anode material works at higher temperatures 900-10000C, as shown and information from speciality literature. This behaviour is specific crystalline structure of ceramic (cermets type) consists of a metal component and an oxide component which gives an electrical conductivity by type mixed (ionic and electronic). Electronic contribution is given by existing electronic tasks in Ni component and the ionic by the presence of structural defects oxygen void type created by the component zirconium oxide stabilized with yttrium Granulation Pressing (disk)
Fig. 1. Technological flow diagram for obtaining the anodes

MULTIFUNCTIONAL MATERIALS WITH APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

PROJECT ABSTRACT A few major goals of the contemporary world are getting electricity and heat energy with higher efficiency conventional devices, reducing pollution and using a variety of fuels. An encouraging response to these problems is given by devices known as fuel cell FC (Fuel Cell), which generate electricity (50-70% yield) and heat by electrochemical combination of a gaseous fuel and an oxidant through ion conductor, without requiring combustion. The project gives an answer this by: electrolyte resistance decreased by reducing its thickness (submission form webs, films), using other types of materials (other than those based on ZrO2), with high ionic conduction at low temperature (Ce-Gd-O what systems and La-Sr-GaMg-O), choosing and obtaining electrode (for anode and NiO YSZ and NiO Ce - Gd-O, for cathode based on Ce-Gd-O, following chemical and mechanical compatibility and achieve the highest functional parameters and reducing material costs and processing. PROJECT RESULTS The project work in 2009 was the obtaining and characterization of ceramic bodies for anode of a cell type SOFC. To optimize anode ceramic bodies have experienced two anodes compositions by solid state reaction technology, namely: - 30% vol.Ni with YSZ, Ni-YSZ noticed A1; - 50% grv Ni- 50%grv Ce0,9Gd0,1O1,95,

Electroconductivity S/cm

Research staff of the project Eng. VELCIU Georgeta IDT I, project manager Eng. SEITAN Cristian IDT I; Eng. TARDEI Christu - CP III; Eng. GRIGORE Florentina - CS; Eng. TEISANU Aristofan Alexandru - CS Eng. MARINESCU Virgil - CS; Eng. BOGDAN Florentina - AS; Eng. SBARCEA Beatrice Gabriele - ASC; Tech. NICOLAESCU Elena

Dosing raw materials

Temperature related conductivity variation

Temperature (E+04)/T, grd K Fig. 2. Variation of electrical conductivity function of the temperature

Sample name A1-1100oC

Phase Ni - cubic ZrO2 - monoclinic Y2O3 cubic

A1-1400 C
o

(ZrO2)0,82(Y2O3)0,12O0,83 cubic NiO cubic ZrO2 monoclinic

A2- 1100oC

Ni - cubic Gd0.10Ce0.90O1.95 - cubic Gd2O3 -tetragonal NiO - cubic

A2- 1400oC

Gd0.10Ce0.90O1.95 - cubic NiO - cubic

Table.1. Real mineralogical composition of the sintered samples determined by X-ray diffraction

The research was funded by PNCD II programme, contract no. 71-030/2007 (7014/2007).

PAGINA 56 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 57

Projects
21
Micro/nano functional smart materials

Research staff of the project Dr. Eng. Mariana Lucaci project manager Dr. Eng. Violeta Tsakiris; Phys. Beatrice Gabriela Sbarcea; Phys. Lucia Leonat; Eng. Diana Crstea;

Stress

Strain

ABSTRACT PROJECT The aim of the project is to obtain crystalline intermetallic compounds in the system of Ti-Ni-X (X = Nb, Cu, Fe), at micro/nano-level, by a method combining mechanical alloying with self propagation high temperature synthesis and establish the optimal technology for obtaining them. RESULTS OF THE PROJECT It was developed a technology to obtain shape memory alloys in the NiTi system alloyed with Cu, Fe and Nb as substitutes for Ni. The technology to obtain NiTiCu consists in obtaining the NiTiCu mecanocomposite powder at nanometric/ amorphous/ microcrystalline scale, followed by its sintering in cylindrical/ rectangular shaped samples and applying a thermal treatment for homogenization. Registered patent application at OSIM, no. A/00638 13.08.2009 - Process for obtaining shape memory alloys of type alloyed NiTi intermetallic

compound. Important scientific papers: 1. M.Lucaci, V. Tsakiris, M. Valeanu Shape memory NiTiCu materials used in actuation systems, Energy Efficiency and Agricultural Engineering, Rousse, Bulgaria1- 3 October 2009, 383-388 2. M. Lucaci, R. L. Orban, V. Tsakiris, D. Cirstea, Shape Memory Alloys for MEMS Components Made by Powder Metallurgy Processes, International Conference 2nd Electronics System Integration Technology Conference (ESTEC 2008), 1-4.09.2008, p. 12411244, vol 2, IEEE Catalog Number: CFP08TEM-PRT, ISBN: 978-1-42442813-7, Greenwich, London, UK. Specializations and qualifications: Seminar ComputerAided Thermodynamics 9-11 June 2008, Koblenz, Germany - 2 persons; Seminar Simulation of phase transformation, 11-13 June 2008, Koblenz, Germany; Training course Thermodynamic and kinetic simulations with MatCalc, 4-8 August 2008, Vienna, Austria.

Fig. 1. Mecanocomposite powder, type NiTiCu

Fig.3. Stress-strain compression curve for NiTiCu, after 30 cycles charge/discharge at 100 N (Mechanical cycling at 200 N force)

MULTIFUNCTIONAL MATERIALS WITH APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

Fig.2. The miscrostructural aspect of NiTiCu

Fig.4. Influence of mechanical alloying on the transformation temperatures in Ni30Ti50Cu20 alloy

NiTi [14]

Top temperature g/cm3 K ~ 1573 6,4-6,5

T transf K 173-390

Entalpy Tr. kJ/mol 1,46 1,88

Transformation Rm hysteresis MPa 20-50 800-1000

Rp0,2 MPa A 200-800 M 70 200 246

E GPa A 5090 M 1035 1,4 2,5 2,9

Cus

5,23 4,1 4,64 5,10 5,00

294 -345 307-353 310-339 229-342 259 -341

0,54 - 0,6 1,14 1,3 0,65 - 0,71 -

Cu 10- Cu 20- Nb

Material NiTiCu NiTiNb NiTiFe

%weight Ni 32,45 48,38 51,89 Ti 44,13 36,96 39,73 Cu 23,41 Nb 14,66 Fe

NiTiFe

A - 38 M - 43 A 34,8 M - 39 A 15,9 M - 18,3 A 62 M 89 A - 56 M- 63

460

276 1059

233 382

Table II: Properties obtained

8,38 The research was financed by PNCDI II Programme, contract nr. 4244/2007.

Table I: Chemical compositions of the tested materials

PAGINA 58 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 59

Projects
22
Transparent oxide semiconductor nanostructures with controlled properties by doping for applications in Optoelectronics, Spintronics and Piezotronics Fe, Ni, where x= 0.03 to 0.25) deposited on Si/SiO2 substrate was performed using two types of sol-gel method: Variant I Zn (CH3COO)2.2H2O : Fe(NO3)3.9H2O : NH2CH2CH2OH : PEG Zn (CH3COO)2.2H2O : Ni(NO3)2.6H2O : NH2CH2CH2OH : PEG Variant II Zn (CH3COO)2.2H2O :FeCl3.6H2O:DMF Zn (CH3COO)2.2H2O : Ni(NO3)2.6H2O :DMF method. In accordance with the specific objective 2 (OS2) were determined correlations between each method of synthesis parameters and obtain the desired properties: structure, composition Study of structural and parametric optimum synthesis of Zn1-xMTxO (MT = Fe, Ni) type oxides powder and thin films was performed using X-ray diffraction analysis. Synthesis of powder type Zn1MTxO was performed with a x technique of sol-gel method working on these systems: Zn(CH3COO)2.2H2O : Fe(NO3)3.9H2O : NH2CH2CH2OH Zn(CH3COO)2.2H2O : Ni(NO3)2.6H2O : NH2CH2CH2OH By calcination of precursors at 5500C for 2 h were obtained nanopowders type Zn1-xMTxO (MT= Fe, Ni) with high crystalline. At concentrations up to 10% Fe X-ray diffractometry highlight a single phase with hexagonal structure of ZnO wurtzita (fig.1). The network parameters a and c are consistent with those of pure ZnO under the sheet no. 00-036-1451. At higher concentrations of 10% Fe diffractometry X-ray revealed no interference from ZnO but only a spinel phase ZnFe2O4. If dust type Zn1-xNixO (x = 0.03 0.25) X-ray diffractometry pointed to low concentrations of 3% Ni present a pure crystalline phase of ZnO and Wurtzita for large concentration 25% Ni, this and some oxide phase (NiO). Summary of oxide thin films of magnetic semiconductors Zn1-xMTxO type (MT= Diffractometry X-ray performed on thin films of oxide semiconductors Zn1-xMTxO type (MT = Fe, Ni, x = 0.03-0.25) obtained by the two types of synthesis have been studied in terms of influence following parameters: nature of reactants nature of transition metal ion, concentration of metal substitute, film deposition conditions, the interlayer thermal pretreatment of deposited films. Diffraction analysis of X-ray films of Zn1-xFexO type (x = 0.03 - 0.25) deposited on Si/SiO2 substrate version I obtained sol-gel method (Fig. 2.) has revealed a clear influence Fe concentration on crystalline structure. At concentrations below 10% Fe there is no change of interference from un-doped ZnO diffraction (very likely at this Fe concentration, Fe2+ ions to partially replace Zn ions in ZnO network). At higher concentrations of 10% Fe was highlighted ZnFe2O4 spinel phase due to interference. The diffraction analysis films type Zn1-xMTxO (MT=Fe, Ni, x = 0.03 - 0.15) obtained in variant II of sol-gel method obtained the following data: - Films of Zn1-xFexO type hexagonal structure of ZnO Wurtzita were obtained for low concentrations up to 5% Fe. The increase of Fe led to obtain ZnO cubic structure; - Films of Zn1-xNixO type (x = 0.03 - 0.1) showed the crystalline phase of ZnO Wurtzita without any interference of impurity; - Crystallinity ZnO samples doped with Ni increases with increasing the dopants concentration (size of crystallite are between 29.9 - 47.3 nm). Zn1-xTMxO -type films (TM = Fe, Ni, x = 0.03 - 0.15) variant II synthesized by sol-gel method were made by depositing successive layers of precursor 5 by centrifugation at a speed of 3000 RPM, Si/SiO2 hard, thermally pre treated in air at a temperature of 2000C for 1 hour. Final heat treatment was carried out in air at 8000C for 4 hours (if Zn1-xFexO) and 7000C for 3 hours (if Zn1-xNixO).

Research staff of the project PhDs. Jenica Neamtu - project manager PhDs. Eng. Teodora Malaeru, PhDs. Eng. Georgescu Gabriela, Eng. Cristian Morari, Eng. Ionut Balan, Technician Adriana Dinu PROJECT ABSTRACT In this project we aimed to achieve new optical properties of semiconductor oxide, electrical and/or diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS), with properties controlled by doping. Project objectives are: Theoretical and experimental verification of the influence charge carriers introduced by doping and/or native defects in ZnO nanostructures. Determination of correlations between each method of synthesis parameters and obtain the desired p r o p e r t i e s : structure, chemical composition, local atomic ordering. Background correlations between functional properties: electrical and electronic structure, chemical composition. Determination of correlations between functional properties of materials by TEM morphology studies, SEM and AFM / STM. Background correlations between DMS and the magnetic properties of the structure, chemical composition, morphology. Determining optimum parameters of synthesis and the development of laboratory technology to synthesize materials with desired properties and pre nanostructures. RESULTS OF THE PROJECT The project has achieved the synthesis of nanocomposite material oxide semiconductor type Zn1-xMTxO (MT = Fe, Ni) powder and thin films by different techniques of sol-gel

intensity (u.a)

Fig. 1. X-ray diffractometry ZnO sample with 10% Fe annealed at 5500C/2h

Fig. 2. Diffractometry X-ray films of Zn1-xFexO (x=0.03 and 0.05) deposited on Si/SiO2

The research was funded by PNCDI II, contract no. 72-165/2008 (4259/2008).

PAGINA 60 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 61

intensity (u.a)

MULTIFUNCTIONAL MATERIALS WITH APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

Projects
23
Achievement by thixotropization and direct injection moulding of the complex parts for electronic and communications equipment
intensity (u.a) intensity (u.a)
Fig. 1. X-Ray diffraction pattern of the PLE1 sample Fig. 2. X-Ray diffraction pattern of the PLE2 sample Fig. 3. DSC curve of the PLE1 sample

Project co-ordinator SC SUDOTIM AS SRL, Timisoara Research staff of the project Dr. Eng. Lungu Magdalena, IDT II, project manager; Dr. Eng. Enescu Elena, CS I; Dr. Chem. Gavriliu Stefania, CS I; Dr. Eng. Lucaci Mariana, CS I; Dr. Eng. Tsakiris Violeta, CS II; Chem. Lungu Paula, IDT II; Phys. Leonat Lucia, CS; Phys. Patroi Delia, CS; Phys. Sbarcea Gabriela, CS, Phys. Marinescu Virgil, CS; Drd. Eng. Grigore Florentina, IDT III PROJECT ABSTRACT The project aims to research and implement in the Romanian industry of a new technology to achieve the complex parts of light alloys based on Al or Mg, which are used in electronic and communications equipment, by bringing of the alloy into the semisolid state, followed by thixotropization and its injecting in die. Objective III.1. Characterization of the test lots; Objective III.2. Experiments for the assessment of solutions; Objective III.3. Presentation and demonstration of the functionality and usability of the proposed solution; Objective III.4. Elaboration of the technical documentation; Objective III.5. Design and achievement of the pilot installation; Objective III.6. Experimentation of the pilot installation. INCDIE ICPE-CA is the P3 partner of the project and was involved in the Hardness, HV [daN/mm2] 98.5 102 accomplishment of the Objective III.1. RESULTS OF THE PROJECT Test reports of some experimental models of thixotropized and injected directly into the die parts of Al-Si alloy, respectively Al-Mg alloy, noted PLE1, respectively PLE2. In the range of 580.8...589.3 C the PLE1 sample is melted with an enthalpy of 535 J/g (Fig. 3). In the range of 547.2610.1 C the PLE2 sample is melted with an enthalpy of 321.6 J/g. At the temperature of 453.9 C, the (-Al + Al12Mg17) eutectic is melted with an enthalpy of 6.33 J/g (Fig. 4). Microstructure of the PLE1 sample (Fig. 5) is of duplex type, in which the spherical solid particles of a-Al type with sizes up to 50 m are uniform distributed in the eutectic matrix. Microstructure of the PLE2 sample (Fig. 6) is shown in form of an eutectic matrix constituted of (-Al + Al12Mg17) phase in which are uniform distributed acicular dendrites of -Al and a small number of globules of -Al phase with very different sizes. Resistivity, [.cm] 5.49 14.70

MULTIFUNCTIONAL MATERIALS WITH APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

Fig. 4. DSC curve of the PLE2 sample

Sample

PLE1 PLE2

Density, D [g/cm3] 2.636 2.405

Tensile strength, [MPa]

Fig. 5. Microstructure image of the PLE1 sample, chemical etched for 25 s (0.5 % HF)

Fig. 5. Microstructure image of the PLE1 sample, chemical etched for 25 s (0.5 % HF)

257.36 432.90

Tabel I. Physical-mechanical characteristics of the PLE1 and PLE2 samples Sample/ Temperature PLE1/25 C PLE1/95 C PLE2/25 C PLE2/95 C Thermal diffusivity [mm2/s] 64.851 63.621 12.945 13.075 Specific heat [J/gK] 0.756 0.808 0.961 1.040 Thermal conductivity [W/mK] 170.95 167.70 33.17 33.50

Communicated/published article: M. Lungu, H. Binchiciu, P. Nistor, S. Gavriliu, M. Lucaci, L. Leonat, V. Tsakiris, G. Sbarcea, D. Patroi, V. Marinescu, Al-Mg alloy with thixotropic microstructure, 1st Int. Workshop Innovation and Evolution by R&D-SMEs Strategic Partnership, Sept. 10th 12th, 2009, Book of Abstracts, p. 86.

Tabel II. Thermal characteristics of the PLE1 and PLE2 samples

The research was funded by the INNOVATION programme, contract 72/25.09.2007 (7016/2007).

PAGINA 62 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 63

Projects
24
Biodegradable composites with applications in the interior decorating of automotive realization fireproof composite material made from 5% flax - Optical Microscopy (fig.1) - X-ray diffraction (fig.2) - Mechanical tests on the first group of materials have shown that optimal solutions M6 and M11 materials. Thanks of wood flour higroscopicitation and importance of fire resistance of material is selected as the optimal variant, in terms of this test material M11. (fig.3) no significant differences are obtained when resistance to damage by bending. It finds that for M15 (maximum elastomeric material) is maximum strength> 30 kN, which leads us to conclude that it is optimal receptura. The tensile strength attempts made to realize that by adding 5% flame retardant polypropylene fiber composite in different percentages of EPDM elastomer (5%, 10% and 15%) decrease tensile strength which implies an increase in elasticity composite material. Considering the specific applications that have been designed such materials (automotive interiors profiles) of three composites with the addition of elastomer may be chosen as the most flexible composite material M15. Year 2009 ended with nine test reports covering all experiments performed on these materials.ate experimentrile realizate pe aceste materiale.

Research staff of the project Alina Ruxandra Caramitu, IDT I, project manager Ion Ioana, ACS, Sorina Mitrea, IDT I - Head of Characterization Laboratory, Peter Budrugeac, CS I - Head of Behavior Assessment Products and Materials by Thermal Analysis Laboratory, Beatrice Sbarcea, ACS, Silvia Hodorogea, ACS, Nicoleta Buruntia, CSII, Claudia Groza, ACS, Vlad Dorina techn.

From

thermal testing - were highlighted M9 and M11 materials and because of wood higroscopicity we chose the best option, in terms of this trial, M11 variant.

MULTIFUNCTIONAL MATERIALS WITH APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

PROJECT ABSTRACT Materials characterized in this project are: POLYPROPYLENE-PP-marked with Mo PP + 30% glass fiber - Pigment M1 PP + 30% wood flour - Pigment M2 PP + 5% flax fiber and 25% wood flour + pigment M3 PP + 30% talc + pigment - M4 PP + 10% flax and 20% wood flour + pigment M5 PP + 10% wood flour + pigment - M6 PP + 20% wood flour + pigment - M7 PP + 30% wood flour + pigment M8 PP + 5% flax fiber and 20% wood flour + pigment - M9 PP + 30% glass fiber + pigment M10 PP fireproof + 5% flax fiber + pigment - M11 PP fireproof Vo + pigment - M12 PP fireproof + 5% flax fiber + 5% EPDM elastomer + pigment - M13

EPDM elastomer + pigment - M14 PP fireproof + 5% flax fiber + 15% EPDM elastomer + pigment - M15 In this year were made following objectives: Realization of the structural analysis of composite material Determining the variation of surface mechanical properties and mechanical resistance obtained for all receptors Determining the lifetime of composites from natural fibers and thermoplastic resins Quick estimate the life span coupled with thermal analysis techniques (TG-DTA-DSC-FTIR) STA 409PC + FTIR and biodegradability assessment of the action accelerated environmental factors on composite materials studied Determining the life of advanced composite materials under accelerated biological action of environmental factors Choosing the best version Dissemination of informationpublishing the book. RESULTS OF THE PROJECT During this phase were conducted following tests:

PP fireproof + 5% flax fiber + 10%

biological tests - M11 composite material has proved to be the winner. On stage credits were analyzed materials M13, M14 and M15 in terms of strength and tear traction by bending.

The

The attempts by the bending strength is found


that by adding the composition of the different percentage of EPDM elastomer (5%, 10% and 15%)

by increasing the percentage of elastomer

40000

Intensity (u.a)

20000

0 2 10 20 30 40 50

14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

60

Fig. 2. Comparative X-ray diffraction spectra for the studied materials. Such spectra are: 1- natural wood-flour, 2-M0, 3-M6; 4 - M7, 5-M8, 6- M2, 7-M9, 8-M5, 9-M3, 10 - M1, 11 - M10, 12 - M11, 13 - M12, 14 - M4.

Fig.4. Stachybotrys sample drawn on fireproof PP + 5% flax fiber

structural analysis revealed that the most homogeneous sample PP

Fig.3.Diagram of damage by bending behavior of polymer composite materials depending on the type and quantity reinforced material used.

Fig 1. An optical microscope images for M11 material in a 0.05 mm (objective x20)0.1 mm (objective x10) and c 0.025 (X 50 objectives)

The research was financed by PNCDI II Programme, contract no. 7022/2007

PAGINA 64 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 65

Projects
25
Strategies of obtaining environmentally friendly ceramic pigments through non-pollutant methods (ECOPIG) crystallisation, was observed only for the systems substituted in the range 0 x 0.6 (Fig. 2). The increase of the cobalt content is accompanied with the weakening of the DTA signal intensity, while Tmax is shifted to lower temperatures: from ~713oC (x DTA = 0) to 684oC (x = 0.6). This behavior could be explained by a higher homogeneity of the cobalt-rich samples: on increasing the cobalt content, the phase transition occurs more rapidly, that is, at lower temperatures. The obtained rezults are the subject of the paper: Environmentally benign synthesis of nanosized CoxZn1Al2O4 blue pigments, autori: Diana Visinescu, Carmen x Paraschiv, Adelina Ianculescu, Bogdan Jurca, Bogdan Vasile, Oana Carp, Dyes and Pigments, Vol. 87 (2), (2010), pp. 125 - 131.

PResearch staff of the project PhD Chem. Carmen Stefanescu project manager, PhD Chem. Petru Budrugeac, Eng. Laura Chiose, Chem. Diana Branzea, PhD Chem. Andrei Cucos PROJECT ABSTRACT The production of blue pigments which are used in the ceramic industry and which contain Co2+ involves cost and negative impact on environment problems. The aim of this project is to obtain environmentally friendly pigments with low Co content. A series of Zn1-xCoxAl2O4 (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1) oxides were synthesized, in which the bivalent Zn2+ cation from the tetrahedral positions of the host ZnAl2O4 spinel matrix is substituted by small amounts of Co2+. Seven coordination compounds which are precursors for Zn1-xCoxAl2O4 (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1) spinels, synthesized by using starch as chelating, template and gellifying agent, were characterised by means of thermogravimetric analysis techniques (TG or TGA). The thermograms show complex multisteps decomposition processes. RESULTS OF THE PROJECT Studies of characterisation through thermogravimetric TG, DTG and DTA analysis have been made on seven coordination compounds which are precursors for Zn1-xCoxAl2O4 (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1) spinels, synthesized by using starch as chelating, template and gellifying agent. The analysis of thermograms has revealed the following: a) The recorded thermograms exhibit similar features for all the studied compounds: complex multisteps decomposition processes, in which some are partially or totally overlapped. b) In all the cases, the thermal decomposition starts with an endotherm procces (~50~100oC), due to the elimination of weakly bonded water. The second decomposition step (up to about ~250oC) is characterized by an endotherm process, followed by two exotherm processes. The last decomposition step corresponds to the break-down of the starch residues and of the nitrate (Fig. 1). c) A large content of cobalt was associated with a higher decomposition temperature in the last step, so that the variation of the substitution factor x from 0 to 1 causes the lowering of the Tmax DTA for the last exothermal process, as well as that of the final decomposition. d) An exothermal phase transition, associated with the spiinel

MULTIFUNCTIONAL MATERIALS WITH APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

Fig. 2. DTA curves for Zn1-xCoxAl2O4 precursors (x = 0 (a), 0.1 (b), 0.2 (c), 0.4 (d), 0.6 (e), 0.8 (f), 1 (g))

Fig. 1. TG, DTG, DTA curves for the sample C-6-4-0.1

The research was financed by the PNCDI II Programme, contract 32_146/2008 (7062 / 2008).

PAGINA 66 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 67

3.1.2 Biomaterials

Projects
-TCP, sintered at 1100C (fig.7) d. Case study: addition of synthetic bone based on porous -TCP (fig.8) porous material used, characteristics: - chemical composition: -TCP; - porozity: 40-60 p.p.i; - pore diameter: 50-550 m. Phosphocalcic material used become part of the process of bone remodeling, and after four months it could be seen 50% resorption with simultaneous new bone formation.

B01

Development of new materials and devices for controlled release of drugs with applications in biomedical engineering

Research staff of the project Tardei Christu - CSIII, project manager Budrugeac Petre - CS I; Spataru Maria - CS III; Grigore Florentina - ACS; Bogdan Florentina - ACS; Marinescu Virgil - ACS; Petrache Mariana - Techn. pr.; Nicolaescu Elena - Techn. pr. PROJECT ABSTRACT Project purpose: to study and develop medical devices - bioresorbable ceramic biomaterials (carriers of therapeutic substances - drugs, antibiotics, growth hormones, and anticancer substances), complex characterization and testing in laboratory conditions (in vitro), according to protocols provided with EU rules. Designing such a system for controlled release of drugs involves both a knowledge and understanding of disease, drugs and area / biological organ affected by disease or trauma. Recently, technologies such as granulation, spray drying method, sferoidizarea flame technique and method microemulsions immiscible liquids were successfully used to produce ceramic microspheres of calcium phosphates. Activities roll on in this stage consist in: literature study to update the information theme, completed by creating their own data banks; data will be used and completed over the entire project; experiments relating to develop ceramic compounds based on calcium phosphates (tricalcium phosphate, TCP; hydroxyapatite HAP , biphasic compounds TCP / HAP); manufacture -TCP based ceramic matrix, with controlled porosity; rheological measurements on -TCP suspensions; Case Study: Addition of synthetic bone based on -TCP , in vivo tests PROJECT RESULTS a. create a database (fig.2) The obtained experimental models (ceramic powders, granules, blocks) were assessed and characterized by specific measurements of composition, microstructure and biocompatibility b. ceramic compounds based on calcium phosphates: Mg-TCP (fig.3) - biphasic compounds synthesis, HAP / TCP (fig.4) c. rheological behaviour of suspensions made of -TCP powders (fig.5) Experimental models of ceramic matrices based on -TCP (fig.6) Spherical ceramic granules of

Fig. 5 Curves of viscosity for suspensions 1; 2; 3 made of -TCP powders

Biomaterials

Fig.3 Ceramic compounds based on calcium phosphates: Mg-TCP

Fig.6 - b-TCP , microcrystalline ceramic powder: - added porogen material: 10 ... 30% - specific pressing pressure: MPa 10/30/50 - sintering: 105011500C

Fig.7 - Spherical ceramic granules of b -TCP , sintered at 1100C

Fig.4 Biphasic compounds synthesis, HAP / TCP

Fig.1.Components of the drug release system

Fig. 2 Keywords used: - Ceramic Drug Delivery System = C DDS - Calcium phosphate ceramic drug delivery system = C DDS PA

Fig.8 - Phosphocalcic material used become part of the process of bone remodeling, and after four months it could be seen 50% resorption with simultaneous new bone formation.

The research was financed by NUCLEU Programme, contract PN 09-35-03-01 (5301/2009).

PAGINA 68 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 69

Projects
B02
Advanced biomaterials based on nanostructurated bioactive proteic structures doped with metallic nanoparticles aspect: clear solution from orange to dark brown; concentration in AgNp: 59 923 ppm; absorption in UV-Vis spectra at = 360 and 424 nm; Ag Np shape: mainly spherical, with slight tendency to agglomeration; size distribution of AgNp: 6 -15 nm (Fig. 1); zeta potential, : - 35,21-44,82 mV; good stability. Chemically obtained AgNp/TiO2Np suspensions physical-chemical characteristics: aspect: suspension with cream colour; concentration: 750 ppm AgNp si 5% TiO2Np; absorbance of AgNp/TiO2Np in UV-Vis spectra at = 341,5; = 371,5; = 422; = 452,5 nm and = 685,5 nm (extinction in visible light); AgNp/TiO2 Np morphology: nanocristallytes with elongated poliedrical shape and with agglomeration tendency; average diameter of the AgNp/TiO2Np: 9,8 nm; zeta potential, : - 32,24 mV low stability.. CSSs and AgNp/TiO2Np suspension present inhibition zone of 2...20 mm after 14 days from fungi inoculation and a very good fungitoxic activity, noted with 0; antifungal activities of the ecological leather samples or tanned with chromium, is better for the 923 ppm CSSs than for the AgNp/TiO2Np suspensions. Electrochemically obtained CSSs physical-chemical characteristics: colour: orange AgNp content: 32 ppm, absorption in UV-VIS spectra at = 426,5 nm; Ag Np morphology: mainly spherical average diameter of the AgNp: 4,20 nm zeta potential, : 44,89 mV; very good stability; Electrochemically obtained Ag/ TiO2Np suspensions physical-chemical characteristics: aspect: suspension with cream-grey colour concentration: 45 ppm AgNp and 6g/l TiO2Np; absorbance of the suspension in UV-vis spectra at = 525 nm (visible light); - AgNp/TiO2Np morphology: nanoparticles with spherical shape and agglomeration tendency (Fig.2); average diameter: 12 nm; zeta potential, : 36,84 mV, good stability. CSSs show a very good fungitoxic activity after 14 days from the fungi inoculation and the Ag/TiO2 suspension presents both a very good fungitoxic activity and an inhibition zone of moulds grow to 20 mm, after 14 days of inoculation. - In the case of ecological leather or tanned with Cr, functionalized with CSSs and with Ag/TiO2 solutions, the best results were obtained for the later ones, which have very good fungitoxic properties, expressed by note 0 and inhibition zone up to 25 mm after a 21 days of fungi exposure (ecological leather). Papers published between 01.2009 12.2009 [1] C.Gaidau, A. Petica, V. Plavan, C. Ciobanu, M. Micutz, C. Tablet, M. Hillegrand Investigation on silver nanoparticles interaction with collagen based materials, JOAM, Vol. 11, No. 6 (2009) 845-851; [2] C. Gaidau, A. Petica, C. Ciobanu, T. Martinescu Investigation on antimicrobial activity of collagen based materials doped with silver nanoparticles Biotechnollogical Letters, (2009) Vol.14 [3] S. Gavriliu, M. Lungu, F. Grigore, C. Groza: Antimicrobial Colloidal Suspensions of Silver-Titania, The Open Chemical and Biomedical Methods Journal, 2, (2009), p. 77 85 [4] S. Gavriliu, M. Lungu, E. Enescu, F. Grigore, C. R. Ionescu, Stable colloidal silver solutions for different applications, OAMRC, vol. 3, issue 6 (2009), p.634 637.

Research team of the project: Chem. Aurora PETICA, IDT I project manager Dr. Eng Stefania Gavriliu; Dr. Eng Magdalena Lungu; Biologist Nicoleta Buruntia; Chem. Eng. Paula Prioteasa PROJECT ABSTRACT The aim of the project is to obtain collagen and keratin based biomaterials, respectively leather and fur, using the silver metallic nanoparticles technologies treatments, which offer them antibacterial and antifungal properties, with applications both in medical field and day to day life. This technology represents an ecological alternative to organic biocides which are, mainly, volatile organic compounds. To realise this purpose the next objectives were followed: - Demonstrative models of colloidal silver solutions (CSSs) realization for collagen and keratin substrates deposition and characterizations of them from physical-chemical and antifungal point of view; - Test batches of SCAg realization collagen and keratin substrates deposition and characterizations of them from physical-chemical and antifungal point of view; - Demonstrative models and tests batches obtaining both by chemical and electrochemical methods and physicalchemical characterization: chemical composition, absorption in UV-Vis of NpAg; morphology and distribution size; - Antifungal evaluation for demonstrative models and tests batches of the obtained CSSs and Ag/TiO2 suspensions and of the materials functionalized with them, respectively, leather and fur. Project results During the year 2009, the results of the project were finalized in demonstrative models and test batches of colloidal silver solutions and AgTiO2 dispersed solutions obtained by chemical and electrochemical methods. All these batches were physical-chemical characterized, from point of view of concentration (with UV-Vis Jasco 570 spectrophotometer), size and stability (with Zetasizer Brookhaven equipment), morphology (with microscope TEM CM 100 Philips); at the some time antifungal evaluation of these was done. Also, antifungal activities of the leather and fur samples were realized. Chemical synthesis method applied leads to colloidal silver solutions with high definition, stable, concentrated and with antifungal properties. Chemically obtained CSSs physicalchemical characteristics:

Biomaterials

Fig.3 Ag/TiO2 suspension, after 14 days

Fig. 4 Leather treated with Ag/TiO2, after 21 days

Fig. 1 Size distribution of the 923 ppm CSSs; = - 35,21 mV

Fig. 2 TEM micrograph of the Ag/TiO2 suspension

Research was financed by PN II Partnerships programme, contract 71-146/2007 (7006/2007)

PAGINA 70 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 71

Projects
B03
Technologies and durable materials for conservation and restoration of patrimonial objects manufactured from leather, in the purpose of viability of cultural heritage at community level the modality of correlation of these parameters with the degree of natural and/or artificial degradation of the leather sorts. II. Characterization by thermal analysis of the aged supports II.1. Leather sorts and conditions of aging II.2. Results of thermal analyses The obtained results were shown in the following Reports: 1. Simultaneous analyses TG/DTG, DTA of some tanned leathers thermal aged at 1000C, for 5 days 2. DSC analyses in N2 flow of some tanned leathers thermal aged at 1000C, for 5 days 3. DSC analyses of some tanned leathers immersed in water, thermal aged at 1000C, for 5 days By these analyses, the characteristic paramethers of the following processes that take place at the progressive heating of investigated samples were determined: dehydration, oxidation decomposition, melting of crystalline part, denaturation in water. These parameters were correlated with the deterioration degree of the leathers as well as with the efficiency of the conservation treatments. Results disimination 1. L. Miu, P. Budrugeac, M. Giurginca, Cr. Carsote, C. Chelaru, M. Vilsan, Tehnici moderne de investigare a gradului de degradare a pieilor de patrimoniu, Restitutio, nr. 2, 2009, 40-47.

Research staff of the project Dr. Chem. P. Budrugeac project manager, Dr. chem. Stefanescu Carmen, Dr. Chem. Cucos Andrei, Dr. Chem. Branzea Diana, Eng. Chiose Ileana Laura PROJECT ABSTRACT The objectives of the research performed in INCDIE ICPE-CA were: (a) The assessment of the experimental results obtained by thermal analysis methods: ATD, DSC analyric protocol. (b)The characterization of aged leather supports by thermal analysis methods. It was suggested an Analytic Protocol for evaluation of the results obtained by thermal analysis methods (thermogravimetry TG or TGA, differential thermal analysis DTA and differential scanning calorimetry DSC) of the tanned leathers from patrimonial object and new and artificially aged leathers. The specific conditions of performing of these analyses, as well as the characteristic parameters from termograms were given and discussed. The possibility of correlation of these parameters with the degradation degree of leather was put in evidence. The following thermal analysis of some leathers (treated, untreated, thermal aged at 1000C) were performed: TG/ DTG+DSC simultaneous analyses in static air atmosphere, DSC analyses in N2 flow, DSC analyses of samples immersed in water. The obtained results show that the thermal analysis methods are suitable for putting in evidence of the processes that take place at thermal ageing of the leather sorts, as well as of the efficiency of treatments applied for conservation. RESULTS OF THE PROJECT I. Results obtained by thermal analysis methods: ATD, DSC analytic protocol. The thermal analysis methods (TG, DTG and DSC) are used for thermal characterization of leathers at esoscopic level. In this aim, the following thermal analyses are performed: TG/ DTG+DSC simultaneous analyses in static air atmosphere, DSC analyses in N2 flow, DSC analyses of samples immersed in water. The used devices are: STA 409 PC Luxx produced by Netzsch Germany; DSC 204 F1 Phoenix- produced by Netzsch Germany. The conditions of performing these analyses and the characteristic parameters are specified. It was shown

Biomaterials

Sample_days_temperature VC_5_100 C
0

Characteristics Calf leather tanned with CASTAN, aged 120 h, at 1000C Calf leather tanned with MIMOZA, aged 120 h, at 1000C Calf leather tanned with QUEBRACHO, aged 120 h, at 1000C Calf leather tanned with MIMOZA Calf leather tanned with MIMOZA, trated with M (Leder Mavip) Calf leather tanned with MIMOZA, treated with K (Korex 1909) Calf leather tanned with MIMOZA, treated with RD (ICPI lanolin, cedar oil and bee wax) Sheep leather tanned with QUEBRACHO Sheep leather tanned with QUEBRACHO, trated with M (Leder Mavip)) Sheep leather tanned with QUEBRACHO, treated with K (Korex 1909) Sheep leather tanned with QUEBRACHO, tratat cu RD (ICPI lanolin, cedar oil and bee wax) The research was financed by the PN II Programme, contract 91_012/2007 (7008 / 2007).

VM_5_1000C VQ_5_100 C
0

VM-initial_5_1000C VM-M_5_100 C
0

VM-K_5_1000C VM-RD_5_100 C
0

OQ-initial_5_1000C OQ-M_5_100 C
0

OQ-K_5_1000C OQ-RD_5_1000C

Table 1. Leather sorts and duration of thermal aging

PAGINA 72 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 73

Projects
B04
Developing a new method of treatment of bone defects using mezenchimal stem cells and biocompatible composite material (BIOSTEM) characterization: XRD, TG / DTG / DTA; biological characterization- biocompatibility testing, in vitro test, for ceramic compounds (made from consortium partners; biocompatibility testing of hybrid nano-composites COL / -TCP-vitro tests (cell viability and proliferation) - made by the consortium partners; exploitation of the obtained research results: publication of scientific articles in professional journals with ISI profile, and participation at national/international conferences. The main results obtained are listed below: Mg,Zn-TCP compounds with substitutions: (fig.1, fig.2, fig.3) Biphasic compound HAP/TCP, 70/30, (fig.4) (XRD diffraction pattern) Viability and cell proliferation for TCP ceramic powders (fig.6) Kinetic of cell proliferation (fig.5) Cell morphology (fig.7) Colagen-TCP composites (fig.8) Conclusions: -TCP resorption properties correlate well with the microstructure. Incorporation of Mg2+ ions in the structure does not influence the formation of the compound, structural changes are just at the elementary cell having a stabilization phase valuable; results of in vitro experiments show that -TCP in the culture medium is not a disturbing factor, the osteoblastic cell development is normal, retaining their morphology.

Research staff of the project Tardei Christu - CSIII, project manager Budrugeac Petre - CS I; Alecu Georgeta - CS I; Spataru Maria - CSIII Bogdan Florentina - ACS; Petrache Marian - Techn.; Nicolaescu Elena - Tehn.; PROJECT ABSTRACT Objective of the project:-developing new biotechnologies for obtaining bioactive implants consisting of mezenchimal stem cells (MSC) embedded in the human-based media component composite biocompatible matrix (COL, GAG) and calcium phosphates (HA, TCP) in order to identify optimal methods treatment of bone defects. The project addresses the real needs of a party, but a category of people, not necessarily suffering, rather for the care and maintenance of health. The complexity of the project objectives and planned activities contribute significantly to the development of knowledge in a field of great current interest and national and international, with updates on the impact area, category of material involved, fabrication conditions and modern technology, and last but not least, modes of characterization and biological evaluation as well as opportunities for clinical implementation of medical devices to be made. So, the main activities will focus on research and development of medical devicesbioresorbable ceramic biomaterials, complex characterization and their laboratory conditions (in vitro) testing, in according to protocols provided by EU rules, in accordance with the moral code of ethics. Scientific objectives of this stage: thematic information update; experiments to achieve ceramic compounds based on calcium phosphate, r =1.5 ... 1.67, with and without isomorphic substitutions of Mg2 + and Zn2+ ions; developing compounds ceramics: hydroxyapatite (HAP) and biphasic (HAP / -TCP) compounds; test preparation groups (hybrid composite preparation and evaluation of their biocompatibility); characterization of ceramic compounds, compositionally and microstructurally; dissemination and exploitation of the main scientific results obtained during this stage. RESULTS OF THE PROJECT Main results: ceramics compounds based on tricalcium phosphate with multiple substitutions of Mg2+ and Zn2+ ions like Mg,Zn-Ca3 (PO4)2; ceramic compounds based on calcium phosphates: hydroxyapatite (HAP) and biphasic (HAP / -TCP) compounds; characterization of ceramic compounds: physicochemical

Biomaterials

Fig. 4. Biphasic compound HAP/TCP , 70/30

Fig. 5. Kinetic of cell proliferation

Fig. 6. Viability and cell proliferation for TCP ceramic powders

Fig. 7.Optical microscopy image of control culture and -TCP c sample, after 72 hours of grown

Fig. 8.Cell viability of osteoblasts cultured on the COL / -TCP media

Acknowledgments Thanks to the staff of the SEM measurements of METAV-CD


*

Fig. 1. Mg,Zn-TCP substitutions

compounds

with

Fig. 2. Mg,Zn-TCP substitutions

compounds

with

Fig. 3. SEM micrograph of Mg-TCP-M2 (x 80.000)

The research was financed by PNCDI II Programme, contract 7024/2007

PAGINA 74 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 75

Projects
B05
Bio / non-bio interactions acting in hard tissue iterative design RESULTS OF THE PROJECT Within this project were made: - six experimental models of porous ceramics with pore sizes which are mostly in the range 150-400 microns for PA code and between 200-500 microns in the case of TM code; - Partial characterization of experimental models of material: XRD, TG / DTG / DSC and optical microscopy; - Six works were disseminated in journals and at the scientific meetings in the field.

Research team of the project Eng. Grigore Florentina project manager Prof. Dr. Kappel Wilhelm, Eng. Velciu Georgeta, Eng. Seitan Cristian, Chem. Gavriliu Stefania, Eng. Lungu Magdalena, Chem. Petru Budrugeac, Eng. Christu Tardei, Phys. Hodorogea Silvia, Eng. Bogdan Florentina, Techn. Mariana Petrache, Techn. Zoicas Doina, Techn. Vlad Dorina, Dr. Eng. Spataru Maria, Techn. Mariana Petrache, Techn. Nicolaescu Elena

Biomaterials

PROJECT ABSTRACT Porous ceramic biomaterials have an important place in reconstructive medicine, and really knowing and understanding the complex interactions, that occur between biological system and tissue substitute material and profound knowledge about the processing, is actually the ,,key in shaping of the artificial systems capable of effectively substitute any bone tissue. They are found in a variety of types with different sizes, shapes and chemical compositions; are attractive because there are various methods of obtaining, sterilization and storage of materials is done without problems and no risk of disease transmission. Highly porous ceramic biomaterials are also desirable for easy diffusion of nutrients and a good vascularisation, which are major

requirements for tissue regeneration. In case of a bone defect was determined experimental, that bone tissues regeneration is more efficient is filled with porous matrix based on phosphate material with interconnected pores. A large surface promotes adhesion and cell growth, and a large pore volume required for host and subsequent release of the cells, sufficient for tissue repair. Within this project, P2 - INCDIE ICPECA was like general objective, the synthesis and partial characterization of the experimental model based on calcium phosphate. Were prepared and studied six experimental models of porous ceramic models: Porous experimental model -TCP cod PA and TM; Porous experimental model HAp cod PA and TM; Porous experimental model biphasic -TCP+Hap cod PA and TM.

Fig. 1. Porous ceramic structure

The research was financed by PNCDI II Programme, contract no 41-059.P2/2007 (7023/2007)

PAGINA 76 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 77

Projects
B06
Acievement of new biomaterials with doped supramolecular collagen structures, having piezo-electric, crystal liquid, electric and magnetic properties, useful in bio-engineering scanning on two perpendicular axes. A micro-displacement (micro-actuation) specific characteristic of a PE3 collagen membrane with inverse piezo-electric effect microactuator is shown in Fig. 3. The characteristic has been obtained using an AGILENT (2007) interferometer, with a 2nm resolution, doing 3 random successive commutations at a voltage of 300 V, these permitting micro-actuation maximums of ~ 500 nm, the microactuator sensitivity being of . The functional domains of collagen actuatorsare the following: - Microdisplacements of 10nm- 2microns, - Microforces of 5mN 20 cN, - Sensitivities: 0.5nm/V 2.5 nm/V, - Electrical Voltages: 5V 400V.

Research staff of the project Dr. Chem Budrugeac Petru project manager Dr. Eng.Mircea Ignat; Dr. Eng.Gabriela Hristea; Dr. Eng.Ioan Puflea, drd. Eng.George Zarnescu; drd. Eng.Gabriela Telipan; Eng. Laurentiu Catanescu; Dr. Chem. Stefanescu Carmen; Dr. Chem. Branzea Diana; Dr. Chem. Cucos Andrei PROJECT ABSTRACT The main objectives of the research performed in INCDIE ICPE-CA were: Thermal characterization of some matrixes and membranes of collagen with phosphorilated dextran, which are compatible with osteopath cells; The study of the surface of collagen membrane; The study of the piezoelectric effects; Achievement of some sensors and actuators. RESULTS OF THE PROJECT A. Characterization of BIOMATCOL samples by DSC The biomaterials were prepared by ICPI- Bucuresti, starting from gels 1% collagen and 5% phosphorilated dextran (BPDex), with different substitution degree. The matrixes and membranes were obtained from these gels. The samples differ by the kind of phosforilated dextran. Among the matrixes and membranes exist differences of drying, namely the matrixes were dried by liophilization, while the membranes were dried in free atmosphere. Addionaly, the collagen membranes contains glycerin. DSC analyses DSC analyses were performed in N2 flow. The used device was DSC 204 F1 Phoenix- produced by Netzsch Germany. The obtained results were given in the Report: DSC analyses in N2 flow for BIOMATCOL samples The obtained results put in evidence the dependencies of thermal parameters on the sample composition and the heterogeneity of the investigated samples. B. Develop sensors and actuators based on selected for this purpose ME Investigations were performed on different types of collagen membranes on surface roughness and topography using optical microscope interference VEECO NT 1100. In Fig. 1 the image of a collagen membrane PE3 is presented. In Fig. 2 the profile of a 30% paw membrane is shown, with specific parameters of roughness with

Biomaterials

Fig. 2. The roughness obtained using the VEECO NT 1100 microscope of the surface of a paw30% collagen membrane

Fig. 3. A feature microactuatie (micro-motion) of a collagen membrane obtained with an interferometric PE3 AGILENT within Micro-Nano-Electrotechnologies Department.

Fig. 1. PE3 membrane surface profile that contains collagen.

The research has been financed through the PN II programme, contract 71_174 (7029/2007).

PAGINA 78 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 79

Projects
B07
Rheological characterization of microfluidic Biochip for NE-Newtonian fluids with applications in diagnosis and treatment The model used has two approaches: fluid dynamics in the volume considered is determined by solving the equation of continuity and the Navier-Stokes equations for 2D case, in terms of speed and pressure; determined the magnetic scalar potential in the volume of interest of continuity of Maxwells equation. This approach allows assessment of particle trajectories in magnetic and hydrodynamic forces. Thus, the magnetic particles are modelled as point masses traversing the given volume. In developing the model were negligible inertia and gravity force, interaction with the tube walls and the interaction between particles. Due to the small value of magnetic field gradient (grad B = 100t / m) magnetic force decreases rapidly with distance. Because the magnetic material particles, magnetization induced by external field is proportional to the cube of particle radius. Thus under the simultaneous action of hydrodynamic force and the magnetic particles acquire different speeds and at a time t+t keep their position no longer parabolic shape on fluid flow (Fig.1). If the particles are inserted into centre tube can be calculate new position at different times t+t. If the magnetic force exceeds a certain threshold value to compensate for the hydrodynamic force, particles will have a trajectory that ends at the tube surface, depending on the length of the beam particle trajectories and their susceptibility. An analysis of particle trajectories gives us an idea of the variation of particle concentration even for a variation of the radius of a few tens of nanometres. Magnetic force is strong enough can concentrate particles towards the target, provided that their integration to take place nearby.

Research staff of the project PhDs. Phys. Jenica Neamtu project manager PhDs. Eng. Theodora Malaeru, PhDs. Eng. Gabriela Georgescu, Eng. Cristian Morari, Eng. Ionut Balan, Technician Adriana Dinu trajectory in human tissues under the influence of magnetic field and trajectory modelling nanoparticles. Analysis of mathematical model can reveal changing magnetic particle trajectories using a external magnetic field to achieve the desired target. Because magnetic configuration, the particles are easily handled by placing a magnet next to the tumour. Comparing with experimental data it seems that 2D model is sufficiently accurate to calculate the place where it is deposited particles depending on their scope, intensity and applied magnetic field or gradient, but their magnetic properties. With increasing magnetic field intensity and magnetic particle beam or magnetization their saturation, increases the probability that the particles to reach its target, while the blood velocity acts as a force that opposes that accumulation. With increasing number of particles or their agglomeration is not observed a significant increase in the probability of reaching the target, but may reveal that a magnetic interaction (magnetic coupling) between particles increases system performance.

Biomaterials

PROJECT ABSTRACT In view of sustainable development, working conditions and ensuring healthy living population-diagnoses and medical treatments are very important. Diagnosis and treatment methods are very different, may be more or less patient friendly. The development of diagnostic methods and patient friendly treatment, with special advantage, a particular role can have microfluidic b i o - c h i p s which can characterize biological fluids rheological non-Newtonian. Bio-chips development involves the development of microfluidic magnetic nanoparticles, biocompatible. ICPE-CA INCDIE role as partner in this project is to create and characterize magnetic nanoparticles used in the production of magnetic nanotransporters. RESULTS OF THE PROJECT The project has developed a mathematical model for particle

Fig.2. Particles trajectory along the tube

Particle velocity (m/s)


Fig.1. Spied particles in a tube under the simultaneous action of hydrodynamic and magnetic force

The research was financed by PNCDI II, contract 12-094 (7053/2008).

PAGINA 80 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 81

Projects
B08
Breathable superhydrophobe nanostructures Project co-ordinator: INCDTP oligodynamic bioactivity. T echnical characteristics of the NpAg/MeO suspensions: zeta potential: -32.24-29.38 mV; high degree of finesse and dispersion of the components; broad antimicrobial spectrum; photocatalytic and self-cleaning properties dispersible in water; biocompatible and ecological. Patent: - S. Gavriliu, M. Lungu, E. Enescu, Composite nanostructures of silver- metallic oxide type with antimicrobial activity and procedure for their obtaining, CBI OSIM no. A/01079 / 23.12.2009. Published ISI article: - S. Gavriliu, M. Lungu, F. Grigore, N. Buruntia, C. Groza, New composite powders with high antifungal properties, OAM RC, vol. 3, issue 8, Aug. 2009, p. 795 - 799, ISSN 1842-6573, ISI impact factor in 2009 = 0.451. - S. Gavriliu, M. Lungu, E. Enescu, F. Grigore, C. Ionescu, Stable colloidal silver solutions for different applications, OAM RC, vol. 3, issue 6, June 2009, p. 634 637, ISSN 1842-6573, ISI impact factor in 2009 = 0.451. Published articles in international database: - S. Gavriliu, M. Lungu, L.C Gavriliu, F. Grigore, C. Groza, Antimicrobial Colloidal Suspensions of Silver-Titania, The Open Chemical and Biomedical Methods Journal, 2009, vol. 2, p. 77 85, ISSN 1875-0389. - C. Ciobanu, S. Gavriliu, M. Lungu, L. C. Ciobanu, Polyurethane Gel with Silver Nanoparticles for the Treatment of Skin Diseases, The Open Chemical and Biomedical Methods Journal, 2 (2009), p. 86 90, ISSN 1875-0389. Published articles in other volumes: - S. Gavriliu, M. Lungu, E. Enescu, C. Groza, Composite powders of Ag-TiO2 type for antibacterial treatments of some textiles having medical applications, Proceedings of Int. Conf. T ex T eh II, 7 8.05.2009, Bucharest, Romania, p. 119 124, ISBN 978-973-1716-46-6.

Research staff of the project Dr. Chem. Gavriliu Stefania project manager, CS I Dr. Eng. Lungu Magdalena, IDT II; Dr. Eng. Enescu Elena, CS I; Dr. Eng. Lucaci Mariana, CS I; Chem. Petica Aurora, IDT I; Biol. Buruntia Nicoleta, CS III; Chem Lungu Paula, IDT II; Dr. Eng. Faur Maria, CS II; Dr. Eng. Tsakiris Violeta, CS II; Drd. Eng. Grigore Florentina, IDT III; Phys. Leonat Lucia, CS; Eng Chem. Bratulescu Alexandra, CS. PROJECT ABSTRACT The project aims to research and achieve some superhydrophobe nanostructures of breathable bacterial barrier type, especially for the medical field, to ensure maximum protection for patients and users, high hygiene/ microbiological standards and wearing comfort. Objective I.1. Design and selection of nanoparticles; Objective I.2. Materials design and technologies for achievement of materials of breathable bacterial barrier type; Objective I.3. Design and selection of biological/clinical tests; Objective I.4. - Elaboration of the experimental models and of the new solutions for products; Objective II.1. - Synthesis of biocide composite nanoparticles and physical-chemical and antifungal characterization; Objective II.2. Deposition of hidrofobine self-assembled nanolayers on textile materials; Objective II.3. - Inclusion of nanoparticles in hidrofobines; Objective II.4. Efficient bacteriological and thermal-physiological assessment; Objective II.5. - Selection and optimisation of technologies; Objective II.6. - Dissemination of the results. INCDIE ICPE-CA is the P2 partner of the project and was involved in the accomplishment of the Objectives I.1., I.4., II.1., II.5. and II.6. RESULTS OF THE PROJECT Theoretical and experimental study on the achievement possibilities of some concentrated and stable colloidal suspensions of bioactive silver nanoparticles (NpAg) and of NpAg/MeO (MeO = TiO2, ZnO, CuO) nanocomposite powders suspensions. Study on existing biocides and whose use is restricted according to the Directive 98/8/EEC that is in force since 2000. 2D and 3D coupling models of the molecules of dispersants/stabilizers with ions of Ag+, Zn2+, NpAg, NpMeO and with the DNA from the bacterial cell. Chemical synthesis method for obtaining of colloidal solutions of Ag (SCAg), suspensions and powders of NpAg/MeO type with a high content of NpAg. Experimental models (ME) of: SCAg: 57.72 ppm Ag, 100 ppm Ag, 600 ppm Ag, 923 ppm Ag, 1065 ppm Ag; NpAg/MeO (MeO = TiO2, ZnO) suspensions: 5 % MeO and 75 ppm Ag, 5 % MeO and 750 ppm Ag; NpAg/CuO colloidal suspension: 100 ppm CuO and 436 ppm Ag. T echnical characteristics of the SCAg: NpAg average diameter: max. 10 nm; high stability of the solution (zeta potential: -49.83-35.21 mV); absorption in UV-Vis spectrum at = 404421 nm high antimicrobial activity; regenerative properties;

Biomaterials

Fig. 4. UV-Vis absorption spectra of the SCAg of 923 ppm Ag and of the NpAg/CuO suspension.

Fig. 5. Grain size distribution of the NpAg.

Fig. 6. Grain size distribution of the NpAg/TiO2.

Fig. 7. Grain size distribution of the NpAg/ZnO.

Fig. 8. Zeta potential of the SCAg.

Fig. 9. Zeta potential of the NpAg/TiO2 suspension.

Fig. 10. Zeta potential of the NpAg/ZnO suspension

Fig. 11. TEM image of the NpAg.

Fig. 12. TEM image of the NpAg/TiO2.

Fig. 1. UV-Vis absorption spectrum of the SCAg of 57.72 ppm Ag

Fig. 2. UV-Vis reflectance spectra of the powders of NpTiO2 and NpAg/TiO2 with 1.46 % NpAg.

Fig. 3. UV-Vis reflectance spectra of the powders of NpZnO and NpAg/ZnO with 1.4 % NpAg.

The research was financed by the PNCDI II PARTNERSHIPS programme, contract 32-168/2008 (contract 7061/2008).
Fig. 13. TEM image of the NpAg/ZnO.

PAGINA 82 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 83

Projects
B09
Cell response as tool in translational science. Drug-design through antitumoral cell mechanisms induced by physiological complexes of transitional bivalent metals (DDMECEL) DTG curves, as well as by endothermal or exothermal peaks in the DTA curves. Figures 4 and 5 show the thermograms of two of the six analyzed coordination compounds. c) The temperatures at which the complex compounds start to decompose are much lower (about 100oC) that those for the pure ligands. d) In the case of the complexes formed with the ligand L1, the decomposition ends at higher temperatures that those for the pure ligand.

Research staff of the project PhD Chem. Petru Budrugeac project manager PhD Chem. Carmen Stefanescu, Chem. Aurora Petica, Eng. Paula Prioteasa PROJECT ABSTRACT The concern of producing new drugs which could act more targets on the tumour cells is of permanent topicality. The projects aim is the developing of new approaches of drug design based on the analysis of the treatment response of the cells. The projects objectives are the synthesis of transitional bivalent metal complexes, the identification and the selection of those compounds which exhibit antitumoral activity. Two thiosemicarbazonetype ligands L1 and L2, and six Cu(II) and Pd(II) complexes bearing these ligands were characterized through TG, DTG, DSC (or DTA) thermal analysis. Complicated decomposition processes due to the ligands coordination to metal ions were put in evidence. RESULTS OF THE PROJECT The following compounds were analyzed: two thiosemicarbazone-type ligands L1 and L2 (Fig. 1), and six Cu(II) and Pd(II) complexes bearing these ligands. The aim of TG, DTG, DSC (or DTA) measurements was to determine the thermal stability of the ligands and their complexes on heating in controlled atmosphere. The analysis of these compounds revealed the following: a) By progressively heating the ligands L1 and L2, two steps are observed in the TG curve (Fig. 2 and 3). The first process is the melting of the ligands, at temperatures slightly above 200oC, followed immediately by the decomposition onset. Both the melting and the decomposion processes are characterised by endothermal peaks in the DTA curve. b) In the case of Cu(II) and Pd(II) complexes, the processes occurring on progressive heating are complicated and this could be due the changes in the decomposition mechanisms as a result of the ligands coordination to metal ions. The recorded thermograms put in evidence a number of four to seven steps in the TG curves, the most being accompanied by numerous peaks in the

Biomaterials

Fig. 2 TG, DTG, DTA curves of the ligand L1

Fig. 3. TG, DTG, DTA curves of the ligand L2

Fig. 4. TG, DTG, DTA curves of the sample L1 + CuSO4

Fig. 5. . TG, DTG, DTA curves of the sample L2 + Cu(CH3COO)2

Fig. 1. Ligands L1 and L2

The research was financed by the PN II Programme, contract 42_128/2008 (7073 / 2008).

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2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 85

3.1.3 Energy

Projects
Technical study in the first part of the project includes: elements of state of the art in electric machines with dual excitation at two distinct active air gaps, design description, performance, benefits; construction principle and functional description of low-power synchronous generator with double excitation, proposed in the project specific theoretical elements, compared with other types of electric machines. New electric machine solution, called double excited with the generator or motor role in synchronous or DC version, removes the disadvantages mentioned rethinking ring-wound construction of the armature in that of a ferromagnetic yoke armature, hollow cylinder is equipped spiral-wound coil sides with conductive or shower on the outside and conductors or coil sides of return on the inside, and is flanked with bilateral double inductor magnetic poles. The constructive solution suggest a synchronous machine with two active radial air gaps with a special geometry and two separate inductors, double excitation achieved with the use of high energy permanent magnets (rare earth-based) and / or electromagnets. Technical design work done in this phase includes construction of principle and describe the components of low-power synchronous generator with double excitation, proposed the project, raw data and calculations for sizing to achieve the actual target. Electric machines with double excitation are practically a special class of electric machines, with a correlation electro-magnetic power speed overall size, and electromagnetic power speed mass different from classic machines, which results of more efficient use of interior volume of electric machine. It can be mentioned the following important advantages: Size and mass reduced compared with conventional electric machines, especially in the multipole low speed. Judicious use of the central area, virtually unused for effectiveness in energy conversion, especially at low speed electric cars multipole; Possible combination of fixed excitation by permanent magnets with adjustable excitation by electromagnets, magnetic circuits corresponding to those two sections as separate inductors; Higher degree of compactness and lower cost price of the electric machine compared to conventional low speed multipole equivalent in terms of conversion capacity.

E01

Increase of efficiency of equipments and processes for conversion of energy from renewable resources. Low-power electric generator with double excitation

Research staff of the project PhDs. Dorian Marin project manager Ph.Ds. Sergiu Nicolaie; Ph.Ds. Gheorghe Mihaiescu; Eng. Cristinel Ilie; Eng. Marius Popa; techn. Marius Miu; techn. Florin Sorescu and low operational speeds led to the prospect of excessive diameter multipole synchronous generators. As for the ring winding conductors are possible alternatives to the flat ferromagnetic yoke, and conducting notches. Original construction project involves a synchronous electric generator with dual excitation and armature winding ring. The solution is characterized by a high compactness of assembly and increased efficiency of utilization of active materials, the equivalent electromechanical parameters of existing machines. PROJECT RESULTS The main objective has led the team involved in this project refers to the situation of electrical machines with single excitation, achieved with electromagnets or permanent magnets, for example synchronous generators for wind and hydro power, low speed rotor shaft without mechanical speed multiplier which has the disadvantage of excessively large diameters in the air gap, given that the center of construction is an important space not utilized and only partially occupied by crown spokes supporting the rotor.

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ABSTRACT PROJECT A current challenge in synchronous machines acting as generators is their use in modern wind power plants. Current constructions without intermediate speed multiplier and low speed of wind rotor caused the development of multipole synchronous generators with large diameters and less favorable consequences in the radial gauge and optimum use of interior space power tool. The paper first reviews the proposed industrial building electric car known as the winding machine ring. New character is determined by the double excitation and active function of both conductors, shower and back respectively, of the ring armature (the solution was returned passively known conductor). Mentioned are the highest utilization of the upper armature and the possibility and excitation mixed permanent magnets and electromagnets (i.e. adjustable). The solution can bring benefits, for example, large modern wind power plants, where speed multiplier waiver

Fig. 2. Working principle of electric machine with dual excitation

Fig. 3. Dual excitation electrical generator assembly

Fig. 1. Principle components of a machine with dual excitation

The research was financed by the NUCLEU Programme, contract 5201 / 2009

PAGINA 86 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 87

Projects
E02
Increase of efficiency of equipments and processes for conversion of energy from renewable resources. High speed electrical machine the same volume. Maximum efficiency of the active volume. c. A computing algorithm for a 5 kW, 6000 rpm permanent magnet synchronous generator. Conventional structure. d. The project of a tri-phase power source, with variable frequency, of 5.5 kW. e. Aspects concerning the dynamic balance of the high speed electrical machines for establishing the specific procedures. The purpose is the approach of generator or motor types on applications like: generators in the expansion systems at the methane exploitation within the oil carrier or power motors for the ventilators or centrifuges necessary for the water purification systems. 2. Computing and dimensional elements of the high speed electrical machines The phase contains: a. Elements of design of high speed asynchronous machines and their performances; b. Distinctive factors of performance of the high speed asynchronous machines (MAS124000 rpm); c. Elements of thermal computing; d. Aspects concerning the electrical stresses. e. The situation of the construction of the high speed asynchronous machine. Mentionable that the prototype for the high speed asynchronous machine, reversed construction was finished. There was realized a prototype of high speed asynchronous generator, reversed construction, (MAS-1-24000), with the following characteristics (Table 1). The generator will be used at the system of saturated expansion energy retrieving of the natural gases with the production of electric energy, using the screw turbine.

Research staff of the project PhDs. Victor Stoica project manager Constantin Bala Prof. PhDs. Eng., Member of the Romanian Technical Academy; Mircea Ignat CS I; Ioan Puflea CS II; Lucian Pslaru-Dnescu IDT III; Nicolae Stancu IDT I; Doina Paraschiv CS III; Laurentiu Catanescu ACS; Iulius Popovici IDT I; Filofteia Fotea T1; Clara Hender ACS; Ion Tinca T1 PROJECT ABSTRACT This document represents the synthesis stage of the first two phases elaborated within the NUCLEU project (in the year 2009) referring to the electromagnetic phenomena in the materials and components of the high speed electric machines. The making of electric machines (generators and motors) at high speed and the identification of specific technologies. 1. Main documents: The study is based on the following elements: 1) Present Romanian norms and standards 2) IEC International Standards and Technical Reports 3) Results of the research of the Prof. Constantin BALA 4) Basic work in the specialty 2. Summary of the phases: Phase I: Technical study, Conception Phase objective: Study concerning the high speed electrical machines. Phase II: Computing and dimensioning elements of the experimental model. Phase objective: Design elements REZULTS PROJECT 1. Technical study of the high speed electrical machines The phase contains: a. Introduction in the domain of high speed electrical machines (higher than 3000 rpm) with the identification of the specific technological. b. Computing elements of a squirrel cage asynchronous machine of 1 kW and 22500 rpm, (powered with 3 x 220 V, and frequency of 400 Hz), reversed construction, with exterior rotor and interior stator, on which the introducing of the winding connections is made through the axle. This type of construction is favorable in the situation of a generator; through the action of the exterior rotor, the ensuring of a maximum inertia moment and of a kinetic moment at

ENERGY

Table 1 Rated power Type of cooling Rated voltage Rated current Synchronism rotating speed Frequency Efficiency Power factor Number of pair of poles 1 kW Natural 3 x 220 V 5A 24000 rpm 400 Hz 0.8 0.7 1

Fig. 1. The generator completely assembled and painted

The research was financed by AMCSIT through the contract no. PN 0935 0201/2009 (5201/2009)

PAGINA 88 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 89

Projects
E03
Increase of efficiency of equipments and processes for conversion of energy from renewable resources. Researches for optimization of anaerobic digesters operation in biogas plants

Research staff of the project PhDs. Carmen Mateescu, CS project manager Dr. Ioana Ion, CS III; Ph.D. Corina Alice Babutanu, CS; Nicolae Stancu, IDT I

ENERGY

PROJECT ABSTRACT The activities planned to be carried out under the 2009 project stages were focused on researches concerning the followings: Selection and sizing of the proper biogas system function of the biomass type; Identification of high methanogenic potential biomass; Selecting of high microbial content biomass as inoculum material; Identification of the physical, chemical, biological and operational monitoring parameters to ensure the stability of the anaerobic digestion. RESULTS OF THE PROJECT Elaboration of a methodology for selecting of biomass mixtures in accordance with their physical and chemical characteristics (organic loading, carbon/nitrogen ratio, solids and TOC content, acidity); Elaboration of a methodology for selecting and sizing a biogas plant

function of the organic substrate; Theoretical study and experimental researches regarding the microbiology and biochemistry of the anaerobic digestion processes; Selecting of the inoculum material which can give a rapid, effective and low cost methanogenesis process by performing a comparative microbiological analysis of biomass type sewage sludge and cow manure; The assessment of acidogens and methanogens has been carried on using the MPN statistical method, function of the positives tubes; Request for Patent no. A01046/14.12.2009 Sewage sludge treatment procedure for enhancing the activity of methanogens Elaboration of 5 scientifical papers, for national and international conferences and workshops.

Fig. 1. Incubation for determination of the biomass microbial content

Specimen

Sewage sludge

Cow manure

Acidogens Methanogens

1.5 x 105 cells/ml

> 9.9 x 106 cells/ml

6.4 x 104 cells/ml

3.8 x 102 cells/ml

Table 1 Biomass microbial content

This research was performed under the Nucleu Programme, contract no. 0935/2009 (5201/2009)

PAGINA 90 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 91

Projects
E04
Estimations of energetic losses under periodic non-sinusoidal and non-symmetric steady-states on electrical power systems with a view to save electric energy and to decrease environment pollution through its effects, and the responsible ones are, mainly, non-linear consumers. It is justified to be followed separately the powers circulation on the main harmonic, and of the rest of the power, which corresponds with the rest of the harmonics. Thus, there can be defined: The active power output, which is the one of the fundamental harmonic: To make things clearer, there will be considered a system constituted of an ideal generator G (with the intern impedance zero and which produces at the terminals a perfect sinusoidal voltage), a transportation electrical power grid RT (with impedance) and two consumers, of which one is a linear consumer RL, and the other non-linear RN Fig. 1. In consequence: The distorted receivers, which represent the cause of the supplementary losses corresponding to the superior harmonics, dont register these ones, because the wattmeter (the electric meter, respectively) registers only the total power PRN= PURN- PDRN. The non-distorted receivers, which dont represent the cause of the supplementary losses corresponding to the superior harmonics, register both the output power and the superior harmonic power, which is, generally speaking, harmful PRL= PURL+ PDRL. Also, the electrical power network itself adds supplementary damages. The electric active energy meters installed at the two consumers register the time integrals of the active powers. This is the present situation in power engineering, although it favors the bad consumers (distorted consumers, which pollute the electric power grid), to the detriment of the good consumers (the linear ones). 2. The energetic effects of the non-symmetric steady states. The study of the energetic effects of the nonsymmetric steady-state has fundamentally a single criterion: the preservation of the active and reactive powers both global and especially on each frequency (symmetrical component) separately. To the bottom of the method of the non-symmetric

Research staff of the project Ioan Puflea CS II project manager Andrei ugulea Prof. Dr. Doc. Active member of the Romanian Academy; Cezar Fluerau Prof. Dr.; Iosif Lingvay CS I; Mircea Ignat CS I; Lucian Pslaru-Dnescu IDT III; Victor Stoica ACS; Zrnescu George CS; Clara Hender Student year III Environment; Filofteia Fotea T1

P U = U 1 I1 cos 1

(1)

ENERGY

PROJECT ABSTRACT This document is the final phase, a synthesis of the four previous phases of the present contract destined to the estimation of the energetic losses and other effects of the periodic nonsinusoidal and nonsymmetric steadystates on electrical power systems. 1. Basic documents: The studies are based on: 1) Present Romanian norms and standards 2) IEC International Standards and Technical Reports 3) Results of the research of the Prof. A. Tugulea 4) Basic work in the specialty 2. Synthesis of the previous phases Phase I - Basic theory of periodic nonsinusoidal and non-symmetric steadystates on electrical power systems Main elements: Criteria for electric power quality. Internal theory for periodic non-sinusoidal and non-magnetic steady-states. Phase II - Present structure of the electric power systems and identifying the strong non-sinusoidal/nonsymmetric receptors. Criteria for electric power quality in the harmonics pollution. Main elements: Criteria for electric power quality are the voltage supply quality. N o n - s i n u s o i d a l / n o n - sy m m et r i c classification of equipments is: equipment with electromagnetic field effect and equipment without electromagnetic field effect. Their framing into an electric circuit is made by Radulets theorem the draft of electromagnetic circuit element.

The single-phase and tri-phase equipment are described by the numerical simulations; its used the RESEL programme. Phase III A theoretical study of phenomenon which yields periodic non-sinusoidal/nonsymmetrical steadystates. A computing model for distorting losses. Main elements: Implementation of energetic distorting coefficients for supplementary losses computing. Its computed the distorting coefficient for the circular cylinder conductor and for the bimetallic conductor simplified model of stranded conductor. Phase IV Measurement methods for power flows under the periodic nonsinusoidal/non-symmetric steadystates of electrical power system. The structure of a data acquisition system for the power flows monitoring and for the energy tariff. Main elements: General theoretical aspects concerning the electromagnetic power-flows under periodic nonsinusoidal/nonsymmetrical steadystates. The theory is based on the powers decomposition into the orthogonal components (harmonics, respectively symmetric) and the separated study of their power-flows The obtained conclusions are applied to the existing methods of measurement of the losses. Some practical suggestions concerning new possible methods of measurement are proposed in the end. RESULTS PROJECT 1. Energetic effects of the nonsinusoidal steady-state. The presence of the harmonics can be looked at as a pollution of the grid,

The distorting residue of the active power, which is the power for all the harmonics, except the fundamental:

PD = P - P 1 = U k I k cos k
k =2

(2)

This distorting residue represents the global effects of pollution by harmonics. Because the active power is conservative both global and on the harmonics, results that both the output power and the distorted residue of the power are conservative, which can be expressed in the following forms: The output power produced by the generators is equal to the output power absorbed by the consumers. The distorted residue of the active power produced by the generators is equal to the one absorbed by the consumers. The reactive power can be dealt with in the same way. In the following, we will limit ourselves to the following of the active powers, but the conclusions can be expended for the reactive power, too.

Fig. 1. The circulation of the powers in an electrical network in a non-sinusoidal periodical steady-state

PAGINA 92 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 93

Projects
components lies the Fortescue theorem, according to which a non-symmetric tri-phased methodical system ( V 1 , V 2 , V 3 ), can be expressed as the superposition of three symmetrical components (d direct, i inverse, o - homopolar). There can be considered that: The power on the symmetric direct component is the output power PU. The powers on the other two components represent a distorted residue PD. The two components are preserving, so there can be studied separately each ones circulation. To make things clearer, there will be considered a system constituted of an ideal generator G (with the intern impedance zero and which produces at terminals a direct symmetric voltage), a transportation electrical power grid RT well-balanced and two consumers, of which one is a well-balanced consumer RE, and the other non-balanced RN Fig. 2. Consequently: The non-balanced receivers, which represent the cause of the supplementary losses corresponding to the inverse and homopolar components, dont register these ones, because the wattmeter (the electric meter, respectively), registers only the total power PRN= PURN- PDRN. The balanced receivers, which dont represent the cause of the supplementary losses corresponding to the inverse and homopolar components, registers both the output power (the symmetrical one), and the non-symmetrical power, on the inverse and homopolar components, which is, generally speaking, harmful: PRE= PURE + PDRE. Also, the electric grid itself registers supplementary losses. The electric meters for active energy installed at the two consumer registers the time integrals of the active powers.

E05

Superconducting Electric Motor

Reserch staff of the project Dr. Eng. Ion Dobrin CS II project manager Prof. Dr. Wilhelm Kappel CS I; Dr. Eng. Ioan Puflea CS II; Eng. Nicolae Stancu IDT I; Eng. Stefania Zamfir; Techn. Mircea Ifrim PROJECT ABSTRACT By this research theme is proposed to make an experimental model of superconducting electric motor. This work is included in the National Plan of RDI, for efficient energy conversion and consumption devices realization. For this purpose, there are used the HTS technology and cryogenic temperatures, for creating and operating a superconducting synchronous motor, which is more efficient than classic ones (with copper windings). This means, with reduced volume to 1/3 than classical ones at the same power range, and with a 96-98% efficiency, more silent and more reliable. So, the general objectives of the project are: documentation studies; designing and realization of supercon- ducting coil; experimental studies; superconducting synchronous motor design; -superconducting electric motor construction and testing experimental model. The main scientific results obtained will be published in national scientific conferences and in national and international indexed journals. PROJECT RESULTS The 2009 results from this project are: Stage1. Study world stage. Working down directions. In this stage, three studies were conducted of national interest and a technical study on the special problems of superconducting windings. Stage2. Superconducting coil cryogenic system design - experimental model. Were made in this stage:

ENERGY

Overall

design of superconducting motor and of the cryogenic enclosure. design problems of electric motors. Superconducting electric motor project. system design of superconducting electric motor.

General

Thermal calculus for cryogenic cooling

Fig. 2.The circulation of the powers in a tri-phase electric power grid

The research was financed by TRANSELECTRICA through the contract no. C84/22.05.2008 (1007/2008).

The research was financed by CNMP, under contract no. 22118/2008.

PAGINA 94 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 95

Projects
E06
Nanostructured new materials for hydrogen storage sustained mixing for 30 minutes. In another sink, the hexachloroplatinic acid or iridium chloride or ruthenium chloride is dissolved in 60 ml de-ionized water by ultrasonation in the ultrasonic bath for 15 minutes. The dissolved acid is added to LMWNT and under sustained stirring for one hour, the temperature is maintained at 800C. The resulted mixture is ultrasonated to the ultrasonic gun for 15 minutes. Ths step makes the metal to get into carbon nanotubes. Separately, a formic acid solution in prepared in deionized water and it is added to the initial mixture. The mixing continues for 60 minutes at 800C. The resulted solution is vacuum filtered. The filtrate is then washed with de-ionized water until pH is 7. The filtering eluent is detained separately and neutralizes with aerated salt. Doped nanotubes are separated from the filter paper, are dried in vacuum oven for 1 hour at 1000C and are described. Obtaining polyaniline doped with Pt, Ru and Ir Polyaniline was prepared by chemical oxidation of aniline sulphate with ammonium peroxydisulfate according to the procedure from the speciality literature. Polyaniline made in laboratory was dispersed by ultrasonation for 15 minutes in de-ionized water, resulting a homogeneous suspense. Then the sodium acid carbonate was added over this suspense which then was putted into the ultrasonic bath for 15 minutes. The suspense was then boiled for 30 minutes at 80 o C, under sustained stirring. A hexachloroplatinic acid (Aldrich), iridium chloride or ruthenium chloride solution in de-ionized water was added over the suspense and then the resulted solution was putted on ultrasonation for 15 minutes. Then the resulted solution was boiled for 60 minutes at 80 0C under sustained stirring. A formic acid solution in de-ionized water was added over the initial solution and then was putted into the ultrasonic bath for 10 minutes. After that, the solution was boiled for about 60 minutes at 80 0C under sustained stirring, then it was vacuum filtered and the resulted solid product was washed with de-ionized water until pH was 7. The precipitate was putted under vacuum drying for 60 minutes at 100 0C. The metal upload was considered to be 10%weight.

Research staff of the project Dr. Eng. Gimi Rimbu CS II, Project Manager Prof. Dr. Ioan Stamatin Senior Researcher; Eng. Chem. Mihai Iordoc CS, Researcher; Eng. Chem. Radu Vasilescu-Mirea IDT III, Researcher PROJECT ABSTRACT The projects objective (acronym: HISTOMAT) is to develop new nanostructured materials for hydrogen storage, unstudied largely in the previously projects financed by Romania or the European Union. The resulting materials may be considered hybrid because they combine the large surface with the adjusted porosity of the carbonic materials and hydrogens strong interaction with light metals. Furthermore, the storage processes in these new types of materials present more gentle operating conditions (e.g. temperature and pressure), towards the traditional processes. Thus, the storage process takes place at much higher temperatures than that of liquid hydrogen and at much lowers pressures than that of compressed hydrogen. The performance parameters imposed for the materials which will develop in this project, assure the essence of the present exploratory research project that includes synthesis of these new materials, their description, the basic understanding of interactions between hydrogen and solid and process modeling at solid particle interface. The innovative aspect in HISTOMAT consists of hydrogen distribution processes combination with adequate textural properties (e.g. high / large surface and controlled dimensions of pores) of hybrid materials. Thus, it is expected that these new materials to present a high storage capacity than the existing ones, by avoidance of the low storage capacity by the simple physical adsorption on the carbon, at the same time with solving the low kinetics, inversibility, energy loss and high weight problems of majority of the metallic hydrides. Thereby, HISTOMAT offers opportunities for exploratory researches, in which the proposed materials are new and yet complete uncharted within the research programs from Romania and the European Union, with high potential for hydrogen storage applicability. RESULTS OF THE PROJECT HISTOMAT general objective is to develop new solid materials for hydrogen storage that can lead to an efficient storage system from cost point of view, safe and comfortable with possible onboard storage applications on vehicles. In this respect, applying an innovative research in nanostructured carbonic materials field and their doping with inorganic compounds, will lead to a new nanostructured hybrid material that could combine an appropriate structure of pores (e.g. high surface and high amount of narrow pores) with presence of metals that act to intensify the capacity of these materials to store hydrogen. Therewith, to manage the optimization of the storage capacity of solid materials, synthesis and a description of the studied material must be attended by a basic understanding of the different phenomenon and processes raised during hydrogen retention and liberation, taking also account of the specific operating conditions of materials such as theyre defined by their application. Obtaining MWNT doped with Pt, Ru and Ir To make carbonic structures doped with metal MWNT carbon nanotubes were considered (multi-walled carbon nanotubes), functionalized and then subjected to hexachloroplatinic acid (H2PtCl6), iridium chloride and ruthenium chloride treatment. The metal upload was considered to be 10% weight. Carbon nanotubes are weighted to the analytic balance. The ultrasonic gun is maintained in 50 cm3 de-ionized water for 15 minutes. Ultrasonation is made to break the nanotubes. Then, it is heated at 800C under

ENERGY

Fig. 1. Experimental models of doped carbonic / polymeric nanostructures

The research was financed by PNCDI II - IDEI programme, contract 222/01.10.2007.

PAGINA 96 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 97

Projects
E07
Modul energetic integrat cu puterea de 5 kW pe baz de pile de combustie cadrul INCDIE ICPE-CA, Laboratorul de Pile de Combustie. Pentru experimentarea i evaluarea parametrilor funcionali s-a utilizat standul de testare ElectroChem Test Station: ECL-150 / MTS-150 / HSATC. Standul de testare are posibilitatea controlului presiunii i debitului gazelor combustibile i oxidante (echipament MTS-150), temperaturii i umiditii debitului de oxidant i combustibil la ieirea i intrarea n pila de combustie (echipament HSA-TC). n plus, standul conine o unitate de control a condiiilor de operare a pilei de combustie: temperatura celulei i sarcina electric (echipament ECL 150). Puterea electric debitat de ctre sistemul energetic s-a evaluat prin trasarea curbei de polarizare (sau curba I-V, calibrare de putere etc.), utiliznd un stand de testare manual compus dintr-o rezistent variabil i sunt conectate n serie. Din datele obinute n urma experimentrii funcionale reiese c: Modelul funcional de sistem energetic integrat, elaborat la INCDIE ICPE-CA, are la baz o baterie de 25 celule de combustie. Din experimentrile efectuate, s-a constatat c sistemul debiteaz o putere electric minim de 175W, n condiiile susinerii sistemului de back-up (ca unic consumator - 10A / 17.5V), opernd la 50oC, n condiii de purjare deschis a unui debit de hidrogen de 2,8 4,5 Slpm H2 de puritate 99.999% i debit de oxigen de 2,8 4,5 Slpm oxigen de puritate 99.98%. Parametrii electrici monitorizai n condiiile de experimentare prin cuplarea a doi consumatori de 2 x 200W au fost: tensiunea nominal la puterea debitat: 10V; curentul electric generat la puterea debitat: 40 A. Stack-ul prezint stabilitate n condiii de operare continu sub o ncrcare de curent dat (ex. 15A), ceea ce denot stabilitatea electrozilor fabricai, precum i oportunitatea utilizrii acestui tip de sistem n aplicaii de generare a energiei electrice. Cldura recuperat prin exploatarea bateriei de pile n timpul susinerii sistemului de back-up (ca unic consumator 10A / 17,5V) a fost: Qfc.recuperat = 348Wh. Cldura recuperat prin exploatarea bateriei de pile n timpul conectrii la un consumator de 400W (40A / 10V) a fost: Qfc.recuperat = 1080Wh. Eficiena electric a stack-ului de pile conectat la sistemul de back-up ca unic consumator (10A; 17,5V): Efe = 0,47. Eficiena electric a stack-ului de pile conectat la un consumator de 400W (40A; 10V): Efe = 0,27. Se observ c punctul de putere maxim obinut se situeaz pe o pant ascendent, astfel nct concluzia poate fi c parametrii de performan obinui n acest stadiu al testrii sunt n continu mbuntire i se apropie de cei considerai n activitatea de proiectare: Densitatea de curent la puterea max. preconizat debitat: 450 mA/cm2; Tensiunea nominal la puterea max. preconizat debitat: 500 mV / celul. De asemenea, stack-ul prezint stabilitate n condiii de operare continu sub o ncrcare de curent dat, ceea ce denot stabilitatea electrozilor fabricai, precum i oportunitatea utilizrii acestui tip de sistem n aplicaii de generare a energiei electrice. Datele experimentale confirm c modelul funcional de sistem energetic integrat pe baz de celule de combustie, realizat la INCDIE ICPE-CA, corespunde parametrilor stabilii la proiectare, att geometrici, ct i funcionali.

Personal de cercetare al proiectului Dr. Ing. Gimi Rmbu Responsabil proiect Ing. Fiz. Iulian Iordache; Ing. Chim. Radu Vasilescu Mirea; Ing. Chim. Alexandru Teianu; Ing. Chim. Adela Br; Ing. Chim. Mihai Iordoc Ing. Chim. Elena Petrache; Prof. Dr. Ioan Stamatin; Ec. Mariana Crstea

ENERGIE

PROJECT ABSTRACT Obiective generale urmrite: S determine creterea competenelor tehnologice i s promoveze transferul tehnologic i de know-how n domeniul energiei, n condiii de calitate, siguran n alimentare; S expun cerce ttorii unei culturi antreprenoriale i industriale i s stimuleze parteneri atele, n scopul abordrii creerii de produse i tehnologii curate, precum cea a pilelor de combustie; S asigure cercettorilor deprinderi fundamentale tiinifice i specifice n proiectarea, construcia, testarea, optimizarea, modelarea i analiza performanelor unui modul energetic pe baz de pile de combustie; S dezvolte competene care s permit cercettorilor s devin mult mai eficieni n comunicare i diseminare; S dezvolte deprinderi sociale, etice, tiinifice i antreprenoriale care s permit cercettorilor s abordeze problemele unei dezvoltri durabile ale tehnologiei pilelor de combustie; S promoveze utilizarea pilelor de combustie pentru aplicaii staionare, la nivelul caselor i comunitilor locale, comunitilor industriale i comerciale; Diseminarea noilor cunotine acumulate, n domeniul tehnologiei pilelor de combustie, ctre comunitatea tiinific, IMM-uri i organizaiile industriale, n sensul promovrii knowhow-lui i transferului tehnologic; S contribuie la strategia pregtirii specialitilor tineri romni n domeniul surselor alternative i regenerabile de energie, n scopul creterii competitivitii C&D i dezvoltrii durabile n domeniu, ce se va concretiza prin crearea de tehnologii i produse inovative.

REZULTATE PROIECT S-a realizat i experimentat un model de sistem energetic integrat pe baz de celule de combustie, determinnduse o serie de caracteristici funcionale ale acestuia. Scopul experimentrii a fost acela de a evalua puterea total cogenerativ (electric i termic) debitat de un model funcional de modul energetic integrat pe baz de celule de combustie, realizat la INCDIE ICPE-CA n cadrul contractului nr. 21034 / 2007 (4234 / 2007). Puterea debitat de ctre sistemul energetic s-a evaluat prin trasarea curbei de polarizare (sau curba I-V, calibrare de putere etc.), presupunnd un test n stare cvasi-staionar, unde valori specifice ale curentului sunt setate pentru a predetermina condiiile de operare i valorile tensiunilor corespunztoare. Totodat, parametrii funcionali ai sistemelor auxiliare de conversie energetic (convertor DC-DC, invertor DC-AC) au fost monitorizai, n vederea meninerii lor n limitele impuse de funcionare. Modelul funcional de sistem energetic integrat a fost realizat n cadrul etapei anterioare a proiectului, etap a IIIa/2009, avnd n componena sa urmtoarele blocuri funcionale: 1. Stack pila de combustie, cu puterea total de 5kW (1800We + 3200Wt); 2. Sursa de energie back-up de 24V/100Ah; 3. Convertor DC-DC 9-24V / 27V, 65A; 4. Invertor DC-AC 24V / 220V, 50Hz; 5. Sursa DC/DC, 250W; 6. Computer de proces control sistem automatizare; 7. Sistem de rcire tip radiator n convecie forat; 8. Pompa de recirculare agent termic cu debit 0 - 10L/min. Experimentarea a fost efectuat n

Fig. 1. Model funcional de sistem energetic integrat pe baz de pile de combustie realizat la INCDIE ICPE-CA

Cercetarea a fost finanat prin programul Parteneriate, contract 21-034 / 2007 (4234/2007).

PAGINA 98 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 99

Projects
E08
Hydropneumatic power plant operated by waves Dynamics) by partner INCDIE COMOTI. Preliminary experiments on pneumatic turbine were achieved in 2009 in a wind tunnel at INCD COMOTI for a single-speed air turbine of 20m / s. They will continue in 2010, after comparing them with those obtained by numerical simulations will be conducted through a specialized CFD, then pull the conclusions is necessary for subsequent installation of the entire system.

Staff Research Project Ph.D. Eng. cmd. Gheorghe Samoilescu project manager Ph.D. Eng Sergiu Nicolae - IDT 1; Ph.D. George Mihaiescu - IDT 1; eng. Dorian Marin - CS; eng. Cristinel ILIE Eng - IDT 1; eng. Marius Popa CS; tech. Marius MIU - technician; tech. Florin Sorescu - executant

ENERGY

ABSTRACT PROJECT Projects theme has aims to conduct multidisciplinary research on capture and conversion of wave energy with hydro-pneumatic installations. In the themes frame it was studied, analyzed, design and built a functional model of a micro hydro which would be located near Black Sea coast to verify its efficiency but due a lack of funds allocated for the project, the research will be completed by comparing the results obtained experimentally in laboratory (specialized aerodynamic stand) with those to be obtained in 2010 from numerical CFD simulations. The chosen solution for the hydropneumatic installation for conversion of wave energy is the one-sense turbine coupled with an electrical generator. This type of turbine removes blockages and extremely low efficiency of Wells turbines and variable active pitch turbines, relatively new in the world. The project goal is to achieve a micro power plant driven by waves, with nominal power of 5kW, based on hydropneumatic principle, which will allow the validation of proposed solution, providing off grid electrical power for local utilities of specific potential beneficiaries. Designing, modeling and dimensioning of the installation were made taking into account the parameters of hydrodynamic, aerodynamic, mechanic end electric load of the entire micro power plant, as also the hydrometeorological conditions of the Black Sea shore.

PROJECT RESULTS To convert wave energy into useful energy is needed wave power conversion mechanism, like a hydro-pneumatic system. This system captures artificial waves in a room, partially immersed with an opening in a wall above water level. Front wave enters the room; the water level rises quickly, pushing air over the vertical column which is above the enclosure, thereby turning the turbine blades. Numerical simulations of dynamic stress hydro power structure takes into account the action of waves on it and aim in particular hydro power structure behavior. The results of these numerical simulations were obtained using finite element software. The purpose of this study is to see the behavior of some important parts of hydropowered power plants and in particular wave behavior studies its structure in dynamic applications. The idea of this study is to see the behavior of the micro power plant structure at wave impact on its structure. In this regard a study was made to asses the structural behavior on dynamic load. One of the main points of the project was the choosing the location for the hydrotechnical construction and for underwater construction. Site was established with local authorities and will apply after the contract. Hydrotechnics construction must meet certain design requirements. An important component is the assembly made turbine-generator to convert mechanical energy captured from waves into electricity. Pneumatic turbine design solution was performed by numerical simulations in CFD environment (Computational Fluid

Fig. 1. Entral section hydropneumatic

Fig. 3. Construction hydrotechnics

Fig. 2. Structure of the sensor support

Fig. 4. Structure of free turbine blades

The research was funded by the National Programme of Research, Development and Innovation - PNCDI II, contract 21-001 (4236-2007)

PAGINA 100 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 101

Projects
E09
Electrical components for medium power wind turbines measurements and have ensured the conditions for transportation to partner HYDROENGINEERING Resita, where they were mounted on ferromagnetic ring magnetic cores, Project Coordinator attended, while realizing the assembling technology transfer. There were established the completions necessary to strengthen the magnets and measures to be taken at the rotor assembly inside the stator. Static frequency converter and AC equipment is taking over the electricity generator and supplying the parameters of its network. It contains two parts: rectifier and inverter. Part of recovery has been previously executed in this period was achieved threephased power inverter. From the papers it resulted that: 1. Making the rotor equipped with permanent magnets has helped to ensure the obtaining of information and develop new solutions for the assimilation and production of synchronous generators in the power range 200 ... 1000 kW to power plants with slow turbines (wind and hydro). 2. The modular construction of the experimental model allowed the identification of new functional solutions on slow rotor permanent magnet synchronous generator with adequate reliability, similar to conventional synchronous generators. 3. Partners cooperation for the consortium project for components making of the wind power and slow hydropower plants opens real possibilities for overcoming the technological and operational difficulties for knowledge transfer from research to production. 4. Ensuring the project completion in 2010, for the making of the stator of the physical model of the slow permanent magnet synchronous generator and the realization of the measurements will help to expand the manufacturing domain in our country of new electrical components for the using of the renewable energy resources.

Staff Research Project Prof. PhDs. Constantin Bala Project Manager PhDs. Mircea IGNAT - CS 1; Eng. Dorian MARIN - CS; Eng. Cristinel ILIE IDT 1; Eng. Victor STOICA ACS; Eng. George ZARNESCU CS; Techn. Filoftea FOTEA

ENERGY

ABSTRACT PROJECT Wind farms are large and medium power range under operating speeds between 5-25rpm and economic operation is performed at varying levels of speed. To convert mechanical power into electrical power to these speeds, many solutions have been implemented: - Coupled indirectly through a wind turbine electric generator speed multiplier built in the classical solution for nominal speed 500-3000rpm; - Direct-coupled wind turbine generator shaft electric multi-polar special construction with equal speed turbine rated speed. The first solution that covers about 84% of plants built has proven less reliable due to multiple failures occurred in speed multiplier, which requires almost annual repair. Direct coupling solution of the wind turbine with the power generator is heavily promoted in recent years in some construction companies to eliminate torque multiplier, possibly using slow electrical generators, made in special construction. Thus the project addresses the problem of optimizing the construction of slow permanent magnet electric generator at a frequency of induced voltage in 50Hz voltage electrical networks by adopting solutions characterized by a relatively small number of poles and the combination of the generator with a static frequency converter serial connected with the generator. This solution presents many advantages in comparison to those known, by increasing the electrical power per unit mass of the generator, the reducing of the power losses by replacing the inductor with excited poles with c.c. with

an inductor equipped with permanent magnet, eliminating the source of excitation, increasing the conversion efficiency of the electromechanical energy, etc.. PROJECT RESULTS In this stage we wanted to achieve the following: execution technical project completion of the permanent magnet electric generator and the design for static frequency converter; tools and assembly devices designing necessary for the execution of the subsystems and assembly, respectively; the preparation of the technological instructions necessary for the execution and the assembly on the flow sheet of the subsystems; preparation of the testing and probe instructions on the flow sheet; preparation of the control drawing plans; purchase materials with long manufacturing cycle; the establishing of the place of the subassemblies execution and the completion of the operations that collaborators execute, respectively; The elaborated documentation resulted in developed projects on the basis of which is presently developing the making of the generator model and of the frequency static converter. Based on the execution project, there were entirely made the rotor model subsystems of the permanent magnet synchronous generator: shaft, rotor hub, ferromagnetic core supporting system and the ferromagnetic core, composed of two ring magnetic cores equipped with 132 permanent magnets. Permanent magnets were coated by electrostatic and magnetic paint to ICPE-CA; there was made, by sampling, the state of the magnets magnetization

Fig. 1. The rotor shaft

Fig. 3 three-phase power inverter

Fig. 2. Ring magnetic cores fully equipped with permanent magnet stator

The research was financed by the National Programme of Research, Development and Innovation - PNCDI II, contract 21-022/2007 (4237/2007)

PAGINA 102 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 103

Projects
E10
Micro innovative power plant based on renewable resources (wind and hydraulic), with expansion velocities range use working fluids, beyond the usual products, knowing however that for them the maximum available is 12 -13 m / s. In the effective output shaft can highlight the following maximum values: 1.8 kW at 10m / s (about 350rot/min) 3.8 kW at 12.5 m / s (400 rpm) 5.9 kW to 15m / s (about 500rot/min) - the solution generator windings split. Synchronous electric generator, by connecting judicious in triangle and star patterns of phase winding sections is compatible with the maximum power conversion of useful energy between 1.6 kW and 4.45 kW to maintain the line voltage within narrow limits, as follows: Electronic power converter with charger stabilized stage has the ability to switch to different sections wiring diagram of the synchronous generator phase windings so variation of the output voltage will be maintained in small limits at variable rotation speeds. Demonstration of functionality was made by deploying at a site chosen by a potential beneficiary (ROFEP SA - Urziceni) of a functional assembly of micro wind. For this purpose it was designed and made a schematic to corresponds as closely as possible to local conditions of relatively low wind potential of Brgan. The power plant, was exhibited at TIB 2009 and then installed the ROFEP SA where it was in probes for about 3 months. Experiments and a longer followup of micro wind reaction was possible by designing a scheme for monitoring of key parameters, with a central acquisition system (data logger). Periodically the data could be retrieved using a memory card memory stick, then processed and analyzed on a PC.

Staff Research Project Ph.D. Eng Sergiu Nicolaie - Project Manager - IDT 1 Ph.D. Eng. George Mihaiescu IDT 1; Eng Dorian Marin - CS; Eng. Cristinel Ilie - IDT 1; Eng Marius Popa - CS; Techn. Marius Miu; Techn. Florin Sorescu

PROJECT ABSTRACT The project aims to study / research and develop two prototypes microinstallation for conversion of renewable energy (wind and hydraulic) with a highly innovative, having improved aerodynamic/ hyd r o d y n a m i c, electrical and m e c h a n i c a l parameters. Novelty aspect of the project is to expand the range use of gears working fluids, as follows: a) for micro-wind installations, increased use of wind speed limit of up to 15-18m/s (through the proposed optimizations which are obtained by sequential adjustment of aerodynamic, mechanical and electrical parameters), knowing that today the vast majority of this range micro wind power plants are out of wind at approx. 12 13m/s. b) use kinetic energy of flowing water with slow currents (1 - 3m/s) for some specific locations without falling or very low falls(flow levels of rivers, marine currents, tides), through a micro hydro power plant, without hydrotechnical improvements, in the range: 1-5kW (kinetic hydropower - hydraulic turbine electric generator directly coupled to submersible). PROJECT RESULTS In 2009, the activity of optimization, completion and experimentation of the micro power plant construction based on wind power was held first in each sub-part (micro-turbine, synchronous electrical generator, power electronic converter) and on the other hand the functional correlations between subparts. Considering the wanted energy parameters for conversion of energy

ENERGY

at 15 m/s wind speed and mechanical stress conditions, it was chosen a robust blade, available on the market with a length of 1.5 m, resulting, including the hub fixture of blades a rotor diameter of 3.2 meters, with three blades construction. Synchronous electric generator, excited by permanent magnets has been realized in two ways: (a) a variation with stator windings split on phases, so that, by some specific interconnection scheme it is possible to maintain line voltages changes within narrow limits for large variations of shaft speed (depending on wind speed) - made by ICPE-ME partner and (2) classical variant of synchronous electric generator rotor excitation circuit having achieved permanent magnets made by INCDIE ICPE - CA. For electronic power converter, made by our partner ICPE Actel, objective optimization refers to the rectification block of batteries charger. Basically, this block stabilized rectifier stage is connected with all fractions of the phases of the generator windings and automatically selects the specific connections such as rectified voltage to maintain the preset limits to the variation in shaft speed. In terms of concept, design and technology for all components and subassemblies of the innovative micro wind power plant, with speed range extension, the optimized model is obtainable and / or achievable by the consortium partners. Laboratory experiments on sub-parts and partially interconnected, have highlighted the main objective of the work that functionality in a broad range of speed of air to maintain output parameters on permissible limits. Thus: Wind rotor is compatible in the range of wind speed 3.5 ... 15 m/s. This range of speed is comparable to that of companies providing such

con. 6 4 3 1 Table 1

Pn 1600W 2460W 2400W 4450W

Un 3x217V 3x219V 3x220V 3x215V

In 7,10A 6,40A 6,45A 13,0A

n 550rpm 650rpm 750rpm 950rpm

Fig. 1. Assembly permanent magnet generator in classical design, developed by INCDIE ICPE-CA

Fig. 2. Microplant wind in-situ experiments

The research was funded by the National Programme of Research, Development and Innovation - PNCDI II, contract 21-006 / 2007 (4238 / 2007)

PAGINA 104 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 105

Projects
E11
Intelligent diagnosis and prediction system for power cable damages preventing investigated for 2 sorts of PE (dielectric and semiconductor). The heating curves (TG/DTG and DSC) of samples were simultaneously recorded in static air atmosphere at a heating rate of 10K min-1. The analyzing of experimental results reveals the following:

by by

thermal treatments afferent to manufacturing cable flux, PE dielectric cross-linking degree decrease substantially, while cross-linking degree of PE semiconductor not change; thermal treatments afferent to manufacturing cable flux both PE dielectric and PE semiconductor became homogeneous material with a single fraction characterized by one melting point and molecular mass; storage of PE semiconductor and dielectric material for the first two months does not change their thermal behavior.

Research staff of the project IDT I - PhDs.eng. Carmen Lingvay project manager CS I - Dr.eng. Iosif Lingvay; CS I - Dr.chim. Petru Budrugeac

dielectric

ENERGY

PROJECT ABSTRACT The goal of this project is the development of an intelligent prediction and diagnoses system meant for electrical energy cable faults. To substantiate the data of land acquisition procedure and predictive diagnostic studies, to develop a prototype system, was developed, verified and validated experimental model for characterization of polyethylene by thermal analysis. RESULTS OF THE PROJECT Experimental model and afferent working procedure regarding polyethylene characterization by thermal analysis Goal: The model and methodology shows the working mode for determination by simultaneous thermal analysis methods of the characteristic parameters for physico-chemical processes occurring in gradual warming of sorts of polyethylene used for manufacturing power cables. Domain: experimental technique can be applied to any type of EP, the state divided. Mass of samples - up to 20 mg. Equipment: specialized equipment for thermal analyzes with coupled techniques (TG-DTA-DSC-FTIR) STA 409PC - NETZSCH GERATEBAU GMBH Germany + annexes:

of less than 0.00001 g The procedure for thermal analysis and work flow:

cross-linking degree for PE semiconductor grains is


substantially smaller than for PE dielectric grains;

and semiconductor PE grains are heterogeneous, presenting two fractions with different melting points, molecular mass and polymerization degree;

the

device preparation and calibration; preparing of test-sample and reference gaseous atmosphere selection; temperature program introduction simultaneous results
and startup; recording curves: temperature function of time, TG and DTA or DSC. crucibles;

processing, determination of: DTG curve; mass losses for each process; residuum percentage remained; characteristic temperatures of each process; thermal effects of the processes highlighted. Test report shall contain the following information:

date of analysis; complete identification


PE;

of analyzed

Fig. 1. TG/DTG and DSC curves for PE grains dielectric (white) before extruding.

test sample compliance; shape and size of the test sample; mass of used sample; type and characteristics of used analysis atmosphere; temperature program; obtained thermogram; parameters resulting from processing
comments on the conditions during sample analysis and behavior analysis. Verification and validation of the experimental model developed In accordance with the proposed model, the structural and physical changes of the polyethylene as a result of thermal treatments performed during manufacturing of cables were crucibles;

Calibration kit enthalpy / temperature, Sample-port and reference crucibles, Gas bottles (N , Ar, O , synthetic air),
2 2

for 256000C;

Pt and -Al2O3 (such as those p;

any

experimental data;

minimum 99.99% purity, for thermal

Laboratory Analytical

analysis in a controlled atmosphere; tools required for

sampling, storage and processing powder samples; balance with sensitivity

Fig. 2. TG/DTG and DSC curves for PE grains semiconductor (black) before extrusion

PAGINA 106 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 107

Projects
E12
Generatoare electrice cu puteri ntre 10 i 200 kW cu magnei permaneni

Personal de cercetare al proiectului Dr. Ing. Mircea Ignat, CSPI - Director proiect Prof. Dr. Ing. C.Bl; Dr. Ing. Ioan Puflea, CSP II Ing.Victor Stoica; Ing. Laureniu Ctnescu

Fig. 3. TG/DTG and DSC curves for PE dielectric (white) after extrusion and stabilization.

ENERGY

PROJECT ABSTRACT Obiectivele iniiale ale proiectului (n colaborare cu INCDT COMOTI i ICPEMasini electrice) au fost: - proiectarea i realizarea a dou tipuri de generatoare sincrone cu magnei permaneni: unul de 10 kW i un altul de 100 kW, cu aplicaii in domeniul eolian dar i hidro; ncercrile specifice; - generalizarea rezultatelor pentru ntregul domeniu 10 kW 200 kW; - stabilirea tehnologiei aferente; - schiarea proiectului unei ferme eoliene de 200 kW. Din pcate, datorit reducerii drastice a finanrii proiectului (la 27% din suma

initiala, dei Energia este considerat un domeniu strategic pentru Romnia), finalizarea proiectului este parial. REZULTATE PROIECT Au fost finalizate: Proiectarea generatorului de 100 kW (INCDIE ICPE-CA, Departament Micro-Nano-Electrotehnologii) cu urmatorii parametrii: - Nr. de faze: 3; - Tensiuni: 3x400V; - Frecvena: 50 Hz; - Turaia nominal: 60 rpm; - Nr.de crestturi statorice: 120; - Nr.de perechi de poli: 10; - Randament: 0,93. Proiectarea i realizarea generatorului de 10 kW prototip; Tehnologia de realizare a generatorului de 100kW.

Fig. 4. TG/DTG and DSC curves for PE (black) semiconductor - after extrusion and stabilization.

Sample PE dielectric grains (white) before extrusion PE dielectric grains (white) after extrusion and stabilization PE white dielectric after storing of the new cable (60 days, la 2 + 290C) PE grains semiconductor (black) before extrusion PE grains semiconductor (black) after extrusion and stabilization PE semiconductor after storing of the new cable (60 days, la 2 + 290C)

Melting Ttop [0C] 95.2 110.6 104.9 105.0 85.1 93.0 89.0 89.2

Process Termo-oxidation Tintial [0C] Tmax [0C] 212.1 244.3 244.4 267.7 266.1 266.3 227.7 251.2 250.8 272.6 269.5 269.3
Fig. 1. Statorul generatorului sincron de 100kW Fig. 2. Statorul generatorului de 100 kW n timpul tehnologiei de bobinare

Table I. Parameters Tmelting, Tonset, and Tmax. values recorded for the investigated samples. The research was funded by the National Programme of Research, Development and Innovation - PNCDI II, contract 22122 / 2008 (4251 / 2008), acronym CABDIAG. Cercetarea a fost finanat prin programul PNCDI II, contract 021-045/2007 (4231/2007).

PAGINA 108 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 109

Projects
E13
Application of clean energy with micro hydro power plant including a submerged aggregate in a location on the Prut River location opposite the speed, the overall stability of the entire float, thus achieving a rated capacity of 1kW. If it will be chosen the solution with helical turbine with horizontal shaft to avoid a motion transmission through an extra gear, the electric generator is mounted directly to the turbine shaft submerged position. This will need seal strict order not to affect the electric generators stator windings induction unit and rotor magnets for excitation of the circuit, knowing that they are severely affected by humidity. For a proper seal of the electric generator shaft from front shield it was proposed use of a group of 2-3 seal rings (this will affect the mechanical efficiency) or address a more expensive solution through a radial or axial magnetic coupling which will completely tight throughout the power tool. All this will lead to doubling or even tripling the cost of the prototype which will be later executed. The advantage if we use the generator in submersion is the good cooling. The study presents the advantages and disadvantages of proposed solutions for both turbine axis orientation (horizontal and vertical) and location of the site features set. Electric generator will be synchronous type circuit having achieved permanent magnet excitation. Types and size and manner of placement will be subject to the type of hydraulic turbine that will be chosen from the studies and researches to the next stage. Study results obtained until now will be reflected by their application in future phases.

Staff Research Project Ph.D. Sergiu Nicolaie project manager Ph.D. Gheorghe Mihaiescu - Idt1; Eng. Dorian Marin - cs; Eng. Cristinel Ilie - IDT 1; Eng. Marius Popa - cs; Techn. Marius Miu

ENERGY

PROJECT ABSTRACT In accordance with the strategy to exploit renewable energy in Romania the main river hydropower potential is about 40.000GWh/an, this being possible to obtain in high power hydro plants (> 10MW/ unitate) or low power p l a n t s ( < 10 M W / unitate) after f o l l o w i n g distribution: (a) large hydro power facilities (34.000GWh/an) (2) small hydroelectric power facilities (6.000GWh/an). The current project is innovative by use of kinetic energy of the flow with low speeds (1-3m / s) for a specific location on the Prut River without or very small head (in Priscani village) using a micro-hydro environment friendly power plant, without hydrotechnics improvements. Thus, from the proposed research will result in more modern technological solutions, new concepts for the design and implementation of hydraulic microturbines (to maximize the power extracted from a stream located in the flow), design and construction of submersible electric generators, synchronous the tight construction) with static frequency converter specifically for connection to the electricity distribution network. The project oriented in that direction, seeks to design, develop and experiment, a micro-hydro system with a submerging mechanism, compatible with the particular specified location (Iasi county), on the Prut river. Knowing the average velocity of flow of the river (between 1.5-2m / s), it has the power output in the order of 1-2kW installed, taking into account the hydraulic turbine rotor diameter in the range 1 to 1.5 m. Small Hydro system will include installation, removal, and the local electricity distribution and storage.

PROJECT RESULTS The first step was to study the possibility of deploying of the objective. Maximum speed in Prisecani location is 0.9 m/s at depth h = 0.53 m at free level. Maximum speed is the location Ungheni 0.96 m / s at the free level. Prisecani location has more available hydraulic energy (p) then Ungheni location, because higher average speeds. As the maximum flow rate will choose a water velocity of 1.5 m/s, where all speed turbine-electric generator will be removed from the water. Due to low current velocities, resulting large diameter turbine power parameters set for completion. Best axial helical turbines are horizontal axis, some smaller scale due to their ability to be intubated easier (for increasing energy levels) than those with vertical axis. It was chosen hydraulic turbines horizontal axis, due to higher energy performance (higher power factors) as the same front surface of the rotor, and at the same flow rate of water flow. Disadvantages of horizontal axis turbines are that they operate submerged at a certain depth, and require special construction turbine generator attached tight. To properly size the hydraulic turbine, based on the selected speed (1.1 m / s) it was proposed a nominal power of about 0.5 kW turbine. From preliminary calculations results an outside diameter of the turbine rotor axial of approx. considering a power factor of 0.5. Considering an effective intubation of the hydraulic rotor (with a 70% efficiency), it is considered that this power of 0.5 kW can be obtained with a diameter of about 1m. To avoid twisting moments to the direction of water flow, which may arise in the functioning of the entire aggregate of two proposed turbine

Fig. 2.Use Darrieus turbine set of pipes to increase power density, for sites with low flow rates and very low ( 3m / s)

Fig. 1. Intubated axial hydraulic turbine electric generator directly coupled submersible

The research was financed by the National Programme of Research, Development and Innovation - PNCDI II, contract 22-129 / 2008 (4252/2008).

PAGINA 110 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 111

Projects
E14
Planar Modulus of Clear Energy Source type IT-SOFC cell or SOFC module, whose value can reach up to 10000 C; nature of the fuel: may be a mixture oxidizer containing O2/N2 with 7% vol O2 H2, mixture reducing CO/CO2/N2 with volumic content by1,4 % CO; 6,2% CO2; 92,4% N2 flow rate of mixture reducing 35 l/min H2; flow rate of fuel oxidizer 200 l/min air; power output (P) around 5W.

Research staff of the project Ing. VELCIU Georgeta IDT I project manager Eng. SEITAN Cristian IDT I; Eng. TARDEI Christu - CP III; Eng. GRIGORE Florentina - CS; Eng. TEISANU Aristofan Alexandru - CS; Eng. MARINESCU Virgil - CS; Eng. BOGDAN Florentina - AS; Eng. SBARCEA Beatrice Gabriele - ASC; Techn. NICOLAESCU Elena

ENERGY

PROJECT ABSTRACT By the subject of proposed project MOD-IT-SOFC, we try to give a solution for this aspiration.The project has like target to obtain a planar modulus of cell IT-SOFC by tackling of new solutions: decreasing the electrolyte resistively by thinning their thickness (thin layers under 150m); using others materials than those ZrO2 based, materials with high conductivity at lower temperatures (600-8500C) like Ce based innovating composite materials (Gd+/Sm+ doped CeO2); choosing and synthesizing of the suitable electrodes (lantan manganits or structures of type fluorine for cathode and structures of type Cu/ CeO2 for anode). Ceramic materials proposed to be achieved into this project will show high functional performances and costeffective manufacturing operations. The complexity and multi-disciplinarily of the project nature will impose the approach of some basic aspects (materials synthesis, surface and interface phenomena, oxy-reduction phenomena, cathodeelectrolyteanode complex systems characteristics, corrosion strength, power efficiency) and functional characterization of how IT-SOFC cells results. IT-SOFC modulus will be tested into laboratory plant at low temperature 600-8500C, using hydrogen as fuel. To solve the problems involved of approached subject, into the project a partnership will be established between one researches institutes, two universities and a industrial unity, one of the program-me proposals being touched and satisfied in this way.

RESULTS OF THE PROJECT The result of the project in 2009 includes: optimization of the ceramic materials for fuel cells electrodes with solid electrolyte SOFC-IT type setting of the operating parameters of a fuel cell in order to design a test installation For cathodes were optimized composition by perovskite type LaMnO3 with 3 and 6% poroformator who added 1:1 cerium oxide doped with gadolin (GDC- Ce0,9Gd0,11O1,95 ) symbolized LSM 3%-GDC and LSM6%GDC and La0,65Ca0,25MnO3,, noted LCM. Results of X-ray diffraction show the formation of the compounds specific material structures. Samples LSM-GDC and GDC were LSM6% have porosity values > 35% 11500C samples LSM 3%-GDC and LSM6%-GDC have porosity values > 35% at the same temperature 11500C, corresponding with the requirements of these materials. electrical measurements on samples lanthanum manganese doped with calcium manganese LCM gave results comparable to those of specialities literature. for anode has experienced a composition based on CuO and CeO2, Cu-Ce2O by precipitation method. XRD results show the formation of the specific structure CuO monoclinic, and fluorite structure, cubical for CeO2 (fig. 3). Results of porosity of > 25% correspond with literature data. Setting of the operating parameters a test installation to design: cell geometric parameters and its architecture: round with 30 mm or paralelipedical 54 x54 x 7mm; number of cells in the module 5; operating temperature of SOFC

Fig. 1. XRD for LSM -GDC samples 10000C

Fig. 2. XRD for LSM -GDC samples 11500C

Fig. 3. XRD anode powder

The research was financed by the National Programme of Research, Development and Innovation - PNCDI II, contract 22-083/2008 (4254/2008).

PAGINA 112 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 113

Projects
E15
Photovoltaic cells based on thin films obtained by alternative technologies to produce clean energy Of CdS and polyvinyl alcohol can get appropriate targets for development of thin layers CdS. Experimental report on the obtaining and characterization of CdTe targets Stoechiometric mixture of Cd and Te of high purity 99.99% and adding a small amount of petroleum ether can obtain appropriate targets for development of CdTe thin layers. To achieve the target of CdTe should be mixing the two powders melted at 600oC, as fine mortar and then pressed 350kgf/cm2. Experimental report on the technology of ultra films of Al2O3 using Al2O3 target To experienced deposition of Al2O3 thin layers on glass substrates. RF magnetron sputtering method has proved a versatile method which can achieve ultra uniform and adherent layers of Al2O3. Investigation determined the evidence processing selecting technological parameters in the field of ultra layer thickness 100-110 nm by RF magnetron puttering method. Experimental report on the technology of ultra films ZnO: Al target using Zn: Al. To experienced deposition of ZnO-Al thin layers on glass substrates. DC magnetron sputtering method has proved a versatile method which can achieve ultra uniform and adherent layers of ZnO-Al. Experimental report on the technology of ultra films of CdS using CdS target To experienced deposition of CdS thin layers on glass substrates. RF magnetron sputtering method has proved a versatile method that can obtain uniform and adherent layers of CdS. Experimental report on the technology of ultra films of CdTe using CdTe target To experienced deposition of CdTe thin layers on glass substrates. RF magnetron sputtering method has proved a versatile method that can obtain uniform and adherent layers of CdTe. Investigation determined the evidence processing selecting technological parameters in the field of ultra layer thickness 150-250 nm by RF magnetron puttering method.

Research staff of the project Prof. Dr. Eng Nicolae OLARIU project manager Eng. Cristina Banciu; Dr. Eng. Adela Bara; Eng. Iulian Iordache; Eng. Mihai Iordoc; Eng. Sorina Mitrea; Eng. Delia Patroi; Eng. Elena Petrache; Eng. Aristofan Teisanu; Eng. Radu Vasilescu Mirea; Dr. Eng. Gimi Rimbu

ENERGY

PROJECT ABSTRACT Of all the alternative energy sources, exploitation of solar energy with photovoltaic elements shows the most advantageous. Silicon photovoltaic elements currently used are of two types: monocrystalline silicon and thin films (polysilicon or polycrystalline silicon). In terms of efficiency, solar cells based on polycrystalline silicon shows a higher yield compared to those with polysilicon ( = 22-24%) compared with 14-15% for polysilicon) also shows the single crystal silicon cells highest reliability and the best stability in time of parameters, and displaying a good attitude towards the phenomena of static load (secondary are resistant to breakthrough) with a lifespan of up to 50 years. Crystal silicon technology, in the process of drawing, cutting and grinding to obtain the booklet blank type, about 50% of ultra pure silicon (and expensive material on the market lacking -120 to 147 $ / kg) is lost. For items in polysilicon usage efficiency from raw materials (ultra pure silicon, depending on the work process) is about. 95%. Another advantage is the amount of silicon needed per kW electrical power, about 25 times smaller. Development of renewable clean energy generation using solar cells require reducing manufacturing costs to produce a fall in electricity supply. Thus the project aims to develop new solar cell architectures that meet modern requirements: high efficiency conversion, low-cost materials, and low-cost processing technology. Methods addressed in developing these new types of solar cells: multilayer printing, chemical vapour deposition,

physical deposition from vapour phase, hybrid techniques General Objectives 1. Setting target models photovoltaic structures. 2. Modelling technology of photovoltaic cells. 3. Obtaining and characterization of photovoltaic structures based on thin films. 4. Technology development (laboratory) to obtain photovoltaic cells. 5. Obtaining demonstrators devices RESULTS OF THE PROJECT Were considered the main technologies used in production of solar cells and thin materials and established as a model specifically target a junction photovoltaic structure of CdS / CdTe due to be further substantiated in experimental models. The decision was taken based on material properties of junction. Selected solar cell type (CdS / CdTe) was established flow technology and highlight the structure, materials and technology. To obtain and characterize targets and thin layers obtained were made technological procedures: Experimental report on the obtaining and characterization of Al2O3 targets. Powder of Al2O3 99.995% purity can obtain appropriate targets for development of Al2O3 thin layers. Experimental report on achieving targets and characterization of Zn: Al. Mixture of zinc and aluminium can obtain appropriate targets for development of thin layers of zinc and aluminium oxide by RF sputtering method. Zinc powder was investigated by X-ray diffraction After investigating it shows these structural features: system: hexagonal compact, aluminium powder, was investigated by X-ray diffraction. Experimental report on the obtaining and characterization of CdS targets

Fig. 1 Heterojunction solar cell with a CdS / CdTe, schematic representation

The research was financed by the National Programme of Research, Development and Innovation - PNCDI II, contract 22-132/2008 (4255/2008).

PAGINA 114 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 115

Projects
E16
Ecological research on the achievement of technology based vibration induced magnetostriction to reduce energy consumption which has the effect of global warming

Staff Research Project Dr. Eng. Mircea Ignat, CSP 1 project manager Dr. Eng. Ioan Puflea - CSP 2; Dr. Eng. Lucian Pslaru - IDT 3; Drd. Eng. Laureniu Ctnescu ACS; Eng. Victor Stoica - ACS

ENERGY

PROJECT ABSTRACT The project will create a method and a system based on magnetostrictive actuators to eliminate mechanical stresses of laminated plates. In INCDIE ICPE-CA has been researched and designed several types of m a g n eto s t r i c t i ve actuators. PROJECT RESULTS Two prototypes were obtained magnetostrictive actuators whose primary structure and whose main parts are shown in Fig.1 and Fig.2, the main benchmark is the magnetostriction core of terfenol. Parameter characteristic of the actuator is optimal:

l = L
the kernel magnetostrictive extension effect:

In Fig.3 indicate how the coupling of magnetostrictive actuator mechanical vibration to eliminate stress. In the Department of Nano Electro and Micro technology and have made this type of actuator experiments. Thus were made two stands, one for determining the mechanical characteristics, strength and movement and another for the electrical investigations (see Fig.4 and Fig.5). It can see microdynamometer of precision and microfeeler with a resolution of 2 microns. Specific tests and experiments on applying vibrations to remove mechanical stresses ferromagnetic plates were made of ICMET Craiova (The project participant Tehnical University Cluj, University Craiova and SC VIG IMPEX SRL Craiova.) Actuator was designed for a range of voltages between 24V-120V with frequency range between 0 and 200Hz for a better scanning vibration of the ferromagnetic plate. Project continues.

Fig. 1. Magnetostrictive actuator structure

Fig. 4. Stand for the attempt made in Microelectronanotechnology Department magnetostrictive actuator force and displacement

Fig. 2. The magnetostrictiv actuator components

Fig. 5. Stand to attempt electrical characteristics of magnetostrictive actuators

where from

experiment at 100V DC). L - length of magnetostrictive Terfenol-D core (L

l = 0,015m = 0,2m ).

(Determined from the

Fa = T A

=3696N

6 T=28Mpa (28 106 (2 8 . 1 0

traction effort of magnetostrictive material characteristics, A section of magnetostrictive core (

N ) m2

Fig. 3. Magnetostrictive actuator coupling treatment

Fig. 6. Feature based on the force displacement of magnetostrictive actuator used to conduct vibration

A = 132, 66 10-6 m 2 ).

The research was financed by the National Programme of Research, Development and Innovation - PNCDI II, contract 21-059/2007 (7017/2007).

PAGINA 116 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 117

Projects
E17
Clean energy technologies implementation by developing a heat engine based on hydrogen absorbing metal alloys using solar energy or waste energy

E18

Sistem de recuperare a energiei de detenta neutilizat a gazelor naturale cu producere de energie utiliznd turbina urub

Research staff of the project Dr. Eng. Elena Enescu project manager Dr. Eng. Mariana Lucaci; Dr. Eng. Violeta Tsakiris; IDT II Paula Lungu CS Lucia Leonat; IDT I Nicolae Stancu; IT I Sorina Mitrea

Personal de cercetare al proiectului Dr. Ing. Mircea Ignat - CSPI departament Micro-Nano Electrotehnologii Responsabil proiect Prof. Dr. Ing. Constantin Bl; Ing. Tudora Paraschiv;Ing. Victor Stoica; Ing. Laureniu Ctnescu

ENERGY

ABSTRACT PROJECT The aim of the project was to make a heat engine based on hydrogen absorbing metal alloys. The research was focussed in three directions: (i) alloys development with good hydrogen storage capacity and improved thermodynamic characteristics by designing a material with improved thermodynamic properties; (ii) development of new technical solutions based on obtaining new heat engine Propesties Alloy LaNi4,85Al0,15 LaNi4,9Cu0,1 LaNi4Fe0,1

materials; (iii) building the prototype for the heat engine. RESULTS OF THE PROJECT 3 types of LaNi5 based alloys were made, alloyed with Fe, Al and Cu as substitutes for Ni. Alloys were obtained by vacuum induction melting. Chemical and microstructural homogenization was done by long time thermal treatment (24-72 hours) at high temperatures (750-900 C).

ENERGY

Type of alloy LaNi4Fe1 LaNi4,85Al0,15 LaNi4,6Cu0,4

Chemical composition, % weight La 32.4 32.5 Ni 54.5 66.5 5.86 Cu Fe 13.1 1.0 Al

Adsorption Desorption pressure at pressure at 80oC 20oC (bar) (bar) 2 12 10 20 24 60

Maximum hydrogen storage capacity 1.25 1.22 1.18

PROJECT ABSTRACT n cadrul INCDIE ICPE-CA, departament Micro-Nano-Electrotehnologii, au fost studiate probleme legate de generatorul de 200 de kW care echipeaz acest sistem de recuperare a energiei utiliznd detenta gazelor naturale: Cuplajul generatorului sincron; Aspecte legate de dimensionarea generatorului; Interpretarea ncercrilor electromecanice i determinarea randamentului. REZULTATE PROIECT Cercettorii din INCDIE ICPECA departament Micro-NanoElectrotehnologii, au participat la:

proiectarea unei variante de generator

sincron cu magnet permanent (echipa condus de Prof. C. Bl) cu o putere activ de 500 kW cu turaia 5000 - 7000 rpm cu conectare la reea, numr de perechi de poli i frecvena de 200 Hz. pe sistem n vederea estimrii randamentului generatorului sincron cu excitaie n curent continuu i construcie antiexploziv adoptat de ctre INCD-COMOTI (institutul care a condus proiectul i proiectantul principal al sistemului de recuperare al energiei), ntr-un regim rezistiv. Analiza a inclus i estimarea pierderilor n circuitul magnetic statoric i rotoric, fiind propus, pentru urmtoarele faze, un program de ncercri ce cuprinde ncercarea n gol i scurtcircuit a generatorului.

Au fost analizate ncercrile efectuate

31.98 61.13

proiectarea

Table I: Alloys chemical compositions

Table II: Hydrogen storage characteristics for the obtained alloys

i dimensionarea cuplajului de la turbin la axul generatorului (cuplu estimat fiind ntre 700 - 3200 Nm la un domeniu de turaii de 1500 - 6000 rpm);

Fig.1. Hydrogen absorption isotherms of alloys used for the heat engine.

Fig.2 Hydrogen desorption isotherms of alloys used for the heat engine.

The research was funded by the National Programme of Research, Development and Innovation - PNCDI II, contract 21-023/2007 (7021/2007).

Cercetarea a fost finanat prin programul PNCDI II contract 21-061 (7034-2007).

PAGINA 118 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 119

3.1.4 ENVIRONMENT

Projects
bubbles. Starting with a certain flow rate Qs (depending on the diffuser type), the flow becomes asymmetrical, due both to the oscillations and shape variations of the column. The performance criteria foreseen for this year were accomplished as follows: Patent application, Experimental set-up to determine hydrodynamic characteristics of bubble diffusers, Bunea F., Oprina G., Baran G., no. OSIM A/00549/ 07.16.2009. The invention refers to an experimental setup (fig. 3) to determine the hydrodynamic characteristics of the bubble diffusers, used for water aeration /oxygenation. Bronze medal awarded by NASR within the 13th edition of International Inventions, Scientific Research and New Technologies Exhibition, INVENTICA 2009 for the patent application A/00549/ 07.16.2009 Oprina G., Bunea F., Pincovschi I., Mndrea L., Aspects of hydrodynamics and mass transfer in diffused aeration systems, Environmental Engineering and Management Journal (ISI), published in April 2010, vol. 9, nr. 4, ISSN 15829596, p. 565-572 Bunea F., Oprina G., Ciocan G.D., Bran G., Ilie C., Pincovschi I., 2009, Aeration parameters optimization for an imposed energy consumption, Acta Technica Napocensis, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, series: Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, Nr. 52, Vol.II, The 1st International Symposium on Green Energy, (B+) ISSN 12215872, p. 279-284 Oprina G., Staicu D., Bunea F., Bran G., 2009, Experimental researches regarding the performance of fine bubble generators, Advanced technologies for the water and wastewater treatment and water reuse, 23 24 June, Bucureti, p. 66-71, Ed. Cartea Studeneasc, ISBN 978-606-501-027-7.
Fig. 3. Experimental setup to determine hydrodynamic characteristics of bubble and micro-bubble diffusers

M01

Induced Axial-Symmetric Flows

Research staff of the project PhDs. Eng. Florentina Bunea project manager Prof. PhDs. Eng. Gheorghe Bran; PhDs. Eng. Gabriela Oprina; As.Prof. PhDs. Eng. Irina Pincovschi; PhDs. Eng. Mariana Florea flow induced by a rotating disk. Liquid velocity acceleration in the vicinity of disk and on its tip and liquid deceleration on the top area were observed. The theoretical analysis was compared with the numerical simulation of oil with the density of 800 kg/m3, a viscosity of 0.00037 m2/s (fig. 1) and speeds of ntre 251000 rpm, accomplished in Fluent. For determining the friction factor CM, a range of Reynolds numbers was established Re = 102 107; this wide range of Re numbers is ensured both by the working fluids (with different densities and viscosities) and by the speed (n = 25 1500 rpm), limited at 1500 rpm, due to the influence of temperature variation with more than 1C upon fluid physical properties. Was determined that once with the increasing of Re, the boundary layer thickness diminishes, so the rugosity influence on CM is decreasing. The water velocity flow field induced by a bubble column was obtained (fig. 2). Planes intersecting the flow domain were created and the induced liquid velocities were represented using vectors. The maximum velocity was obtained in the centre of the bubble column (0.3217 m/s); it has the same magnitude order as the bubbles ascending velocity: 0.150.40 m/s for 13 mm diameter

ENVIRONMENT

PROJECT ABSTRACT The project aims to analitically or numerically solve the induced axialsymmetric flows, for two particular cases, differing by boundary conditions and by motive power. The induced flow cases constitute the subjects of the thesis for two frequency PhD students. They used the numerical results as theoretical basis in their PhD thesis, that have been asserted during the project. The experimental results obtained on the existent laboratory setup validated the numerical results. The first problem studied refers to the flow induced by a disk rotation in a cylindrical hull and to the calculus of the power disipated by viscous friction. Its solving has applications at turbomachines, disk mixing reactors etc. The second problem consists in studying the flow induced in a liquid at rest or in slow motion by a fine bubble column, with application in gas-liquid mass transfer (e.g. water oxygenation). RESULTS OF THE PROJECT The flow field for different Reynolds numbers and speeds of 251000 rpm has been obtained for the

Fig 2. Water induced velocities for the analyzed domain

Fig 1. The flow filed for n = 200 rpm (Re=141.5)

The research was supported by National Programme of Research, Development and Innovation - PNCDI II, CNCSIS, IDEAS Programme, contract 232/2007 (4232 / 2007).

PAGINA 120 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 121

Projects
M02
New environmental technologies for recovering energy of biodegradable wastes as fuel gas with application to small treatment plants Project main objectives are: achievement of a new technology (for operators of small and medium capacity) for the recovery of liquid waste, which consist in anaerobic digestion for biogas production and its use for electricity/ heat complete ecological recovery of biodegradable organic waste existing at SMEs setting up the process conditions for improving biogas composition RESULTS OF THE PROJECT A metallic cylindrical functional model of anaerobic digester was accomplished. The model is provided with homogenization system consisting in an impeller and system for keeping a constant temperature inside the digester. A national patent application entitled Method and apparatus for determining the inhomogeneous and non-transparent liquids viscosity registered at OSIM under the number A/009620/11.23.2009 have been elaborated. Lucian Mndrea, Gheorghe Bran, Corina Alice Bbuanu, Issues concerning generation biogas technologies, Proceedings of the 6th International Conference Management of Technological Changes, September 3th 5th , 2009 Alexandropoulis, Greece, vol. 1, p. 659-662, ISBN 978-960-89932-7-4 Corina A. Bbuanu, Carmen Mateescu, Biogas Generation. Aspects Concerning Anaerobic Digesters Hydrodynamic, Proceedings of the 6th International Conference Management of Technological Changes, September 3th 5th , 2009 Alexandropoulis, Greece, vol. 2, p. 13-16, ISBN 978-960-89832-8-1 Gheorghe Bran, Corina Alice Bbuanu, Carmen Mateescu, Research n Hydrodynamics for Biogas Generation, Present environmental issues, the interdependence of biotechnological, industrial and economical factors Conference, 28 mai 2009, Sf. Gheorghe, Romnia Corina Bbuanu, Gheorghe Bran, Biogas Production from Anaerobic Digestion of Distillery Wastewaters, The 19th National Conference of Society for Promotion on Renewable, Inexhaustible and New Energies - Bucharest, 26 September 2009, vol. Extend Abstracts, p. 9

Research staff of the project Prof. PhDs. Eng. Bran Gheorghe project manager PhDs. Stud. Eng. Bbuanu Corina; PhDs. Eng. Mihiescu Gheorghe; PhDs. Stud. Eng. Mateescu Carmen; PhDs. Eng. Nicolaie Sergiu; PhDs. Eng. Oprina Gabriela; PhDs. Eng. Bunea Florentina PROJECT ABSTRACT PROJECT ABSTRACT The negative effects annihilation of food waste, agriculture, municipal sewage plants etc. became an issue whose importance increases along with the development of human civilization. Processing of these wastes through anaerobic digestion (methanogenesis) is a solution that has both environmental benefits, by neutralizing the tox i c / p at h o g e n c o m p o u n d s and energy benefits from bio fuel production Currently, there is no worldwide solution recognized as optimal; applied technologies differ from case to case depending on geographical, economic, social factors. The project aims to solve the environmental problems associated with small treatment plants, farms, livestock farms and food factories, by full environmental recovery of biodegradable organic waste without producing any wastes. It aims to: energetic optimize the anaerobic digestion process by thermal and hydro-dynamic study of anaerobic digesters, establish the process conditions for improving the biogas composition determine solutions for eco-using the CO2 emissions and those resulted from the biogas conversion in energy.

ENVIRONMENT

Fig. 1. Anaerobic digester functional model from distillery water

The research was supported by National Programme of Research, Development and Innovation - PNCDI II, contract 4242 / 2007.

PAGINA 122 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 123

Projects
M03
Filter cartridge for CO2 retention AFM, SEM, X-ray diffraction, thermal conductivity, BET specific surface area determination and adsorption capacity of CO2. From optical micrographs analysis we can observe that the samples homogeneity increases with the decreasing of carbon fibres length, the composite FCN150 having the highest homogeneity. The topographic AFM images show a good compatibility between fibres and novolak polymeric matrix, the resin allowing the obtaining of a three-dimensional fibres network. Thus, the novolak appears in the form of bridges that connecting the carbon fibres. SEM images confirm the three-dimensional network structure formed by carbon fibres and novolak. The analysis of the patterns of composites FCN150, FCN200, FCN400 and FCN800 shows the presence of (002) line which is a characteristic of turbostratic graphite. Values obtained for the thermal conductivity at 30C are 1.017 W/mK for FCN400 and 1.228 W/mK for FCN800. Thermal conductivity of the composites decreases with increasing temperature. To increase the adsorption capacity of composites these were activated with steam. Their activation was performed in order to increase the specific surface area and the micropores volume. The specific surface area and pores volume increase from the composite FCN150 to composite FCN800. Specific surface area of activated composites increase compared to non-activated composites by about 20 times. The maximum value of CO2 adsorbed for activated composites is 2.870 moles/kg for FCN400 and 2.803 moles/kg for FCN800.

Research staff of the project Eng. Cristina Banciu CS III project manager Ph.D. Adela Bara CS III; Ph.D. Ioana Ion CS III; Ph.D. Gimi Rimbu CS II; Eng. Phys. Iulian Iordache IDT II; Eng. Aristofan Teisanu CS III; Eng. Radu Vasilescu-Mirea IDT III; Eng. Mihai Iordoc CS; Eng. Elena Chitanu - ACS PROJECT ABSTRACT The project objective is represented by the execution of a device for detection and retention of CO2 in order to reduce the operating costs of gas filtering systems by developing higher adsorption capacity and electrical regeneration of the adsorbent. The device will contain a filter cartridge for CO2 retention and a microsensor for CO2 detection. Current technologies for gaseous pollutants removal from the air for residential, commercial and industrial spaces use adsorbents like granular activated carbons and alumina with high specific surfaces. When the sorbents reach the saturation, they are removed for regeneration and waste removal. Effective life time of each adsorbent depends on the amount of pollutant captured, and the adsorption capacity of the material. High costs of adsorbent regeneration limited the implementation of many technologies for air quality improvement, such as technologies that use activated carbon systems. Technical and operating major problems associated to granular adsorbents include the creation of channels, tamping and resistance to airflow. Along with the advent of the new standards for indoor air quality, researches were conducted to the application of low cost systems, longer cycle life and low recycling costs, necessities imposed by the demands of residential and commercial markets that grew rapidly. To achieve the project objective, will be approached simultaneously a number of research directions as follows: 1. Execution of the filter based on carbon fibres monolithic composite; 2. Design and execution of the filter cartridge; 3. Execution of the CO2 sensor. REZULTATE PROIECT RESULTS OF THE PROJECT In order to obtain porous carbon monolithic composites were used four types of carbon fibres with average lengths between 150 and 800 m, dispersion of carbon fibres being performed in water. The structural and functional characteristics were established by optical microscopy,

ENVIRONMENT

Fig. 3. SEM image of the composite FCN400

Fig. 2. Topographic AFM 2D images of the composites FCN400 (a) and FCN800 (b\

Thermal conductivity (W/mK)

Intensity (u.a.)

Temperature (0C) Fig. 4. X-ray diffraction patterns of the composites FCN150, FCN200, FCN400 and FCN800 Fig. 5. Thermal conductivity diagram of the composite FCN400

Sample

FCN150 FCN200 FCN400 FCN800 FCN150 activated FCN200 activated FCN400 activated FCN800 activated

BET specific surface area, m2/g 5.64 10.86 16.82 3.46 114.62 226.37 379.15 506.08

Total pores volume, cm3/g 6.67310 7.08710-3 7.51910-3 6.42510-3 5.06510-2 1.17410-1 1.72810-1 4.44910-1
-3

Table I. Specific surface and pores volume of non-activated and activated composites

Fig. 1. Optical micrographs of the composites FCN150 (a), FCN200 (b), FCN400 (c), and FCN800 (d)

The research was funded by the NUCLEU Programme, contract 09350303/2009 (5303/2009).

PAGINA 124 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 125

Projects
M04
Device for CO2 detection Reagent, England); Bi2O3 99% purity, (B.D.H Laboratory Reagent, England); The mixing of Li2CO3-BaCO3-Bi2O3 in ratio 8:1:1, was homogenised by mixing in mojar followed by calcination at 500oC for 30 minutes. Reference electrode Reagents: TiO2 China Li2CO3 98% purity, (Johnson Matthey Chemicals Limited, England); The mixing Li2CO3 and TiO2 in the ratio 1:6, was homogenised by mixing in mojar and was calcined at 700oC for 1 hour. Until the calcinations was obtained the compound Li2TiO3 - TiO2 stitute on the carbonate mixing. Other advantage of this materials used in CO2 detection is the room temperature function. In this way, the project presents a model of potentiometric sensor with a solid ion conductor electrolyte CeO2-Y2O3, a sensing electrode composed by Li2CO3-BaCO3-Bi2O3 and reference electrode with composition Li2TiO3-TiO2 which allows the sensor function at the ambient temperature of 250C. For the project objective realization will approach concomitant a series direction of research like: 1. The sensor design; 2. Sensor realization; 3. Testing sensor. project results The oxidic sensitive element synthesis CeO2-Y2O3 by sol gel method For the oxidic system synthesis CeO2-Y2O3 by sol gel method was start by the precursors Ce(SO4)2x4H2O 97% purity, (Merck Germany) and Y(NO3 )3 x3 H2O 98% purity (Karlsruhe, GmbH) in the ratio 4:1. The salts were milled for a good homogeneity, followed by the dissolution in 100 ml distilled water. In parallel, was prepared a acid citric 1M solution, C6H8O7 99,8% purity produced at (Reactivul Bucuresti) with chelating agent. 100 ml of citric acid salt was introduced at the salts solution. The mixture was heated and evaporated at 70C until the gel forming. After the gel forming, was filtered and dried at the oven at 80C. The mixing was calcined at 700oC for 2 hours and at 800oC 2 hours. Electrodes synthesis Sensing electrode Reagents: Li2CO3 98% purity, (Johnson Matthey Chemicals Limited, England); BaCO3 98% purity, (B.D.H Laboratory Structural characterization Sensitive element X-ray diffraction The analysis by X-ray diffraction for the oxides system CeO2-Y2O3 calcined at 800oC 2 hours, indicates the follow phases: CeO2 cubic with the lattice parameter a=5,409 and the crystallites dimension of 107,3 nm and for Y2O3 cubic with lattice parameter a=10,616 and the crystallites dimension of 22,6 nm. It was determined a phase with the composition Ce0,6Y0,4 O1,8 Fig. 1. BET analysis It was resulted the follows results: - specific surface area: 3.13 m2/g; - pores dimensions: 8.93 ; - pores volume: 1.066x10-3 cm3/g, for pores with diameter small of 6,9 at P/Po=0,02898. The analysis by X-ray diffraction for the electrodes materials are presented in Table 1. Sensor construction The sensor was realised by the pressing of the powder oxides at 10 tone/cm2 in disc form with the dimensions of F 4 x1 mm. The disc was metallized with gold and then was deposed the electrodes: sensing electrode with composition Li2CO3-BaCO3-Bi2O3 and the reference electrode a layer of Li2TiO3-TiO2. The sensor was mounted on the transistor ambasis. (fig. 2). Testing sensor in CO2 atmosphere The sensor was tested in the CO2 atmosphere in the concentration range 0-5% measuring the voltage at the interval of time established. The graphics-Fig. 3 show the characteristics electromotive force-concentration CO2, for the measurements effected at 30 seconds and 1, 5, 30 minutes exposure at the gas. The conditioning and testing of the sensor signal The electronic scheme of signal conditioning of the sensitive element (fig. 4, 5) was tested by applying to the input a sinusoidal signal, rectangle respectively (fig. 6). The common characteristics of these two signal types are: frequency f=1 KHz and amplitude peak to peak variable, from Uin = 10 mV at 100 mV. The functions generator which supplies the input signal is the type: Fluke 281 while the oscilloscope used is Fluke 196 B SCOPEMETER. Was defined two windows user, accordingly the channels galvanic isolated A and B respectively, where it is display the voltage value peak to peak from the output of electronic block of conditioning, the channel A, and the channel B from the their output respectively. The differential supply voltage is 9Vcc.

The research staff of the project Eng. Gabriela Telipan, ITP I, project manager PhDs. Eng. Mircea Ignat, CP I; PhDs. Eng. Lucian Pislaru-Danescu, ITP III; PhDs. Eng. Gabriela Hristea, CP II; PhDs. Eng. Ioan Puflea, CP II; Eng. George Zarnescu, CS; Eng. Victor Stoica, ACS; Eng. Laurentiu Catanescu, ACS; Phys. Gabriela Sbarcea, CS; Ec. Clara Hender; Ec. Dorina Dobrin; Ec. Gabriela Richter; Techn. Filofteia Fotea; Techn. Ion Tinca; Techn. Luminita Girjoaba

ENVIRONMENT

PROJECT ABSTRACT The aim of the project represent the realization of a device type microsensor for CO2 detection. The CO2 detection is necessary in air quality monitorization and a human comfort, where near temperature and air humidity, CO2 as a product of human respiration is a principal domestic pollutant. By this motive is absolutely necessary the presence monitoring of CO2 in ventilation systems and climatization equipments. In the CO2 detection on utilize the next type of sensors based on physical and chemical methods: 1. Physical; optical sensor: nedispersive infrared sensor NDIR; 2. SAW sensor: sensor with surface acoustic wave. Chemical: 1. Semiconductor sensors based on semiconductor oxides SnO2, ZnO; 2. Potentiometric sensors based on solid ion conductor electrolytes: NASICON (Na1+xZr2Si2-xPO12, Na- -alumina, Zirconie-yttrie, cerie. Sensors on the physical principles were characterized by a high sensitivity and especially by a very good selectivity but are very espensives and the semiconductor sensors were characterized by a simple construction, a good price but a poor selectrivity. Between the models presented previously the potentiometric sensors present a high detection performance a simpleand dense structure, an accesible price a continous gaz monitoring nd this recommend in toxic gases detection inclusive CO2. The improvement of the performances detection of this sensors is realized by electrolyte composition and by the composition of sensing electrodes con-

Intensity (u.a.) Fig. 1. X-ray diffraction pattern for the oxides system CeO2-Y2O3 calcined at 8000C for 2 hours

Fig. 2. Sensor image

PAGINA 126 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 127

Projects
Elementary cell structure Ortorombic Monoclinic Monoclinic Tetragonal Cubic PROJECT ABSTRACT The objectives were addressed in 2009 were: Analysis of macro molecular complex phenomena Models electrorheological associated data products PROJECT RESULTS In the phase III have completed:

Sample 1-Li2CO3+BaCO3 + 10% Bi2O3, calcined at 5000C/ 30 min. 2-Li2CO3+TiO2, calcined la 7000C/ 60 min.

Phase BaCO3 Li2CO3 Bi2O3 TiO2 Li2TiO3

D [nm] 107 123 86.2 131.5 35. 9

M05

Dielectric methodology non- destructive, non-invasive, rapid for comparative detection ingredients with potential health risk factor in food

Research staff of the project PhDs. Caramitu Alina Ruxandra, IDT I project manager

Table 1. X-ray diffraction for electrodes materials

These models were presented: an elementary dipole with two Voigt type parameters; an elementary dipole Voigt type with 3 parameters; Contact between elementary dipoles embedded in the material (space dipole inter); aligned and modeling; nonaligned dipole

Electromotive force [mV]

ENVIRONMENT

Fig. 4. Conditioning electronic , face with passive componnts , practical achievement Concentration CO2 ppm x 104

Fig. 3. The characteristics voltage-concentration for exposure in CO2

Analysis of complex phenomena that occur in macro molecular structures studied food. They defined the basic theoretical elements that trigger macromolecular phenomena. Analysis revealed that the macroscopic response of the food structure is related to equations presented microscopic fluctuations. Studies on models electro rheological associated data products.

elementary unit consists of a 2-parameter model Voigh. Also they have treated these issues in food rheological models:

Measurement of rheological parameters o rotary rheometer; o capillary rheometer; o Con/Sheet Metal rheometer. This phase of the project has completed a research report.

The Herschel Bulkley (HB) model; The Power-Law model;

Fig. 5. Conditioning electronic, face with active components, practical achievement

Fig. 6. Electronic block of conditioning in the testing time

The research was financed by the NUCLEU Programme, contract 09350303/2009 (5303/2009).

The research was financed by the PNCDI II Programme, contract 7019/2007.

PAGINA 128 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 129

Projects
M06
Computer system for real time analysis of risk factors for environmental and public health / change their user; Providing informational support by creating, maintaining a reliable database and complete; Inform decision makers in order to take optimal measures to be taken; Adoption and implementation of environmental quality standards at the EC. The experimental model developed shows functions that allow the acquisition, processing and interpretation of data from a single point measurement (e.g., data on CO concentration and temperature) and their reporting norms. It consists of the following functional blocks represented schematically in Figure 1: a. CO analyzer; b. LM 35 temperature sensor; c. remote terminal for the acquisition and transmission (RTU) d. monitoring center and data processing (laptop modem communicate with the application running on computer and communication for receiving, storing, processing and displaying data). Relevant data and analysis solutions and data processing is done by performing sets of measurements of the concentration of CO, measurements complying with the requirements of Order 592/2002. Figure 2 is chart temporal variation of CO pollution. Experimental model displays chart indicating the maximum daily averages of CO concentration in 8 hours of 1.2978 mg/Nm3 value is well below the limit value in order 592/2002 (10 mg/Nm3), figure 3.

Research Staff of the project Dr. Eng. Alecu Georgeta project manager Dr. Phys. Kappel Wilhelm, Eng. Cosac Andreea, Eng. Mateescu Carmen, Eng. Telipan Gabriela, Eng. Stancu Nicolae, Eng. Mitrea Sorina, Eng. Onica Ciprian, Eng. Zamfir Stefania PROJECT ABSTRACT The project goal is to achieve a computer system and related communications and establish a method for real time analysis of risk factors for environmental and public health (air quality analysis validated). PROJECT RESULTS Project results up to this stage of 2009 include: developing an experimental model and related methodology. The project offers a dual solution (computer and methodological) that integrates several types of technologies in the applications type on line (TCP / IP, GPRS, GPS, interactive portal for the exchange of information and multiple access) with quality analysis methodologies air. Methodology for data analysis and interpretation system for real time analysis of risk factors for environmental and public health shows how to define quality requirements, processing, visualization and data interpretation for this system, applicable to carbon monoxide (CO). In developing the methodology was followed norms compliance requirements in effect on air quality, both internal and external, the EU legislation, satisfying system concept Single Information Space for the Environment in Europe. Computer system in conjunction with strategies of action in case of alarm, leading to greater safety in operation, realizing the integration of the concepts of technological accidents, real-time monitoring of pollutants and the processes leading to the emergence accident prevention. The computer system provides: Acquisition of data from analyzers, sensors, transmitters and processing; Sampling of data: the time frame, the human operators request, when they exceed certain thresholds (we mean when we say data: concentrations of pollutants (SO), temperature, pressure, meaning / direction / wind speed); Calculating the concentration in standard conditions of temperature (T) and pressure (p), (concentration of pollutants is drawn to the values of t and p and, for comparable concentrations to be made under standard conditions of T and p for CO); Determining the concentration of CO (measured on an average property values within the cell 8 hours). Maximum daily averages 8 hours is chosen by examining the 8 hours running averages, calculated from hourly data and updated every hour. Each average is calculated by 8 hours so that ends the day assigned, namely: first calculation period for any day is the period commencing at 17.00 the previous day and ends at 1.00 pm that day, last period calculation for a day is the period from 16.00 pm to 24.00 pm of the day. Comparison with threshold values (for values collected and averaged values) and display a warning message; Presentation of measurements acquired by schemes, virtual instruments, charts the evolution, in tabular and graphic display of measured values and averages; Displaying on a georeferenced map sets of values (from the measured and the averages); - Will be able to select the size of the database and at what point of time: e.g. temperature, concentration etc.; Displaying on a georeferenced map of symbols e.g. a vector to mean: the meaning / direction / wind speed; Development of tracking ID, specific reports, summary reports using data from the database and the archives and present them on display or printer, with the possibility of filling

ENVIRONMENT

Fig.1. Block diagram of the experimental model developed

Current average CO concentration for 8 hours (mg/Nm3)

CO concentration (ppm)

Time, hours (from 17:00, 24.10.2009 at 1:00, 26.10.2009)

Time, hours (from 17:00, 24.10.2009 at 7:00, 26.10.2009)

Fig.2. Temporal variation of carbon monoxide pollution, laboratory testing

Fig.3. CO concentration of current averages 8:00 hours in mg/ Nm3

The research was financed by CNMP 4 Partnerships in priority areas - Information Technology and Communications Industry Programme, contract 11-054-2007 (7002-2007).

PAGINA 130 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 131

Projects
M07
Complex study of half closed ecosystems (alpine lakes and volcanic) in order to establish the reference level for the assessment of anthropic factors: alpine lakes of the Fagaras Mountain and Sf. Ana lake
4000
SA-09-02-H1

Intens ity (u.a)

Project Staff Phys. Gabriela Beatrice Sbarcea project manager Eng. Sorina Adriana Mitrea; Phys. Delia Patroi; Phys. Virgil Marinescu; Eng. Carmen Hajdu following compounds: silicon oxide (quartz) mixture of potassium oxide, aluminium silicate, hydrated with four water molecules (rectolite the trade name), mixtures of sodium, calcium, aluminium, silicon (andesine ) oxides and hydroxides of magnesium, iron, silicon, aluminium (clinochlore), oxides and hydroxides of magnesium, iron, silicon, sodium (riebeckite), calcium oxide, aluminium, silicon (faujasite). The type SA samples were identified following compounds: oxides of silica (alpha quartz and cristobalite) mixture of potassium oxide, aluminium silicate, hydrated with four water molecules (rectolite the commercial name), mixtures of sodium, calcium, aluminium, silicon (andesine). After analysis, it was concluded the following: All spectra contain phases of SiO2 (quartz), K1.2Al4,Si8O20(OH)44H2O (rectolite), and Na499Ca491(Al1.488Si2.506O8) (andesine) Compared with the samples type SA, in the samples of BL are present one phase of (Mg,Fe)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH)8 (clinochlore) and a phase of Na2(Fe,Mg)5(Si8O22(OH)2 (riebeckite) so some compounds based on silicon, iron and magnesium.

SA-09-02-G1 SA-09-02-F1 SA-09-02-E1 SA-09-02-D1 SA-09-02-C1


SA-09-02-B1 SA-09-02-A1

ENVIRONMENT

PROJECT ABSTRACT The general objectives of the project were: determining the concentration of the polluters in waters and sediments from the lakes, in order to establish some references for pollution evaluation in the surface waters and for sediments existing along the river basin downstream of the lakes up in the plain area, highlighting the possible existing tektites. That, will allow to obtain very important information regarding both the space matters, and neogene volcanic eruptions (when lake Sf. Ana) Objectives of INCDIE ICPE-CA in 2009, consisted of conducting qualitative phase analysis carried out by X-ray diffraction technique on a total of 14 samples of mud collected and brought to characterization from the project coordinator - GeoEcoMar and interpretation of data obtained.

2000

0 15 20 30 40 50 60

Fig.1. XRD spectra comparison for SA samples

8000

6000

Intens ity (u.a)

PROJECT RESULTS During the year 2009 were made to characterize the X-ray diffraction technique a total of 14 samples of mud taken from Lake Sf. Ana (8 samples noted SA) and Balea Lake (6 samples noted BL). Samples form the mud, have been dried in the oven with natural convection type MEMERT, at a temperature of 100oC, landing 4h. After drying, the samples were crushed and analyzed by X-ray diffraction. Analyzing the results obtained have the following results: The type LB samples were identified

BL - CL3 - 6 BL - CL3 - 5 BL - CL3 - 4 BL - CL3 - 3


BL - CL3 - 2 BL - CL3 - 1

4000

2000

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

2
Fig. 2. XRD spectra comparison for BL samples

The research was funded by the by National Programme of Research, Development and Innovation - PNCDI II, contract 7018/2007.

PAGINA 132 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 133

Projects
M08
Buildings securing devices and systems in case of strong earthquakes

The research personal of the project Dr. Eng. Mircea Ignat Project Manager Eng. Tudora Paraschiv CS III; Dr. Eng. Ioan Puflea CS II; Eng. George Zarnescu CS; Eng. Laureniu Ctnescu ACS; Ec. Clara Hender ACS

ENVIRONMENT

PROJECT ABSTRACT This project has as a main objective the research and making of a type of relay for the interruption of the gas supplying in case of seismic events. Essentially is about a shock transducer or sensor being known as a seismic event which is shown mainly as a high energy mechanical shock with devastating effects. PROJECT RESULTS A simplified model of the mechanical seismic shock is presented in fig. 1. Essentially there can be considered that a body of mass m and speed v0 hits a helicoidally spring that has an elastic constant k and compresses:

includes as essential elements a sensor or transducer and an execution element. It is foreseen that the result of the project will be materialize in making a prototype group of relays for the protection of the gases network, as well as the related technology (within INCDIE CA dep. MNE) in the year 2011.

Fig.1. The model of a seismic shock

1 2 1 22 mvo k = m v 0 2 2

Fig. 2. General diagram of closing (relay system) of a gas pipe S - sensor, A - amplifier, EE execution element, A - actuator, R - tap, CTG gas transport pipe

(1)

From which there can be deducted the maximum deformation and the maximum elastic force:

= vo

m k

(2) (3)

Fmax = k

In Fig.2 is presented a block diagram of a stopping system (type relay) of the methane gas supplying. By relay it means a system that

The research was financed through the PNCDI II Programme, contract 82103/2007 (7071/2007).

PAGINA 134 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 135

3.1.5 Application in electrical engineering

Projects
in conditions similar to those which favorise the formation of frost / ice in the winter time (figure 5). Tests have shown that that this conductor, as opposed with the blank sample, protected themselves against the formation of frost / ice. Note that this self-protected conductor at the deposition of frost / ice has the same structural characteristics, technological, physical and mechanical properties and operating as standardized wires currently used and self-protection function to frost / ice is accomplished without additional consumption energy. Th obtained results make the object of a patent: applicant referance number.: 07/ICPECA/02.08.2010 - OSIM registration no: A/00690 02.08.2010

A01

Electrical aerial wire for electric energy transports, self-protective at frost and ice deposition

Research team Eng. L. S. Palii project manager Dr. M. M. Codescu, dr. phys.I. Dobrin, prof. dr. W. Kappel, eng. A. Iorga, eng. E. Manta, eng. S. Mitrea, phys. D. Patroi, dr. phys. E-A Patroi, dr. I. Puflea, eng. E. F. Radulescu, phys. G. Sbarcea, eng. N. Stancu, eng. A. Teisanu, techn. F. Dobrin, techn. I. Dumitrescu, techn. G. Iancu, techn. G. Margineanu, techn. A. Nasta, techn. F. Oprea, techn. P. Stean.

APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

PROJECT ABSTRACT The aim of the work is the realisation of a electric aerial conductor for power transmission network that are able to protect t h e m s e l v e s from frost or ice deposits caused by bad weather conditions (when the added weight to the air conductor lead to accidental breakage cable, and accidental interruption of power supply in large territorial areas, with major negative consequences, social and economic). The new / innovative quality of the electricity conductor (designed to energy transport), is that the system operates in self-protection (no supplementary maneuvers or operations), permanently selfregulating, with no additional energy consumption, is same shape, design and operating characteristics as the standard wires currently used for this purpose in the air transport electricity network. New quality of self-protection to the deposition of frost/ice is conferred on the electrical conductor of electricity for air transport, by the new functional materials. The new functional material has magnetocaloric and electrical characteristics, adequate for this mission and is sized to achieve the desired effect: the avoiding of formation / deposition of frost or ice on air transport electricity conductor, even in weather conditions when their deposition is imminent.

PROJECT RESULTS The research work was oriented to (i) realisation of Cr-multicomponent alloys (in the following, named TcM): elaboration and casting of alloys, in inert atmosphere and in air (figure 1), followed by hot and cold deformation of the metallic materials (figure 2); (ii) complex characterisation of the prepared materials for temperatures between 40oC .... 200oC: chemical analysis (by AAS); structural characterisation (by XRD); microstructural characterisation (by optical microscopy (figure 3) and SEM); electric and magnetic measurements (by VSM and PPMS measurements); analysis of thermal behaviour, by DSC, DTG. Were determined correlations between chemical composition between the chemical composition (micro) structure properties applications, by determination: of the Curie point variation with chemical composition; variation of the induction at saturation with temperature for the metallic materials prepared; variation ofBS/T. During the magnetic characterisations was determined the Curie point of different types of TcM alloy studied compositions, selecting those alloys which have low Curie point, close to the temperature of frost formation. By joint collaboration with SC ICEMENERG SA Bucharest, the conductor realised from the new developed material was inserted with conductors made from aluminum and steel, in two contructive alternatives (figure 4) in the cable structure, and than tested in the climatic chamber

Fig. 1. Aspects during the elaboration and casting of the Cr-based alloys in induction furnace in inert atmosphere a) and in air b)

Fig. 2. a) Aspects during the deformation of the conductor realised from Cr-based alloys (TcM type); b) and the resulted conductor

Fig. 4. Alternatives of insertion of conductors from TcM alloy type with aluminum and steel wires

Fig. 3. Optical micrographs of alloys type TcM a) incipient formations of concentration modulation in concentration of component elements; b) monophasic alloy with concentration modulated, within the same limits of the crystallin grain

The research work was supported by Ministry of Education, Research Youth & Sport - National Authority for Scientific Research, by PNCDI II Programme, project no. 21-012 (4228)/2007.

Fig. 5. Aspects during the comparative tests in climatic chamber of the self-protected cables with electrical conductors: 17,7 mm / Mc1, at 320 A a.c., 50 Hz a) Thermographic image during the comparative tests. Can be observed thetemperature differencies between the conductors

PAGINA 136 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 137

Projects
A02
Bujii ceramice cu incandescen pentru motoarele Diesel bloc, elementul ceramic rezistiv de nclzire i mantaua ceramic izolant exterioar. Experimentarea i demonstrarea funcionalitii modelului de bujie incandescent modul de testare a modelului experimental al bujiilor ceramice incandescente, rezultatele msurtorilor efectuate pentru demonstrarea funcionalitii sale. Etapa 4/2009: Elaborarea documentaiei tehnico economice Studiu de fezabilitate tehnic s-a analizat necesitatea i oportunitatea abordrii i promovrii produsului bujie ceramic incandescent, piaa de desfacere, strategiile de atingere a obiectivelor fixate. Capacitatea de producie va fi de circa 50.000 de produse pe an. Analiza financiar demonstreaz c implementarea produciei de bujii ceramice incandescente la SC SINTEROM SA este viabil i se poate autosusine n condiii normale de operare. Sursele de venituri constau din producie i comercializare de componente auto. n planul efectelor economice, implementarea proiectului va favoriza creterea performanei motorului diesel i a fiabilitii acestuia, precum i asigurarea condiiilor de reducere a emisiilor poluante. Prin creterea competitivitii vor fi obinute produse de calitate cu preuri relativ constante. Elaborarea documentaiei tehnico economice Proba Eh4h-N Eh6h-N Eh8h-N R () 7.13E+13 7.23E+14 7.25E+14 (W m) 4.78E+13 4.84E+14 4.86E+14 (S/cm) 2.09E-14 2.06E-15 2.06E-15 dup o scurt trecere n revist a cerinelor funcionale i constructive pe care trebuie s le satisfac bujiile ceramice incandescente i de care trebuie inut cont la proiectarea acestora, se realizeaz o abordare a soluiei constructive preconizate i analizarea ei sub aspectul etapelor tehnologice necesare pentru abordarea fabricaiei acestor produse, al materialelor implicate n realizarea lor, precum i al costurilor necesare cu materiale i manopera. Analiza tehnico-economic face o defininire a nielor de pia pentru acest produs, analizeaz capacitatea pieelor i principalii furnizori de pe pia. De asemenea, este prezentat o strategie de marketing i sunt prezentate criteriile de comparare (proprieti mecanice, comportament n exploatare, mod de fixare demontare, tehnologie, cost de producie, cost de ntreinere i deeuri). Evaluarea criteriilor de comparare. Analiza economic (inclusiv calcularea indicatorilor de performan economic: valoarea actual net, rata intern de rentabilitate i raportul cost-beneficiu) prin analiza de risc (riscuri provenite din derularea proiectului i riscuri provenite din exploatarea investiiei), analiza de senzitivitate, analiza sensibilitii proiectului, msurarea riscului utiliznd criteriul de medie-variant i calcularea deviaiei standard i a coeficientului de variaie permite evaluarea gradului de incertitudine al proiectului. Verificarea la tensiunea de verificare a duratei de via Funcionare de durat n laborator Cuplri ciclice Prenclzire: Luminescent dup descrcare: Rcirea: UVG=11.0V, tvG=10s TNG = 960oC; tNG=180 s aer static - t = 20 s, curent de aer - t = 120 s Proba teoretic 200 cicluri Corespunde Capacitatea de preluare a curentului electric Curent de anclanare la 1 1.0 V: < 25A Curent de regim la 1 1.0 V: cca. 6,6 A dup 20s Corespunde T emperaturi de regim T emp. admis la funcionare continu 850 C n timpul a 5% din durata de via de 50.000 km T emp. de regim maxim admis 800 oC Corespunde Tabel II: Rezultate testare

Personal de cercetare al proiectului Ing. Cristian eitan, IDT I responsabil proiect Ing. Georgeta Velciu, IDT I; Ing. Florentina Bogdan, CS; Ing. Florentina Grigore, IDT III; Ing. Christu rdei, CS III; Fiz. Delia Ptroi, CS; Fiz. Silvia Hodorogea AS; Chim. Petru Budrugeac CP I; Fiz. Virgil Marinescu CS; Ing. Alina Comnescu AS; Tehn.Elena Nicolaescu; Tehn. Doina Zoica; Tehn. Ioana Iancu

APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

PROJECT ABSTRACT Proiectul propus a avut ca obiectiv realizarea unui prototip de bujie ceramic incandescent pentru motoarele diesel. Modelul de bujie ceramic incandescent are ntregul element de nclzire (teaca) fabricat din ceramica structural fin cu o bun conductivitate termic, comparabil cu cea de tip metalic, scurtndu-se astfel timpul de prenclzire. Bujiile ceramice cu incandescen sunt echipate cu o rezisten special de nclzire din material ceramic care are un punct de topire foarte ridicat. Aceasta este inclus ntr-un corp cilindric din material ceramic izolator care are o conducie termic foarte bun, astfel nct timpul de prenclzire este foarte scurt i poate rezista mult timp la nclziri rapide. Elementul izolator este realizat dintr-o ceramic compozit, pe baz de nitrur de siliciu n amestec cu elemente rare (Y, Nd), iar ca ceramic conductoare ceramic compozit, pe baz de nitrur de siliciu n amestec cu SiC i SiO2. Materialul ceramic conductor are caracteristici care asigur creterea rapid a temperaturii i o rezisten mai mare la temperaturi ridicate. Compoziiile de material ceramic au fost caracterizate din punct vedere microstrucural, electric, termic i mecanic. Compoziiile cu cele mai bune performane au fost utilizate la procesarea bujiilor. S-a proiectat i realizat un model de prototip de bujie ceramic incandescent. Bujiile obinute au fost testate pe un stand de laborator pentru determinarea proprietilor specifice: timpul de rspuns, timpul de aprindere, rezistena la coroziune, durata de via, caracteristici electrice. S-a demonstrat funcionalitatea prototipului

de bujie ceramic incandescent. Rezultatele cercetrii au fost protejate printr-un brevet i diseminate prin lucrri i articole publicate n reviste de impact tiinific. REZULTATE PROIECT Etapa 3/2009: Elaborare model experimental Elaborarea modelului demonstrativ a noi soluii de bujie ceramic incandescent Sunt descrise lucrrile experimentale efectuate pentru elaborarea modelului demonstrativ al bujiei ceramice, procedeele tehnologice, metodele de fasonare i sinterizare ale maselor ceramice, lucrrile experimentale de sintez a materialelor compozite pe baz de -N4Si3 i lucrrile experimentale de caracterizare a maselor ceramice obinute. Proiectarea modelului experimental soluia constructiv aleas i proiectul acesteia. Fig. 2 Realizarea modelului experimental - prezentarea lucrrilor experimentale desfurate n cadrul contractului pentru realizarea modelului experimental al bujiilor ceramice incandescente. Au fost sintetizate urmtoarele materiale ceramice: -Si3N4 cu 2% MoSi2 i 5% Y2O3 + CeO2 material izolator; -Si3N4 cu 17,76% MoSi2, 7,79% SiC i 1,12% SiO2 material rezistor. Pentru fasonarea corpului ceramic al bujiilor au fost folosite urmtoarele procedee tehnologice: turnare prin injecie din barbotin termo-plastic, urmat de tratamente termice de sinterizare a corpului ceramic n condiii foarte bine controlate (atmosfer de Ar/N, la temperaturi ridicate); presarea uniaxial la cald, n condiii speciale (atmosfer de Ar/N). S-a realizat elementul ceramic mono-

Tabel I: Rezistena de izolaie

Fig. 2. Bujie ceramic incandes cent proiect

Fig. 1. Standul de msurare a rezistenei

Fig. 3. Standul pentru testarea funcional

Fig. 4. nregistrri ciclice la testarea funcional

PAGINA 138 | Scientific report | 2009

Cercetarea a fost finanat prin programul PNCDI II, Contract 71-143/2007 (4229/2007).

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 139

Projects
A03
The functional compatibility of the special electrotechnical equipments, with magnetic ferro-fluids (insulated crossings, measurement transformers, curling for physical micro particles, voltage dividers at industrial frequency) determination of flowing spectrum, of the magnetic field and of the temperature field distribution in which case the cooling fluid is conventional or is magnetic nanofluid, respectively, fig. 2, fig. 3. 4. It was design and realized (based on the execution documentation), an experimental model, fig. 4, named: Mono-phased transformer of low power and medium voltage, type TMOf-24-5. 5. There was realized a prototype transformer, having as cooling agent a magnetic ferrofluid, based on the execution documentation. There was executed the prototype: Mono-phased transformer of low power and medium voltage, type TMOf2-36-40, fig. 5. The results of the project contain: experimental or functional model, patent, procedures, methodology, etc.

The research personal of the project Dr. Ing. Lucian Pislaru-Danescu - project manager Prof. Dr. Bala Constantin; Dr. Eng. Mircea Ignat CPI; Dr. Chem. Petru Budrugeac - CPI; Dr. Eng. Ioan Puflea - CPII; Eng. Gabriela Telipan - ITPI; Dr. Eng. Gabriela Hristea - CPII; Dr. Eng. Maria-Mirela Codescu - CPI; Dr. Phys. Patroi Eros-Alexandru - CS; Eng. George Zarnescu - CS; Eng. Victor Stoica - ACS; Eng. Alexandru-Laurentiu Catanescu - ACS; Ec. Clara Hender; Techn. Fotea Filofteia; Techn. Tinca Ion; Techn. Girjoaba Luminita

APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

PROJECT ABSTRACT Mainly, the final purpose of the project is the realization of the electrical transformers as well as other electromagnetic devices like insulated crossings, having as cooling agent a dilution of ferro-fluid, for the purpose of increasing the efficiency of the thermal transfer from the windings to the exterior environment. Thus, there were proposed the following objectives: 1. The finalization of the obtaining procedure of the magnetic fluid that is transformer oil based used as cooling agent for the electrical transformers. 2. The elaboration of a mathematic model and the software simulation of the heat transfer phenomena under the influence of the magnetic field in the transformer, for establishing the practical solution that must be applied. The study is effectuated comparatively, through the determination of the flowing spectrum, of the magnetic field and of the distribution of temperature field in the case in which the cooling fluid is conventional or in the case of using the magnetic fluid, respectively. 3. The design of an experimental model. The realization of the execution documentation for the experimental model: Mono-phased transformer of low power and medium voltage type TMOf-24-5. 4. The realization of the experimental model TNOf-24-5 and the effectuating of tests and experiments on the experimental model. 5. The design of the prototype TMOf236-40. 6. The realization of the mono-phased transformer of low power and medium

voltage type TMOf-24-5, having as cooling agent the magnetic nanofluids transformer oil based, realized at pt. 1. Effectuation of tests and experiments on the prototype. 7. Experimenting of the insulated crossing type capacitor, having as cooling agent the magnetic nanofluid transformer oil based, realized at pt. 1, having the rated voltage of 123 kV and the rated current 630 A, type TIE 123-550/630-C-3100. A concise and actual abstract which includes the purpose and the objectives. RESULTS PROJECT 1. It was finalized the procedure of obtaining as well as characterizing the Ferro fluid probes transformer oil based, having different concentrations, fig. 1. In the case of the Electrotechnical equipments, particularly the electrical transformers, the most adequate magnetic nanofluid will be the one with transformer oil based liquid. The monodomain magnetic nano-particles of nanometric dimensions (1 15 nm) are ultra stable dispersed non-polar basic environment, each NPM being coated in a mono-molecular layer of chemisorbed organic stabilizer, usually oleic acid (OA). 2. Based on this procedure, there were prepared the probes of magnetic nanofluids used as cooling agent for electrical transformers. Also, there were prepared the probes of magnetic nanofluids used in the case of insulated crossings. 3. There were elaborated a mathematical model on the strength of which were effectuated software simulations of the heat transfer phenomena under the influence of the magnetic field in the transformer. Thus, there were stabilized practical solutions applicable to the experimental prototype. The study was made comparatively, through the

Fig. 2. The magnetic field and the distribution of the temperature field, 2D, in the case of transformer oil

Fig. 1. The procedure of obtaining of nanofluids based on hydrocarbures (oil transformer UTR; decahidronaphthalene DHN)

Fig. 3. The magnetic field and the distribution of the temperature field, 2D, in the case of using the magnetic nanofluid based on the transformer oil

Fig. 5. Prototype mono-phased transformer of low power and medium voltage, type TMOf2-36-40 Fig. 4. Experimental model of low power and medium voltage, mono-phased transformer type TMOf-24-5

The research was financed through the programme PNCDI II, contract 21-043/2007 (4230/2007).

PAGINA 140 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 141

Projects
A04
Security elements with ferromagnetic and field sensor microwires for application by electronic detection for validating

Research team Dr. M. M. Codescu project manager phys. S. Hodorogea, prof. dr. fiz. W. Kappel, eng. A. Iorga, eng. E. Manta, eng. S. Mitrea, eng. L. S. Palii, dr. phys. E-A Patroi, phys. D. Patroi, eng. E. F. Radulescu, phys. G. Sbarcea, eng. N. Stancu, techn. F. Oprea, techn. P.Stean.

Fig. 1. Optical micrograph of the Fe77B13Si10 MW a); aspect from the melting and MW drawing operation b)

Fig. 6. a) Polarisation curve for as-cast Fe77B13Si10 alloy, in NaCl 9 g/l electrolite, at 232oC; b) Rp, Cor curves vs time, for Fe77B13Si10 alloy, in NaCl 9 g/l, electrolite, at 232oC

APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

PROJECT ABSTRACT The aim of this project is the obtain and characterization of some composites smart material, realized through the ferromagnetic micro wires involve in a cellulose matrix (paper), which through their use like security elements to permit validation and (ii) realization of a magnetic field sensor for electronic detection for validating, so contributing to organized crime reducing. The industrial politic orientation of EU consists in consolidation of the competitiveness on international level. The result of this orientation is materialized in the entry on the free market of these hightech products, with high quality level and competitive prices. To prevent the counterfeit process, the process of laying etiquettes on the products has developed from year to year, reaching in the present to instruments including sophisticated technologies. Thus, all these technologies can be made by those who want to counterfeit, but in the case of the high-tech technologies, the price of the falsification is prohibitive. As security element, the special fibers are incorporated in the mass of the paper in the fabrication process, fibers being distinguishable by special properties: the color and/or UV luminescence feature. The launching moment of the technologies of metallic micro-wires has a revolutionary result as on the high-tech technologies market opening the doors for big varieties of technological benefits for the existing applications and in the same time stabling the basis of new applications. The main arguments for this type of technologies are precision, viability, a high productivity, the possibility of the processing automation and multiple

functional possibilities. PROJECT RESULTS The glass-coated ferromagnetic microwires (MW) (fig. 1a) were prepared by INCDIE ICPE-CA (fig. 1b), using the UlitovskyTaylor method. The microwires were structural and magnetic characterised (figures 2 and 3). In order to obtain compatibility between the filler and cellulosic matrix, the both materials are characterised from the point of view of sizes, density, viscosity and resistance at corrosion. The cut 5-8 mm length MW, are mixed by SME partner (SC CEPROHART SA Braila) with different cellulosic fibers, comparable sizes with those of MW. The MW diameters are smaller than of cellulosic fibers (see the figure 4a and b). For estimation of MW corrosion resistance was investigated the chemical stability of the MW precursors: the as-cast alloy (figs 6 and 7), being well-known the fact that the quasiamorphous structures are chemically more stable as the crystalline structures of the precursors alloy rods (fig. 5). Have been analysed several compositional variants: Fe77B14Si9, Fe77B13Si10, Fe78B12Si10 and Fe78B13Si9. Very good behavior to the corrosion tests showed the alloys with a larger content of Si, and, for the samples with the same concentration of Si, those with higher content of B. Together with the partners have been realised and functionally tested the ferromagnetic MW securised paper (fig. 8a, table 1) and the device for the decetion of the MW presence in the paper (fig. 8b).

Fig. 2. XRD spectra of Fe77B13Si10 microwires

Fig. 7. a) Nyquist diagram for Fe77B13Si10 alloy, in NaCl 9 g/l, electrolite, at 232oC; b) Bode diagram, for Fe77B13Si10 alloy, in NaCl 9 g/l electrolite, at 232oC

-1500 1500 1000 500

-1000

-500

500

1000

1500 1500 1000 500 0

HcJ=17.73 A/m
-500 -1000 -1500 -1500 -500 -1000 -1500 1500

Fig. 3. Hysteresis loop of ferromagnetic Fe77B13Si10 microwires

J (mT)

-1000

-500

500

1000

H (A/m)

Fig. 8. Ferromagnetic MW securised paper a) and device for detection of the MW presence in the paper, realised by the SC MEDAPTEH SRL Bacau b) Fig. 4. Optical micrograph of the cellulosic matrix without MW a) and with Fe77B13Si10 MW, randomly oriented b)

Nr. Characteristic crt. 1 2 3 Basis weight Breaking length Burst strength Number of double folding Water absorption, Cobb60 Ash content

Unit g/mp km kPa nr. g/m2

Testing method

Values

Fig. 5. XRD spectra and optical micrograph of as-cast Fe77B13Si10 alloy, 5% Nital etching

4 5

intensity (u.a)

SR EN ISO 60 - 130 536:97 SR EN ISO 5,0 1924-2/96 6,5 SR ISO 200 2758:2004 450 SR ISO 380 5626:1996 450 SR EN 28 - 32 20535/96 5,0 8,5 79 - 84

6 7

SR ISO 2144:1999 Retention rate of the ferromagnetic MW, %

The research work was supported by Ministry of Education, Research Youth & Sport - National Authority for Scientific Research, by PN II project no. 81-059/2007 (4239/2007).

Table 1. Characteristics of ferromagnetic MW securised paper

PAGINA 142 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 143

Projects
A05
Intelligent processing of nano-devices type giant magnetoresistance spin valve for applications in spintronics Co layers were deposited on the support of glass both silica, and the following conditions: substrate temperature during submission, Ts,= 475K; VTE evaporator temperature Tev=1785K; remote evaporator - substrate, D=30cm, deposition rate , rd = 40 /s pressure during deposit p = 6 * 106Torr. Cu layers were deposited on the support of glass both silica, and the following conditions: substrate temperature during submission, Ts,= 450K; VTE evaporator temperature Tev=1300K; remote evaporator - substrate, D=30cm, deposition rate, rd = 70 /s pressure during deposit p = 4 * 106Torr. The sensor was characterized in the field using a 1.2 T electromagnet powered by a programmable bipolar source POB 10-100 MG and a measuring system comprising a power source KEITHLEY 6221 and a nano-voltmeter KEITHLEY 2182A. Experiments were conducted to obtain signal amplification on the experimental model. Thus it required making some changes in the scheme of preamplification device obtaining in the previous stage. When GMR sensor bias circuit have been replaced Ref circuits 200 and bias circuit was redesigned circuit with OPA 602 REF01 and in conditions which were followed similar performance (or better) with the foregoing. Thus was created a bias circuit type ``constant current source, a classic application of the power supply circuit and power supply operational precision reference. Studies and measurements show that using planar Hall effect in ferromagnetic thin layers can be built rotation sensor (designed and simulated experimental model) but the magnetic field sensors using appropriate geometry and polarization. Appropriate sensor to measure magnetic fields of less than 0.05 T (field of linear measure is 0.02 T) whereas at higher values of saturation magnetization process occurs. This type of sensor is a versatile device since it enables the development of applications, or Tesla-meter goniometer using the same system.

Research staff of the project PhDs. Jenica Neamtu - project manager, PhDs. Eng. Teodora Malaeru, PhDs. Eng. Georgescu Gabriela, Eng. Cristian Morari, Eng. Ionut Balan, Technician Adriana Dinu

APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

PROJECT ABSTRACT The project follows a comprehensive study, the highest level of processing devices technology type magnetic giant magnetoresistance (GMR) and spin valve (SV). These techniques include the synthesis, electronic properties, magnetism and processing nanodevices magnetic thin layers. Specific objectives are:

Development

and testing of high precision process technology to achieve the demonstrators type magnetic field sensors and / or travel. field sensor design models; optimal structure multilayer device cell; for

Establish

Optimization

of magnetic metalsemiconductor interfaces, nonreactive performance magnetic contacts; magnetoresistive effects (AMR, GMR), extraordinary Hall effect structures; of thin layers their selection to achieve magnetoresistive devices;

Determination

Characterization

the instruction sheet for the device; Patenting processes to achieve the original dissemination, and ISI publications.

Development of test procedures and

RESULTS OF THE PROJECT Structures of ferromagnetic / nonmagnetic / ferromagnetic FM / NM / FM, in addition to AMR effect, giant magnetoresistance effect (GMR) and the derivative: effect of spin valve (SV), the resistivity depends on the mutual orientations of neighbouring FM layer magnetization. Resistivity decreases when the magnetization of FM layers from anti-parallel become parallel. Complexity of interface and surface effects that may occur in the structure of magnetic multilayer us to pay the utmost attention typical nanotechnology processes (high vacuum deposition) that can be achieved multilayer structures (nano) with effect from AMR, GMR and SW. The project was completed a model of device applications such as magnetoresistive microsensors with rotation and magnetic field microsensors. Experimental model: microsensors made magnetoresistive rotation comprises a monolithic structure 5-10 mm diameter circle, composed of ferromagnetic multilayer thickness between 4-90 nm, which is connected to external circuits (constant current source circuit and measure). Masks were made for submission of electro magnetic wire structures using Knuth Smart Car DEM. Experimental model structure consists of Co (70 nm) / Cu (7nm) / Co (30 nm) with a total thickness of 107 nm deposited by high vacuum evaporation on substrate Si/ SiO.

The research was funded by PNCDI II Programme, project 71-127/2007 (4243/2007).

PAGINA 144 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 145

Projects
A06
Oxide semiconductor nanodevices for applications in nanoelectronics and nano-medicine XRD and optical microscopy studies of ZnO nanostructures showed clear influence of synthesis method and parameters (temperature and duration of hydrothermal process) on growth of ZnO nano-wire. Making the correlation between structure and parameters of the synthesis of ZnO resulted in the development of an experimental model material. Structural and microstructural properties of ZnO nanostructures synthesized could be modelled by proper control of preparation conditions and prove that material, oxidic semiconductors have potential for application in nano-devices.

Research staff of the project PhDs. Jenica Neamtu - project manager PhDs. Eng. Teodora Malaeru, PhDs. Eng. Georgescu Gabriela, Eng. Cristian Morari, Eng. Ionut Balan, Technician Adriana Dinu

APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

PROJECT ABSTRACT This project seeks new materials based on nano-devices and multi-functionality. The specific objectives that lead to achieving this overall objective are: Conceptual model based on piezoelectric semiconductor ZnO nanostructures; Analysis of technologies for achieving semiconductor oxide and configuration processing and characterization facilities nanostructures; Synthesis of oxide semiconductors, experimental model of semiconductors; Characterization of materials determining correlations between: structure, synthesis parameters doping-electronic properties nanostructures -proprietary electric / piezoelectric; Modelling / simulation parameters device. Projection nano-device experimental model; Achieving functional model, nanodevice/or piezoelectric sensors for environmental medicine, functional model experimentation. RESULTS OF THE PROJECT Materials were developed for the experimental model and have made correlations between structure and synthesis parameters. Were investigated structural and microstructural properties of ZnO - material for the elaboration of an experimental model of nano-device oxidic semiconductors for applications in nanoelectronics and nano-medicine. ZnO nanostructures were prepared (with the same concentration of zinc salt) by three methods: Pacholski, hydrothermal method and rapid

hydrothermal method using microwave heating with varying synthesis parameters: temperature and refluxing time of ZnO precursors, temperature and time calcination of nanocrystalline ZnO thin layers, microwave power and exposure time to microwave. ZnO nanostructures have been developed through a nanocrystalline ZnO layer deposited on Si/SiO2 substrate (Pacholski method). After coating the substrate with ZnO nanocrystals hydrothermal growth was achieved (in solution) of ZnO nanowires (hydrothermal method and rapid hydrothermal method); The choice of calcination temperature of precursor samples was done based on the analysis of TG-DSC curves (Fig. 1) which require that the temperature range 90-1250C to form ZnO. Synthesis processes are adopted in the solution phase process that takes place at low temperature (90-125 0C) and offers many opportunities for large scale manufacturing at low cost; Study of structural properties of ZnO nanostructures in the form of nanowires was performed using X-ray diffraction analysis (Fig.2 and Fig.3). ZnO nanostructures crystallized in the hexagonal network, Wurtzita type have been obtained if the method of Pacholski and rapid hydrothermal method using microwave heating in a microwave power of 600 watts for four minutes. These nanostructures are well crystallized, which is demonstrated greater intensity of the peaks observed in the field 2 = 30-400. Microstructural characterization of ZnO samples was performed by optical microscopy (Fig.4 and Fig.5). Surface sample analysis was performed with Carl Zeiss NU2 microscope in reflected light, with 700x zoom. Images obtained from microscope reveal the formation and growth of ZnO crystals (not present congestion).

Fig.1. TG-DSC analysis of ZnO precursor obtained by the method of Pacholski

Fig. 4. Microscopy image of ZnO obtained by hydrothermal method (0.5h during heat treatment)

Fig. 2. X-ray diffractometry for ZnO deposited on Si/SiO2 sample heat treated for 1h at 1250C (method Pacholski

Fig. 5. Microscopy image of ZnO obtained by hydrothermal method using rapid microwave heating (90 W)

Fig. 3. X-ray diffractometry for the ZnO sample grown by microwave heating for 4 minutes at a power of 600W (rapid hydrothermal method)

The research was funded by PNCDI II Programme, 12-134/2008 project (4256/2008).

PAGINA 146 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 147

Projects
A07
Cooling device at small scale based on magnetocaloric effect materials

Research Team Dr. M. M. Codescu project manager Dr. Phys. I. Dobrin, Prof. Dr. W. Kappel, Eng. A. Iorga, Eng. E. Manta, Eng. S. Mitrea, Phys. D. Patroi, Dr. Phys. E-A Patroi, Eng. E. F. Radulescu, Phys. G. Sbarcea, Eng. N. Stancu, Dr. Eng. V. Tsakiris, Techn. F. Dobrin, Techn. I. Dumitrescu, Techn. G. Margineanu, Techn. A. Nasta, Techn. F. Oprea, Techn. P. Stean.

APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

PROJECT ABSTRACT The project aim: (i) preparation and characterisation of materials with magnetocaloric effect Gd5(SixGe1-x)4 from the compounds serie, where x = 0 ... 0,5 and (ii) realisation of a device with magnetocaloric effect, which, attached to the optical microscope, offer the possibility to collect the informations related to thelow temperatures microstructure of materials.

chemical composition (Gd51.5Si31.7Ge16.8) (grey regions). In order to determin the optimal homogenising temperatures was studied the thermal behaviour of these compounds by DSC and DTG investigations (figures 3-4). and The Gd5(Si0,50Ge0,50)4 Gd5(Si0,25Ge0,75)4 compounds were characterised by the variation with temperature of the specific magnetic moment in the low temperature range, in the presence of an magnetic field, with 10 kOe intensity (see tables 1 and 2). Disemmination E. Burzo, M.M. Codescu, W. Kappel, E. Helerea, Magnetic materials for technical applications, J. Opt. Adv. Mat. 11, 229 (2009) W. Kappel, M. M. Codescu, Handbook of Metallic Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 3 Metals. Alloys. Special materials. Composite materials, chapter 21 Magnetic materials, p. 155 1263

Fig. 3. Thermal and caloric analysis of the as-cast Gd5(Si0,50Ge0,50)4 alloy

Fig. 4. Thermal and caloric analysis of the as-cast Gd5(Si0,10Ge0,90)4 alloy

Code 1 2 3 4 5

Temperature, [K] 173 223 253 273 298

Specific magnetic moment, [emu/g] 48.45 50.69 36.16 18.42 11.33

Table 1. Variation of the specific magnetic moment with temperature in the range 173-298K, for the Gd5(Si0,50Ge0,50)4 alloys, in the presence of the magnetic field with 10 kOe intensity

PROJECT RESULTS The compounds from the Gd5(SixGe1-x)4 serie were prepared by elaboration and casting in induction furnace in inert atmosphere (figure 1a) and structural characterised by X-ray diffraction (see figure 1). The microstructure of as-cast alloy is presented in figure 2. Can be observed a biphasic microstructure: the Gd5(Si,Ge)4 phase (the light regions) and the presence of a phase at the grain boundary limits, with the approximative
6000
o GdGe # Gd5Si3 Gd5Ge4 oo o

Code 1 2 3 4 5

Temperature, [K] 223 253 273 298 323

Specific magnetic moment, [emu/g] 2.15 1.63 2.09 1.85 1.49

Table 2. Variation of the specific magnetic moment with temperature in the range 223-323K, for the Gd5(Si0,25Ge0,75)4 alloys, in the presence of the magnetic field with 10 kOe intensity

# o o

Gd5(Si0.05Ge0.95)4

o o o

oo o # oo # oo o

# #

o o o o

o o

# #

o o

o o #o o o

Intens ity (u.a)

4000

Gd5(Si0.10Ge0.90)4 o

Gd5(Si0.15Ge0.85)4

o #

Gd5(Si0.18Ge0.82)4 # o o ## o o
Gd5(Si0.365Ge0.635)4 o # o # # # # o # ## ##

oo o

o o

o o o

Gd5(Si0.2Ge0.8)4

o o o

# #

o o

o o o

#o o

2000

Gd5(Si0.25Ge0.75)4 Gd5(Si0.3Ge0.7)4

oo # o o o oo o

o o

# o
o

o #o o #

# #

o o

oo
oo

o o

o o
o

# o oo # # # ## o o

o o #

o #o o o

Gd5(Si0.45Ge0.55)4 Gd5(Si0.5Ge0.5)4

o o

oo o

o o

o# o o

#o o

o o #

o o

o o o

o o o

0 10

o # o # #o # ## o # o

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Fig. 1. Comparative XRD spectra for as-cast Gd5(SixGe1-x)4 compounds, where x = 0 0.5

Fig. 2. Optical micrograph of the as-cast Gd5(Si0,50Ge0,50)4 alloy, x 300

The research work was supported by Ministry of Education, Research Youth & Sport - National Authority for Scientific Research, by the NUCLEU Programme, project no. 5105/2009.

PAGINA 148 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 149

Projects
A08
Devices based on magnetic materials for energy harvesting calculate the average of certain properties (number of spins are oriented upwards, the average energy). Energy harvesting device (Fig. 1) is based on the principle of a transducer that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. Device performance is given by the magnetomechanical performance of the MsM and electromagneto-mechanical performance of the transducer. The transducer is based on flow rate variation (d / dt) of the magnetostrictive core and electrical impedance characteristics of the transducer. Flux variation is given by the magnetization state of MsM and is proportional with the induced current and number of turns of the coil (which is proportional with its strength). In dynamic regime the inductance coil is defined as inversely proportional to output power; also, inductance is depending on the MSMs permeability. Performance conditions are determined by pre-effort, tilting magnetic fields, eddy currents, temperature. Initially, magnetic fields have random orientations. By applying a mechanical pressure along the MsM and by applying a magnetic field perpendicular to the length the fields will focus on MsMs width and it will have minimal length, resulting a more pronounced magnetostrictive effect. Eddy currents are induced currents that oppose to the flow variation. They occur in case of a dynamic regime and increases with frequency. Temperature decreases MsM performance because lower magnetostriction crystalline axes dominate the main axis. If it exceeds the MsMs Curie temperature it becomes paramagnetic and will not present magnetostriction.

Staff Research Project PhDs. Eng. Phys. Madalina Negoita, CS, project manager PhDs. Eng. Mirela Maria Codescu, CS I, Eng. Nicolae Stancu, IDT II, PhDs. Eng. Eugen Manta, CS, PhDs. Eng. Florina Radulescu, ACS, PhDs. Eng. Alexandru Iorga, ACS, Eng. Gabriela Sbarcea, ACS, PhDs. Phys. Eros Alexandru Patroi, CS III, Techn. Florentina Oprea, Techn. Agripina Nasta, Techn.Georgeta Margineanu, Techn. Paul Iustin Stean

APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

PROJECT ABSTRACT Developing micro technologies opens a vast field for research, motivation sustained by the new growing features of the microsystems. In the field of electrical and electronics, m a g n eto s t r i c t i o n applications so far have been limited to the sonar transducers, but currently are developing microtechnologies where these materials play an important role. New types of micro actuators, micro sensors, micro magnetostrictive engines that are currently designed are made based on the interdependence between mechanical and magnetostrictive properties of these materials. These materials may have in sensoristic and micro actuation the same applications as piezoelectric one, but with more superior performances (particularly strong forces). In a general description, magnetostriction represents all relationships and phenomena, linking mechanical properties to the magnetic ones of the materials. Magnetostrictive materials can be divided mainly in two groups: metals (iron, cobalt, nickel principally), metal alloys and ferrites on one hand and rare earth based alloys on the other hand. The main characteristic required of magnetostrictive materials is that they provide maximum magnetostriction at low magnetic fields. The magnetic fields created for microsystems as applications will not be able to ensure in any case very high values of magnetic fields. So the coercivity of the material must be quite low, this being an important aspect for these materials.

PROJECT RESULTS TERFENOL type alloys have been developed and cast (i) in a quartz tube (see fig. 1) placed in the inductor meltspinning device (but without starting the rotating drum), and in induction furnace Heraeus type. Development was done in a variety of composition (in atomic %): - Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1; - Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1,5; - Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1,9; - Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe2. We started from pure elements: Tb metal, purity 99.99% and pre-alloy: Dy80-Fe20 and pure technical Iron (99.5 %), deoxidized in advance using a treatment with hydrogen reduction at temperatures of 800 8500C, for 2 3 hours. Statistical physics wants to predict the properties of complex systems in which many interactions occur because of thermal agitation. These could be molecules in a gas, atoms in a magnet, polymers in solutions or other interesting physical systems. One way physicians can get into these interesting systems physically is the construction of models that can reveal interesting features of real systems in an easy to study way. One of these simplified models is the Ising model that can be used to model simple magnets. The model consists of a set of magnetic spins arranged in a rectangular matrix. Each spin can be in up or down position. Energy system is determined by the sum of interactions between a spin and its neighbors. At very low temperatures the system will be in the lowest energy state in which all the spins are oriented the same (above). As system temperature increases spines begin to shake resulting a complicated motion. The purpose of statistical physics is not to predict these movements but only to

Fig. 1. Quartz tube loaded with a charge and ready for development 1 - Quartz tube, 2 - inducing copper coils cooled with water

Fig. 2. Electronic scheme and overall scheme of the device

The research was funded through the CORE programme, contract 35 N 02/02 / 2009 (5202/2009).

PAGINA 150 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 151

Projects
A09
Tightenng ceramic element for magnetic clutches that drive the pumps with zero losses 46,49%; between 0,958-5,009 m of 49,7265,03 %; specific surface: 5,56-8,93 m2/g; pH into basic domain, between, 7,23-9,52; volume weight: 2420-2498 g/l; viscosity: 404,3-7278 mPa.s; The rheological behaviour of the realized suspensions is pseudoplastic with tendency towards newtonian one. 2 millimetre (mm) ceramic wall was formed in 5 minutes and in 25 minutes. The drying shrinkage was of 1-2 % and green density of 2,37-2,39g/cm3. Were shaped: 50 mm x 50 mm x 8 mm samples, 11 mm x 40 mm , respective, 10mm x 60mm, cylindrical samples. The samples were sintered at 1400 0C/2,5 h, 1400 0C/3h and 1575 0C/1h. The obtained results on sintered samples at 1400 0C/3h: Shrinkage in firing (Ca): 4-6 %; Apparent porosity (Pa) : 31,12-37,72%; Apparent density (a): 2,66-2,93 g/cm3; Water absorption (A): 9,62-12,41%; Strength in compression: 19,58 MPa. Resistance to rupture: 17,94-71,10 N/mm2; Strength in compression on sintered sample at 1575 0C/1h: 130 MPa.

Research Team Sptaru Maria, Dr. eng chem., CP III - project manager rdei Christu, eng chem., CP III; Budrugeac Petru, Dr.chem., CP I; eitan Cristian, eng chem., ITD I; Velciu Georgeta, eng chem., ITD I; Albu M. Florentina, eng chem., CS; Mihiescu Gh. Mihai, ITD I; Sbarcea Gabriela, physician, ACS; Petrache Mrioara, tehn. pr.; Nicolaescu Elena, tehn. pr.; Iancu Ioana, tehn. pr.; Zoica Doina, tehn. pr.; Matei Valeria, worker PROJECT ABSTRACT The purpose of the project is to realize the tightening ceramic element for magnetic clutches that drive the pumps with zero losses, as shape and sizes presented in fig.1. At the existent pumps with zero losses, driven with magnetic clutches, required for next aggressive, toxic, expensive fluids, the tightening tumbler is achieved of metallic material (non-magnetic and resistant to specific environment agents). The presence of the tightening metallic tumbler, in the revolving magnetic field, determines the important losses thanks to induced eddying flow, which have as effect the tumbler heating through Joule effect and decreasing transmitted couple through magnetic interaction because of the appearance a load torque, so much bigger with the higher speed. The radically removal of this drawback can occur by metallic tightening tumbler replacement, or of some sections of this, with some of electric isolation material (ceramic material). The material and the wall thickness of this tumbler must provide mechanical resistance, do not influence magnetic interaction and do not introduce major losses by eddying flows. The concrete objectives of the project consist of:-the realization of one ceramic material that must resist in the following using conditions: working temperature: min. -20 0C, max. +150 0C; internal working pressure: 10-16 bar; fluid media of corroding, toxic or inflammable agents. - the processing technology realization of ceramic tightening elements for magnetic clutches. The concrete objectives of project proposition, to realize of some ceramic tightening elements, have in view the constructive improvements with important techno-economical advantages at the pumps with zero losses for aggressive, toxic, expensive fluids conveyance. RESULTS OF THE PROJECT The project results in 2009 were objectified about: A technical report achievement concerning magnetic clutches, tightening, imposed requirements for constructive materials. A technical report achievement concerning ceramic materials and shaping technologies. The selection of the ceramic composition and of the achievement technology of ceramic tightening elements for magnetic clutches. Laboratory experimental data. Experimental models of ceramic materials. Were realized 12 aqueous ceramic suspensions, through ball milling, for 3 hours, 5 hours, 7 hours and 9 hours. As raw materials were used: calcined alumina of Oradea, 46 %, zircon, 51 %, rutile, 3 %, sodium carboxymethylcelullose, 0,12-0,25 %, Arabic gum, 0,08 %, polyvinyl alcohol, 0,1 %, distilled water, 23,0824,81 %. On prepared suspensions were determined the next important characteristics: the mean size of the particles, the size distribution, the specific surface, pH, the volume weight and the viscosity. The obtained results: the mean size of the particles: 1,039-3,030 m; the grain-size fractions: between 0,164-0,958 m of 26,79 -

APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

Fig.1. Form and sizes of tightening element

The research was financed by the NUCLEU Programme, contract PN 0935-0204 (5204/2009).

PAGINA 152 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 153

Projects
A10
Sea water desalination. Hybrid system type capacitive deionization and electrochemical purification relay in developing of an active magnetic field based on permanents magnets with specific energies; - were designed, developed and analyzed 3 constructive variants - have been highlighted magnetic field intensities in the necessary air gap of 5 X 30mm: variant A: 0,55 1,0 Tesla ; variant B: 1,75 2,0 Tesla ; variant C: 2,4 2,8 Tesla. Also have been realized an experimental installation for sea water desalination by Hall type effect. In Fig.5 is presented the magnetic desalination (by Hall type effect) chamber.

Research staff of the project Hristea Gabriela - CS II project manager Palii Liviu - IT1; Ignat Mircea - CS I; Iordoc Mihai - CS; Leonat Lucia - CS; Teisanu Aristofan - CS III

APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

PROJECT ABSTRACT The main objective of this project consists in developing and realization of a capacitive desalination (CD) and electrochemical purification of water module based on carbon aerogels/xerogels materials coupled with a magnetic desalination procedure based on Hall type effect. RESULTS OF THE PROJECT The imposed objectives of this project related to 2009, relayed on: 1. obtaining and characterisation of different experimental variants of electrode materials based on carbon aerogels/ xerogels for capacitive deionization module and also obtaining monolithic shapes (foils) of carbon aerogels/ xerogels 2: have been calculated/ modelled those parameters and forces which compete for ionic separation process by Hall type effect. Thus, have been synthesised and thoroughly characterised (from physical, chemical, electrochemical means by RMN, IR, RX, SEM, BET, CV, EI and also from electrical point of view 14 experimental variants of carbon aerogels/xerogels for CD module. Have been applied sol-gel techniques, followed by solvent exchange (not in supercritical condition as on international level is usually done) drying by lyophilisation, vacuum etc) and finally pyrolysis. In certain reaction conditions have been observed a strong interdependence between materials characteristics and synthesis procedure parameters. Those relationships have been put in evidence by monitoring parameters such as: molar ration between raw materials (resorcinol: formaldehyde), dilution ratio, pH, solvent type used for water removing from organic system. Also a peculiar attention was given to drying

procedure-being known as determinant for pores type evolution in final carbon xerogel/aerogel. In this regard have been proposed and experimented alternative procedures for supercritical drying- the most used method up to now-and. Thus, was demonstrated that applying a convective drying with controlled air speed, the evolution of cracks on organic gels prior to pyrolysis, is successful avoided. The convective drying was analysed by X ray microtomography. Regarding obtaining of carbon xerogels/ aerogels foils to be used as electrodes in CD module have been approached a method involving a porous carbon substrate impregnated with organic gels precursor and followed by pyrolisis (and with the same initial steps as we mentioned above). In this way monolithic electrodes were developed. Concluding: have been demonstrated the possibility to avoid cracks evolution during polymerization of organic precursors by applying a controlled convective drying (which is less expensive then supercritical drying); in this way the monolithic shape of gels have been conserved; were obtained electrode materials with electrochemical capacitances comparable and even better then equivalent materials reported on international level. (C: from 0.66 mF/g up to 2 F/g). Referring to developing of a magnetic desalination system have been established and calculated the main parameters which define this system in order to increase the yield of ionic separation process. Thus have been presented: - which parameters should take into account to increase the magnetic performances in order to design an appropriate magnetic device for desalination purposes; - have been given technical solutions for a magnetic desalination which mainly

Fig.3. X ray microtomography; convective drying for gels synthesized on different dilution ratio

Fig.1. a. monolithic carbon xerogels; b.sol-gel synthesis

Fig.4. Schematic view of ionic separation chamber acting in magnetic field

Fig.5. Magnetic desalination chamber

Fig.6. Modificatioof magnets and poles 54gr -dimensions

Fig.2. Cyclic voltammograms, 1M H2SO4 vs.Hg/HgSO4, different variants of obtained carbon xerogels

The research was financed by Nucleu Programme, contract no. PN 09-35-03-02 (5302/2009)

PAGINA 154 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 155

Projects
A11
Sealing system based on magnetic nanofluids for Gas valves Br............................1 180 mT HcB..........................48 kA/m - with regard magnetic fluid in terms of magnetic circuit calculation model requires that the optimized value of the gap induction sealing system does not exceed a maximum of 0.5 Tesla otherwise the liquid saturation is reached. Fluids used in these conditions are necessary to have a saturation magnetization between values of ~ 500-800 gauss.

Research staff of the project Phys. Ana Maria Bondar IDT I project manager Prof. Dr. Kappel Wilhelm - CS I; Eng. Stancu Nicolae IDT I; Dr Gh.Mihai Mihaiescu IDT I; Dr. Patroi Eros Alexandru - CS; Dr. Codescu Mirela Maria - CS I; Eng. Mitrea Sorina Adriana CS III; Dr. Caramitu Alina Ruxandra IDT I; Dr. Pintea Jana IDT II; Dr. ing. Adela Bara CS III; Eng. Erdei Remus CS; Eng. Radu Vasilescu-Mirea IDT III; Eng. Ivan Ion CS I; Eng. fiz. Iulian Iordache IDT II PROJECT ABSTRACT Technical objective of this project is to develop sealing systems that apply magneto fluidic sealing technology with important advantages over known mechanical seals: sealing without flaws; long operation duration (~ 5 years); sealing ability practically independent of shaft rotation speed, up to 15-20 m / sec peripheral speed; minimum wear, only viscous friction; zero contamination; optimal transmission; operating range: from high vacuum (10-8 mbar) at approx. 16 bar (or more, for special design); relatively simple construction and low manufacturing cost. This objective was achieved by assimilating the research results, having as final result increasing the economic competitiveness of SC ROSEAL SA Odorheiu Secuiesc. Romanian Academy Branch Timisoara (ARFT) provided technical advice for processing magnetic nanofluids part of sealing system. INCDIE ICPE-CA research team, was shaped the magnetic field (geometry and value) for optimal operation of magnetic fluid seal, designing permanent magnet, within the parameters established by modeling the magnetic circuit . The results of this project will be materialized through industrial-scale production and low cost of magnetic fluid sealing systems at S.C.ROSEAL S.A Odorheiu Secuiesc. Beneficiary of such system is S.C. FEPA S.A Barlad which will produce at industrial scale and low cost gas valves equipped with magnetic fluid sealing systems RESULTS OF THE PROJECT Magnetic nanofluid seal is formed between a magnetic pole piece and a sleeve mounted on a shaft. The magnetic field that retain the fluid between bush and pole piece fixed to the spindle is created by permanent magnet. To design the magnetic circuit for sealing system it was used MagNet soft developed by Infolityca with calculation modules in two dimensions and three dimensions. This soft uses the finite element method for sizing of the magnetic circuit. The optimal solution obtained was tested by sizing magnetic circuit for experimental model. They set these values: - away from the elements that can influence the magnetic circuit (metal bushings, bearings, outer case) is 1mm. Positioning a piece of soft magnetic material at a distance less than 1 mm leads to a decrease of 20% of the value of magnetic induction in the gap of magnetic circuit that leads to inefficient use of permanent magnet or even shorting the magnetic flux path for the use of a housing of soft magnetic material which is bonded on polar parts; - with regard to the size of the pole piece teeth the beneficiary, SC ROSEAL SA, requested to use two types: Type 1: 6 teeth, tooth width 0.25 mm, height on radius 0.6 mm Type 2: 5 teeth, tooth width 0.24 mm, height on radius 0.7 mm - the air gap size for optimized magnetic circuit was: Type 1 - 0.1 mm Type 2 - 0.07 mm - for magnetic field it is recommended to use of magnet type AlNiCo with the following magnetic properties: (BH)max...................37 kJ/m3

APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

Fig. 1. Magnetic circuit for magnetic nanofluids seal

Fig. 3. Magnetic induction distribution for optimized magnetic circuit

Fig.2. Variation of magnetic induction in the gap circuit

The research was funded by INNOVATION Programme, MODULUS 1 Development of product systems; Contract no. 58/ 25.09.2007 (7025/2007).

PAGINA 156 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 157

Projects
A12
Innovative technologies designed for surface properties upgrading of metallic materials, used in automotive production DLC deposition installation at low temperatures by electrochemical methods is composed of the following elements : cooling device ultrafreezer type deposition cell ammonia pipe acetylene pipe white leds battery PC camera VoltaLAb PGZ 301 installation PC acetylene bottle ammonia bottle acetylene barbotor vacuum pump air bottle tap for ammonia circulation tap for acetylene circulation purification/ purge tap ammonia tap acetylene tap air tap evacuation tap channel mouth electrical connections interface 2. Experimental model for DLC films electrodeposition at normal temperatures Methanol (CH3OH), ethanol (CH3CH2OH), acetinitrile (CH3CN) and DMF (dimetilformamide CH3NCH2CHO) will be used as organic electrolytes for electrochemical deposition of DLC thin layers. The sublayer is the same as used in the first technique, but this time is used as cathode. A graphite plate is used as anode. The montage is made so that the distance between the working electrode and the graphite plate is 10 mm. Before starting the experiment, the sample will be immersed in HNO3 for 10 minutes to carry off the surface oxides.Then the sublayer is gradually ultrasonated in distilled water, acetone and ethanol. During the experiment, nitrogen is purged into the reaction tank to carry of the oxygen and for system cooling. The power source used in this experiment is a continuous current source with a voltage varying between 0 and 5000 V and a current of 300mA, with a power of 1500W. The source conception system is in switching, push-pull, full bridge. The experiment runs its course at 50C for 5 hours at a voltage of 1600V. 1,5 KW Invertor (5kV and 300mA) Voltage source is necessary to achieve the deposition of the DLC protective films and was conceived to work in full bridge because the power exceeds 1 KW. Power supply: 1. Input Monophased: 230 Vca, 6,5 Aca 2. Output Monophased: ~5 KVcc, 0,3 Acc 3. Working frequency: 20 KHz 4. Fill factor: 0...50% 5. Protection: ultra fast fuses for final transistors (16 A) as well as for output (315 mA) 6. Galvanic separation: input, not output 7. PWM (Pulse Width Modulator): UC 3526 8. Prefinal floor transistors: IRF 9520 and 510 9. Galvanic separation transistors: 2 pieces, toroidal 10. Final floor transistors: 4 piecess, XIXDN 55N120D1 11. Output transformer: frame ferrite, two wrappings at 4 spire, 4 wrappings output with 152 spire 12. Voltage supply divisor: of resistance; 10 K at 1 Watt, division at 57,5 Vca, 13. Final transistors drivers: 2 pieces 14. Voltage stabilizer at 18 Vcc for PWM.

Research staff of the project Eng. Phys. Iulian Iordache IDT II, Project Manager Eng.Chem. Alexandru Teisanu CS III; Eng. Chem. Mihai Iordoc CS; Eng. Chem. Radu Vasilescu-Mirea IDT III; Eng.Chem. Elena Chitanu ACS; Eng. Liviu Lungu IDT III

APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

PROJECT ABSTRACT Two electrodeposition methods of Diamond-like Carbon (DLC) thin films are advanced on steels used in Automotive Industry. First method consists in electrochemical deposition of DLC at low temperatures by electrolysis at a 2.5 5 V voltage and current density of 10-3 10-5 A/ cm2 , using an electrolyte consisting of barboted acetylene in liquid ammonia. The low temperature (lower than -40C) makes this method applicable to any type of sublayers, which is unstable at high temperatures. Second method consists in electrochemical deposition of DLC at high temperatures by electrolysis at a voltage varying between 0 and 5000 V and a current of 300 mA with organic electrolytes, methanol (CH3OH), ethanol (CH3CH2OH), acetonitrile (CH3CN) and DMF (dimetilformamide CH3NCH3CHO). A methodology of determining anticorrosive properties of surface and protective layers was studied and developed. Electrochemical techniques for anticorrosive properties determination were studied and presented: a) Time variation of polarization resistance; b) Potentiodynamic polarization; c) Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The method of achieving DLC by electrochemical covering is feasible and electrochemical coverings of diamond layers can be obtained. RESULTS OF THE PROJECT Experimental models for DLC films electrodeposition 1. Experimental model for DLC films electrodeposition at low temperatures In this study, a cell with 3 electrodes

is used, as it can be observed in Figure 1. Before the experiment, the 3 electrodes are well toggled within the cell. The processed layer is connected as working electrode (WE), a contraelectrode (CE) consisting of a platinum foil with dimensions 10 x 10 x 0.25 mm3 connected to a cooper wire and a platinum wire as a pseudo - reference electrode (RE). The working electrode is placed parallel to the auxiliary electrode (CE), and the reference electrode is placed the closest possible to the working electrode. Using this montage, the current will pass between the working electrode and the contraelectrode, and the working potential will be relatively monitored up against the reference electrode. After the montage is made, the working cell is placed/ toggled in the precinct of an ultrafreezer (see Figure 2). Then the air from the cell is evacuated/ evisted with a simple vacuum pump for 10 minutes to cut out/ eliminate the possible unwanted effects caused by its presence and to forbid water and CO2 condensation. The gaseous ammonia, anhydrous, is barboted in the cell and liquefied until the liquid ammonia solution entirely covers the 3 electrodes, point that can be established by means of a video camera placed to/at one of the cell windows, to/at the other being mounted a led. Finally, the acetylene continuously barbotes in liquid ammonia during the process. An electrochemical combine All-in-one Radiometer Analytical model VoltaLab 40 is connected to the system consisting of 3 electrodes as the voltage source. The electrodeposition takes place at a voltage between 1.4 6 V. Current density and temperature are between -2.2 and -0.1 mA/cm2, and -72 up tp 40C, respectively. DLC deposition installation at low temperatures by electrochemical methods

Fig. 1. Electrochemical cell diagram

Fig. 2.Installation for deposition by electrochemical methods of DLC protective films at low temperatures

Fig. 3. Electrochemical cell for DLC deposition at low temperatures

Fig. 4. Cell and installation for DLC films electrodeposition al normal temperature and high voltage

Fig. 5 Voltage source in continuous current

The research was financed by PNCDI II programme, contract 71-038/18.09.2007, (7027/2007).

PAGINA 158 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 159

Projects
A13
Sinteza de semiconductori nanostructurai pe baz de Bi2Te3 i Zn4Sb3 dopai cu aplicaii n energetica curat (Cutarea de materiale cu ZT ridicat, dezvoltarea de noi dispozitive termoelectrice i gsirea de noi aplicaii) i locaiile C&D. Etapa II: Sinteze preliminare i caracterizarea nanocristalelor de Bi2Te3 Experimentri preliminare asupra metodei de sinterizare a nanocristalelor de Bi2Te3 dopate n vederea obinerii materialelor bulk Pentru a obine compui termoelectrici de tip p-Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 s-au dozat corespunztor elementele componente (Bi, Te i Sb de puritate 99,99 %) i s-au nclzit 2 ore la 750 oC n cuptor i apoi s-au rcit pn la temperatura camerei. S-a obinut un lingou omogen care s-a sfrmat n fulgi fini, n mojar de Al2O3. Pulberile rezultate au fost sitate pentru a separa fraciile de ~75 m, 76-150 m, 151-250 m, apoi le-au supus unui tratament termic de reducere n hidrogen, 2 ore la 380 oC, pentru reducerea oxigenului adsorbit la mcinare. Pulberile reduse au fost ambalate sub vacuum n box cu curent de N2 pur i nu au fost dezambalate dect nainte de sinterizare. Sinterizarea pulberilor s-a efectuat n matri de grafit, la 300420C timp de 2 minute, n vid n atmosfer de azot. S-au obinut pastile de 20 mm 8 mm. Structura cristalin a probelor sinterizate a fost examinat prin difractometrie de raze X. Figura 3 prezint rezistivitatea electric i conductivitatea termic k a compuilor din pulbere de ~75 m, ca o funcie de temperatura de sinterizare. Rezistivitatea electric descrete cu creterea temperaturii de sinterizare. Rezistivitatea electric a compuilor sinterizai scade cu creterea densitii relative. Totui, la 420 oC rezistivitatea electric crete invers, datorit recristalizrii din proba sinterizat care rezult ntr-o descretere a factorului de orientare, aa cum s-a calculat din rezultatele XRD. S-au examinat, de asemenea, proprietile termoelectrice ca o funcie de dimensiunea pulberilor (~75 m, 76150 m, 151-250 m) pentru 380C.

Personal de cercetare al proiectului Ing. Cristian eitan, IDT I responsabil proiect Ing. Georgeta Velciu, IDT I; Ing. Florentina Bogdan, CS; Ing. Alexandru Teianu, CS; Tehn. Elena Nicolaescu

APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

PROJECT ABSTRACT Obinerea prin metode alternative (solvotermal, hidrotermal, hidrotermal asistat ultrasonic/n cmp de microunde) de nanocristale de tipul Bi2xMxTe3 i Zn4-xMxSb3, precum i caracterizarea acestora prin metodele specifice: SEM-EDAX, AFMSTM, BET, XRD. Prin metodele alternative propuse hidrotermal n cmp ultrasonic i n cmp de microunde se ncearc realizarea unui control mai riguros al caracteristicilor morfo-structurale ale materialelor, n condiii de economisire semnificativ a consumului energetic i a timpului de lucru. Realizarea, experimentarea i demonstrarea functionalitii dispozitivelor termoelectrice, bazate pe proprietile termoelectrice ale materialelor studiate, cu aplicaii in energetic i mediu.

REZULTATE PROIECT Etapa I: Studii de documentare tiinific privind sinteza nanocristalelor de Bi2Te3 i Zn4Sb3 dopate Studiu documentar asupra sinterizrii nanocristalelor de Bi2Te3 i Zn4Sb3 dopate pentru obinerea materialelor bulk pe baza datelor din literatura tiinific de specialitate, pune n eviden problematica legat de: Procesarea la temperaturi ridicate, unde se prezint fenomenele ce au loc n timpul densificrii solidelor prin tratamentul termic de sinterizare, precum i unele procedee speciale de sinterizare. Bazele i scurt istoric al termoelectricitii, unde se prezint descoperirea fenomenului i evoluia materialelor termoelectrice i a aplicaiilor lor, de la nceputuri pn n etapa actual.

Materiale termoelectrice, unde se prezint problematica parametrilor de material (conductivitate termic, coductivitate electric, figura de merit termoelectric) pe care trebuie s-i ndeplineasc materialele termoelectrice pentru a asigura performana n aplicaiile specifice (dispozitive termoelectrice de rcire i generatoare termoelectrice de tensiune electric). De asemenea, sunt prezentate dou metode pentru selectarea materialelor termo electrice performante. Materiale termoelectrice pe baz de Bi2Te3, unde se prezint exponentul principal al acestei familii de materiale termo-electrice, care a nceput s fie utilizat din anii 50. De asemenea, sunt prezentate materiale termoelectrice pe baz de Bi2Te3 actuale obinute prin procedee moderne de sinterizare n spark plasma i de presare la cald, precum i proprietile acestora. Materiale termoelectrice pe baz de Zn4Sb3, unde se prezint exponentul principal al acestei familii de materiale termo-electrice, particularitile proprietilor sale i dificultile tehnologice de depit pentru realizarea de generatoare termo-electrice eficiente de energie electric. Studiu documentar asupra modului de realizare a dispozitivului termoelectric face o trecere n revist a: Dispozitivelor termoelectrice, unde este prezentat construcia dispozitivelor termoelectrice cu componentele lor principale - elementele termoelectrice i plcile ceramice -, coeficientul de performan (COP) al dispozitivelor termoelectrice i modulele termoelectrice comerciale; Structurii dispozitivelor termoelectrice i materialele i componentele disponibile comercial; Scopurilor i locaiilor de C&D, unde sunt rezumate scopurile C&D

Fig. 1. (a) Variaia figurii-de-merit (ZT) i (b) valuarea pantei m cu densitatea purttorilor (n), la temperaturile 200, 250 i 300 K, pentru Bi2Te3

Fig. 2. Schema unui modul termoelectric mono-treapt

Fig. 3. Microstructurile sinterizate

optice

ale

specimenelor

Fig. 4. Rezistivitatea electric i conductivitatea termic ale compuilor la diferite temperaturi

Mrimea pulberii (m) ~75 76150 151250

(10-5 m) 1.00 1.21 1.51

Densitate relativ (%) 97 94 89

Tabelul I - Densitatea relativ i rezistena electric a compuilor sinterizai cu diferite mrimi de pulberi.

Cercetarea a fost finanat prin programul PNCDI II., subcontract 2-22127/30.09.2008 (7058/2008)

PAGINA 160 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 161

Projects
A14
Coating technology based on photocatalytic nanostructurated dispersed systems, with self-cleaning and antimicrobial role for applications in the construction field show the shifting of absorption peak towards visible region, with a maximum at 500-600 nm, and the enlargement of absorption band (the so-called tail of the band) which indicates increasing of the photocatalytic activity; - increased photocatalytic activity both in UV (=365 nm) and in visible light (=400-550nm); Ag/TiO2 comparing with TiO2 pure anatase, shows a significant increase of the Orange II decolouring rate, depending on the silver content (fig. 3); - high efficiency photodegradation rate of the organic pollutants (fig. 4); - the obtained solutions can be used as such, concentrated like slams or in form of powders. Its can be applied by spraying or can be mixed in ecological lacquers and paints to form adherents layers on ceramic, metallic and other different surfaces. Patent demand: L. Anicai, A. Petica, S. Gavriliu, Electrochemical processing for obtaining of some nanostructurated dispersed ecological systems, with photocatalytic and antimicrobial activity, OSIM registration: A00961 din 23.11.2009, BOPI nr.5/2010

Research team of the project Chim. Aurora PETICA, IDT I Responsible project Dr. Eng. Stefania Gavriliu; Biologist Nicoleta Buruntia; Drd. Eng. Chem. Paula Prioteasa; Physicist Gabriela Zbarcea

APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

ABSTRACT PROJECT The aim of the project is a coating technology elaboration for ceramics, metallic surfaces, insides and outsides finishing of the constructions, based on photocatalytic nanostructurated dispersed solutions of TiO2 and Ag with self-cleaning and antimicrobial role. In order to reach this aim, the following objectives were carried out: nanostructurated dispersed ecological systems with photocatalytic activity both in visible and UV light with 5000 10000 ppm TiO2 and 15 45ppm Ag contents, which can be applied like adherent, thin layers with a maximum of 1 m thickness; obtaining technology elaboration of the nanostructurated dispersed systems based on TiO2 Ag and of the coating processing of the ceramics and metallic surfaces; obtaining and testing in real exploitation conditions, products and technology function demonstration; dissemination and final technical economical study; application of a new technology belong of the Green chemistry, suitable for a new product and a new range of services with added value and profitable effects for the environment and the quality of life. PROJECT RESULTS Firstly, documentaries studies regarding TiO2 photocatalyst activity, TiO2 active in visible light obtaining methods, doping techniques and the doping agents used were fulfilled. Using a polyelectrolyte as dispersing/ stabilizing agent, namely polyacrilic sodium salt and an electrochemical method for Ag electrodeposition on TiO2 nanoparticles, non-doped or doped with N and Fe, stable, nanostructurated dispersed solutions were obtained. An

experimental report regarding obtaining and characterization of TiO2 doped with N and/or Fe by different methods, selecting simple and efficient doping techniques, and an electrochemical method for electrodeposition of Ag, was done. The obtained results indicate the shift of the absorption peak towards visible region and the enlargement of absorption band which indicates the increase of photocatalytic activity. The solutions and powders were characterized from point of view of chemical composition by AAS, of crystal structure by XRD, of absorbance by UV-Vis spectra recording, of morphology by TEM, of size distribution and stability by DLS and zeta potential measurements. Photocatalytic activity of the solutions and powders of Ag/TiO2 and Ag/ TiO2-N, was evaluated by investigating degradation of a dye, namely Orange II (max=484 nm) as model pollutants. Using a 20 ppm ORANGE II solution and UV illumination, a photocatalytic degradation efficiency of 98,5% for Ag/TiO2, after 3 hours of UV irradiation, and 96,5% for Ag/TiO2-N after 5 hours of UV irradiation, against 87,5 for TiO2 after 5 hours of UV irradiation. Fungitoxic properties of the solutions and the powders were evaluated, obtaining very good results for the Ag/ TiO2 and Ag/TiO2-N based solutions. Electrochemical obtaining technology of the dispersed nanostructurated systems based on Ag/TiO2 and Ag/ TiO2-N, working parameters establishing and the characterization of the products were done. Ag-TiO2/N-TiO2 based dispersed systems with the following characteristics were obtained: - TiO2/N-TiO2 510% ; - 0.5-2 % Ag (mass report against TiO2/N-TiO2); - 2060 nm, average size of the nanoparticles; - UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra

Fig. 1. UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra

Fig. 2. TEM micrograph for Ag/ TiO2suspension

Fig. 3. UV-Vis absorbance spectra to evidence photocatalytic degradation for a 20ppm OII solution, in the presence of 0.5g/l TiO2 and 0.5 g/l Ag-TiO2 as a function of Ag content, after 1h UV irradiation

Fig. 4. 20 ppm Orange II photodegradation kinetics

Fig. 5. a) Ag/TiO2 solution, b) Ag/TiO2 powder after 14 days of exposure at fungi action

The research was financed by the INNOVATION programme, contract no. 279/2008 (7063/2008)

PAGINA 162 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 163

Projects
A15
Development of radiant heating systems from advanced composite materials designed for increasing the thermal efficiency of buildings range. So, the material is stable in the working range. Data regarding heater surface temperature distribution General conclusion Following the objectives of stage II, Modeling, designing, construction and testing of resistive elements based on advanced composite materials, the following goals are achieved: Calculus model. The optimal temperature of the heating element. Thermal efficiency. Thermal design data. Based on data from the experimental work, the following conclusions are evident: A surface heat transfer model has been established. The principal factors implicated in heat transfer are shown. The thermal transfer from the heater surface to the environment was analyzed, using criterial (Nusselt, Prandtl, Rayleigh, Grashof and Reynolds) and analytical methods. For a real heater was established a calculus software, using COMSOL program; The most important factors, which can influence the optimal temperature value of heater surface, are: The long term stability temperature of the epoxy resin. The heat thermal area of the heater. Regarding the thermal efficiency, the convective thermal transfer mechanism is predominant in long range heater using. The convective thermal mechanism is characterized trough Grashof criteria equation, because the air flow in the vicinity of the heater is in natural convection: For this application the following date will be used: This aspect of flow is favorable to heat transfer trough convective mechanism, because the decreasing of thickness of the superficial air film in vicinity of the heater. The increasing of the air speed permits a faster heat transport via convective mechanism. On other important aspect is regarding the aria of the heater. If the temperature is lower, the heat aria must be increased, in order to keep the heat flow constant According to these facts, the optimal working temperature is a compromise between to factors: The thermal stability range of the epoxy resin. The aria of the heater. Also, the following measurement procedures are established: - the dielectric constant of composite material measurement - the electric resistance of insulation and conductive material measurement - the electric resistance of conductive layer measurement.

Project research personal Teisanu Aristofan Alexandru, Project manager, CS III Iordache Iulian, team partner, IDT2; Vasilescu Mirea Radu, team partner, IDT3; Iordoc Mihai, team partner, CS

APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

PROJECT ABSTRACT The Meaning of developing of new heating radiant systems from composite materials it concern, in the first place, in increasing the thermal efficiency of buildings, which is same with the energy saving. The present business plan consist in a strait planning and result establishing of the founding, in the activities of industrial research, experimental developing, in the field of heating radiant systems based on advanced composite materials. The project objectives are researching, grounding and establishing of heating radiant systems based ob advanced composite materials for multiple purpose, but in the first place of increasing the thermal efficiency of buildings. In order to achieve these goals, a identification of conventional heating system will be made, especially of convective heating systems, to gathers as much as possible information for the purpose of developing of new radiant heating systems, based on specific materials, reinforced with fibbers and/ or powders. Also, a very important aspect consisted in research regarding the influence of heating radiant systems to the ambient environment. To solve this problem, is stipulated research in the field of electronic smog, in order to determinate the radiation spectrum (thermal and electromagnetic). PROJECT RESULTS In the second stage (2009) of the project, INCDIE ICPE-CA partner has to fulfill the following objectives: Establishing of calculus models. Determination of the optimal heating temperature of the composite resistive element. The Thermal efficiency. Gathering date for thermal designing. Measurement of electric, magnetic

and thermal properties of advanced composite materials. For the first objective, the following activities are accomplished: A heat transfer mechanism for a heating system based on epoxy resins and electro conductive filers has been shown; The calculus equations which grounded the numeric models, the factors which can influence the irradiative and convective heat transfer are exhibit; Using dedicated software, a numerical approach for a real heater, which was constructed during the experimental works in stage of the contract, has been made. From the data regarding the thermal stability of the component materials of the heater, the optimal function temperature was determinate in the range 70-85C. The heat efficiency depend to the thermal convective transfer, because the small temperature of the surface of the radiant element. Thermal design elements. In order to achieve a good and reliable design for advanced composite materials heater, the following facts are to be considered: The specific surface power density is up to 1500W/m2; The thermal homogeneity must be optimal. Otherwise, correction regarding the construction technology has to be made; If the medium heating trough irradiative mechanism is an important goal, the heater must be placed in immediate vicinity of the heated zone. Data regarding thermal stability From the DTA curves, it is shown that the heater has a very good thermal stability, in the temperature working range (65-105C). In this temperature range, the mass losses are near to zero (see TG curves), and the oxidative processes are absent (see DTA curve). The first oxidative process occurs at 275C, far out from the working

G r rLL = G

gb (Ts - T0 )L3
2

g = 9.81m/s2; air70C = 2.93.10-3K air70C = 1.63.10-8kg.s/m2 air70C = 1.29Kg/m3 L = 0.33m Ts = 343K T0 = 293K Gr = 2.68.1015. If Gr> 109, the air flow is turbulent.

PAGINA 164 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 165

Projects
Average values of electric resistance (G.m) versus temperature (C) Temp. 25 30 40 50 60 37.62 27.56 20.4 11.24 13.6 Data regarding thermal stability 70 6.41 80 90 100 5.51 3.58 2.7 110 1.78
DTG /(%/min) DTA /(uV/mg) exo 1.8
[1]

TG /% 100.00

548.8 C

0.00 -8.87 % 95.00 1.4 -0.20 1.6

Table I. Electric resistance of the insulation system


90.00
[1] proba 1 simpla-10-10-1000-cr-Pt-aer-static-3-11-09.dsv TG DTA DTG

1.2 -0.40 1 -28.79 % 85.00


[1]

0.8

-0.60

0.6 80.00 158.9 C Onset: 274.8 C 169.0 C Mid: Inflection: 170.8 C 179.2 C End: 0.339924 mVs/(gK) Delta Cp*: -19.90 % -0.80 0.4

Average values Average values of electric resistance (.m.104) versus temperature (C) Temp. 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 2.22 2.24 2.23 2.04 2.11 2.04 1.96 1.88 (.m) 4504 4464 4484 4901 4739 4901 5102 5319 (s/m) Table II. Electric resistance of the conductive layer

0.2 75.00 0 315.8 C 100.0 200.0 300.0 335.6 C 400.0 Temperature /C 554.4 C 500.0 600.0 700.0
[1]

-1.00

-1.20

100 1.81 5524

110 1.73 5772

Fig. 1. Sample 1

Fig. 2. Sample 1

C r . tg No. frequency [Hz] 500 1000 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 0.011 0.025 0.024 0.029 0.011 0.023 0.015 0.012 0.031 0.021 0.014 0.022 0.020 0.007 0.011 0.012 0.011 0.009 0.011 0.011 0.009 0.025 0.011 0.011 0.014 0.011

5000 0.006 0.008 0.007 0.008 0.006 0.006 0.009 0.005 0.011 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.007

10000 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.007 0.006 0.006 0.009 0.005 0.009 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.007

50000 0.005 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.005 0.006 0.008 0.005 0.007 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.006

r frequency [Hz] 500 1000 5000 1.37 1.45 1.37 1.44 1.29 1.32 1.43 1.25 1.30 1.28 1.32 1.30 1.34 1.35 1.44 1.35 1.41 1.27 1.30 1.37 1.23 1.29 1.27 1.32 1.27 1.32 1.34 1.43 1.33 1.40 1.25 1.30 1.34 1.22 1.28 1.26 1.30 1.26 1.31

10000 1.33 1.42 1.33 1.39 1.25 1.30 1.33 1.22 1.28 1.26 1.30 1.26 1.31

50000 1.32 1.41 1.32 1.38 1.24 1.29 1.31 1.21 1.27 1.25 1.29 1.25 1.29

Fig. 3. Sample 2

Fig. 4. Sample 2

Data regarding heater surface temperature distribution

Table III. Dielectric constant


2009:11:17 /09:01:34 Image name IR_0260.jpg Emisivity 0.95 Reflected temperature: 20.0 C Object distance: 1.0 m

The research was financed by the PNCDI II programme, contract no. 7066/2008.

PAGINA 166 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 167

Projects
A16
BioFET transistors for cellular functional Bio analysis and estimates customized tissue resistivity measurements as an extension of the solid phase impedance spectroscopy. voltametry Polarography amperometric potentiometry AC impedance spectroscopy Presenting a study on sensors bioelectrochimici an amperometric biosensor a potentiometric biosensor a conductometric biosensor a biosensor impedimetrici a cholinesterase-based biosensors

Research staff of the project Dr. Ala Bondarciuc - manager project INCDIE ICPE-CA Bucharest Eng. Iulian Iordache - researcher; Dr. Eng. Mariana Lucaci researcher; Eng. Radu Vasilescu Mirea - researcher; Eng. Carmen Mateescu - researcher; Eng. Elena Chitanu - researcher; Eng. Cristina Banciu - researcher; Eng. Virgil Marinescu - researcher PROJECT ABSTRACT Electronics is one of the privileged fields of science and technology, which currently enjoys one of the largest interdisciplinary systems, called in this project: microelectronics, medical electronics, nano and biotechnology, materials science, b i o p hy s i c s, electrochemistry, mathematical modelling. Biology can be glimpsed border since two decades ago, when the problem is to achieve integrated biosensors could solve just one factory that owned utilities for Micro technologies and Microelectronics. The first objective of the project targets the development of enzyme biosensors digitized with diffusion limitation on multilayer systems and control terminal for custom analysis. Sensitive membrane structures that include the key enzyme immobilized will be designed characterized electrically and mechanically processed and tested technology. BioFET modelling problems will be gradually developed, mainly by the project coordinator, extrapolating from electronic conduction phenomena in metal-semiconductor contact, the contact structures based on metalsolution, then going to the Steel-tissue contact. The models will be applied in design, but will be useful in diagnosing individual field within the sphere of chemical mediators of neuropsychiatry disorders, with specialized medical support team The second objective of the project is to monitor the response of excitable cells to biochemical stimuli, by collecting electric signals from the biological environment. Classical diagnoses such as diabetes with hyperglycemias, are late, sometimes because half of insulinsecreting beta cells are compromised, the disease was established years ago actually, and diabetic neuropathy complications that were already installed. RESULTS OF THE PROJECT Capacitive biosensors and enzyme documentation on the electrical signal characteristics of excitable cells and electrochemical measurement techniques with applications in biosensors. Were surveyed on Analysis of monitoring methods with biosensors and cellular functional explorations It was prepared following a detailed research study: analysis of tissues of human origin by electrochemical methods and electrochemical measurement techniques with applications in biosensors, in accordance with the objectives of the project implementation plan and research tasks set by the Director of project. Study methods are presented by impedance spectroscopy using Wheatstone bridge method for solid phase materials, applicable to the bio: Balancing bridge method in hand. This method can measure with an accuracy up to 0.1% in the DC area - 300MHz. Method for automatic balancing bridge. This method can measure the frequency range 20 Hz - 110 MHz. Accuracy depends on the impedance analyzer used. It was a study on methods of evaluation and testing by impedance spectroscopy: Solid Electrochemical methods; Liquid Electrochemical methods; Electrochemical methods tissues. Are detailed electrochemical analysis methods to the solid phase, applying impedance spectrometry to measure

APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

Fig. 1. General scheme of biosensors

The research was financed by PNCDI II Programme, contract no. 12095 (7074/2008)

PAGINA 168 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 169

Projects
A17
Components and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) made specific technologies with applications in medicine, microfluidic and in the development micromotors and microactuators structures microgenerators microenergy collection of environmental electromagnetic (harvesting). Regarding the microfluidic system for extracting blood components was calculated and designed a microfluidic pump with flexible element for a microfluidic system was selected and designed pump drive system with flexible valve was developed circuit technology of microfluidic systems Pump with flexible elements. Regarding generators generating microbubbles were made holes with diameters between 0.2 mm and 2.4 mm. Characteristics were determined p = f (Q) of airflow generators for Q = 120 1200 l / h. Bubbles and microbubbles generators made of drilled metal plates have a lower pressure drop by an order of magnitude compared to other types of generators, such as glass and porous ceramics. Unlike generators made of porous materials whose characteristics p = f (Q) can be approximated by a straight metal plate characteristics can be approximated by power function. Microbubbles and bubble generators made of drilled metal peace due to the constant size of the holes, eliminate the phenomenon of generation in stages of bubbles seen in the generators of porous materials. Knowing the drilled plate pressure drop, the number of holes and their diameters were determined flow coefficients of holes. Flow coefficient values ranging from 0.33 0.97. coefficient tends to become quasi steady from certain debts, namely Reynolds numbers, a trend seen in the literature. For example, GMB 0.5 mm diameter holes quasi steady coefficient is the Re = 599 and the GMB with d = 0.9 mm at Re = 818.

Research staff of the project Eng. Marius Popa, CS III project manager Dr. eng. Dumitru Neagu, CSI; Eng. Cristian eitan, IDT I; Eng. Laureniu Ctnescu, ACS; Phys. Iulian Iordache, IDT II; Eng. Marius Lungulescu, ACS; Dr. chemist Traian Zaharescu, CS I; Dr. eng. Gabriela Oprina, IDT II; Eng. Cristinel Ilie, IDT I; Dr. eng. Ionel Chiri, IDT II; Dr. eng. Mircea Ignat, CS I; Eng. Aura Petic, IDT I; Prof. dr. eng. Gheorghe Bran, IDT I PROJECT ABSTRACT The project proposes the development of advanced products for electrical engineering. The main objectives are: mechanical microstructures processing with LIGA technology, achieving an improved system and technology for production of functional gradient materials processed structure with electron beam technology gel casting to achieve ceramic products with MEMS applications, specific monomer photopolymerization microfluidic circuits, microelectromechanical nanocomponente and bioengineering applications, integrated fluidic microsystem for DNA extraction from blood, generating systems of air microbubbles RESULTS OF THE PROJECT Regarding processing mechanical structures with LIGA technology were established to meet the design and format conversion rules LIC and how to configure the MAP and job files. Drawings were made for practical 2D and 3D geometries that were transferred by photolithography, and developed under the baking treatment. Transfers were made 3D structures using two types of photoresist SU8 and AZ. Working to determine how to use the software option Gray Scale Exposure mode. It has been made dimensional and three-dimensional structures of SU8 photoresist (negative) and AZ (positive) that can be used for electroplating. With regard to electron beam processing has been achieved: identification of technology issues, integration of new solutions and systems facility Electron beam welding, making more position components and devices, and new features. Regarding technology gel casting ceramic bodies were obtained with alumina and silicon nitride, raw, with solid consistency and strength which ensures their handling and workability safe. Experimental works were performed to determine the rheological properties of mixed gel systems (ceramics - monomer - a dispersion medium) prepared from ceramic powders for developing experimental models of gel processed ceramic technology gel casting. By simple machining raw ceramic pieces were made with different geometries, thus proving that the machinability of ceramics made by gel-casting technology. Regarding photopolymerization of monomers was achieved: a study of polymerization of monomer vinyl radioinduced by evaluating the conversion of monomers, vinyl monomers reactivity study by evaluating the maximum rate of polymerization and a study of doubles links extinction by measuring bands absorption at 1640 cm-1 with increasing irradiation time. Theoretically and experimentally studied several types of electromechanical actuators based on flat coils whose operational principles are based on electromagnetic or electrodynamics forces and displacement and force sensors microinductive and a microtransducer microtransformer angled inductive non-contact type. Several experiments were performed on inductive or piezoelectric

APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

Fig. 1. GMB with d = 0.3 mm, n = 177 holes

Fig. 2. Microstructure made using SU8

The research was financed through the NUCLEU programme, contract PN09350101 / 01.03.2009 (5101/2009).

PAGINA 170 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 171

Projects
A18
The vibrations compensation using active suspension with ceramic elements , using different types of material obtaining transducers with diameters and thicknesses imposed by the necesary electrical properties, see fig. 4. The functional probes were executed in laboratory conditions on XY vibrations table. Signals of vibrations were generated in 5-150 Hz spectrum observing an attenuation of amplitude of 30-40% from disturbing signal, see fig. 5. Technical characteristics of the system:

Research group of the project Eng. Strambeanu Dumitru - project manager Eng. Popovici Iuliu; Eng. Ilie Cristinel; Eng. Lipcinski Daniel; Eng. Chirita Ionel; Eng. Medianu Silviu; Eng. Dumitru Alina; Techn. Dragomir Ion; Tech. Velea Constantin; Techn. Marcu Liliana; Tech. Maria Maria

displacement on X axis: min. 0.010 - 1 mm; displacement on Y axis: min. 0.010 0,80 mm; table XY dimensions : 250 x 250 x 25 mm; attenuation factor : 30% for f = 5 150Hz; numeric band filter commanded with quality factor supply voltage: 230 Vca; work temperature: 5 45 C.
Q = 25;

frequency band

0.1 1 kHz;

APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

PROJECT ABSTRACT PROJECT ABSTRACT : The project propose himself as a general objective the realisation of a compensation system of vibrations using active suspensions. Envisioned results for achieving the objective:

realization of mechanical support , the realization of piezoelectric


table type table for supporting the payload;

the realisation of an electronic chain for measuring and compensation of mechanical vibrations;

sensors/actuators for measuring the primary information , respectively of execution of an anti-phase signal generated and proportional with the induced value. Envisioned results for achieving the stage: project and realization of experimental /functional models of measuring systems with active compensation and transducers having piezoceramic elements. An analysis of existing control systems is presented accentuating that an active control system represents a group of electrical components, electronic components, and mechanical components, assembled such as to control the energy (external perturbation) at the system input to obtain at output an electrical measure desired for the isolation of external force. The proposed system is of high complexity and precision and it has as basis a structure of laboratory table in which is embedded a precision mechanical table of control with two axis kinematics xy which has as components piezoceramic transducers. The system is based on using

vibrations transducers which measures the disturbing signal and piezoelectric actuators which can generate a vibration in anti-phase (dephased with 180) for annihilating the perturbing system. The command element in the process is constituted by the control unit block and data acquisition endowed with a computer and a specialised software programme. The research has a complex character because the system realisation necessitates specialists from electronic, electrotechinal, hardware, software, fine mechanics, ceramics, electropneumatic actuating domain. At the end of the project the technological transfer of ecquipment and realised technology takes place to research laboratories where high precision measurements are accomplished. PROJECT RESULTS: A functional model of the measuring system was realised with active compensation of vibrations using as sensors piezoelectric transducers with ceramic elements The electronic system was realised for the functional model presenting the main components together with electronic schemas associated and their performances according to figure 1. In figure 2 is represented schematic a compensation system of vibrations with help from piezoelectric transducers with ceramic elements. Using this kind of system a high performance is obtained for vibrations isolation having a maximum efficiency in the frequency domain 0.6-20 Hz with a limited displacement domain. The control table of the vibrations compensation system was executed using the parallel kinematics method (displacement direction after x,y axis) and ensemble and execution drawings, see fig. 3. Piezoelectric transducers were realised

Fig. 3 Fig. 1

Fig. 4 Fig. 2

The research was financed through the NUCLEU programme, contract PN-09-035-02-05 5205/2009).

Fig. 5

PAGINA 172 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 173

Projects
A19
Modernization of fuses based on optimization of thermal and electrical regimes functionality and usefulness of the analysis methodologies selected by the Laboratory for Characterization and Testing in Electrical Products and Materials INCDIE ICPE - CA - No partner. Research project No. 3. 110/2007.

Project Staff Eng. Sorina Adriana Mitrea project manager Phys. Gabriela Beatrice Sbarcea; Phys. Delia Patroi; Phys. Virgil Marinescu; Eng. Carmen Hajdu

APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

PROJECT ABSTRACT The main objectives of the project were to increase the competitiveness of the products realized from new solutions and technologies, aligned to the international market, stimulating innovation and technological transfer, with effect on competitiveness. In 2009, the objectives of INCDIE ICPE-CA, were consisted of conducting physicochemical and structural characterization on materials resulting from burning fuses, completion the methodologies of analysis and demonstrating the functionality and usability of the proposed methodologies. PROJECT RESULTS The project objectives were achieved by: physical, chemical and structural characterization of 3 samples of material resulting from burning of the fuses, using different techniques. The results were been highlighted in the Test Reports; development of two specific methodologies for the two categories of laboratory tested materials: quartz sand, and products resulting from burning fuses; a report to demonstrate the functionality and usability of the analysis methodologies developed. The presence of the quartz sand permits the absorption of the electrical arc energy due the heating of the quartz sand granules. The sand porosity make possible the dispersion of the metallic vapours issued from sublimation of fusible elements, which leads to avoiding the emergence of local over-pressure (explosive), promotes heat exchange and finally lead to arc extinction. Being

a cheap material, the quartz sand presents many advantages regarding the fuses fabrication. But, in the same time, due his granular structure, the sand has a complex behaviour, which in some special conditions, is similar to the behaviour of a solid, liquid or gas. It is therefore very important a complete and complex characterization of the sand grains which is the key of one optimal functioning of fuses. The structure and the formation of product resulted from burning fuse (generically called caterpillar) are very important because a great part of the injected energy is dissipated in the circuit through the fuse filler material (sand). Both characteristics of the sand used as arc extinguishing medium and the product as a result of burning fuses, were studied and determined in the laboratory of CIMPE INCDIE ICPECA, through modern and appropriate techniques, with the latest equipment generation who provide complete and complex information. The used techniques were: phase qualitative analysis using X Ray diffraction; optical microscopy; elemental chemical analysis using atomic abortion spectrometry; hydrostatic density determination. The results obtained after testing on the three samples of quartz sand (in the previous stage) and the five samples of the product of the burning fuses (all samples were brought for analysis and testing by the project coordinator) provided accurate and valuable information, which allowed project coordinator to choose the best solutions in design and implementation of upgraded fuses with specific applications in accordance with the specific objectives of the research project. It was thus demonstrated the

Fig. 1. XRD spectra of the CFR 1 sample

Fig. 3. Image of the product result from the burning of the fuse sample named CFR 1

Fig. 2. 3D image of SiO2

The research was financed through the PNCDI II programme, contract 7011/2007

PAGINA 174 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 175

Projects
A20
Embedded system for determining the welding with laser fascicle of polymeric materials, for monitoring and control in real time of welding process efficiency of welding procedure with laser fascicle by embedding in a unique system of necessary modules for characterisation, analysis, optimisation and real time control of welding process (figure 1). The project aimed to develop using an interdisciplinary research: an innovative method of welding determination with laser fascicle of polymers and composite materials with organic matrix of optimisation, monitoring and real time control of welding process which permits significant increasing of quality, laser fascicle and real material used for irradiation eliminating the necessity of optical properties of combining materials; the modelling of welding process, by coupling this optical model with a thermal model which permits the determination of thermal field evolution in the materials volume for combining; different heterogeneous which corresponds to real polymeric materials; the identification of an equivalent material which will produce the same attenuation and spreading of performances and efficiency in sectorial applications of high priority; the process parameters optimisation and establishing the optimal conditions using methods and procedures of analytical , numerical and experimental modelling of high efficiency; the monitoring and control in real time of the process by implementing an embedded system; a similar optical behaviour for laser radiation spreading; the dissemination in scientific medium and the transfer to the economic environment. The system structure contains the following functional blocks: Welding module with laser fascicle; Measuring unit; Translation unit on Ox axis with incrementing transducer ; translation unit on Oy axis; Reading temperature sensor through non-contact method; Data acquisition module; Equipment for editing measuring bulletin. The command element in the examining process is constituted by the central unit block and data acquisition. In his database will be introduced the input data, working parameters and limit values correlated with internal indicators managed by a software program dedicated to the measuring process. The whole measuring process, processing and evaluation of data is effectuated with computer help. The project is realised in partnership with a high technical and scientific level which joins specialists in the regarding domains, researchers with experience from ISIM Timisoara, Polytechnic University Timisoara.

the evaluation of identification possibilities of

Research group of project from INCDIE ICPE- CA Eng. Daniel Lipcinski project manager Eng. Iuliu Popovici; Eng. Dumitru Strambeanu; Eng. Silviu Medianu; Techn. Ion Dragomir; Techn. Liliana Marcu

APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

PROJECT ABSTRACT The project proposes himself the realisation of an integrated hardware and software system which permits the welding determination of polymeric materials depending of the optical and thermal of them, the optimisation of the welding process with laser fascicle on the basis of numerical simulations, the monitoring and control in real time having a high grade of innovation for industrial applications of high priority properties. The system consists of 4 blocks interconnected: optical block (software+hardware) which permits the determination of a Material with equivalent behaviour with that of real polymer subject to laser irradiation (close to dispersion and attenuation of laser fascicle which traverses him) in the scope of defining the geometric and energetic characteristics of thermal source of welding, induced by the laser action on the interface between two welding components; Thermal block (software) which permits , on the basis of provided information by optical block (intensity transmitted by the first material and fascicle radius at the interface, the determination of thermal field evolution in combining materials volume); calibration block, monitoring and control (software+hardware) embedded optical sensor for measuring the temperature on irradiated material surface in the scope of calibrating the thermal model, of monitoring and control in real time of welding process; statistical block the analysis of process parameters and the optimal regime determination. By realising this system a competent

and innovative solution is offered to the problem of combining using laser welding of polymeric materials, application being in an extremely dynamic evolution in industrial scale, but still encumbered of insufficient control of assurance modalities of realizable combinations quality. The modelling of complex phenomena appeared at the interaction laser fascicle-polymers, the modelling of welding process, optimisation, monitoring and control in real time of the process methods bring infusion at development of technical and scientific knowledge in the domain. PROJECT RESULTS Originality and novelty degree is given by: The modelling of behaviour approach of laser fascicle in complex heterogeneous environment (polymers with crystalline matrix, inclusions of irregular form, polydispersed in cluster form, etc.), the problem of radiation spreading in this kind of environments being an extremely complex one; The determination of a equivalent material with a similar optical behaviour of real material used in laser welding for defining and characterisation of welding conditions of a material without knowing exact his optical characteristics; The reduction to minimum of experimental tests necessary for the determination of process parameters; The optimisation of welding process using methods and procedures of analytical, numerical and experimental modelling of high efficiency; The project generates operational results at national and international level offering an innovative solution in increasing the economical

GFL,I

Equiv. Mat. F

Measurements reports editing module Computer Modem for wireless data transfer

Gm Database Graphical Interface G,L,F

Optical Module Thermal Module Self-calibration Module

Reception data board Cable Temperature translator noncontact Engine+Resolver

Legend: v - velocity T - temperature P - laser power

Welding equipment with laser

v T P

Reception Data Command

G - geometrical characteristics FL fascicle, m material I - measured transmited intensity L - laser characteristics F - physical and thermal characteristics of material Control Module Statistical Module

Translation system Fig. 2

Fig. 1. Principle schema of the whole software system

The research was financed by the PNCDI II Programme, contract 71- 088/ 2007 (7012 / 2007).

PAGINA 176 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 177

Projects
A21
Computerised system for measuring and analysis of railway profiles for improving the safety of guidance and quality of rolling in exploitation as well as the synthesis of new profiles at railway vehicles

Research group of the project: Eng. Popovici Iuliu - project manager Eng. Lipcinski Daniel; Eng. Strambeanu Dumitru; Eng. Medianu Silviu; Techn. Dragomir Ion; Techn. Marcu Liliana

APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

PROJECT ABSTRACT The project the realization of a computerized system for measuring and analysis of main rolling profiles type S 78 and UIC, used at construction of vehicles wheels which run on the railway in Romania. By using a laser type transducer and a horizontal translation axis precision measurements will be done, essential condition for drawing a rolling profile which shows exactly the wear grade. The whole measuring procedure necessary for drawing the wear curve is completely controlled by computer, fact which will eliminate the more or less objective intervention of human factor. Objectives: The main objective of this project is to automate the measuring process and analysis of wear grade for the main rolling profiles S 78 and UIC of railway wheel vehicles, specially the passenger wagons which run in Romania, for improving the safety of guidance and quality of rolling in exploitation The checking of these rolling profiles wears with big impact in safety assurance of trains circulation is realised in the basis of UIC norms and regulations imposed on national and international plan. Novelty elements: The automation of the whole process-hardware, the realisation of specialised software for measuring the rolling profiles wear and the comparison of them with the ideal profiles showed in UIC norms. The research has a complex character because the system realisation necessitates specialists from electrical engineering field and electronichardware, software and mecatronics. The project is realised in partnership

between POLITEHNICA Bucharest university, Transports faculty, The Rolling Stock of Railroad Department, INCDIE ICPE-CA Bucharest, IMSAR and SC Workshops CFR Grivita SA Bucharest co-financer and beneficiary. At the end of the project the technologic transfer of the system and the measuring technology takes place to the industrial co-financer partner. PROJECT RESULTS The constructive solution of the realised system will be proposed for patenting. For the system realisation (Fig.1) a theoretical analysis was done and a mathematical modelling of technical conditions imposed for the verification of rolling profile at wheels vehicles for railway. The main parts of the system are:

Fig. 1. General system ensemble

Fig. 3: Graphical interface for wear measuring of rolling profiles

Computing system (laptop); Module for editing measuring bulletin


(printer);

Modem for transmitting data through


internet, wireless;

Measuring sensor, laser type; Translation system (OX axis); The electronic block of control, data
acquisition and processing (Fig. 2); of wear grade (Fig. 3);

Software for measuring and analysis Mechanical


system for holding a measuring ensemble.

Fig. 2. Control unit, acquisition and data processing

The whole measuring and comparison process is done with help from the computer, type laptop.

The research was financed by the PNCDI II Programme, contract 71-052 / 2007 (7013/2007).

PAGINA 178 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 179

Projects
A22
Stand for running, characterization and testing up to 1500 kW electrical machinery used in railway traction assistance of the contracting partners, and it helps the Project Manager to achieve the activities of revisions and repairs for electrical locomotives, for which the main attention is drawn to the traction motors and generators. The stand was realized with modern components: converters AC/DC SIMOREG DC MASTER SIEMENS, programmable automat PLC-SIMATIC S300 SIEMENS, automatic circuit breaker for rotary current 3VT SIEMENS, Schneider Relays, SIEMENS so that the stand will be of best performance and reliable. In achieving the data acquisition system we pursued the use of identical modules from the physical point of view, functioning at the features set by the project theme, the differentiation being made through the software program. This approach permitted the modification of the limits for the parameters which have to be acquired through reprogramming the modules. The testing stand provides also the functioning of the system both in automatic measurement mode of operation for saving the data (the data are only monitored by the operator) and in measurement with saving the data on PC mode. So the eight digital instruments for display are identical but through programming they display the scaled values according to the main current, field currents, supply tension, booster tension, rotation speed and temperature. For temperature measurement a thermocouple is used which is connected directly to the assigned inputs of o digital display instrument, for all the other values a unified signal of 4-20mA will be used. Because the current transducers and that for the other values provide a unified direct signal, only the speed transducer needs to be converted. The communication between the digital display instruments and the computer was performed using the standard RS 485. There were made checking on the functional model after which the corresponding adjustments were made and after optimizing the operating conditions the prototype was obtained which will function in the production flow at Remarul 16 Februarie.

Research staff of the project Eng. Cristinel Ilie, IDT I project manager Prof. Dr. Eng. Constantin Bl, CP I; Eng. Daniel Lipcinski, IDT II; Dr. Eng. Mihai Mihescu, CS I; Eng. Dorian Marin, CS III

APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

PROJECT ABSTRACT The realized testing stand was put into service at the company Remarul 16 februarie - Cluj-Napoca, with the assistance of the contracting partners, and it helps the Project Manager to achieve the activities of revisions and repairs for electrical locomotives, for which the main attention is drawn to the traction motors and generators. RESULTS OF THE PROJECT Were presented the main types of electrical machines which fits out the Diesel LD locomotives, the diesel electric locomotives LDE and electric engines LE, as well as the electric machines for booster (ventilation, lighting, air conditioning, compressed air, etc.). We presented more basic diagrams regarding the testing of the electric machines in the railway field. We made some proposals for the actual application in SC REMARUL Cluj Napoca and adapting the equipments embedding power electronic equipment and a modern measurement, acquisition and data processing system. In phase Functional Model Project draw up the research team analyzed the main types of Diesel electrical and electrical locomotive, identified the traction motors (GDTM 533H, GDTM 533F, of 850kW) and the generators (GCE 1100/10F, GE 575/8F), and set up the parameters to be tested, the testing principles under load and draw up the basic diagrams for testing of traction motors for Diesel electric engine LDE 2100-CP, testing the 850 kW, 770 kW, 1180 A traction motors for the electric locomotive of 5100 kW and testing of the main generator for DC of 1350 kW from the diesel electric locomotive of 2100 HP. We achieved the evaluation

of the power units features from the testing diagram: We achieved draw up of the electrical measurement diagram for different electrical and non-electrical values and finding the optimum solution for the display of these values as well as sending it to a main computer unit, draw up of a logic program software specialized in data acquisition and processing and draw up of a method and a procedure for measuring the vibrations RMS level. The circuit diagram of the acquisition system allows to: Compact achievement by using transducers on the side of integrated signal conditioning and display instruments with enclosed conversion module and communication module, Reliable achievement by using a small number of components which are produced by repetitive manufacturing and were tested in similar applications, Quick trouble shooting of physical defects due to the reduce number of connections, Changes of the measurement range (changing the type of the motor with a new one, which for the moment are not tested) by changing a hardware element (transducer) and of a software (programming module of the display instrument), Measurement with the accuracy given by the transducer and the conversion block from the indicator, without influencing the parasites from the connection cables between indicators computer (due to the digital communication with the detection/correction of errors). We realized in fact the testing stand for electric motors, for the purpose of testing the machines used in the railway traction. The realized testing stand was put into service at the company Remarul 16 Februarie - Cluj-Napoca, with the

Fig. 1. Data acquisition system

The research was financed by INNOVATION Programme, contract 87 / 2007 (7028/2007).

PAGINA 180 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 181

Projects
3.1.6 Services

A23

Dipole superferic magnets and superconducting coils realization

S01

Research staff of the project Dr. Eng. Ion Dobrin CS II, project manager Prof. Dr. Wilhelm Kappel CS I; Dr. Eng. Ioan Puflea CS II; Dr. Eng. Ionel Chirita IDT I; Eng. Nicolae Stancu IDT I; Eng. Sorina Mitrea IDT I; Eng. Marius Popa CS; Eng. Stefania Zamfir; Techn. Pr. Mircea Ifrim; Techn. Pr. Adrian Militaru PROJECT ABSTRACT Through this research theme we propose the realization of a prototype dipole magnet superferic to generate a uniform magnetic field of about 2T and a prototype superconducting coil for obtaining intense magnetic field (approx. 5T). In 2009, it has been made an experimental model of superconducting dipole magnet for particle accelerators. Thus, the overall objectives of the project are: superferic-dipole magnet design and related systems; superferic magnetic dipole making; dipole superferic magnet tests; superferic dipole magnet certification; designing and realization of the superconducting coil for high magnetic field (5T); prototype superconducting coil experiments; superconducting coil certification. The main scientific results obtained will be published in national scientific conferences and in national and international indexed journals. REZULTATE PROIECT RESULTS OF THE PROJECT Results from this project in 2009 were: Stage1. Superferic dipole magnet design and related systems. Experimental model realization. During phase was completed project design and execution of laboratory dipole superferic magnet. Stage2. Laboratory model tests. Design and realization of dipole superferic magnet prototype. During this stage was done: Experiments on laboratory model (vacuuming, cooling the temperature up to 77K, HTS material and superconducting magnet coils tests, energizing coils, etc.). Superferic dipole magnet prototype, design. HTS coil is shown in Fig. 1, in Fig. 2 the iron yoke of the magnet and in Fig. 3, the superferic dipole magnet ensemble.

Improving research capacity through consolidation, expansion and modernization of laboratory infrastructure electromagnetic compatibility

Staff Research Project Dr. Eng. Jana Pintea, ITD project manager Eng. Cristian Morari SR; Eng. Ionut Balan SR PROJECT ABSTRACT During this phase we aimed to achieve the following activities: Activity IV.1 - Develop and test procedures for measuring the types of equipment, acquisition of equipment and accessories Reporting documents; Measurement procedures. Activity IV.2 - Dissemination of results Reporting Documents; Web page, and published articles. Using impedance analyzer method, RopM 2009, Craiova, 8 to 10 June 2009, papers presented; 2. Jana Pintea, Morari Cristian, Ionut Balan Absorbing of microwave radiation studies in electromagnetic shields, St George cross journal Nature in 2009, volume I, publisher Clujana University Press, pg 212216 ISBN 9789736109072; 3. I. Balan, C. Morari, J. Neamtu, J. Pintea, T. Malaeru, Gabriela G. The behavior of the human near the mobile phones, Proceeding 5th Workshop Electromagnetic Compatibility EMC, 19 to 21 September, 2008, Predeal, Romania, the papers presented; 4. Jenica Neamtu, Jana Pintea, Elena Helerea Cristian Morari, Ionut Balan - Properties of magnetic shields for absorbing low frequencies EM radiation - EMC 2008 - Predeal, Romania, 19-21 September, papers presented; 5. Jana Pintea, Pintea Radu, J. Neamtu, I Balan, C. Morari, G. Alecu Electromagnetic pollution sources and methods of Protection Against Their Effects EMC, 2008 - Predeal, Romania, 19-21 September, papers presented 6. AR Caramitu S. Mitrea, J. Pintea Shields for particular constructions, based on chyralcomb structures - EMC 2008 - Predeal, Romania, September 19 to 21, papers presented; 7. M Lucaci S. Hodorogea, J. Pintea, V. Tsakiris, D. Cristea, L. Leon Ferromagnetic Fe and Co alloyed powders Nial - Proceedings of the Joint International Conference Materials for Electrical Engineering, Bucharest, Romania, June 16-17, 2008, pg 153-158 8. J. Pintea, PV Notingher Piezoelectric composite materials with 2-2 connectivity, Proceedings of Joint International Conference Materials for Electrical Engineering, Bucharest, Romania, June 16-17, 2008, pg 372-375; 9. Gabriela Telipan, Jana Pintea, Lucian Pislaru-Danescu - Electrical properties of ferrofluid based on Fe3O4 obtained by co-precipitation method -

BILATERAL COOPERATION

SERVICES

Fig. 2. Iron yoke

Fig. 1. HTS superconducting coil

Fig. 3. Superferic dipole magnet ensemble

PROJECT RESULTS In this activity were developed following procedures: The Measuring range of temperature field 0-3000C; The Measuring the dielectric permittivity in the field of 40Hz 30MHz; The Measurement of magnetic permeability in the field of 40 Hz 30 MHz; The Measurement of absorption spectrum and transmittance parameters, admission, and refractive index of the complex permittivity in the THz field, equipment purchased in previous phases. They are attached to this report PI-R and coded 03-06. That equipment purchased in this stage, I chose the list of equipment measuring system for ferroelectric electrical parameters (d33, piezometer, etc.) which has conducted an open tender offer request under ESPP procedures. The announcement was made by SEAP 216172/22.06.2009 Registration No. (copy attach this report) and the site INCDIE ICPE-CA Chapter Procurement. Articles were presented at conferences and symposia: 1. Jana Pintea Electrical Characterization of PZT Ceramics

The research was financed by Core Programme, contract 5102/2009.

PAGINA 182 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 183

Projects
Physics TIM-08 Conference, 28-29 Noiembrie 2008, Timisoara, Romania Ferromagnetic Fe and Co alloyed NiAl powders Proceedings of Joint International Conference Materials for Electrical Engineering, Bucharest, Romnia, June 16-17, 2008, pg 153-158 8. J. Pintea, P. V. Notingher Piezoelectric composite materials with 2-2 connectivityProceedings of Joint International Conference Materials for Electrical Engineering, Bucharest, Romnia, June 16-17, 2008, pg 372-375 ; 9. Gabriela Telipan, Jana Pintea, Lucian PslaruDanescu Electrical properties of ferrofluid based on Fe3O4 obtained by co-precipitation method Physics Conference TIM-08, 28-29 Noiembrie 2008, Timioara, Romnia

S02

Laboratory for mechanical microstructure processing, using LIGA technology

Research staff of the project Eng. Cristinel ILIE, IDT I project manager Also, the key-equipment in this process, the one that will make the highprecision mould necessary to produce small dimensions and highly precise bench-marks, no matter if it will be an electrons fascicle equipment or a laser fascicle equipment of a mechanical processing centre, it will certainly be the one in the country by its highlyprecise characteristics. General Objective of the project is to process mechanical microstructure, using LIGA technology. The main equipments are: Laser lithography system DWL 66FS (wavelength 375 nm, power 18 mW, accuracy 1m); Resist remover machine for SU8STP 2020 R3T (compact design, dimensions: 800mm x 800mm x 1950mm, pulse mode possible, max. Power: 850W 3000W, pressure range: 40Pa 530Pa, excitation frequency 2.46 GHz +/- 10MHz); MIXER HEIDOLPH - model RZR 2041 (torque max. 520 Ncm, viscosity max. 100.000 mPas, Speed 40-400 and 200-2.000 rpm); Safe Air GS 1200 Filtration Fume Cupboard; Filtration Fume Cupboards eliminate toxic vapors and fumes at work; Flexibility. Safe Air GS Fume Cupboards feature a multiple

PROJECT ABSTRACT This project complete the technical basis of a laboratory dedicated to execute electromagnetic microsystems (MEMS), trough acquisition of equipments necessary for the development of specific technologies for mechanical microstructures LIGA. In Europe, the MEMS systems are often known as MST (Microsystems technology). MEMS are a technology in fully development which uses tools and developed methods in the technology of integrated circuits, to build microscopic machines. RESULTS OF THE PROJECT Thru the acquisition of the necessary equipments for the implementation and development of LIGA technology, our institute will become the first institute in Romania specialized in such technologies. We emphasize that our applications and goals are oriented in making of mechanical microstructures, precise pieces of small dimensions which we can make cheaper than any conventional procedures (precision standards, mechanical processing).

SERVICES

The research was financed by PNCDI II Programme CAPACITIES, contract 20 /2007 (4235/2007).

Fig. 1. DWL 66FS laser lithography system

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operational flexibility, in that they can be used: as non-ducted filtration fume cupboards and as ducted filtration fume cupboards.; versatility and full mobility; airflow face velocity 0.3-0.7m/s, air vol.650-750m3/h, light 2x18W; Software Gray Scale Exposure Mode; this software enables the system to perform grey-scale exposures into photoresist. The intensity of the laser beam can be varied per pixel to achieve different exposure depth. Number of grey scale levels: 32; Stereo Microscopes Carl Zeiss Stemi 2000C (ocular W-pl 10x, total magnification 6,5x...50x, specimen field 35,4mm...4,6mm, cold light sources, 150W (halogen lamp 15V), digital camera AXIO CAM, resolution1392*1040, FireWire IEE1394); WaveSurfer 24Xs oscilloscope, Rise Time 1.75 ns, Input Channels 4, Display 10.4 Color flat-panel TFT-LCD, 800 x 600 SVGA, touch screen, Sample Rate (single-shot) 2.5 GS/s, Standard Record Length 2.5 Mpts/Ch (all channels), Vertical Resolution 8 bits; Single spindle Winding Machine TAK 01 (Spindle Rotating Speed 10.000 rpm, Wire Size Range 0,01 mm - 1,6 mm, Traverse Pitch 0 9,999 mm, Traverse Range 0 - 100 mm). Social and economic impact Reduce costs for research-development companies in micro and nanotechnologies and for economic agents involved in the field (which will have a national laboratory properly equipped both material and personnel point of view); Increase own capacity of research and development thru services offered by industrial field; Increase the level of training of the personal which will work in a top domain at European level; Increase the level of users satisfaction through accessing top technologies in their country; Avoid imports of the equipments for mechanical microstructures execution: An interested economic agent will achieve a mould in our laboratory, choosing just for necessary equipments for series production development; Increase the condition of work and health for the operators which will work in frame of the attempts laboratory; Creation of opportunities for education and practical participation of students in processing laboratory; Increase the opportunities concerning the international collaborations; Imminence necessity for standardization in this area (development for related activities). Being placed in a National Institute, bought through public resources, the specialist from other research institutes and also young students and graduates can easily access it. Regionally and even in South-Eastern Europe this laboratory will open a new path. Through studies, trials and experiments that specialists will achieve with this laboratory, an important step will be taken to a general discussion plan with other scientific and technical international organizations. With a solid endowment behind us, we can take part without any complex to international research programs. We emphasize that the project addresses to micro and nano-systems, one of the most dynamic fields in research as in other many branches of the world-wide economy. With a performant laboratory, in a top field in its development, we can participate in international projects. If now we can contribute to such projects in a small matter, mostly theoretical, with a functional laboratory, with trained personnel, we can try to involve more our specialists in the project.

S03

Center of competence in characterization of materials by nuclear technologies and new analytical devices at European level for industry, environmental and health

Research staff of the project Dr. Chem. Petru Budrugeac project manager Eng. Chem. Sorina Adriana Mitrea; Dr. Chem. Carmen Stefanescu; Phys. Beatrice Gabriela Sbarcea; Chem. Andrei Cucos; Chem. Diana Branzea; Phys. Delia Patroi; Eng. Phys. Virgil Marinescu; Eng. Chem. Carmen Hajdu PROJECT ABSTRACT The main objective of the Project 71-074/2007 is the achievement of a Center of competence in characterization of materials by new techniques and devices, at European level. The idea of achievement of such a Center appeared as a result of the studies and investigations performed by the Project coordinator, Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering - IFIN HH, which identified the necessity of a network of competitive laboratories for integrated analytical services applicative in industry, environment and health. The main activities were: identification of the up-to-day techniques, which will be developed by Project partners, for reaching a high degree of competence, at European level development and/or modernization of the material base from the partners research units checking of the physical and chemical techniques of analyses for different materials and products elaboration of an integrated system of physical and chemical analyses for complex characterization of materials and products participation to an European comparative exercise for physical and chemical analytical techniques with reference values achievement of a service offer for materials characterization On 2009, the INCDIE ICPE-CA objectives were the performing experiments with proper equipments, including the last acquisitions, and the elaboration the specific working procedures. RESULTS OF THE PROJECT The activities of INCDIE ICPE-CA put in evidence the utility and the complexity of the choosing techniques for using in achievement of an integrated network of analytical services, at European level. So, for testing a large kinds of materials (metals, ceramics, polymers, etc.), the following analytical techniques were used: Qualitative phase analysis by RX diffraction; Morpho-structural analysis by atomic force microscopy; Qualitative/quantitative analysis by FT-IR spectroscopy; Chemical quantitative elemental analysis by absorption atomic spectroscopy in flame; Determination of thermal behaviour of solid materials and products by dilatometry (DIL); Determination of thermal behavior of solid materials and products by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC); Determination of thermal behavior of solid materials and products by simultaneous thermal analyses (STA): thermogravimetry (TG) +differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetry (TG) +differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The obtained results lead seven Reports (one for each technique) and demonstrated the functionality of these techniques, as well as the modality in which these can be used in function of their applications. Some important information were obtained concerning the applicativity

SERVICES

The research was financed by the CAPACITIES Programme, contract 58 / 2007 (4245/2007).

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PROJECT ABSTRACT

Projects
The authentication of sacred artifacts for sustaining the communitarian viability

degree of each technique for some materials and products, as well as the corresponding limitations. In order to achieve of common and unitary base for all partners, seven Procedures in IQ system were

elaborated, according to the Standard SR EN ISO 17025, applied by Romanian accreditation RENAR. In order to check these Procedures, the analytical determinations listed in Table 1 were performed.

S04

Method

Material or product ZnO film doped with 5% Fe ZnO film doped with 10% Fe Qualitative phase ZnO film doped with 15% Fe analysis by RX ZnO film doped with 3% Ni diffraction ZnO film doped with 5% Ni ZnO film doped with 10% Ni Carbonic fibers in novolac matrix noted by: Morpho-structural FCN 400 analysis by atomic FCN 800 force microscopy FCNA 400 FCNA 800 collagen, polyethylene UHMPE, Qualitative/ pigments: indigo, yellow quantitative analysis ochre 331221 and red ochre by FT-IR spectroscopy 331223. Chemical quantitative elemental analysis Aluminum ingot by absorption atomic spectroscopy in flame Pr. 1 Quartz without OH; Pr. Dilatometry analysis 9 Quartz with OH; Pr. 15 Quartz without OH DSC analysis Fiber of polypropylene 7 samples of pitch: P1; P1-3Simultaneous TG, 440; P1-6-120; P2-6-120; P6-6DTG, DTA analyses 120; P10-6-120; P6-440-3

Research staff of the project Dr. Chem. Petru Budrugeac project manager Dr. Chem. Carmen Stefanescu; Dr. Chem. Andrei Cucos; Dr. Chem. Diana Branzea PROJECT ABSTRACT The main objectives of the research performed in INCDIE ICPE-CA were: Application of physical, chemical and biological methods for characterization of materials from sacred artefacts; Determination of the degradation degreeof these materials as a result of environmental factors. The specific objective of the 2009 phase was: Application of the thermal analysis methods (TG, DTG and DTA) for thermal characterization of pigments used in picture and restoration of artefacts on wood support. The methodology of determination of thermal behaviour of pigments by simultaneous thermal analysis (STA): thermogravimetry + differential Main component Cr2O3 2 H2O thermal analysis (TG+DTA) and thermogravimetry + differential scanning calorimetry (TG+DSC), elaborated in the previous phase of the present project, was applied for thermal characterization of some pigments used in restoration of pictures with wood support. It was pointed out that the thermograms are specific fingerprints of the pigments, and therefore these are applicable for authentification of pictures. On the other hand, the obtained results are useful for restorations. RESULTS OF THE PROJECT Materials 9 pigments used in picture restorations, manufactured by Charbonnel Paris: viridian 331220, orange de Mars 331469; oxid gelb 060250; raw sienna 331227; sienna nature 060640; Terra Rosa 331213; veronese green; indigo; heliogen blau 060440 Appearance

SERVICES

Sample

viridian 331220 Table 1. Reports orange de Mars 331469 oxid gelb 060250

Hydrated iron oxides Fe2O3.H2O

raw siena 331227

Fe2O3.mH2O

siena natur 060640

OFe2O3.nH2O

Terra Rosa 331213 Veronese green indigo heliogen blau 060440 boiled linseed oil

The research was financed by the Programme PNCDI II, contract 71_074/2/2007 (7009 / 2007).

Natural iron oxides Napoli- Italy Copper Acetoarsenite Organic pigment ftalocianine

Pouzolles

Table 1. Main component of the material

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boiled linseed oil produced by Combinatul Fondului Plastic - Bucharest Thermal analyses The thermal analyses were performed using STA 409PC, produced by Netzsch Germany, in the following conditions: temperature range: 300C10000C; heating rate 10 K/min; Ar flow (30 ml/min). The obtained results were given in the Report: TG/ DTG/DTA analyses of 9 pigments samples and the boiled linseed oil. The analysis of the themograms (see also Table 2) shows the following: - each pigment exhibits a specific thermogram with characteristic values of T , m , Tmin(DTG) and T(DTA); - from point of view of number of decomposition processes, the investigated pigments could be classified in: thermal stable pigment in the range 25 10000C (Terra Rosa 331213), pigments that exhibit a single decomposition process (oxid gelb 060250 and heliogen blau 060440), pigment with two decomposition processes (viridian 331220), pigments with three decomposition processes (orange de Mars 331469, veronese green, indigo), pigments with four decomposition processes (raw sienna 331227, sienna natur 060640). It results that the thermograms are fingerprints of pigments. Consequently, the thermal analysis methods are suitable for pictures authentification. occurs; m = mass loss; Tmin(DTG) = temperature corresponding to DTG minimum; T(DTA) = temperature corresponding to DTA minimum Disimination of the results obtained in this Project a. Paper published online P. Budrugeac, Ana Emandi, The use of thermal analysis methods for damage assessment and certification of historical and/or cultural objects manufactured from lime-tree wood, Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry b. Communications E-MRS European Materials Research Science Strasbourg 08-16.06.2009 1. Ana Emandi, Ioan Stamatin, Petru Budrugeac, Integrated thermal and spectroscopic methods in structural characterization of early and old wood 2. Ana Emandi, Ioan Stamatin, Petru Budrugeac, Investigation of different species of archaeological wood by FT-Raman, FTIR, FTIR-ATR techniques 3. Ana Emandi, Ioan Stamatin, Petru Budrugeac, Spectroscopic properties of early wood species involved in wooden artifacts

= temperature range in which the process

Fig. 7. TG, DTG and DTA curves for veronese green

Fig. 8. TG, DTG and DTA curves for indigo

Fig. 9. TG, DTG and DTA curves for heliogen blau 060440

Fig. 10. TG, DTG and DTA curves for boiled linseed oil

Material viridian 331220 orannge de Mars 331469 oxid gelb 060250 raw siena 331227

Process Dec. 1 Dec. 2 Dec 1 Dec. 2 Dec. 3 Dec. Dec. 1 Dec. 2 Dec. 3 Dec. 4 Dec. 1 Dec. 2 Dec. 3 Dec. 4 Crystallization Stable in 25 -10000C Dec. 1 Dec. 2 Dec. 3 Dec. 1 Dec. 2 Dec. 3 Dec. Dec.

T
0

m %

siena natur 060640


Fig. 1. TG, DTG and DTA curves for viridian 3312200 Fig. 2. TG, DTG and DTA curves for Orange de Mars 331469 Fig. 3. TG, DTG and DTA curves for oxid gelb 060250

20-150 150-1000 20-150 150-700 700-100 220-380 30-160 160-370 370-570 570-775 30-180 180-350 350-580 580-900 900-940

4,77 11.50 101,7 250,8 8,53 2,61 3,26 4,43 0,84 2,99 3,75 5,56 2,05 -

Tmin (DTG) 0 C 92,7 487,3 111,6 256,2 764; 823 315,2 97,8 302,2 485,9 653 83,9 302; 326 495,6 -

T (DTA) 0 C Endo 105,5 Endo 475,4 Endo 104,2 Endo 1295,7 Endo Endo Endo Endo 311,1 104,3 304,5 483,6

Endo 91,9 Endo 302; 326 Endo 490,3 Exo 929,2

Terra Rosa 331213 Veronese green

30-180 180-820 40-180 180-480 480-1000 600-830 110-540

1,07 5,38 3,90 30,36 11,96 43,83 86,95

87,3 582,2 93,1 382,8 701,5 800,3 419,2

Endo 104,0 Endo Endo Endo Endo Endo 99,1 382,1 691,0 799,6 411,7

indigo heliogen blau 060440 boiled linseed oil

Fig. 4. TG, DTG and DTA curves for raw siena 331227

Fig. 5. TG, DTG and DTA curves for siena natur 060640

Fig. 6. TG, DTG and DTA curves for Terra Rosa 331213

Table 2. Characteristic parameters of non-isothermal degradation of the analyzed materials The research was financed by the Programme PN II, contract 91_003/2007 (7031 / 2007).

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S05
Integrated methods in preserving/restoring UNESCO cultural heritage for increasing community viability Nietzsche Germany, in the following conditions: temperature range: 300C`10000C; heating rate 10 K/ min; Ar flow (30 ml/min). The obtained results were given in the Report: TG/DTG/ DTA analyses of 5 pigments samples and 4 material supports used in wall paintings. The analysis of the thermograms (see also Table 2) shows the following: - each pigment exhibits a specific thermogram with characteristic values of T , m , Tmin(DTG) and T(DTA); - from point of view of number of decomposition processes, the investigated pigments could be classified in: pigment in the range 25 10000C (lazuli lapis), pigments that exhibit a single decomposition process (yellow ochre 33122, ochre red 331223), pigments with three decomposition processes (licht ocker gebrannt 060630-33122, grune erde bohmisch 06050). Lazuli lapis does not exhibit a decomposition process in the range, but exhibits a glass transition in the range 732,7 803,60C (Tg = 779,40C). On the other hand, the supports (plasters) exhibit specific termograms. It results that the thermograms are fingerprints of pigments and supports of wall painting. Consequently, the thermal analysis methods are suitable for wall painting authentication. occurs; m = mass loss; Tmin(DTG) = temperature corresponding to DTG minimum; T(DTA) = temperature corresponding to DTA minimum II. Bio-deterioration aspects of fresco. The performed studies have followed three main directions: - Fungal loading of samples taken from the external and internal fresco of the church St. Stephen, Bucharest; - Mold resistance of fresco materials components; - Assessment of the slime layers that make up a fresco for mold influence; - From 11 specimens of external and internal fresco which were sampled from the Saint Stephen churchBucharest, 12 species of microfungi were isolated, out of which 9 microfungi were identified at the genus level and 4 of them at the species level: Aspergillus niger; Aspergillus flavus; Cladosporium herbarum; Trichoderma viride. - Following this research it has been revealed that the fresco is susceptible to the action of fungi, in time, on the one hand due to the vegetal hemp fibers used as reinforcement material for lime and of the sacktextile when it is used as support and on the other hand, because of the temperature and humidity variations during one year, which may cause cracking of the coating of lime and organic particles that can dirty it supplementary. Cellulosolitical microfungi species that grew on cellulose fibers from hemp plant belong to genus:Chaetomium globosum, Myrothecium verrucaria and Trichoderma viride and the latest one, which is an aggressive and ubicvista one, grew on the brick support. Disimination of the results Paper in ISI journal 1. P. Budrugeac, Ana Emandi, Nicoleta Buruntia, Thermal degradation and biodegradation of pigments and supports from wall paintings, Revista de Chimie (in elaboration) Communication 1. P. Budrugeac, Ana Emandi, Characterization by thermal analysis and FT-IR of the pigmets used in restoration of wall paintings, Annual Meeting of the Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry of the Romanian Academy, February 2010
Chaetomium globosum on the vegetal hemp fibers

Research staff of the project Dr. Chem. Petru Budrugeac project responsible Dr. Chem. Carmen Stefanescu; Dr. Chem. Andrei Cucos; Dr. Chem. Diana Branzea; Dipl. Biologist Nicoleta Buruntia; Dipl. Biologist Claudia Groza PROJECT ABSTRACT The main objectives of the research performed in INCDIE ICPE-CA were: Application of physical, chemical and biological methods for characterization of materials from wall painting; Determination of the degradation degree of these materials as a result of environmental factors. The specific objectives of the 2009 phase were: Application of the thermal analysis methods (TG, DTG and DTA) for thermal characterization of pigments and supports used in wall paintings and restoration of such artefacts; Isolation and identification of some bio-deteriogenic fungi for the frescos from Saint Stephens church, Bucharest, with related methods and on the other hand the emphasizing of the fresco structural components that are susceptible to mould action and which cause the damage of the frescoes; The external and internal 11samples the fresco from the church of St. Stephen were collected and isolated 12 species of microscopic fungi out of which was identified 9 at genus level and 4 fungi at species level; It was shown that the fresco is susceptible to mould action, in time, because on the one hand of the vegetable hemp fibers used as reinforcement material for lime and of the sack textile when it is used as the support and on the other hand due to the variations of environment conditions. The methods of thermal analysis were applied for thermal characterization of 5 pigments used in restoration of wall paintings and 4 materials used as supports. It was pointed out that the thermograms are specific fingerprints of the pigments, and therefore these are applicable for authentication of wall paintings. On the other hand, the obtained results are useful for restorations. RESULTS OF THE PROJECT I. Thermal analysis of pigments I. 1. Materials - 5 pigments used in picture restorations, manufactured by Charbonnel Paris: yellow ochre 33122, ochre red 331223, licht ocker gebrannt 060630-33122, lazuli lapis, grune erde bohmisch 06050; - 4 materials used for support preparations: zinc phospate, calcium hydroxide, lime deposited on hemp mesh, gypsum. I.2. Thermal anlyses The thermal analyses were performed using STA 409PC, produced by

SERVICES

= temperature range in which the process

Myrothecium verrucaria on the vegetal hemp fibers

Sample PIGMENTS yellow ochre 33122 ochre red 331223 licht ocker gebrannt 060630-33122 lazuli lapis grune erde bohmisch 06050 SUPORTS zinc phospate calcium hydroxide lime deposited on hemp mesh gypsum

Main component Oxid de fier hidratat (Fe2O3.H2O) Hydrated (Fe2O3) Volcano earth \ Mineral mixture (Lazurite, Calcite, Pirite) Fe2O3.nH2O Zn3(PO4)2.4 H2O Ca(OH)2 Ca(OH)2 + CaCO3 + Ca(HCO3)2, canepa CaSO4.2 H2O

Table 1. Main component of the material

Fig. 1. TG, DTG and DTA curves for yellow ochre 33122

Fig. 2. TG, DTG and DTA curves for ochre red 331223

Fig. 3. TG, DTG and DTA curves for licht ocker gebrannt 060630-33122

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3.2. International projects 3.2.1 Bilateral Cooperation

CB01
Fig. 4. TG, DTG and DTA curves for lazuli lapis Fig. 5. TG, DTG and DTA curves for grune erde bohmisch 06050 Fig. 6. TG, DTG and DTA curves for hydrated zinc phosphate

Studies of radiation induced aging effects in polymeric cable insulators

Research staff of the project Prof. dr. Radu Setnescu - Project Manager Prof. dr. Silviu Jipa - Partner, CS I; Prof. dr. Tanta Setnescu - Partner, CS I; PhDs. Eduard-Marius Lungulescu - Partner, CS; PhDs. Adrian Mantsch - Partner, ACS

Fig. 7. TG, DTG and DTA curves for calcium hydroxide

Fig. 8. TG, DTG and DTA curves for lime deposited on hemp mesh

Fig. 9. TG, DTG and DTA curves for gypsum

Material yellow ochre 33122 ochre red 331223

Process Dec. Dec

T
0

m %
8,46 4,54 1,87 0 1,89 5,11 3,91 0,66 0,96 16,36 3,97 2,15 6,30 1,80 0,93 22,67 2,65 2,24 9,48 1,43 26,30 13,39 6,71

230-350 400-810 40-180 215-300 180-390 390-620 620-1000 240-360 360-520 520-815 40-240 240-425 425-715 715-1000 40-220 220-540 540-800 40-300 300-420 420-490 490-850 125-160 169-225

Tmin (DTG) 0 C 311,7 525,6 336,2 489,2 285,0 457,4 776,9 94,1;154,0 379,6 710,1 473,8 692,2 391,5 435,5 798,3 143,4 163,0

T (DTA) 0 C Endo 315,2 Endo 506,2 Endo 122,0 Endo 267,1 Endo 337,6 Endo 486,2 Punct de inflexie 779,4 Endo 293,0 Endo 460,6 Endo 778,0 Endo 161,7 Endo 379,4 Endo 716,8 Endo 952,6 Endo 105,0 Endo 475,0 Endo 697,0 Endo 129,0 Endo 395,2 Endo 438,9 Endo797,1 Endo 153,5 Endo 164,5

BILATERAL COOPERATION

Dec. 1 Melting licht ocker gebrannt 060630Dec2 33122 Dec. 3 Dec. 4 lazuli lapis Dec. 1 grune erde bohmisch 06050 Dec. 2 Dec. 3 Dec. 1 Dec. 2 Hydrated zinc phosphate Dec. 3 Dec. 4 Dehydr. calcium hydroxide Desc. 1 Desc. 2 Dehydr. lime deposited Dec. 1 on hemp mesh Dec.2 Dec. 3 gypsum Dec. 1 Dec. 2

Glass transition 732,7-803,6 -

Table 2. Characteristic parameters of non-isothermal degradation of the analyzed materials The research was financed by the PNCDI II Programme, contract 91_113/2007 (7055 / 2008).

PROJECT ABSTRACT The main objective of the project is to elaborate a method and an adequate procedure, based on this method, for residual lifetime evaluation of the cable electro-insulating materials used in CERN in various thermal and radiation environmental conditions. To reach this objective, the following tasks were established: Study of the literature data and establishing the physico-chemical basis of the phenomena involved in radiation induced degradation of the cables electro-insulating materials; Collecting of representative cable samples from CERN - as received and used in real exploitation conditions, in order to make a relevant physical and chemical characterization of the materials; Carrying out a first series of comparative testes, parallel in CERN and in ICPE-CA on the collected cable samples, in the as received state, using the following main investigation techniques; Chemiluminescence (CL) at ICPECA; DSC at CERN; Carrying out of comparative tests at CERN and ICPE-CA on irradiated materials, in pre-established experimental conditions in order to evaluate the capability of both methods (CL and DSC); The analysis and correlation of the results provided by DSC and CL; Joint elaboration of a procedure based on DSC as a routine quality test and as a predictive method for cables lifetime exploited in various critical zones.

RESULTS OF THE PROJECT A literature review of the key information concerning the physicochemical background of the radiationinduced polymer degradation processes was elaborated. The main topics were the oxidative degradation of polymers, the interaction of the ionizing radiation with the substance and the ways of polymers stabilization. In the frame of collaboration with CERN, ICPE-CA carried out irradiation under controlled conditions (137Cs, Dr = 400 Gy/h) of some cables and materials provided by CERN for common characterization work. As well, polymeric materials were exposed in different other irradiation conditions (dose rate, radiation type and energy). These irradiations were carried out at Ionisos Dagneaux, France (60Co, Dr 1,5 kGy/h) and at CERN (under exploitation conditions, in the SPS, PS and machines). Cables with different structure and functionality (high energy, HF, signal, instrumentation and mixed instrumentation/ signal) were characterized in the project. The characterization of the irradiated materials at ICPE-CA was performed by isotherm CL, on materials of different chemical nature (low density polyethylene (LDPE), high density polyethylene (HDPE), ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymers, ethylenepropylene (EPR) copolymers) which enable this type of measurements (not dark coloured Bolland-Gee oxidation mechanism). DSC characterisation was performed at CERN in isothermal, both in isothermal and non-isothermal (temperature ramp) mode. Below are presented, as an example, some results obtained for the energy cable PB 300 (Fig. 1, 2 and Tables I III). Similar results were obtained for different other insulating materials and irradiation conditions, The experimental

PAGINA 194 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 195

Projects
data indicated an exponential-type decrease of OIT as a function of dose (Fig. 2) in all cases. This behaviour enables a kinetic modelling of the radiation-induced degradation of the cables insulating materials. The comparison of both methods (CL and DSC) indicated that the results are equivalent, but the use of CL is not possible for very dark materials and for those degrading by different mechanisms than Bolland-Gee scheme. To continue this cooperation project (testing different materials, elaboration of residual durability evaluation procedure), at ICPE-CA was purchased a DSC Setram 131 evo instrument. Proiect pregatitor-sistem senzori miniaturizai inteligeni pentru tratarea apei Pre-SenSy-Wa

CB02

Dose (kGy) 0 9,6 28,8 96

OIT (min) 148 108 29 0

tmax (min) 326 186 96 85

I0 10-7 (Hz/g) 0,06 0,12 0,22 0,54

Imax 10-7 (Hz/g) 1,97 0,84 1,32 1,23

Dose (kGy) 0 9,6 28,8 96


*

TmN* (C) 110,6 110,6 110,2 109,4

OIT (min.) 104 76 33 0

tmax (min.) 120 94 62 16

Personal de cercetare al proiectului Ing. Gabriela Telipan, ITP I - director proiect Dr. Ing. Mircea Ignat, CPI; Dr. Ing. Lucian Pslaru-Danescu, ITP III Dr. Ing. Gabriela Hristea, CPII; Ing. George Zrnescu, CS; Ing. Victor Stoica, ACS PROJECT ABSTRACT Scopul proiectului n cooperare bilateral, PreSenSyWa (Sistem de senzori miniaturizai inteligeni pentru tratarea apei) este pregtirea propunerii de proiect pentru FP7, call FP7-ICT2009-5. Raiunea realizrii acestui sistem multi senzor const, pe de o parte, n msurarea apei curate n staii descentralizate de ape uzate, iar pe de alt parte, prin utilizarea pe pia a staiilor descentralizate de purificare a apelor uzate, pentru care sunt necesari senzori combinai i ieftini pentru msurarea calitii apelor curate. Stadiul actual arat c sunt cteva tipuri de senzori scumpi n comparaie cu costul sistemului descentralizat pentru staiile pentru purificarea apelor uzate. Raiunea rezolvrii aceastei probleme const n utilizarea de senzori ieftini miniaturizai inteligeni pentru tratarea apei. Acest sistem de senzor msoar parametrii importani ca: turbiditatea, amoniu, fosfor. Metoda utilizat prevede dezvoltarea materialelor nanostructurate pentru diferite tipuri de celule de senzori i crearea unui nou sistem multi senzor cu o concepie inovativ de integrare micro-nano. REZULTATE PROIECT 1.1. Concept i obiective Obiectivul proiectului n cooperare bilateral romano-german PreSenSyWa (Sistem de senzori miniaturizai inteligeni pentru tratarea apei) a constat n elaborarea i transmiterea propunerii de proiect pentru FP7, call FP7ICT-2009-5. Conceptul acestui sistem multi senzor const n msurarea parametrilor apei curate din punct de vedere al turbiditii, amoniu i fosfor n staii descentralizate de ape uzate. Scopul acestui proiect FP7 de cerce tare este de a utiliza pe pia staii descentralizate de purificare a apelor uzate, pentru care sunt necesari sen zori combinai, ieftini, pentru msurarea calitii apelor curate. 1.2. Stadiu actual n domeniu Urbanizarea este un proces care progreseaz cu o vitez accelerat n jurul lumii, posed cteva noi probleme asupra populaiei urbane. Transportul

OIT = oxidation induction time; tmax = time to CL peak; I0 = initial CL emission; Imax = peak CL intensity

TmN = melting temperature under nitrogen, = 10 K/min.; OIT = oxidation induction time; tmax = time to oxidation peak

Table I: CL kinetic parameters (isothermal, 190 C, Table II: DSC results (from isotherm measurements air) of a PB 300 cable sample irradiated at different at 190 C for a PB 300 cable sample irradiated at doses (Dr = 400 Gy/h) , LDPE insulation material different doses (Dr = 400 Gy/h) , LDPE insulation (sample type at irradiation: strap from cable material (sample type at irradiation: strap from insulator) cable insulator) It was observed a good correlation of the CL data obtained at ICPE-CA with those obtained by DSC at CERN.

BILATERAL COOPERATION

Fig. 1. OIT (at 190 oC) decrease as a function of dose for LDPE insulation of PB 300 cable, irradiated as strap (Dr = 400 Gy/h)

Fig. 2. Linear correlation between the OIT values from isothermal CL (at ICPE-CA) and those from isothermal DSC (at CERN) in the case of LDPE insulation material of a PB 300 cable irradiated as strap (Dr = 400 Gy/h)

Fig. 3. Correlation between the OIT values from DSC (red) and CL (blue) for the insulation polymeric materials characterized at ICPECA (by isothermal CL) and respectively at CERN (by isothermal DSC)

This project was financially supported by the programme Capacities, Module III, CERN, contract 10EU/2009 (4261/ 2009)

Fig. 1. Traductor electronic pentru N i evaluare semnal temperatura (sursa JUMO / Germany)

Fig. 2. Civa senzori de ape, lungime ~150 - 200 mm; ~ 12 mm (sursa JUMO / Germany)

Fig. 3. Sistem muli sensor (sursa Sensortechnics GmbH / Germany)

PAGINA 196 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 197

Projects
inadecvat de ap i calitatea slab a apei provoac serioase griji contemporane pentru multe municipaliti, industrii, agricultur i mediu. Apa potabil este necesar comunitilor umane, att pentru consumul propriu, ct i pentru diverse procese unde este necesar prezena apei. Nu este posibil existena unei comuniti care triete n suburbii fr 10 l apa per persoana per zi. Pe de alt parte, calitatea apei disponibile este deteriorat ca rezultat al deversrii apelor casnice i efluenilor industriali. Pentru purificarea apelor uzate sunt necesare staii de purificare ale acesteia. Conceptele anterioare au cuprins purificarea apele uzate n staii centralizate de ape uzate. n ultimii ani devine mult mai mult de neles faptul c sistemul de tratare al apei centralizat este foarte scump. Noile tendine sunt staiile descentra lizate pentru tratarea apei. Sunt cteva zeci de mii de staii pentru tratarea apei descentralizate n Germania. n alte ri europene este aceeai situaie. Aproximativ peste 90% din aceste staii de tratare a apei descentralizate nu au control al calitii apei curate. Nimeni nu tie dac apa este curat sau nu. Nimeni nu tie rata de poluare. n viitor guvernele trebuie s cunoasc aceast rat de poluare. Toi proprietarii de staii descentralizate de tratare a apelor uzate au nevoie de un sistem de monitorizare. Baza acestui sistem de monitorizare este un sistem de senzor pentru msurarea calitii apei curate. Sunt cunoscui civa senzori ca baz a sistemului de monitorizare a calitii apei, dar nu un sistem integrat de senzori. Astfel, sunt necesare cteva tipuri de senzori pentru fiecare msurtoare de turbiditate, amoniu, fosfor Fig. 1. Acest sistem este scump n comparaie cu costurile unei staii descentralizate pentru obinerea apei curate. De exemplu, un senzor pentru msurarea carbonului costa aproximativ 500 EURO, pe cnd costurile pentru staii descentralizate pentru tratarea apelor uzate cost aproximativ 3.500 EURO. Raiunea noastr pentru rezolvarea aceastei probleme este realizarea unui sistem miniaturizat de senzori inteligeni ieftini. Acest sistem de senzori SenSyWa, msoar toate datele importante (turbiditatea apei, amoniu, fosfor). Un exemplu de tipuri de senzori este compus dint-un sistem multi senzor realizat de Sensortechnics GmbH / Germany (Fig. 3). Acest exemplu de senzor combin numai 3 senzori, dar poate fi utilizat un complex care s combine mai muli senzori. Obiectivul proiectului const n a dezvolta un material nanostructurat i combinarea acestuia la o celul de senzor cu concepia unei noi celule de senzor micronano-integrat. Un bun exemplu este un tip de senzor multi gaz din FZK Germania Fig.4. Cei 2 parteneri implicai n acest proiect n colaborare bilateral, SenSyWa Arteos Germania i INCDIE ICPE-CA Romnia, au know how pentru senzori, microelectronica, micro i nanotehnologii, packaging i micro-nano-integrare. Fig. 5 i 6 prezint senzori pentru detecia CO2, cu strat sensibil oxizi semiconductori CeO2-Nb2O5 i senzor i aparat pentru detecia CO2 cu strat polimeric organic polimer organo siloxanic supramolecular - Fig. 6 INCDIE ICPE-CA. Fig. 7 i Fig. 8 prezint senzori de gaz: fire 1m + 10 m Fig. 7 i nano fire gaz senzor diametru fir = 300nm Fig. 8 ARTEOS Germania. 3. Metodologie 3.1. Senzor de turbiditate Principiu de operare Senzorul de turbiditate este conceput utiliznd principiul optic. Un tranzistor optic i diode optice lucreaz mpreun i msoar turbiditatea. 2 amplificatoare difererentiale AMP 03 i o surs de referin de precizie AD 580 este utilizat pentru a construi schema (condiionarea electronic a semnalului pentru senzor de turbiditate). AMP 03 este un amplificator diferenial caracterizat prin precizie i vitez mare. ncorpornd o reea de rezistoare n strat subire, AMP 03 furnizeaz operaii stabile pentru temperaturi nalte fr a utiliza componente externe. Tensiunea pozitiv de 2,5 Vcc e dat de un circuit specializat. Analog Device este aplicat la amplificatorul operaional integrat AMP 03 utilizat pe conexiune inversoare. Topologia amplificatorului diferenial a AMP 03 furnizeaz o extrem de nalt rejecie a modulului comun al tensiunii de intrare. Rejecia modulului comun CMR este de 100 dB i slew rata este aproximativ 9.5 V / s . 3.2. Senzor de amoniu Senzor impedan - principiu de operare Un senzor tip impedan pentru msurarea amoniului n soluii apoase este realizat prin utilizarea unui cristal piezoelectric (SPC), respectiv un cristal de cuar ST sau cristal de niobat de litiu care este conceput pentru conectarea cristalului piezoelectric cu proba n serie. Prob este umplut cu o soluie de electrolit intern care este separat de prob printr-o membran semipermeabil. Un senzor bazat pe dispozitiv SPC nu este influenat de vaporii de ap. Senzor SAW Unda acustic de suprafa Un senzor SAW const dintr-un dispozitiv acoperit cu un strat sensibil organic pentru amoniu ca l-glutamic hipoclorid sau polianilina. Senzorul produce un rspuns n frecven favorabil la 5107.........1103 mol l1 NH+4. Limita de detecie este 1107 mol l1. 3.3. Senzor pentru fosfor Principiu de operare Senzorul ncorporeaz tehnologia microfluidic, detecia colorimetric i comunicaia wireless ntr-un dispozitiv compact. Metoda de detecie utilizat este metoda complexului colorat n galben al molibdenului, n care proba care conine fosfor este amestecat cu un reactiv care conine metavanadat de amoniu n mediu acid. Se genereaz astfel un compus colorat i absorbia acestui compus se msoar utiliznd o diod emitoare de lumin (LED) la 370 nm, o surs de lumin i un detector fotodioda. Absorbia este direct proporional cu concentraia de fosfat n proba original. Toate canalele sunt de 200 nm adncime i lime. Materialul este un chip PMMA polimetilmetacrilat. Cipul este acoperit cu un adeziv sensibil. Tuburile sunt insertate n interior i n afara ferestrelor i sunt meninute n loca utiliznd o rin epoxidic ca adeziv. Caracteristicile senzorului: Bun liniaritate n domeniul de msur: 0-50 ppm fosfat Limit detecie: 3 ppm Timp de rspuns: max. 2 minute 4. Diseminarea informaiei Partenerii implicai n proiect particip la diseminarea rezultatelor prin: Participare la workshop-uri internaionale, conferine, simpozioane i congrese n domeniul proiectului cu publicare n Proceedings; Publicarea lucrrilor tiinifice n jurnale internaionale cu indexare n baze de date ca: ISI, Thomson Scientific master Journal List, The British Library, EBSCOs Computers and Applied Sciences Complete; Participare la expoziii internaionale cu produse rezultate din cercetare n tematica proiectului; Elaborare n comun sau individual a minim 10 brevete internatioanale; Publicare n edituri internaionale de cri cu tematica sisteme de microsenzori pentru tratarea apei; Elaborare CD-Rom cu cercetrile din proiect;

Fig. 4. Senzor muli gaz (nu pentru ap) (sursa FZK/Germania)

Fig. 5. Senzor pentru detectia CO2

Fig. 6. Senzor si aparat pentru detectia CO2

Fig. 8. Senzor gaz Nano fire , diametru fir = 300 nm, Sursa Arteos Germany

PAGINA 198 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 199

Projects
CB03
Multisensors for intelligent robots

Pagin web cu rezultatele proiectului SensYWa; Elaborare n cadrul universitilor de cursuri, disertaii i teme doctorale. 5. Impactul asupra competitivitii a participanilor n proiect Consoriul proiectului SensyWa este alctuit din 2 companii SME: ARTEOS GmbH, Germania i Meltec Systementwicklung, Germania, un institut naional: Institutul Naional de Cercetare Dezvoltare pentru Inginerie Electric ICPE-CA, Bucureti, Romnia i 2 universiti: Universitatea Tehnic, Viena, Austria i Universitatea Tehnic, Creta, Grecia. Partenerii implicai n proiect au o mare experien n domeniul tratrii apelor. ARTEOS GmbH, Germania - coordonator proiect 6. Justificare economic Pentru purificarea apei este necesar utilizarea staiilor de tratare a apei. Vechile concepii au constat n tratarea apei n staii centralizate de epurare. n ultimii ani, experii neleg tot mai mult c staiile de epurare centralizate sunt foarte scumpe. Noile tendine n domeniu le reprezint staii de epurare a apelor uzate descentralizate. Pentru acest sistem exist senzori de monitorizare a apei, dar nu un sistem de senzori. n prezent, este necesar pentru fiecare tip de msurtoare (N, P, nivel lichid, turbiditate), de un singur senzor i, mai mult, de un traductor pentru un tip de semnal. Acesta este foarte scump n comparaie cu costurile staiilor descentralizate de epurare a apelor uzate. De exemplu, un senzor de msurare a carbonului cost aproximativ 500 EURO, iar o unitate de staie de epu-

rare a apelor descentralizat cost aproximativ 3.500 EURO. 7. Contribuia la obiectivele sociale comune Contribuia la obiectivele sociale comune obinute n urma rezultatelor cercetrii n proiectul Sensy-Wa: Bun calitate a apei; O bun sntate a populaiei; O bun calitate a vieii; O bun calitate a mediului; Crearea de locuri de munc n domeniul calitii i tratrii apelor. 8. Consideraii asupra egalitii de anse dintre sexe Aciunile care vor fi ntreprinse n cadrul proiectului privitor la egalitatea de anse dintre sexe: Participare la conferine, simpozioane i congrese pentru diseminarea rezultatelor proiectului SensyWa; Participarea la aspecte tiinifice i tehnice conform pachetului de lucru; Participare la evenimente organizate n coli i universiti, cursuri, teme de doctorat, dizertaii; Participare la aciuni raportat la consoriu, mbuntirea echilibrului ntre sexe n cadrul consoriului proiectului, msuri de ajutor i reconciliere n cadrul desfurrii activitilor n cadrul proiectului i n viaa privat.

Research personnel Eng. Phys. Iulian Iordache Head of the project Eng. Chem. Radu Vasilescu Mirea participant; Eng. Chem. Alexandru Teisanu participant; Eng. Chem. Adela Bara participant The first meeting was in German workshop held by German partner during TIB 2009 in Bucharest, where the German partner presented its knowledge and its activities. Battenberg Robotics GmbH-Germany is an active member of a network that has the aim to reunite research, industry and school. There have been some visits at INCDIE ICPE-CA and INCDMTM and each institute presented its knowledge for this kind of project. During those meetings, were also established each ones contribution to the future FP7 project. Romania partners will bring their contribution to the integration and adaptation of the sensors inside the measurement robots in order to increase their performances for recognition/interpretation of the objects, surrounding environment and situations.

BILATERAL COOPERATION

PROJECT ABSTRACT General objectives To create a multilateral consortia in order to develop an FP7 project in the domain of increasing the performances of the sensorial systems of measuring robots through multi-sensorial perception and through the extension of the use of measuring robots in new application fields, as well as for special measurements on soft materials and on curved surfaces. Bilateral cooperation proposal has its roots in the cooperation contacts between Romanian and German partners, and will lead to a FP7 Cooperation project proposal. PROJECT RESULTS During this bilateral cooperation project, came in Romania, as a representative for Battenberg Robotics GmbH-Germany, Mr. Guido Tschulena. Between 27-31.10.2009, there have been three meetings with INCDIE ICPECAs and INCDMTMs representatives from Romanian side and Mr. Guido Tschulena from German side of the project.

Fig. 7. Senzor gaz debit curgerer , fire 1m + 10 m - sursa ARTEOS Germany

Cercetarea a fost finanat prin programul Cooperare bilateral, contract nr. 333.10/2009 (4265/2009).

The research was financed by Bilateral Cooperation programme, contract 335 (4267)/2009

PAGINA 200 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 201

Projects
CB04
Making dipole electromagnets, superconducting coils, magnets, electromagnets and sources for particle accelerators FAIR gap, there was designed a measurement device which is working in polar coordinates with three degrees of freedom (movement in three directions of the probe: length, radius and angle). The operating principle of the measuring device consists in the exact positioning of a Hall probe inside of the sextupol air gap, positioning which is made by three controlled stepping motors and measuring the magnetic induction in that point, following whit the determination of the gradient based on analytical calculations. Also, the injection magnet prototype at a small scale was developed which is based on a Hallbach cylinder system whit permanent magnets, the resulted magnetic field inside the air gap is 0.89 Tesla and field homogeneity inside the air gap was 10-4. The superferic dipole magnet was designed and developed to achieve the main goal: getting a magnetic field of 2T, whit field homogeneity as high as possible. The component parts of the systems are: the magnet cryostat, the superferic bipolar magnet, cryogenic cooling system, electrical supply system. The project will end in 2011 following whit the certification of the electromagnet prototypes, and for the next year in 2010 there will be made further measurements and experiments on the prototypes made and also there will be made a quadrupolar prototype magnet.

Research staff of the project Phd student Eng. Erdei Remus project manager Dr. Eng. Dobrin Ion; Prof. Dr. Phys. Kappel Wilhelm; Dr. Eng. Chirita Ionel; Dr. Phys.Patroi Eros; Eng. Stancu Nicolae; Prof. Dr. Eng.Bala Constantin; Dr. Eng. Puflea Ioan

BILATERAL COOPERATION

PROJECT ABSTRACT The project objective is to develop superferic dipole electromagnets, superconducting coils, magnets, electromagnets and power sources for particle accelerators FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research). FAIR is an international project for realization of complex particle accelerator, which has a deadline for completion 2016 and will be developed in the area of Darmstadt in Germany. The project goal is to achieve efficient electromagnets, incorporating a hightech modern technology. These types of electromagnets will be used for realization of the quadrupolar electromagnets, sextupolar electromagnets, injection magnet, superferic dipole magnet which will be used in the FAIR particle accelerator complex especially in the high energy storage ring HESR. The main objectives of the project are: I. Superferic dipole magnet design and related systems; Making superferic magnet at laboratory model. Realization of the execution for sextupolar magnet and power supply; Realization of execution project for the injection magnet; II. Realization of sextupolar electromagnet with power supply and injection magnet model; Model experimentation of the laboratory prototype; III. Realization of the execution project for quadrupolar magnet and power supply. Experimentation on the dipole magnet prototype; Development of the referential; IV. Quadrupolar magnet prototype, Certification superferic dipole magnet prototype, design and realization of superconducting coil for high magnetic field (> 5 T); V. Approval of the electromagnets

prototypes and injection magnet, Superconducting coil realization and related systems; Development initial referential; VI. Realization of the product file; National and International dissemination; Experimentation of superconducting coil prototype; Certification of superconducting coil prototype. RESULTS OF THE PROJECT According to the project objectives, there was made the laboratory model of superferic dipole magnet with its accessories: the cryogenic cooling system, magnet superferic itself; magnet cryostat, power system, the protection system of coils. Also in the frame of the project there was analyzed and optimized and designed an optimal sextupolar electromagnet. The execution project is containing the following drawings: overall design, sextupolar coil, coil fixation collars, yokes, connection box, sextupolar lower and upper yoke, sextupolar winding, electrical and water connection scheme, drawings whit different auxiliary parts. Also there has been made the project design of the power supply for the sextupolar magnet and the execution project for the injection magnet. During the second phase of the project there was made the sextupolar magnet which has a yoke made of sheets with a thickness of 1 mm. The sheets were made by stamping technology process due to the high geometrical precision required (10-2), because the slightest deformation of sheet could lead to significant influence on magnetic field homogeneity inside the air gap, the magnetic field homogeneity which must be of the order 10-3. In the figure 4 is presented sextupolar magnet sheet which is made by stamping. In order to perform measurements on the sextupolar magnet inside of the air

Fig. 1. 3D distribution of the magnetic field for one pole of the sextupolar magnet

Fig. 2. Sextupolar magnet

Fig. 3 Section view of the magnet

Fig.4. Sextopolar magnet sheet

Fig. 5. The power supplay for the sextupolar magnet

Fig. 6. Measurement device of the magnetic field

Fig.7. Prototype of the injection magnet

Fig. 8. The cryogenic cooling system

Fig. 9 The NbTi superconducting coil

The research was financed by NUCLEU Programme, contract 34N102/2009 (5102/2009).

PAGINA 202 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 203

Projects
CB05
Development of the magnetic system design for the GRAINS reflectometer CA. The analysis was done in two separate cases, using permanent magnets and using only the excitation of the coils: a) with NdFeB permanent magnet type: b) with the excitation coils: where the number used is 100 turns and the current is I = 300 A:

Staff Research Project PhDs. Phys. Eros-Alexandru Patroi, CS III, project manager Prof. Dr. Phys. Wilhelm Kappel, CS I, Eng. Remus Erdei, CS, Eng. Nicolae Stancu, IDT II, Eng. Phys. Cristian Morari, CS, Eng. Chirita Ionel, IDT II PROJECT ABSTRACT The project aims to design magnetic systems for a refractometer GRAINS type. By designing new forms, using new materials with good properties and by the computer simulation one can improve the performance of magnetic systems used in different circuits. Bz and greater losses by eddy currents. It had been used thin steel plate. The grub is held by eight massive iron bars (20 mm x 40 mm cross section), threaded with heavy bolts. In the quadrupole, the relative fraction of iron in the structural elements is much larger than the one in dipole and the magnetic shunting flow exceeds 1.4 T. Even slight changes have led to a significant reduction of AC thermal losses, from 30 W to 15.6 W. Without consider the contribution of the coil around 5W, the contribution of the grub to the losses decreased by a factor of 2.8. Quadrupole prototype design: 2D geometry: In the new quadrupole design was implemented all the suggestions given in the dipole case. A view over the cross section of the quadrupoles (a quarter is detailed) is presented in fig. 1 below. Quadrupoles grub from the poles position has an almost hyperbolic shape. The coil is made of five turns, cut from a single layer and made from the same wire as the dipole coil. Its used the manufacturing technology of the coil used for dipoles. Optimizing the poles grub and placing the turns of the coil was done in order to give a certain linear to the field gradient in the current operating range. The model that will be built comes with enhancements such as minimizing the coil heads, rolling cleft and a new mechanical structure for the grub. 3D Geometry: The design adopted for total quadrupole is presented below. The new quality is the change of the terminals of the coil in order to give a longer-term mechanical stability in the coil. The grubs frame has a design similar to the dipole. It will be use stainless steel and terminals plates. Quadrupole hyperbole Hyperbolic poles with permanent magnets - analysis with hyperbolic modeling and simulation program INFOLYTI-

BILATERAL COOPERATION

Fig. 1. Transversal section for quadrupol

Fig. 2. The geometry of the quadrupole

Available ICPE-CA software package: Field calcu lation in the mag neto static regime; Field calculation in harmonic regime. The specific objectives of the project involves: New methods for simulation of magnetic properties of magnetic circuits; A complex design that takes into account the specific constraints of each application (external mechanical stress, high or low temperatures at which magnetic systems works, etc.); Preparation of multiple variants in terms of development of magnetic circuits and materials used to achieve enhanced performance. The issue of research works proposed to be developed in the project is of maximum priority for research in Physics and Materials Science. The advantages of such complex designs are embodied by: Lowering the price of the final product is achieved through complex design and simulation; Obtaining enhanced performance; Obtaining dedicated devices that meet the requirements of nuclear physics applications.

Fig. 3. Variation of induction

Fig. 4. Variation of induction

REZULTATE PROIECT Quadrupole design and its development: the innovative character of quadrupole consists basically only of two end parts with the longitudinal field components

The research was funded through the collaboration programme JINR Dubna, 3861-4-08/08 contract (13/2008)

PAGINA 204 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 205

Projects
CB06
Investigations on alloyed intermetallic compounds NiAl, Ni3Al, NiTi by means of neutron diffraction techniques NiTi [14] NiTiCu AM 10 hrsNiTiCu AM 20 hrsNiTiCuAl1 NiTiCuAl2 NiTiCuAl3 g/cm3 6,4-6,5 4,1 4,64 6.013 6.006 6.020

Research staff of the project Dr. Eng. Mariana Lucaci project manager Dr. Eng. Violeta Tsakiris; CS Beatrice Gabriela Sbarcea; CS Lucia Leonat ABSTRACT PROJECT Bilateral cooperation between INCDIE ICPE-CA- Romania and Dubna Russia has as main objective investigation of alloyed intermetallic compounds based on Ni using neutron diffraction technique. The Romanian part had to do the manufacturing of the materials and the Russian partner had to do the neutron investigation. It was obtained crystalline intermetallic compounds in the system of TiNi-X (X = Cu, Al), at micro/nano-level, by a method combining mechanical alloying with self-propagation high temperature synthesis (for Ni-Ti-Cu alloys) and by spark plasma sintering (SPS) followed by a heat treatment at 600oC for 72 hours and an annealing treatment at 400oC in a sealed quartz capsule for Ni-Ti-Cu-Al alloys. RESULTS OF THE PROJECT The technology to obtain NiTiCu consists in obtaining the NiTiCu mecanocomposite powder at nanometric/ amorphous/ microcrystalline scale, followed by its sintering in cylindrical/ rectangular shaped samples and applying a thermal treatment for homogenization. The NiTiCuAl samples are of cylindrical type with a diameter of 40 mm and a high of 5-7mm. Addition of Cu in the Ni-Ti alloys was made as substitute for Ni and addition of Al was made as substitute for Ti. Adding of Al in Ni-Ti-Cu materials have been made with the aim to increase the out put force and the lifecycle of the materials. Al alloying element for Ni-Ti-Cu materials produce a strong decrease of the transformation temperatures values.

T transf K 173-390 307-353 310-339 Not identified Not identified Not identified

Transformation hysteresis 20-50 A 34,8 M - 39 A 15,9 M - 18,3 Mf, Ms < -150 Mf, Ms < -150 Mf, Ms < -150

Rm MPa 8001000

Rp0,2 MPa

E GPa

A 200-800 A 50-90 M 70 - 200 M 10-35 2,5

276

233

Hardness HV 0.3/15 548.6 Hardness HV 0.3/15 529.8 Hardness HV 0.3/15 591.8

BILATERAL COOPERATION

Table II.:The obtained Properties of the materials

Material NiTiCu NiTiCuAl1 NiTiCuAl3 NiTiCuAl6

%weight Ni 32.45 32.58 32.84 33.22 Ti 44.13 43.4 41.95 39.75 Cu 23.41 23.52 23.7 23.98 Al 0.5 1.51 3.05

Table I. The chemical compositions of the obtained materials


Fig.1. The experimental XRD pattern of the synthesized NiTiCuAl materials

The research was financed by Bilateral Cooperation Programme, contract 14 (04-4-1069-2009/2011).

PAGINA 206 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 207

Projects
3.2.2 Framework Programme 7
Union market by finding a partner for business and technological cooperation; information and advice on accessing European funding sources, especially to encourage the participation in research programs; partner search for research projects; information on European legislation and services regarding intellectual property rights; INCDIE ICPE-CA as a partner in the consortium BISNet Transylvania has achieved the following results: Promoting the services offered by Enterprise Europe Network by organizing local events for SMEs development of a website for the inform of SMEs, publishing articles about the Enterprise Europe Network on the third network websites, radio appearance to promote the EEN, making leaflets and dissemination of network services at the Bucharest International Fair, realization of a database of potential clients of the center region of the country, realization of newsletter with topics on EU issues; Promotion of SMEs on European market through the database of the Enterprise Europe Network by making business cooperation profiles and technology cooperation profiles in order to facilitate finding business partners in the European Union; Encouragement of the SMEs to access European funding programmes by identifying the right funding call for the SME and advice for filling the forms; Information regarding the European legislation and advice on industrial property rights for filling and submitting the documentation for patens; Participation to trainings of the project staff in order to improve the quality of the services offered through the Enterprise Europe Network; The period of the project is 2008-2011 with possibility to extend the project for three more years by making new working plans for the third year that the 5th year of the project progress which has to be approved by EACI.

01

BISNet Transylvania - Business and Innovation Support Network for SMEs from Transylvania

Research staff of the project Phd student Eng. Erdei Remus, scientific researcher project manager Dr. Eng. Codescu Mirela scientific researcher I; Dr. Eng. Alecu Georgeta main researcher; Eng. Macamete Elena - IPR adviser; Ec. Szasz Reka Eva - economist; Eng. Onica Ciprian - scientific researcher PROJECT ABSTRACT BISNet Transylvania is a project funded by the European Commission under the Competitiveness and Innovation Programme, which gives the partner institutions in the project the membership in the Enterprise Europe Network. Enterprise Europe Network is a key instrument in the EU strategy to boost SME growth. The network brings together 570 business support organizations in 45 countries whose mission is to support small businesses to take full advantage of business opportunities from the European Union. Enterprise Europe Network is managed by the Competitiveness and Innovation Executive Agency (EACI) and is part of the Competitiveness and Innovation Program (CIP). The Enterprise Europe Network (EEN) is a support network for SMEs in Business and Innovation, with one stop shop for information on EU legislation, opportunities for funding, assistance in finding business and technology partners in EU and help to develop the research and innovation capacity of SMEs. Transylvania BISNet consortium include the developing regions of the northwest and centre of Romania, bringing together seven partner organizations to support SMEs in a macro region 1: Northwest Regional Development Agency from Cluj, Central Regional Development Agency Alba Iulia, Transylvania University Brasov, Technological and Business Incubator Ecomat ICPE-CA Saint George from the National Research and Development Institute for Electrical Engineering ICPE-CA, Technical University of Cluj, Romanian Entrepreneurs Club, BT, Technology Transfer Centre from the National Institute of Research and Development of Opto-electronic - Cluj Napoca. RESULTS OF THE PROJECT The services offered by the BisNet Transylvania consortium particularly are addressed to SMEs, the services offered trough the network are free, and there are provide the following main services: assistance for SMEs to expand their business in the European

INTERNATIONAL PROJECTS IN FRAMEWORK PROGRAMME 7

Fig. 2. Logo of European Agency for Competitivenes and Innovation

Fig. 3. Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme Logo

Fig. 1. Logo Enterprise Europe Network

The research was funded through the Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme, under the agreement no. 225559 / 9.

PAGINA 208 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 209

Projects
02
Promotion of Competence to Up-grade the RTD Potential in Science and Technology (PROCUST) Deliverables: D1a Webpage of the project; (http://fp7.procust. icpe-ca.ro/) D1b SWOT Analysis To accomplish this objective, the evaluation process was carefully planned based on two visits of European expert evaluators in ICPE-CA. The European and Romanian teams worked together, in a continue exchange of informations and ideas. This supposes to consider some procedural steps, each of them providing a milestone: M1 Evaluation Report (Annex Visit 1 Report) M2 SWOT Analysis and conclusions (Annex Visit 2 Report). WP2 - Action Plan to up-grade the RTD potential of INCDIE ICPE-CA. Based on the SWOT analysis, with goal in place, the European experts team and Romanian working group worked to develop, during the WP2 - Action Plan to up-grade the RTD potential of INCDIE ICPE-CA, a roadmap to improve the research capacities of INCDIE ICPE-CA. The activities in WP2 were developed in closed collaboration between the European experts and INCDIE ICPE-CA / PROCUST team. The experts visited the institute two times during this WP. According to the Grant Agreement of the project, this WP had two major Deliverables: D2a Action Plan D2b Plan for Dissemination In principal, Dissemination Plan (Deliverable D2b) specified in PROCUST Grant Agreement is oriented to: - Develop R&D cooperation at European and international level - Strengthen the exploitation and economic and social valorization of R&D results - Improve communication and information. WP3. Project management and co-ordination The objective of this WP: Coherent watching of all milestones to achieve the aim of the proposal. The activities performed in WP3, will be finalized with Final report. Results achieved so far and expected end results The project is reaching all of its major objectives. This is due to the overwhelming interest and commitment of Project management team as well as of the Institutes employees in this project. Both the work itself and the results of this work far exceed our expectations. The project is reaching the end. We succeed in reaching our major objectives corresponding to the Final Report: The results of the evaluation made by PROCUST are intended to help the institute, the management of the research unit and the individual researchers to make better decisions about future research, research management and research policy. The evaluations are both retrospective and prospective. This is reflected in the assessment criteria, for past performance (SWOT Analysis) and future plans that reflect the main questions that need to be answered by the prepared Action Plan. Intentions for use and impact The potential impact of the project consists from an economic impact and a scientific impact. The economic impact consist from performing technical results promoting new technology transfer, a better IPR management and on the other side the scientific impact emerge from increased knowledge, and involvement in EC FP projects.

Research staff of the project Dr. eng. Mirela Maria CODESCU, CS I Prof. dr. Wilhelm KAPPEL, CS I; Dr. eng. Adela BARA, CS III

INTERNATIONAL PROJECTS IN FRAMEWORK PROGRAMME 7

PROJECT ABSTRACT PROCUST concept cames to provide support actions to an international independent expert evaluation of the existing research quality level and infrastructures of ICPE-CA, identifying the gaps and opportunities and to define an Action Plan to up-grade and reinforce its RTD potential. The project idea occurs as a complement of actions generated in FP6 SSA INDUMAT and other national projects for improving the research capacity of ICPE-CA in order to assure a better participation as valuable partner in EU research initiatives and to increase the economic cohesion. PROCUST has the following specific objectives: a. To analyze the state-of-art of the institute; b. To realize SWOT analysis which will contain the strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats; c. To provide an Action Plan to up-grade and reinforce the RTD capacity of the institute. The basic objective of the project to up-grade the RTD potential of INCDIE ICPE-CA was achieved within the

development of foresight activities, the European independent experts evaluation being it-self a recognition of quality of institute activity. All the referred objectives will be accomplished during the 3 Work Packages of the PROCUST project, including 4 milestones foresight to be realised. By the transposing in reality of the Action Plan resulted from PROCUST, INCDIE ICPE-CA will fructify its improved effectiveness and gained advantages directly in the benefits of SME`s and industrial organizations, in future European and national partnerships in research projects. RESULTS OF THE PROJECT Work performed The work of the project is divided into 3 Work Packages: WP1 - Analysis of the state-of-art of the institute (INCDIE ICPE-CA); The first WP, WP1 - Analysis of the state-of-art of the institute, presented in the plan, concerned to the SWOT analysis based on the analysis of the background and state-ofart of the institute was the most extensive as time and resources effort (human and financial), because impose a long period of monitoring so that the results to be conclusive and relevant. According to the Grant Agreement of the project, this WP1 had two

Fig. 1. PROCUST Project logo

The project was financed by the Framework Programme 6, CSA-SA-REGPOT-2007-2-01, contract no. 206119 PROCUST (1/2008).

PAGINA 210 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 211

Projects
3.3. Sectorial Operational Programme
Laboratoare modernizate:

02

Modernizarea infrastructurii destinat promovrii potenialului de cercetare n inginerie electric pentru aplicaii n ariile tematice economice prioritare ale Romniei ca ar membr UE

Personal de cercetare al proiectului Prof. Dr. Kappel Wilhelm manager proiect Dr. Ing. Enescu Elena - manager de achiziionare a echipamentelor; Bondar Ana Maria - manager tehnic al modernizrii construciei cldirii; Ec. Stan Livia - manager financiar; Lungu Mariana - manager contractual PROJECT ABSTRACT Obiective specifice proiectului: - Crearea unei infrastructuri performante n aria tematic prioritar: Materiale, procese i produse inovative care s permit promovarea potenialului de cercetare pe dou direcii ale ingineriei electrice: A: ingineria microsistemelor; B: alinierea produselor i proceselor specifice ingineriei electrice la standardele UE. - Completarea dotrii existente prin achiziionarea unor echipamente de nalt performan, specifice activitilor de procesare, caracterizare i investigare pentru dezvoltarea cercetrilor pe cele dou direcii; - ntrirea potenialului de resurse umane; - ntrirea capacitii administrative pentru dezvoltarea cercetrilor pe cele doua direcii si promovarea rezultatelor. REZULTATE PROIECT Contracte ncheiate: 1. Proiect execuie a modernizrii; 2. Manual de corporate/site; 3. Produse publicitare; 4. Consultan n domeniul lucrrilor de modernizare i dirigenie de antier; 5. Servicii de consultan pentru implementarea proiectului de investiii; 6. Lucrri de execuie a modernizrii spaiilor de CD ale INCDIE ICPE-CA (conform proiect PROMIT); 7. Contract achiziie Echipament de masura a proprietilor la temperaturi joase si de obtinere a temperaturilor joase; 8. Contract implementare soft SIEMENS NXCAN; 9. Contract licen Ibla soft; 10. Contract implementare Ibla soft; 11. Contract acces baz de date; 12. Contract prestri servicii de publicitate; 13. Contract achiziie: Dilatometru de nalt temperatur i rezoluie pentru aliaje metalice; 14. Contract achiziie: Instalaie de sinterizare n plasma; 15. Contract achiziie: Microscop electronic de baleiaj cu emisie de cmp i cu fascicul de ioni; 16. Contract achiziie: Presa izostatic la cald; 17. Contract achiziie Licen soft EXMAN 3.W.3 09 RLC; 18. Contract achiziie: Microscop electronic de baleiaj cu tunelare cu studiul topografiei suprafeelor (STM si topografie); 19. Contract achiziie Spectrometru dielectric; 20. Servicii de promovare instituiional, ntreinere i actualizare site. Softuri achiziionate: - Software pentru programarea mainilor cu comand numeric folosind soluia NX CAM; - Ibla soft.

Laborator de testare tehnologii, prototipuri, microprelucrari pentru MEMS/NEMS

Laborator dinamica masinilor electrice

Projects IN Sectorial Operational Programme

Laborator de acustica si vibratii

Echipamente achiziionate i puse n funciune:

Dilatometru de inalta temperatura si rezolutie pentru aliaje metalice

Echipament pentru determinarea proprietatilor la temperaturi joase si generare de temperaturi joase

Proiectul a fost finanat n cadrul Programului Operaional Sectorial de Cretere a Competitivitii Economice, Axa prioritar 2 CDI; Operaiunea 2.2.1., Contract 5/01.03.2009.

PAGINA 212 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 213

Facts and scientific events

Scientists which visited our institute Scientific events organized by the institute National and international trade fairs and exhibitions Invited lectures, courses and seminars presented by hosting scientists Doctoral dissertations 2009 Patents submitted at state office for inventions and trademarks (OSIM) Press releases in 2009 Scientific / tehnical papers published in specialized ISI quoted journals International awards National awards

216 217 217 218 220 221 223 226 231 233

PAGINA 214 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 215

Facts and scientific events

4

Dr. Volker Timm, expert CE Dr. Stefan Echinger, expert CE Prof. dr. Mihaela Albu, expert CE

Facts and scientific events Facts and scientific events


4.2. Scientific events organized by the institute INCDIE ICPE-CA organizer
International workshop INNOVATION AND EVOLUTION BY R&D SMEs STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP, first edition, Bucharest, September 10 12, 2009 Workshop of Electromagnetic Compatibility CEM 2009, 6th edition, Constanta Romanian Naval Academy, Prof. dr. Mehmet Trker, Gazi University, Technical Education Faculty, Metallurgy Dept, 06500 Ankara, Turkey, e-mail: mturker@gazi.edu.tr Dr. Michalis Vardavoulias, Materials Engineer, Managing Director and Chief Technology Officer, PyroGenesis SA, Lavrion Ave., 19500 Lavrion, Greece, e:mail: mvardavoulias@pyrogenesis-sa.gr Dipl. Eng. Roland Reissmann, Linseis Messgerte GmbH, Germany Dr. Josef Mathuni, General Manager R&D, R3T GmbH, Germany Reiner Gtzen, microTEC Gesellschaft fr Mikrotechnologie mbH, Duisburg, Germany Dr. Grzegorz Sowiski, Warsaw University of Technology, Functional Materials Research Centre, 02-507 Warszawa, ul. Wooska 141, Poland Dr. Emanuel Ionescu, Technische Universitt Darmstadt, Institut fr Materialwissenschaft, Fachgebiet Disperse Feststoffe, Arbeitsgruppe Polymerkeramik, Petersenstrasse 23, D-64287 Darmstadt, Germany B.Ceki, Laboratory of Nuclear and Plasma Physics, Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vina, P.O.Box 522, 11001 Belgrade, Serbia Dr. Pedro Mayorga Rubio, ITE - Instituto de Tecnologa Elctrica, Av. Juan de la Cierva, 24, Parque Tecnolgico de Valencia, 46980 Paterna (Valencia), Spain Prof. Viacheslav Barsukov, Department of Electrochemical Power Engineering & Chemistry, Kiev National University of Technologies & Design, 2, Nemirovich-Danchenko str., 02011, Kiev, Ukraine Dr. Josef Kallo, German Aerospace Centre, Institute of Technical Thermodynamics, Pfaffenwaldring 3840, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany Dr. Christine Walsh, SOPRALAB, 55 Avenue de lEurope, 92400 Courbevoie, France Rebecca Goodall, Tera View, UK November 12 14, 2009 Workshop The 27th HESR Consortium Meeting, 25-26.08.2009, Headquarter INCDIE ICPE-CA, Splaiul Unirii no. 313, District 3, 030138 Bucharest, Conference Room, floor III, Building J, Bucharest 27th HESR consortium meeting, with presentations made by project partners about the current state of the FAIR project and progress in HESR (High Energy Storage Ring), Headquarter INCDIE ICPE-CA, Splaiul Unirii no. 313, District 3, 030138 Bucharest, Conference Room, floor III, building J, Bucharest, August 27 28, 2009

4.1. Scientists which visited our institute

Prof. dr. Refaat Chaabouni, expert CE

Prof. Rudolf Maier, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Germany Prof. Jurgen Dietrich, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Germany Dr. Ulf Bechstedt, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Germany Dr. Raimond Toelle, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Germany Dipl-Ing. Markus Retzlaff, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Germany Dr. Markus Steck, GSI, Darmstadt, Germany Bjorn Galnander, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden Andreas Jankowiak, Univesitatea Mainz, Germany Slawomir Wronka, Soltan Institute, Ukraine Ph.D. Mahdi Attaran, Pulse Niru Co. Research Center, Iran, info@pulseniru.com Ph.D. Mohsen Abdollahi, Pulse Niru Co. Research Center, Iran, info@pulseniru.com Ph.D. Paolo Bariani, Schaefer-Tec Group of Companies, Italy Eng. Franois Davin, CSM Instruments SA, Switzerland Eng. Michael Berg, Hysitron Inc., USA Dr. Mike Tucker, Quantachrome UK LTD, United Kingdom, e-mail: mikeqchromeuk@aol.com; Prof. dr. Mieczislaw Jurczyk, Poznan University of Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Sklodowska-Curie 5 Sq., 60-964 Poznan, Poland, e-mail: Mieczislaw.Jurczyc@put. posnan.pl Prof. dr. Malgorzata Sopicka-Lizer, Silesian University of Technology, Katowice, Poland, e-mail: Malgorzata. Sopicka-Lizer@polsl.pl

INCDIE ICPE-CA co-organizer


RESEARCHERS NIGHT, Bucharest, September 25, 2009 National Conferince of Biomedical Engineering INGIMED, 10th edition, Bucharest, November 12 13, 2009 First workshop of hadronterapy RADIOTHERAPY WITH NEUTRONS, PROTONS AND CARBON IONS BEAMS, INTER DISCIPLINARY AND MULTI DISCIPLINARY R&D organized by the ROMANIAN SOCIETY OF HADRONTERAPIE, Predeal, February 26 March 1 2009 Alecu Georgeta, Member in Local Organizing Commitee

4.3. National and international trade fairs and exhibitions

International trade fairs and exhibitions


37th International Salon of New Inventions, Techniques and Products, Geneva Switzerland, April 1 5, 2009 International Industrial Fair HANNOVER MESSE 2009, Hanover Germany, April 20 24, 2009 China International Nuclear Power Industry Expo 2009, China international exhibition center, Beijing, September 2 4, 2009 BIOTECHNICA 2009, Hanover, Germany, October 6 8, 2009 58th edition of International Fair Bruxelles EUREKA, Bruxelles - Belgium, November 19 21, 2009

PAGINA 216 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 217

Facts and scientific events


National trade fairs and exhibitions
21th edition International Dental Fair DENTA 2009, Bucharest ROMEXPO, April 23 25, 2009 Environmental exhibition organized by CCIA Calarasi, CCIA Calarasi, June 05, 2009 13rd edition of International Salon of Inventions, Scientific Research and New Technologies INVENTIKA2009, Bucharest, October 28 31, 2009 Fair of Romanian Research Results RESEARCH ROOM 2009, Bucharest, October 28 31, 2009 relation with SMEs Prof. Viacheslav Barsukov, Technical University Kiev, Ukraine, Development of Promised Materials for Electrochemical Power Engineering State of Art and Research Perspectives on Alternative and Renewable Energy Technologies in Ukraine, Technical University Kiev Ukraine Prof. Viacheslav Barsukov, Kiev National University of Technologies & Design, Department of Electrochemical Power Engineering & Chemistry, 2 Nemirovich-Danchenko str., 02011, Kiev, Ukraine, Promising electrochemical power sources for stationary and transport application Dr. Josef Kallo, German Aerospace Centre, Institute of Technical Thermodynamics, Pfaffenwaldring 38-40, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany, e-mail: josef.kallo@dlr.de, Fuel Cells for the Aircraft Applications Dr. Christine Walsh, SOPRALAB, 55 Avenue de lEurope, 92400 Courbevoie, France, e-mail:alexis.bourgeois@ sopra-sa.com, Ellipsometric porosimetry: fast and non destructive characterization method of porous thin films Prof. dr. Elena Carcadea, ICSI Ramnicu Valcea, Romania, National hydrogen and fuel cell research center Florin Ciuprina, University Polytechnic of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania, Polymer nanocomposites for electrical engineering applications Eugenia Fagadar-Cosma, Institute of Chemistry Timisoara of Romanian Academy, Timisoara, Romania, Hybrid nanostructures based on porphyrinic dyes Serghei A. Filatov, Heat and Mass Transfer Institute of National Academy of Sciences, Minsk, Belarus, Novel fuel cells nanocatalyst synthesis and characterization Serghei A. Filatov, Heat and Mass Transfer Institute of National Academy of Sciences, Minsk, Belarus, Functional carbon nanotubes coatings for MEMS sensors Prof. dr. Horia Gavrila, Polytechnic University of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania, New approach in magnetic recording: heat assisted magnetic wear application Dr. Stefania Gavriliu, INCDIE ICPE-CA, Bucharest, Romania, Antimicrobial applications of silver nanoparticles Constanta Ibanescu, Gheorghe Asachi Technical University, Iasi, Romania, Rheology trends and perspective in materials development Dr. Mircea Ignat, INCDIE CIPE-CA, Bucharest, Romania, The collagen piezoelectric microactuators Dr. Mircea Ignat, INCDIE CIPE-CA, Bucharest, Romania, Unconventional motor generator structure for high speed Dr. Mariana Lucaci, INCDIE ICPE-CA, Bucharest, Romania, Trends and research perspective for developing hydrogen storage materials at INCDIE ICPE-CA Dan A. Maris, Ovidius University of Constanta, Faculty of Dentistry, Constanta, Romania, Radioprotective ability of rosemary extract Dan A. Maris, Ovidius University of Constanta, Faculty of Dentistry, Constanta, Romania, The antiimflamatory and bioprotective action of natural antioxidants Emanuel Ionescu, Technische Universitat Darmstadt, Institut fur Materialwissenschaft, Darmstadt, Germany, Novel polymer-derived ceramic nanocomposites potential candidates for environmental barrier coatings applications Prof. dr. Malgorzata Sopicka-Lizer, Silesian University of Technology, Katowice, Poland, e-mail: Malgorzata. Sopicka-Lizer@polsl.pl, Nanozirconia ceramics for heavy-duty wear application Prof. dr. Ioan Stamatin, Bucharest University, Faculty of Physics, Bucharest, Romania Advances in materials for fuel cells Dr. Michalis Vardavoulias, Materials Engineer, Managing Director and Chief Technology Officer, PyroGenesis SA, Lavrion Ave., 19500 Lavrion, Greece, E-mail: mvardavoulias@pyrogenesis-sa.gr, Current trends in thermal spray industrial applications Marius Constantin Mirica, INCEMC, Timisoara, Romania, Technology transfer oriented research within INCEMC Timisoara Prof. dr. Nicolae Olariu, Valahia University of Targoviste, Targoviste, Romania, Strategies for controlling the grid connected PV systems with storing capacities Ladislau Vekas, Romanian Academy, Branch of Timisoara, Timisoara, Romania, Magnetic particles in fluid systems: synthesis, properties and some engineering and biomedical applications

4.4. Invited lectures, courses and seminars presented by hosting scientists


Prof Rudolf Maier, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Germany, Status of the HESR project Dr. Markus Steck, GSI, Germany, Status of the FAIR project Dr. Raimond Toelle, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Germany, Injection Parameters of the FAIR project Dr. Ulf Bechstedt, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Germany, Sextupole parameters of the FAIR project Dipl. Ing. Markus Retzlaff, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Germany, Power supply parameters and ACU involved in the FAIR project Steli Loznen, Tel Aviv University, Department of Bioengineering, Israel, The Challenge of Medical Device: the Risk Management Prof. dr. Mehmet Trker, Gazi University, Technical Education Faculty, Metallurgy Dept, 06500 Ankara, Turkey, e-mail: mturker@gazi.edu.tr, Production of Ceramics Reinforced Al Foams by Powder Metallurgy Techniques Dr. Emanuel Ionescu, Technische Universitt Darmstadt, Institut fr Materialwissenschaft, Fachgebiet Disperse Feststoffe, Arbeitsgruppe Polymerkeramik, Petersenstrasse 23, D-64287 Darmstadt, Germany, e-mail: ionescu@materials.tu-darmstadt.de, Novel Polymer-Derived Ceramic Nanocomposites Potential Candidates for Environmental Barrier Coatings Applications Bozidar Ceki, Laboratory of Nuclear and Plasma Physics, Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vina,P.O.Box 522, 11001 Belgrade, Serbia, Mssbauer Spectroscopy of Laves phase Intermetallic Compounds HfFe2 and Hf0.75Ta0.25Fe2 Dr. Mike Tucker, Quantachrome UK LTD, United Kingdom, e-mail: mikeqchromeuk@aol.comUK, New Developments in the Characterisation of Surfaces and Pore Structure using Gas Sorption and Mercury Porosimetry Reiner Goetzen, MicroTec Gesellschaft fr Mikrotechnologie mbH, Duisburg, Germany, e-mail: goetzen@ microTEC-D.com, Industrial Parallel Micro Production Without Tools Prof. Mieczyslaw Jurczyk, Poznan University of Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Sklodowska-Curie 5 Sq., 60-964 Poznan, Poland, e-mail: mieczyslaw.jurczyk@put.poznan.pl, Room temperature hydrogen storage by nano-scale Mg-based composites Prof. Mieczyslaw Jurczyk, Poznan University of Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Sklodowska-Curie 5 Sq., 60-964 Poznan, Poland, e-mail: mieczyslaw.jurczyk@put.poznan.pl, Bionanocomposites for medical applications Prof. Mieczyslaw Jurczyk, Poznan University of Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Sklodowska-Curie 5 Sq., 60-964 Poznan, Poland, e-mail: mieczyslaw.jurczyk@put.poznan.pl, Fuel cells for aircraft applications Dr. Pedro Mayorga Rubio, ITE - Instituto de Tecnologa Elctrica, Av. Juan de la Cierva, 24, Parque Tecnolgico de Valencia, 46980 Paterna (Valencia), Spain, E-mail: pedro.mayorga@ite.es, Smartgrids as a Mean of Distributed Energy Resources Integration, ITE Developments Dr. Pedro Mayorga Rubio, ITE - Instituto de Tecnologa Elctrica, Av. Juan de la Cierva, 24, Parque Tecnolgico de Valencia, 46980 Paterna (Valencia), Spain, E-mail: pedro.mayorga@ite.es, Expertise on Energy and our

PAGINA 218 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 219

Facts and scientific events


Dr. Gimi Rimbu, INCDIE ICPE-CA, Bucharest, Romania, Fuel cells for the stationary applications at INCDIE ICPE-CA Calin Munteanu, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Romania, Risk evaluation of the human exposure to power frequency electromagnetic field in very high voltage substations Dan D. Micu, University Technique Cluj-Napoca, Romania, Neural network technique for magnetic vector potential evaluation in electromagnetic interference problems Mircea-Ioan Constantinescu, Mircea cel Batran Naval Academy, Constanta, Romania, Simulation of a dispersing perturbation magnetic field produced on ships Dan Cristian Rucinschi, Politehnica University of Bucharest, Romania, Unele aspecte privind interferentele electromagnetice intentionale (IEMI) Dr. Grzegorz Sowiski, Warsaw University of Technology, Functional Materials Research Centre, 02-507 Warszawa, ul. Wooska 141, Poland, e-mail: gslow@wp.pl, Review on aluminum composites reinforced with carbon nanotubes 3 4 Ionut Balan Elena Chitanu

Master graduated
1 First and last name Alexandru Laurentiu Catanescu Alexandru Iorga University / Faculty Polytechnic University of Bucharest Faculty of Electrical Engineering Polytechnic University of Bucharest Faculty of Materials Science Bucharest University Physics Faculty Polytechnic University of Bucharest Faculty of Chemistry - Physics Thesis title Magnetostrictiv actuators

Obtaining of microwires as field sensors for applications in electromagnetic validation detection Characterization of electromagnetic materials and screens in the frequency range 0.8-3.6Hz Stalocianine with special uses; composite materials with polymeric matrix absorbing electromagnetic energy

4.5. Doctoral dissertations 2009

PhD Students
1 First and last name Olguta Gabriela Iosif Title of PhD thesis Organizational communication PhD Coordinating Institute Bucharest University Faculty of Journalism and Communications Studies Polytechnic University of Bucharest Faculty of Chemistry - Physics

4.6.Patents submitted at State Office for Inventions and Trademarks (OSIM) To be evaluated
Kappel W., Gavrila H., Mihaiescu M., Nicolaie S., Ionita V., Marin D., Macamete E., Double excited electric machine, registration no. 00114 / 2009 Olaru Gh., Nicolaie S., Ilie C., Samoilescu G., Marin D., Waves channel for research, registration no. 000115 / 2009 Hristea G., Alexandru C., Xerogel doped carbonic materials for polymer membrane fuel cells, registration no. 00266 /2009 Ignat M., Zarnescu G., Hamciuc E., Hamciuc C., Cazacu M., Sava I., Microactuator based on polymers, registration no. 00447 / 2009 Ignat M., Hristea G., Humidity microsensor, registration no. 00448 / 2009 Bunea F., Oprina G., Baran Gh., Laboratory equipment for determining the hydro-dynamic performances of porous diffusers, registration no. 00549 / 2009 University / Faculty Dimitrie Cantemir University Lucaci M., Enescu E., Lungu-Dodu P., Obtaining method for hydrogen storage materials, registration no. 00637 / 2009 Lucaci M., Enescu E., Tsakiris V., Obtaining method of shape memory materials of NiTi intermetallic compound type, registration no. 00638 / 2009

Beatrice Gabriela Sbarcea

3 4

Physical-chemical characterization of materials surface Elena (Petrache) Chitanu DLC used in industry

Alexandru Laurentiu Catanescu Lucia Nicoleta Leonat

New non-destructive physical chemical methods for characterization of heritage works Magnetostrictiv actuators

Polytechnic University of Bucharest Faculty of Electrical Engineering Polytechnic University of Bucharest Faculty of Chemistry - Physics Valahia University - Targoviste

Mater students
First and last name 1 Silvia Dobrin

PhD thesis developed in INCDIE ICPE-CA


First and last name Sergiu Nicolaie Adela Bara Andrei Cucos Diana Branzea Ioana Ion Thesis title Relative movement when fluid flow through axial turbomachines rotors Carbonic nanocomposites with mesophasic pitch matrix and epoxidic resin Reineke derivatives used in polymetallic supermolecular systems 3d-3d complex hetero-bi-nuclear used as tectons in crystal engineering Study the possibility of obtaining of carbon materials with special uses

Anicai L., Petica A., Gavriliu S., Electrochemical method of obtaining ecologic nanostructured dispersed systems with photo-catalytic and antimicrobial activity, registration no. 00961 / 2009 Cazacu M. D., Babutanu C. A., Method and equipment for determining the viscosity of non-transparent and non-homogeneous liquids, registration no. 00962 / 2009 Mateescu C., Method for stimulating the activity of metanogene microorganisms of sewage sludge, registration no. 01046 / 2009 Zaharescu T., Jipa S., Mansch A., Macamete E., Technique for ecologic degradation of polyolefin materials wastes, registration no. 01059 / 2009 Gavriliu S., Lungu M. V., Enescu E., Silver metal oxide composite nanostructures with antimicrobial activity and its obtaining method, registration no. 01079 / 2009

1 2 3 4 5

PAGINA 220 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 221

Facts and scientific events


Patents granted to INCDIE ICPE-CA
Banciu C., Rimbu G., Bondar A.M., Enescu E., Stamatin I., Carbonic nanocomposite material, patent no. 122293 / 2009 Neamtu J., Kappel W., Georgescu G., Verga N., Jitaru I., Iovu H., Malaeru T., Magnetic nanocomposite material and its obtaining method, patent no. 122439 / 2009 Hristea G., Cogalnicenu G., Brezeanu A., Obtaining method of carbonic material for anthocyanin pigment biosynthesis, patent no. 122450 / 2009 Setnescu T., Jipa S., Setnescu R., Dumitru M., Danet A., Bucur P ., Chivulescu A., Material with photoluminescence sensitive to oxygen concentration in fluid media, patent no. 122455 / 2009 Setnescu R., Jipa S., Setnescu T., Dumitru M., Marcuta M., Marin Gh., Mihalcea I., Valcu R., Method for determining the stability and content of antioxidant from raw materials and shape memory products induced by irradiation, patent no. 122464 / 2009 Gavriliu S., Lungu M., Enescu E., Lucaci M., Obtaining method of silver tin oxide sintered electrical contacts with microns microstructure, patent no. 122445 / 2009 Kappel W., Mihaiescu Gh., Magnetic axial coupling, patent no. 122517 / 2009 Ignat M., Zarnescu G., Paslaru Danescu L., Macamete E., Soltan S., Stoica V., Puflea I., Electromagnetic pulse generator, patent no. 122509 / 2009 Ignat M., Zarnescu G., Rotary piezoelectric micromotor, patent no. 122516 /2009 Kappel W., Patroi E., Erdei R., hallbach cylinder, generator of rotational and homogeneous magnetic field, patent no. 122571 / 2009 Kappel W., Romalo D., Codescu M.M., Stancu M., Pintea J., Filoti G., Kuncser V.E., Valeanu M.C., Tolea F., Schinteie G.A., Fe-Cu composites for anisotropic magnets and its obtaining method, patent no. 122570 / 2009 Setnescu R., Setnescu T., Jipa S., Dumitru M., Lungulescu M., Chelnerescu S., Valcov N., Method for determining the reaction to oxidation of vegetable oils and fats, patent no. 122636 / 2009

4.7. Press releases in 2009


JANUARY Radio Romania Cultural Interview with Traian Zaharescu and Silviu Jipa Interview with Wilhelm Kappel MARCH Promptmedia.ro Romanian researchers amaze again Examination of rail safety components Sensor to identify and monitor landslide Intelligent system to optimize power consumption for maintaining an optimum environment within a poultry farm Fabrica de Bani Catalyze the border economy Hydrogen storage in ICPE-CA Solid metal hydrides storage Romanian researchers amaze again Future boat Examination of rail safety components Top Business Romanian researchers amaze again Sensor to identify and monitor landslide Intelligent system to optimize power consumption for maintaining an optimum environment within a poultry farm Radio Romania Cultural Interview with Traian Zaharescu Interview with Paula Lungu Interview with Sergiu Nicolae and Solarium APRIL Promptmedia.ro Solutions for rejuvenation of underground power cables Fabrica de Bani Wilhelm Kappel is invited at Competitivitate LIVE! The new ICPE-CA silver New technologies at ICPE-CA Top Business The new ICPE-CA silver New technologies at ICPE-CA Radio Romania Cultural Interview with Lingvay Iosif

Promptmedia.ro ICPE-CA revitalizes the interest on the effects of natural antioxidants Intelligent Romanian jaws Fabrica de Bani Intelligent Romanian jaws Top Business Intelligent Romanian jaws RADIO ROMANIA Interview Interview Interview Interview Interview CULTURAL with Violeta Tsakiris with Traian Zaharescu with Gimi Rimbu with Sergiu Nicolae with Traian Zaharescu FEBRUARY Promptmedia.ro Premiere in tumors diagnosing Romanian research recession? ICPE-CA: call for partners universities Testing and computer diagnosis of buffers Fabrica de Bani Premiere in tumors diagnosing Romanian research recession? ICPE-CA: call for partners universities Testing and computer diagnosis of buffers Exceptional equipment in suspension Locomotive research programs Carbon materials for biotechnology Equipments for brakes tests This is the way who leads to ideas, solutions Top Business ICPE-CA requires increasing the budget for research Testing and computer diagnosis of buffers Two new technologies for SC ROFEP SA Urziceni Technology transfer center gives first results ICPE-CA demonstrates that research can provide solutions for crisis Premiere in tumors diagnosing

PAGINA 222 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 223

Facts and scientific events


MAY Top Business High technology for small and medium enterprises through ROMNET-MINAFAB Fabrica de Bani High technology for small and medium enterprises through ROMNET-MINAFAB Curierul National High technology for small and medium enterprises through ROMNET-MINAFAB Ziua High technology for small and medium enterprises through ROMNET-MINAFAB Inobarometru The real word of products should replace the real word of actions JUNE Market Watch Promit- the ICPE-CA amplifier for electrical engineering Electric power boat made by Romanian researchers Afacerea Promit- the ICPE-CA amplifier for electrical engineering Universul Ingineresc Promit- the ICPE-CA amplifier for electrical engineering Promptmedia.ro Promit- the ICPE-CA amplifier for electrical engineering Electric power boat made by Romanian researchers Top Business Promit- the ICPE-CA amplifier for electrical engineering Electric power boat made by Romanian researchers Fabrica de Bani Houses against electromagnetic radiation Electric power boat made by Romanian researchers Radio Romania Cultural Interview with Wilhelm Kappel Interview with Gavriliu Stefania Interview with Ilie Cristinel JULY Top Business Romanian couples for dental technique New projects were started at ICPE-CA Secured with microfiche ferromagnetic elements and field sensors for applications in electronic detection validation Innovative microsystems achieved at ICPECA Open day for institutes at ICPE-CA Amosnews.ro Romanian couples for dental technique Ziarulstiintelor.eu Romanian couples for dental technique Market Watch Secured with microfiche ferromagnetic elements and field sensors for applications in electronic detection validation ICPE-CA prepared for an European career Innovative microsystems achieved at ICPE-CA Promptmedia.ro Secured with microfiche ferromagnetic elements and field sensors for applications in electronic detection validation Electron fascicle hardening Coverage of surgical instruments with carbon layers to prevent infections Europafm.ro Open day for institutes at ICPE-CA Afacerea.ro Open day for institutes at ICPE-CA ANCS.ro Open day for institutes at ICPE-CA Fabrica de Bani Open day for institutes at ICPE-CA Radio Romania Cultural Interview with Pintea Jana AUGUST Comunicatemedia.ro Superconducting materials based on MgB2 Electrical air conductor with self protection of power lines ice Ziarulstiintelor.eu Superconducting materials based on MgB2 Promptmedia.ro Electrical air conductor with self protection of power lines ice Micro/nano smart functional materials Materials with shape memory achieved at ICPE-CA Comunicatedepresa.ro Micro/nano smart functional materials SEPTEMBER Fabrica de Bani The day of farmer at Valcelele Opening Innovation and Evolution in R&D SME Strategic Partnership Market Watch New sources of energy, supported by ICPECA innovations Comunicatedepresa.ro Magnetic materials with high performance used in electrical machines constructions Comunicatemedia.ro Magnetic materials with high performance used in electrical machines constructions Ecomunicate.ro Magnetic materials with high performance used in electrical machines constructions Radio Romania Cultural Interview with Stancu Nicolaie OCTOMBER Fabrica de Bani Energetic equipment with fuel cells Research - at 2009 Salon What does Romanian research offers? Comunicatedepresa.ro Laboratory of bioelectromagnetic compatibility Comunicatemedia.ro Laboratory of bioelectromagnetic compatibility Ecomunicate.ro Laboratory of bioelectromagnetic compatibility NOVEMBER Top Business New material for determination of oxygen concentration Research project of heat flat pipe Comunicate de presa.ro New material for determination of oxygen concentration Ecomunicate.ro New material for determination of oxygen concentration Research project of heat flat pipe Market Watch Remarkable participation of ICPE-CA at Inventika Salon 2009 Research project of heat flat pipe Comunicatemedia.ro Research project of heat flat pipe Radio Romania Cultural Interview with Lucaci Mariana DECEMBER Top Business Coverage technology based on dispersed nanostructured photocatalytic systems with self-cleaning and antimicrobial role for construction applications Market Watch Coverage technology based on dispersed nanostructured photocatalytic systems with self-cleaning and antimicrobial role for construction applications Ecomnunicate.ro Coverage technology based on dispersed nanostructured photocatalytic systems with self-cleaning and antimicrobial role for construction applications Comunicatemedia.ro Coverage technology based on dispersed nanostructured photocatalytic systems with self-cleaning and antimicrobial role for construction applications Intelligent anti frost cable Comunicatedepresa.ro Coverage technology based on dispersed nanostructured photocatalytic systems with self-cleaning and antimicrobial role for construction applications Fabrica de Bani Intelligent anti frost cable Promptmedia.ro Intelligent anti frost cable

PAGINA 224 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 225

Facts and scientific events



No

4.8. Scientific / technical papers published in specialized ISI quoted journals


Title Journal Authors S. Comorosan S. Polosan I. Popescu E. Ionescu R. Mitrica L. Cristache A.E. State M. Cazacu M. Ignat C. Racles G. Zarnescu C. Hamciuc E. Hamciuc M. Ignat G. Zarnescu E. Carpus A. Dorogan E. Visileanu M. Ignat P. Prepelita R. Medianu B. Sbarcea F. Garoi M. Filipescu M. Lucaci Al. R. Biris R. L. Orban G. B. Sbarcea V. Tsakiris S. Gavriliu M. Lungu F. Grigore N. Buruntia C. Groza S. Gavriliu M. Lungu E. Enescu F. Grigore C. R. Ionescu S. Gavriliu M. Lungu E. Enescu S. Nitu D. Patroi

No 11

Title Magnetic materials for technical applications Co(II)-Ni(II) heteropolynuclear coordination compound obtained through the reaction of 1,2-propanediol with metallic nitrates as precursor for mixed oxide of spinel type NiCo2O4 Application of model-free and multivariate non-linear regression methods for evaluation of the thermo-oxidative endurance of a recent manufactured parchment Thermal behaviour of the system Fe(NO3)39H2OBi5O(OH)9(NO3)49H2O glycine/urea and of their generated oxides (BiFeO3) A heterotrimetallic chain constructed from binuclear [Cu(II)Mn(II)] nodes and trans[Cr(NCS)4(pyz)2]- spacers Investigation on silver nanoparticles interaction with collagen based materials Investigation on antimicrobial activity of collagen and keratin based materials doped with silver nanoparticles Study of the corrosion process for some dental metal alloys under artificial saliva enriched with yeast and Streptococcus Mutans bacteria Crystal engineering of hybrid inorganic organic systems based upon complexes with dissymmetric compartmental ligands

Journal Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials, vol. 11, p. 229 - 237, 2009

12

Thermochimica Acta, 493, 1 5 (2009)

Structural studies on serum albumins under green light irradiations

Authors E. Burzo W. Kappel M. M. Codescu E. Helerea M. Niculescu M. Birzescu R. Dumitru E. iu P. Budrugeac

European Biophysics Journal, 2009

13

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 97, 443 451 (2009)

P. Budrugeac

Polydimethylsiloxane/silica composites incorporating pyrite powders for actuation elements Aromatic Poly(ether imide)s Containing Nitrile Groups Smart textiles for noninvasive monitoring of physiological signals. Part II: Interactive textile product for monitoring mechanical vibration, as responses of certain physiological signals The influence of using different substrates on the structural and optical characteristics of ZnO thin films

Polymer International, Volume: 58, Issue: 7, Pages: 745-751, Published: Jul. 2009 High Performance Polymers, Volume: 21, Issue: 2, Pages: 205-218, Published: APR 2009

14

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 97, 9198 (2009)

15

Revue Roumaine de Chimie, 54(2), 119125 (2009)

Industria Textila, Volume: 60, Issue: 5, Pages: 249-253, Published: 2009

16

J. of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials, 11, 845-851 (2009)

Applied Surface Science, Volume 256, Issue 6, Pages 1807-1811, ISSN: 0169-4332, 2009

17

Romanian Biotechnological Letters, 14, 4665-4662 (2009) Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials, 11, 1870-1873 (2009) Cryst. Eng. Comm., 2009, 11, 25712584, ISSN 1466-8033 (electronic), 2009

Effects of mechanical alloying on the hydrogen storage properties of the Mg76Ti12Fe12-xNix (x= 4, 8)materials

Journal of Alloys and Compounds 488 (2009) 163-168, ISSN 09258388, 2009 Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials Rapid Communications (OAM RC), vol. 3, issue 8, August 2009, p. 795 - 799, ISSN 18426573, 2009 Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials Rapid Communications (OAM RC), vol. 3, issue 6, June 2009, p. 634 637, ISSN 18426573, 2009 Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials Rapid Communications (OAM RC), vol. 3, issue 7, July 2009, p. 688 692, ISSN 18426573, 2009

18

19

New composite powders with high antifungal properties

20

UV Irradiation and Weathering Effects on Amine-stabilized polypropylene

Materiale Plastice 46, nr. 2, p. 149 152 (2009)

Stable colloidal silver solutions for different applications

21

A Comparative Study Concerning the Obtaining and the Using of Some Ag-CdO, Ag-ZnO and Ag-SnO2 Sintered Electrical Contact Materials

Thermoluminescence Dosimetry for High Dose Using the Commercial Bottle Glasses

Revista de Chimie, 60, nr. 9, p. 984 985 (2009)

B. Jurca C. Paraschiv A. Ianculescu O. Carp A. Cucos E. Melnic Yu. A. Simonov M. Andruh C. Gaidau A. Petica C. Ciobanu T. Martinescu C. Gaidau A. Petica C. Ciobanu T. Martinescu E. Gtin C. Berlic B. Iordache P. Prioteasa M. Andruh D. G. Brnzea R. F. Gheorghe A. M. Madalan T. Zaharescu S. Jipa R. Setnescu W. Kappel T. Setnescu S. Jipa T. Zaharescu W. Kappel R. Setnescu A. Mantsch

10

Characterizations of the TCP suspensions

Revista de Chimie, Vol. 60, Nr. 10, oct. 2009, p. 1107 1109, ISSN 0034-7752, 2009

F. Grigore E. Andronescu S. Gavriliu M. Lungu Ch. Tardei

22

The Effects of -Irradiation on the Antioxidant Activity of Rosemary Extract

Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials Rapid Communications, vol. 3, nr. 12, p. 1315 1320 (2009)

S. Jipa T. Zaharescu W. Kappel A. F. Danet C. V. Popa M. Bumbac L. M. Gorghiu A. M. Maris

PAGINA 226 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 227

Facts and scientific events


No Title Effect of Rosemary Extract on the Radiation Stability of UHMWPE Thermal Stability of Isotactic Polypropylene Modified with CaCO3 Nanoparticles Comparative Qualification Assesment of Polyethylenes under -Irradiation Journal Authors T. Zaharescu S. Jipa D. A. Maris M. Maris W. Kappel S. Jipa T. Zaharescu P. Supaphol T. Zaharescu E. D. Popescu S. Jipa G. Samoilescu S. Jipa T. Zaharescu R. Setnescu I. V. Popescu C. Oros C. Stancu P.V. Notingher F. Ciuprina P. Notingher jr S. Agnel J. Castellon A. Toureille F. Buse T. Zaharescu S. Jipa C. Cristescu A. Andronie S. Iordache S. N. Stamatin L. M. Constantinescu G. A. Rimbu M. Iordoc R. VasilescuMirea I. Iordache I. Stamatin M. Grigoras G.-C. Chitanu I. Popescu I.-M. Pelin G.-A. Rimbu I. V. Branzoi M. Iordoc F. Branzoi No Title Post-irradiation thermal degradation of PA 6 and PA 6,6 Improvement in the thermal performance of polypropylene Journal Radiat. Phys. Chem, DOI: 10.1016.2009.08.041, 2009 IAEA TECDOC 1617, 139 152 (2009) Authors T. Zaharescu L. Andrade e Silva S. Jipa W.Kappel T. Zaharescu G. Nan I. Stamatin A. Andronie S. Iordache C. Cristescu A. Cucu A. Baciu G. A. Rimbu G. A. Rimbu M. Iordoc R. VasilescuMirea I. Stamatin T. Zaharescu G. A. Rimbu M. Iordoc R. VasilescuMirea I. Stamatin I. Iordache T. Zaharescu Lingvay I. C. Groza C. Lingvay I. Csuzi V. Pacan E. Manta D. Patroi F. Radulescu A. Iorga G. Velciu Cr. Seitan F. Bogdan G. Sbarcea M. Lucaci J. Pintea V. Tsakiris R.L. Orban A. R. Biris A. S. Biris E. Dervishi Z. Li F. Watanabe S. Simon D. Lupu I. Misan M. Lucaci A. Popa V. Tsakiris C. Coman R. Butnaru C. Macovei

23

e-Polymers, no. 149 (2009)

34

24

Polymer Bulletin, DOI10.1007/ s00289-009-0213-1, 2009 Materiale Plastice, vol. 46, nr. 4, p. 350 355 (2009)

35

25

36

Microcellular carbon from polyacrylonitrile precursors

Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials, vol.11, nr.11, p. 1788 - 1793, 2009

26

Thermoluminescence Dosimetric Features of Clear Crystall Glass

Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials Rapid Communications, vol. 3, nr. 8, p. 845 848 (2009)

37

27

Computation of the Electric Field in Cable Insulation in the Presence of Water Trees and Space Charge

IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. 45, No. 1, pp. 30-43, 2009

Electrochemical deposition of polianiline thin films on carbonic substrates for utilization as hydrogen mediator and self catalyst in fuel cells

Revista de Chimie (60), nr.12, p.1285-1287, 2009

28

Degradation Effects in EPDM/Cellulose Sandwich Structures

Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials - Rapid Communications, vol. 3, nr. 12, p. 1331 1335 (2009)

38

Polyaniline rod-like structure as selfelectrocatalyst for hydrogen oxydation reactions

Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials Rapid Communications, vol.2, nr.10, p. 876-880, 2008

39

A kzmhlzatoknl hasznlt polietiln mikrobiolgiai krosodsai

29

PANI TiO2 nanostructures for fuel cell and sensor applications

Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials, vol.10, nr.11, p. 2985-2987, 2008

Korrzis figyel, (revist indexat ISI, citat n Science Citation Index Expanded), Veszprem, Hungary, ISSN: 0133-2546, 49, 3, pp. 3137, 2009 Metalurgia International vol. XIV (2009), special issue no.10, pp.48, 2009 Romanian Journal of Materials 2009, 39(3),180-18, , pag. 180187 ISSN 1583-3186 Metalurgia international, Special issue no2, vol. XIV (2009) p. 115118, ISSN-1582-2214

40

Some Observations about Solid State Diffusion in Metals and Alloys

41

Composites materials used as anode for SOFC

30

Polyaniline/Maleic Acid Copolymers Composites: Synthesis and Characterization

Macromolecular Symposia, 263, 3037 (2008)

42

Fe and Co alloyed NiAl powders for sensors applications

31

Evaluation of Electrochemical Behaviour and Surface Properties for Oxinium-like Zr-Nb Biomedical Alloys

Key Engineering Materials Vol. 415 (2009) pp 13-16, 2009

32

Thermal and radiation resistance of stabilized LDPE

Radiat. Phys. Chem., DOI: 10.1016. 2009.08.024, 2009

33

Dielectric properties and thermal stability of -irradiated inorganic nanofiller modified PVC

Radiat. Phys. Chem., DOI: 10.1016.2009.08.018, 2009

T. Zaharescu S. Jipa D. Henderson W. Kappel D.A. Maris M. Maris F. Ciuprina T. Zaharescu S. Jipa I. Plea P. V. Notingher D. Panaitescu

43

Synthesis of carbon nanotubes from acetylene on the fecomgo catalytic system obtained by ball milling

Journal of Physics: Conference Series 182 (2009) 012057, Processes in Isotopes and Molecules, doi:10.1088/17426596/182/1/012057, ISSN-17426596

44

Studies Concerning Correlation Between Alloying Elements and Characteristics of Fe-Ni Alloys

Metalurgia International, vol. XIV (2009), Special Issue No. 3, pag. 53-56, ISSN-1582-2214

PAGINA 228 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 229

Facts and scientific events


No 45 Title Effects of hot and cold rolling on the microstructure of low alloy Zn-Cu and ZnCz-Ti zinc alloy with improved corrosion resistance Modeling and simulation of the warm forward extrusion process for some sintered round bars Journal Metalurgia International, vol. 14 (2009), Special Issue No. 3, pag. 23-26, ISSN-1582-2214 Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials Symposia, Vol. 1, No. 5, Nov. 2009, p. 971 974, ISSN 2066 - 057X Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials Symposia, Vol. 1, No. 5, Nov. 2009, p. 879 883, ISSN 2066 - 057X Authors M. Faur B. Ghiban M. Lungu T. Canta D. Frunza S. Gavriliu F. Grigore M. Lucaci S. Hodorogea J. Pintea V. Tsakiris D. Cirstea L. Leonat M. Lucaci S. Hodorogea V. Marinescu V. Tsakiris R. L. Orban G. Sbarcea D. Cirstea L. Leonat C. Stancu P. Notingher jr. P.V. Notingher J. Castellon S. Agnel A Toureille U. Nilsson A. Campus D. Wald Ch.rdei Fl.Bogdan M.Ocheel D. Sandu I. Lingvay S. Lnyi D. D. Micu C. L. Popescu J. Brem L. C. Bencze C. Paisz 5. C. Babutanu, C. Mateescu, Biogas Generation. Aspects Concerning Anaerobic Digesters Hydrodynamics, Proceedings ISI of the 6th International Conference Management of Technological Changes, Alexandroupolis, Greece, September 3 - 5, 2009, Vol. 2, p.13-16, ISBN 978-960-898328-1, 2009 6. S. Nicolaie, M Mihaiescu, D Marin, C Ilie, I. Chirita, Gh. Samoilescu, M. Zus, M. Cazacu, A new way of sailing in Danube Delta, Proceeding of the 20-th World Symposium 2009, Intelligent Manufacturing & Automation. Theory, Practice & Education, Austria Center Vienna, 25-28 Nov. 2009, indexat ISI Thompson Routers, ISBN 978-3- 901509-70-4, ISSN 1726-9679 7. D. Marin, Gh. Samoilescu, S. Nicolaie, G. Olaru, R. Mates, Numerical Simulations for a WaveDriven Hydro Pneumatic Electric Plant, Proceeding of the 20-th World Symposium 2009, Intelligent Manufacturing&Automation. Theory, Practice & Education, Austria Center Vienna, 25-28 Nov. 2009, indexat ISI Thompson Routers, ISBN 978-3- 901509-70-4, ISSN 1726-9679 8. D. Marin, Gh. Samoilescu, S. Nicolaie, G. Olaru, L. Cizer, Experimental Model for an Electric, Hydro Pneumatic Wave-Powered Plant, Proceeding of the 20-th World Symposium 2009, Intelligent Manufacturing&Automation. Theory, Practice & Education, Austria Center Vienna, 25-28 Nov. 2009, indexat ISI Thompson Routers, ISBN 978-3- 901509-70-4, ISSN 1726-9679

46

47

Ferromagnetic Fe and Co alloyed NiAl powders

48

Alloyed NiTi shape memory alloys for MEMS components powder metallurgy processed

Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials Symposia, Vol. 1, No. 5, Nov. 2009, p. 884 888, ISSN 2066 - 057X


Tag no.

4.9. International awards


Prize Silver Medal at International Inventions Show - Geneva 2009, for invention Electrical machines with permanent magnets in special arrangements Silver Medal at International Inventions Show - Geneva 2009, for invention Advanced ceramic nanocomposite for bone repair and process of obtaining Special Prize at International Inventions Show Bucharest 2009, for invention Double excited electric machine Authority who granted International Inventions Show at Geneva international jury Authors Kappel W. Mihaiescu Gh.M. Ilie C. Gavrila H. Vasile I. Grigore F. Gavriliu S. Lungu M. Kappel W. Gavrila H. Mihaiescu M. Nicolaie S. Ionita V. Marin D. Macamete E. Kappel W. Mihaiescu Gh.M. Ilie C. Gavrila H. Vasile I. Kappel W. Gavrila H. Mihaiescu M. Nicolaie S. Ionita V. Marin D. Macamete E. Ignat M. Zarnescu G. Hamciuc E. Hamciuc C. Cazacu M. Sava I.

49

Water-tree and Space Charge Characterization of Polyethylene Cable Insulation ac-aged in Aqueous Environment

Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials Symposia, Vol. 1, No. 5, ISSN: 2066 - 057X, pp. 925-931, 2009

50

Ceramic based composite materials for welding processes. Preparation, characterizations and the weld quallity

51

The effect of electromagnetic fields on bakers yeast population dynamics, biocatalytic activity and selectivity

Romanian Journal of Materials, 39 (3), pag.188 195, 2009, ISSN 1583 3186 Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai, Chemia, ISSN 1224-7154, LIV, 4, 2009, pp.195-201, Cluj Napoca, (revist indexat ISI si citat n Science Citation Index Expanded (also known as SciSearch), Chemistry Citation Index, Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition

International Inventions Show at Geneva international jury

International Inventions Show at Bucharest President of the First Institute Inventors and Researchers in I.R. IRAN

ISI conference nominated


1. E. Carpus, A. Dorogan, E. Visileanu, M. Ignat, G. Onose, D. Nanu, I. Carpus, M. Buzdugan, Accomplishing of convergent systems for mobile personalized information monitoring, Smart Textiles, Book Series: Advances in Science and Technology, Volume: 60, Pages: 95-100, Published: 2009. 2. L. Pislaru-Danescu, M. Ignat, I. Puflea, V. Stoica, The Determination of the Total Magnetic Losses in the Stator of the Asynchronous Electrical Micromachines Fed with Pulse Width Modulation, PWM, and with Triangular Waveforms, Respectively, ICEM: 2008 International Conference on Electrical Machines, Vols 1- 4, Pages: 1382-1386, Published: 2009. 3. M. Ignat, G. Zarnescu, I. Peter, The applications of the interference microscope on the electrical machines field, ICEM: 2008 International Conference on Electrical Machines, Vols 1- 4, Pages: 22722275, 2009. 4. M. Ignat, G.Zarnescu, The Nano and Micromanipulators based on magnetic bacterium, Mining Smartness from Nature, Book Series: Advances in Science and Technology, Volume: 58, Pages: 177182, Published: 2009.

Gold Medal at International Inventions Show - Bucharest 2009, for inventions Electrical machines with permanent magnets in special arrangements Gold Medal at International Inventions Show - Bucharest 2009, for inventions Double excited electric machine

International Inventions Show at Bucharest international jury

International Inventions Show at Bucharest international jury

Gold Medal at International Inventions Show - Bucharest 2009, for inventions Microactuator based on polymers

International Inventions Show at Bucharest international jury

PAGINA 230 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 231

Facts and scientific events


Tag no. 7 Prize Silver Medal at International Inventions Show - Bucharest 2009, for inventions Advanced ceramic nanocomposite for bone repair and process of obtaining Silver Medal at International Inventions Show - Bucharest 2009, for inventions Humidity microsensor Silver Medal at International Inventions Show - Bucharest 2009, for inventions Xerogel carbonic doped materials for fuel cells with polymeric membrane Bronze Medal at International Inventions Show - Bucharest 2009, for inventions Channel waves for researches Authority who granted International Inventions Show at Bucharest international jury International Inventions Show at Bucharest international jury International Inventions Show at Bucharest international jury International Inventions Show at Bucharest international jury Authors Grigore F. Gavriliu S. Lungu M. Ignat M. Hristea G. Hristea G. Alexandru C.


Tag no.

4.10. National awards

Award Diploma of Excellence, participating at Research Show 2009, awarded to INCDIE ICPECA Bucharest Diploma of Excellence, participating at Research Show 2009, awarded to CTT ICPE-CA Bucharest Diploma of Excellence, participating at Research Show 2009, awarded to ITA ECOMAT ICPE-CA Sf. Gheorghe Top District 3 awarded to INCDIE ICPE-CA PlaceI Creativity Trophy awarded by Bucharest Chamber of Commerce and Industry to INCDIE ICPE-CA Place II Top Bucharest awarded to INCDIE ICPE-CA PlaceIV Prize for Best young researcher with significant achievements awarded to Mrs. Grigore Florentina

Authority who granted Ministry of Education, Research and Innovations, National Authority for Scientific Research Ministry of Education, Research and Innovations, National Authority for Scientific Research Ministry of Education, Research and Innovations, National Authority for Scientific Research Bucharest Chamber of Commerce and Industry Bucharest Chamber of Commerce and Industry

Authors INCDIE ICPE-CA

10

11

Bronze Medal at International Inventions Show - Bucharest 2009, for inventions Laboratory equipment for determining the hydrodynamic characteristics of bubble diffuser Gold Medal at International Inventions Show - Bruxelles 2009, for inventions Double excited electric machine

International Inventions Show at Bucharest international jury

Olaru Gh. Nicolaie S. Ilie C. Samoilescu G. Marin D. Bunea F. Oprina G. Baran Gh.

CTT ICPE-CA

ITA ECOMAT ICPECA Sf. Gheorghe

International Inventions Show at Bucharest international jury

12

13

Gold Medal at International Inventions Show - Bruxelles 2009, for inventions Xerogel carbonic doped materials for fuel cells with polymeric membrane

International Inventions Show at Bucharest international jury

Kappel W. Gavrila H. Mihaiescu M. Nicolaie S. Ionita V. Marin D. Macamete E. Hristea G. Alexandru C.

INCDIE ICPE-CA

INCDIE ICPE-CA

Bucharest Chamber of Commerce and Industry Ministry of Education, Research and Innovations, National Authority for Scientific Research

INCDIE ICPE-CA

Grigore Florentina

PAGINA 232 | Scientific report | 2009

2009 | Scientific report | PAGINA 233

PAGINA 234 | Scientific report | 2009