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# COLEGIUL GRIGORE ANTIPA BACAU

## PROFESOR CONSTANTIN CIOFU

INVERSA UNEI MATRICE
Exerciii rezolvate
1. Determinai inversa matricei
1 0
A
2 1
| |
=
|
\ .
.
Rezolvare:
Metoda I.
Cutm o matrice ( )
2
a b
X M , X
c d
| |
e =
|
\ .
, astfel nct
2
A X X A I = =
2
1 0 a b a b
A X I
2 1 c d 2a c 2b d
| | | | | |
= =
| | |
+ +
\ . \ . \ .
a 1 a 1
a b 1 0 b 0 b 0 1 0
X
2a c 2b d 0 1 2a c 0 c 2 2 1
2b d 1 d 1
= =

= = | | | | | |
= =

| | |
+ + + = =
\ . \ . \ .

+ = =

Se verific relaia
2
X A I = .
Deci n concluzie, A este inversabil i inversa este
1
1 0
A
2 1

| |
=
|
\ .
.
Metoda II.
1 0
det A 1 0 A inversabila
2 1

= = =
1
1
A A
det A
-
= ,
11 21
12 22
a a
A
a a
-
| |
=
|
\ .
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
1 1
11
1 2
12
1
2 1
21
2 2
22
a 1 1 1
a 1 2 2
1 0 1 0 1 0
1
A A
2 1 2 1 2 1 1
a 1 0 0
a 1 1 1
+
+
-
+
+
= =
= =
| | | | | |
= = =
| | |

\ . \ . \ . = =
= =
.
2. Determinai inversa matricei
1 0 1
A 2 1 1
0 3 1
| |
|
=
|
|
\ .
.
Rezolvare.
1 0 1
det A 2 1 1 2 0 A inversabila
0 3 1
= = =
COLEGIUL GRIGORE ANTIPA BACAU
PROFESOR CONSTANTIN CIOFU
1
1
A A
det A
-
= ,
11 21 31
12 22 32
13 23 33
a a a
A a a a
a a a
-
| |
|
=
|
|
\ .
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
1 1
11
1 2
12
1 3
13
2 1
21
2 2
1
22
2 3
23
3 1
31
3 2
32
3 3
33
1 1
a 1 4
3 1
2 1
a 1 2
0 1
2 1
a 1 6
0 3
0 1
a 1 3
3 1
4 3 1 4 3 1
1 1
1
a 1 1 A 2 1 1 A 2 1 1
0 1 2
6 3 1 6
1 0
a 1 3
0 3
0 1
a 1 1
1 1
1 1
a 1 1
2 1
1 0
a 1 1
2 1
+
+
+
+
+
-
+
+
+
+

= =

= =

= =
= =
| |
|
= = = =
|

|

\ .
= =
= =

= =

= =

3 1
| |
|

|
|
\ .
Deci inversa matricei A este:
1
3 1
2
2 2
1 1
A 1
2 2
3 1
3
2 2

| |

|
|
|
=
|
|
|

|
\ .
.
3. Determinai me astfel nct matricea
2 1 m
A 3 1 2
1 m 1 1
| |
|
=
|
|

\ .
s fie inversabil.
Rezolvare:
A-inversabil det A 0 =
2 2
2 1 m
det A 3 1 2 2 3m 2 2m m m 4 3 m 5m 1
1 m 1 1

= = + + + + = + +

COLEGIUL GRIGORE ANTIPA BACAU
PROFESOR CONSTANTIN CIOFU
2
det A 0 m 5m 1 0 = + + =
1 2
5 21 5 21 5 21 5 21
m , m m ;
2 2 2 2

+ +
= = e
`

)
.
4. Fie matricea ( )
3
x 2 2
A 2 x 2 M
2 2 x
| |
|
= e
|
|
\ .

a) Determinai numrul real x pentru care matricea A este singular;
b) Pentru x 2 = , aflai inverse matricei A.
Rezolvare
a) A-singular det A 0 =
( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
2
2
x 2 2 1 1 1
det A 2 x 2 x 4 2 x 2 x 4 x 4x 4 x 4 x 2
2 2 x 2 2 x
= = + = + + = +
( ) ( )
( )
2
1
2
2 3
x 4 0
x 4
det A 0 x 4 x 2 0
x x 2
x 2 0
+ =
=
= + =
= =
=
b)
2 2 2
det A 2 2 2 32 0 A inversabila
2 2 2

= = =

1
1
A A
det A
-
= ,
11 21 31
1
12 22 32
13 23 33
1 1
0
4 4
a a a 0 8 8
1 1 1
A a a a A 8 0 8 0
32 4 4
a a a 8 8 0
1 1
0
4 4
-
| |
|
| | | | |
| |
|
= = =
| |
|
| |
|
\ . \ .
|
|
\ .
COLEGIUL GRIGORE ANTIPA BACAU
PROFESOR CONSTANTIN CIOFU
Exerciii propuse
a)
2 3
A
1 1
| |
=
|

\ .
; b)
1 0
B
3 2
| |
=
|

\ .
; c)
1 2 1
C 0 1 0
1 2 3
| |
|
=
|
|
\ .
.
2. Verificai care dintre urmtoarele matrice sunt inversabile:
a)
0 1
A
2 1
| |
=
|

\ .
; b)
2 1
B
4 2
| |
=
|

\ .
; c)
1 2 3
C 2 4 6
3 6 9
| |
|
=
|
|
\ .
; d)
1 1 0
D 2 1 1
1 0 3
| |
|
=
|
|

\ .
.
3. Determinai me astfel nct matricea
m 1 2 3
A 1 1 2
1 m 1
| |
|
=
|
|
\ .
s fie inversabil.
4. Artai c urmtoarele matrice sunt inversabile i calculai inversele lor:
a)
0 1
A
2 0
| |
=
|
\ .
;
b)
2 2
B
3 1
| |
=
|

\ .
;
c)
1 2 0
C 1 0 1
2 1 2
| |
|
=
|
|

\ .
;
d)
1 1 2
D 3 0 1
2 3 1
| |
|
=
|
|

\ .
.
5. Fie matricea ( )
3
x 1 1
A 1 x 1 M
1 1 x
| |
|
= e
|
|
\ .
.
a) Determinai numrul real x pentru care matricea A este singular;
b) Pentru x 3 = , aflai inverse matricei A.

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