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Sisteme mobile in Internet

(Arhitectura si aplicatiile retelelor mobile)

Nicolae Tomai
FSEGA

nicolae.tomai@econ.ubbcluj.ro
http://www.econ.ubbcluj.ro/~nicolae.tomai
449
Cuprins
 Introducere
 Wireless LANs: IEEE 802.11
 Rutarea IP mobila
 TCP in retele fara fir
 Retele GSM
 Arhitectura retelelor GPRS
 WAP(Wireless application protocol)
 Agenti mobili(Mobile agents)
 Retele mobile si peer-to-peer(MANET-Mobile
ad hoc networks)
2
References
 J. Schiller, “Mobile Communications”, Addison Wesley, 2000
 802.11 Wireless LAN, IEEE standards, www.ieee.org
 Mobile IP, RFC 2002, RFC 334, www.ietf.org
 TCP over wireless, RFC 3150, RFC 3155, RFC 3449
 A. Mehrotra, “GSM System Engineering”, Artech House, 1997
 Bettstetter, Vogel and Eberspacher, “GPRS: Architecture, Protocols
and Air Interface”, IEEE Communications Survey 1999, 3(3).
 M.v.d. Heijden, M. Taylor. “Understanding WAP”, Artech House, 2000
 Mobile Ad hoc networks, RFC 2501

 Site-uri web:
– www.palowireless.com
– www.gsmworld.com; www.wapforum.org
– www.etsi.org; www.3gtoday.com
3
Retele fara fir
 Ofera servicii de acces la calcul/comunicare in miscare

 Retele celulare
– Sisteme cu infastrucura bazata pe statii de baza

 Wireless LANs
– Retele locale in topologie infrastructura(cu AP)
– Foarte flexibile in zona de receptie
– Banda de transmisie destul de buna(>1 Mbit/s….)

 Ad hoc Networks
– Nu folosesc topologia infrastructura
– Sunt folosite pentru aplicatii militare, de salvare, acasa, etc.
4
Dispozitive mobile

Tablets
Palm-sized
Clamshell handhelds

Laptop computers Net–enabled mobile phones


Sisteme de operare pentru disozitive mobile

 Symbian-promovat ca OS(open source) de un


consortiu: Nokia, Motorola, etc.
 Windows Mobile-Microsoft
 Windows CE
 Windows mobile 7.0
 iPhone
 RIM BlackBerry
 Linux-cu varianta Android de la Google
 Palm OS

6
Evolutia telefoanelor mobile

7
Spectrul alocat pentru telefoanele mobile

Sursa: (S60 Programming A Tutorial Guide Paul Coulton,


8
Reuben Edwards With Helen Clemson)
Elemente componente ale unui sistem de telefonie
mobila

9
FDMA(Frecvency Division Multiple Access)(1G)

10
TDMA(Time Division Multiple
Access)(2G)

11
CDMA(Code Division Multiple Access)

 Permite utilizatorilor sa imparta atit timpul cit si frecventa


in acelasi timp, prin alocarea unui numar unic de
identificare
 Acest numar de identificare permite sistemului sa
separe un apel de altul, daca acestea erau facute in
acelasi timp
 E o tehnica de baza pentru telefoanele de generatia a
treia (3G) si permite viteze mari de transfer pentru
fiecare utilizator

12
CDMA(Code Division Multiple Access)

13
Sistemul GPRS

•SGSN(Serving GPRS Support Node) controlează transmiterea pachetelor


de date prin întreaga reţea şi
•GGSN(Gateway GPRS Support Node) care are rolul de a conecta reţeaua
de telefonie mobilă la infrastructura Internetului.
14
Alocarea frecventelor in 3G

15
Alocarea frecventelor in 3G
 Europa şi Japonia au optat pentru banda largă CDMA (W- CDMA) folosind
diviziunea frecvenţei(FDD) în două perechi de benzi ale spectrului de
frecvenţă.
 USA a optat pentru CdmaOne care foloseşte benzi multiple ale sistemului
pentru a realiza aşa numita undă purtătoare CDMA prin care se permitea
accesul mai multor utilizatori în acelaşi timp.
 Un alt sistem 3G, care e mai degrabă o extensie a GRPS -ului a sporit
transferul de date spre evoluţia GSM(EDGE), care modifică legăturile fără
fir între telefoanele mobile şi staţia de bază a sistemului GSM/GPRS pentru
îmbunătăţirea ratei de transfer a datelor, standard care a fost dezvoltat de
3GPP.(3G Partnership Project)care a fost creat în urma asocierii a două
categorii de organizaţii: organisme de standardizare şi reprezentaţi
comerciali. Organismele de standardizare participante sunt ETSI (Europa),
ARIB/TTC (Japonia), ANSI T1 (SUA) şi TTA (Coreea). Reprezentaţii pieţei
de telecomunicaţii sunt UMTS Forum, GSA şi GSM Association. Cele trei
reprezintă grupări majore de producători, operatori, companii de
consultanţă, etc., care susţin interese comerciale proprii legate de evoluţia
sistemului GSM
16
W-CDMA in sistemul GSM/GPRS

17
Evolutia spre 4G

18
Evolutia sistemelor celulare

19
Limitari ale sistemelor mobile
 Limitări datorate retelelor fara fir
 Limitari ale largimii benzii de comunicatie
 Deconectari frecvente
 Eterogeneitatea si fragmentarea retelelor

 Limitări datorate mobilitatii


 rute defecte(intrerupte)
 Lipsa facilitatilor privind mobilitatea a
sistemelor/aplicatiilor

 Limitări datorate dispozitivelor mobile


 Timp scurt de viata al bateriei
 Capacitati limitate(privind memoria, procesarea, etc.)
20
Comparatie intre retelele fara fir si cele cu fir
 Reglemetari ala frecventelor
– Limitarea disponibilitatii si necesitatea coordonarii
– Frecventele utilizate sunt deseori ocupate de alte aplicatii
 Latimea benzii si intirzierile
– Rate de transmisie relativ mici
• De la cativa Kbits/s la Mbit/s.
– Intirzieri mari
• Sute de milisecunde
– Rata mare a pierderilor
• susceptibile la interferenta, de ex, cu masini elecrice, siste de
iluminat, etc.
 Partajeaza intotdeauna un mediu comun
– Securitate scazuta, simplu de atacat
– Interferente radio
– Staţii de bază false poate atrage apelurile de pe telefoanele
mobile
– Necesita mecanisme de acces securizat
21
Siteme celulare: ideea de baza

 Conectivitate fara fir cu un singur salt(hop)


– Spatiul este divizat in celule
– O statie de baza este responsabila cu comunicarea
cu hosturile in celula ei
– Hosturile mobile pot schimba celulele in timpul
comunicarii
– Operatia de hand-off apare atunci când o gazdă
mobila începe comunicarea prin intermediul unei noi
staţii de bază
 Factorii ce determina dimensiunea celulei
– Numarul de utilizatori ce vor fi suportati
– Multiplexarea si tehnologiile de transmisie
22
Conceptul celular
 Numarul limitat de frecvente => limiteaza numarul canalelor
 Puterea de emisie a antenei => limiteaza numarul
utilizatorilor
 Celule mai mici => posibilitatea reutilizarii frecventelor =>
mai multi utilizatori
 Statie de baza (BS): implementeaza multiplexarea diviziunii
spatiului
– Cluster: group de BS apropiate care impreuna utilizeaza toate
canalele apropiate
 Statiile mobile comunica numai printr-o statie de baza
– FDMA, TDMA, CDMA pot fi utilizate intr-o celula
 O cerere de crestere se face (mai multe canale sunt
necesare)
– Numarul statiilor de baza este crecut
– Puterea de transmisie este redusa(descrescuta) corespunzator
pentru a reduce interferentele
23
Arhitectura sistemelor celulare
 Fiecare celula este deservita de o statie de baza(BS-Base Station)
 Fiecare sitem (BSS-Base Station Sistem) compus din statia de
baza si dispozitivele “legate” la ea este conectat la un centru de
comutare mobila (mobile switching center -MSC) prin legaturi fixe
 Fiecare MSC este conectat la alte MSC-uri si PSTN(Public
Switched Telephone Network)

MSC MSC

HLR HLR
La alte
VLR MSC-uri VLR

PSTN PSTN
24
Apel de configurare pentru iesirea in
retea-la apel(Outgoing call setup)
 Apel de configurare la iesire:
– Se introduce numarul şi se trimite
– Trnsmisiile mobile necesita o cerere de acces pe un
canal ascendent(uplink)de semnalizare
– Dacă reţeaua poate procesa apelul, BS trimite un
mesaj de alocare a canalului
– Reteaua procedeaza la setarea conexiunii(si
realizeaza incasarea)
 Activitatea retelei:
– MSC determina locatia curenta a tintei mobile
utilizind HLR, VLR si prin comunicarea cu alte MSC-
uri
– MSC-ul sursa initiaza un mesaj apel de configurare
la MSC-ul care acoperă zona ţintă 25
Apel de configurare la intrarea in
retea-la primire(Incoming call setup)
 Apel de configurare la iesire:
– MSC-ul tinta (ce acopera locatia curenta a mobilului)
initiaza un mesaj de paginare
– BS trimite mai departe(forward) mesajul de paginare
pe canalul de aducere(downlink) in aria de acoperire
– Daca mobilul este activat(monitorizand canalul de
semnalizare), el raspunde la BS
– BS trimite un mesaj de alocare a canalului si
informeaza MSC-ul
 Activitatea retelei:
– Reţeaua completează cele două jumătăţi ale
conexiunii
26
Termenul de hand-off(predare –preluare) se referă la procesul de transfer al unui
apel sau sesiuni de date de la un canal conectat la reţeaua de bază pentru un altul

 Initierea BS-ului:
– Parasirea unei celule si trecerea la una noua (hand-off) apare în
cazul în care nivelul semnalului de telefonie mobilă scade sub un
prag minim
– Creste incarcarea pe BS
• Semnalul de monitorizare a fiecarui mobil
• Determinarea tintei BS pentru predare-preluare(hand-off)
 Asistarea mobilului:
– Fiecare BS transmite periodic un semnal de prezenta/far(beacon)
– Mobiul la receptionarea unui semnal de prezenta/far puternic de
la un BS nou, iniţiază un proces de trecere(predare-primire)
 Intersistem:
– Se mută mobilele peste zone controlate de către diferite MSC-uri
– Gestionarea similara cu cazul mobilelor asistate prin
suplimentarea unui efort aditional al HLR/VLR
27
Efectul mobilitatii asupra stivei de
protocoale
 Aplicatie
– Aplicatii noi si adaptari
 Transport
– Controlul congestiei si al fluxului
 Retea
– Adresarea si rutarea
 Link
– Accesul la mediu si trecerea de la o celula la alta
(hand-off)
 Fizic
– Transmisia, erorile si interferenta
28
Aplicatii mobile(1)

 Vehicule
– Transmisia de noutati, conditii de drum, etc.
– Retele ad-hoc cu vehicule apropiate pentru
prevenirea accidentelor
 Urgente
– Transmiterea rapidă la spital a datelor pacienţilor
– Retele ad-hoc in caz de cutremure sau dezastre
naturale
– militare ...

29
Aplicatii mobile(2)
 Agenti de vinzari mobili
– Acces direct la baza de date centrala cu clientii
– Baze de date consistente pentru toţi agenţii
 Acces la Web
– Acces la Web dinafara companiei(de pe teren)
– Ghid turistic inteligent cu informaţii actualizate si
dependente de locatie
 Localizarea serviciilor
– Gasirea serviciilor in mediul local

30
Aplicatii mobile(3)

 Servicii de informare
– Cotatii bursiere, etc.
– Vremea

 Operatii deconectate
– Agenti mobili, cumparaturi, etc.

 Divertisment
– Retele ad-hoc pentru jocuri multi-utilizator
 Mesagerie

31
Aplicatii mobile in industrie

 Wireless access: (phone.com) openwave


 Alerting services: myalert.com
 Location services: (airflash) webraska.com
 Intranet applications: (imedeon) viryanet.com
 Banking services: macalla.com
 Mobile agents: tryllian.com
 ….

32
Latimea de banda si aplicatiile
UMTS
EDGE
GPRS, CDMA 2000
CDMA 2.5G
2G
Speed, kbps 9.6 14.4 28 64 144 384 2000

Transaction Processing
Messaging/Text Apps
Voice/SMS
Location Services
Still Image Transfers
Internet/VPN Access
Database Access
Document Transfer
Low Quality Video
High Quality Video

33
Evolutia retelelor celulare
 First-generation: Analog cellular systems (450-900 MHz)
– Frequency shift keying; FDMA for spectrum sharing
– NMT (Europe), AMPS (US)
 Second-generation: Digital cellular systems (900, 1800 MHz)
– TDMA/CDMA for spectrum sharing; Circuit switching
– GSM (Europe), IS-136 (US), PDC (Japan)
– <9.6kbps data rates
 2.5G: Packet switching extensions
– Digital: GSM to GPRS; Analog: AMPS to CDPD
– <115kbps data rates
 3G: Full-fledged data services
– High speed, data and Internet services
– IMT-2000, UMTS
– <2Mbps data rates
 4G 34
GSM to GPRS
 Resursele radio sunt alocate numai pentru unul sau mai
multe(câteva) pachete la un moment dat, aşa ca GPRS
permite:
– Ca mai multi utilizatori sa partajaeze resursele radio
şi transportul eficient de pachete
– conectivitate la reţele externe de date orientate spre
pachete
– Tarifarea bazata pe volumul de trafic

 Rata datelor mai mare (pana la 171 kbps in cazul ideal)


 GPRS transmite SMS-urile pe canalele de date si nu pe
cele de semnalizare ca GSM

35
UMTS: Universal Mobile Telecomm. (standard)

 Global seamless operation in multi-cell environment


(SAT, macro, micro, pico)
 Global roaming: multi-mode, multi-band, low-cost
terminal, portable services & QoS

 High data rates at different mobile speeds: 144kbps at


vehicular speed (80km/h), 384 kbps at pedestrian
speed, and 2Mbps indoor (office/home)
 Multimedia interface to the internet
 Based on core GSM, conforms to IMT-2000
 W-CDMA as the air-interface

36
Evolution to 3G Technologies

2G 3G
IS-95B
cdma2000
CDMA

FDD
GSM W-CDMA

TDD
GPRS
EDGE & 136
HS outdoor

IS-136 136 HS
UWC-136
TDMA indoor
37
Tehnologii fara fir

802.11n
>150 Mbps 802.11n

70 Mbps
802.16(WiMax)
54 Mbps 802.11{a,b}
5-11 Mbps 802.11b .11 p-to-p link
1-2 Mbps
Bluetooth
802.11 µwave p-to-p links

4G

3G
384 Kbps WCDMA, CDMA2000
2G
56 Kbps IS-95, GSM, CDMA

Interior Exterior Exterior Exterior pe Distanta


pe dist medie dist. mare lunga

10 – 30m 50 – 200m 200m – 4Km 5Km – 20Km 20m – 50Km

38
Comparatie intre tehnologii

Covearge
10
3G -HSPA
WiFi
8
LTE
6
WiMAX
4
QoS Data rate
2

Mobility Cost effectiveness per bit

LTE (Long Term Evolution)-4G


39
Arhitectura retelei 3G

Core Network
Wireless
Telephone
Access Network
Programmable Network
Gateway
Mobile Access Softswitch
Router
Application
IP Intranet Server

Access (HLR)
IP Intranet
IP Point User Profiles &
Base Stations Authentication
802.11

802.11
3G Air Wired Access
Internet
Interface
Access
Point
40
Retele fara fir locale WLAN

 Advantage
– Foarte flexibile in aria(zona) de receptie
– Posibilitatea de realizare topologii ad-hoc
– Legare usoara la retelele cablate
 Dezavataje
– Banda relativ joasa comparativ cu retelele cablate
– Multe solutii proprietar

 Topologie infrastructura sau ad-hoc (802.11)

41
Topologiile retelelor fara fir(infrastructura si
Adhoc)
infrastructure
network
AP: Access Point
AP

AP wired network
AP

ad-hoc network

42
Source: Schiller
Difference Between Wired and
Wireless
Ethernet LAN Wireless LAN
B
A B C
A C

 If both A and C sense the channel to be idle at the


same time, they send at the same time.
 Collision can be detected at sender in Ethernet.
 Half-duplex radios in wireless cannot detect collision
at sender.
43
Hidden Terminal Problem

A B C
– A and C cannot hear each other.
– A sends to B, C cannot receive A.
– C wants to send to B, C senses a “free” medium
(CS fails)
– Collision occurs at B.
– A cannot receive the collision (CD fails).
– A is “hidden” for C.

44
IEEE 802.11

 Acknowledgements for reliability


 Signaling packets for collision avoidance
– RTS (request to send)
– CTS (clear to send)
 Signaling (RTS/CTS) packets contain
– sender address
– receiver address
– duration (packet size + ACK)
 Power-save mode

45
Spectrum War: Status today
Enterprise 802.11 Wireless Carrier Public 802.11
Network

46
Source: Pravin Bhagwat
Spectrum War: Evolution
Enterprise 802.11 Wireless Carrier Public 802.11
Network

 Market consolidation
 Entry of Wireless Carriers
 Entry of new players
 Footprint growth

47
Source: Pravin Bhagwat
Spectrum War: Steady State
Enterprise 802.11 Wireless Carrier Public 802.11
Network

Virtual Carrier

 Emergence of virtual
carriers
 Roaming agreements

48
Source: Pravin Bhagwat
Routarea si mobilitatea

 Gasirea unei cai de la o sursa la o destinatie


 Probleme
– Schimbarea frecventa a rutelor
– Schimbarea rutei poate fi in legatura cu miscarea
hostului
– Latimea de banda relativ mica a legaturilor
 Scopul protocoalelor de rutare
– Micsorarea rutarii in ce priveste cimpurile
aditionale(overhead)
– Gasirea celor mai scurte rute
– Gasirea rutelor “stabile”(despite mobility)

49
IP-ul mobil: Ideea de baza

MN Router
S
3

Home
agent

Router Router
1 2

50
Source: Vaidya
IP mobil: ideea de baza

miscare

Router
S MN
3

Foreign agent

Home agent

Router Router Pachetele sunt tunelate


utilizind IP in IP
1 2

51
Source: Vaidya
Protocoalele TCP si UDP in cazul retelelor fara
fir
 TCP asigură:
– Livrarea sigura si ordonata a pachetepor(utilizeaza
retransmisiile, daca este necesar)
– ACK-uri cumulative(un raspuns ACK-acknowledges
pentru date primite contiguu-contiguously received data)
– ACK-uri duplicat (ori de cite ori este receptionat un
segment “neasteptat”-cu numar de secventa incorect-
out-of-order)
– Semantici cap la cap-end-to-end(receptorul trimite ACK
dupa ce data a ajuns)
– Implementeaza evitarea congestiei si utilizeaza
controlul de tip fereasta de congestie- congestion
window 52
TCP in retele fără fir

 Factorii ce afecteaza protocolul TCP in retele fara fir:


– Erorile de transmisie in mediul fara fir
• Pot cauza retransmiterea rapida- fast retransmit, ceea ce duce la
diminuarea dimensiunii ferestrei de congestie
• Reducerea ferestrei de congestie ca raspuns la erori nu este
necesara
– Rute cu multe salturi(multi-hop routes) in mediul fara fir
partajat
• Conexiunile “lungi”(rute cu multe hopuri) sunt mai dezavantajoase
decit cele “scurte” pentru ca trebuie sa contina accesul la mediul
fara fir in fiecare hop
– Defectarea rutelor datorita mobilitatii

53
Indirect TCP (I-TCP)
 I-TCP splits the TCP connection
– no changes to the TCP protocol for wired hosts
– TCP connection is split at the foreign agent
– hosts in wired network do not notice
characteristics of wireless part
– no real end-to-end connection any longer

mobile host
access point
(foreign agent) „wired“ Internet

„wireless“ TCP standard TCP

54
Source: Schiller
TCP mobil (M-TCP)

 Gestioneaza deconectari frecvente si interminabile


 M-TCP spliteaza ca si I-TCP dar,
– Nu modifica TCP-ul pentru reteaua fixa la agentul
strain(FA-foreign agent)
– optimizeaza TCP pentru FA to MH
 Agentul strain(FA-Foreign Agent)
– Monitorizeaza toate pachetele si daca detecteaza o
deconectare atunci:
• Seteaza fereastra emitatorului la 0
• Emitatorul(sender) trece automat in modul repetat
– Fara caching, fara retransmisii
55
Adaptarea aplicatiilor pentru mobilitate
 Probleme de proiectare
 Sistem transparent sau sistem netransparent/adecvat/
care cunoaste faptul ca va lucra intr-o retea fara fir
 Aplicatie transparenta sau aplicatie netransparenta
/adecvata/care cunoaste faptul ca va lucra intr-o retea
fara fir
 Modele
 Model conventional de tip client/server
 Model client/proxy/server
 Mode caching/cu pre-incarcare
 Model cu agenti mobili
56
World Wide Web-ul si mobilitatea
 Caracteristicile protocolului HTTP
– A fost proiectat pentru banda larga si intirziere mica
– E de tip client/server, iar comunicarea este de tip
cerere/raspuns
– E orientat conexiune, o conexiune pe cerere
– Utilizeaza protocolul TCP intr-un dialog in trei pasi,
foloseste de asemenea protocolul DNS
 Caracteristicile HTML
– Proiectat pentru calculatoare cu performante
ridicate, afisaje color de mare definitie, mose, hard
disk, etc.
– De obicei paginile Web sunt optimizate pentru
proiectare nu pentru comunicare, ignorind
caracteristicile sistemelor clientului(end-system). 57
Sisteme suport pentru WWW mobil
 Browsere cu facilitati adaugate/sporite
– Suport client adecvat pentru mobilitate
 Proxi
– Client proxi: cu pre incarcare, memorare
temporara, utilizare off-line
– Retea proxi: transformarea adaptiva a continutului
pentru conexiuni
– Proxi pentru client si retea
 Servere cu facilitati sporite
– Servere cu suport adecavat pentru mobilitate
– Furnizarea continutului in multiple moduri in
functie de capabilitatile clientului
 Protocoale/limbaje noi
– WAP/WML 58
Modelul client/proxy/server
 Functiuni proxi atit pentru un client cit si pentru
serverul retelei fixe
 Functiuni proxi pentru server adecvate mobilitatii
la clientul mobil
 Proxi-ul poate fi plasat in hostul mobil(Coda), sau
in reteaua fixa sau la ambele (WebExpress)
 Permite proiectarea de de clienti
“slabi”(smart/thin client) in cazul unor dispozitive
cu resurse reduse(aplicatia se lanseaza din
browser si poate rula numai conectata si nu
autonom fat client)
59
Proxi Web in WebExpress

The WebExpress Intercept Model

60
Source: Helal
WAP(Wireless Application Protocol)
 Navigator-browser
– “Micro browser”, similar navigatoarelor existente
 Limbajul de script
– Similar limbajului Javascript, adaptat la dispozitivele mobile
 Poarta-Gateway
– Transitie de la sistemele fara fir la cele cu fir
 Serverul
– “Serverul WAP/ origine-Wap/Origin server”, similar
serverelor Web existente
 Nivelele protocolului
– Nivelul transport, securitate, sesiune, etc.
 Interfata cu aplicatia de telefonie
– Functii de accces la telefonie
61
WAP: elementele componente
fixed network wireless network

HTML WML WAP Binary WML


Internet
filter proxy

HTML WML
HTML
filter/ Binary WML
WAP
web HTML proxy
server

WTA Binary WML


server
PSTN

Binary WML: binary file format for clients

62
Source: Schiller
WAP: modelul de referinta
Internet A-SAP WAP

HTML, Java Application Layer (WAE) Servicii aditionale


si aplicatii
S-SAP
Session Layer (WSP)
HTTP TR-SAP
Transaction Layer (WTP)
SEC-SAP
SSL/TLS Security Layer (WTLS)
T-SAP

TCP/IP, Transport Layer (WDP) WCMP


UDP/IP,
media Purtatoarele (GSM, CDPD, GPRS ...)

WAE comprises WML (Wireless Markup Language), WML Script, WTAI etc.

63
Source: Schiller
Stiva de protocoale WAP
 WDP
– Functionalitati similare cu UDP in retele IP
 WTLS
– functionalitati similare cu SSL/TLS (optimizat pentru retele fara fir)
 WTP
– Clasa 0: analog cu UDP
– Clasa 1: analog cu TCP (fara setarea privind overhead-ul conexiunii)
– Clasa 2: analog cu RPC (optimizat pentru retele fara fir)
– features of “user acknowledgement”, “hold on”
 WSP
– WSP/B: analog cu http 1.1 (cu facilitati de suspendare/reluare)
– metoda: analoaga cu RPC/RMI
– Caracteristici de invocare asincrona (confirmate/neconfirmate)
64
Modelul cu agenti mobili
 Agentul mobil primeste cererea clientului si
 Agentul mobil se muta in reteaua fixa

 Agentul mobil actioneza la server ca si un client


 Agentul mobil realizeaza transformarile si filtrarea

 Agentul mobil se intoarce inapoi la platforma mobila


atunci cind clientul este conectat

65
Mobile Agents: Exemplu

66
Cuprins
 Introducere
 Wireless LANs: IEEE 802.11
 Rutarea IP mobila
 TCP in retele fara fir
 Retele GSM
 Arhitectura retelelor GPRS
 WAP(Wireless application protocol)
 Agenti mobili(Mobile agents)
 Retele mobile si peer-to-peer(MANET-Mobile
ad hoc networks)
67
How Wireless LANs are different

 Destination address does not equal destination


location
 The media impact the design
– wireless LANs intended to cover reasonable
geographic distances must be built from basic
coverage blocks
 Impact of handling mobile (and portable)
stations
– Propagation effects
– Mobility management
– power management

68
Wireless Media
 Physical layers in wireless networks
– Use a medium that has neither absolute nor readily
observable boundaries outside which stations are unable to
receive frames
– Are unprotected from outside signals
– Communicate over a medium significantly less reliable than
wired PHYs
– Have dynamic topologies
– Lack full connectivity and therefore the assumption normally
made that every station (STA) can hear every other STA in
invalid (I.e., STAs may be “hidden” from each other)
– Have time varying and asymmetric propagation properties

69
802.11: Motivation
 Can we apply media access methods from fixed networks
 Example CSMA/CD
– Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection
– send as soon as the medium is free, listen into the medium if a
collision occurs (original method in IEEE 802.3)
 Medium access problems in wireless networks
– signal strength decreases proportional to the square of the
distance
– sender would apply CS and CD, but the collisions happen at the
receiver
– sender may not “hear” the collision, i.e., CD does not work
– CS might not work, e.g. if a terminal is “hidden”
 Hidden and exposed terminals
70
Solution for Hidden/Exposed Terminals
 A first sends a Request-to-Send (RTS) to B
 On receiving RTS, B responds Clear-to-Send (CTS)
 Hidden node C overhears CTS and keeps quiet
– Transfer duration is included in both RTS and CTS
 Exposed node overhears a RTS but not the CTS
– D‟s transmission cannot interfere at B

RTS RTS
D A B C
CTS CTS
DATA
71
IEEE 802.11
 Wireless LAN standard defined in the unlicensed
spectrum (2.4 GHz and 5 GHz U-NII bands)

 Standards covers the MAC sublayer and PHY layers


 Three different physical layers in the 2.4 GHz band
– FHSS, DSSS and IR
 OFDM based PHY layer in the 5 GHz band

72
Components of IEEE 802.11
architecture
 The basic service set (BSS) is the basic building
block of an IEEE 802.11 LAN
 The ovals can be thought of as the coverage area
within which member stations can directly
communicate
 The Independent BSS (IBSS) is the simplest LAN. It
may consist of as few as two stations
ad-hoc network BSS1 BSS2

73
802.11 - ad-hoc network (DCF)
802.11 LAN

STA1  Direct communication


BSS1 STA3
within a limited range
– Station (STA):
terminal with access
STA2
mechanisms to the
wireless medium
– Basic Service Set (BSS):
BSS2 group of stations using the
same radio frequency
STA5

STA4 802.11 LAN

74
Source: Schiller
802.11 - infrastructure network (PCF)
Station (STA)
802.11 LAN – terminal with access
802.x LAN
mechanisms to the wireless
medium and radio contact to
STA1 the access point
BSS1 Basic Service Set (BSS)
Portal
Access – group of stations using the
Point same radio frequency
Distribution System Access Point
Access – station integrated into the
ESS Point wireless LAN and the
distribution system
BSS2 Portal
– bridge to other (wired)
networks
Distribution System
STA2 STA3
802.11 LAN – interconnection network to
form one logical network (EES:
Extended Service Set) based
on several BSS 75
Source: Schiller
Distribution System (DS) concepts
 The Distribution system interconnects multiple BSSs
 802.11 standard logically separates the wireless
medium from the distribution system – it does not
preclude, nor demand, that the multiple media be
same or different
 An Access Point (AP) is a STA that provides access
to the DS by providing DS services in addition to
acting as a STA.
 Data moves between BSS and the DS via an AP
 The DS and BSSs allow 802.11 to create a wireless
network of arbitrary size and complexity called the
Extended Service Set network (ESS)

76
802.11- in the TCP/IP stack
fixed terminal
mobile terminal

server

infrastructure network

access point

application application
TCP TCP
IP IP
LLC LLC LLC
802.11 MAC 802.11 MAC 802.3 MAC 802.3 MAC
802.11 PHY 802.11 PHY 802.3 PHY 802.3 PHY

77
802.11 - Layers and functions

 MAC  PLCP Physical Layer Convergence


Protocol
– access mechanisms,
fragmentation, encryption – clear channel assessment
signal (carrier sense)
 MAC Management
– synchronization, roaming,
 PMD Physical Medium Dependent
MIB, power management – modulation, coding
 PHY Management

Station Management
– channel selection, MIB
LLC  Station Management
DLC

MAC MAC Management – coordination of all


management functions
PLCP
PHY

PHY Management
PMD

7.8.1 78
802.11 - Physical layer
 3 versions: 2 radio (typically 2.4 GHz), 1 IR
– data rates 1, 2, or 11 Mbit/s
 FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum)
– spreading, despreading, signal strength, typically 1 Mbit/s
– min. 2.5 frequency hops/s (USA), two-level GFSK modulation
 DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum)
– DBPSK modulation for 1 Mbit/s (Differential Binary Phase Shift Keying),
DQPSK for 2 Mbit/s (Differential Quadrature PSK)
– preamble and header of a frame is always transmitted with 1 Mbit/s
– chipping sequence: +1, -1, +1, +1, -1, +1, +1, +1, -1, -1, -1 (Barker code)
– max. radiated power 1 W (USA), 100 mW (EU), min. 1mW
 Infrared
– 850-950 nm, diffuse light, typ. 10 m range
– carrier detection, energy detection, synchonization

79
Spread-spectrum communications

80
Source: Intersil
DSSS Barker Code modulation

81
Source: Intersil
DSSS properties

82
Source: Intersil
802.11 - MAC layer

 Traffic services
– Asynchronous Data Service (mandatory) – DCF
– Time-Bounded Service (optional) - PCF

 Access methods
– DCF CSMA/CA (mandatory)
• collision avoidance via randomized back-off mechanism
• ACK packet for acknowledgements (not for broadcasts)
– DCF w/ RTS/CTS (optional)
• avoids hidden terminal problem
– PCF (optional)
• access point polls terminals according to a list

83
802.11 - Carrier Sensing
 In IEEE 802.11, carrier sensing is performed
– at the air interface (physical carrier sensing), and
– at the MAC layer (virtual carrier sensing)
 Physical carrier sensing
– detects presence of other users by analyzing all detected
packets
– Detects activity in the channel via relative signal strength
from other sources
 Virtual carrier sensing is done by sending MPDU duration
information in the header of RTS/CTS and data frames
 Channel is busy if either mechanisms indicate it to be
– Duration field indicates the amount of time (in microseconds)
required to complete frame transmission
– Stations in the BSS use the information in the duration field to
adjust their network allocation vector (NAV)

84
802.11 - Reliability
 Use of acknowledgements
– When B receives DATA from A, B sends an ACK
– If A fails to receive an ACK, A retransmits the DATA
– Both C and D remain quiet until ACK (to prevent collision of
ACK)
– Expected duration of transmission+ACK is included in
RTS/CTS packets

RTS RTS
D A B C
CTS CTS
DATA

ACK

85
802.11 - Priorities

 defined through different inter frame spaces – mandatory idle time


intervals between the transmission of frames
 SIFS (Short Inter Frame Spacing)
– highest priority, for ACK, CTS, polling response
– SIFSTime and SlotTime are fixed per PHY layer
– (10 s and 20 s respectively in DSSS)
 PIFS (PCF IFS)
– medium priority, for time-bounded service using PCF
– PIFSTime = SIFSTime + SlotTime
 DIFS (DCF IFS)
– lowest priority, for asynchronous data service
– DCF-IFS (DIFS): DIFSTime = SIFSTime + 2xSlotTime

86
802.11 - CSMA/CA
contention window
DIFS DIFS (randomized back-off
mechanism)

medium busy next frame

direct access if t
medium is free  DIFS slot time

– station ready to send starts sensing the medium (Carrier Sense


based on CCA, Clear Channel Assessment)
– if the medium is free for the duration of an Inter-Frame Space
(IFS), the station can start sending (IFS depends on service
type)
– if the medium is busy, the station has to wait for a free IFS, then
the station must additionally wait a random back-off time
(collision avoidance, multiple of slot-time)
– if another station occupies the medium during the back-off time
of the station, the back-off timer stops (fairness)
87
802.11 –CSMA/CA example
DIFS DIFS DIFS DIFS
boe bor boe bor boe busy
station1

boe busy
station2

busy
station3

boe busy boe bor


station4

boe bor boe busy boe bor


station5
t

busy medium not idle (frame, ack etc.) boe elapsed backoff time

packet arrival at MAC bor residual backoff time

88
802.11 - Collision Avoidance
 Collision avoidance: Once channel becomes idle, the
node waits for a randomly chosen duration before
attempting to transmit
 DCF
– When transmitting a packet, choose a backoff interval in the
range [0,cw]; cw is contention window
– Count down the backoff interval when medium is idle
– Count-down is suspended if medium becomes busy
– When backoff interval reaches 0, transmit RTS
 Time spent counting down backoff intervals is part of
MAC overhead

89
DCF Example

B1 = 25 B1 = 5
wait data

data wait
B2 = 20 B2 = 15 B2 = 10

B1 and B2 are backoff intervals


cw = 31 at nodes 1 and 2

90
802.11 - Congestion Control

 Contention window (cw) in DCF: Congestion


control achieved by dynamically choosing cw
 large cw leads to larger backoff intervals
 small cw leads to larger number of collisions

 Binary Exponential Backoff in DCF:


– When a node fails to receive CTS in response to
its RTS, it increases the contention window
• cw is doubled (up to a bound CWmax)
– Upon successful completion data transfer, restore
cw to CWmin
91
802.11 - CSMA/CA II
 station has to wait for DIFS before sending data
 receivers acknowledge at once (after waiting for SIFS) if the
packet was received correctly (CRC)
 automatic retransmission of data packets in case of
transmission errors

DIFS
data
sender
SIFS
ACK
receiver
DIFS
other data
stations t
waiting time contention

92
802.11 –RTS/CTS
 station can send RTS with reservation parameter after waiting for DIFS
(reservation determines amount of time the data packet needs the medium)
 acknowledgement via CTS after SIFS by receiver (if ready to receive)
 sender can now send data at once, acknowledgement via ACK
 other stations store medium reservations distributed via RTS and CTS

DIFS
RTS data
sender
SIFS SIFS
CTS SIFS ACK
receiver

NAV (RTS) DIFS


other NAV (CTS) data
stations t
defer access contention

93
Fragmentation

DIFS
RTS frag1 frag2
sender
SIFS SIFS SIFS
CTS SIFS ACK1 SIFS ACK2
receiver

NAV (RTS)
NAV (CTS)
NAV (frag1) DIFS
other NAV (ACK1) data
stations t
contention

94
802.11 - Point Coordination Function

95
802.11 - PCF I

t0 t1
SuperFrame

medium busy PIFS SIFS SIFS


D1 D2
point
coordinator SIFS SIFS
U1 U2
wireless
stations
stations„ NAV
NAV

96
802.11 - PCF II

t2 t3 t4

PIFS SIFS
D3 D4 CFend
point
coordinator SIFS
U4
wireless
stations
stations„ NAV
NAV contention free period contention t
period

97
CFP structure and Timing

98
PCF- Data transmission

99
Polling Mechanisms

 With DCF, there is no mechanism to guarantee


minimum delay for time-bound services
 PCF wastes bandwidth (control overhead) when
network load is light, but delays are bounded
 With Round Robin (RR) polling, 11% of time was
used for polling
 This values drops to 4 % when optimized polling is
used
 Implicit signaling mechanism for STAs to indicate
when they have data to send improves performance

100
Coexistence of PCF and DCF
 PC controls frame transfers during a Contention Free
Period (CFP).
– CF-Poll control frame is used by the PC to invite a station to
send data
– CF-End is used to signal the end of the CFP
 The CFP alternates with a CP, when DCF controls
frame transfers
– The CP must be large enough to send at least one
maximum-sized MPDU including RTS/CTS/ACK
 CFPs are generated at the CFP repetition rate and
each CFP begins with a beacon frame

101
802.11 - Frame format
 Types
– control frames, management frames, data frames
 Sequence numbers
– important against duplicated frames due to lost ACKs
 Addresses
– receiver, transmitter (physical), BSS identifier, sender (logical)
 Miscellaneous
– sending time, checksum, frame control, data
bytes 2 2 6 6 6 2 6 0-2312 4
Frame Duration Address Address Address Sequence Address
Data CRC
Control ID 1 2 3 Control 4

version, type, fragmentation, security, ...

102
Frame Control Field

103
Types of Frames

 Control Frames
– RTS/CTS/ACK
– CF-Poll/CF-End
 Management Frames
– Beacons
– Probe Request/Response
– Association Request/Response
– Dissociation/Reassociation
– Authentication/Deauthentication
– ATIM
 Data Frames

104
MAC address format
scenario to DS from address 1 address 2 address 3 address 4
DS
ad-hoc network 0 0 DA SA BSSID -
infrastructure 0 1 DA BSSID SA -
network, from AP
infrastructure 1 0 BSSID SA DA -
network, to AP
infrastructure 1 1 RA TA DA SA
network, within DS

DS: Distribution System


AP: Access Point
DA: Destination Address
SA: Source Address
BSSID: Basic Service Set Identifier
RA: Receiver Address
TA: Transmitter Address

105
802.11 - MAC management
 Synchronization
– try to find a LAN, try to stay within a LAN
– timer etc.
 Power management
– sleep-mode without missing a message
– periodic sleep, frame buffering, traffic measurements
 Association/Reassociation
– integration into a LAN
– roaming, i.e. change networks by changing access points
– scanning, i.e. active search for a network
 MIB - Management Information Base
– managing, read, write

106
802.11 - Synchronization

 All STAs within a BSS are synchronized to a common


clock
– PCF mode: AP is the timing master
• periodically transmits Beacon frames containing Timing
Synchronization function (TSF)
• Receiving stations accepts the timestamp value in TSF
– DCF mode: TSF implements a distributed algorithm
• Each station adopts the timing received from any beacon that has
TSF value later than its own TSF timer
 This mechanism keeps the synchronization of the TSF
timers in a BSS to within 4 s plus the maximum
propagation delay of the PHY layer

107
Synchronization using a Beacon
(infrastructure)

beacon interval

B B B B
access
point
busy busy busy busy
medium
t
value of the timestamp B beacon frame

108
Synchronization using a Beacon (ad-
hoc)

beacon interval

B1 B1
station1

B2 B2
station2

busy busy busy busy


medium
t
value of the timestamp B beacon frame random delay

109
802.11 - Power management
 Idea: switch the transceiver off if not needed
– States of a station: sleep and awake
 Timing Synchronization Function (TSF)
– stations wake up at the same time
 Infrastructure
– Traffic Indication Map (TIM)
• list of unicast receivers transmitted by AP
– Delivery Traffic Indication Map (DTIM)
• list of broadcast/multicast receivers transmitted by AP
 Ad-hoc
– Ad-hoc Traffic Indication Map (ATIM)
• announcement of receivers by stations buffering frames
• more complicated - no central AP
• collision of ATIMs possible (scalability?)

110
802.11 - Energy conservation

 Power Saving in IEEE 802.11 (Infrastructure


Mode)
– An Access Point periodically transmits a beacon
indicating which nodes have packets waiting for them
– Each power saving (PS) node wakes up periodically
to receive the beacon
– If a node has a packet waiting, then it sends a PS-
Poll
• After waiting for a backoff interval in [0,CWmin]
– Access Point sends the data in response to PS-poll

111
Power saving with wake-up patterns
(infrastructure)
TIM interval DTIM interval

D B T T d D B
access
point
busy busy busy busy
medium

p d
station
t
T TIM D DTIM awake

B broadcast/multicast p PS poll d data transmission


to/from the station

112
Power saving with wake-up patterns
(ad-hoc)
ATIM
window beacon interval

B1 A D B1
station1

B2 B2 a d
station2

t
B beacon frame random delay A transmit ATIM D transmit data

awake a acknowledge ATIM d acknowledge data

113
802.11 - Roaming
 No or bad connection in PCF mode? Then perform:
 Scanning
– scan the environment, i.e., listen into the medium for beacon
signals or send probes into the medium and wait for an
answer
 Reassociation Request
– station sends a request to one or several AP(s)
 Reassociation Response
– success: AP has answered, station can now participate
– failure: continue scanning
 AP accepts Reassociation Request
– signal the new station to the distribution system
– the distribution system updates its data base (i.e., location
information)
– typically, the distribution system now informs the old AP so it
can release resources 114
Hardware
 Original WaveLAN card (NCR)
– 914 MHz Radio Frequency
– Transmit power 281.8 mW
– Transmission Range ~250 m (outdoors) at 2Mbps
– SNRT 10 dB (capture)
 WaveLAN II (Lucent)
– 2.4 GHz radio frequency range
– Transmit Power 30mW
– Transmission range 376 m (outdoors) at 2 Mbps (60m
indoors)
– Receive Threshold = –81dBm
– Carrier Sense Threshold = -111dBm

115
802.11 current status

802.11i LLC
security
WEP MAC
802.11f MAC Mgmt
Inter Access Point Protocol

802.11e MIB
QoS enhancements
PHY
DSSS FH IR

OFDM
802.11b
5,11 Mbps
802.11a
6,9,12,18,24
802.11g 36,48,54 Mbps
20+ Mbps

116
IEEE 802.11 Summary

 Infrastructure (PCF) and adhoc (DCF) modes

 Signaling packets for collision avoidance


– Medium is reserved for the duration of the transmission
– Beacons in PCF
– RTS-CTS in DCF

 Acknowledgements for reliability


 Binary exponential backoff for congestion control
 Power save mode for energy conservation

117
Cuprins
 Introducere
 Wireless LANs: IEEE 802.11
 Rutarea IP mobila
 TCP in retele fara fir
 Retele GSM
 Arhitectura retelelor GPRS
 WAP(Wireless application protocol)
 Agenti mobili(Mobile agents)
 Retele mobile si peer-to-peer(MANET-Mobile
ad hoc networks)
118
Rutarea traditională
 Un protocol de rutare populeaza tabela de
rutare a unui router

 Un protocol de rutare se bazeaza pe


algoritmii Distance-Vector sau Link-State 119
Routarea si mobilitatea

 Gasirea unei cai de la o sursa la o destinatie


 Probleme
– Schimbarea frecventa a rutelor
– Schimbarea rutei poate fi in legatura cu miscarea
hostului
– Latimea de banda relativ mica a legaturilor
 Scopul protocoalelor de rutare
– Micsorarea rutarii in ce priveste cimpurile
aditionale(overhead)
– Gasirea celor mai scurte rute
– Gasirea rutelor “stabile”(despite mobility)

120
IP mobil (RFC 3220): motivarea
 Rutarea traditionala
– Bazata pe adrese IP; prefixul retelei determina subreteaua
– Schimbarea fizica a subretelei implica
• Schimbarea adresei IP (dupa noua subretea), sau
• O tabela de rutare cu intrari speciale pentru transmitrea
pacheteor la noua subretea
 Schimbarea adeselor IP
– Actualizarea DNS necesita un timp mare
– Conexiunile TCP se opresc
 Schimbarea intrarilor in tabelele de rutare
– Nu exista o evidenta cu numarul hosturilor mobile si
schimbarile frecvente a locatiilor lor
– Probleme de securitate
 Cerintele solutiei
– Folosirea aceleiasi adrese IP, utilizarea acelorasi protocoale
– Autentificarea mesajelor, … 121
IP-ul mobil: Ideea de baza

MN(mobile Router
S(sender) Node) 3

Home
agent

Router Router
1 2

122
Source: Vaidya
IP mobil: ideea de baza

miscare

Router
S MN
3

Foreign agent

Home agent

Router Router Pachetele sunt tunelate


utilizind IP in IP
1 2

123
Source: Vaidya
IP mobil : terminologia
 Nod Mobil(Mobile Node-MN)
– Nod care se muta prin retea fara a-si schimba adresa IP
 Agent de acasa/local(Home Agent-HA)
– Host din reteaua de-acasa/proprie a nodului mobil( MN), de obicei
un router
– Inregistreaza locatia nodului MN, tuneleaza pachetele IP la COA
 Agent strain( Foreign Agent -FA)
– Host din reteaua curenta/straina, unde se gaseste momentan MN,
de obicei un router
– Forwardeaza pachetele tunelate la MN, de obicei ruterul implicit al
lui MN din reteaua de acasa/proprie
 “Ingrijitorul/gestionarul” de adrese(Care-of Address -COA)
– Adreseaza punctele de capat ale tunelului curent( tunnel end-
point) de la MN( la FA sau MN)
– Acualizeaza locatia MN-ului din punctul de vedere al IP
 Nodul corespondent(Correspondent Node (CN)
– Hostul cu care MN doreste sa “corespondeze” ( conexiunea TCP )
124
Transferul datelor la sistemul mobil
HA
2
MN

Reteaua proprie 3 Receptor


(home network) Internet (receiver)

FA foreign
network

1 1. Emitatorul trimite la adresa IP a nodului


CN mobil MN, iar HA intercepteaza
pachetele (proxy ARP)
2. HA tuneleaza pachetele la COA, aici FA,
Emitator(sender)
prin incapsulare
3. FA trimite pachetele mai departe la MN
125
Soursa: Schiller
Transferul datelor de la sistemul mobil
Agent propriu
HA-home agent 1 MN

Retea proprie Emitator


(home network) Internet (sender)

FA Retea straina
(foreign
network)

1. Emitatorul trimite la adresa IP a


CN a receptorului;de obicei FA
lucreaza ca si un router implicit
Receptor(receiver)

126
Source: Schiller
IP-ul mobil: Operatia de bază
 Agentul de averizare
– Periodic HA/FA trimit messaje de avertizare in subreteaua lor
fizica
– MN asculta mesajele si detecteaza daca acestea sunt din
reteaua proprie sau straină
– MN citeste o/un COA din mesajele de averizare a FA
 Inregistrarea MN
– MN semnaleaza COA la HA prin FA
– HA raspundela MN prin FA
– Timpul de viata este limitat, necesar sa fie securizat dupa
autentificare
 Proxi-ul HA
– HA avertizeaza asupra adresei IP a lui MN (ca si pentru
sistemele fixe)
– Pachetele pentru MN sunt trimise la HA
– Schimbari in COA/FA
 Tunelarea pachetelor
– HA la MN prin FA 127
Agentul de averizare
0 7 8 15 16 23 24 31
type code checksum
#addresses addr. size lifetime
router address 1
preference level 1
router address 2
preference level 2
...

type length sequence number


registration lifetime R B H F M G V reserved
COA 1
COA 2
...

128
Inregistrarea(registration)
MN FA HA MN HA

129
Cererea de inregistrare(Registration request)

0 7 8 15 16 23 24 31
type S B DMG V rsv lifetime
home address
home agent
COA
identification

extensions . . .

130
Incapsularea IP-in-IP
 Incapsularea IP-in-IP- (obligatorie in RFC 2003)
– tunel intre HA si COA

ver. IHL TOS length


IP identification flags fragment offset
TTL IP-in-IP IP checksum
IP address of HA
Care-of address COA
ver. IHL TOS length
IP identification flags fragment offset
TTL lay. 4 prot. IP checksum
IP address of CN
IP address of MN
TCP/UDP/ ... payload

131
IP-ul mobil: Alte probleme
 Tunelarea inversa
– Firewall-urile permit numai adresari topologice
“topological correct“
– Un pachet de la MN incapsulat de FA este corect din
punct de vedere topologic(topological correct)

 Optimizari
– Rutarea triunghiulara
• HA informeaza emitatorul privitor la locatia curenta a lui MN
– Schimbarea lui FA
• noul FA informeaza vechiul FA sa evite pachetul pierdut, iar
vechiul FA forvardeaza pachetele ramase la noul FA.
132
IP-ul mobil -recapitulare
 Nodul mobil se muta la noua locatie
 Agent de avertisment de agentul strain
 Inregistrarea nodului mobil cu agentul de acasa
 Realizarea proxi-ului de agentul de-acasa
pentru nodul mobil
 Incapsularea pachetelor
 Tunnelarea agentului de-acasa la nodul mobil
prin nodul strain

 Tunelarea inversa
 Optimizarea pentru rutarea triunghiulara(in
bucla) 133
Cuprins
 Introducere
 Wireless LANs: IEEE 802.11
 Rutarea IP mobila
 TCP in retele fara fir
 Retele GSM
 Arhitectura retelelor GPRS
 WAP(Wireless application protocol)
 Agenti mobili(Mobile agents)
 Retele mobile si peer-to-peer(MANET-Mobile
ad hoc networks)
134
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
 Livrarea sigura si ordonata
– Prin pachete de raspuns si retransmisii
 Dialog de lucru cap la cap(end-to-end
semantics)
– Raspunsurile trimise la emitator confirma livrarea
datelor primite de receptor
– Ack este trimis numai dupa ce data a ajuns la
receptor
– Ack cumulativ(pentru mai multe segmente)
 Implementeaza evitarea congestiei si controlul
de flux

135
Controlul fluxului bazat pe ferestre

 Protocolul de transmisie cu fereastră glisantă


 Dimensiunea ferestrei este minimul din
– Fereastra de averizare a receptorului- determinata
de spatiul disponibil in bufferul(memoria tampon) a
receptorului
– Fereastra de congestie – determinata de emitator
pe baza reactiei retelei
Fereastra emitatorului

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Ack-urile primite Ne transmise

136
Comportamentul de baza TCP
14 Evitarea congestiei
Congestion Window size

12
10
(segments)

8 Nivelul startului
6Startul incet incet

4
2
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Time (round trips)

Exemplul presupune ca ACK-urile nu sunt intirziate


137
TCP: detectarea pachetelor pierdute

 Timeout-ul de retransmisie
– Initiaza startul incet

 Raspunsuri duplicate
– Initiaza retransmiterea rapida

 Presupunerea ca toate pachetele sunt pierdute


datorita congestiei

138
TCP dupa timeout
Dupa timeout
Fereastra de
Congestion window (segments)

25 congestie(cwnd) =20
20

15

10
Nivelul startului
Nivelul startului incet
5 Incet ssthresh = 10
ssthresh = 8
0 12

15

20

22

25
0

Time (round trips)

139
TCP dupa retransmisia rapida
Dupa recuperarea rapida

10
Window size (segments)

Fereastra initiata de receptor


8
6
4
2
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Time (round trips)

Dupa retransmisia rapida si recuperarea rapida


dimensiunea ferestrei este redusa la jumatate.
140
Impactul erorilor de transmisie

 Canalele fara fir pot avea erori aleatoare in


avalansa
 Erorile in avalansa pot cauza timeout
 Erorile aleatoare pot cauza retransmisii rapide
 TCP nu poate face distinctia intre pachetele
pierdute datorita congestiei si cele pierdute
datorita erorilor de transmisie
 Nu totdeauna este necesara reducerea ferestrei
de congestie la erori (multe fiind datorate inrautatirii
transmisiei prin mediu)

141
Splitarea conexiunii
 Conexiunea TCP capat la capat(end-to-end) este
Impartita/”sparta” intr-o conexiune pe partea
cablata a rutei si una pe partea fara fir a rutei
 Conexiunea intre hostul fara fir MH si hostul fix FH
trece prin statia de baza BS
 FH-MH = FH-BS + BS-MH

FH BS MH

Host fix Statia de baza Hostul mobil

142
I-TCP: Consideratii privind splitarea
conexiunii
Starea conexiunii prin-TCP

Conexiunea TCP Conexiunea TCP

application application application


rxmt
transport transport transport
network network network
link link link
physical physical physical

Fara fir(wireless) 143


Protocolul snoop
 Pachetele de date sunt memorate(bufferate) in statia se
baza BS
– Se permite astfel nivelului legatura de date retransmisia
lor
 Cind raspunsurile duplicat sunt primite de BS de la MH
– Se retransmit pe legatura fara fir, daca pachetul este
prezent in buffer
– Se arunca raspunsul duplicat(drop dupack)
 Se previne retransmisia rapida TCP de emitatorul FH(fix
host)
FH BS MH

144
Protocol snoop

Starea conexiunii prin TCP

TCP connection

application application application


transport transport transport
network network network
rxmt
link link link
physical physical physical

FH BS MH
wireless
145
Impactul trecerii de la un nod la altul( la alt BS)(Hand-offs)

 Splitarea conexiunii
– Starea “hard” a conex. din statia de baza trebuie sa fie mutata la
noua statie de baza
 Protocolul Snoop
– Starea “soft” a conex. nu e nevoie sa fie mutata
– In timp ce noua statie de baza construieste noua stare, pachetele
pierdute nu pot fi recuperate local

 Trecerile frcvente de la un nod la altul constituie o


problema pentru schemele care realizeaza o cantitate
semnificativa a starilor de conexiune la statiile de baza
– Starea” hard” a conex. nu se pierde
– Starea “soft” a conex. tebuie sa fie recreata pentru a obtine o
performanta buna

146
M-TCP(mobile TCP)
 Similar cu splitarea conexiunii, M-TCP spliteaza o
conexiune TCP in doua parti logice
– Cele doua parti au control de flux independent ca si
in I-TCP
 BS nu trimite un ACK la MH, pina cind BS a primit un
ACK de la MH
– Pastreaza semanticile(modul de lucru) capat la capat
 BS cu mentinerea ack pentru ACK-ul ultimului octet al
lui MH(?)
Ack 999 Ack 1000

FH BS MH

147
M-TCP

 Cind este receptionat un nou ACK impreuna cu


un avertisment al receptorului de tipul
Window=0, emitatorul intra in modul “continuare”
 Emitatorul nu trimite nici o data in modul
– Cu exceptia cazului in care modul “continuare” este
anulat
 Cind este primit un avertisment de tip fereastra
pozitiva, emitatorul iese din modul “continuare”
 La iesirea din modul “continuare” , valorile pentru
RTO si cwnd sunt aceleasi ca si inaintea modului
“continuare”
148
BlocareaTCP
 M-TCP are nevoie de ajutor de la statia de
baza(base station)
– Statia de baza mentine ack pentru un octet(?)
– Statia de baza utilizeaza acest ack sa trimita o
fereastra de avertisment egala cu zero cind un host
mobil se muta la alta celula
 Blocarea TCP cere receptorului sa trimita o
fereastra de avertizare egala cu zero (ZWA)
Mobile
TCP receiver

FH BS MH

149
TCP in medii fara fir-recapitulare
 Presupunerea ca pachetele pierdute implica o
congestie nu este adevarata in mediile fara fir
 Nu este adecvata invocarea controlului
congestiei ca raspuns la pachetele pierdute

 Citeava propuneri de adaptare a TCP in mediile


fara fir
 Modificări la:
– Nodul fix(FH)
– Statia de baza(BS)
– Nodul mobil(MH)
150
Cuprins
 Introducere
 Wireless LANs: IEEE 802.11
 Rutarea IP mobila
 TCP in retele fara fir
 Retele GSM
 Arhitectura retelelor GPRS
 WAP(Wireless application protocol)
 Agenti mobili(Mobile agents)
 Retele mobile si peer-to-peer(MANET-Mobile
ad hoc networks)
151
GSM: Arhitectura

PSTN-Public Switched Telephone Network,


ISDN-Integrated Services Digital Network,
PDN-Packet Data Network 152
Base Transceiver Station (BTS)
 Una pe celula
 E compusa dintr-un transmitator si un receptor de mare
viteza
 Functiile statiei BTS
– Are doua canale
Un canal de semnalizare si unul pentru date(Signalling
and Data Channel)
Programarea mesajelor
Detectarea accesului aleatoriu
– Realizeaza codificarea pentru protectia la erori a
canalului radio
• Adaptarea vitezei in functie de erori, conditii de propagare,
etc.
 Identificarea BTS prin codul de identitate (BtS Identity
153
Code-BSIC)
Base Station Controller (BSC)
 Controleaza mai multe BTS-uri
 Consta dintr-o entitatea de control si din una
pentru un protocol inteligent
 Functiile BSC
– Asigura managementul resursei radio
– Asigneaza si elibereaza frecvente si sloturi de timp pentru
toate MS-urile din aria sa de acivitate/actiune
– Realocarea de frecvente pentru toate celulele
– Realizeaza protocolul de predare primire a unei MS
– Semnale de sincronizare a timpului si frecventei la
BTS-uri
– Masurarea timpului de intirziere si notificarea unui
MS la BTS
– Mangementul puterii la BTS si MS 154
Mobile Switching Center (MSC)

 Comuta nodul la un PLMN(Public/Private


Land Mobile Network)
 Aloca resursa radio (RR)
– Realizeaza primirea predarea unei MS ublic
 Mobilitatea subscrierii
– Inregistrarea locatiei de subscriere
 Pot fi citeva MSC pentru un PLMN

155
Gateway MSC (GMSC)

 Conecteaza reteaua mobila la reteaua fixa


– Punct de intrare la un PLMN
 Usual unul pentru PLMN
 Cere informatia de rutare de la HLR si ruteaza
conexiunea la MSC-ul local

156
Canalul fizic
 Legatura ascendenta/descendenta
(Uplink/Downlink) la 25MHz
– 890 -915 MHz pentru legatura ascendenta
– 935 - 960 MHz pentru legatura descendenta
 Combinatie de FDMA si TDMA
– FDMA
– 124 canale a 200 kHz
– 200 kHz banda de garda
– TDMA
– Sit de biti/Avalansa(Burst)
 Modulatia utilizata
Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK)

157
158
Bursts

 Building unit of physical channel

 Types of bursts
– Normal
– Synchronization
– Frequency Correction
– Dummy
– Access

159
Normal Burst

 Normal Burst
– 2*(3 head bit + 57 data bits + 1 signaling bit) + 26
training sequence bit + 8.25 guard bit

– Used for all except RACH, FSCH & SCH

160
Air Interface: Logical Channel
 Traffic Channel (TCH)

 Signaling Channel
– Broadcast Channel (BCH)
– Common Control Channel (CCH)
– Dedicated/Associated Control Channel
(DCCH/ACCH)

161
162
Traffic Channel

 Transfer either encoded speech or user data


 Bidirectional

 Full Rate TCH


– Rate 22.4kbps
– Bm interface

 Half Rate TCH


– Rate 11.2 kbps
– Lm interface

163
Full Rate Speech Coding
 Speech Coding for 20ms segments
– 260 bits at the output
– Effective data rate 13kbps
 Unequal error protection
– 182 bits are protected
• 50 + 132 bits = 182 bits
– 78 bits unprotected
 Channel Encoding
– Codes 260 bits into (8 x 57 bit blocks) 456 bits
 Interleaving
– 2 blocks of different set interleaved on a normal
burst (save damages by error bursts)
164
Speech 20 ms 20 ms

Speech Coder Speech Coder

260 260

Channel Encoding Channel Encoding


456 bit 456 bit

Interleaving

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

NORMAL BURST
3 57 1 26 1 57 3 8.25
Out of first 20 ms 165
Out of second 20ms
Traffic Channel Structure for Full Rate
Coding
Slots 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2

Bursts for Users allocated in Slot


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 26
T
T T T T T T T T T T T T S T T T T I

T = Traffic
S = Signal( contains information about the signal
strength in neighboring cells)

166
Slots 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2

Burst for one users


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 26
T T T T T T S T T

Bursts for another users


T allocated in alternate
3 4 5 6 T7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
1 2 Slots 26
T T T T T T T T S
=
T
Traffic Channel Structure for Half Rate
Coding 167
BCCH

 Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH)


– BTS to MS
– Radio channel configuration
– Current cell + Neighbouring cells
– Synchronizing information
– Frequencies + frame numbering
– Registration Identifiers
– LA + Cell Identification (CI) + Base Station Identity Code
(BSIC)

168
FCCH & SCH

 Frequency Correction Channel


– Repeated broadcast of FB

 Synchronization Channel
– Repeated broadcast of SB
– Message format of SCH
PLMN color BS color T1 Superframe T2 multiframe T3 block frame
3 bits 3 bits index 11 bits index 11 bits index 3bits
BSIC 6 bits"
FN 19bits

169
RACH & SDCCH

 Random Access Channel (RACH)


– MS to BTS
– Slotted Aloha
– Request for dedicated SDCCH

 Standalone Dedicated Control Channel


(SDCCH)
– MS  BTS
– Standalone; Independent of TCH

170
AGCH & PCH

Access Grant Channel (AGCH)


– BTS to MS
– Assign an SDCCH/TCH to MS

 Paging Channel (PCH)


– BTS to MS
– Page MS

171
SACCH & FACCH
 Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH)
– MS  BTS
– Always associated with either TCH or SDCCH
– Information
– Optimal radio operation; Commands for synchronization
– Transmitter power control; Channel measurement
– Should always be active; as proof of existence of
physical radio connection
 Fast Associated Control Channel (FACCH)
– MS  BTS
– Handover
– Pre-emptive multiplexing on a TCH, Stealing Flag (SF)

172
Example: Incoming Call Setup
MS  BSS/MSC ------ Paging request (PCH)
MS  BSS/MSC ------ Channel request (RACH)
MS  BSS/MSC ------ Immediate Assignment (AGCH)
MS  BSS/MSC ------ Paging Response (SDCCH)
MS  BSS/MSC ------ Authentication Request (SDCCH)
MS  BSS/MSC ------ Authentication Response (SDCCH)
MS  BSS/MSC ------ Cipher Mode Command (SDCCH)
MS  BSS/MSC ------ Cipher Mode Compl. (SDCCH)
MS  BSS/MSC ------ Setup (SDCCH)
MS  BSS/MSC ------ Call Confirmation (SDCCH)
MS  BSS/MSC ------ Assignment Command (SDCCH)
MS  BSS/MSC ------ Assignment Compl. (FACCH)
MS  BSS/MSC ------ Alert (FACCH)
MS  BSS/MSC ------ Connect (FACCH)
MS  BSS/MSC ------ Connect Acknowledge (FACCH)
MS BSS/MSC ------ Data (TCH)

173
Select the channel with
Power On Scan Channels, highest RF level among
monitor RF levels the control channels

Scan the channel for the


FCCH

Select the channel with NO


next highest Rf level Is
from FCCH detected?
the control list. YES

Scan channel for SCH

NO
Is
SCH detected?
YES

Read data from BCCH


and determine is it BCCH?

From the channel data NO Is


update the control the current BCCH
channel list channel included? YES

Camp on BCCH and


start decoding 174
Adaptive Frame Synchronization

 Timing Advance
 Advance in Tx time corresponding to
propagation delay

 6 bit number used; hence 63 steps


 63 bit period = 233 micro seconds (round trip
time)
– 35 Kms

175
176
GSM: Channel Mapping Summary
 Logical channels
– Traffic Channels; Control Channels
 Physical Channel
– Time Slot Number; TDMA frame; RF Channel Sequence

 Mapping in frequency
– 124 channels, 200KHz spacing
 Mapping in time
– TDMA Frame, Multi Frame, Super Frame, Channel
– Two kinds of multiframe:
– 26-frame multiframe; usage -Speech and Data
– 51-frame multiframe; usage -Signalling

177
GSM call routing
1. MSISDN

LA2 ISDN
4. MSRN

BSC
MS
GMSC/I
WF
BTS
2. MSISDN
MSC
3. MSRN
7. TMSI

7. TMSI

EIR
BSC
AUC
HLR
VLR

BTS
LA1 7. TMSI 5. MSRN

BTS
6. TMSI
MS
8. TMSI

178
Options for data transfer

 Two enhancements to GSM for data


– HSCSD - High Speed Circuit Switched Data
– GPRS - General Packet Radio Service
 Both have capacity to use new coding schemes
and to make multislot allocation
 GPRS, being a packet switched service, is
known to be more efficient and flexible for data
transfer purposes
 It delivers circuit and packet-switched services
in one mobile radio network
179
1 Hyper frame = 2048 Super frames =2715648 TDMA frames
3h( 28 min 53 sec 760 ms)

0 1 2 3 2045 2046 2047

1 Super frame = 1326 TDMA frames (6.12s)


= 51(26 frames) Multi frame

0 12 3 5
0
1 S u p e r f r a m e = 1 3 2 6 T D M A f r a m e s ( 6 .1 2 s )
0 1 2 3
= 2 6 (5 1 fra m e s ) M u lti fra m e 2 24 2
3 5

1(26 frames) Multi frame = 26 TDMA frames (120 ms) 1 (5 1 fra m e s ) M u lti fra m e
= 5 1 T D M A fra m e s (3 0 6 0
/1 3 m s )
T12 T23 I 0 1 2 3 49 50
T0 T1 T2
(SACCH
)

1 T D M A f r a m e o r 4 .6 1 5 m s )
2 0 /2 6
= 8 tim e s lo ts (1

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

n ( 1 5 /2 6 o r 0 .5 7 7 m s )
1 tim e s lo t = 1 5 6 .2 5 b it d u r a tio
( 1 b i t d u r a t i o n = 4 8 / 1 3 o r 3 . 6 9 s ) 180
Cuprins
 Introducere
 Wireless LANs: IEEE 802.11
 Rutarea IP mobila
 TCP in retele fara fir
 Retele GSM
 Arhitectura retelelor GPRS
 WAP(Wireless application protocol)
 Agenti mobili(Mobile agents)
 Retele mobile si peer-to-peer(MANET-Mobile
ad hoc networks)
181
GPRS

 Resursele radio sunt alocate pentru unul sau


mai multe(putine) pachete la un moment dat
– multi utilizatori partajeaza resursele radio si permit un
transport eficient al pachetelor
– Timpi redusi de acces(setup/access)
– Conectivitate la datele pachetelor externe( n/w)
– Incarcarea bazata pe volum
 GPRS de asemenea transporta SMS prin
canalele de date spre deosebire de canalele de
semnalizare din GSM

182
Architectura GPRS

183
Architectura GPRS
 Are in plus fata de GSM o noua clasa de noduri numita
xGSN
• SGSN: Serving Gprs Support Node, controlează transmiterea
pachetelor de date prin întreaga reţea
• GGSN(Gateway GPRS Support Node) care are rolul de a
conecta reţeaua de telefonie mobilă la infrastructura Internetului
 BSC are un PCU (Packet Control Unit) si diverse alte
elemente fata de GSM, elemente care necesita soft
corespunzator
 Toate nodurile xGSN sunt conectate prin protocolul IP la
o magistrala( backbone). Datele(Protocol data units-
PDUx) sunt incapsulate si tunelate prin GSN-uri

184
GGSN

 Serveste ca si interfata la retelele IP externe


care vad GGSN-ul ca un router IP ce serveste
toate adresele IP a MS-urilor
 GGSN memoreaza adresa curenta a SGSN si
schiteaza/contureaza utilizatorul in registrul sau
de locatie.
 El tuneleaza pachetele de date la si de la SGSN
current servind MS-ul
 El asigura de asemenea autentificarea
 GGSN poate include de asemenea firewall si
mecanisme de filtrare a pachetelor
185
SGSN

 Functioneaza analog MSC-ului de la GSM


 Routeaza pachetele primite sau trimise,
adresate la si de la orice abonat GPRS
localizat, din aria geografica servita de SGSN
 Registrul de locatie/localizare(Location
Register) a SGSN-ului memoreaza informatia
(precum celula curenta si VLR) si profilele
utilizator(ex. adresele IMSI) ale tuturor
utilizatorilor inregistrati cu acest SGSN

186
BSC si altele

 BSC foloseste un PCU(Packet Control Unit)


pentru
– setare, supervizare si deconectare- la apelurile de
comutare
– De asemenea asigura suportul la schimbarea celulei,
configurarea resurselor radio si stabilirea canalului
 MSC/VLR, HLR si centrul SMS faciliteaza
interconectarea cu GPRS
 MS trebuie sa fie echipat cu stiva de protocoale
GPRS

187
HLR - Home Location Register
 Partajeaza baza de date cu GSM
 Faciliteaza abonatului GPRS rutarea datelor si
informatiilor
 Pentru toti utilizatorii inregistrati in retea, HLR
pastreaza profilul utilizatorului, SGSN-ul curent
si adresa/adresele informatiei de tipul Packet
Data Protocol (PDP)
 SGSN schimba informatii cu HLR, de ex
informeaza HLR-ul privitor la locatia curenta a
MS
 Cind MS se inregistreaza cu un nou SGSN,
HLR-ul trimite profilul utilizatorului la noul SGSN
188
MSC/VLR-Visitor Location Register

 VLR este responsabil pentru un grup din zona


de localizare/determinare a pozitiei . El
memoreaza datele acestor utilizatori din zona
sa de responsabilitate
 MSC/VLR poate avea in plus functii de
inregistrare a intrarilor care permit o coordonare
eficienta intre serviciile GPRS si GSM
– Actualizarea combinate a pozitiei/locatiei
– Proceduri combinate de atasare

189
Planurile transmisiei in GPRS

190
Interfata cu mediul de transmisie Um
 Este unul din aspectele centrale a sistemului
GPRS
– Gestioneaza/se ocupa de comunicarea intre MS si
BSS la nivelele fizic, MAC si RLC
– Canalul fizic dedicat traficului de pachete de date
este numit canal pentru date(packet data channel --
PDCH)
 Capacitatea si cererea:
– Alocation/dealocation a traficului PDCH la GPRS
este dinamica
– BSC controleaza resoursele in ambele directii
– Fara conflicte in cadrul legaturii
descendente(downlink)
– Conflictele in cadrul legaturii ascendente(uplink) sunt
rezolvate prin utilizarea de slot-uri ALOHA 191
Transferul datelor intre MS si SGSN
 SNDCP transforma pachetele IP/X.25 packets in cadre
LLC, dupa compresia optionala a header-ului/datei ,
segmentare si criptare
 Dimensiunea maxima a cadrului LLC este de 1600 octeti
 Un cadru LLC este segmentat in blocuri de date RLC
care sunt codificate in blocuri radio
 Fiecare bloc radio cuprinde 4 siruri de biti(114 biti) in
cadre TDMA consecutive.
 RLC este responsabil pentru transmisia datelor prin
interfata pentru mediul fara fir si pentru corectia erorilor
 Nivelul MAC realizeaza alocarea mediului la cerere prin
alocarea mai multor sloturi
 Nivelul fizic PHY este identic cu cel de la GSM
192
Transferul datelor intre GSN-uri

 Desi reteaua GPRS consta din mai multe noduri


diferite, ea reprezinta numai un hop IP
 GTP realizeaza tunelarea PDU-urilor intre GSN-
uri, in functie de informatia de rutare
 GTP, TCP / IP şi IP sunt folosite ca protocoale
pentru magistrala/backbone/coloana vertebrală
GPRS

193
Modelul starilor MS
 În starea de
repaus(IDLE) MS nu este
accesibilă
 Cu GPRS atach MS
trece în starea READY-
gata
 Cu detach, acesta revine
la starea Idle: toate
contextele PDP sunt
sterse
 Stare de aşteptare
(Standby) este atinsa
atunci când MS nu
trimite date pentru o
perioadă lungă de timp şi
timer pentru pregatit
194
expira
GPRS –contextul PDP
 MS aduce un pachet de identitate temporara al abonatului
de telefonie mobilă (p-TMSI), în timpul Attach

 MS face cereri pentru una sau mai multe adrese folosite în


reţeaua de pachete de date, de exemplu o adresă IP

 GGSN creează un context PDP pentru fiecare sesiune


– tipul PDP (IPv4), adresa PDP (IP) pentru MS,
– Cereriea privind calitatea serviciilor (QoS) şi adresa de GGSN
 Contextul (elementele)PDP este stocat in MS, SGSN si
GGSN
 Realizeaza maparea intre cele două adrese, activeaza
GGSN pentru a permite transferul de pachete între MS şi
PDN 195
GPRS - Rutarea

196
GPRS - Rutarea
 MS trece de la PLMN-2 la PLMN-1.
 Prefixul adresei IP a MS estea aceelasi cu cel
al GGSN-2
 Pachetele sosite la MS sunt rutate la GGSN-2
 GGSN-2 interogheazas HLR si afla ca MS este
acum in PLMN-1
 Se încapsulează pachete IP şi sunt tunelate prin
coloana vertebrală a GPRS, la SGSN-ul
corespunzător al PLMN-1
 SGSN decapsuleaza pachetele si le livreaza la
MS
197
GPRS recapitulare
 Permite mai multor utilizatoril sa partajeze
dinamic resursele radio de, la cerere, prin multi-
alocarea sloturilor
 Oferă conectivitate spre reţelele externe de
pachete de date
 E modificata interfata cu mediul de transmisie
fara de GSM
 Adauga noi noduri GPRS
 Asigneaza un PDP de context la MS
 Permite tarifarea pe baza de volum precum şi
tarifare bazata pe durata incarcare
198
Integrarea retelelor

Network of Networks Services


and Applications

Wireline
Interworking DSL/modem
Mobility Media Access Systems
Management
Roaming
IP Based Core Networks

cellular
WLAN

Short Range
Connectivity

199
Everyday Usage Scenarios

Internet

Out of Town Wi-Max


In the office
Wi-Fi
Ethernet
Wi-Fi

In the car

Cellular
Wi-Fi
AP3
Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi

AP2
AP1
200
Emergency Response Scenario

Satellite 3G
3G
Satellite

WiFi

201
Military Usage Scenario

Satcom
Satcom
WiMax

Satcom
GPRS WiMax
WiMax

3G

“Always Best Connected”

202
Mobility Granularity

Horizontal Handover
A handover is initiated when mobile device exits the
boundaries of an administrative domain. Single interface
is used.

Vertical Handover
A mobile device does need to move in order to initiate a
handover. Multiple interfaces are required, but use one
interface at a time.

Multiple Interface Management


Simultaneous use of multiple interfaces and access
networks. Association of an application with an interface

Multiple Flow Management


Ability to split individual flows between links with
respect to the requirements of the flows and the user
preferences

203
Key Challenges
 Scalability – roaming from any access network to any other
access network (2G, 3G, 4G, Wi-Fi, Wi-Max, Bluetooth,
Satellite, Ethernet)
 Standard handover interfaces – interoperability between
different vendor equipment.
 Cross-layer solutions - extensions to layer 1 & layer 2
functionalities in order to optimize higher layer mobility
architectures (MIPv4, MIPv6, SIP).
 QOS guarantees during handover – no disruption to user
traffic: extreme low latency, signaling messages overhead
and processing time, resources and routes setup delay,
near-zero handover failures and packet loss rate
 Security – user maintains the same level of security when
roaming across different access networks.
204
Access Media Properties

 Different media and coverage areas from few


square meters to hundred of kilometers
 Different architectures and protocols for routing,
transport, mobility management
 Different authentication, key management and
encryption schemes
 Different services offered and user demands
ranging from low-data-rate non-real-time
applications, to high-speed real-time multimedia
applications.

205
Access Scalability
Wide variety of access network technologies including cellular
(2G, 2.5G, 3G), wireless (Wi-Fi, Wi-Max, Bluetooth, UWB) and
wired (DSL, cable modems, Ethernet)

206
Industry and Standards Activities
Higher
Internet Engineering Task Force Session Initiation Protoc
Layer 3 UMA Technology Layers
– Detecting Network Attachment IP IEEE 802
Processing Layer 2 Triggers Layer 2
– Mip4
Multimedia
 IEEE 802.21
Mobile IP version 6 Subsystem
Media Independent
– Mip6
Mobile IP version 4 Handovers
– Mipshop  IEEE 802.11r
MIPv6 signaling and Handoff Optimization IEEE 802.11 Fast
– Mobopts handovers
IP Mobility optimizations research group Nosingle
IEEEstandard
802.11u interface!
– Nemo Interworking with external
Network Mobility
networks
 IEEE 802.20
Mobile broadband wireless
access
FMCA NOKIA

207 KT
Cross-Layer Protocol Interactions
Access
Application Layer Media
Applications
SIP
Policy
Transport Layer
SCTP
Profile Manager

Network Layer
Mobile IP

Handover Layer Mobility


Decision
MAC
Cellular Performance Measure.:
QOS, ACK
What are the mobility architectures considered?
PHY
Link measurements:
RSSI, Noise, Interference What are the protocols and messages needed?

What measurements will be used in the handover decision?


What are the mobility scenarios envisaged?
How can mobility performance be evaluated?

208
Cuprins
 Introducere
 Wireless LANs: IEEE 802.11
 Rutarea IP mobila
 TCP in retele fara fir
 Retele GSM
 Arhitectura retelelor GPRS
 WAP(Wireless application protocol)
 Agenti mobili(Mobile agents)
 Retele mobile si peer-to-peer(MANET-Mobile
ad hoc networks)
209
Mobilitatea

Mobilitatea
• stationar
• nomadic (mers la pas pe jos)
• mobil (vioteza unui vehicul)
• roaming (mobilatea intre retele)

Connectivitatea
Capacitatea nodurilor
• connectate
dispozitivelor mobile • semi-connecte
• tipulsi caracteristicile (asimmetric)
• Interfata grafica utilizator • disconnectate
(Graphics User Interface-GUI
• multimedia
• multimedia in timp real
210
Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)
 HTTP / HTML nu au fost proiectate pentru
dispozitive mobile şi aplicaţii
 WAP permite utilizatorilor mobili ce folosesc
dispozitive mobile(in medii fără fir) sa
acceseze si sa interactioneze cu uşurinţă
informaţii şi servicii.
 Un "standard", creat de companii ce se ocupa
de retele fara fir si de Internet, pentru a
permite accesul la Internet de la un telefon
celular

211
HTTP/HTML

Capacitatea mare de transport si capacitatea mica


Internet Wireless network
<HTML> HTTP/HTML <WML>
<CARD> WAP
<HEAD>
<TITLE>NNN Interactive</TITLE> <DO TYPE="ACCEPT">
<META HTTP-EQUIV="Refresh" CONTENT="1800, <GO URL="/submit?Name=$N"/>
URL=/index.html"> </DO>
</HEAD> Enter name:
<BODY BGCOLOR="#FFFFFF" <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" KEY="N"/>
BACKGROUND="/images/9607/bgbar5.gif" LINK="#0A3990" </CARD>
ALINK="#FF0000" VLINK="#FF0000" TEXT="000000" </WML>
ONLOAD="if(parent.frames.length!=0)top.location='ht
tp://nnn.com';">
<A NAME="#top"></A>
<TABLE WIDTH=599 BORDER="0">
<TR ALIGN=LEFT>
<TD WIDTH=117 VALIGN=TOP ALIGN=LEFT>
Content encoding
<HTML> 010011
<HEAD> 010011
<TITLE 110110
>NNN 010011
Intera 011011
ctive< 011101
/TITLE 010010
> 011010
<META
HTTP-
EQUIV=
"Refre
sh"
CONTEN
T="180
0,
URL=/i
ndex.h
tml"> 212
Source: WAP Forum
WAP
 Reţelele fără fir şi telefoanele celulare
– au nevoi şi cerinţe specifice
– Adresarea nu este similara tehnologiilor existente pe Internet
 WAP
– Permite transportul oricarei date
• TCP / IP, UDP / IP, curaj (IS-135 / 6), SMS sau USSD.
– Optimizează conţinutul şi protocoalele de legatura prin mediul fara fira
– Utilizeaza servere de Web HTTP 1.1
• Utilizeaza tehnologia standard de marcare (eXtensible Markup
Language-XML)
• Conţinutul de tip WML este accesat prin intermediul cererilor de tip
HTTP 1.1
– Componente de interfaţă utilizator WML UI(WML user Interface) se
mapeaza/arată bine ca si interfata utilizator pe telefoanele mobile existente
• Nu e nevoie de invatarea unui limbaj nou de catre utilizatorii finali
• Atuu pentru pătrunderea pe piaţă a dispozitivelor mobile

213
WAP: main features
 Browser
– "Micro browser-ul", similar cu browserele Web existente
 Limbaj de marcare
– Similar cu HTML, doar adaptat la dispozitive mobile
 Limba Script
– Similar cu Javascript, adaptate la dispozitive mobile
 Gateway
– Tranziţia de la retelele fara fir(wireless) la retele cu fir

 Server
– "WAP / server de origine", similar cu serverele de web existente
 Straturi de protocol
– Transport Layer, strat de securitate, sesiune strat etc
 Telefonie interfaţa de aplicare
– Accesul la funcţiile de telefonie

214
Internet model

HTML
HTTP
TLS/SSL
TCP/IP

215
Architectura WAP

Client Web Server


WAP Gateway
WML

cu scripturi WML
Codificator WML
Scripturi

Punti WML
WML-
WSP/WTP HTTP CGI, etc.
Script Compilator pentru
scripturi WML
WTAI
Adaptor/e de protocol Continut
Etc.

216
Source: WAP Forum
Serverul de aplicatie WAP

Client Serverul WAP de aplicatie


WML Codificator WML

cu script WML
Puntile WML
Logica
Script WSP/WTP WMLScript aplicatiei
WML- Compiler
WTAI Adaptoare de protocol Continut
Etc.

217
Source: WAP Forum
Specificatii(definirea) WAP

 Mediul aplicatiei fara fir(WAE-Wireless


Application Environment)
– WML Microbrowser
– WMLScript Virtual Machine
– WMLScript Standard Library
– Wireless Telephony Application Interface (WTAI)
– Tipuri de continut WAP
 Wireless Protocol Stack
– Wireless Session Protocol (WSP)
– Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS)
– Wireless Transaction Protocol (WTP)
– Wireless Datagram Protocol (WDP)
– Definirea interfetelor cu retelele fara fir
218
Stiva(protocoale) WAP

 WAE (Wireless Application Environment):


– Architectura: modelul aplicatiei, browser-ul,
gateway-ul, server-ul
– WML: Sintaxa XML-Syntax, bazata pe taguri,
variable,etc. ...
– WTA: servicii de telefonie, precum controlul
apelului, carte de telefon( phone book), etc.
 WSP (Wireless Session Protocol):
– Asigura functionalitatea protocolului HTTP 1.1
– Suport de gestionare a sesiunii, de securitate, etc.

219
Stiva(protocoale) WAP

 WTP (Wireless Transaction Protocol):


– Oferă mecanisme fiabile de transfer al mesajelor
– Bazat pe concepele protocoalelor TCP / RPC
 WTLS (Wireless Transport Layer Security):

– Realizeaza/asigura facilitati privind integritatea datelor,


intimitatea lor, functii de autentificare
– Bazat pe conceptele protocoalelor TLS/SSL
 WDP (Wireless Datagram Protocol):
– Realizeaza/asigura functiile nivelului transort
– Bazat pe conceptele protocolului UDP

Codarea continutului, optimizarea lăţimii de bandă a


canalelor de banda ingusta, simplificarea dispozitivelor

220
WDP: Wireless Datagram Protocol
 Scopuri
– crearea unui sistem de transport interoperabil în întreaga lume, prin
adaptarea WDP la diferitele tehnologii
– Asigurarea de servicii de transmisie, precum SMS-urile în GSM
care ar putea fi inlocuite schimba cu alte servicii mai noi

 WDP
– Protocol la nivel transport cu arhitectura WAP
– Utilizeaza servicii cu primitive de tipul:
• T-UnitData.req .ind
– Utilizeaza mecanisme de transport pentru diferitele tipuri de
tehnologii la nivel fizic(modulatii)
– Ofera o interfata comuna pentru protocoalele de nivel inalt
– permite o comunicare transparentă, în ciuda diferitelor tehnologii
– adresarea foloseste numere de port
– WDP pe IP este UDP/IP

221
WDP: primitive de serviciu

T-SAP T-SAP
T-DUnitdata.req
(DA, DP, SA, SP, UD) T-DUnitdata.ind
(SA, SP, UD)
T-DUnitdata.req
(DA, DP, SA, SP, UD)
T-DError.ind
SAP: Service Access Point
(EC)
DA: Destination Address
DP: Destination Port
SA: Source Address
SP: Source Port
UD: User Data
EC: Error Code

222
Source: Schiller
Servicii, protocoale, purtatoare: exemple

WAP pentru GSM cu circuite comutate


WAP
Mobile
Proxy/Server

WAE WAE Apps on


Other Servers
WSP WSP
IWF ISP/RAS
WTP WTP
UDP UDP
IP IP IP

PPP PPP

CSD-RF CSD- PSTN PSTN Subretea Subretea


RF Circuit Circuit

RAS - Remote Access Server


IWF - InterWorking Function
223
Source: WAP Forum
Servicii, protocoale, purtatoare: exemple

WAP per GSM pentru SMS(Short Message Service)


WAP
Mobile Proxy/Server
WAE WAE Apps on
other servers
WSP WSP

WTP SMSC WTP

WDP WDP

SMS SMS WDP Tunnel WDP Tunnel


Protocol Protocol
Subretea Subretea

224
Source: WAP Forum
WTLS:Wireless Transport Layer Security
 Functionalitati/scopuri
– Furnizarea de mecanisme pentru transferul sigur de
conţinut, pentru aplicaţii care au nevoie de intimitate, de
identificare, integritatea mesajului şi non-repudierea
 WTLS
– Este bazat pe protocolulTLS/SSL (Transport Layer Security)
– Optimizarea canalelor de comunicatie de banda ingusta
– asigura
• intimitatea (prin criptare)
• integritatea datelor
• autenticitatea (lucru cu chei publice si criptare asimetrica)
– Foloseşte mecanisme special adaptate pentru utilizare in
retele fără fir
• Durată mare de viata a sesiunilor securizate
• Proceduril de dialog optimizate
• Oferă fiabilitate datelor transmise prin datagrame(folosind UDP)

225
WTLS: securizarea sesiunii, dialogul
complet
originator peer
SEC-SAP SEC-SAP
SEC-Create.req
(SA, SP, DA, DP, KES, CS, CM)
SEC-Create.ind
(SA, SP, DA, DP, KES, CS, CM)
SEC-Create.res
(SNM, KR, SID, KES„, CS„, CM„)
SEC-Create.cnf SEC-Exchange.req
(SNM, KR, SID, KES„, CS„, CM„) KES: Key Exchange Suite
SEC-Exchange.ind
CS: Cipher Suite
SEC-Exchange.res CM: Compression Mode
(CC)
SNM: Sequence Number Mode
SEC-Commit.req SEC-Exchange.cnf
(CC)
SEC-Commit.ind
SEC-Commit.cnf KR: Key Refresh Cycle
SID: Session Identifier
CC: Client Certificate
226
Source: Schiller
WTP: Wireless Transaction Protocol
 Functionalitati/scopuri
– Servicii de tranzacţii care permit diferitelor aplicaţii
selectarea unor niveluri adecvate de fiabilitate si
eficienta/randament
– Cerinţe reduse de memorie, adecvate dispozitive simple
cu care se lucreaza(<10kbyte)
– eficientizarea transmisiunilor radio(in mediul fără fir)
 WTP
– suport pentru aplicatii de tip peer-to-peer, client / server
şi multicast
– Eficientizarea transmisiilor rado(fără fir)
– suport pentru diferite scenarii de comunicare

227
Tranzactii WTP
 class 0: transfer nesigur de mesaje
– Mesajul Inveke(Invocare) neconfirmat cu nici un mesaj Result(
Rezultatul)
– o datagrama poate fi trimisa în/cu contextul/cadrul unei sesiuni
de lucru existente
 class 1: transfer sigur de mesaje fără un mesaj rezultat
– Mesajul Invoke(Invocare) confirmat dar fara un mesaj Rezultat
– folosite pentru împingerea/trimiterea datelor, în cazul în care nu
este de aşteptat un răspuns de la destinaţie
 class 2:transfer fiabil de mesaje, pentru fiecare mesaj cu
un mesaj(sigur) rezultat
– mesaj Invocare confirmat cu un mesaj de rezultat confirmat
– o singură cerere produce un răspuns unic

228
WTP: servicii si protocoale
 WTP (Transaction)
– Asigura un transfer fiabil de date bazat pe paradigma
cerere/raspuns
• nici presupune setarea explicita a unei conexiuni sau una
una restinsa
• setup optimizat (cu datele transmise în primul pachet al
protocolului de schimb)
• urmăreşte să reducă dialogul cu trei cai(3-way handshake),
la cererea iniţiala
– suporturi./facilitati
• de compresie antet
• de segmentare / re-asamblare
• retransmisie a pachetelor pierdute
• Retransmisie-selectiva
• Adresare prin numare de port(numere de port UDP)
• de control al fluxului/debitului
229
Servicii WTP

 orientată spre mesaj (nu curge)


susţine o funcţie Abort pentru cereri de curs
sprijină concatenarea PDUs

suportă două opţiuni de confirmare


Confirmare de utilizator
ACK-uri pot fi obligat de la utilizatorul WTP
(stratul superior)
Stack confirmare: default

230
WTP Class 0 Transaction

initiator responder
TR-SAP TR-SAP
TR-Invoke.req
(SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD, C=0, H) TR-Invoke.ind
(SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD, C=0, H„)

A: Acknowledgement Type
(WTP/User)
C: Class (0,1,2)
H: Handle (socket alias)

231
Source: Schiller
WTP Class 1 Transaction,
no user ack &responder
initiator
user ack
TR-SAP TR-SAP
TR-Invoke.req
(SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD, C=1, H) TR-Invoke.ind
(SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD, C=1, H„)
TR-Invoke.cnf
(H)

initiator responder
TR-SAP TR-SAP
TR-Invoke.req
(SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD, C=1, H) TR-Invoke.ind
(SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD, C=1, H„)
TR-Invoke.res
(H„)
TR-Invoke.cnf
(H)

232
Source: Schiller
WTP Class 2 Transaction,
no user ack, no hold on
initiator responder
TR-SAP TR-SAP
TR-Invoke.req
(SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD, C=2, H) TR-Invoke.ind
(SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD, C=2, H„)
TR-Result.req
(UD*, H„)
TR-Invoke.cnf
(H)
TR-Result.ind
(UD*, H)
TR-Result.res
(H)
TR-Result.cnf
(H„)

233
Source: Schiller
WTP Class 2 Transaction, user ack
initiator responder
TR-SAP TR-SAP
TR-Invoke.req
(SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD, C=2, H) TR-Invoke.ind
(SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD, C=2, H„)
TR-Invoke.res
(H„)
TR-Invoke.cnf
(H) TR-Result.req
(UD*, H„)
TR-Result.ind
(UD*, H)
TR-Result.res
(H)
TR-Result.cnf
(H„)

234
Source: Schiller
WSP - Wireless Session Protocol
 Goals
– HTTP 1.1 functionality
• Request/reply, content type negotiation, ...
– support of client/server transactions, push technology
– key management, authentication, Internet security services

 WSP Services
– provides shared state between client and server, optimizes
content transfer
– session management (establish, release, suspend, resume)
– efficient capability negotiation
– content encoding
– Push

235
WSP overview
 Header Encoding
– compact binary encoding of headers, content type identifiers
and other well-known textual or structured values
– reduces the data actually sent over the network
 Capabilities (are defined for):
– message size, client and server
– protocol options: Confirmed Push Facility, Push Facility,
Session Suspend Facility, Acknowledgement headers
– maximum outstanding requests
– extended methods
 Suspend and Resume
– server knows when client can accept a push
– multi-bearer devices
– dynamic addressing
– allows the release of underlying bearer resources
236
WSP/B session establishment
client server
S-SAP S-SAP
S-Connect.req
(SA, CA, CH, RC) S-Connect.ind
(SA, CA, CH, RC)
S-Connect.res
(SH, NC)
S-Connect.cnf
(SH, NC)

CH: Client Header


WTP Class 2
RC: Requested Capabilities
transaction
SH: Server Header
NC: Negotiated Capabilities

237
Source: Schiller
WSP/B session suspend/resume
client server
S-SAP S-SAP

S-Suspend.req S-Suspend.ind
S-Suspend.ind (R)
(R) WTP Class 0
transaction
R: Reason for disconnection
S-Resume.req
(SA, CA)
~ ~
S-Resume.ind
(SA, CA)
S-Resume.res
S-Resume.cnf
WTP Class 2
transaction

238
Source: Schiller
WSP/B session termination

client server
S-SAP S-SAP
S-Disconnect.req
(R) S-Disconnect.ind
S-Disconnect.ind (R)
(R) WTP Class 0
transaction

239
Source: Schiller
confirmed/non-confirmed push
client server
S-SAP S-SAP
S-Push.req
(PH, PB)
S-Push.ind
(PH, PB)
WTP Class 0 PH: Push Header
transaction PB: Push Body
SPID: Server Push ID
client server CPID: Client Push ID
S-SAP S-SAP
S-ConfirmedPush.req
(SPID, PH, PB)
S-ConfirmedPush.ind
(CPID, PH, PB)
S-ConfirmedPush.res
(CPID) S-ConfirmedPush.cnf
(SPID)
WTP Class 1
transaction

240
Source: Schiller
WAP Stack Summary
 WDP
– functionality similar to UDP in IP networks
 WTLS
– functionality similar to SSL/TLS (optimized for wireless)
 WTP
– Class 0: analogous to UDP
– Class 1: analogous to TCP (without connection setup overheads)
– Class 2: analogous to RPC (optimized for wireless)
– features of “user acknowledgement”, “hold on”
 WSP
– WSP/B: analogous to http 1.1 (add features of suspend/resume)
– method: analogous to RPC/RMI
– features of asynchronous invocations, push (confirmed/unconfirmed)
241
Wireless Application Environment
(WAE)

 Goals
– device and network independent application
environment
– for low-bandwidth, wireless devices
– considerations of slow links, limited memory, low
computing power, small display, simple user interface
(compared to desktops)
– integrated Internet/WWW programming model
– high interoperability

242
WAE components
 Architecture
– Application model, Microbrowser, Gateway, Server
 User Agents
– WML/WTA/Others
– content formats: vCard, vCalendar, Wireless Bitmap, WML..
 WML
– XML-Syntax, based on card stacks, variables, ...
 WMLScript
– procedural, loops, conditions, ... (similar to JavaScript)
 WTA
– telephone services, such as call control, text messages,
phone book, ... (accessible from WML/WMLScript)
 Proxy (Method/Push)
243
WAE: logical model
Origin Servers Gateway Client

response encoded WTA


web Method proxy
with response user agent
server
content with
content

Push proxy WML


other content
user agent
server push encoded
content push
content
encoders other
& WAE
decoders user agents
request encoded
request

244
WAP microbrowser

 Optimized for wireless devices


 Minimal RAM, ROM, Display, CPU and
keys
 Provides consistent service UI across
devices
 Provides Internet compatibility
 Enables wide array of available content and
applications

245
WML: Wireless Markup Language

 Tag-based browsing
language:
Content (XML)
– Screen management (text,
images)
– Data input (text, selection
lists, etc.) XSL Processor
– Hyperlinks & navigation WML Stylesheet HTML StyleSheet
support
 Takes into account WML Browsers HTTP Browser
limited display,
navigation capabilities of
devices

246
WML
 XML-based language
– describes only intent of interaction in an abstract
manner
– presentation depends upon device capabilities
 Cards and Decks
– document consists of many cards
– User interactions are split into cards
– Explicit navigation between cards
– cards are grouped to decks
– deck is similar to HTML page, unit of content
transmission
 Events, variables and state mgmt
247
WML
 The basic unit is a card. Cards are grouped together into
Decks Document ~ Deck (unit of transfer)
 All decks must contain
– Document prologue
• XML & document type declaration
– <WML> element
• Must contain one or more cards

WML File Structure


<?xml version="1.0"?>
<!DOCTYPE WML PUBLIC "-//WAPFORUM//DTD WML 1.0//EN"
"http://www.wapforum.org/DTD/wml.xml">

<WML>
...
</WML>

248
WML cards
<WML>
<CARD>
<DO TYPE=“ACCEPT”>
Navigatio <GO URL=“#eCard”/>
</DO Card
n Welcome!
</CARD>
<CARD NAME=“eCard”>
<DO TYPE=“ACCEPT”>
Variables <GO URL=“/submit?N=$(N)&S=$(S)”/> Deck
</DO>
Enter name: <INPUT KEY=“N”/>
Choose speed:
<SELECT KEY=“S”>
Input <OPTION VALUE=“0”>Fast</OPTION>
Elements <OPTION VALUE=“1”>Slow</OPTION>
<SELECT>
</CARD>
</WML> 249
Wireless Telephony Application
(WTA)
 Collection of telephony specific extensions
– designed primarily for network operators

 Example
– calling a number (WML)
wtai://wp/mc;07216086415
– calling a number (WMLScript)
WTAPublic.makeCall("07216086415");

 Implementation
– Extension of basic WAE application model
– Extensions added to standard WML/WMLScript browser
– Exposes additional API (WTAI)

250
WTA features

 Extension of basic WAE application model


– network model for interaction
• client requests to server
• event signaling: server can push content to the client
– event handling
• table indicating how to react on certain events from the
network
• client may now be able to handle unknown events
– telephony functions
• some application on the client may access telephony
functions

251
WTA Interface
 generic, high-level interface to mobile‟s
telephony functions
– setting up calls, reading and writing entries in
phonebook
 WTA API includes
– Call control
– Network text messaging
– Phone book interface
– Event processing
 Security model: segregation
– Separate WTA browser
– Separate WTA port
252
WTA Example (WML)

Placing an outgoing call with WTAI:

<WML>
<CARD>
<DO TYPE=“ACCEPT”>
WTAI Call <GO URL=“wtai:cc/mc;$(N)”/>
</DO>
Enter phone number:
Input Element
<INPUT TYPE=“TEXT” KEY=“N”/>
</CARD>
</WML>

253
Source: WAP Forum
WTA Logical Architecture
other telephone networks
WTA Origin Server
Client
WML
Scripts mobile WTA
WTA & WML network user agent
server
WML
decks WAE
WAP Gateway services
WTA
services
encoders
&
network operator decoders
trusted domain other WTA
servers

third party
firewall
origin servers

254
Source: Schiller
WTA Framework Components

255
Source: Heijden
WTA User Agent

 WTA User Agent


– WML User agent with extended functionality
– can access mobile device‟s telephony functions
through WTAI
– can store WTA service content persistently in a
repository
– handles events originating in the mobile network

256
WTA User Agent Context

 Abstraction of execution space


 Holds current parameters, navigation history,
state of user agent
 Similar to activation record in a process
address space

 Uses connection-mode and connectionless


services offered by WSP
 Specific, secure WDP ports on the WAP
gateway
257
WTA Events

 Network notifies device of event (such as


incoming call)
 WTA events map to device‟s native events
 WTA services are aware of and able to act on
these events

 example: incoming call indication, call cleared,


call connected

258
WTA Repository

 local store for content related to WTA services


(minimize network traffic)
 Channels: define the service
– content format defining a WTA service stored in repository
– XML document specifying eventid, title, abstract, and
resources that implement a service
 Resources: execution scripts for a service
– could be WML decks, WML Scripts, WBMP images..
– downloaded from WTA server and stored in repository
before service is referenced
 Server can also initiate download of a channel

259
WTA Channels and Resources

260
Source: Heijden
WTA Interface (public)
 for third party WML content providers
 restricted set of telephony functions available to
any WAE User Agent
– library functions
• make call: allows application to setup call to a valid tel
number
• send DTMF tones: send DTMF tones through the setup call
 user notified to grant permission for service
execution
– cannot be triggered by network events
– example: Yellow pages service with “make call”
feature

261
WTA Interface (network)
 Network Common WTAI
– WTA service provider is in operator‟s domain
– all WTAI features are accessible, including the
interface to WTA events
– library functions
• Voice-call control: setup call, accept, release, send DTMF
tones
• Network text: send text, read text, remove text (SMS)
• Phonebook: write, read, remove phonebook entry
• Call logs: last dialed numbers, missed calls, received calls
• Miscellaneous: terminate WTA user agent, protect context
– user can give blanket permission to invoke a function
– example: Voice mail service
262
WTAI (network)

 Network Specific WTAI


– specific to type of bearer network

– example: GSM: call reject, call hold, call transfer, join


multiparty, send USSD

263
WTA: event handling

 Event occurrence
– WTA user agent could be executing and expecting
the event
– WTA user agent could be executing and a
different event occurs
– No service is executing
 Event handling
– channel for each event defines the content to be
processed upon reception of that event

264
WTA: event binding

 association of an event with the corresponding handler


(channel)
 Global binding:
– channel corresponding to the event is stored in the repository
– event causes execution of resources defined by the channel
– example: voice mail service
 Temporary binding:
– resources to be executed are defined by the already executing
service
– example: yellow pages lookup and call establishment

265
Event Handling (no service in
execution)

266
Source: Heijden
Event Handling (service already
execution)

1: Temporary binding exists


2. No temporary binding and context is protected
3: No temporary binding and context is not protected 267
Source: Heijden
WAP Push Services
 Web push
– Scheduled pull by client (browser)
• example: Active Channels
– no real-time alerting/response
• example: stock quotes
 Wireless push
– accomplished by using the network itself
• example: SMS
– limited to simple text, cannot be used as starting point for service
• example: if SMS contains news, user cannot request specific news
item
 WAP push
– Network supported push of WML content
• example: Alerts or service indications
– Pre-caching of data (channels/resources)
268
WAP push framework

269
Source: Heijden
Push Access Protocol

 Based on request/response model


 Push initiator is the client
 Push proxy is the server
 Initiator uses HTTP POST to send push message to
proxy
 Initiator sends control information as an XML
document, and content for mobile (as WML)
 Proxy sends XML entity in response indicating
submission status
 Initiator can
– cancel previous push
– query status of push
– query status/capabilities of device
270
Push Proxy Gateway

 WAP stack (communication with mobile device)


 TCP/IP stack (communication with Internet push
initiator)
 Proxy layer does
– control information parsing
– content transformation
– session management
– client capabilities
– store and forward
– prioritization
– address resolution
– management function

271
Over the Air (OTA) Protocol

 Extends WSP with push-specific functionality


 Application ID uniquely identifies a particular application
in the client (referenced as a URI)
 Connection-oriented mode
– client informs proxy of application IDs in a session
 Connectionless mode
– well known ports, one for secure and other for non-secure push
 Session Initiation Application (SIA)
– unconfirmed push from proxy to client
– request to create a session for a specific user agent and bearer

272
WAE Summary
 WML and WML Script
– analogous to HTML and JavaScript (optimized for wireless)
– microbrowser user agent; compiler in the network
 WTA
– WTAI: different access rights for different applications/agents
– WTA User Agent (analogy with operating systems)
• Context – Activation Record
• Channel – Interrupt Handler
• Resource – Shared routines invoked by interrupt handlers
• Repository – Library of interrupt handlers
– feature of dynamically pushing the interrupt handler before
the event
 Push
– no analogy in Internet
273
Outline
 Introduction and Overview
 Wireless LANs: IEEE 802.11
 Mobile IP routing
 TCP over wireless
 GSM air interface
 GPRS network architecture
 Wireless application protocol
 Mobile agents
 Mobile ad hoc networks

274
Structuring Distributed Applications
Call to server procedure
Client Server Data
results
Procedure

Client Server
Procedure

Client Server Data


results

Remote Evaluation

Client Server Data


Procedure

Code on Demand 275


Procedure
+
State
Client Server Data

Procedure
+
State
Procedure
+ Server Data
State

Procedure
+
State
Procedure
+
State Server Data
Server Data

Mobile Agents
276
Interaction Model

Request

Client Server

Response
Client/server communication

Mobile agent

Request

Client Server
Response

Mobile agent communication


277
A generic Mobile Agent Framework
•Event notification

•Agent collaboration support

Event Manager
•Execution •User identification
environment
Mobile Agent
•Protection
•Communication (agent, server)
(agent dispatching)
•Authentication
•Agent life cycle
(creation, destruction)

Agent Manager •Agent state Security Manager


•Agent checkpoint
(fault tolerance)
278
Persistent Manager
Example: Student Examination Scenario
= Paper Setter Nodes
Comprehensive Question Paper = Install Agent
= Fetch Agent

3
Paper Assembler 1
2 Cloning

Partial Question
Paper
To Distribution Center 279
Dynamic Upgrade

280
Example: Distribution and Testing
List of Students enrolled
Single copy of paper …
Distribution 1 2 …
Exam Center
Server Distribution
Server
5
c9611060
Each copy returned

Separate Copy per user


4
Answered and Returned 3
Each Candidate get a Copy

281
Example: Evaluation and Results

Objective Questions Evaluator


c9611060
Examiner B

Distributor
Distribution Server

Examiner A Examiner C

Examiner D
Results

… 282
Agents collaborate to produce the final result
Mobile Agents Summary
 Appears to be a useful mechanism for
applications on mobile and wireless devices
– Reduce the network load
– Help in overcoming latency
– Execute asynchronously and autonomously

 Several issues yet to be addressed


– Heavy frameworks
– Interoperability
– Security concerns

283
Outline
 Introduction and Overview
 Wireless LANs: IEEE 802.11
 Mobile IP routing
 TCP over wireless
 GSM air interface
 GPRS network architecture
 Wireless application protocol
 Mobile agents
 Mobile ad hoc networks

284
Multi-Hop Wireless

 May need to traverse multiple links to reach destination

 Mobility causes route changes

285
Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET)

 Host movement frequent


 Topology change frequent

B
A B A

 No cellular infrastructure. Multi-hop wireless links.


 Data must be routed via intermediate nodes.

286
Many Applications
 Ad hoc networks:
– Do not need backbone infrastructure support
– Are easy to deploy
– Useful when infrastructure is absent, destroyed or impractical
– Infrastructure may not be present in a disaster area or war zone
 Applications:
– Military environments
– Emergency operations
– Civilian environments
• taxi cab network
• meeting rooms
• sports stadiums

287
MAC in Ad hoc Networks

 IEEE 802.11 DCF is most popular


– Easy availability
 802.11 DCF:
– Uses RTS-CTS to avoid hidden terminal problem
– Uses ACK to achieve reliability

 802.11 was designed for single-hop wireless


– Does not do well for multi-hop ad hoc scenarios
– Reduced throughput
– Exposed terminal problem

288
Exposed Terminal Problem

A B
D
C

– A starts sending to B.
– C senses carrier, finds medium in use and has to
wait for A->B to end.
– D is outside the range of A, therefore waiting is not
necessary.
– A and C are “exposed” terminals
289
Routing Protocols
 Proactive protocols
– Traditional distributed shortest-path protocols
– Maintain routes between every host pair at all times
– Based on periodic updates; High routing overhead
– Example: DSDV (destination sequenced distance vector)

 Reactive protocols
– Determine route if and when needed
– Source initiates route discovery
– Example: DSR (dynamic source routing)

 Hybrid protocols
– Adaptive; Combination of proactive and reactive
– Example : ZRP (zone routing protocol)
290
Dynamic Source Routing (DSR)
 Route Discovery Phase:
– Initiated by source node S that wants to send packet to
destination node D
– Route Request (RREQ) floods through the network
– Each node appends own identifier when forwarding RREQ
 Route Reply Phase:
– D on receiving the first RREQ, sends a Route Reply (RREP)
– RREP is sent on a route obtained by reversing the route
appended to received RREQ
– RREP includes the route from S to D on which RREQ was
received by node D
 Data Forwarding Phase:
– S sends data to D by source routing through intermediate nodes

291
Route Discovery in DSR
Y

Z
S E
F
B
C M L
J
A G
H D
K
I N

Represents a node that has received RREQ for D from S

292
Route Discovery in DSR
Y
Broadcast transmission

[S] Z
S E
F
B
C M L
J
A G
H D
K
I N

Represents transmission of RREQ

[X,Y] Represents list of identifiers appended to RREQ 293


Route Discovery in DSR
Y

Z
S [S,E]
E
F
B
C M L
J
A [S,C] G
H D
K
I N

• Node H receives packet RREQ from two neighbors:


potential for collision
294
Route Discovery in DSR
Y

Z
S E
F [S,E,F]
B
C M L
J
A G
H D
[S,C,G] K
I N

• Node C receives RREQ from G and H, but does not forward


it again, because node C has already forwarded RREQ once

295
Route Discovery in DSR
Y

Z
S E
F [S,E,F,J]
B
C M L
J
A G
H D
K
I [S,C,G,K] N

• Nodes J and K both broadcast RREQ to node D


• Since nodes J and K are hidden from each other, their
transmissions may collide 296
Route Discovery in DSR
Y

Z
S E
[S,E,F,J,M]
F
B
C M L
J
A G
H D
K
I N

• Node D does not forward RREQ, because node D


is the intended target of the route discovery
297
Route Reply in DSR
Y

Z
S RREP [S,E,F,J,D]
E
F
B
C M L
J
A G
H D
K
I N

Represents RREP control message


298
Data Delivery in DSR
Y

DATA [S,E,F,J,D] Z
S E
F
B
C M L
J
A G
H D
K
I N

Packet header size grows with route length


299
TCP in MANET
Several factors affect TCP in MANET:

 Wireless transmission errors


– reducing congestion window in response to errors
is unnecessary
 Multi-hop routes on shared wireless medium
– Longer connections are at a disadvantage
compared to shorter connections, because they
have to contend for wireless access at each hop
 Route failures due to mobility

300
MANET Summary
 Routing is the most studied problem
 Interplay of layers is being researched

 Large number of simulation based expts


 Small number of field trials
 Very few reported deployments

 Fertile area for imaginative applications


– Standardizing protocols does not seem to be a
very good idea
– Scope for proprietary solutions with limited interop
301
References
 J. Schiller, “Mobile Communications”, Addison Wesley, 2000
 802.11 Wireless LAN, IEEE standards, www.ieee.org
 Mobile IP, RFC 2002, RFC 334, www.ietf.org
 TCP over wireless, RFC 3150, RFC 3155, RFC 3449
 A. Mehrotra, “GSM system engineering”, Artech House, 1997
 Bettstetter, Vogel and Eberspacher, “GPRS: Architecture, Protocols
and Air Interface”, IEEE Communications Survey 1999, 3(3).
 M.v.d. Heijden, M. Taylor. “Understanding WAP”, Artech House, 2000
 Mobile Ad hoc networks, RFC 2501

 Others websites:
– www.palowireless.com
– www.gsmworld.com; www.wapforum.org
– www.etsi.org; www.3gtoday.com
302