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TEHNOLOGII DE AGRICULTUR ECOLOGIC

CAPITOLUL I Introducere / 3
CAPITOLUL II Descrierea conceptului de agricultura ecologic / 7
2.1. nDief,motvasrc/ 7
2.2. dCnruastilocmevpg i.Conrsalutce/10
2.3. Piaodpuselrcg/ 1
TCAPOLIUhnolgeuiatvcrp msolgeic/15
3.1. Impnoarticulebg s/15
3.2. MAZRE(uPamistvL.)/ 2
3.3. FASOLE(oPhalusegvri.)/26
3.4. SOIA(GlycinemaxL)Mr.,sphdo/ 3
3.5. BOUL(Vaicbf.)/ 39
3.6. LUPIN(nupsi.)/ 41
TCAPOLIVUhnolgeuiatvcrp saloecgi/ 45
4.1. Impnoartlegis/ 45
4.2. FLOARE-SUI(Helianthus.)/ 46
4.3. INULPETRn(umista.)/ 60
4.4. RAPI(aBsicrnpuL.olef=Cz)/65
4.5. CRINUL(icnuosm.)/ 68
TCAPOLIUVehnaolgcuitvrpx logeic/ 71
5.1. Impnoartlexi/71
5.2. INULPETRFBn(umista.)/ 72
5.3. CNEPA(anbtivsL.)/ 75
TCAPOLIUVretamnoilfgc/78
6.1. Necsitadmhbr/ 78
6.2. Ronluimaerfgc/ 80
6.3. nPciprlegaufmhzot / 81
6.

oBibaglfervsct/ 90
TCAPOLIU

INTRODUCE

gAuricoatlepmvzsdb,rifcathelnvpuoidme.Plrcagntpo,fuizedslrancvtopeidanrlvotzcm.eIsupdiraglctnoe s.Rrabilufptcevnodgarustcfe.
ndveraxtismulgconR,-atbiemrgslvopnduca,reifogslnmtc,darueionlts.c,am:OrdneugGvli.34/20,spctLar81;Hn97ueobmltdgicaprsenu(vxlomtdgic)e.Pnpra ozslgtmei,unfcaAroNlPdsEgie(),cavuptndlMrsiAg,meaPuodlcrsptevigafsurconlpdmetigarouslnte.
hTonegilptardcmsub lenti,fcomuparvdeilnsuofamtgrci.Sedplsuonamtrcveigulo,dpmabnertcusifloa(mntpeg rlivz),uanmgteodsriclxuapetod zrcimul.B,ntobeasdcrmnpvuiltoezsb/hr,anmpcoutedifzmbar,pjontuelc.Shigrzabunotelmdigpar,cstulneodifm.Ssvtnacleopidg,urmxsfthncevapoidulsrcebmatipnvlougecsrihbzltva.
nPtelauiscghdromp elnaitrfujmop,nezditasrmufenopdactbims.

Sistemdagurcl
Aguricaltoepnv si,coealdu(trz)gbpmxieoclnrfsadt,uipecrngo-svtamu,pleicodrgauntpleic,odrba.
Acentuarofildvzs:mangrihtelocdszpubaroln,temizuvabcdsonl,pretiu cagomlpnterdu zisabo,nrpe-umtlgisdfcaOMG(),puorbvetihlncds,amfprougeivtbdsanmure opgresiv

oancutidlemrg,spacoiulnret dz,camuilerpntof(,bcads.i)prnetgulom ai,fnpreducsmvtlai.uAprmeds-jcvgnaolitrpeudsfca,nmlibtoexusrjfpdagcnivetmorla.Cunpeixcolt-samupdrievblnfaco,mzutseiprhlbnamdoisut.l


ncepudla1980o,bigtrscenaulimpdrtcfoshibaenlmduprv ,teosbiclgnavrdptuecilzsab.
nPuictep,doraglmfsunitecdpragolmbniuet.Acpsofrla indvetcmoalrugi.
AacumrgteloN.Si,ndszvtargucleindsmoztuaelgcinrdo,s-etmginaulbo,prdzefciasnuropdetvifca nurlsgodmiatechbrpnlu.
ntrecpasoilvgdu,fztrcaobminluspe50dRfSr,tia-cumoelpsdnitgrcuael,nmbitd(s)a-uegcrloni,b atvecgrlnusdpmifozegrac,tblnuipmoeavdltsngui.
nudeclrstimpfoavz gedrcultnaimospfcedriat:

uAgaltricobdnm
Sistemulafon1924vdcprsotfRulSeinacrgmE.PAstiebzporaln193-f,ceszumoaptnlb-vresidhoc,lamnztrpeid.csoblua gniezfrcptvlaos,-mniucret(da,lszon)rimuePtL,Soalpcfnedivm.s
Reflctnarpisovetndslicruomtega,nrilcjoud.
Sistemugldracobn,zpumitelraobdn5c0(-8)sgiztr,amond pceslbgihmoaudnt,flezvicrbspanmudflezrocgvtina.Asepmzrdciutfalnpe,svrimcubhloestaz,ndirblou.t
Prepatlobmdincsug,zeptlao(dcuri502)m3,z4ghndestjar(5pi60)vl7,bgunoderajcpi-szhmt.Pglaroeupndi mt,greacoxpnlubiszdfe,toacvlnrispmaeoctvuli procesl mcoise ritmce. oPcesrl osmcie se rfe la pozia Luni fa de usta fix din

constelaiudzrm,fLnospicteaudmPzrointlpucdeamPrvoint.
Toatecsfudlibrmnoac,deputfirlzncabegduiornflsmc.(StaN,20)
Aguricalton
pPrinlcetoamsug fndetai30-4scoulrSbAdHwLyEvaBfn.PtesiulzMrIda-cenitumgorlpsanictSUAodumergfR(al,1942)ctiesumndvzablgrct.Cefiuo,smxdnpracgltzeousnbira,vcleg.f
Sistemgurclaonbz dpialfertnusocviza.Mternupldcsgameino lt,r adsuiemncoltprafuizenmsoltcdarpf.
Deasmnutilz,dgrpcoxneiftavmrclxeo.(isgunba-r)Otdecoviusnlpamxdrzecsibltopanfmer(scilxP),tnduopaefgil.s

uAgaltricob
nElveia,1940HsPtrhRu.Mpcnaeiodrltsu pa.Aceid-onrztmuagiclorbepnutsgaildvrecnmtpoulai.
Aguricaltobesndfmpviutlzargeodsn,c iltrapdeuosfjncimlr.Ehtegsuadpcviormne,utlzasvgdprconuieaj,lmsgortvzciean,ulpfd-srmntieauldoc,brgfziantluoer.Scpdmastiglueorbcn:
nmieraudgltfso,
evitaruomfldpc ehniagrol,
opdurnceatisflm rvdicat,
reducanlmiofsgerupbactiol,
cretmanliodvfuecsrizlog.
nmoueldtfapricgbsomultaienrdvcpsboltagridezvnpucom,asrgizeultbcnpd,oame.

Aguricaltoe(db).Ssm pinutral,cejosdfit"agrcule(db).Astpnuceaormildtna.uAgrcfosepli"n,admuserctpligvnzaehormd.Augicltpvazencrilmjogusbhtea imn(rd"goclpxuesf)I.PianVS,198Ebzosrelcmja i

omdetfrisca,unlhegrobiapducm,nstelroipcdmuabnt.
gAuricaltoevdnfpsm irca,egnutbosfvlxamicpdeurgostlnbiapdecAo.(uI,s198)Evanitmcgvasiurobndelmtc suirgefol,namptusribndmelvauoptcibnsml.
Aguricaltoe, snpzrvitebugdscanm,lrfietogudpsacnrietmlobgu.
uSctranoilpdevmg cntuolarispebdvnzoltarguicpe ns.tmlaciru,efgondastbicezpm,ndoulrisb(hz)eptamn,clorfihegvduatpncmolir,e tjfaunpshilbcroegtmdunj.

TCAPOLIU

DESCRAIONPTULG

1.2
. nDief,motvasrc
ngexralistmuopbcdnearifuoptsmdblcegriauon.
nprimulxdst,eocgabuilrtndesfompjcagilrneobmpzgtcua i.A,nolersvzdtfpuami,nocbservlt.aid,mupcnreglosiaterpnculgjdhiatsfe.
Toatecsmprblnvidgu t-oefrsc,la.Cmingutzespcforagilnetucrhfma.Cdsnievutljfcaro,diesvntplrcausdeimnotfl.
Aceastrfiupnlhzmodcegritsflanuoc,deprtmailuvsocndeh,iarpltguonczedshim.Cal,orcevtnusizdfla,proectmni.
Aodupnaciegrts lmadenuibstrcplgoameinutr-hc.OsbaNPKfeilzntmrucgoapbsielfutrcn,aboliupedm.Ctracionlg,uesmtarcofinldgj,hestmr-aoupicdnte.
Odalteigrpsuconxvitaerfml,updncs aoerit193.
Chiarxdcsteon pimalr,bustoce hmdaniotrlbueg,camdntvsoezlpbifucmar:slodeizhftc.
Apatrconeigsul hmboaretsidvnpfu.l
ntodurc-elapbm i,sxotrv16denumflsiapcgerutoni.Uldcmaseurgtobi,lnavrcuste.minxdforajcestu.Dmpl,MnBigoarbcseultnihmab.TreogcspftnEua,imMreBSUApclosfantmuidger.z,fanmicoderupltsfz.
pPrinlceatsuomdifrnlaestxpcoumdrFeainItlMcAguOr().

PotrivacesndFOAIMu,glo:

eadprouchnlitsf;
udeacrlsitmn;
ndeacurjitlobgsemdauric;t
deanmirftlpugos;
deautilzcspomrngbelaic;
udeacrltmin-sh;
deasiguortnclvmpeisdactolmruns;
vdeaitomflrupcznhegioa;
deanmivrstgculopmejia,nsvtcr bholaie;
deaprmitoucglbnvaestifdmuclor,gnesi.

uPenfrmtigoacdl,spebzrticugalon.Asefrdithgcualon,m:zreticuladjbgv;reftzoisncamlertivs;nobcamulerhtizdocnmerlabui;tpocsdfemnavzriluto; cspmaenidr.
Aguricaltnopefdsmcrvuitxalegzfompnsc,tidurela vhnmo.Sisteduaglrcbzpo,fsieartuldncjm,gbaeuirzloncdfm.
Councepltsiamvrfzgeonlsitpaucrdfgeloani.

Aceastndifpomr3:
cenumfairgo;
celuripoztvfa;
nodicareuvzstlb mnpiferu,aoctbslvdez.

Aceastidoulmvprncaesixtgoul r,pnmai.Mtelcugrnodaestcibprlmnudeagtoics.
nvtr-ad,eichslgpzuratnoicesmdv.Agluranoictezmpdflaruistegc,moanulirt,degvnacbplouirxetsfngalmupir.
Decagriulton?

copSultradinemxzgsctradonlijeup mfactrslneibumdat.clp,soruinbveEadflxtscirenupomatdlic.
ntimpocevduraslzEtficenamrpsul,o ijntePAC(cgrlmuo)asf28%deijn70,pcvturlfmaszoe5%.
hSimbcrdantepglouvzriahbtnlpuoecs(x.d51/giravmultenhbod).

ntrebilmajocpgdvnesrflatuc:
undeazstricol;
duneazmiltr;
creazisunpotldbvm;
adnetrmiuclo;
estunimrgo-v;
mpilcstedouranv ipctbel.
uAgltricaonebpzvsdmi,acontrule minogsarect,lpudi.
mFierndagucltovxs iedpurmcanl, otsizeprldc.

uCinestfrmgaoc?

mFiergoancsut dfv,mleiacrptsuxoznileda,mcgsprubtovnia.
nudItabiscl,emfrpgnoica607uervltfamopbe.Drciuntgxoa,mlsfedprtic oansfulriemg.
Aguricaltnovsep fm,citoangjresuld cnxitmfouarse.Nlpcntifaugros-ce;indvltbfuosmaingvelcrputd .

Maicgorenuml

mFiergoancptu-dfzilos,vaentcrpd ign,av.tocesmpuidratxnpelo.
nLaceputilor80,CdEmFfsnatpuecrviozld ng.AestaburicvnldetaMrBiEuop.
ProductinbamsepzMBdctrioDynauAgls,mpedrbficoaznlxstHyDueRrhAocian,NlCtfOgGdeovnry.

uNmlirdvestagonzc rfletiona,umc prledvifnt,usFOAIM(aoerfngicultvmF).OAIbMsadrezcofiptgnal mrzecstdionalpu recmti.npls,IFOAMuajzhbodermfinc,satporlevnimbudctIFOAM.


Ideacrstnpgliuo d1920,carevluntbsio zpmrcedvniltf,aperscvozunmdtl iarepcsudn.
Micaregonushmbltpeianorcugdzvml.Aiatncesprfolu,vadgticnrpeo.

2.
. uCadlinrostcemvpg i.Conrsalutce

12. uCadlinrostmv.LcedaguriltobsmnUeEpariRgult1209/nscovepamul849trni.Soefsc3pudatmgrilcez:nuoaM(Brit);mlbgcFn,IaeGLuxUriBltc.)mneog(Ga,AusriSpDcnOdlPogtea,FRmi.)
nRomuiacdlrvteszp nomai:
O. U. nr. 34/20 Nmo(er metodgicl refitoa la opdurcia oecgil) armonizt
prin:

aLegn2r.3801/ofitlpduceg;
LanivelstuoRmxrgduen:i
uAtoriae Naionl upentr oPdurse oEcAgielNP/ (n ucadlr Minusterl

uAgltric,peodPM)
ComisadeAgurcltE(MP,FNnvear);
dFeraiNonlAguctE(p/aderoi);
ERA.N(strucdeailof);
2. Conversialgcut.Pz ariloecg,ptvL2n.3801/usblia-cerfvtnpmdusilecrfaotnvRmi.Cerfcaobtulnd gircsaetfl.
n preznt n Ronmia exist mai multe struci de certifa i contrl ndi uUneaioEpr(cdtm4501)nalei:
COERTVaeg(ltm+Ani):Fr;
LACONV+():ustria;
NBIOSPECTA(V+):lveia;
SKAL(V+):Oland;
EKOGARNVTI+():maneri;
Q&DV+A():mGaneri;
CEOI(V+A):tali;
BIOKNTRLV):(Ungari;
PotrivUO.n34/20pdeacsufmlvgtn2i.OraepdcsfuobNAE.Piaetdprsfmun,vilzaeotrpc.

3.2
a.Piproduselcg

Difertsud,alzSynvqpcomidreusblUnE,atvdecomsrpuin31%azlotemr2i53ncuslaoz.vDetrpidbnluUoEeazmifcr:t
xEistenauorfldpc,mzenogiat;
xEistenaupolcrd.Dmnau,poeltsribcznuae35%,ptmrixsocnaduezl,rpvtnim-uoadclexstinrpmagco.
oPdurselbigcpat nvoleuirdpscmagb elfoir,dutc(nag)pseirodulbc.P nsvteaiuocUErp.dlzateDquc37,%inrosmdaefxtupbir21,3%odneat.Dfmripoduselbcnva,ftir1035%puemobdsgnairl.
nSylvdaerptzioumgc s:
mParictego,nsulpdiaregctsuolznmirapbc,uostdeglvnircaudmeb;
doAuactegri,smpnf actegoripslmun,fdeca.Coitrlbzvmd,senaiorchumtfpbeld.iDrna umtpos,ehdcirlafzumnotdesrilacg.
Unaltsudi,rezcDqgmp4atoideunsr

bio:

uConmasritlAce( pdousbi convi

adestcguril)
Consumatridepbf.(catuni opdurs
iorenactu);
oCnsumatridec( pbosaulnimte rg);
uConmasritveM(czdpulrotiame,gsfc).
Dezvoltarunipdsb ceaolitmrpdsufegn,cotlrabdiz pfesnxt,grauldcmiojptbesnaulcroizfdpbemt.

TCAPOLIU

TEHNOLGIACUVRP MSLTAECOGI

3.1. mpoIartniulcebg s
3.1.1. Impaonrt.Pelcuisghfaprodnlemi(b)gt.uAcs:mazre,folintbupahdefsoli.TtcnruLgam(Fbes),filo.cuaPpne)Fdifmlbo,tcspanueirgloh,mc tneu.DfailLgmos(Fbc)nvtepauri(fjg,mlcodenat.)upsril
Leguminoaslptrbfcdueilagtr,pmsv.Ce50daniulotcrzsp avEueiltcmzr,hgnoaspbe.Ciu,cm0d3nsvoalt.GreicpumntalgoseirfvbupNm.Z(ac,1965)oPetrilnsdvzc(paetriu,mlnV-I.)sodpceguairbnEzt.C(m,1973)dsecolpauribtvecs,dompraniltueo.
mpoIrtanleguisbc,donutliarpesm,cf-ovlndtari(b.31)Ueshluncoitrdae,fbpxs chnioute,fdvralspg.Sncmioeduratlvgpb,hcrei(dusoafl-).
nCouilptecrdbagms2-4oiplcer.Laundt,(s)ilpoecdug.Rrtanibcompels:anudi71/;,mzr82lbo4.etcDagnuiprszlmjefcotan.Esdrivlpectbao,hnuispreldgamo,nczis.Prtedbalgumoisrct(a90%)numfeziolpracuengsmtdor.
uTable3.1Conitpr,
grsimubtanxecvzolrpubae(imd)
nCouidlmtes(%)
Plant
oPteinr Grsim nSubxestarcivzo
azMre 26 52, 53
Fasole 24 1,8 52
Soia 2389(45) 02(16,-5) 30
Linte 26 1,9 52
Nut 24 5, 53
Bob 26 1,6 48
nLupalb*i 35 9,2 26
Latir 25 12, 54
dArahei 1259() 450(6) 14
Fasoli 26 61, 52
*nLupligabrec40o%t7,smu26nbeaxrcivzot,plsu31%en74grim5bxtacvoez.

nPtruealiz,cv1kgodpmsn5-7rteival.Fopmntiurevgpal(c)dmiotenrusvlapdcg.i
Produciaeptnsblh gumioaepntrz(,sc.)dliauegrpombtfn.Pilcuraeponvdztiulme.Eascopntdbz,ileram.uDpcIMn(1978),direosmalcujntib"sdromefcnutvardiopec,n183Mul
bazndu-sepcotr mxlnabiog,ehdrztsufcmlviao-hnetrbuspcdfaomnvelit-upr"(gcsanemi,prul).1938Ros(ctadenIM7,rpvilgmuatenoczsp(dbilrugm)enacotfsz.iUlrb-pne(goa)turmiczsldnevaobgptrim.Cedn-oahlbcrtuisepz1-3%dnvalorgtic,2k/z(I.Mu1978)Omnlpreoait,vdc10mnzesial(to,rdhvnuzecialf,trpogn)eiadml,sopurgvt(neciab)posurntdceia.
Asiguraenclpotmd iuenrbapltogcsG.univrepot"dcaOAlFmznuvier-goasl,pcn"uerztvdfilpomsnceratgu bo.
Pelngoptir,smuachdebngri,vtmsualc.eorint
nalimetor,dcspfinel(ba)ut,rsovzpeadlimunrcs.bBotpzalimeudrcsobntaz.Diel pdursnmtoa:c,bze.Disunrogatldcf,emi(s)ptnar-uoe,cdglfbipnaostre.
unrajfeimlo,dbgsfnetmac,uoiprlbntevamr.Tudsoipz,entcra.Lgumoslpbefnjiartvdsuozle,gmnac.Pr uoselip(t,fnzc)raduitpoe8(-14%),nd0rculaie7(31%).,sopfjcnialedmzrt,ofs.Laungelip c,fdosmtanleuipvrc(o,sza).
naguricltoepmsdbinot.ral,efcuvgmsipntaeourcdh.AsfvinmobzaptelgrucdRhiobm,xaefztulsrcgnd10-3kaohielzmprtncdgvoa.uAzlspemintbrfgoac,usvldinetp.Frafcmoinl,svzedtruapnicsog.Lmelrutdbzanposfi(,mec.)uldatrsomne-ifbcl.Luprtosa ndimefgulb,cpstaoind mzfrsualbi.

gF1.3iRspreacholunmi

oDarectpilngumsbazotdeclpnr,fsigmtvdeulzaor.Rbns-tiupceloardn.sptfigleumoa,vrds.
bBogelauminsr,ftpzuelnajsri,tcmo(S.F198GhBleanut):vigrosb,cdnaeluz simtogrb;danelufcompzitranluesf(cmio)trpanudbeslcMO.S);przaotimne,cduglsbitazner c.

3.1.2. uPalrticoebgnms.Cfdtpuraieocmlgn-sdfuipe.Tratmngsd1C-2lze,34aupinbo67s10Clf2hdretc.Submpan,igrseultmopadincg,rsevoumfiln.Ctadepbrsugm,ioatlresdc75%uIn92-10abo,mzitl6sfe1-20%pacdnluti.A ebsor24-8u,nfcidtmpa.Derlunbi(LMta,197)os-clegmbrniaptzuhdceslfmni,rtugae.


Rasrielgunmopbtfc,aidhulsengtmrocapfuli(se, ndrh)apogcleitun,darmsozl(ebitg).fn31ra,umoslczeitprg(xnfcdoPhalusemti),rzphogec(xiaArsy).
Larsie,dupzvlonct ri-"pdea (7
12ziledars),pncutbmoidesnfcztulb,paremon.siczt,daplnesmvrictgadozleumnsr.Ncaidezot,nbhsmulc.
dRcinalegumosrtvp.fzicemagurospvtln,-idezoarmtu.R-fcilevsdzanput,ociervnlpa.Duoticrmflesunda,C.Fwth(193)igprcleumnoasf.2,d;NZi1965)
pTuliIvcontrags,edl.Rictruanspem,vdolzi(aunegt).Apcsrildun
TipulIvcontramsbe,d puictlnr;ehmbs,afudiorevltzcam,fidnorusepmglavt.ciDrnuespd,boliatvmnezdcrf,platihemdnorusapgivlt.c
pTuliIaredcnsmto,ifalednur12stmo.Uifcaleprnsdbuzteclgimaxnpr.bs,d cfultipnmaerdc.Astipnulaedfo

Nodzitlefxamrbscu.Pngioelrmfaztd(),cusiboernglRhmz.Actaxifouser,nd-lpgzcaiusobterhdncavoi.Velgumsrat nocdihe,rbHlgWfat(18o6n)scdviumrgelatofn.Bj1ki8()zbcrdt,eunm-lRhizo.Kap(194cdNSesu,7)rtno5aRhbimzceusplntrfaoicuel.Urstafondcpie,umzr(I.Sta196)
Fig.32Rdcneumloaszt:
u1pinl;2marez3sof

Rhuizobgmleanrs-pt, c."ui n-ptrueli


o"phalise -upentrfasol
apon"jicum -upensotria,flhdc.
Dupnitoar,efcsRh.pudiar(Velcn,1972)
SuemnoaicsRh.ltpr,fdgz;iouentRh.rpdslac
Bacteriulnsmdfob1-7gei20,mcronsfalvizudtrc .
nsomlferciatb ,dnsilegumorafxzh(ctps).Beilrundoab,mfctveszrdin(pauom,lvecr).Pndpsfixzaotmec,brpn-lgzdaitoc(712ers)dzvlaptcubiersmo.
uProlcesdfixabgztnm uiseacoxpltnrgz,mdieauptlgnromiecadzupthrogn(AP,esc1980).
ntregulsimofxadzc etnrgi.
Aumonlpidrsgtezfac,n.ixrdtzgomualKebns,ricz(C.Hoa1980)

pSecildoRhbumzsntar,fH-ieluscnao.E rgetidlu(chza,om.)
nvecitaordul(fm),ncepsvoidrztl.Fma,epcinodrstf,u.laLmzeinodsgt,bfalpreicnudtmo.Nzlsipecavturn ,lfoispeamc.
Numlnordzit,eacfjugnmxizdloreapt(cuxmisbneadcr).tfzmxiveaborlsc.
oS-ancst,mueldbrivpangotuehmicrdz(G.Bn,1967taeuIS)HKbo3dpscrifnueztlgmoa,d-irehbn.Estamoucglivebr,pnadutocli(D.KeYLWg,adCB196)sinu-oztce250,mg/1bsanpr(E.GhSoitlc94,deCBa16);prnxgmhlobistfen.Fxarzulscoietgnmhb.
nMeriachulbogftsmreinpaxoutzldcbi.Fsreanpoftmcu,dbliarnez-hgctvimoxrflaed.zCnspctilaroe,usnm.
Inocularef(i)btsp cn.PrueaofstlpNigd(nar),ceoultbi.Sdsnfacre,uptilmhond-sepcaurt lfihnme.Puoar,ctdbi3-4flnmesu0,52rapod iebctusmnoaflprh.Ttuecbinajmsl.
Inocularetifsp gmnoaeutrdisclz,gneobpatricsfumlz, .Retabns-ouiclpgmertanN.
Simboza,tcuerdnsl focvibaerdtlzuKN.P,Cmn(obdiletc)usraz nm,ftpuderciablomnzpesruxdfiat.l
LCaI.TPFundles-riztpovc,uaelbrdsmonitP(S.C,U)cpaeulsbtrinvz(0,5amofe)dcbGr.tni197Aslueomdfcitpnraso,elbu mtcnzrpislua,eodgfc(rntxipubaelsozm).L1hfc8-20dliu,natsemPS.C6 unlatrdiescSU.P
nStmepoluricab s-fneupoatdrci,vznsefmgauroxitl(nse).Smaz,dxituorvbcgefasldinoRhumz,cxepartgnlisumoe.
npTuaildfercg(s),:toalinupb;vIfseoarctlmzi.Cvpfrea,stcnuloipaedmtnurifclzbos.eavptunfidr(lmz),sacuboetni(fl).

Posibltaedmcnzru poiaetnlcudsrmfpi.
uFnzelrgmoiasptcv,dhelmuainotz.Frsdfecp(mai)un,orlztefsipu.Anar:mze,boltdnpiarfumet:l.Fzosnaf,iruptmle(g3.dNZfiasc,1965)Sunlpetmrdofiaz(),ncubltepsfo.Ugmia(n,lut)prezcho;fiamnpsdublc,trevoiamnzpdculr,etoi.
gF3.iunrzedmloas:
1mare;z2nut34lp,i5dho6fae;s78b9tirl

oFrileunstgpafc(m)x,ieslourdpnactm.Cfi5selonru(gpa);cdtbsio,reluna)cf;dtmps10ine,al(9u+br)doftie;gnlcvuapsr,mo deiftgnasulmco.Frhefditv,npzaugm(rsolebipnatu),cdfgromle(zsit.aupncglbe,rofsi)zacndu-pet.Uromlgasinufet(dpbzrvolsci)neudga(rjl1520%).Pt-oiepnsumrfl,avzcde.Uniusbtfrgamlodeivsczutrnmplg.
uFctrlesopaidmf, hcntelasudrvo(i)pf,mzealnsuhdct(igbo).f345,pNZamuresc196Sinlbo()tpfearv,dmocuilftpse.H-dxarlovui,ctmnsep-ardi,vtuchseofnazrm,iu.lhcedotnsaiprgl.Smeuond-s,actfimberul;nsdopaft.

Fig.34ructedlnmoas:
o1lefas;2nupbi3mzr45dhe6lat;7nu8.i

Carcteisnpgumlo-z,careinguodvlstarpic,enugmb(f6.3dpNZiraescu,195)
ondtilceasfugrm oteindalFrufcsmpenda,itrcl
fazeodcr:
oacnerdv(lpt),simuverzconda,ilstmeop;
oacerbgnl(sup),dmtivealnsbg,dcoitaeurlnfspi,vtoulacren;
coaerpdlin,ustmfeari,lchdsnutp m-eoidrc.

gF5.3iSecuntrasvpl fi
demazr:
Adverlamoicps;hernmfasciulbo-;ptrgnmescha.i
B-vednrsamub;lco htipesurgnamo;f
fasciulebro-mn

gF6.3iSecuntrasvplmigduenoas:
uAnpl;tiesmfoard cluemosr;tgn.
Bofale;strmndipcaeluogr;smtnpafdcelui rbs.Cnt;mfoadriplsctueom;gn.

a z en g o n a g r O
e l i r n e r f i D
al
iu l no c lu ev i n
ed
n i u p t nu s e r t e r c
e lib z iv
i
es
et r ao f d e c u s
. d ip a r
aL
, e znu r f o l em i r p a i r ap
lu fr v
ed
er terc
ai
, c i r e f s im e m ro f
rai
i am
uizrt
al
iu l az b
rap
i runo c
e radnu ce s
, era c
,ta pert
uad
ro l en ag r o e t a n
ed
, i l a ro f ro l i c b o e l i d ro m i p , er a c i f t cu r f
iop a
a z en g o a ro dn iv r p i la t e D . i ro l f ro l en ag ro
es
ro v
a tn e z r p
al
tn a l p e ra c i f
n
e tr ap
.

23.MAZRE(PisumatvL)

3.2.1. oBilgecaznr.

13.2 oBigal.Rsremztphcd(nol)siare6-9zmt.
Rdcinaestpvo,umlIfrbzajngdpcie10m.Notulsnarp,diebmfcltn.pri10-5zedvga,cotmpiren.Ssdulcatizp-omredlubsafipot.
Tulpina,tde50m-1cor sfiulna,d(hmtcb)groev-uslifadz.Antmecsurilbvoa,pntmflrieducabsgo,nritlemascup,fdniltr.
uFnzelrsptaicom,1-3hdfnueriamc.Lbzsldoptrief.Pm1-3unzbaltsc,vedrimofnal.Suzetpifronmdcaejutplsinr-mozaectpl.Lsuri,fnzeobvdltap mricesuonfz.
oFrileunstdpc2-3amxbfzelorintdaspv.Ofe10-2zil,urtondacemi.plo,unrtfsgadiecumrlfotsai.nPzeumgprodctshilf.
uFctrlesopaihdn vr,suelpidboantc mfhrzeupsinldct.
nSemlisuotgba,rhcMBpne50-4giHt78ku,arlocpbfensdv.
Gh.VRonm(20a1)distgueprclvz:
dperioaI-,custnlrif;
dperioaI-,nlcutfgismvdoear,cnlputgbisd6m;
dperioaI-cuntvlsmoeraiucndptljfoesmaird6;
dperioaIV-uznlmtfgc;esaprulnmoi.
mEenltdprouciva( )msfezntpdriouac:
2
unmrldepat/osfziInademtopucrlsi;
2
unmlrdeboa/sfziphlnercadoI-;
mrieaboMlB()sdnfcutvpailme voarte
niplaumrte.

13.2 oEalgci.Mzrestpun fdvgai,otlnzempurcds,altengipr67udoc180maltneiMpA.


0
mTapeturnidgsloC1-2(34uariezht,cb)mopfnd25Caxie3.Plturpos,dcmaize5C6nulotvd-scarmf(pneozil10C,-2).rtapnecvimlud4-5C,arsnivegtclfdmpraus.
nopaderict,mus14-5Cnpiolrf8,ace20m.TuitdpsC3fcnareluboivztdg(Bchrspum).Laientod,rpgaievncst1350-8C.
Uamidte.Mzrcnofu,idmaestlcon.Prui,esapldtm 95-120%.Preinapuldofmreba.lvSuntizpcdemanrtbuisjgl120-4.Scdemarntpio fuedsboiavrztclg.Eefudnxsmiaptrcglefou,nziavrtcldebo.Pmnpu iratezlo,ndpiramethscolnudzpirbae.
Lumina.Mzrestopldgx,uicfnezrtshad cfogvie.
Solu.Cemaifvbrpntzsjuc,ol-aeitdprnfbghums,oveaiz tclbnur,apiemdcuntrH=(6,7-5)seozimlbunrcatv.Ndezpsoilg,racuxmtendpois,rac.
13.2 Zonelgci.Mazrstdfvbumjoieaznglrcdst(f6.3,upGhBeabiol198)
oZnafrtebvilsmCpdV,ucnor-vetlBaisbpz,rtemuandiocfsjCl20.
aZonvfbrIilupcdesmCRx(aBgnilzo
nispurlodOtea),mCTvVMinorelDpsuaSb,BCmirond-vestulDpaJjhB.
aZonvfbrIilcudestgvr,PonlTiaeduGtcBgDbrmaipedMovl.
Zonapufirbvlcgdem,tsapinurLcDSel.
gF6.3iHartoeclmz

23. uSoriledmacztvnR.fulroaisepzntb23.(dCgulfcoihrzepantdRmul203).Erivaetgm,ndsco-jluebarg,npcti.
nuIelrimatvcofsu-pndiltcoremaz uspitrcoldemnba,uptsroel.Evbadif(cprnousmleDa) tirounmf,lezsacrinptmeozula,drctinomba.

3.2 uLolncasmte.Avdrpifzg,maetbusrdplnc aei,umstrpo(bcflenzah,-srui)po.


Mazrenutbisvpclmde3-4,aortinfulbscetvdpagnumoisrblz(f)dtpeci.
Larndul,smzetopbg rajiucl,nespgtdmoarclziunefbdotsvrapcilun(o30s-1kgN/ha),pdtecri.
nPdriacemzot3-6gsupliranecdmot.

bTelua23.
SoiurledmazcpvtnR203()

Ponziaptelrum
nDumeoirasl ardenoig Anulregist
nMoierutls

Alina oRnmia 915 emSirct CDIAFundlea


nCoari Ronmia 198 Culcat ICDAFundlea,
SCDAnecui
oDra oRnmia 918 Erect SCDATurda
Magistr Ronmia 1975 Culcat ICDAFundlea
Marin Ronmia 190 Culcat ICDAFundlea,
SCDAoPduaiIle
onMa oRnmia 91 Erect ICDAFundlea
Rodil Ronmia 194 Semirct ICDAFundlea
Veda Ronmia 19 Culcat SCDATelonrma
Alfeta nOdla 197 Erect CEBOZADVN.
toAl nFar 914 emSirct ORMAN-VEUIL
Bacr nFar 20 Erect ROMAN-VEUIL
Bastile nDemarc 203 Erect DANISCOEM.
Eifel nFar 19 Erect ROMAN-VEUIL
Grafil mGaneri 197 Semirct SATENUIO
ROMNIASL
oLt nFar 02 Erect ROMAN-VEUIL
nMoat nOdla 197 Erect CEBOZADVN.
qMonuie nFar 198 Erect ROMAN-VEUIL
Profi nDemarc 195 Erect DANISCO/
Renat nFar 195 Erect ROMAN-VEUIL
bTuor mGaneri 195 Erect SATENOUI
ROMANISL
x)
Carcl39Spit RomniaFr 9184 SemirctE SCDAarclVERLNUIH
20
x
o)iusrdeamnt

43.2 Apalicnregmtod.uPpcie10kgbalnst,mozrudiepfa:57KgN,1kP2O530i2VCa.(nelc,197)
Mareptdinucslzo42-78(%)mredtibaclosGh.(Bnu,19)retigadvzlso.Dcnmibgrtelazodsuciplnmaozcest.Pruifldpmgoabnetz,ruilsopacetnvdhruflgipsboactexrd.z
Avdncruimpaetolbszfdncimuagre,ovlbzdsfin.uFtmreavol dcifnztr,aoluvebspcif.
ngrmitelocapusdz,vrifnbectlmaugodspire.
TratesmoinldzcupbNgesmatoridlbuncepo.a
oPluesriacdfmntoze4-6/ha,rpclsubtd.
53.2 Luorilecs.dpgtanmreculx idvpansmretu.
unfcieodparlbztmgue,xscvarondlim20-5,ugpatrecslbinouaretvgl.Smcdsfiurapnlve tiru,mnaoblgdseiv.Nrtuncmoadzeipunrft,lcamesipnuvrazcoltme.
gPtireaupmlnvsfcode,ariupnztflsocgareupib,mntlsoavcpr-iudmestngcalriopuvdetsal.
63.2 Smnaisetul
Samn.uPestrolfci,adegurptmni97%cavdelpu80.
nvedrastimulcboxfz,nademrstiulcpbonNag,fds3-4etrumclha(vinderzosupmlat).c
Semunalt.Mzrspvig,eunamt(rjilsdopeaunmtczr)i,dls6-8nametpuC12(34sorilcbztn).Pemuapvfdiltcmunasoper,igmlcetranspodz.imulatfecpdrnsoui.
22
Daesimdntrco 120-4bgaile/m,upntrsz12cob,fiedtalnprsmoe20-35kg/hua,nfcidvrltms10eboaui.
Mazresnmuctoilv,125rednacm-8ufitxdoels5m6(pcrgi7-8uxteoa).
73.2 Lucriledngj.Combat hPulecpri s e raliz o rsie dap i ounrmf a plnteor d mazre i un la cu o ndsitae

corespunzta.Avd mli egta,zrsoupndbicfltaremnuzpodi.


nPtruepviambcls etrnuia,ofsmcgrdenitpuzoalc.
ontulmriescpadzjf(Piumnserv)codplat-uinevcbzsplor.
mpotrivnacleb(z,)dutogriamsecnl,fdtouasivcrezn(dpfl)t.
83.2 oRltaecrips.Lmzntueldifcoraps(bzuevlfnti),croap e.nMmtuldircoaspe-bgnt,fuzlscai70%dpgbeoln-utr.Cismcazevu
nPtruepvidaolscmtrefan-uopisc,zlmdverupisa.
oRltaecrsfvdiz(nup):m galsetn(uciz),rmpdboanut2-3lescr,ipdntm.
uPenrcotlamizsfdMreR(2-,)cagsmultniperbzdo()acu,tl1mvineprsbao.Ttulfcmindervpzoba.uPtiergsl,nmcdatobix(u60r/)semndatboicr.Luesfapdnmiltborcuse18-20%.
oIndutrceaxilspf(antercumi),oslDfpbtacredmzin-osgu ba.
Duptreia,ndvozmsluperaidncos(l14%umtearpni obtelcdgr).
oPdurcilemnbtas urdje150hkg,/nacoilptrsuzenob20i-4kg/ha.Frlcutepdmis40hkga./oDnurctlpe,bzi35-0%.

3.FASOLE(Phuaseolgvri)

3.3.1. oBeciaglnzr
13. oBigal.Fesrpc,t10-2zildansemopurb gi.l
Sistemaudlrcfo,pnvbeztadlgumiospnr(cetI),ajdoinrlfsupm25cetaboil.NdzrmfRhupaiseontd,cflzmraien.
Tulpinafsoevtcrd(m),ali30-5rfctoeg(p)saunditrmceog3-6haulfrvbisctoe.Exmnda,luiPctrespmzfoaguvlbi,censtdporujlacnsevirdo.

Difernadotmlgcupevazidormflntcaevoubisgpnlrceauost.
mPelridoufnzvatp,cs(erioldanupf),stmreloniacufd,mvlrsitaopuec.Sfngvlrmxiazdoe.
Floriesunptdabf,zc82-mxilrenvodab(gfscp)ulrtiaedbzos.Lurltimpe,agvobnfrsptcl38-45zieda,mursgpcn35-4dezil.Uafot10,rnp2-6dezil(Nm.Zfascu95)Dtornpdemia(sclfgouevbi)natdclm,oseuir.Sctandmp ue,szoritflamdcupnge.
Fecundarstglopm(iz nehdscr),fluaxtiz omgalie.
Pstileprznmfoduhc,i4-10nsemfoartv ulc.Siepntrboasmu,McBie20-4g.
Lafsolentumrdi,cgeaztofpulnmisardcepgolumni,strefdpab.
Peparcusldfiogvt,C.O1982(n)selafzogic:mt-r;2)speafunzdo3i m-bcre;4)ofapsti5 -murenvdo;l6)atiu-mrefzgc.
13.2 oEcgial.
mTapetur.Fsolnfi,cvpetragdo150-2uCm(sprileat d),ucnfmitaspreold50.Sgnzumaiteprs8C-10(ofd32),meaturilgnvchC-1dspbarte.Dlf,nzoic pduarevt,nlmifsc baegr,dunozlt f.
nuclrsvegtai,fod cm.TperatuvbilonsCd20,freuctiamplsz2-5C.DduteiFAng196(m),pralcfoestd15C,miarpune8.Scdtmrauib14snCopeflcdr.Tta,mpeuinsodcfr,aleuiscd(opvratfl).Dnem,scidpuratlznefvgimdpst.a
Lafsomle,ptruidngv azhotrlumeidpgvsn,colarmizutedp gvsnrl.
dUmaite.Fsolpnzuf,cradestnipfzvg.Eblaermcndsiopt10%farulc,dsienpotrlavczu.fdei-npmlaorstb,ecifduanmx.sIpe(olitfr)audcnebilvortfaumdepsnlibota.Furmgsecfidtnaol,vurscef.Danozlmitse, unltcraeiofspmb

realizunmcotfvbdgareilosnctup.
Lafsomle,putidrcvznoamfepstrilb.
nutresoildfaxbvpzsecnt.graml,fo duizetscnraopfdmiutrec,alznfo psitreclndva.
Excesuldmitanorp,f gedali
ifructae,vozldbp ear.
nprivaecfdlum,soztirengdaf.
uSorilendcatpfsmjx,roudetilnacsz,rueptH(=6-75)binovaclmeutr.Cbnzasoipcm,uerlt-vn.Soaciupesrlbtx,fozidc.Deasmnptvlrubidacesgtmnr.uNpoivleas,mctxdurnizapose,lcd.
3.1 Zonelgci.Ptruasfbmoelzncgiputrafs(3.,dGhnBlebco19):
zonafrtevbil,scupdmonCaeVtri(jlAu,vMTmCoriSe)ldnasvub(cMTro;ietlndpmuai,recsofltvnazmupreicd ,nvatxecorspuz;
oanzvfbr,ilcudgempnatsrfbilMu,OeodvaTns;crltxiuefdavobnmrtilusecadpnil;stgczoefavbrInilJuOt,VSeDprsajicmtCvTnle,opardiBu;sl-etr,pingoafdcvblet,unrpiacsvdoltumergbaizndv(cstleop,biu);rz
zonapuivfblrcdetoDgui,nlsbmaceprt.

gF7.3iHartoeclsf

3.3.2. uSorileadsfnptbcvRm.roas,iuledfpncPhgvrsiaezdupoctmfg,lbievduractpogi(smurdavet70-9zl,oiscu1rtadvnep0zil)
uSoriledfasnptbcmreodui,patsvgnc oer,zibuladtpcnmrie,saltp umnifors.
uPenctralmsvpoi fg(rtc,30m-4)puinlevda tsorcfmlubip(an,50-7)tservcd minaut.Des,pordclimanutserpicfnaolsetdvr,pnaijumeodrcnglaituebompd.nclgarisuoetpfvdlanrcmuot.
narosteflucmdzipnbotrae,csl importanuezbl3.(CgficsordepanutRml203).

bTelua3.
uSoriledfascmpvtnR20(3)
oPaderigvt(zl)
nAureglis-t Popziatunlmre Zonaudecrlti
nDumeoirasl nMeutoilrs MB pTulidecrt
(g)

Ami 19 CDIA 82 02- dSemtrina Semirct uSdlis-


Fundlea, 280 estulri
dAelanr 1982 SCDA 82 150- Detrmina Erect nTsilvra,
Turda 230 Moldva,
ICDA nBat
Avans 198 Fundlea, 81 502- Nedntrmai Semirct Sudlis-
360 estulri
Aversa 1983 CDIA 95 340- Nedntrmai Semirct Sudlri
Fundlea 470 nBat
nBcai 203 ICDA 85 250 Nedntrmai Semirct Toatenzl
Fundlea udltecr
Ceald 1952 SCDAValu 95 602- Nedntrmai Culcat Dobrgeai
Dobrgea luniTra 40 zonel
limtronfed
mCpia
uDnri
vDai 195 CDIA 85 801- Nedntrmai Semirct Sudlri
Fundlea 240
Emilan 198 uFltace 80 20- Nedntrmai Erect Sudl
Aguriclt 30 nOielt
oCvrai (irgat)
mCpiade
Sud
(neirgat)
Star 198 CDIA 81 02- dSemtrina Erect Zoneld
Fundlea 280 stepuac
puternicd
bacterioz
Vera 196 CDIA 85 901- dSemtrina Erect Sudlis-
Fundlea 20 estulri

3.3.3. uLolncasmt.eF prifd oga,nvstemulricbdzp(aefoulsi),tbn

cultivedpnasromutivecpbnrgalsmt.Pdeicufrnoa,tpdbeicunrfsvgtal,-oebdi.Pfcunrzltapeios,dbgurzamnt(cledv),ofsphtruzanmb.
Nusntrecomadgplif-u,rnmeoasdczbli.Dptur,fensvimadpt.
Deiosauptr,nmcdl zuiobnrta(c,egpi)mlsdatorufce bnpgmtoaruijelcxnpgmtoraude,lsnbgotazicur.e
unctrspafelodvriuse,cmpatl onidcembuprgatsoldi.eEncrfautvomsde3-5i,xp:l
a) soanlmted3i:fu-grpb;asolzmetnfcruh
b) asonlmted4i:fu-grpombe;alsdnt-rzcfogueampb;sl-drtonuaegm
c) asonlmted5i:fu-grpboamnt e;fsul-rpbgmdtonaz.
3.3.4. Apalicnregmtod.Dsuilcrabezvot,fndusalrive.Pt10kgbopdcunazli,fsextrgo:60-5kN17P2O5,4KGh(n.Blteuaicob91)Trgmseal,dociurzntpes70%dmlboacirtvfnuemlgoirapcte.
ngeralmtiocusdperlafocinmtgesdrulpa.
oPluesricad,nfpmtesrlicaou .
3.3.5. Luorilecs.dpgtan,erlsmoucptabi.T,flernvodupgmati,fcrduebnoa ptmiderl,sncoatmpruegi,sfacdltnpe(ursba).
unfciedptalgrmo, suneilprzaotvg,sfcumndiaeprolt g,20-3cmndiueplatrgs,zocdebunliarmfgptsonice.a
nPlaviresutcpfdganmrievltupdgsanbor.Neiltucafsopenrizmtdcl,ufonaperitmcz.
nvprima,duztelsfcogrnpuai,ltemvsgnprjaui-olcembtdna67.Pruilse,vtmbnapg ricudsletaogb,pcrsvfuelminatz d,cepornasmi.bTvutlepr uc gatrel de gptire a ternuli care pulveriza olus i favorize mfoare

crusteidpnma,olv reisanptovfzum.r
3.3.6. Samniseult
Smnaodeflstiurb ,vpen dinultcrfeabo,spinmd98%fcultaegrvpi0n.somctbe,zuaisl olfset pbiuarNgn care oni bacter pisfc Rhuizobm paseli, utznd-se 4 nflacoe 2 l pa lsmna necsar nptrue un hectar. Nitragnul se poate aplic i oncmtie cu nsematul prinulvezasdcot,mjulnrpivszetc duze
ateldbrzsmoni.
0
emSunalt.dPriopsfceaumbrni,ldo 5-6cpteas810uCn,dircpoesaI-unilr,zemchapdunli.Atsemrcazdnisemtopurc.aIlvdesngtprioa,mulcestnzorid(alesm,nptorziauflcsembn).StrziafduoPnesmtlpira,nzeuomf.riladc b(ztnpueafsoli)grcd tnvaemiorfldscutapeb.
2 22
aDentsidmblfucgrneoidptlaucsvgnizreo dlbx.Ipcunsitmare30-8bog/ldiftsaunecro,p Ciat.O(1lru982n)Dseopmd 40-5bgarile/,pusocdmtnzariegsu50-bomnl/a.Ldeitprvcsfzmanlo,eugtpdrifsazc,eudltingrmopcaediutsrbolnpm.
nPtruealizmdosc nredmsupcit80-2kg/hfnaersmlo.
Fasolemncutridpz(SPhC)amlescountrizdaeso.nSmtulpfcidra45-0o,nsemtchipu8rlaoegmL-45upnftcrails607mdeungrijfacotlU-650,ebz4mnrdui7ctpe(loar)nmdstupevzc9i.Lagrndb,stezm80cvialprusdhbze.
vAnderputasbgmiloncrepda tu,lsbimncdeautixorls.Secnmda4-5puigrlem6csoaut.Prnilgempvd,acnstoefiurlm3-4.
3.3.7. Lucriledngj
omCabternuil.Fsfareptugbcinl,do earpmfzvgtindsulaepr.Cmo,bctniezapurldgjncitfsoe.Daru,lgpmnstiecardbugospimnfratel.
Combaterginulpscvetraimulznocedb.Distrgaul ofepizrncmaul.

unltcrieodfasmpgvx3-4ecnitrdu12palm (-vi).Precnapsmdtu,oncberilfd-svtzua penrcoil,muatfpenrsjicdolgautf.Prenmicsdlaupo,nemiftcrdb.


Combaterli.pgu nscoza(Cetrihmdlu)nXoaspeimtrvcuno(fladesit,crmpuvdoainezstclB,ruo).
Comabterdunil.Dcpsgrafoe(Ahndltibu)cv,aogernpmi2-3dzt.uPareclsonmfit-ueral,spcominft.
3
aIrigefsolpnct,zudeimanCpS.roctue,dlifnapmrosc2-3ud,ltevia105znorm -6p/hatueidmols50%nrvauticebpdm50.Monlraeiudbstcfgvarildmeupcto.Iszarinebdculgpasnirtmevud,cpalnirtsezumofvbadcirl.
3.3.8. oRltaecrips.Mmundeafolicpstbnuzrmfoeapstil,dhcnruasemlitpo ,nrjbazleigsotr.
oFleasrctznd70-5%ipumseltarnvdb17%i.zocgeupsndrmtabic.
oRltaecrsfnduz.mpi tel,o5d1nacm3-4usielotfMDF(1.5)cavruphienlt,sa(ogu)dtecrblniaz.Dp2-3deusc,ltriomnbvapz decuhitlrafso, egjncupvtiarbo:lsdeu,mtianrboc.Pvepdilgsoartznmbcde2-3ipufvoalrc(tmeuidbola)
nDcauizdfltormpe, asidtulnor,pc-eafsmiltnu,ocresmfdn.actz,pleugsiomdnarpetuscidlonraemgzsubic,tfnpraed2-3zlsuombitpnfare.
Duptreia,bolds14%mnuaigorcbedpst.
oPdurcilemfasnbtpodil,umcngerabs1kh/tiluopvmcdefarn githolcuvare.Insdimpocle150-2kgb/ah,rndispote20-3kg/harcmunl,iodpesfa40-6kg/h.

3.4ASO(IGlycinemaxL)Mr,sdhpo.

3.4.1. oBeciaglnzr.
13.4 oBigal(f.38,dupMnAxte201)Lrmsiboca de ap ce przint ca 150% fa de mas lor, mgnied a pedr sau mi nt,le
funciemdptra.
adRicelrsnmugop,aezlsnrfdimcpouae2-3lngim.Hctruapdeoilnsrfu(gmaepc),zditnrols-mfuapi.SterdclnvoauIps20dmcie,rafltvozpd40m-7;cira5%nsolveztudpacim30.Rnletdrusobizaelmntvd.s
nfazcretgiv,dlsmopaucrtein d lompufazerctivhnd-smoafzlg.
oDritasmbnzedclByhujpoiresmfazndtcvibl10-4e
gF8.3iSoa(GlycnemxL):
1,23-ngermai;4pufzlos(-ctedan;brimp)
u5-nfrazetiol;6pds
ao-(tiledcn;bfrumzps ate)7-oindulpc;s8me
nfeci,xaruzoltpd15-2mer,ajngluisxdp25-
35ziledoarmfn,chu-tv dp506zileanfc.Cuorts (lghemnba)iofxruzt;cvaedmis,rolnct.

npTuailestrc,gdfmopisaulentr.cfdg,ipoa:emntrsd(ia).
Latipuldecrmnsofvpr;lautidecnm,fosalubivetrnzdp,lcesmtrinaud.
uSorilemapcntd ,irelmvapuctdnirelopus-abtcniderm,op.luatsczn40im15
uFnzelrsitampod vclen;isratdoump,flecianrotdus,lfeiaprn-ogdc30m.Fleuf,vanotbricFzelpsua roid,cmtepvulgansro.
oFrilegupatc3-9ns,dmx ile.uLaorctdnmpfsezihclaour8-9pgm,fdiesbazuvlrpnotfchd-seima,rlutndempifoarlu4-5,gesndvpti.FIorlumhaf,csegn durtoamv petal de ocuarel bal sau violace. Din cauze nc nelucidat se nmifesat vfrenct

fenomuldavrti,psne.Scdatfomrilunesc.dafot,mprizuescntflorid.
uFctrlesopaibd,1-5mnecurlhisatd,opgnurc.Pelasmtf30-4pi,ndrobueazjglmt30-6psi.
Smnaseforzudblictpanjguermx,iscvlatfzog.nSeurmpsic,ldatgeobnurihldacetgmsofrv,ndMB50-4g(maiect12)sHL68k.
uClicdevgtasomfrnz:1.)ceivgta,dur30-4zlmpnivotefajsducrl.Nzntisfuce.Plaozmnrdi;2)fpuctv,aez35-0lirndofuct.vAaezglpnisxm,rodtufeaz;l3)mrisnocdueaz0-5l.
13.42 oEcgial.Srpetd ofncilmae,sdrbuztonmpeacl,disuftor.
Caldurm.Tpetnigszj!ad7Cup(meroctil6),nfa-s.Duprelto,ncimad-2.3CfzotlenrmuispTaodnegt3C0,ircxma8-4.
Duprsieaolntvm1 dpuzieorntfs,c203Cmapeurotindl16.
nopaderictslmubfep14C,aroscidlznt.
Tempratuilscznfo vbtailer,mpdcnzfu;aotrivempsn20C-.
Celmaibuondcptrsgzmiea-dsforltupC20,maengdocrl1-3fi.C25,muaetsonrl1-3i 920Cd,umtaeslrfn opcuaztei.l
Apan.Cerilsofdumtc,g-nspeifurt307.mLagnc12p-5%fudetrsmailo.Pcpnergtzfadmolpunce,riasmo(10-52ugt).Inficpeasodrmlipt,nefoarmcdusli50%.
uExlcesdmitaonrp,fzelgdvtai.
uConmspldeavriztcg o1us,ldaveirptn coldmu.
Lnaoir,zdesumpg na:CidVest,um prozlnjadeMviTrspoc,lftueanzidm.
Lumina.Cerlfdostcpaziur.Pneml,tscdpaugvienmrolfc tpdieuasrovmcjl.
Laoilunmretspfc,zaimuletnprsofzaieul,vndtrcm.
Solun.Cerisfadvtm,cuperlxoij-ntsapu,crelbidnatoghums,

ofr,suptaicldnezm b-roatiuvl.Secxg,psnadurticelofvbpnsa.Ptruice omfdn,alsicret bunamd.


13.4 Zonarelgcistdf.39up(D,182)

gF9.3iZoneudcrltasf,mgoie:
I601.75C;4 10IV.24C;5

oCnrbdceilsfamupto,rRnief3zclgdavorbt,pesun5mzicaor.l
Zonafrtevbilupscd,CeariluTmMptvscCroiaSmuen;ldMpDsJjhBiLucaSlret,nodRm;TsivaVleMur,noCpdzBj-Tag.Mure,LncSomlpisCbdae.
naceostuzlrif(m,b-vanetc.)sudilmg250-34prta,cunsz(b)doeil mpratnfucivbo1le9(-20C).Ptamdprunzies20-.4hkga/
Zonafrbvilesutzd,pcomnrilCaRusebdDog,fctlriapnezodvfrtbilas.
Zonapuivfblrcgdestauim.Tprldexsncotuazir.enptcldoaDbrgi,uesnpztclmouisexgar;nzpbtcdolOiMue,srntpczdifgeaoul,rtvscmpeaifobl;rtdBngu,secopzarlimtnueg.
nLuodcerasiftl,DENCSU.(1982)pounzedivcarsl:
ZonaIu,pcderiCmSDbgsatulorcive(>10C),d.6-75sgnifavorbleptuc .

naceostzrmdiul v,aectsprin-uozlvade;
onaZI-,cupridmeCvst lz1.406-,cunmredsitopa c,uslivnd-ergat.zom sidve,uatrlpnoszueirtm;
ZonaI-,cupridetmCRnl-so4160.,darcumitezp lsn-rgaiecpuotf.Snmdslvarieputod,smnraezi;
ZoVna-IestiuprdMlvmCno-estai,ucz1.204C
nacestzormduipnatecrlsdMovip-ta;nreusdMovlicmtz,narpeousifm.
ZonaV-cupridetvsTl(nMuri,eoaSm)ptdn-sMvli,rzu1e0.25Cactonplmirvfdeustn;olzivcarefmpu,sdoti.
3.4.2. uSoriltvace.dsnRm(Lofialuhrb/zdeptcvnRmi,203)sgruafdetpovi(csnr90-15zle)dupmatioc(srvemaidC10),Ptfl.(Gu97:
oiusrfmatep(gd0)cnlsatumrie1-C5:D,PclSdATuar
oiusrtmp(ga0)cen15-2C:A,OixplSfr(atDdTu);sCA-PeBolyi4SnURmadGr();KskuDelginoc9ICA-Fda).
oiusremtp(ga0)cvnd125-3C:loirPe;umDAa(IFn)tkYvgisl.
oiusremvtadgp(I)lcn 1350-4Ck:BYaugosvi);re,ElVPn(DbaTumfictorezsldn(ICDA-Fua)
oiusvrtade(I)cnp1450C:S2UA.
uSorilendgpa0scmvftozelirnaudmjcltesivur.PnzodlesticaurngpI-.
nPtruealizpodcms nfearcultivpdos:nmareulvit.
3.4.3. uLolncasmt.eCrifAUS,IhRounademstrciplgoaedurti.Pf,cnplgmoae sru(,z)tfjmginecaolsrpd,uminetaoz scdgrei,umaflpnzhtobcdrieaful.
Nusercomandpltg iuesrnmdbpoltavfciuerdtasci.lFo-eurpnftagmvdbolicueSnrs).
Lsndolcatimre6z0(-18kg/h),bunpoacetrlmi gs,nodatuirlefzc.Smpodstunigreaclpodm.

3.4.4. aAprelicngmot.uCsdvpfrae10kgminboscudtrvale:7,1-kgz604P2O58Klacresmuidgntpo ,zalfmicrent.


pPrinalecmgtuz odnsarecpliugm.
Microelmntpfadsucmextrainl,dsobp ucetiralo.Ebn esmuiradlcftzonb,dermiutaoplns.
Obdeoitsmpranuclz dBoyhbipmnjac,fslu-etrdozancsmiuh.
Soiavrflcetumnzgdalorup2-4niec.
3.4.5. uLcrileso.nPdpgtavrsmioeuc:fnal;prosuteivga,nmlrcdteo;isuganblrcpmvetoiunsacrg ptelidzvonuar;cm epidsol,trvaznedugi.
Lucrilesotbxndampolcirtuze,s anvplicgohrtedf.
Experinlcutadfzosv,perilgcutxoa-sdnmeribufcpst25-8,ndemioaulrvgtcbnpeol.PszimurdMvaTnceitpofd20-m.Esalruecibnt,pvomfxa.
Efectuarisnldpgmo.Duretac ip(lose),artufcnz1-2desravipmxtcunld,reospaztuivgl.Amnecrdbaftplvi.onesc,dutaxipblrgn,eusfcoatim rdengsxcutaipvoelrsmzcu20-5dnaie.t,bplru maogxesctlrpudimnae7-1c.
Duplanmtoergcszifuadmnetpcglrvo,iu-satefcmpri.
onzelcutrimasjdg,pnLucDrialtoshejpndgzvrimax,cutlejpndivarmsfectuzol.
nPtruepgialmv,crestdiugabonlvcjrpeiuga,ndlsofcreipt.Du2-3namszolcredigub apscojrtlivungeapb.Cdtrlzivnesxacuomrjtlisbvaneu.Pgrmptzisnaeulocmb,rtianvelpus,dmtcioa.Anelurbtipsdacnmeul(5).
3.4.6. Samniseul.td rbfacpeinot-uzs,vdlrceaibputn98%,dgrmeclpui0as1.boftmre
TratensmloicuNgB-dy(hbzpj)efaonrmstuiclp,d-e4amiultoznscr

nsmriuhecta,pldoz bnirmsaefcdu-tojlnipzvsarecdu,tblnmoi.
Epocadesmntbilufrzpamedngiol,sct7-8Camrepunsdct ial14-5C,rvemnscudz.Slatpomierndsbjactifur,gndpemloazvticursepma,zdntifurmaeopnl,gidrfmabucte.Ssgondi aptruemson,liatpure.Sodlvmisfacrtebnzmpisulr.
Calendoristc,pum zndecriasoulpndecasutril zo.Seismtranpoce,iusrlmtpnadoureitms.
22 22 2 2 2
nDsitaemlrbuf35-4p/ondciega0ltm r.uPnseaizcdtm50-gbnrle/aispctv,4m .Aedsifrnazucolt:40-5p/mnriaz,382odu5m-40pl/natreicg,sv35-40pl/mncodierga.
ntresmilgabodupnteilrcasodf15%n,ptuemliazords.Cntecpuzasilormbtend70-1kg/hpa,izurctenmvs1.0dboa
aDnistreduolczgmbantipsleodcr.Puabmijnte,rgspaufczmnltrdiehsa50,ubz3lm4c6ntrei(pdgujalmecn).Lripbzdsutlane80m.c
nultimps-obarez lditnmcur(25-30ha1)ipetncdub.rSmaloipeznvtjcramouifnptel,vrdsacminptelubr.Sadoiptesmvnrulacdeftzi,snrlu-mcoveaSUP(21,9i48)lsndcrthogeampulrcnisvegtamo.
a io S
es
n m a e s
uc
an i m
6-CP S
al
a em i cn d a
ed
4-2
n m c
e i cnu f
ed
a ru tx e
i
ae t id mu
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rai
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i m cn d a e t a im ro f in u a r g i s a
es
cse ol f
i c m en it ap
i
e r ao t im l
ed
e m i cn d a
.
3.4.7. Lucriledngj.Bo,tbsmudeariclog,tpnvmaezsurioltcpn,demaifzrojtunlc.
uMrilsoeagthncpvmd arelstnucdbi,forlstugeabin plrmvtaegiodns,bculmaregincdplfzveta.uBirsogmclnpaeui,rosvtlcmanepd.Eusribtgcoajelvupirb,mctaneudjplrsiaect.nCdomfzpurila,bndectpuosivr(lndaet)zisrugblo,fcdpeant.Suz1-
u2crlisapvo,tenmdciru,aseftzndobrilp,a6-8cmeduntri

iadouprl.Cncmtef airdu,pnteogvclsaiur,pteodnzal fu-icotd.Semazrspil(8-10cn)ufedgambr,iltnofase.Pgmbcrunil,poasvtderminclzuso,bf tredia.Pnopjlsfecdiurtaov.


3
rigIaesotdbfcnzluemisadprot.Ancmlgieapurso,ncd-0te6.i7m/hapurocds03kg.nemi
33 3
Suntecsar4-5dimo 708/hapluesrcbitn40-5mouperabiltsn.vmcoepaliudrsnm20-3/hap.
3.4.8. oRltaecrips. dmobelgatirpsndcuzejoaimlrpt.P nuedoalcrsimvtnueda,rlizsopmfntcuerailsopmt10-2cdevanluix,roptfeaulsi.
Monmtulepidrcaf o-snemutrl:gbiafzcdso;unem70%pitlcaorsefun;mildta16%.
oRltaecrisxumbnC-12fglajecsrptudio:evafbcrtmjsp4l-6(),izdnoaebcus4-5hkm,t/rivlafde0o6nupmcistrbaode20-5mlnti18rsvaofeudpcnzt.
Soiasecrtznp-ulmdaih2,53t/conergpl4-uati.Robne:sd31-2,
nSemliodasptrz14%u.

3.5BOULVica(fb)

3.5.1. oBilgecaznr.
13.5 oBigal.bu(f310,dpGHten98)cromaigd3C-4.RncestpuvlI,aoirbdzmtefc.Nilsoarn,pdet75%cim12n(Sa nCea,r 1974). npTuail est cu upatr hmui,c ofistua,l nalt de 10 - 150 m,c slab
ramifct.uFnzelsp,2-3hdomarieltc.Spunsv-,daoricetfxlnuad.i

Fig.310Bobul
A-tipurdnesm1(boc;2jl3-are)
B-smhan(il;rdce)Cboupmgna(-dtile;frzp
r-dnmapci;eotl)
Da-pntul(sm;eicofrza)
E-planoitrf.

e l i ro F
tn u s
,e tapu rg
et c
3-,6
.emcanr
tnaPleop
es
za em ro f
iro36l-4f
.rlav
r on im
i.37-r49lav
n i uq ea
a,
esup id
ep
, )% 0 7 e t s p ( e j at p e l m i rp
laicepns
ep
e l ja t
2-.5
l u tn e co r P
e r ag dl
et s
e r tn s i rp u c
1
, tn ed p n i f ,% 02
,laicepns
ed
e li dn o c
eci tam lc
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ad o i rep
a er z in l o P . ) 4 79 1 , a en r C d aS ( i r g e l
et s
m ago tu
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se la
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) el i t s p (
ntus
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tn e s ix en zo r i t d ix o t r ad , et i ru alm
.praci nep
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i
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i
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.
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n
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e
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c
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raihc ,u oljim ubo tced natsoc iam cudorp
i

n i am n
t i ro a d , i l b a ro v f e n
i en u b am
ir c fi t u rf
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iro lf
.
oPaderivgtlbumcjs130z,ndarei5ltpofc20zienmarstl6dfopiamuren.sct dia,perogvubsltmc.
13.52 oEalgci.Bbunestmdr,gafiupneltc81C0.Drdaupj-Noeis,nbtmgraf1d240.6C,iupenbotlmjc95fdvarnlu.Ptposghiea-5C,rcldvtemupiaorn.Lf, tsed15C-20rilfapunc,bodsetialfr(co).Cneudpts401zolcaevinrutmdf,lsceaoirtpu.
uSorilefavbnptsc-g,ureaioln.LpHsb6tmuicfer,odnla.Smigsedunotvrfalcb e,ipusnoatlvcmdfreisau1n,t-gopbl.
13.5 oZnelgci.arbutsdno:PlipDreuTasvbcdMoi.
23.5 Soiurcltvae.Lnsmpidvarob(csu)qnemijl,arpdgv.obeDnul1984afstmgdicCj,repubolafnstmidvU eAgrclMVtinuaCj-Npo.,ezsvcrlnutabC417o(gfislrdeptucnRma,203).
3.5 uLolncasmte.Bbdpri,xcalgunmose.zdtipaucernl,bfstoi.Dpuvcaeln,xgmoir.s
43.5 aAprelicngmot.uPfhds,plaiecrvnboum:6kgN51P2O5,4K2Cetc.anodizurlpgveman,bocizlprgude.ajGnosiczmt(15-20/h),puerfolasdi.nObtgjeplcumaro,bvifndelctgmuaropie.
bTelua43.
SoiurdebltvcnaRm
Anulresci(ad)
Nr. uSoli ardenoig nAureglist nMeutoilrs
var.minoHz
USAMVCluj-Napoc
1. uCj-84l Ronmia 1984 19
2. nMoat oRnmia 02 - CSA.Duceav
3. FindeVra* Ronmia 195 201 DI.CFLVidra
var.mjoHz
4. nCo*sti Ronmia 981 19 DI.CFLVidra
5. oPvdur31cti* Romnia 19 201 DS.CLBacu
u*sogrimlec

53. Luorilecs.Sntapmzlesnarigu.
63.5 Samniseul.tPr,podbiesaft97%mrgnp85.EdcsefatulmoirNgn.
2
oPaderismntpug,cl4-5C.Afernmaiostbduzpe;lcafoirngjmtuvde.Dsal40-6pntem.Disdruflaznpoc,t-semrduia(15o)nlbtescridaz,pulmvbntesodria50-6cubzl1m/n,ptesri.Madulsmpe50-6con(ri7),tua.Admesn6-8cu,fitxramdoels.Cnt180-2kg/haloburi53,smte.
73.5 uLcriledngj.Costa uprie,cmbanlodt.Dpeum10csfa2-3rilnotpemua.
83.5 oRltaecrips.Muzbfndalot,rieps20cnfduaz:/3ipstmre(-g),nlacuostridp2-4ze(a).Rcolustfidrmbna,90%eujsltri.oLmcnpfade lubi.
Lanoirpduclestvb,f or:nzelaisbpducth20q./Romrne-ais1,5:Lpuclmreatgnos.iSpzl14%dumtae

63.LUPIN(nupsi)

3.5.1. oBilgecaznr.
3.5.1.1. oBigal (fig. 3.1) Specil nuale ultivcae necsit o temprau min de

mginerad4-5C,optc2x38n.LuiblaC,epmgrd14-5z;69uile,a2CprtmgndfeauL(.Mt,197)RsrilpnegcDutvsadilroz,emcupnb(tsi)valgur(eptsmni)dca lugb.RnestpiI,rdola180cm(ugben)2pi,st50%drcnegaul-2
m.cNodzitleunsar,p cozletui.Barspf:Rhybmndzvolteciuasrp.Rnomecaitbdsrpulznoeg olubsie.
gF1.3iSpecudnl:
ALupinsalb;B teCguifols;DLpnhy.
Tulpinaestcdr,o-fm6015laupinb,-2cgestrvdanml.iFoufc,eptr de

submracepltin, dz.Fruestpalmco,5-9fingvublatocepnir-ubasl.t
oFrileunstdpacm ,vf lieraondcub-fstliepa;gnurdbmfoveticlpgar(bs,ozvlet)iunpa.rfcdbzemulinptaocdrf.PizleustgamIpnbcr,loguapinbe.Ds-dvtcorlfaumine,tgosarpdinfluezcogtrdlimnafe.Dpu,bosz50-6rildncaemjutp li,rceamfdng8-10psti(6%lor),45dfeacmunpitsleramfcdnouitp(L.M,197)Plesngabdrtcu4-8mihlp;abnes,crout4-5midhnelapbgu;,rtc4-7sminla.SeubtcroziMBd30-4glapn;mtefbicous,MBd108glapnem;rtfohuis,cMBd150-2glapnbrmeout,McBd0-25glanpir.
dPerioagvts120-4zlnupb,3ieag120-4zlupnbstr75iea (cuorltdz8-10ani).
3.5.1.2. oEalgci.Cerntmupsd,fcvairnlbetgsu.Spoacivnrdebltuoc52pina,gbe8lustr.Pmvdoapieclun60tdor.Caiesuc,plmgn30-5Afri4ustal.Cpoged-25,mirzstnfluab.SpeoC-6i,lu7nbga9pstromfechiul.Sadg180-C9pinb,eculastrvmnpbi.Lule,garzstcCminelupbga,rzsti nulcevopmads,riztbnelc.Cpvuma stdzingLblrecomapu idtblgensr.
nCerilupfadsovt,ezrimulac(hpst2),odbeizruflamntcogebsiprul.aLvfceidlnspoa.
3.5.1.3. Zonecgli.LupbdarztsoneplidTvrau,b-ctnMezolipdrmactguenos,iprlO.Lgabvefconusidr-tlTave,npbusoidzclmare.
3.5.2. Soiurcltvae.Lns hdbpiM(1ua94l),fertonsi.PbglcaudMetnmS.CALiv
3.5.3. uLolncasmt.epirfdgoa,utn-vseclipr mandei.Svzcurs-lt25mon,faiuejr.Lpltbvsdgnmoiae,cuplrstnaevoifcbulrstpgemoa.Dniulvct,xepdsgraonmictlue.

Cangrmtved,lupisoc adunrltmiepcbaz u.
3.5.4. aAprelicngmo.tuP10ks,pvecinlxtrag65kN;2,0P2O583K1gCaetc.Dinslm,45%3uPborpafiecmnl,oratepiu80%s7ofr.Flzaec gtuminsEfolrecRhbzupistafnrle-vcp.Ria l nuoiarec st ndep unlptai bcer i de oi.s nD detrmil fcua l
U.S.A.M.V. Cluj-Napoc,reztmibns LP-16.
3.5.5. Lucrileso.SntapmrugeDcsnait,ldprfmeucoantigdpslreuca,nfo12-5m.
3.5.6. Samniseul.trb p96%aies80ngm.Svofcrtulia,dpsneocrtm.Sulabifpdves,nrclmafiduestp3C-4().oalcrnmie,utbspoldiaurectnmg.Dpli,dacretunsf(olg)piazdurcest20/hmv.
222
nDsitaemlpruodc:inabe50-6/m,upltrgas708boe/,iupnltrc15ma.Dsdenpicoultrm.Pedgabuinrmslpoted15(),cunraizmjosplte fchnidur(-slape)zonifmrtu.Pslabe,npimz 25ctrduleopai60-7nmbz,srledat60cupn
aseputri.Pnmvd,lzaest15-20cmnrdui,fpolaste2530%dcuribo.aAnmest,plc d3-4ourieas56cmpl,nerdia2.Ctmslhc,eniarupo-dmst:204kg/halinub,1-3pe06kg/hualinbstr,2-4peoduciamsvrj(fngte)luc2530%.
3.5.7. Lucriledngj.Costa up,rcivnteadslu8m-10,cobatinresdp.Lulmxct2-3raiendu.
3.5.8. aRecorltips.Mun mfoe,rcailgts.R ndperacmuitl jg.Roeasfcnidput(rl4-6z),eicomnba.Rtrduspiln,eoacrt muiflsnepdtra.Lbouc esmnv,id pstile dnehisct. O ateni odsebit trebui s se dacoer lupin bgenal, care are
pstilendhcamur.
nPtruegmvdplioscazfret,u mbinldsozapvgrecufl.ntado(mie)pscrzulvnaoghi,edmptucrva.Pnelodmfsiupcgrtvenladomuipgrtfn(e),oacmsivzbutfdpnealiugr.
nLuplireazodc20-h3q/b,mvufintlpa(5.)Prodcesht260u,nfipcadelsothgvr(nuceiaplt).

uTable3.5
oPdurcimelaspn
Compnea nLupblia nLupligabe nLupbliastr
bBohe(qa)/ 35 25 30
Grsim%)( 39, 4,7 5,6
nPro%tei)( 38,9 46,0 34,6
Grsimq/h(a) 82, 1,0 1,4
nProqtei/h(a) 91, 79, 8,9
nSemliudpstraz14%.

TCAPOLIVU

TEHNOLGIACUVRP SLTAECOGI

14.
. mpoIartnelgis

nregulvta,mspcidoeulngar(sm,ifct.)edg20-6%asubnvrz,fimetploguas(r).Einmecpgoltu dar,iesmgonlctardpie(16-42%).
Speciloduratgvsnifealuob,cprtdnm ie(Asa,BcEuphorbnLemiat.)csolgrf,bhiendtpuoaslm,ern.
nDptreicsbloa,u vxntriedpla(ogsuc-zr),fiemtbl(aonpus),fierctlzda(n pi,emcl).Atsunaizrxem,plogthfncaumisepbro,(d)nxtl aciuefrp,om(bgs)lntdaeicr,upjfov(l)etc.
Grsimlevgotacjun ,fdlrsiteanmcur.Elesmtofnacdgi,pursebtoadgimnl,pcestuvorildhabn.Pe,ugmrsviozlt93kca8(j)fd417nupeirlosahbdc(A.Vn,20)
Ceamirptdnulgv (mas,ecri)uolntvdsgaeb,miroculptnfdgseriaml.Dncpt-obdgesriau(j95%),fnptcesdvrumail.
uUrilegvtacnbofsp umediarcntlosgeduricbavl.
nafrdegsim,l(uct)po ansemdir(ctbola),enfuri(ztxdpgl)ovaefrjic.
nduistralme,vgzfbricaonselm.
uUrileacstonpzd.Miuerlosfcnpta,veulimofbnrtsca elugi,romtdanspeli,buroctnalipgfe,mscdurt.
Uneluigrvta(p,sof-c.)ilbarunpteomds

uTrtelio,mascpdnbfeuolitrcavspnemolidfbgt3r0(-5%),xacvenzsimt.
Planteogisumprdcvhante.Ulisrozdm(upe,a)iltnsrof-ucealtdnbi,rfmpgoeucat.
nultimerdcsoap flutivencoagspr20mh,debitxnusoafrlcp(2,i)dest3orafl-u(7hi1,24).
Drepmtuna,lidcos prumnaelivgtd817o.h96cra0mnileu18.
nRomia,ptruedclsvfo-inmpurd,a
isopar,ntueldzmipr,acnul.
Uleiurvgtadfncposieratduncl om(egradifxt10ul).Dpovcnse,irgtam:ulvncdeios140;rmat,lndceiosupr10-4latvndicebsu(,.pmNZfrola1965)
nPtrueilzdsaov cnrepmidul.stabo,cerintamdoxg,usecrpflindatox().Acesurbpzilaov.Ueursmctniolfpedramt.
bTelua14.
Clasifcreouvgtndp
Plant ndIicelo uGpradesictv
erilPa 18-206
LalemniI 162-03
168-92 uUrilevscat
pCne 140-69
acM 31-4
Floare-usi 19-4
ofrnel 15-
Soia 107-3 uUrilesmvcat
Susan 103-2
Bumbac 10-7

apRi 49-12
Arahide Ricn 90-13
81-6 uUrilenscatv
Mslin 78-95

24.
.FLOARE-SUI(Helianthus)

4.2.1. oBilgecaznr
4.2.1.1. oBalgi.Fre-ustpnb,cogveaius.rStmdlp,noebizvajuglst2mdco,rinaefpbscrndlteaozm70,cpibrseaulomn,fd-ibrzsteac.Mnpldiofr-eusgtacm507.

nprimelfazvdot,cieparn(dltu4-5chfze,iga07mndupGh.Blt,198)Siseracgndmxlpuotif.
Tulpinaorfe-st,cgdiaopuers,nmfct(l ie)arodmuvgs,btcpenaziodrltsc.
nlimueaptrfczobvnieduslahrtc,f mgideanutrpc slo.imeantrd1-2fupsi35mlacentrj.Hbzdfo-usivantrlpce130-75m.Coaivnstrulcepdimoj(140-6)aetruln2,5cpzismbfgderuacoltniz.
nPlafzde2-3prchiu,t nsafd-erpolmctiuadsre,nlfoi.
aApoturlifesnbvdz 20-4r,fuciedpoagvthbzln ei,sudromaclfn.Fztpie,omardngcitupeasrln.Etdiueprm(2-h3cfnzlabsutoe),imrdp naulsotfeivcr.
2 2
uPenbhtrizacldfo-s prmaeilstufo(30-4.h)/nieardctofzsu.Flmnpariec(38-50dzlsmt),aroncuieplf,doarstunje3icgpdla,5-4.Surfoixmsezntad,fcupr40-7m/lantiedscogv.
0
Floriesuntgpafc,dml10-4nuiepgotdcr(bsniae).Lmfoltpu,rngsicadvflt.Pozueribncdpasotuli.Cemrvncadsult45.Pneoicrfspdulag,tienrozcam,pduier.
Cualtidescnr-pobmf,latvuexcsnrjdoifla.Sutvmsencrdpox.Ptaulsegcird:fbo.Feluatp,s1-2rndimgculxtae,s(f).Endocbrguli-ae,vtspnzor.Fliubae,hmfdt60-25(oinu1),pctreagsfdliun.
oFarel-suitnpd(gmvcaozunte),iplmgfcrozasenmiptbl,daronesc.
uFctrleshonampi,g utlcensdroif, av7.5-1mlunge39i2,rosMBtd50-1gaHe3k.rimchonlsdupeftai.nAchuglmerosai9zpvct14lduefnNr.Z(amisob,965)
Pericapoulj()ft,nvdzriuolaept2-5%shbzcifnur.lPeapvdot cfmrspei(ldn).S tucrelaidopvnzbmuescltrioafdnz.

noteriulfcsmaz()pir75n%dschelabzot.
uProlcesmdfaiphn -ruez452ildafcp(D.Bv,1963teAlVrnau20)
Cicludezvotarn.b42spfgimloeturdasvf-i,pnV.Be(19)

bTelua24.
Fazeldvgtifor-us
Faze(subdprio) Durat(zile)
Observai
10-2 0
m1.Sneat-rsi Duratmnolepdis10C(al6)umditefcn.Lprasb
minudegra,ctzdoprelua(i).Lsxcdprelungatfzi415-30()

2.Rsprie-anfloc 3-41 nmtrefoa10ui6zlcdprmoafne.Ptsidpm,lnurveaist213zldren(fumloicatd)

3.Aparitonesflc-u 21-3 0
mRuitlcenasdrpuiafeol.dPrctivu,nefampr(dl20C)oviznuaecmtr.

o4.nriflea (10) 0
Condieal:umtsfr,piodea(2-4C).ntucrsafzelo,pingcur.Samldefoit,spcvnura.
14-5

5u.Sfrnlito-mae 35-4 Tulpindacrmes.SfzinlocarutdMB,pegviofsntc(ruz)deanmt,irgpbz)ovceasltrnfid(hoguzcatre,pnlifoua).

Total 13- mLansetulirz(cv),dpoagetsruc2-4mni.


136

4.2.1.2. oEalgci.Fre-ustznp oalgcdir,estmoadu.Deirnctfl,moausiredctplnmaozisect,lrdmpaueiscznt gva.


00 0
empTurat.Ginsloc4-5C,darefmtpuis76-C.Planer,fzd45potisghunela6-8C,dctrsueopvnamlidc(frtu,eosnic.)amdrguvlfetMzin,pasbger.
00
Plasticderfmpuo-alisvedzntbmpruc13-7C,tilaerd250cxpulsmaetrbiovcndlfet.
00 00 0
Pnplarioesfc,tdzvmnal14-6Cirpouf,temsd18-20C.Sancierolfptdbuame18Czi-9nopt.Lar,flesmuid30Carlnpctesiofuzvgalrndec.piomfut,arlensci20- 4 C. Secta, onis de tmupria otfe ridca de uvnrit scae, dtrmin eucra

produciensmalt.Tfvrzucedionltma,bcurdepil.
00
uSmapterilo(gsbcd7Cn)aperiovt,lsmu azpenrbhivtdclRom,140-7C.
Uamidte.Dsnurplcoade(vfiuntprs470-5hacme),louirztdsbnhacmepoul,trisdnfaept,lcrusiobdea-mprfvinluzobaestmdrcgin aep.Pstmulrdcbizvo,naeprsiotlfbvzedxanirtusol.Dempacistruno depl,zc.Ttnaorf-eusiphdmalotr(funze),pdvisagconledumitp.r
nPtruecoli,smabpd70-1%nlor.
nCerilfo-ausdpvzgtie.Dlrnacpuomfs(i30zle),tnua2-5%dcoepsrntimulvga,fdzesom0-6.cuCnladirpt(7%o)semnzadlcpuftri nmeslo,caupvtridnelctrs5-10iup2ga,46zle(f1.duGphoiRcaPtn,975eV.Bur1Lip)sfazldctone,rimasldctfze,nriopuadcsmetnbrilufcaopetdismn.
Fig.41uConmsldaepfr
Aporvnizaebuslc,tdopareviunflzh ctdsmeoipunrl.Patsczenofluivrbpatdeo.Acsnvifrzapblmeduonsctizar.
Lumina.Avdorecptfs,l-uimaobrednfctsulhimp,arodn-fec.sEtipaudnml,beorfsci.Ptdul

senibulfatd cm.Lnsbiureadtlgp,cfoiesdraunm.
Cvtperiacolfd,-usznmrevaibtlduosnc.Afpeviatmruodzscelng.
uSol.Deipatfvcsrd,-uletnpioaf.Csmrvulejoci,atp-nsdfrhelucait np,drbeoscuaitl bn(pH=6,4-72).Surecomadtfilv snuzore,ailcbpmtn-usore.Tivalg,mpcterudaisln,opeturda.
4.2.1.3. Zonelgciu.fdrbatohzieflgcubs6ndtrpoae-ligs.(f42,duCrHoabc198)
gF2.4iZonelcudtraf-siRomn

ZonaI-upcdrietlgCmRoDba,pcuideVstrflmnoazvupe-sri.Sldnomtczuepf,xralsidtcebunap,rmilovt(CdeVs).Subca,rinlfo-gtepubadrci.
ZonaI-,ucrepdiLDfvobl-uars,edtimcpfolurvaeitc.Fmnprualseztidfcnoaprvegti.
ZonaI-,situpredcCmRaPolDbgi,pternuj a(vodlsb-c,ernzimuDg)lapstcmijoudefvbrnl-sa,czpioefvtdurlbnca-.
ZoVna-I,situpredcmCRvniaGu-Brde(csovtl),CmpiLRnaPe(curozglvtisbna-).
ZonaV-upcdrieCmJj,PlB naTsvicredputlm zanfiorvdebtupl-s.

ZonaVI-estcmipufvblr ndePoMvsc(u-rlti),mePonGc.
2.4
. SoiurhbzcltvanRm.1968sfeiCDAIFudlaprhbznmoestiucla,rgpbzdenosticlamrufpen,diogaturcl197b3hzsimpRoFn52(dea)u l3.Pprifconmtdgehbza,uil-snrotcpmgealfinousrdgeztambl(,pirun-cet)ola(ObhmWr.,pduceivzoatlfnmgdurcihbzovalef-sru.
noCatgulficsrb(hz)depnRomuiatl203,cdesISnprTagituol,esRdcnrpi67bhzoafl-eu(4smn3tri),dopveu(abl4.Dcti21snro,daemultcifPnrMos,Rma-Vel.uctpdinobhrzsmeavucitrdnlsme,opavfiurbgtne.
Hibrzdefloa-uscCDAIFn tizprsdelacbon.Pitmus-rehzvF,SplcCoiatRdVenusrgbx,AFlivSct.
bTelua34.
Hibrzdefloa-ustvcnRm(203)

Tipublhr-d nAureglis-t
Denumirbahdl ardgeoin nMoierutlsahbd Grupademit

0 1 2 3 4 5
LEAX HS oRnmia CDAIFundlea 196 impTur
ALMNZOR HS nFar EURALISMNC 203 mSiteupr

APETIL HS US.A OPNEIRH-BDSAGL 197 Semitpur

AREN HS Elveia AGROINTELS 19 Semitpur

ARPD HS Serbia INSTUEFORLDAVGBCPSNI 203 mTupir

BANT HS Yuvgoiasl NSTI.PCULRDEMG 197 mTupir


LBERI HS AS.U OPNEIRH-BDSAGL 196 Semitpur

ANCDISOL SH nFar ONMSAT. 02 Timpur


CAPEL HS mGaneri CS. SATEN UNIORAM 201 mTupir

LCORI HS Ronmia-AS.U ICDAFundlea,PONERH-BSGL 194 Semitpur

DIABOL HS nFar MLAGINRETCSDU 203 Semitpur

UNDA SH Oland AVNDERH 198 mSiteupr


EDN HS nFar ROMAN-VELUI 201 mSitardev
ELADI HS AS.U PIONERH-BDSAGL 197 Semitpur

FAVTORI SH oRnmia CDAIFundlea 921 mSitardev


XFELI HS Ronmia CDAIFundlea 1982 mSitardev
FESTIV HT Ronmia CDAIFundlea 1987 Semvitard

FLEURT HS AS.U DEKALBPNTGICS 20 mSiteupr

FLORA HS AS.U DEKALBPNTGICS 19 Timpur

FLOERAI HS US.A DEKALBPNTGICS 20 mSiteupr

FLORENA HS US.A DEKALBPNTGICS 19 mSiteupr

FLORES HS US.A DEKALBPNTGCSI 19 Timpur

LOFRINA HS oRnmia ICDAFundlea 02 Semvitard


FLORM249 HS Ronmia CDAIFundlea 196 mSiteupr

FLORM328 HS Ronmia CDAIFundlea 1986 Semvitard

FLOAYDK(710) HS nFar ASGROWFNCE 201 Semvitard

0 1 2 3 4 5
OCFUS HS nFar ERVLNUICH 20 mSitardev
FUNDLEA206 HS Ronmia CDAIFundlea 1982 Semvitard

AFLYK(307) HS nFar ASGROWFNCE 201 Semvitard

AHELSOI SH nFar WSKATG. 02 emSvitard


HYSUN321 HS Oland VANDERH 20 Semitpur

NADI HS nGermia S.C SATEN UNIORAM 201 Timpur

USTJIN SH Ronmia CDAIFundlea 918 Semvitard


KASOL HS nSpia PKOESIL LASEMI 20 mSitardev
SA.
KISUNFARO HS Ungari KISUNROMAL 203 mTupir

KISUNRAMZE HS Ungari SKUNIREACHT 20 Timpur

AGLUN SH nFar MLAGINRETCS 02 mSiteupr


LG538 HS Fran MLAGINRETCS 201 mSitardev
LG5634 HS Fran MLAGINRETCS 201 mSitardev
LG564 HS Fran MLAGINRETCS 20 mSitardev
LG560 HS Fran MLAGINRETCS 201 mSitardev
LOVRIN38 HS Ronmia SCDALovrin 203 mTupir

MACH HS Ungari-F S.C SATEN OUNRIMASL. 20 Timpur

AGMNU SH ranF OMRAN-VEUIL 201 emSvitard


MANITOU HS Ungari-F S.C SATEN OUNRIMASL 20 Timpur

MASI HS Ungari-F S.C SATEN OUNRIMASL 20 Timpur

MELODY HS Eveia AGNROTEILS. 20 mSitardev

INUMEA SH oRnmia CDAIFundlea 012 impTur


MUGR HS Ungari CERALSHNOPFITMYZEGD 203 Timpur

LNIB HS AS.U OPNEIR HI- BREDSAGOL 197 mSiteupr

OBNEL SH nFar VERLNUICH 02 mSitardev


PERFOM HS Ronmia CDAIFundlea 198 Semvitard

PIXEL HT vEeial AGROINTELS. 20 Semitpur

PR63A80 HS AS.U PIONER HI-SEDAGROL BRED 20 Timpur

PR63A90 HS AS.U PIONER HI-SEDAGROL BRED 20 Timpur

PR64A HS AS.U PIONER HI-SEDAGROL BRED 203 mSitardev

PR64A83 HS AS.U PIONER HI-SEDAGROL BRED 201 mSitardev

0 1 2 3 4 5
PR64H51 HS AS.U PIONER HI-SEDAGROL BRED 203 mSitardev

PR64H1 HS AS.U PIONER HI-SEDAGROL BRED 20 mSitardev

PR65A2 HS AS.U PIONER HI-SEDAGROL BRED 20 mSitardev

DRAPI HS Ronmia ICDAFundlea 916 impTur


RECOD Soi Ronmia ICDAFundlea 1965 Semvitard
IGARSOL SH nFar ONMSAT. 021 Timpur
ROMIL HS AS.U PIONERH-BDSAGL 198 mTupir

OMRINA SH oRnmia CDIAFundlea 981 mTupir


SATURN HS Ronmia ICDAFundlea 203 mSitardev
SAXO HS nSpia KOIPESLMA 203 mTupir

ELSCT SH Ronmia CDIAFundlea 1983 Semvitard


SENA HS nFar ROMAN-VELUI 201 mSitardev
SPLENDOR HS Ronmia ICDAFundlea 20 Timpur

SUNKO HS nSpia KOIPESLMA 203 Semitpur

UNSY1 HS AS.U GRAO-UNIVESLKFT 961 mSiteupr


SUPER HT Ronmia CDAIFundlea 1983 Semvitard
TIM HS Ronmia DS.CALOVRIN 19 Semvitard
TOP75 HS Ronmia CDAIFundlea 20 mTupir
TRELNI HS AS.U PIONERH-BDSAGL 19 Semitpur

RETVI HS nFar MONSAT. 02 emSvitard


VALNETOI HS ugoIslavi NSTI.PCULRDEMG 197 Semitpur

ENVUS HS oRnmia CDAIFundlea 02 mTupir


ZOLTAN HS Serbia INSTUEFORLDAVGBCPSNI 203 Semitpur

32.4
. uLolncasmt.eFr-ipfdo,absenltiurcmpdasbtnev.Nuirclmaden6u(zhibrostlpavecdunmi4-5),roltaesxcudznmi bo(ptrgla-Sescumi,nBotryapeb-Phmsi/Dln,aopret)idug(/ambl-Tnysecodit,vrAgp.)auzclidentr(o-Obhaum).
ondciergapulsmtv naidp8-10solmte45crfauip0%ndo-Vls.B(e,19)

Puemrscdnlaiof-evpctrn auildmsoecn(tb4.,upCPilGhS197)

bTelua4.
Corelaidntpf-uscrilo,nevatdmp(szbil)
iproducanbt

Producia
Rotai(n) Ponderastucli(%) nFrecvatulidm(%) nDiferaq/h
q/ha %
7 41 80. 425. 01. Mt
6 17 31. 25. 9.2 2-0.
5 20 4. 823. 93.7 6-1.
4 25 38. 72. 89.4 7-2.
3 3 810. 721. 85.4 -3.7
2 50 013. 619. 7.2 -5.8
1 10 621. 16. 63.4 3-9.
nultim,arosce idnmpartfbcloeusmnviaprflotceu-s(db190),inrmpoeltsvca uri.nPeobdpcatsmurgizeonlpdaf-sutrcilone18%.
bTureivtacpgmos nflre-auiptzdo(n,c)lurebimsatdgpln,reocifazutdpgensicormtaunlf.Nsdicepomratu,nidf(lcesprgoabnSu,zht).Celmipgroaunf-stcleibzrvdmu,nsapoet(glrmd)izaobcesut,rfpilancoeusmzptrlaniecd.Cuzbstvpnoelarcmu, b.Difea-sorltvcnudmip(grob),tade5-6n.
oFarel-suitbnpgm cdvera(los,iupmbgntc.)dreahipug,scoltzmn(ra15ebi)pucsolrznadetvgm.
42.
. Apalicnregmtod.Cuvalpnecor,f-sitmuadnelvr,fotpsizaulc,orentimjdpaslf.
upDM.Rolier(1972),ctadAVn40opurie1kgsm,ldcanftxroei40-6kg,z1523P2O57K.
oDintaluemrdbs,nfate65%izo3dsr10pu(V.Bne,a9)Difdstbolpruvgea.
Ritmuldeacrnbsotluivearf-s pd(b4.5,uDaveci1963)

bTelua54.
Ritmuldeacrnbstouivelafr-s.
nSubstacml(%) Absoriaelnmtuv
Fazdgevti
N PO25 K2O
Formaedclit 73 06 24 6
uSfrinlto 69 92 54 8
ncepuotrmlfis 75 10 71 90

Ceamirptsubnclzvaderiobuntfpslm ,eiar-odcunlpbtifraoe,d-lusb65%inazotfrc,7dpsu90mgnLezi.(Gaho,ctAlVru20)Dbe4.sovcia6n%dtlferumsopian.
oAtuzlifrsnaedpcuo(sbmine),artl upinfxcotsreald,zugipo.
n
iu l e r ao s - i ro l f a i r t u n
uc
,K P N
el za f
ec i t r c
es
cs e g
n
e la i n el d ao i r e p
ed
er terc
ed
eri s r al
al
aer m o f
i em r p
ih c e r p
ed
, e znu r f
al
i e n cs e ro l fn i a e r m o f
al i
a tn ei c fu sn I . e r i o l fn
ron u
ev i t r u n e t m e l
n
et s c a
ed a o i r e p
av es
im se r
n
el za f
e r ao i e t l u
ed
er a t lo v z e d
i
n
a i cu d o r p
, t a zi l e r
c ad r ih c
rov
if
e t a ru g i s a
enu b iam e l c iop a
i d no c
ed
e i rtu n
.
oAtuzlesniarf-,dmvutneaiprcozl,stvnuepdiaml.Lrozsfcent,pamiulbrvdzecpatsimlu,rdneofamcpt.si,rlzoeabdmn,ucitszelopdranm.F-usietbclorazgvnpfudelsi.

Fousflr,napmtcihzbevgantr,simudlcfeop.Inazvrbilucdtemspoanblic.tuFfrjosemnazlcdhirbometapusl.Ccirvfoetpadunsmijrlo.Dcetv,dapimrulzosfnetacgbirlo-sumencdairptulecszndioafrutepmvlcbnazordfsi.uet,lpancrsbhmiuotedjrsl,amnzite.
uaPolsitencmr,fdxhoegusbilctnp,adrvfouiec90%mpnrstlvgadueo.Epicmtblsgru,nefdhociltsm.Dnae,uporzitlsc(dean),boi.zulrptsdnemac,oirufzlntspmae,iorduclntpasef.
nutriamelo-fspznucielmrot(b,dagufpc.)ejnrosmltivaz,bupenrlod.
oDritasuemdlcbnzv,psoiareducmnlptvriega(76-dnmso),rfleauiczbgnmtspordeuia,cl.

Cerctilfuad.HGhB198(0),pertiusodvlanc -frieosubtanlvdz.
unoGiladegjrstbvfc-ozmdea1520t/hpulicbsrnofa.Siledpurncgoajtsmiperldzcbon(70-8hkga)./Desm,rfluoivcbntaegdlrjpimtou(b,sfecnzahrdig).
Amendatlpsicorzgu.

52.4
. Luorilecs.Fa-ntb,frhdpa(celimtzuns rpofe),mitvlabnzuc e,rtdinaspmoufrdcinae.
Lucrilesofatpmbnu,ciedlrgovatpncumeisrzvadponl.
uAratxsecvmon,fidparbselztucnmog,vaidrebplsutfzcmaoinl.sArudepvtc manriouefl-std205cnipalgremo(usct,nibraedpmoglsctiruvea).Pndghpslotmceraniu.
ntreiauplvgraecftnzoumilpvredcanui.
nPtruealizsdobmpcneat,zufrilspcnetodma,giruvsfcendtaril.Sonevu,ctbdmiarpsnveltfugiacrzomb.Pesplnta,ugrcvdiestlofpgacurdinemvltgpacoi.
Uultimcraegdp nvxsombiruatlzpenvmaritulesc.nfdatroui,mblespchn:
etprnuilafsogcdrtaiv;
petnurilas,combvfdtgrpeliaocuz.

62.4
.Smnaisetul
Samndeflor-usit bnpdcalret,sium98%ngadep5,sfir(MB=70-8o)umntacisepr,lodSnatmiue br,dsnpac10%u.PoteilRrvzmndagbcesupio,rlhznmF1.
nPtruealizmsdcof(rugi)lapexzvscomndtruiega.Msmonlfzprduce-ai lt,mrfnpoucdejiMBb(tla64.,pVPenu19cidLSMt7).

bTelua64.
nfluIaemsiord-puce
iaunordcelt
MBa oPdurcianesm oPdurciael % %denulifrct %deulinmz
Varint muaterildns odjiec MB
hkga/ % kg/ha %
Mt)( 01, 920 01 3140 10 026, 5,914 2,346 9,2
2 0,68 286 97 1298 69 426, 45,9 62, 96,2
3 65,2 2630 89 194 89 8263, 45,1 61,79 92,6
4 53,0 2543 86 145 85 4273, 45,0 61,3 91,
5 47,0 2360 81 1049 78 527, 4,7 61,32 87,9

nPofriseladmu,tprcizesalnmufo credit.nazlofsm,petrioajungl25-40%,dsbpteranoumif(V.B,19)
Epocadesmnt.Criluv afo-senrutm.Dlgipo,ceadrstmnvuloceadisrphngutczdelbarimonp uvdcjsbir.oLalenht,pumgsrcdealtoui4-5C.Pmsrcfeavlopnt,uidcjrselao-ntumisbelaprt,docguisnemftrz.
Rezultacriond sm-fuaeltrbipcndso,meraitpujnslmC7,ora8deptin cr.Suasge,tflondipmraseiunfoptlr.
naiormldpuctev,gaoidsmntecupr251-0al.Smputircnez,faodsripuncemat.
Lnasemtulpvrd,igcoenspamt-rul,ndevbisaorpucmnteldisaz.
nPritzeasmul,p fodricemtnl,sazfovduiperctnajml,ouseigvprdcnmul.
Ghn.Soilabc(1986)mredstupoRic,abehrznmltpudioase-r.
aDentsiplor.Mmufd e,sctivnaplorfuzmedciao-rlsb(tu74,.pAVneiSa1962ctdL.Mu,3)Crepsfinotmale,MBipucnrdojatmeilcurpsdazont.Lveicr416-5npt/hlaszedmicrou.Las,nldmireptuocsagimrenlptsazcoueidjrntl.
Desimaoptdnblufchrivat,pdoeznuslcmridapoet.
nDitezsuarloxpm,cftivnaerosdlpmc utaen45.0-hpl/crigde6n0taul.VorifedsntcmauploRr,iesnthbzcmpaulird,esngf i cder. bHriz uc talie mai nalt se cultiv la densit ntermida. Densita se

situeazlmproncd ue,italmon-rpvsbgeuilftamnroczdeuilaspvmrn,zodueicbstarv.Cnpecmilduarzstnefglcopduri.Tat,nevmbslcoudapintevr lsmc.


bTelua74.
Varinpcleomtduvarf-sincemupdtr
2
Suprafdenti(cm) Masnemloirpgt)( Mas10boe(g)
Nr.ndeptlah %coji %nuleimz
810 5 85 6 927, 9,25
210 47619 68 69 028, 59,0
240 416 75 70 327, 57,4
320 31250 96 76 827, 58,2
40 250 19 81 928, 56,8
50 20 136 86 728, 5,6
540 1562 165 92 03, 54,7
10 10 198 10 531, 52,3

2
mLanset,dixp(rubogl/m)vafic10-5%redsnptloairmegs,dapilontcuzbr degij(palon).fucstbdeivalornm,ctdesfila 4-6kg/h.
aDnistdemrulfo-,tcneigarpus,d70cmeitanzrlocgusdipnreztoavflcumi.Lgrenpdbazsl80ctui.remdnvsoEp,Fualtfiedm60chr45nDu.(Solte,19)asigmbrpznet.
Adnacimestfluzropbnicedutxamls5-7.nSiorpcezad,stulm nioecprauzlsmnti.Adecgropalvfimus e,drcnatxlpuoime.
oFarel-suinmctdpzSPC16(82),vieurs4-5km/ocalzpt neirdoacmuf,sg enirptlo.Tdauxc,fnbismezropltuac.Snsedrizmpolfautnsebci,dovarlutgsenipmbtr.
72.4
. Lucriledngjm.Satop,f-rusienmdbt102zlvacuseridngj.Pplceasutrnombil,drgae.
oCmbateruinl.F-sfambernpitgv(od30-4zl),nusaie5prchfdobntul(acesz,pdfor-intmulec,bsrunile).Daco,mbtrpzinauseobtrdpcmlizaen(rp).
nucraltfoi-se 23pmnrdui-ale .Ppmcnsxudtiaegbrl,npmfotiaechudz6.ItsfiprmalnuedAocitrbfnapeul(10-2z),8dcmi.Utaprnesflu(6cm),ptanz

rdcinle,a15zupotbhicndelajs60-7m,utrpcolandivur.Astepalmndfcu,igrebalpdostmcni.
uPenvatrimploc ,vtezuadrglibsfmc3o-5k/aprnl87iemuto.acspgrnzdielto(fu spr)d8-10cmail(neofsrdcuptial)e12-5mucr.
Comabterlidun.F-s,pmcartefvnduosbli,cpagemrtunbli,pgacetrufnilo.mvaces turnp:libhozea,cstrunmploa,iecdstmbruonl.
oFsireluantcbhzS,pxvAleounristagb,cdeporluizatcsb.
mpvoatriucdlebnfg (DpPorth/masiel),dngctmuvripe,sladhbzon:SctxFRip,APermf.a
nMoari-flues(mPpht)dnoramuilcespvt,amurfilbhzoesn(SctpFv,RidaVu)roemn6tc.
nDtreiduofl-sa,mgpb riou(lTanymsecdt)vrAgiop.,alnucet(hrfzdp),imnsaeultco.Adriesmafcvnutl,pridesoacnf-ultvpmbr.Viesnadvplrcume,soiagndptlre.Dmoias,ncztrul.
Poalenurizmpstf-, lordeab2inu(pst1h)vc,oeridmltpanucseidorflnmatpuce.
Irigae.Dstznlco,f-uieabrgpnsmtdouci.Fael-rnptduombli,afsenrzvpdmaiteclnuvg.
3
nfazcritpeu,d40lonsi(tauebfrd3cm)pl ioea(ntsfru-cplg)i,nfoedzrcptas,2-3uinomed408p/ha(fctxursli),nmdev7-14z.ptorfgansieubv,dcplomiuznrset.
82.4
. aRecorltips.bLmunodeltrcasifz u,repctvdmalsbniezdutasmonr.l
oFarel-suitcznmb holgaseir,cd80-5%ntubglie(doar15-20%sntub),iefldpcasngurzbmjolticae,dunsrjl14-5%.Pvteiapdouscmnlrgfeti,abuhcn6-8zlpoetiasmrjug10-%.
Calendristc,ompuvelatic,drosnzumealigtjocpsbr.nzulieamctpodr iumcate,

cheltuisarnm.zodpeiratslu,cboniemrdjsloatc.
nvedracolti,mbsphzuvenrcotlagif-spduF(RSI)erlazcont.Disbreglaz25-30mnti18prueafloscnti,ubrdela40o-6n/mtipvcresl.Dagzitmudcrnvloepasmuitc,fr en(pa)smicultr.
uPenvtriadpolc,zmnbesatrucil,degnazftplor.
uPpesrafmoic,lt- nuapercltidos,gmzeracubinsto,dp.Rlmacrueostpdinzblaruvesmigdton.
Hibrzactuldefo-sphnbircateofuvml n,zdtesipar.Lcugomndestilarpc mudtieasn.Dcort,diaesmlf-nucorviestmgbal.
dImiateuprcol,ns vtrielcoasunpdmhbtrevgiao,lscnudpreaitm.Slocnduberisptzam cdueloniszt.Prpabmeluc40%i,dtsorafmc4e8%,iln50udmtarebpscA7%l.(nVu,20)
oDsebitdmpranucl sefitoar mpud.TenitrolasmubpdcitCe5ramulnb.
ngmazie,struldbpc5e1nm,ualzsoirdtc3emnlusa.
Floare-usinptdc,lzaes250hkgn/urtip3oadceg.Cturip450mknse/halbzoxtiucr.dPmealznositjurd10hkga./

34.INULPETRn(umista)

4.3.1. oBeciaglnzr
14.3 oBalgi.nuIestpb,rcdvgainuste85-1zl.Smdrcuipnestvoa,bzlfrmicatdenupbo,fr-mizstlaec.
Rndacireotmspfzvgn,iadebrot10-5p(Gh.Blanu,2)rejmfoitcz.Tu,pvalnetdrsimcuplaetrdsobiuzcmplnerads.
npTuailtre,mscdovnpbufierat,chdlz.Ixm(suinar)egfcd.Lulpnibtre,asmfdco(lprteuina).m lestd40-5,ciarnuxm7(e23lghtic).nCoubdrfpalestci18%d

slab,irnuxmtjde20v%copainulfr.Stmcpobgaielfrvzntcum,apbefi.
nPfazdoebru,ilptmcnasoerditub,pcnfolarevtpsnialrezvudbt on.s
uFnzelrsptdimcba,15-40f(ulenptri).Fos5,cadeulbtrozvimnpule.
onarifleduz15-40cslimate.dDhrfopcnmdeshi3-4ortfu67pc.Plenizas,drgutom pezniscto.Pulmbva48re,gistcp70-odmnuaertplizb.Tdcsueavtpolni,rm udescaltipongrfesjlizau,covngtprde.L3-4laizoucfn(MDetI.,1964)
uFctrlespoa,ndhimucerstvao5jlpifn-udmcarte.iopnbusf,dareglt-ocpmz79insr10.Fueltamospnuilercatv fb.Lmndep,liucrtsoazpneuclr.
Smnaestcoi-rglb(uG),dasneptovl-giurmczaebn.MlBiuptrs57-8g,913admenfui-4lpbtr(Gh.Bean,201)
Epmidaernslotfcu,begminolasrutcpvde2-3oi,nlasmpcrtuedona,fvizgm.
14.32 oEcgial.Inuptres dvo,cariztnepmul dagestrcioluv,ndpgb.
oo o
mTapeturn.lIisocdeunpbtr,fmailso epurt.nLaclvgidesfur.Tmpatnigelosd1-3C,arutmineclpd5-6C.Loanir,uezstl7fdcapnubtseilgr.o,zacpnfdeobr(8im-10),lautspncreidla-4C.
oo
Puemrsncavzgti,plofdecurs.niatpl,obdrefnauvitmpl8-20C,rfzaseinoctmpudl20C1(-).Osciaeprmdtunfloisertdua,lpnmicezosutlagrinp(ecdo),uvsatli.
oo
Sumapterilodzncgvaestupri160-8Cln te7aiuxmM.D(ocI,1964)
Uamidte.Inulprsoia,cmutvnlpbrefdosiactn.Pgrepdvoia150mrect,nuxlsjd2piaerlmtu.ndocpiaefr,ldumtnsaxeipzcr50%toldnaesugvi.
uInficspaelrbo d 15-20%neciltup(L.Covr,94adVGhRm203)Pliebuntopraf mpiedc

fecundar,moligtpsendfr,azmuitolpdcesn.
uLmina.Zlesort,cdunmiaezoprvgt,dclnimesaurfptv,ozunimraedclsptuincale.s
uSoln.Iarecidtfpvzsunbae,triodcps beu.Clmvaiotrnsf,bceuxmijloprantdeoi,fucra(pH=26-7).Nnstemdoluxirg,apsecdlin,roatuxmec.
34.1 Zonecgli.Cmafvrbdutnpeliscvo,udtabnzegipr.f143u(VBa,9)
Zonafrtevbilcupds ,jmtaevuBnliprdscM,tOeau-soDbgrpi.Pclndeavtuscir20mnbpzae,oludticsbrn-fe,uozptacrinleu.
ZonafrbvilcupemsdtanrioblcuvesCmp(nrBati),dolRgeubscnOiatMo,zpdeulrcmantDobigsvepdMl(LucSrm,CaJijBhnloeuPtrLcadi).pvgenul,rtsmazjd150uoeprinmf.Stcaszeoruil,bn-tpd.
nPtrueilmx,zoafvbsdpcCieRnm(zoalvstrcdpue),inmbfavolstrcCpiedV,avstnlorBguicePdla,prmnoDbguesCtfilra.
4Fig.3Zonelcautrpi
4.3.2. uSorilendptacvRm.Cguofilshrb(z)depantcRmiul203sr1odenpt,acClDAIFux:irson,dalGeIu96iJ Lrna, Oli Olin. Dtre acs, n afr de usoli nO, 1 sunt girea dup nal

981u.Sorilenstcmadfvzurleinptd
arnost.
4.3.3. Loncualmset.Idriplanmoegt,fdicsuvpr enbcagSohumls,Eir-etp.aconmugsbilde.
nFdisbemlaur,ptvcnesolazdrmu,tcpin(eboa)lgumstrze,cpiobngauldrmtcesigvoanfpmdcsl.BuergtoanifpzhdcusteRoianBry.
Nunestdicamprgofl- ubcne(Btryis)oamldpucnetriasolpg:u,bdnSvzmeitc.Das uolnrdzmfeibsa lgnudei,toramb(fznce.u),doriltpsfanzceudt.Divmo,lparcenudsi.
Dunp,soilrmecatdb-fzhiogc,lasurndbtevfpmjoiucrln
pecisnaltruodm.
4.3.4. pAalicnregmto.Iu sfilzaredcptbosmuilardetcnspoumairdebtnv.Plc10mkgisproduaentf,xlgsoi50-7kaz182r3pDtu.(dvesci,9)
uAzoltesncaridpvgmlesoatridcnpv,fzlmeatoricnupslmaeor.Ificuztnpamreslbi,ucdpatfnzeorsivg,cunateprilo.Auzxcsengtvairol,pdunsetacibmozrldenic,utasrle.
oFrusfletncmapdgviboncre-flams,vduintezgorplac sudmfehbroinl.Icausdtmezvrbnploicdsme.
oDeiuncmsxladvzrftie,posulnmadrgvetiu,lnfoca i.Credptsuvnzaogibemrufl.
Dintremcol,uapzbredctloi(az),smunfrepotdciasm.
Gunoldiegrajpsct mbuzra,lngevtisporlacdne.u,tivgascronulfetdij.
nPcuriltvaedps-obnreftilagumvcsnobrdepilguzta.
4.3.5. Luorilecs.nIptdab,umriezvnltg.P psaxcufniedtlrmog.Dpas,uneitblmprgoaceznudvsfrtal20m-5cneig(upst),racdebinfpltrucgadisneprolb.Dumsatcien,rvfua ceva

dmainc(25-30)upetroslbivga.Atreu
inutracdebvlp i.
nvprima,duzotelsg cmbinruapt-osle34dcnmirap.Dtuesdvl, con-aztseurpgdicaol,nzusemtibrpaongveticsuramfodplne.Sivctuarmpnedgistuoclavrxnmeusicdfoartpe.
4.3.6. Smnaisetul
Samndisupetrbof(lacdn),mrets oupiflca,ntermsdugb cpiaenm97%tdgrps80.
Semunaltiprsfcv do,la5mniesrztpud4-Ccoan5ile(murt,pzanilefocd)mtupsarelizntfcphruaoi-les.Lnmt,cpuolvrifabezdnsmtulrcoifeadpnmtrszilaecduvg.Ton,msatilpruefcnm,odairepsul.Stzndcmrapoieslucntdagriesvu(bl84.,dpMDoctiIare196)

bTelua84.
nfluIpaeocidsmtrulenid
dPerioansmutl Coniutlde(%) ndIicelsatv
poEcaI 39,2 6175,
EpocaI- 36,41 715,
EpocaI- 36,10 017,
EpoVca-I 3,71 4167,
2 22
Luacnrltipesgodm80-9banril/(ch1oegmdsptvrifalun),xemds140-6boangril/ceut120-4npma.Ciledscrtuzoanide60-8kg/hluptr1ainxm.
mSunelatsfcUP-29,rgidbz eaplntcorsmifzu,ladtne85-12cmri.Ssaguodtbremnifpl zvachbrtoes.
Adnacimestblfuxrdiaontebpscm2-3,ruliageptsbd urilocaemn.
4.3.7. Lurilecndgj.Iptsfoabmureindczltapomursiecndltvab.Dpmure,ciotnldgjauescmbroinlzpsuve:tcarodin(C),lfsemcuratoin,ghec.
4.3.8. oRltaecrips.Mmund ltreisafzmubgnplritedcusbgn,fzira90%dcpleutsmnoif,clartes i sun n ucaples dac sunt utscrae. ntrziea recolti atrge dup sine pierd
nsematodpurci lfngueraptio.Dsmdcnrpleiauosd,cznmxptilasegfrdu-b.
oRltaecnruipszmbdale,cnuitors1-2%.Lmbefacunlgjpi:sotz(mned),rglapfticjosubderla90ni/mt,borcseglaz12-6mnti3r,ocuesldnitav.pTermsdubtozalinpfecruoz.
Inuxlmt,idarpecosfnubtr,ileazpmgsfocnbu,eialrdpzstgunoeardfilp.Dsc,unteaombdirls.
mSineldscoaztuprevilo,nmd-sutarepziclb9%umdt.
pCacitedrounls,-earictun2503kgsm/h.Dorelitnadvcu,pmobesrj80-9hkga.L/inuxltpobdce sair30kg/hme.

4.RAPI(BrasicnpuLolef=Cz)

4.4.1. oBilgecaznr.
4.4.1.1. oBalgi(f9.4,Ircen201)Rpstualdinvo,brmfct;psela70-1di.Mrnc pest la nadcime de 25-4 m.c pCacite de usoblizare a compuril ugre olubsi est

dmaiures.
uTlpinaestrc,mfd12-zlaegurmifcstnda.l
uFnzelrbastpio, -c;mjduevrfnstil,ao.
oInresflactum.Fi alcte petiularn.Pozsdmg,fiuFrlctevo10-3nsm. Laturiepdlvscho,nm npudt-se
uscra.t
nSemlisutrodg,ac.MB-pne356i,Hst18kg.Couldmre372-496%Ginastpgc.
oPaderivgtuslmn270-3ze,oiardpv1l.
nCerilfadcmso
4.4.1.2. oEcgialp.Restn zonelr

Fig.49aRpdetomn
Aa-pntl;Bmurcsive.
tempuraincbdl,vos.Sgemrptaunildos2.10-5C,rupetvimad8>0.()
mTapeturnidgsC1-3.fzoeurlactdmnispeurct-15C8(naopidz),

iarceldvpmnus2-3Cgh.tzira,peclnfoduimr.
nCerilapfdusct.onirae,d6074oslbztce.
bFavoilresuntzdc450-6mp,iare1nvlutgms-b.
Critcefapdunsol:-mzifrecta.Invg,mdpri-astulecfovrintapumlsde.
Rapiestolnduzg.
Pretnilfadsouc,zb-eprilondfmau,txcjbgehsilraunt,cmovezilsrubn-catdp.
Nudbnerzltaopsicf gneazpu,mrcilso deapcin.
4.4.1.3. Zoneclgi.
ZonaIudltecrpim vsauodlTrniezcpt,asgodrienucl,fp.
ZonaIupcdriems, ltvoncidergasu mf.Dpirgatoulcsev
24. Soiurcltvae.nPpsd(iulefracn)RomLsthib/rzldepuavcnRom,203)st:
moAkr,PastDliMdOnVeWuosramtildpvBenuSoURmia;
Bristol,CapncDubmdetiMosaSA;
vCoertlidsamnuR-V;
oStarismdenulpvCyctDLFoTimrfnke;a
DextrsoidamnhvpueRsGanyr;
RafinsodmetuSCDALv;r
TrumfsoidanetCDAIFl.
34. Loncualmset.Prgibpdonasutcrle zvmpuingast,odrcbeluimapnsr.Cebogtu:calmdn(irz),oftpuegaslb(mrcdonitufpas.Rmevrotnidupclazmrf:ob,senhtci.Nulvdpafore-sn,txiulcdeSroasmt.
Rapiovtenrcldu3,zaoeStinrp7-8
ni.a
Dupraiseoltvcmjn,dbazeruils
oulsractdnebi,fpgm loa.
4. aAprelicngmotd.RsarenuclmtivP10kgsepuarndmv,oic2kgN5P2O510KGh(n.Blteua,93)
Absoriaelnmtuvcdpfazegti;lmrcnubsodpeavinlcufrt.
Gunoldiegraj,pct 20h-3a/dnetiobrpuscmla,tdbreuGh(n.B197)acszdoelgrmitu,5kN70P2O52-gKpenfitrocaduj.

ntreagdozfispu1/3 vlcrabtdez,isun2/3ovafmtpriu.
Deomnaitcsugldr vznmaiteds,rubocpl51.
uPesorilcad,mnt uliporecaftzvsduiemnoacltr.
54. Luorilecs.Atavfmdbpernuliac20-5mg,tps.uniodlecarptfsbolvnmi,eucrapgdstouclibre,amnszdupoie.lPmantrscdbu,iafntplrgcdseuoli.
Uultimcraesxobnd at.Dcerulspfvgnimdat,uersopclnim.tLadseurbfnitz.
64. Samniseult.rbpovdni(echrgma),spovudnltifecrbgsoa,puitmnde97%r85.
nSmasetruzcpod ilgarec(vz
uabspitocl1.5)
erioaPdmnstul5-1pb,ervsinodult0p-mb.Aeavrcilntzfpsuebar,iodcn.mplzteuarogsvip,nldeaczrovtsbpnlieurc.Sodmvasntpi,guerdcsoanmp,igerzlC2-3.
22 2
mDenasioptdlr10-5bmegain/,ptusr820lcoabiem.tvndEuprlzsiaeco t50-8mn/S(r,l19).
Cantiedsm6-10hkg,/fucoitalepgrmvn.Gsutilzaecdmn 3,5-4kg/hoarituslcmedfnatispcrvozeul.
nSematulsrizcop(SUP-21,948)la
distanreu512cm,l -3.
74. Lurilecndgj.Patsmboeinculafvrzspdm,eitunafcvlgr.
uDonritbelmsgdca ,outprinvelmzs aorpcunte,dmifzjaountlec.pPrdsaimgultnrepboc1.5
Obunpoizarlesmdct nbpehar,isuzodflcnarept,smuiz dcorep.
3 33
Irigaestncudl.Spom30-4ha,/untresilpomfzdbnatrie.vPsucdlpgtriomev40-5ha/nlcuritf6m.Udezavocrplntiu.f
84. aRecorltips . dfncauztrioesml.Sx na,dufzirectombl.
oRltaecnrdufzsxp galb,eirmnuctsfdae,25-30%.Tiroplntszucvd,ea

mir"nteald20-5c.Dupvz,smieratudcl12-4%,pnesrimoba.
oRltaecrdiumbnvf75z-palcreidst(nmugaloreci),fzdsvnbtga-lchpueorsmi.ntldacu,meisorbfndj16%.Lucaxetsm,irlnop
nSemlisudtaprc e9-10%
Producilnebtsp510.-3hkga/durcimenoEp,ltfsrj8d20.kg/haRunoepcimstd510-2,:.

4.5NRICUL(nuicsom)

4.5.1. oBilgecaznr.
4.5.1.1. oBigaln.zptrcsub e n(altifr)d10-2umo,cepa45itr(fg.10duIBocn23)Evseal,ptudrioge150-2zl.RcnauistpvoPdremlca52-3,uifternp1m.Ssladcz9-0%itoeubsncapdrl(B,193).

gF1.4i0Rcnul:
aplngtevi;bcrmfal

Tulpinaestrc,ofm dunieclgvtao,s1-3mzperni0ltoca.Lumfder,inp stacoulfdbn-rgie.mRaptsodlDurfe5n-12i,ptacz rdmugelinosfapc(rm).Du10-2zile,dngstapborcf2-3min,seuatghd45fplcir.Aesazntmdoul,rpcefaz4-7intsdraeuoinflc(msd).Reurnti,laopcmf(d)restin,ulcof(amre).Cticnuslo,dpreztamsflnciuepotga un

montdearc,fzlv.Aspiutaebogcrnlzvdjhiueta.
uFnzelrdicsmtpoab,5-12gerunlit(csapo frmbuli),gecaspdtn.Lrofm,e25-60cdiauFnzlptvo recsagi.Lbzpulntdecarf
nRuiclestopam,rfnbzliescamprtuo.Inesflcampuogid10-8,refcnlsav.Foiumtdr-pen,lgbozsauvt.iFmcendpfralsuomntierfca.Flsupgntiohedr-valc(fojszntugi),remacdbf.Polzstniuem
uFctrlespoaidhn ,ucsrfetaopindbc,sme.Slutariov-ng,pdemscxronaultpi,mc.Tegsnaoluirmdte(pfcanoi,vlsubrde).MBpatfin701vg,cre236.Mshtolid50-8kg,ancue14%ptjla62-3.
4.5.1.2. oEcgieln.Ruarptsm obi.TleratudncspzleuritCd28.nSmcosapie10-C,drl253mgnaz.Sctpeui,lvgsbC20ncrteaiupdgv.Umste,ancrimltpuegvanor.Riclsptzue5-6donma7012itecupr8Co(nzlmasi250-3prectodvga).niflecumrtosdpina.clumerotpialndcu,resbm.i
uSovlbfairtcnesmj,plfourd(caetibs15m)H-67.Tn,upolretiNsmcdavnuoplreg,smtia.
4.5.1.3. Zoneludtcr.Rmia,svp ude(j.Tlonrm,IfaiOtB)psuednjlz,TcaiCot.
4.5.2. oiuSrcltvae.nRms:f(uorliCetDAIFnda),TmVc(uolsrietSCDAan).
4.5.3. oLncualmset.Rivp Cabunmoergticsl(x.hd,efabou)rpmziclteoafrng.NusmdltcipearondumcsgtlibaeSn.Norductmlib,nprazofe.Ducsvtlimjnprd.
4.5.4. pAalicnregmto.Nsudvprealiz10kgmnco+duset:6,-7N130kgP2O595K8i6,Ca.Gunodlegrjcmsptfi,unoed15-27%.Cpslicagrmtnoe (x.lapub),izrocstden f.
4.5.5. uLcrileso.Smpnftad,25-30cilesupor agilse, n great uc pgar stel, upnr miea ouls i conserva mi bun a

apoeinl.sPrgtumvfczaenldi,p10-2mutcrafonbil.
4.5.6. Smnaisetul.drc biesfmua,olprtd10%gne.85izolmrat,udsbngcepomifratulsnde7,0/36
2/0um,5c-8.hplanteAdisr67cmouagel8-1psir.Ncdmnlaheti16-8kg(puR.comnsabzrei)
4.5.7. uLcriledngj.Combat spz2ri-3lecntdupamr.Loilnsefcu,tdaz.Umprilnsefctaum35-40nlie,rzdsoabu.
3
Irigaestncozlupdriagevt.Pocnpu islfazedrmpn,c tuilderaso.Sfcz3-4,pinbe(truvao)lc60-1mhM/g(rzniCveau,2).
4.5.8. aRecorltips .nuaefcmlsizt
oRltaecrmnusf,(bi)troucaplend-m,sitb135%.Fruceloasp,idzbtecl.Roarnmusivdef1c25(orm/tula).
oRltaecnrgispufmbd.Dacneiospltru,aefcndop:sluitr ndericsatolz,mpufbencrasdtil derigoa,nufzcplstxermoibzaupndsclt.
Dupdecalrsmnoizvt,euscar.Pmnlodifx58%,utae.
oPdurciaensptbfmlricodegvta,puns5081k./hircodmetpabnu.

TCAPOLIUV

TEHNOLGIACUVRP XTEOLGIC

15.
. mpoIartnelxi

ibFurelnatdgovspmlnte(cira70),dosuv.Fbhermfnazptil,us.Pcexvatlipgobu,rdmfehnicstaouLr.S(M,197)
a. Plantercfibhosmzp luericntb(fp):
nuilLmsta.(Fce),pulivnzodrasefbt,uciolnmrza;
cnepaCbistvL.(Fm ),lupndrzoatebcfimgsprdln,aeztui;
iutahCorcspm.(FTel),ndu-triacpexlzosubtin(crd-eA),fampoutsibrngh,zdeac.;
ramihBesp,(F.jUtc)lnrdoizapubtsc(lvnemi),fr2g0-5cuolaseztnp,mirb(celafhtpsnubo);
hendcirulApoybmsFa(.),ndCithbSer;
oteiruslAbnavcGm.(FM),ptulainChRsbcrefmgodtlpi,znaure;
huenclafbHisyF(v.M),ptcnaudlAsiebrfo,ctaneislrfpuodh(za,cment)irbl.
b
.Plantercfibhosmzu:
pcnadeMilustxN.(Fm),paernblfioztuc(sa),enrpdiFlb;fuotgzare,sincflt.;
rafiRphsm.(FPlecb),orfaznupistedAcmraSu;
sialuAgvenPrm(F.dyc),ptlaoibefsrmznu,tpdixMceAraCnlI.;fbustgoi,zearclfnht.;
ucaiYnmfltoes(F.L),prabznfilmue(ostpar),fiblunzeo csrpgtaubli;nzec.
inuldeNoaZmPhrtxFL.(c),plnebafimurzstdonpclb,efigsaropnztueci,fl.
c
. bFreinpotvadmsfclu gein,abmcGousypF.(Melv)rtaindpxogb.l

Pelngimpoartcx,uz.Asfelbmaocp4-nrdui elmta,cpoduriv(sn)lmaebt,przocuinlgase.
naroustlivcedf,pbm.ntrsucealioh.f

25.
.INULPETRFBn(umista)

5.2.1. oBilgecaznr.
5.2.1.1. oBigal.(f51,dupMnAxte203)Ibr acipvo,msldeztubiracnlpetu.T ifbrsca,ed(umltpn2)ifraeos.Lugmthnc(pri)alesotbzprimfc,nd70-1.Aeasturoinfldecutra.Dmspile,70-9%nxtoruhaic215pmf3-6%lartesuiodnc.
Lpatuinlserczv,omgaisre.Lultpcnfbomaird.Pethcusbn70m,iargopte31(nzdmijc).
bFrelindosmfazupt,c(breil)fndsat.Fhc(urleidn10-4fboasmtrue), cilznpgsrdb.Femutaclif,pso-retuac lngi

Fign.51uIlpefbtr

de13-8migroas620nc.T(tNSule,195)rafibnm txueplgd1-20m,ianros59c.Pelumtarnpoigfd72-80%celuz.bFrnmtasgpi,cerznt-ousmaldigbenfc.uFsl,adirjgtepncsuolbir,defthnc.Lapmobirlenusdptmagri,lotfbhencsdaupril()hnfbemta.Fuiorsdclngempait.Movrdsfuclngem50,zitaprulcsome.Cintzfbrhcdaleo,sungit.Prcbldefps20-3%,maituorenjclp3i5%(),vamdutreso28cl1bz%(),auntidems.Lgfrhcvnaizte3012pms(5odrufbn).Fiaetpclm
22
rezistnbfvg1a0(k/mp)dce92ibuma(36mkg/2).
uFnzelrista,comgd2-3nueilbr.Nfzoaptsmicdvrenlaupt.Foci lenur,s suntmr mult mai mic. uFctrl u(capl)si

seminulacopt r,dnsmic.uIleofaMB3-5g97tnridu.Clesmactzir5%nupbefdl.
5.2.1.2. oEcgial.Inupbtrefmdzus,netaiporfm.Ilbctepuraodmginl.TuperatdmisC3-5n,eaprgu.fzdsilontbeahpLrcdmuiCe-12asnzldtrg(.Vic,19)fa3e2hp-dunzlrstC47.ab(e)inuzlmprtso,a5-7NC.S(uec196)ndpigvtrmauseC15i7.Tprtmnl0-6zedvgaibscumnflor,tezdpagviumn.loPerta,dsc(85-107zil)nueomd6C9car83lnstie(.V,197)0-8Cprml56zgdvetai(snfoM).Duc,1974Clrdateinpbfum,sdoreciltnpav(zre40-85)istumdlcaof bpersti.Padvgnc170-25mpei,r96fazcstneluim-C.(V19)StfavorbpeunidsCmcarpfzboie-nl.Dumdcr,xsvpoifazetulbcd.nrmi,eotauslpfbcnmidoea.
uSorilecmaptvnfbsuoreijlcp(-a,tn)bmfieurcdslpaH(=6-7.Tntbfeoumircapl.Idvfusenibgroal, dunzpecitsf.Nrolgant,puesidro cal,usitb nrmoe.
5.2.1.3. Zonelcgi.aIuprd:stnelTiva,ucpbrdsCo-nAeilmtarpRs.DuMoce(1974),nzaIdltrifsepcnauld70-1m,ri25stpeoagdv.Tmunrilzsctedp(5-1Cv)iamrnRstedMol,CpiaSumvL9(-).rezonltsbpiud
Zonal-cupridestTvalnpCirRseMdo.Actzaiprneubs20mtgoadvi,repulnsct10C2.Fadezopr,isvmtuepndarmiv.Solstbuecdpr,ainmouzgetbcr.
ZonaI-upcdriesltb,manuficdlestporzamicu.
5.2.2. uSoriltvace.Lnsm (Cogulficahrbz)depntRomia:uC,DlErIMdenRoaCi,lcSm(u)LOrandet.
5.2.3. Loncualmset.Ipfibr dogaet.Dzulbnprmcsoatudei,nr-bfl.Iuseoapt,ncdmilruas-tobedin.Scmuzrpalt 6ni.
mPergtoalcibunp fsrmdetoa,lginubcprfsaelhdzint(cRoa,Brysblimune).Spdtc ogaruilefz,tvcndopmsarbuleigntva. Toate

mpergtoalunifbsetrn,pualocdbi.
upDinlbtrefomadc.Esungpretiolam,dcbzneruvpt-sfalidgeurnbco.
Dunplietrfb,smaco ulrievpn(tdmcao).
5.2.4. pAalicnregmtod.S-ulpbrefiaogdvtnsclpaieurbdonmtv.Dca,peixslonurtbmf.Cdelivstraczu,fnpelAotdra(uismne),lckgbtva:12-6N54,P2O598kgK.Gunoilderajpsctbfmeunraisol,dtfzc(erimau),vodntscerlibf(Nu.S1,965)nAmdatesplicrubf,noemgaticludrs(fxeazbo,ilnvgr).
5.2.5. Lucrileso.Aatdbzfnpmergoaitulds(cb).Dperantlizuvdm,sefcatprolnimd25ues(f)a0cporlitbusef).Dpmcaroi,t nd28-30()uegropabistlv.Cn ecumi,grlafvsobtpedn",icumrvlaztde4-5.cCobinruvltp,gaedcirzunmtvfoab.
5.2.6. Smnaisetul.
Smn.oevlafsiduzt,crbgonvaluep(rits97%,gm80MnBfuceodi)lbr atm.Snuesfo,dcilarte.nSmpodcl(sautfrenipz),scdbol(FuarmPhBtyie.)n-vgorspucazmielnt fodrsab.iluemnLort(ialdcfepusnr),aimcepbzdfrntoulca(miesdr)ntogcfpiaeulsdmnLotreiSa.I(scu,1975)
22
oPaderismntulpfbvri,dsemacolntpfrdsa5ucmC.Dentidpso(rzlace),ftigupmnvodsat,firce20-8bngml.Larcoteuisf180-2np/mDrdu,ecoaihv512m.Drs-ntcpeduai5l6m,s3-4chrdnuvetipoal,sbmunferiztdac lsopureibf.Snmcdaglzstuipbref4ncmd,atzloube(ipN)nsmrvaSUP-29ofeltispcuar.Admnet2-3,cifuxrdmaegptlnv.Soisrfageutb,nmlzricafoustepmnlarfousi.Ctedmnlhcpra120si8kgu/fedo,mnatprigMB.
5.2.7. Lurilecndgj.Csta,mfozpurilexcns cu stra diu la suprf oli, n ai uc ploi n dperioa dupa semnt, pidc

rsieoaunmfdgcv pltr.Eseoambincug tvle,odsarumifbpntcelr.


33
Irigaecontbulpdsianzeucomt.agrispnue (c20-5mha)/i3drntpule607.
5.2.8. oRltaecrips.Ln,ufbercoltazdmign(sufbetpr),cdzlnaiumepforscbg(nlit),au e10-5%brfct).Filaumehnd(sbcito,aruepldgnf.cstazobiuprednm.
Recoltarinupfbsmgecani.Rorltuspfdmhcieant,ubs(pl)d-oi;eratncuspdml.Aoiecratn,sudlvip(be)oazmnuchrlsftp.Pevigaubonrldtcpe,smgunhri.aRcoeltsd2-3mfn,pvuriacdlt(enmf4-5hapibsc).rot,leuf:nmaidsTLZ-4VcobK.Meulmgsianptbrzdcoe.Daplntmbrzd,ugsce(i)oaltn1p8-20cmderui)o(labznsf.Speictvoarubsmfdlne.Dpctraosiduvecpnzta(losrimej),udcptanoslre(mfgict).ConbaLKV-4Tsulpe,dzgircotan-emgrcubia.Conptelfsrudcanpio.Cles(utr)cbazomndiel(s.Sptra,miuodcles.Pranptiuecs306hqa./

5.3CNEPA(anbtivsL)

5.3.1. oBeciaglnzr.
222
5.3.1.1. oBige.lpCnastubr,xdic(fg2.5pMnAte03)Rasvo,midzlpefrusacm.nTilt(1-5),grosvab0e6cmunfid t,oagsrlbz(puend)imhtcrvf.Solednipugcbatosr(lezin).uLcp,tamlsing10-3%decpf,arustmigo10%.Clnpecaztuiord:mgh(nbe150-2),cosiautlrde68mzvn(icapoulfbr),estngd-vchpialmforuebdntc.Dpasi,lugredct.Ansiapolezdurctfb.Fihlnosmeazpurc,li.Rstnbeaofpd92kglm,incvabsed10(kgm)rultinzcaedb(36kgmo).Purltfinpadesc205%fimulnptgroase(b1) ivfunlpteas(30%).

uFnzelrapcotsm,7-1ifdenargscutv.Elpz21%dimaneusc(rot).Flpifmeasc,ntdr(uxoi).FlemascgptnvrfuioOealcd-pgn5tbvrzuismoe.FlfngpatcvruioFelsmfdnt-pgcruvoail,smtendfgpcoualbrite.Mzfocslan,dvrpebxit ufloscn,dabrezitp.uFlcsonvdar3-4(m),peiulscoatrMB16-2g.
5.3.1.2. oEalgci.pCnedfurtmo(zabpi),lesdrnufcgmozaised(nruvl).mTaptce ngrmaiz

5.3.2. oiuSrcltvae.smn:Fb15(d96io);vI.r08,Secun41PitaobglsmuedSCALvrnpi10,OabFtmul5SCAencipr1sI.ouentmic(Calgofusbrhz)depntiRma.
5.3.3. oLncualmset.pCdiroun-seltvcapi.mrodnuectailvp ner umai dp 3-5 ani, upetr a nprevi atcul de boli (putrega lb, ptare unfzlo,
osepritza),dun(mlc foeritpbu.),lanscmorteubli,d(apcn)soreumltdi.zcnfavspoe,umrdlictna7-8.Aomrdezufslitcapn(Grhode),mviftuagbcr.
nPtruealizpodcm,v neatrbuisfclodp:,ernmazfsoluip.Sb-tendcralios,gmvuep trnidcaofsl,emv.
nCepuadiofrstbgm c.lDpeanrsfidzhuj,tlovcaermn(Nu.Ss,1965p)Codfiretvlmauscbn()iotredflau.
5.3.4. pAalicnregmtod.Csplanreiftou,cvdazmnibeltrpuso(a,c)nvdeitfgrm.uPopcd10knlti/ha,xegr:2s-4N950kP2O5,67gKi1dCaup(N.eo)
Pelngacst,rimpundeatlcosirbg(N.Su,1965)
Gunoldiegrajtzbvps,mnodurciaetlfbpsnmorcihavets.lurovanidegj,sctozmeaifrlu(I.Lng,1974tc)Spoiedrlausngoitde40-1%plzr,56usbnide17-80%pcozmgrat,lfidue.Dpmgnorajctidez(20-3%)lbarofNp.Cu,1958Senmcdiglrajoz4h0()t/pneim,fdrcoza2h0(nt/emis5-3ozaud),prncgmhteiN(60P4o.Auzlrasfnpimtevg,ozdcuranile.jmgtosfpcuardebz,imltvgpnra.
Amendautlscropifgdzeatl6-8n,rcpumseidHntoarbzcumseli.Ondapcrgtomelsunifapcr.Oomtedlsunip,ac-rtdloemfinu.
5.3.5. Luorilecs.pCnat Arudc(25m-30)sextiaplburndgmoe.Aitxacv,nsurdbepmolicgaur.sAtednpozicaust,rdplgevo cintuamrezls.Pv,pgitdancme5-6uobl.Prgtivsfemn,acuobdigrnptemasouf.
5.3.6. mSnaisetul.rbpoza,ites96%cgrmvnp85,iaMB2lecsud1gnoria.bEtflue,mrcoaitslpude(OrbhnamcoL.)
2
nCepasmzcdol(75-)riC8,utenacz.frisdopu1N-2%S(,ec965).nDitadsmluore40-5bgainmdftuevlrz(Og.Sncabio,198)Cpudefrsmnoiat,l512cSUP-su48.Adnmeat36c,lixp olusrie

ouareisct,mnplgdue.Catisnhcr,fmevaloutsd85-9nkgc,ipemar.
5.3.7. Lurilecndgj.mIatpsh(uizcnel)romadstpgiecnulr.Paszotmbiecluvfarspdmno,ieluratfsco,vlungdetr.Dasmfzc,opilnreatsuvcg.
pCnuaetlbicr,od smultnipaeor.Pcb indletrpuacsnfvboim(etuardpc)nlsifoebu.davrl,ni(pmetc.)obuarlPnpvieotcd,busfalripgeondc.Otbisrueagplmvn.tPcrisuoefapm,bnlritsdug.eoaczmnrtipudgseblcr,ma-it.
5.3.8. oRltaecr.pCndfusizmhc,neptlasuiro gbenc.astfz,dlpmu(inegvta)cdlf,sobireunztlacf.Dsroemidvb,lapntfuericsz,lamgnbfevdpirzst.
pCnaeusrcoltzmig, deasuprfo4lm-6i();cntaseu.
Lanoi(rds-ptmJSK12,caelrizdputoU-650M,xncaezrlpiuts(dngaeofcmul),vpitdr52-3ha/sb(E.Moecu,198)
npreztosflmaicd MRC-2,4o(lgtn1976)purafciU50M,elsntbrazdupo(vice.6-7h/smb)
oPdurciapenfvzlmtg.Loarisenbpduc50h-6qt/l.Dmasr,ueoithnlgdcmaspbe10-5uq/h.,nltirvd23af

TCAPOLIUV

CRETAMNLIOFG

16.
.Necsitadhmbr
nultimaperod,fhzcseurmatlonivdsupreacoiftl.
nUuldpicraevmotg nsuldcretioamnsugre.Mliopcazntdeg,moricalf vntbuoedir.
Celmaiutsrdon,celizauptmnrodcefas-litrmn upez.Asf,lircndmauejtvlirgcodnepastuvilr,cd.Demnaftoisvzrpucglenaftimdrocuzlgenavsptimro.l
nacelmipto,fuzsrbd cnieatv"uflsmdr(Se)ingo.,c1976Damluv dtrieoscnamputel,idrnogsba.Acutelrnpmgisadouvextcrni,pmaolufestvridnaopmrfgeluctni.a
Poateclminprufgsdteaivlunmporcdealistupr.Mceobvaitmpdnrlesocautindlerjfasomtcudpneriaofcm.Astuel,prniobacdtulpriesnomca.
Opartedinclmsfvobtiunrgsaledvzopc.Nuialedtsnrpvfi,maelohdntrcpsaolegudirtfcvmnpBaho(ke,19856).
nOfluimeportazc dfnilupe.Ooravctdsienulprobmfa,tiseducrnajfg,mpodticrenaulgsobrfpi,tenaclmu.Nrdijefpotcnvbalmr,usxnicpfoethgblarvinzmceodu,xplastfinvmAchrodeaupltnsm.
oSindmurlefcatgsvpbio,rnuestzlagpic.Efondmurtsveazlicnro,eduvapHm.Acizrnleftodsuag(Ribc.,l1983)DemntfpoardicsLlhm(n,1984)potekrDi0cudafl. nHirea cu o cantie rdus e fibr ut es d asemn pilct n xbacer

podtehnilr,cagfvmsutedpoarlbni mstce.Luapr,lodhnifsczutprealobmnvfidcsutgreaznpildfcv.
dAocizaestnmprbldgaezomr.Opitnulgaeczfsbdit,nrvluaecomtprnl,uzdbeaivcsomprtg.Uneaducpltsinzfm,rudeabcolisgtf.
oLafscrelntbx-vidpruealcobmsnt:i,fuerpodczlat.mDsn,bxerivpduaft,nelcmorbisuadetnvrEbk(os,198).
Cretanumlidbovpcs eratudnLi(qs,1974;Fox8)precmuatlfivnodceuNrj(kst,1983).pblivoamenrudctshiae,lpormdtnbc-ivasue,lrtnopicaesb(PSE-l,mxvud)t.
Anotibrezsalmpcfdgsireountalfcbmpside.Sruntaozcimehrus(lto)nazpgeixldrcmvoztaegunir.lPdpestcamgfziunlor,xstdeagpifcnmo(Gsr&Sel,1982).
Altexmpdraniso lempbndtafcivuoserFx1984().
CeamnirctobplsEfSgBve(in),auodmrl"cb.psteaindMrBDcmb196p,uotiajfelnrgcdsp,obalneuri cstdomarenigbl.Utzhovreafinudgml,cstpoeafubmrnilcsd,198eat-obrvlugczinfmaebov,s-htrzcilnfuaje.
Aanumitelbo"hgcvrfdsietnauolpbmx,drscgietnopaumcrseliznpoda.Cutcv,srelimpunaovtlirdepcnuma.Hoszltbifednra ,cbolvgitepmrfandu,oczglimarpsdheuvt,cnioraumlesbjftcni.
Acestuanolimrdpceauilnot,sgrveap.Sduncimlso rpft,dacezmobnlvripujfcatemdinlrzu.
Utilzaremdncovpsrablemdu.Aitvfjopncraeuilzso,btncmaedurgjilopvtnaecbgusi.Soldmera,cnjtisuleroman,cdtivuelpor.
uPenmotrai,pblcsuteaompinrh l,ecuaodimnptrbse

celoruanzgi.txDmp,flesroucabnitdm xpelsvcranoi.Stufdem rscavnpuidtermlaocz,nputeribxvdalconfzte(FAWC,198).


mConitareulpcbs -ftaimporncbesulg,dtmrioacpnveds.Dbiotulzacprmdesntiboalfcrmue,nialsfdc.Lpremz50u%isalon,cdretvgijbl1940,aps2n8.
Panoicpdursezlm,fti198ncpualosem"rtdfjnaul,picozrdenfuajgilot.prc,smenMaBiurjflpot,bemndxacijlrpsw(NSent,817/2).umai39czdlofsrbte n198u,pcagisrez20dnptjumafogv.
Utilzarehomncpdsatrieulcpn.Amho,atfdesri"c-nulpmftabseoricdumlg.Anthorzaicpdeutfsl,izapendrcmos-uftlgiaedhnrvpobcsta.
UniuoeaEprtzclmh ideran.vul198,tzmhoirfsdpecnGa tmivlordcesnf}aG,iujolzctesdarhmniufoselaptcn.
Denasm,trbuilcodpzanebv(BSiTu)crtopdl.UnamjCisePrtupEvlThnogcdmGaiy(Iserb.,198)luzoncxtfeasprivzulBST,ngstd-empiacfvurlotepnicda9075%.BSTsmrtpenucofaidgsrvlmubtencaifdrlmteapouci,xndsrveltica.
Cuprodcielatnxs dzvoecarmitnshbugpoecialrnmtbzds,uepvoirlcnma usxedi.1984,ptlMarBnfosd2e3mivc,84al7noepri129ms.
Obiectvulpnrmgsdha tivleoz.Pcasprtfieolvzdgucabsn,-ieltmorpcaudnbleistafrjo.
uAgltricaonmeszv,iarmpotnluefdvscrnoatuplifemzhcsntdour,ivaepgnt.

26.
.Roluanimerfgc

mFaernogicflstdpujraemon.iAlsdtcfpearminogdcsuftlzpermiaon.Dcsutz,frgiaebxmpdnvtoaiuser,fmlg n-pitdaeroc.
nucadlrmeifog,ptb/snraiumoegpltzb ncrsuo.Eeafimptlg/nsuorfezapct,vildsrebuxoacmlt,nzrie.sMogac(p)unmle,irdstvopcamnul.s,rietbaoncgiprtemsdflouanirpebzjcltv,dfsaumgnpie.

36.
n.Pciprleagufmzoth

xEploatremni-fgcbusdltrepinmoa:
istemndrcaplbue;
nalimtecrsodfzg,upnerajsm;
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