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Siruri tip :

1, dacaq 1
, dacaq 1

lim q n
n
0, dacaq (1,1)
nu.exista, dacaq 1

1
lim 1
xn
xn

xn

lim(1 xn )

1
xn

xn 0
xn 0

sin xn
1
xn 0
xn

lim(1 xn )

xn 0
xn 0

a xn 1
ln a
x 0
xn

tgxn
1
xn 0 x
n

lim

1
xn

lim

lim

Limite de functii elementare:


Functia constanta : f : R R, f ( x ) c, c R
lim f ( x) c, () a R
xa

Funcia identic pe R : f : R R , f ( x )=x , x R


lim f ( x )=

Functia polinomiala :
f : R R, f ( x ) ak x k ak 1 x k 1 ..... ai x a0 , ai R, i 0, k , ak 0 , a R
lim f ( x )= dac ak >0
x
dac ak <0

Functia rationala :

f ( x)

P( x)
Q ( x ), , f : R R x Q( x) 0 R, PsiQ functii

k
k 1
polinomiale. P ( x) ak x ak 1 x ..... ai x a0
Q( x) bm x m bm 1 x m 1 ... b j x b0

ai , b j R, ak , bm 0

,dac k >m
ak
lim f ( x)=
, dac k=m
x
bm
0,dac k <m
Functia radical : Fie

f : 0, 0, , f ( x) 2 k x , k N * , a 0,

lim 2 k x
x

2 k 1
x, k N *, a R
Fie f : R R, f ( x)

lim 2 k 1 x
x

x
Functia exponentiala : Fie f : R (0, ), f ( x) b , b 0, b 1
lim f ( x)= dac b>1
x
0 dac b (0,1)

Functia logaritm : Fie f : (0, ) R, f ( x) log b x, b 0, b 1


dac b >1
lim f ( x )=
x
dac b ( 0,1)

Functii trigonometrice directe :


sin : R 1,1
Fie
Fie

Fie

cos x : R 1,1

k
2

daca
ctg : R - k k Z R

daca a k
Functii trigonometrice inverse :

arcsin : 1,1 ,
2 2
Fie

Fie

arccos : 1,1 0,


arctg x : R ,
2 2
Fie

a R lim sin x sin a

a R, lim tg x = tg a
xa
daca
lim
tg x = , lim
tg x = -

x k
2

x k
2

x k
2

x k
2

a R, lim ctg x = ctg a


x a
daca
lim ctg x = - , lim ctgx
x k
x k

x k
x k

daca
daca
daca
daca
daca

Fie arctg : R (0, )

x a

daca a , f ( x ) sin x - nu are limita


a R, lim cos x = cos a
x a
daca
daca a , f ( x) cos x - nu are limita

k k Z R
2

tg : R -

Fie

daca

daca

a 1,1 , lim arcsin x = arcsin a


x a

a 1,1 , lim arccos x = arccos a


x a

a R, lim arctg x = arctg a


x a

a , lim arctg x =
x

a , lim arctg x = x

a R, lim arcctg x = 0
x

daca
daca

Limite remarcabile :

a , lim arcctg x = 0
x

a , lim arcctg x =
x

sin u ( x)
sin x
lim
1
1
lim u ( x) 0
x a
x 0
u
(
x
)
x
i
daca x a
tgu ( x )
tgx
lim
1
lim
1
lim u ( x) 0
x a u ( x)
x 0 x
i
daca x a
arcsin u ( x)
arcsin x
lim
1
lim
1
lim u ( x) 0
x a
x 0
u
(
x
)
x
i
daca x a
lim

arctgu ( x )
arctgx
lim
1
1
lim u ( x) 0
xa
x 0
u
(
x
)
x
i
daca x a

lim

1
1

lim 1 e
lim 1 e
lim u ( x)
x
x
x
x

si
daca x a

1
lim 1

x a
u ( x)

u ( x)

e
daca

lim u ( x)
x a

ln(1 u ( x ))
ln(1 x)
1
1 lim
lim u ( x) 0
x

a
x 0
u ( x)
x
si
daca x a
ax 1
e 1
lim
ln a, a 0 lim
1
x 0

x
, x 0 x
lim

au ( x) 1
ln a, a 0
x x0 u ( x )
lim

daca

lim u ( x) 0

x x0

si

1
1
lim u ( x) 0
u ( x)
daca x a
(1 u ( x)) ' 1
(1 x) ' 1
lim
r
lim
r
lim u ( x) 0
xa
x 0
u
(
x
)
x
si
daca x a
lim
xa

u(x)