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Fish anatomy : The Digestive Tract However not all fish have all these parts, some, like

all fish have all these parts, some, like many of the
Cyprinids and Cyprinidonts, lack a stomach, while a gizzard is only
found in a relatively few species.

As with all animals digestion in fish involves the breakdown of


eaten food into its smaller component parts, amino acids, vitamins, Anatomia sistemului digestiv al pestilor
fatty acids etc. which can then be used to build up new fish body.
The breaking apart or breaking down of the eaten material is
called anabolism, the building up of new material is Ca i n cazul celorlalte animale digestia petilor implic
called catabolism and these two together make up the whole descompunerea alimentelor consumate n componente mai mici,
of metabolism. aminoacizi, vitamine, acizi grai etc., care pot fi apoi folosite pentru
a construi energia necesar meninerii sntii. O a doua sfrmare,
As anybody who has watched a gold fish knows quite well fish eat
n afar de cea iniial a materialului mncat este numit
and defecate. Like all animals the fish's body is basically a long tube
anabolismul, construirea unor noi materiale se numete catabolism i
that is twisted up on itself a bit in the middle and has a layer of
acestea dou mpreun alctuiesc ntregul metabolism.
muscles and ancillary organs around it. This tube has the mouth at
one end and the anus or cloaca at the other. Mostly we consider the Oricine a vzut un pete auriu a putut observa c acesta mnnc
mouth to be the entrance to the tube and the anus to be the exit, food i de asemenea defecheaz. Asemntor celorlalte animale aparatul
items come in and faeces go out. Different things happen in different digestiv al petilor este reprezentat de un tub lung, puin rsucit la
parts of the tube and for the sake of study and understanding we give jumtate, prezint un strat mucular i organe anexe. Acest tub are
the various parts names. gura pozitionata la extremitatea rostral i cloaca la cea caudal. n
majoritatea cazurilor considerm ca gura este locul prin care intr
Mouth - Pharynx - Oesophagus - Gizzard - Stomach -
alimentele iar anusul locul prin care ies. n diferitele pari ale tubului
Intestines - Rectum.
digestiv au loc procese diferite care, de dragul studiului le vom
enumera.
Gura- Faringele Esofagul Pipota- Stomacul Intestinele- little more movable. However the tongues of Hagfish and Lampreys
Rectul are armed with teeth and highly movable. However the musculature
behind this movability is quite different in the two groups.
Oricum, nu toi petii au toate aceste pri; multe dintre specii nu
le au, cum ar fi Ciprinidele i petii din ordinul Cyprinidontes crora The teeth of most fish are the fore-runners of vertebrate teeth with
le lipsete un stomac, n timp ce pipota se ntlnete la cateva specii. an outer layer of enamel and an inner core of dentine. A fish may
have teeth at the front of its mouth and along the jaws and in the
pharynx as well as on its tongue.
The Mouth Cavitatea bucal- Gura
Food is brought into the body via the mouth, and the jaws of Prin gur mncarea ajunge in corp, iar flcile de pete teleost
modern teleost fish are a mechanical wonder, and the way the many modern sunt o minune mecanic iar modul prin care attea oase
bones work together is quite inspiring. However there is, as always a lucreaz mpreun este foarte interesant. In orice caz, exista o larga
large variety in fish as a whole and the mouths of a Basking Shark, a varietate a pestilor in ansamblu: gura unui rechin Pelerin, un Ton cu
Yellowfin Tuna and a Seahorse are quite different in both form and aripioare galbene i un calu de mare sunt destul de diferite atat n
function. Lips are rare in fish, most species have a hard edge to their form ct i n funcionare. Buzele se gsesc rar la peti, majoritatea
mouth. Some suction feeders that take in small prey items have petilor au o margine dura a gurii. Cei care se alimenteaz prin
small protractible lips that help give the mouth the form of a tube aspiraie i care prind przi mici, au buze retractabile care i ajut s
with a circular opening. le dea buzelor o form de tub cu o deschidere circular. Limba unui
The tongue of fish is generally very simple, being a thick, horny pete este, n general, foarte simpl, fiind groas, excitabil i foarte
and immovably pad in the lower jaw which may often be decorated puin mobil in partea inferioar a mandibulei care poate prezenta
with small teeth. In fish the tongue is not necessary for the adesea dini mici. Limba nu este necesar petelui pentru prinderea
manipulation of food as it is in terrestrial animals because the food hranei precum animalele terestre deoarece hrana rmne deasupra
items remain up by the water and can be moved threw the mouth apei i nu poate fi ingerat adecvat, cu ajutorul apei i poziiei
adequately by control of the water flow and the placement of the dinilor. Limba rechinilor i razele Elasmobranhiilor se pot mica cu
teeth. The tongues of the Sharks and Rays (Elasmobranchs)are a usurin.
little more movable. However the tongues of Hagfish and Lampreys n orice caz, limbile unei Mixine i a unui Chicar sunt armate cu
are armed with teeth and highly movable. However the musculature dini i sunt foarte mobile. n orice caz, musculatura din spatele
behind this movability is quite different in the two groups. acestei mobiliti este destul de diferit n cele dou grupuri.

The teeth of most fish are the fore-runners of vertebrate teeth with Dinii multor peti sunt precursori ai dinilor actuali ai vertebratelor
an outer layer of enamel and an inner core of dentine. A fish may cu un strat exterior de smal i un miez interior de dentin. Un peste
have teeth at the front of its mouth and along the jaws and in the poate avea dinti in fata si in jurul falcilor si deasemenea si in faringe
pharynx as well as on its tongue. si pe limba. Dintii unui exemplar din clasa ELasmobranchii sunt
incorporati in in gingie si nu atasati de cartilajul care suporta falca.
The teeth of Elasmobranchs are simply embedded in the gum, and n cazul pestelui Spatula dintii sunt incorporati in gingii si nu sunt
not attached to the cartilage that supports the jaw. In fish there is a conectati la oasele falcilor iar la cateva specii ca Stiuca (Esox lucius)
continuum stretching from the Paddlefish Polyodon spathula where dintii sunt slab atasati la falci prin intermediul unor ligamente
the teeth are embedded in the gums and not connected to the jaw fibroase care leaga strans dintii la tesutul fibros. La putine specii ale
bones at all through a few species like the Pike (Esox lucius) Characidae ( pestii Tetra) dintii sunt implantati in alveolele speciale
wherein the teeth are loosely attached to the jaws by means of ale oaselor falcilor. Majoritatea speciilor de pesti, cum ar fi rechinii
fibrous ligaments to the majority of fish which have the si speciile de mare au dinti polifiodonte, ceea ce inseamna ca dintii
teeth ankylosed, or tightly and immovably bound by fibrous tissue, sunt inlocuiti in mod continuu deoarece se uzeaza sau se pierd. La
to the bones of the jaws etc. In a few species of the Characidae the Elasmobranchii, dintii sunt aranjati in randuri paralele dupa setul
teeth are implanted in special sockets of the jaw bones. functional. Acei dinti asteapta sa inlocuiasca dintii deteriorati sau
Most species of fish, as well as sharks and rays, pierduti, sunt intinsi pe gingie si sunt indreptati spre spatele gurii
have polyphyodont teeth, meaning the teeth are continually unde exista sansa de a asista la prevenirea pierderii mancarii dar nu
replaced as they wear out or are lost. In the Elasmobranchs the teeth au rol in a musca. Cand o masea sau cativa dinti trebuie sa fie
are arranged in parallel rows situated behind the functional set. schimbati, gingia se misca inainte, tragand de noul dinte inainte si il
Those teeth waiting to replace lost or damaged teeth lie flat against ridica. In pestii adevarati, noul dinte creste ori la baza vechiului
the gum and point back into the mouth where they may assist in dinte, sau intre dintii vechi atunci cand acesti dinti nu sunt prea
preventing food from escaping but take no part in biting. When a apropiati.
tooth, or some teeth, need to be replaced the gum moves forward Holocefai(Himerele) Dipnoi( pestele Salamandra) nu isi
pulling the new teeth both forward and erect. In true fish the new inlocuiesc dintii, dar in schimb au dinti care cresc in mod continuu
teeth grow either at the base of the old teeth, or in between the old de la baza.Cavitatea bucala secreta mucus ca sa ajute la inghitirea
teeth when these teeth are not too closely packed. The Holocephali hranei, dar nu sunt implicate organe speciale, nu are glande salivare,
(Chimaeras) and the Dipnoi/Dipnomorpha (Lungfish) do not replace mucusul fiind singurul lubrifiant si nu contine enzime digestive
their teeth but instead have teeth that are continually growing from precum saliva mamiferelor, aceasta fiind captusita cu epiteliu
the base. scvamos.

The buccal cavity (the empty space in an empty mouth) secretes


mucus to aid in the swallowing of food, but there are no special
organs involved, no salivary glands, and this mucus is a lubricant
only, it contains no digestive enzymes such as mammalian saliva
does and is lined with squamous epithelium.

The Pharynx
Faringele
Immediately behind the mouth is the pharynx which is the
continuation of the tube started at the mouth and in which the are Imediat inapoia gurii se afla faringele care reprezinta continuarea
found the gill clefts, through which water flows out of the tubului digestiv, cu portiunea initiala-gura- unde se gasesc
alimentary canal and into the gills. It is short which leads to the deschiderile branhiilor prin care apa trece din canalul alimentar
oesophagus. It is lined with squamous epithelium. As I mentioned direct in branhii. Faringele este scurt si se continua direct cu
above the pharynx may possess teeth, both upper and lower and as esofagul. Este tapetat cu epiteliu scvamos. Dupa cum am mentionat
many as 4 rows of them. These pharyngeal teeth may be specialised mai sus de faringe se pot intalni dinti , cate 4 superiori si inferiori.
for grinding like molars, comb-like for breaking up fine materials of Acesti dinti faringieni potfi specializati pentru macinare, cum ar fi
sharp and pointed for piercing prey, in some species they are even molarii-pieptene pentru ruperea materialelor fine iar unele specii au
hinged so that they fold up to allow food to pass and hang down chiar si unele balamale astfel nct acestea se pliaz pentru a permite
produselor alimentare s treac i s astfel sa impiedice scaparea lor
again afterwards to prevent its escape. For the most part however In orice caz, dintii faringeali par a fi evoluat pentru a putea asista la
pharyngeal teeth seem to have evolved in order to assist in the act of inghitirea hranei.
swallowing food.

The Oesophagus Esofagul

After the pharynx comes the oesophagus, a muscular tube that leads Dupa faringe urmeaza esofagul, un tub muscular care ajunge direct
to the stomach. It is constructed of two layers of non-striated la stomac. Este format din doua straturi de musculatura neteda, din
muscle, one of which is longitudinal and the other circular, strangely care unul circular iar celalalt longitudinal, ciudat, cel longitudinal, la
in some species of fish the longitudinal muscle is the inner layer unele specii de pesti este stratul intern, iar la altee stratul circular
while in others the circular muscle is the inner layer. With so many este stratul intern. Cu att de multe specii de generalizri se aplic
species generalisations only apply to the majority, there are always numai majoritii, exist ntotdeauna excepii. Linul (Tinca tinca), de
exceptions. The Tench (Tinca tinca) for instance is unusual in having exemplu, este neobinuit n a avea muchi striai toate prin esofag si
striated muscle all through the oesophagus and stomach ant into the stomac furnica in intestine. Pereii poriunii anterioare a Esofag sunt
intestines. The walls of the anterior portion of the Oesophagus are aliniate epiteliu scuamos iar cele ale seciunii posterioare sunt
lined squamous epithelium while those of the posterior section are cptuite cu epiteliu columnar, ansamblul cuprinde mai multe celule
lined with columnar epithelium, the whole contains many mucus de mucus, mucusul pastreaza alimentele lubrifiate i ajut-l s se
cells, the mucus keeps the food lubricated and helps it to move along deplaseze de-a lungul tubului.
the tube.

The Gizzard

The gizzard is really a highly muscular modification of the first part


of the stomach. Its main purpose is to grind up coarse food items
into smaller pieces thus facilitating their later digestion. In those fish
which have a gizzard, such as Shad, it is the place where digestion
begins because as well as its muscular activity the gizzard also
secretes digestive enzymes into the food