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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 51 seria Zootehnie

CUPRINS ½ TABLE OF CONTENTS ¾

Z001 1. M. RUSSELL, M. SCHUTZ - Animal sciences extension education


informs public policy ½ Educaţia continuă în zootehnie ca politica
publica........................................................................................................ 3

Z0022. L. APOSTOL, T.F. APOSTOL, L.E. POPOVICI - Development


program of the Kosarom S.A. Companies Group ½ Programul de
dezvoltare a grupului de firme Kosarom S.A. Iaşi ..................................... 11

Z003 3. Ramona Alexa-AIRINEI, M. DASCĂLESCU - Population and labour


force in the Iaşi County agriculture ½ Populaţia şi forţa de muncă în
agricultura judeţului Iaşi ........................................................................... 14

Z0044. D.M. ANDREI, L. CĂLIN - Mathematics and biology interdisciplinary


aspects ½ Matematica şi biologia aspecte interdisciplinare...................... 21

Z005 5. Şt. BREZULEANU - Studies regarding the capitalisation of the tourist


and agro-tourist potential of Bacau county ½ Studii privind
valorificarea potenţialului turistic şi agroturistic în judeţul Bacău .......... 26

Z0066. Il. BURDUJAN - Lotka-Volterra model for two species in competition


½ Modelul Lotka-Volterra pentru două specii în competiţie ..................... 34

Z0077. A. CHIRAN, Anca COSOVANU, Elena GÎNDU - Survey on


development and diversification of economic activities for generating
multiple activities and alternative income by implementing measure
3.4 of SAPARD program in some animal husbandry farms from
North-East 1st region ½ Studiu privind dezvoltarea şi diversificarea
activităţilor economice pentru generarea de activităţi multiple şi
venituri alternative, prin aplicarea măsurii 3.4 – din cadrul
programului SAPARD, în unele ferme zootehnice din regiunea 1 Nord
– Est ................................................................................................................. 42

Z0088. Elena CIORNEA, Gabriela VASILE - Researches on the activity of


total amylase - an enzyme involved in the mobilization of reserve
substances - in some graminaceae species ½ Cercetări privind
activitatea amilazei totale - enzimă implicată în mobilizarea
substanţelor de rezervă-la specii de graminee........................................... 48

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

Z0099. Elena CIORNEA, Gabriela VASILE - On the dynamics of the activity


of total amylase in various organs of Panicum miliaceum and
Sorghum sudanense - comparative study ½ Studiu comparativ
asupra dinamicii activităţii amilazei totale în diferite organe la
Panicum miliaceum şi Sorghum sudanense ............................................... 59

Z01010. N. COJOCARU, M. CĂLIN, Cecilia POP, C. CHIRUŢĂ - E-learning


technologies improve teaching of natural sciences and economy to
students in agriculture ½ Modernizarea prin e-learning a studierii
ştiinţelor exacte şi a ştiinţelor economice de către studenţii în
agricultură.................................................................................................. 69

Z011
11. Tatiana DABIJA, N. EREMIA - The content of biologically active
substances of propolis ½ Conţinutul substanţelor biologic active din
propolis ...................................................................................................... 75

Z012
12. Fl.-M. DIMA, A. CHIRAN, Elena GÎNDU - The development of
livestock breeding in the agro-economic area of Galati ½
Dezvoltarea creşterii animalelor în zona agroeconomică Galaţi............. 81

Z01313. C. LEONTE, Doina LEONTE, A. GRUBER - Geosynthetic fibbers


in constructions ½ Materialele geosintetice în construcţii ........................ 89

Z014
14. Doina LEONTE, Vasilica ONOFREI - Ecological alternatives to
enhance environment conditions in zootechnical units ½ Alternative
ecologice pentru îmbunătăţirea condiţiilor ambientale în complexele
zootehnice........................................................................................................ 93

Z015
15. Mirela Salvia MITULESCU - Sizes of the rural tourism and of
agrotourism on European level ½ Dimensiuni ale turismului rural şi
ale agroturismului pe plan european ......................................................... 97

Z016
16. Mirela Salvia MITULESCU - Present situation of the rural tourism in
Romania ½ Situaţia actuală a turismului rural în România.................... 105

Z017
17. Mirela Salvia MITULESCU - The experience of Germany and
Croatia in the rural tourism and agrotourism ½ Experienţa
Germaniei şi Croaţiei în turismul rural şi în agroturism......................... 111

Z018
18. Maria MORARU, Elena PETREA, R.A. MORARU - The influence
of French on the German and Romanian animal husbandry language
(poultry breeding) ½ Influenţa limbii franceze asupra limbajului în
avicultură în germană şi română ............................................................. 116

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Z019
19. Maria MORARU, Roxana MIHALACHE, R.A. MORARU -
Aspects regarding the origin of some zootechnical terms in the
Romanian language as well as in other Indo-European languages. II.
Slavic elements ½ Aspecte privind originile unor termeni zootehnici
în limba română şi alte limbi indoeuropene. II. Elementele slave........... 123

Z020
20. Anca-Mirela PAŞPARAN, C. MISĂILĂ - Connective physiological
implications in hepato-cellular affections ½ Implicaţii fiziologice
conexe în afecţiunile hepatocelulare........................................................ 129

Z02121. Anca-Mirela PAŞPARAN, C. MISĂILĂ - Hematological modifications


in hepatic cirrhosis associated with anemia ½ Modificări
hematologice în ciroza hepatică asociată cu anemia ............................. 136

Z022
22. Cornelia PENCEA, R. LICHIARDOPOL, I. SURDU, Veronica
HEBEAN, Aurora CIOCÎRLAN - Normolipidic pork meat – a
possible way to ameliorate the risk factors to the pork meat human
consumers ½ Evaluarea potenţialului de utilizare a cărnii de porc
normolipidică în ameliorarea factorilor de risc la consumatorii
umani........................................................................................................ 144

Z023
23. Cecilia POP - Management of processes within the European
regulations on quality ½ Managementul proceselor în contextul
aplicării normelor europene privind calitatea ........................................ 151

Z024
24. A. PRELIPCEAN, Gh. MUSTAŢĂ - Ecological data regarding some
parasitoids species which are controlling the Plutella xylostella L.
populations ½ Date ecologice privind unele specii de parazitoizi
care controlează populaţiile de Plutella xylostella L............................... 157

Z025
25. Mihaela-Loredana RUSU, I.V. CIUREA - Diagnostic study
regarding the development of the rural localities from Vrancea
Depression ½ Studiu diagnostic privind dezvoltarea localităţilor
rurale din depresiunea Vrancea............................................................... 163

26. Ioana TĂNĂSESCU, Marcela SÎRBU - Thermographic examination


Z026
for detecting thermal irregularities in agricultural buildings
envelopes ½ Examinarea termografică pentru determinarea
neregularităţilor termice ale anvelopei adăposturilor de taurine ........... 171

Z027
27. Anca TEUŞAN, V. TEUŞAN, A. PRELIPCEAN - Aspects regarding
the morphology of the reproductive apparatus of the domestic quail
(Coturnix coturnix japonica) (Bibliographical study) ½ Aspecte
privind morfologia aparatului reproducător la prepeliţa domestică
(Coturnix coturnix japonica) (Studiu bibliografic) .................................. 178

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

Z028
28. Anca TEUŞAN, Cecilia POP - Study regarding the labelling of some
sugarlike products (chocolate) commercialized on the market of Iaşi
City ½ Studiu privind etichetarea unor produse zaharoase
(ciocolată) comercializate pe piaţa municipiului Iaşi.............................. 184

Z029
29. V. TEUŞAN, Anca TEUŞAN, R.M. RADU-RUSU - Researches
regarding the structure and ultrastucture of silver fox (Vulpes vulpes
fulva) ovaries ½ Cercetări privind structura şi ultrastrucutra
ovarelor la vulpea argintie (Vulpes vulpes fulva) .................................... 191

Z030
30. V. TEUŞAN, R.M. RADU–RUSU, Anca TEUŞAN - Figurative
elements study and hematological values at Rattus norvegicus
species ½ Studiul elementelor figurate şi a unor indici hematologici
la specia Rattus norvegicus...................................................................... 200

Z031
31. Carmen-Olguţa BREZULEANU - Intercultural education of
agricultural students from the viewpoint of the European integration
½ Educarea interculturală a studenţilor agronomi din perspectiva
intergării europene................................................................................... 213
Z032
32. Şt. BREZULEANU, Carmen Olguţa BREZULEANU,
R.A. MORARU - Methodologies used to assess the development of
rural and agri-tourism in the NE of Romania ½ Metodologii utilizate
în analiza dezvoltării si perfecţionării turismului rural şi
agroturismului in regiunea N-E ............................................................... 218

Z033
33. Z. BULIGA, Gabriela IGNAT - The financial stability analysis
through the rates at S.C. VASCAR S.A. Vaslui ½ Analiza
echilibrului financiar prin intermediul ratelor la S.C. VASCAR S.A.
Vaslui ....................................................................................................... 225

Z034
34. Z. BULIGA, Gabriela IGNAT - The analysis of the financial-book-
keeping results relying on the profit and loss account at S.C.
GALMOPAN S.A ½ Analiza rezultatelor financiar- contabile pe
baza contului de profit şi pierdere la S.C. GALMOPAN S.A. .................. 232

Z035
35. Rodica CĂPRIŢĂ, A. CĂPRIŢĂ - The correlation between the milk
electric conductivity and the sodium chloride content ½ Corelaţia
dintre conductivitatea electrică şi concentraţia clorurii de sodiu din
lapte.......................................................................................................... 237

Z036
36. Rodica CĂPRIŢĂ, A. CĂPRIŢĂ - Biochemical study on the total
protein and protein fractions in the blood serum of broiler chickens
½ Studiu biochimic asupra proteinei totale şi a fracţiunilor proteice
din ser la pui broiler ................................................................................ 241

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Z037
37. M. CONDREA - Observations on the biochemical behaviour of certain
strains of Yersinia enterocolitica ½ Observaţii privind
comportamentul biochimic al unor tulpini de Yersinia enterocolitica ..... 245

Z038
38. M. DĂSCĂLESCU, Ramona AIRINEI-ALEXA - The resources and
production factors in the hilly area of the Iaşi County ½ Resursele şi
factorii de producţie ale zonei colinare a judeţului Iaşi .......................... 249

Z039
39. D. DONOSĂ, Raluca Elena RADU - Aspects concerning financial
behaviour of population in the Central and Eastern European
countries ½ Aspecte actuale privind comportamentul financiar al
populaţiei din ţările Europei Centrale şi de Est....................................... 257

Z040
40. D. DONOSĂ, Şt. GAVRIL - Aspects of households’ financial wealth
in Romania ½ Aspecte ale stării financiare a gospodăriilor în
România ................................................................................................... 261

41. C. IATCO, Gabriela IGNAT - Dilemmas in designing performance


Z041
appraisal systems ½ Dilemele construcţiei sistemelor de evaluare a
performanţelor ......................................................................................... 265

Z042
42. C. IATCO, Gabriela IGNAT - Performance-related pay and skill and
competency-based pay ½ Plata după performanţă, abilităţi şi
competenţe................................................................................................ 271

Z043
43. Roxana LAZĂR, P.C. BOIŞTEANU, M. LAZĂR - Researches about
the blood biochemical constants modification at rabbit depending on
age ½ Cercetări privind modificări ale constantelor biochimice
sanguine la iepuri în funcţie de vârstă ..................................................... 275

Z044
44. Doina LEONTE, Vasilica ONOFREI, C. LEONTE, A. GRUBER -
Study on the use of biologically active products for the
decontamination and disinsection of swine raising sheds ½ Studiu cu
privire la utilizarea produselor biologic active pentru
decontaminarea şi dezinsecţia halelor de creştere a porcilor ................. 280

Z045
45. Roxana MIHALACHE - Arguments regarding the utopic character of
Plato’s Republic ½ Argumente privind caracterul utopic al Republicii
Platoniene.............................................................................................................. 285

46. R.-A. MORARU, D. DONOSĂ, Şt. BREZULEANU, G. UNGUREANU


Z046
- The agricultural cooperation in Germany after reunification ½
Cooperaţia agricolă din Germania după reunificare .............................. 290

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Z047
47. R.M. RADU-RUSU, V. TEUŞAN, M.G. USTUROI,
I. VACARU-OPRIŞ - Study on the dimensional and morphological
elements of some breast and limbs muscles at COBB-500 hybrid ½
Studiu privind elementele dimensionale şi morfologice ale unor
muşchi ai pieptului şi membrelor la hibridul COBB-500 ........................ 299

Z048
48. C. SĂLCEANU, Carmen–Mihaela NECHITA - Decisional management
from decision to delegation ½ Managementul decizional de la
decizie la delegare.................................................................................... 306

Z04949. P.C. BOIŞTEANU, Iolanda MĂRGĂRINT, Cristina G. RADU-RUSU,


Roxana LAZĂR - Aspects of the cellular, hormonal and metabolic
regulation of the muscular mass development at animals ½ Aspecte
ale reglării celulare, hormonale şi metabolice ale creşterii masei
musculare la animale ............................................................................... 315

Z05050. P.C. BOIŞTEANU, Iolanda MĂRGĂRINT, Cristina G. RADU-RUSU,


Roxana LAZĂR - Involvement of some peripheral organs in
energetic homeostasis regulation at animals ½ Participarea unor
organe periferice la reglarea homeostaziei energetice la animale.......... 324

Z051
51. Crina Teodora CARŞAI, A. VLAIC, Viorica COSIER, Antonia
ODAGIU, Niculina ARMEANA - Body measurements in
Maramures Brown breed cattle and testing of two protocols for
genotyping the leptin gene locus ½ Măsuratori corporale efectuate
la rasa Brună de Maramureş şi testarea a două protocole de
genotipizare a locusului genei leptinei..................................................... 333

Z052
52. Elena FECIORU - Hormonic control of the reproduction function with
the view of breeding and improvement of the Karakul sheep ½
Controlul hormonal al funcţiei de reproducţie în vederea
intensivizării creşterii şi ameliorării ovinelor Karakul ........................... 337

Z05353. Gh. HRINCĂ - Description of the phylogenetic relations in small


ruminants by means of the isoenzymes ½ Descrierea relaţiilor
filogenetice la rumegătoarele mici cu ajutorul izoenzimelor................... 343

54. Alexandra MATEI, Magda ANDRONE, Agatha POPESCU,


Z054
C. UNGUREANU - Study of phenotypic characters variability of
the egg and larva from the native genetic stock of the silkmoth
Bombyx mori L. sp. ½ Studiul variabilităţii caracterelor fenotipice
ale oului şi larvei din fondul genetic autohton al fluturelui de mătase
specia Bombyx mori L. ............................................................................. 353

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Z055
55. Elena MARANDICI, G. DARIE, Vera GRANACI, Alisa MORARU,
V. HAREA – Changes in boars spermogramm depending on season
½ Modificări ale spermogramei la vieri în funcţie de sezon.................... 358

56. G. NACU - Researches concerning the sperm production according to


Z056
the frequency of collecting the seminal material at boars ½ Cercetări
privind producţia spermatică în funcţie de frecvenţa recoltării
materialului seminal la vier ..................................................................... 362

57. Gh. NEAŢĂ, C. ŞONEA, M. PETRESCU - The strategy of sheep


Z057
genetic improvement and exploitation in Romania ½ Strategia
pentru ameliorarea geneticã şi exploatarea ovinelor în Romania........... 366

Z058
58. T. OROIAN, R.G. OROIAN, Simona PASCALAU, N. PASCA -
The crosses effect between Baltata Romaneasca Simmental type and
Red Holstein breeds on some conformation and milk production
traits ½ Efectul încrucişării între rasele Balţata românească de tip
Simmental şi Red Holstein asupra unor caractere de conformaţie şi a
producţiei de lapte.................................................................................... 372

Z059
59. Paula POŞAN, Mirela SUSAN, Angela STOICA, M. SUSAN -
Some results regarding the use of rams Ţigaie with BlackHead from
Teleorman in crossbreeding with different Romanian sheep breeds ½
Unele rezultate privind folosirea berbecilor de rasă Ţigaie
CapNegru de Teleorman în încrucişări cu alte rase din ţară .................. 376

Z060
60. Fl. PRICOP - The gene theory of sexuality of Galinaceae (I) ½ Teoria
genică a sexualităţii la Galinacee (I) ....................................................... 382

61.
Z061 Elena RUGINOSU, Mariana SOFRONIE, M. PÎNTEA,
Şt. CREANGĂ, Iulia COSTEA - Researches regarding the decrease
of puerperal disorders incidences at dairy cows, by different methods½
Cercetări privind reducerea incidenţei tulburărilor puerperale la
vacile de lapte prin diferite metode.......................................................... 392

Z062
62. Claudia Terezia SOCOL, A. VLAIC, Viorica COSIER - Approach
regarding the leptin gene isolation techniques from sheep adipose
tissue ½ Studiu privind tehnicile de izolare a genei leptinei din ţesut
adipos de oaie .......................................................................................... 398

Z063
63. Gh. TATARU - The efficiency of microelement utilisation in the
feeding of bulls on the sperm production ½ Eficienţa utilizării
microelementelor în hrana taurilor, asupra producţiei de spermă.......... 403

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

Z064
64. M. COLĂ, Florica COLĂ, C. GĂVAN - Resynchronising oestrus and
ovulation after not-pregnant diagnosis at dairy cows ½
Resincronizarea estrului şi ovulaţiei la vacile diagnosticate negestante.... 409

Z065
65. D. DRONCA - Observations concerning the influence of environment
factors on partridge population (Perdix perdix) from Pişchia hennery,
forest district, Timişoara ½ Observaţii privind influenţa factorilor de
mediu asupra efectivului de potârnichi din crescătoria Pişchia,
direcţia silvică, Timişoara........................................................................ 414

Z066
66. D. DRONCA, N. PĂCALĂ, Mihaela IVANCIA, I. BENCSIK,
Marioara NICULA, Liliana BOCA - Estimation of the special
combinative capacity for live body gain in a group of hybrid rabbit
young stock during the first nursing phase ½ Estimarea capacităţii
combinative speciale pentru sporul de masă vie, la un efectiv de
tineret cunicul hibrid, în prima fază de alăptare ..................................... 418
Z067
67. Andrea HETTIG, M. BOTHA, M. ZĂHAN, I. ROMAN -
Reproductive technique applied to increase the prolificacy of rabbit
species ½ Tehnică reproductivă pentru creşterea prolificităţii la
specia cuniculă......................................................................................... 421

68. Andrea HETTIG, M. ZĂHAN, Ileana MICLEA, M. BOTHA,


Z068
I. ROMAN - The influence of cysteine, glycine and methionine on
in vitro maturated swine oocytes ½ Influenţa cisteinei, glicinei şi a
metioninei asupra maturării in vitro a ovocitelor suine .......................... 426

Z069
69. Ileana MICLEA, V. MICLEA, M. ZĂHAN, Andrea HETTIG,
I. ROMAN - Research concerning the use of antioxidants in the
maturation media of oocytes ½ Cercetări privind efectul utilizării
unor antioxidanţi în mediile de maturare a ovocitelor ............................ 431

Z070
70. I. PAŞCA, R. MORAR, Dana PUSTA, T. OROIAN, R. OROIAN,
Antonia ODAGIU, Claudia BAGITA - The sow age influence and
farrowing order on the development of the suckling piglets ½
Influenţa vârstei scroafei şi a ordinii de naştere asupra dezvoltării
purceilor sugari........................................................................................ 436

Z071
71. Mirela SUSAN, Paula POŞAN, Angela STOICA, P. TĂPĂLOAGĂ
- Observations regarding some reproductive performances at F 1
crossbred female Ţigaie with BlackHead from Teleorman and white
Ţurcana from Gioagiu-Orăştie ½ Observaţii privind unele
performanţe de reproducţie ale femelelor metise F 1, dintre Ţigaie
CapNegru de Teleorman şi Ţurcana albă din zona Gioagiu-Orăştie...... 441

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Z072
72. Ramona-Vasilica BACTER, C. BACTER, I. CHEREJI, Elena
GÎNDU, A. CHIRAN - Aspects regarding the evolution and
perspective of the meat market in Romania, in the context of the
integration in the European Union ½ Aspecte privind evoluţia şi
perspectiva pieţei cărnii în Romania, în contextul integrării în
Uniunea Europeana ................................................................................. 445

Z073
73. Larisa CAISÎN - The efficiency of the utilization of elementary
selenium addition to the rations of water and fodder for chickens ½
Eficienţa utilizării adausurilor de seleniu elementar în raţiile
tineretului avicol prin intermediul nutreţului şi apei ............................... 455

74. C. COMAN, Elena POPESCU-MICLOŞANU, Cristina PÎRVULEŢ,


Z074
Dorina PǍTRU, Minodora TUDORACHE - The effect of
replacing the alfalfa meal from the compounded feed of white New
Zeeland rabbits with the Arbocel product ½ Efectul înlocuirii făinii
de lucernă cu produsul Arbocel în nutreţul administrat iepurilor de
rasă Neozeelandez alb.............................................................................. 464

Z075
75. Carmen Claudia DURAU, AL. MOISUC, I. PĂDEANU -
Researches concerning grazing capacity and pastoral value of
meadow fescue grassland from Surduc's hills ½ Cercetări privind
capacitatea de păşunat şi valoarea pastorală a unei pajişti de paius
de livadă din dealurile Surducului ........................................................... 471

76. N. FLEANCU, I. M. POP - Research regarding oral administration of


Z076
organic selenium to dairy cows ½ Studiu cu privire la suplimentarea
pe cale orală cu seleniu organic a vacilor de lapte ................................. 476

Z077
77. Vera GRANACI - Investigation concerning the effect of
administration BioR preparation on blood lipids metabolism in sire
bulls ½ Studiu cu privire la efectul administrării preparatului BioR
asupra metabolismului lipidelor sanguine la taurii reproducători.......... 481

Z078
78. Veronica HEBEAN, Mihaela HĂBEANU, Ionelia ŢĂRANU,
Daniela MARIN, Mariana ROPOTĂ, Viorica TAMAŞ - Feeding
solutions to improve pig meat quality ½ Soluţii nutriţionale privind
ameliorarea calităţii cărnii de porc ......................................................... 487

79. D. MIERLIŢĂ, I. CHEREJI, Cristina MAERESCU - Effects of


Z079
different dietary fat sources on growth performances and carcass
fatty acid composition of broiler turkey ½ Efectul diferitelor surse de
grăsime din hrană, asupra performanţelor de creştere şi profilului
acizilor graşi din carcasă la puii broiler de curcă .................................. 496

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Z080
80. I. SURDU, Cornelia PENCEA, R. LICHIARDOPOL, Gh. BUDAN,
Aurora CIOCÎRLAN - Nutritional software to formulate and
evaluate human diets – Nutrimen ½ Software nutriţional pentru
formularea şi evaluarea dietelor la consumatorii umani......................... 504

Z081
81. Madlen Lăcrămioara STEFLEA - Researches regarding quality
improvement of consumption eggs’ yolk by introducing special
fodder additives to poultry nourishment ½ Cercetări privind
îmbunătăţirea calităţii gălbenuşului ouălor de consum prin
introducerea în alimentaţia găinilor a unor aditivi furajeri speciali....... 512

82. Aida ALBU, O. POPESCU, Cecilia POP, I.M. POP - Nitrate/nitrite


Z082
residue levels in some dairy cow feed ingredients and their
toxicological significance ½ Nivelurile reziduurilor de nitraţi şi
nitriţi în unele nutreţuri pentru vaci de lapte şi semnificaţia lor
toxicologică .............................................................................................. 520

Z083
83. Aida ALBU, O. POPESCU - Nitrate/nitrite residues in feedstuffs and
broiler mixed feeds and their potential toxic effects on animals ½
Reziduuri de nitraţi şi nitriţi în materii prime furajere şi nutreţuri
combinate destinate alimentaţiei puilor broiler de găină şi efectele
lor toxicologice......................................................................................... 524

Z084
84. Ligita BALEŽENTIENĖ, Sabina MIKULIONIENĖ - The quality of
galega–grass silages ½ Calitatea silozurilor de galega ........................... 528

Z085
85. Ligita BALEŽENTIENĖ, Sabina MIKULIONIENĖ - The impact of
different growing systems on forages quality ½ Impactul diferitelor
sisteme de cultivare asupra calităţii furajelor ......................................... 537

Z086
86. P.C. BOIŞTEANU, I.M. POP, Cecilia POP, Lenuţa FOTEA,
M.G. USTUROI - Studies about the influence of some vegetatives
additives used on the growth performances and broilers meat quality
½ Studii privind influenţa utilizării unor aditivi vegetali asupra
performanţelor de creştere şi calităţii cărnii la puii broiler de găină ..... 544

Z087
87. M. DOLIŞ - Researches concerning the conversion of nutritive
substances from mulberry tree leafs used in the Bombyx mory larvae
sustenance ½ Cercetări privind conversia substanţelor nutritive din
frunza de dud utilizată în hrana larvelor de Bombyx mory ..................... 549

88. M. DOLIŞ, D. SIMEANU, I. GÎLCĂ - Researches concerning the


Z088
efficacy of mulberry tree leafs usage by Bombyx mory larvae ½
Cercetări privind eficienţa utilizării frunzei de dud de către larvele
de Bombyx mory....................................................................................... 553

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 51 seria Zootehnie

Z089
89. Lenuţa FOTEA - Researches observing the influence of utilization in
feeding of different levels of medicinal herbs - Capsicum annuum,
Satureja hortensis and Anethum graveolens – on to the broilers
growing performance ½ Cercetări privind influenţa unor nivele
diferite de plante medicinale Capsicum annuum, Satureja hortensis
şi Anethum graveolens asupra creşterii puilor de carne ......................... 558

Z090
90. Nicoleta ION - Data concerning melliferous and medicinal vegetation
in hilly and mountainous areas of Romania ½ Date privind vegetaţia
melifero-medicinală din zonele de deal şi munte ale României ............... 562

Z091
91. A. IONEL, Irina TALPAN, Mihaela BALAN-SURMEI - Researches
regarding the remanent effect of fertilization with vinassa on the
quality of fodder yield on permanent meadows from Moldavian
plateau ½ Cercetări cu privire la efectul remanent al fertilizării cu
Vinassa asupra calităţii producţiei de furaj pe pajiştile permanente
din podişul Moldovei................................................................................ 570

Z092
92. A. IONEL, Mihaela BALAN-SURMEI, Irina TALPAN - Researches
regarding the remanent effect of fertilization with vinassa on the
fodder yield on permanent meadows from Moldavian plateau ½
Cercetări cu privire la efectul remanent al fertilizării cu vinassa
asupra producţiei de furaj pe pajiştile permanente din podişul
Moldovei................................................................................................... 577

Z093
93. Stasys JUKNEVICIUS, Jolanta STANKEVICIUTE, Nomeda
SABIENE - Optimization of forages ration in the organic farming
concerning some irreplaceable amino acids ½ Optimizarea ratiei
furajere în aminoacizi esenţiali, în condiţiile practicării agriculturii
organice.................................................................................................... 583

Z094
94. Roxana MIRON, I.M. POP - Researches regarding the quality and
nutritional value of the corn silage ½ Cercetări privind calitatea şi
valoarea nutritivă a silozului de porumb ................................................. 592
Z095
95. Tatiana PANAITE, Carmen CIURESCU, Ana CISMILEANU,
Anca BERCARU, C. RADUCANU, Rodica DIANA CRISTE -
Comparative data on the use of different selenium (Se) sources in
layer diets ½ Date comparative privind utilizarea a diferite surse de
seleniu (Se) în hrana găinilor ouatoare ................................................... 598

96. Cristina RADU-RUSU, I.M. POP - Effects generated by ascorbic acid


Z096
usage in laying hens feeding, during heat stress conditions ½ Efectele
utilizării acidului ascorbic în alimentaţia găinilor ouătoare, în
condiţii de stres termic ............................................................................. 604

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

Z097
97. D. SIMEANU, M. RUSSELL, I.M. POP, M. DOLIŞ - Yield effect
generated by enzymatic supplementation of laying hens feeding ½
Efectul productiv al suplimentării cu enzime a hranei destinate
găinilor ouătoare ..................................................................................... 609

Z098
98. M. VOLF - Contributions to increase the fodder sorghum grain
production ½ Contribuţii la sporirea producţiei de boabe a sorgului
furajer....................................................................................................... 613

Z099
99. M. VOLF - Sorghum for silo – Contribution to improving the
cultivation technology ½ Sorgul pentru siloz – Contribuţii la
îmbunătăţirea tehnologiei de cultivare .................................................... 617

Z100
100. A.N. ABDELFATTAH - Developing an internet-based learning
environments and a virtual microscope for enhancing teaching and
learning of the structure and function of production animals ½
Dezvoltarea unor medii de învăţare bazate pe internet şi a unui
microscop virtual, în scopul îmbunătăţirii predării-învăţării
structurii şi funcţiilor la animalele de interes zootehnic.......................... 621

101. Doina ARDELEANU, Gabi-Marilena NEACŞU, Carmen-Ana


Z101
PIVODĂ, C. NEACŞU, I.-C. ARDELEANU - Researches
regarding poly-parasitical pollution in sheep farms ½ Cercetări
privind poluarea poliparazitară în fermele de ovine ............................... 623

Z102
102. T. BAJURA, S. CHILIMAR - The actual situation and prospects of
the livestock sector in the Republic of Moldova ½ Starea actuală şi
perspectivele dezvoltării sectorului zootehnic în Republica Moldova .... 630

Z103
103. Liliana BIŢIC, Elena GÎNDU, A. CHIRAN - Studies on the new
opportunities of developing animal husbandry in the Ţibăneşti
Microzone, Iaşi County, by drawing structural funds ½ Studii privind
noi posibilităţi de dezvoltare a creşterii animalelor în microzona
Ţibăneşti, judeţul Iaşi, prin atragerea fondurilor structurale.................. 639

104. S. BOCA, Marcela SÎRBU, Ioana TĂNĂSESCU - The production


Z104
performances from S.C. STAZOO S.R.L farm from Alba County ½
Performanţele de producţie din ferma SC. STAZOO SRL., judeţul
Alba .......................................................................................................... 645

Z105
105. S. BOCA, Marcela SÂRBU, Ioana TĂNĂSESCU, R. OLAR - The
milk productions at the Peica farm Bistrita-Nasaud district, obtained
within the existing constructive solutions ½ Producţii de lapte în
ferma Peica judeţul Bistriţa Năsăud obţinute în contextul unor soluţii
constructive existente ............................................................................... 649

- 1210 -
Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 51 seria Zootehnie

Z106
106. Mioara BOCĂNICI - The study of productive and reproductive
performances of Pinzgauer cattle from the family farms from
Dorna’s Basin and Campulung Moldovenesc ½ Studiul
performanţelor productive şi reproductive ale bovinelor de rasă
Pinzgau crescute în fermele familiale din Bazinul Dornelor şi din
Câmpulung Moldovenesc ......................................................................... 656

Z107
107. M. BOTHA, I. BUD - Interdependence between ambient factors and
kindling evolution at Chinchilla lanigera in the spring and summer
months ½ Interdependenţa între factorii mediali şi fătările la
Chinchilla lanigera în lunile de primăvară şi vară.................................. 663

Z108
108. M. BOTHA, I. BUD - Microclimate factors evolution in a middle size
Chinchilla breeding farm ½ Evoluţia condiţiilor microclimatice
într-o fermă de creştere a Chinchillelor de dimensiune medie ................ 668

Z109
109. S. BULANCEA - Contributions to the study of cattle breeding of race
Baltata neagra romaneasca in Dobrogea ½ Contribuţii la studiul
creşterii vacilor din rasa Balţata neagră românească în Dobrogea ....... 675

110. S. BULANCEA - Particularities of cattle breeding in small family


Z110
farms, in the specific conditions of Dobrogea region ½
Particularităţile creşterii vacilor de lapte din microfermele familiale,
în raport cu condiţiile specifice ale zonei Dobrogei ................................ 679

111. M.V. BURLICĂ, D. SIMEANU - The origin of Huţula breed


Z111
products obtained at Lucina Herd ½ Originea produşilor de rasă
Huţulă obţinuţi la herghelia Lucina......................................................... 684

Z112
112. Maria CORDUNEANU - Researches concerning the mother sheep
age effect on weight of Merinos from Palas lambs at birth and wean
½ Cercetări privind influenţa vârstei oilor mame asupra greutăţii
mieilor Merinos de Palas la naştere şi înţărcare..................................... 689

Z113
113. V. CIGHI - Comparative study concerning some phenotypic
performances in sheep of Tigaie and Romney-Marsh breeds ½ Studiu
comparativ privind unele performanţe fenotipice la ovinele din
rasele Ţigaie şi Romney-Marsh................................................................ 693

Z114
114. V. CIGHI - Researches concerning the main conformation features in
a buffalo population from SCDP Jucu ½ Cercetări privind
parametrii principalelor însuşiri de conformaţie la o populaţie de
bubaline de la SCDP Jucu ....................................................................... 700

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

Z115
115. Iulia COSTEA, M. PÎNTEA, Şt. CREANGĂ, Elena RUGINOSU,
Mariana SOFRONIE - Morphological and productive characteristics
of the Sura de Stepa cattle from S.C.D.C.B. Dancu Iaşi ½
Caracteristicile morfo-productive ale taurinelor de rasă Sură de
stepă din cadrul S.C.D.C.B. Dancu Iaşi................................................... 704

Z116
116. S. DĂRĂBAN, A. POP, C. COROIAN - The potential of Merinos
breed of Cluj for meat production ½ Potenţialul rasei Merinos de
Cluj pentru producţia de carne ................................................................ 710

Z117
117. Monica DODU, I. CHEREJI - Quantitative and qualitative features
of eggs production issued from some Galinaceae populations in
Bihor County ½ Caracteristici cantitative şi calitative ale producţiei
de ouă la unele populaţii de galinacee din judeţul Bihor ........................ 716

118. I. DULUGEAC - European hippological studies of the race horse in


Z118
equestrian competitions ½ Sisteme hipologice europene în studiul
cailor de sport pentru probele ecvestre................................................... 723

Z119
119. I. DULUGEAC - Lipizzan race lines and the study of the
morphological characteristics of the Romanian Lipizzan horse ½
Liniile de Lipiţan şi studiul caracterelor morfologice la calul Lipiţan
din România ............................................................................................. 731

Z120
120. N. EREMIA, Iulia MIHAILOVA - The study of the variety of some
morpho-metric indices of honey bees ½ Studiul variabilităţii unor
indici morfo-metrici la albinele lucrătoare.............................................. 746

Z121
121. Elena GÎNDU, Alina-Emilia-Maria MOŞOIU, A. CHIRAN - Some
aspects regarding the development of animal breeding of surrounding
area of Oradea ½ Unele aspecte privind dezvoltarea creşterii
animalelor în zona preorăşenească a municipiului Oradea .................... 752

Z122
122. G. HOHA, B. PĂSĂRIN, Elena COSTĂCHESCU,
Gh. TĂRĂBOANŢĂ, Roxana Teodora STĂNESCU - Researches
concerning reproductive performances recorded to boars PIC 402
and PIC 408 exploited in S.C. SUINPROD S.A. Roman ½ Cercetări
privind performanţele reproductive înregistrate la vierii PIC 402 şi
PIC 408 exploataţi în cadrul S.C. SUINPROD S.A. Roman .................... 758

Z123
123. Cristina IONESCU, I. VACARU-OPRIŞ - Experimental results for
different housing densities and recipes of combined feed for broilers
½ Rezultate obţinute în urma experimentării densităţilor la populare
şi a reţetelor de nutreţuri combinate studiate .......................................... 766

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 51 seria Zootehnie

Z124
124. I. LADOŞI, M.GH. BEREŞ, G. POPA, Ileana BEREŞ, Paula
MUNTEAN, Daniela LADOŞI - Practical implications of
implementing batch farrowing systems in pig farming ½ Implicaţii
practice ale aplicării sistemelor de fătări grupate în exploatarea
suinelor..................................................................................................... 774

Z125
125. V. MACIUC - Contributions to the study of the morpho-productive
features at a ”Frisian” type cattle population, exploited in the N-E
area of the country ½ Contribuţii la studiul însuşirilor
morfoproductive la o populaţie de tip Friză exploatată în zona de N-
E a ţării .................................................................................................... 781

Z126
126. V. MACIUC, Şt. CREANGĂ, M. SCHUTZ, S. ACATINCĂI,
N. BUCĂTARU - Results of genetic estimation for Frisian type
cattle from North-Eastern Romania ½ Rezultate privind evaluarea
genetică a taurinelor de tip Friză din zona de Nord-Est a României ...... 788

127. Margareta MIHĂILESCU - Program for the management and


Z127
development of beef cattle in Neamt County during 2008-2009 ½
Program de dezvoltare şi exploatare a bovinelor de carne pentru
2008-2009 în jud. Neamţ.......................................................................... 796

Z128
128. Gh. NEAŢĂ, C. ŞONEA, E. CIURESCU - The strategy for cattle
meat production ½ Strategia pentru producţia de carne de vitã ............. 803

Z129
129. O. NEGREA, Z. MARCHIŞ - Study of interdigital tiloma in bovidae
family ½ Studiul incidenţei ficului interdigital (tiloma) la taurine......... 810

Z130
130. Alina NICOLESCU, Carmen Ana PIVODA, Camelia Zoia
ZAMFIR, I. NICOLESCU, Ana ENCIU, Daniela JITARIU,
Maria SAUER - Researches regarding the improvement of system
of gathering and preserving the sheep and goat milk ½ Cercetări
privind îmbunătăţirea sistemului de recoltare şi conservare a
laptelui de oaie şi capre ........................................................................... 815

Z131
131. Carmen Ana PIVODA, Camelia Zoia ZAMFIR, Ana ENCIU,
R, RĂDUCU, Ida AURELIAN, Daniela JITARIU, Maria SAUER -
Increasing the milk production at sheep and goats by introducing the
vegetal lecithin in the fodder ratio ½ Creşterea producţiei de lapte la
oi şi capre prin introducerea în raţia furajeră a lecitinei furajere .......... 823

132. M. RUSSELL - Polysaccharide storage myopathy in American Draft


Z132
Horses ½ Miopatia asociată stocării polizaharidelor la caii
americani de tracţiune ............................................................................. 831

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

Z133
133. L. STĂNCESCU - The effect of flushing upon fertility and prolificacy
in ewes ½ Efectul flushingului asupra fertilităţii şi prolificităţii la oi ........ 838

Z134
134. V. UJICĂ, V. MACIUC, Şt. CREANGĂ, M. PÂNTEA, Rodica
DĂNĂILĂ, I. NISTOR - The genetical calibre of Sura de Stepa
breed from S.C.P.C.B. Dancu, Iaşi ½ Valoarea genetică a nucleului
de rasă Sură de stepă de la S.C.P.C.B. Dancu, Iaşi................................. 846

Z135
135. V. UJICĂ, V. MACIUC, I. NISTOR, D. LUCACI, Rodica DĂNĂILĂ,
ŞT. CREANGĂ - Amelioration program of Pinzgau breed from
Bucovina ½ Program de ameliorare a rasei Pinzgau din Bucovina ....... 852

Z136
136. Irina VASILACHE, S. CHILIMAR - Simmental breed recurs again
in the Republic of Moldova ½ Rasa Simmental revine în Republica
Moldova.................................................................................................... 862

Z137
137. Camelia Zoia ZAMFIR, Carmen Ana PIVODA, Alina NICOLESCU,
Ana ENCIU, N. CUTOVA, Daniela JITARIU - Technologies of
exploiting young sheep and goats in various pedo-climatic areas of
Romania ½ Tehnologii de exploatare a tineretului ovin şi caprin în
diferite zone pedoclimatice ale României ................................................ 865

138. Anca COSOVANU, E. TICAU, T. ROBU - A study of the impact of


Z138
measure 3.1 – investments in agricultural holdings within the
S.A.P.A.R.D. programme in the 1st North Eastern Region ½ Studiu
privind impactul măsurii 3.1 - investiţii în exploataţiile agricole, din
cadrul programului S.A.P.A.R.D., în regiunea 1 Nord – Est ................... 871

Z139
139. I. GÎLCĂ, C. PASCAL, Mihaela IVANCIA, B. PĂSĂRIN,
M. DOLIŞ, T. ROBU - Researches concerning the comparison of
milk yield between Pinzgau breed imported from Austria and
Pinzgau of Transylvania ½ Cercetări referitoare la performanţele
productive înregistrate de taurinele Pinzgau importate din Austria,
comparativ cu cele de rasa Pinzgau de Transilvania .............................. 878

Z140
140. Şt. LAZĂR, D. BODESCU, O.C. VORNICU - Profitableness in
beekeeping and its influence factors ½ Rentabilitatea în apicultură şi
factorii de influenţă .................................................................................. 883

Z141
141. Gh. NEAGA - General aspect referring the technical –economical
parameters in the family farms in Constanta county ½ Aspecte
generale privind indicatorii tehnico-economici în exploataţiile
familiale de vaci de lapte din judeţul Constanţa...................................... 890

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 51 seria Zootehnie

Z142
142. Gh. NEAGA - The productive longevity in some dairy cows
exploitation in Constanta county ½ Longevitatea productivă în unele
exploataţii de vaci de lapte din judeţul Constanţa ................................... 896

Z143
143. C. PASCAL, Mihaela IVANCIA, I. PĂDEANU, C. CRISTIAN,
N. IFTIMIE - The milk yield aptitudes of the “Carpatina” goat
breed reared in Romania ½ Aptitudinile pentru producţia de lapte a
rasei de capre „Carpatina” crescută în România ................................... 904

Z144
144. I. PĂDEANU, S. VOIA, C. PASCAL GH. BOGDAN,
L. POROŞNICU - Researches regarding body weight dynamics of
crossbred Charollais x Merinos de Transilvania suckling lambs
reared in Banat area ½ Cercetări privind dinamica masei corporale a
mieilor sugari hibrizi Charollais x Merinos de Transilvania crescuţi
în zona Banatului ..................................................................................... 912

Z145
145. I. PÎRVUŢOIU, Agatha POPESCU, L. BJARNE, G. RADULESCU -
Case study concerning the analysis of gross margin in a Danish dairy
farm ½ Studiu de caz privind analiza marjei brute într-o fermă de
vaci daneza............................................................................................... 917

Z146
146. I. PÎRVUŢOIU, Agatha POPESCU, L. BJARNE, G. RADULESCU -
Case study concerning bankruptcy risk prediction in a Danish dairy
farm ½ Studiu de caz privind anticiparea riscului de faliment într-o
fermă de vaci daneză................................................................................ 923

Z147
147. P.N. POPŞOR - Longevity study for the population of Baltata
romaneasca breed in the area of Bistrita-Nasaud ½ Studiul
longevităţii la populaţia de taurine Bălţată românească din judeţul
Bistriţa Năsăud......................................................................................... 927

Z148
148. P.N. POPŞOR - Own research regarding precocity at Baltata
romaneasca breed in the area of Bistrita-Nasaud ½ Cercetări proprii
privind precocitate la rasa Bălţată românească din arealul judeţului
Bistriţa Năsăud......................................................................................... 936

Z149
149. I. CHEREJI, Monica DODU - Quantitative and qualitative features
of eggs production issued from certain domestic Anseridae
populations in Bihor county ½ Caracteristici cantitative şi calitative
ale producţiei de ouă la unele populaţii de anseride domestice din
judeţul Bihor............................................................................................. 945

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

Z150
150. S. CHILIMAR, T. BAJURA - The standard project of a farm for
milk production ½ Proiect model al fermei de producere a laptelui ...... 953

Z151
151. A. CHIRAN, A.-F. JITĂREANU - S.C. "KOSAROM" S.A. Pascani,
important incorporated Unit in Moldova ½ S.C. "KOSAROM" S.A.
Paşcani, unitate integrata de referinţă în Moldova ................................. 960

Z152
152. Andreea Bianca GHIRILĂ, Aurelia PECE, Gh. MUREŞAN -
Researches concerning cow milk’s quality obtained in a farm from
Germany – Hessen Land ½ Cercetări privind calitatea laptelui de
vacă la o fermă din Germania landul Hessen.......................................... 968

Z153
153. G. MOVILEANU - Evaluation proceeding of muscle tissue to pig
carcasses in Romania ½ Procedura de evaluare a procentului de
ţesut muscular la carcasele de porcine în Romania................................. 971

154. Aurelia PECE, C. COROIAN, Bianca GHIRILĂ, G. MUREŞAN -


Z154
Study concerning the physico-chemical and microbiological
parameters of buffalo milk fated in industrial manufacture ½ Studiul
parametrilor fizico-chimici şi microbiologici pentru laptele de
bivoliţă destinat prelucrării industriale manufacture ............................. 976

155. O. PENTELESCU, Gh. MUREŞAN, C. BELE - Research


Z155
concerning some constituents from organic raw mik ½ Cercetări
privind unii constituenţi din laptele ecologic materie primă ................... 980

156. O. PENTELESCU, Gh. MUREŞAN - Monitoring somatic cell count


Z156
with a statistical control process tool ½ Monitorizarea numărului de
celule somatice prin intermediul controlului statistic al procesului ........ 986

Z157
157. Elena POPESCU-MICLOŞANU, L. IONIŢĂ, I. CUSTURA,
Consuela ROIBU - Study about the results of slaughtering and the
carcass features at the Balotesti quails population of different ages ½
Studiu privind rezultatele la sacrificare şi caracteristicile carcasei la
prepeliţele de Baloteşti în funcţie de vârstă ............................................. 993

158. M.G. USTUROI - Dynamics of consumption eggs quality, according


Z158
to the storage period ½ Evoluţia calităţii ouălor de consum, în
funcţie de perioada de stocare ............................................................... 1004

Z159
159. M.G. USTUROI - Influence of the post-transportation rest on the
poultry meat acidity ½ Influenţa repaosului post-transport asupra
acidităţii cărnii de pasăre ...................................................................... 1012

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 51 seria Zootehnie

Z160
160. A. VLAIC, V.A. BĂLTEANU, F.D. POP, Anda Raluca RUSU -
Molecular methods used for detection of cattle milk in buffalo, ewe
and goat dairy products ½ Metode moleculare folosite pentru
identificarea laptelui de vacă în produsele din lapte de bivoliţă, oaie
sau capră................................................................................................ 1016

161. D. COJOCARU, Elena CIORNEA, Gabriela VASILE - On the


Z161
concentration of some vitamins and provitamins in the Vaccinium
myrtillus L. fruit ½ Cercetări privind concentraţia unor vitamine şi
provitamine în fructele de Vaccinium myrtillus L. ................................. 1022

162.
Z162 D. COJOCARU, Elena CIORNEA, Gabriela VASILE,
Sabina Ioana COJOCARU - On the content of some active
principles in the Hyppophae rhamnoides fruit ½ Studiul conţinutului
în unele principii active în fructele de Hyppophae rhamnoides............. 1030

163. Andreea Bianca GHIRILĂ, Aurelia PECE, Vioara MIREŞAN,


Z163
Gh. MUREŞAN - Researches concerning the physico-chemical and
microbiological qualities of the milk ½ Cercetări privind însuşirile
fizico-chimice şi microbiologice ale laptelui.......................................... 1038

164.
Z164 Camelia HODOŞAN, Lucica NISTOR, S. BĂRBUICA,
I.G. MALOŞ, Gabriela MALOŞ - Survey regarding the
concentration of liquid food components through reverse osmosis
using special membranes ½ Studiu privind concentrarea
componentelor alimentelor lichide prin osmoza inversa folosind
membrane speciale................................................................................. 1041

165.
Z165 Gabriela MALOŞ, I.G. MALOŞ, Daniela IANIŢCHI,
Lucica NISTOR, Camelia HODOŞAN - The determination
through microbiological tests of the hygiene state belonging to the
surfaces that come in contact with milk in the milking installations ½
Aprecierea prin teste microbiologice a stării de igienizare a
suprafeţelor ce vin în contact cu laptele la instalaţiile de muls ............. 1045

166.
Z166 Gabriela MALOŞ, I.G. MALOŞ, Daniela IANIŢCHI,
Lucica NISTOR, Camelia HODOŞAN - The influence
appreciation of milking installations parameters for initial quality of
milk ½ Aprecierea influenţei parametrilor instalaţiilor de muls
asupra calităţii iniţiale a laptelui........................................................... 1054

Z167
167. Carmen Georgeta NICOLAE, Georgeta DINIŢĂ, Dana POPA,
R. Al. POPA, T. ISBĂŞESCU - Material balance for obtaining
shrimps cans in brine and crab cans in oil ½ Bilanţ de materiale
necesar obţinerii conservelor din carne de crevete în saramură şi de
crab în ulei ............................................................................................. 1063

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

Z168
168. Lucica NISTOR, Minodora TUDORACHE, Georgeta DINIŢĂ,
I.G. MALOŞ, Gabriela MALOŞ - Researches regarding the
influence of the vital gluten on the breadmaking qualities of flours ½
Cercetări privind influenţa glutenului vital asupra calităţii de
panificaţie ale făinurilor ........................................................................ 1067

Z169
169. Lucica NISTOR, Gratziela Victoria BAHACIU, Camelia HODOŞAN,
S. BĂRBUICA, Andra SULER - The influence of husk adding on
chemical and phisical characteristics of bread ½ Influenţa adaosului
de tărîţe asupra caracteristicilor fizico-chimice ale pâinii.................... 1073

Z170
170. Aurelia PECE, C. COROIAN, Bianca GHIRILĂ, G. MUREŞAN -
Study of the physico-chemical and microbiological parameters of
cottage cheese obtained from buffalo milk ½ Studiul parametrilor
fizico-chimici şi microbiologici ai brânzei telemea obţinută din lapte
de bivoliţă............................................................................................... 1077

Z171
171. Agatha POPESCU, Elena ANGEL, Judita SAFARIKOVA -
Considerations concerning cow milk producing and marketing in
Romania and Bulgaria ½ Consideraţii privind producerea şi
comercializarea laptelui de vacă în Romania şi Bulgaria ..................... 1080

Z172
172. Agatha POPESCU, S. RASMUSSEN, G. RADULESCU - Major
aspects in the evolution of milk production in Denmark ½ Aspecte
majore în evoluţia producţiei de lapte în Danemarca ........................... 1087

173. Anca BOARU, I. BUD, R.M. VODĂ, Daniela LADOŞI,


Z173
I.V. PETRESCU MAG, Adriana CRISTE, Viorica COŞIER -
Characterization of the biological material of rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss) used for artificial reproduction at sexual
maturity age ½ Caracterizarea materialului biologic de păstrăv
curcubeu (Oncorhynchus mykiss) utilizat la reproducerea artificială
la vârsta atingerii maturităţii sexuale.................................................... 1095

174. A. COLESNIUC, Petronela RĂILEANU, Lenuţa GRIGORICĂ -


Z174
The water quality appreciation from the Bahlui river by means of
some biological indexes ½ Aprecierea calităţii apei din râul Bahlui
cu ajutorul unor indicatori biologici...................................................... 1100

Z175
175. Anca DASCÃL, V. MICLEA, M. ZAHAN, V. CIORNEI,
L. SASCA - The influence of different glycerol concentrations in
ram sperm mobility at 4°C ½ Influenţa diferitelor concentraţii de
glicerol asupra mobilitãţii spermatozoizilor la temperatura de 4°C ..... 1106

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176. Daniela LADOŞI, I. LADOŞI, I. BUD, Anca BOARU, V. VLADĂU,


Z176
REKA ŞTEFAN, Camelia RĂDUCU - Relevant fresh water species to
be used as biomarker in monitoring pollution of hilly hydrographic
habitats ½ Specii acvacole relevante ca biomarker în monitorizarea
gradului de poluare a bazinelor hidrografice submontane .............................1112

Z177
177. C. MISĂILA, A. COLESNIUC, Elena GRIGORICA, Petronela
RĂILEANU - Growth stimulation and food capitalization, in
cyprinids, by control of the parasitic stress ½ Stimularea creşterii şi
a valorificării hranei la ciprinide prin controlul stresului parazitar..... 1118

Z178
178. O. NEGREA - Risk of dactylogirosis transmission in Carassius
auratus, in stress experimental conditions and therapeutic efficiency
of trichlorfon product (synthesis organo-phosphoric) ½ Riscul
transmiterii dactilogirozei la caras (Carassius auratus), în condiţii
experimentale de stres şi eficacitatea terapeutică a produsului
trichlorfon .............................................................................................. 1125

Z179
179. R.G. OROIAN, A. VLAIC, T.E. OROIAN - PCR technique used in
Saprolegnia sp. genetical characterization ½ Tehnica PCR utilizată
în genotipizarea Saprolegniei sp............................................................ 1130

Z180
180. L. SASCA, V. MICLEA, M. ZAHAN, A. DASCÃL, T. OROIAN,
G.R. OROIAN - Research concerning the main characteristics of
milt obtained consecutively to Ovopel treatment in common carp ½
Cercetări privind principalele caracteristici ale lapţilor obţinuti prin
tratament cu Ovopel de la crapul de crescătorie ................................... 1134

181. Gabriela VASILE, Gianina COMĂNESCU, Elena CIORNEA -


Z181
Structure of the digestive tractus in Aristichthys nobilis ½ Structura
tractusului digestiv la Aristichthys nobilis ............................................. 1139

Z182
182. Gabriela VASILE, Elena CIORNEA, Elena RADA MISĂILĂ,
C. MISĂILĂ - Biometric aspects of the digestive tractus in
Aristichthys nobilis and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix of various ages
½ Aspecte biometrice ale tractusului digestiv la Aristichthys nobilis
şi Hypophthalmichthys molitrix de diferite vârste ................................. 1149

183. I. BĂNĂŢEAN-DUNEA, A. GROZEA, M. BURA, Silvia PĂTRUICĂ,


Z183
G. HOHA - Researches regarding the biometry and the parameters
of Barbus meridionalis petenyi from Nadrag river basin ½ Cercetări
privind biometria şi indicii corporali la moioagă (Barbus
meridionalis petenyi) din bazinul râului Nădrag ................................... 1159

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Z184
184. A. GRUBER, B. PĂSĂRIN, I.M. POP, Françoise PICARD,
Doina LEONTE, C. LEONTE - The influence of Arthemia salina
feeding on Poecillia reticulata (Lebistes reticulatus) colors ½
Influenţa nauplilor de Arthemia salina asupra coloritului la Poecillia
reticulata (Lebistes reticulatus) ............................................................ 1163

Z185
185. Valerica MACOVEI, I. M. POP - Identification and quantitative
determination of aquatic vegetation in a piscicultural pool ½
Identificarea şi determinarea cantitativă a vegetaţiei acvatice
dintr-un bazin piscicol............................................................................ 1167

Z186
186. M. HANGAN, Laura URDEŞ, P. VASILE - Incidence of black spot
disease in the fresh water fish gathered up by industrial fishing in
Danubian Delta area ½ Incidenţa bolii petelor negre la peştii de apă
dulce obţinuţi prin pescuit industrial din zona Delta Dunării ............... 1172

Z187
187. M. HANGAN, Laura Daniela URDEŞ, Cristiana DIACONESCU,
P. VASILE - Crustaceans’ (Lernea sp.) pathogeny effect on
freshwater fishes bred in static ponds, within some fisheries in the
Danubian Delta area ½ Efectul patogenic al crustaceelor (Lernea
sp.) asupra peştilor dulcicoli crescuţi în bazine statice, în unele
amenajări piscicole din zona Deltei Dunării ......................................... 1177
Z188
188. Laura Daniela URDEŞ, M. HANGAN, P. VASILE -
Eustrongylides’ autumnal distribution and its pathogenicity in
Razelm, Dranov and Murighiol lakes’ fishes ½ Distribuţia şi
patogenitatea autumnală a lui eustrongylides sp. în cadrul
populaţiilor de peşti din apele lacurilor Razelm, Dranov şi Murighiol. 1181

Z189
189. Laura Daniela URDEŞ, M. HANGAN, P. VASILE -
Eustrongylidosis, a secondary nematodosis associated with certain
myxozoans and trematods in Danubian Delta freshwater fish ½
Eustrongilidoza, nematodoză secundară asociată cu sporozoare şi
trematode la unele specii de peşti dulcicoli din Delta Dunării.............. 1186

Z190
190. Mihaela IVANCIA - Comparative study between cow milk somatic
cell count from many gathering centers from Cimpulung
Moldovenesc area ½ Studiu comparativ intre numărul celulelor
somatice din laptele de vacă provenit din mai multe centre de
colectare din zona Cimpulung Moldovenesc.......................................... 1191

Z191
191. Mihaela IVANCIA, D. DRONCA, M.G. USTUROI, C. PASCAL -
Study regarding cow milk somatic cell count dynamic from Dornelor
area, dependings on gathering months ½ Studiu asupra dinamicii
numărului de celule somatice din laptele de vacă provenit din zona
Dornelor, în funcţie de lună ................................................................... 1195

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ANIMAL SCIENCES EXTENSION EDUCATION INFORMS


PUBLIC POLICY
M. RUSSELL, M. SCHUTZ

The United States Land Grant University system is the result of federal
legislation from 1862 through 1914 which established a relationship between the
federal government and the states to coordinate teaching, research and extension
that reaches into all 3000 counties in the United States. Purdue University serves
as an example of one of 90 Land Grant Universities in the U.S. More than
38,000 students from all 50 states and the District of Columbia, three territories,
residents abroad, and 130 other nations study at the West Lafayette Campus, and
more than 29,000 are enrolled at other campuses and locations. Purdue impacts
the lives of residents in all 92 Indiana counties through its Cooperative Extension
Service offices, eight agricultural research centers that span the state, and
through thousands of educational and community events and direct contacts
each year. Through direct interactions with stakeholders representing private
production, state and county-level organizations and agencies we determine the
needs of the state. Our educational plans also respond to issues identified in the
State of Indiana’s and Purdue University’s strategic plans. Faculty members in
Animal Sciences serve as extension specialists to support the county extension
educators and we offer examples of how the Department of Animal Sciences and
its collaborators bring science and technologies education to the public policy
making. Examples include milk quality and required labeling, EPA and IDEM
regulations for Confined Animal Feeding Operations, use of cereal grains and
forages for fuels and animal feeding, land use and zoning, animal wellbeing
requirements related to animal production, transportation, and harvesting
methods. Techniques used to affect the process include applied research and
extension methods and assisting large industry corporations who seek input in
constructing animal production and processing quality audits and purchasing
agreement expected production practices. The ultimate goals of these planned
programs are: advancing Indiana’s economic prosperity, enhancing educational
and learning opportunities, and improving the quality of life.

ORIGIN
In 1862 the United States Congress passed the Morrill Act which
provided for an educational institution in every state “where the leading object
shall be, without excluding other scientific and classical students and including
military tactics, to teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and
the mechanic arts in such a manner as the legislatures of the states may
respectively prescribe in order to promote the liberal and practical education of
the industrial classes in several pursuits and professions in life.” Because of the
nature of the original funding through land, these colleges are known today as
"Land-Grant Universities." This was also the year that the United States

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Department of Agriculture and the Homestead Act were established. Congress


soon realized that to be effective, the educational function of land-grant
universities needed to be supplemented with research capabilities that serve the
specific needs of their region or state. The Hatch Act was passed in 1887 to
provide for the establishment of research farms where universities could conduct
research into agricultural, mechanical, and related problems faced by rural
citizens. These universities provided the technical agricultural education to those
who could attend and educated a generation of agricultural businessmen who led
the US in agricultural and mechanical development.
In 1890, Congress passed a second Morrill Act to add funding for
universities to serve the freed black slaves and their limited-resource educational
needs. Now every state in the United States has a Land Grant University and
those 17 states in the south have two. In 1994 federal U.S. legislation established
universities for Tribal Colleges for native Americans which are located on or near
Indian reservations throughout the United States.
The Cooperative Extension Service system was created by the U.S.
Congress because of concern for the education of the average citizen. Congress
passed the Smith Lever Act in 1914 which provided for the establishment of the
Cooperative Extension Service. It established a cooperative relationship among
counties, states, and the United States Department of Agriculture by making
federal funds available to each state to do extension activities through their land
grant universities. As a result of the Smith Lever Act, there are now Extension
offices in every county of every state and U.S. territories which serve to "extend"
information which has been developed on land grant campuses and research
stations across the country. The county Extension office is a branch office of the
respective Land Grant University and since their role is educational, the Extension
educators are university staff or faculty.

STRUCTURE
The Land Grant Universities work very closely with the regulation and
economic promotion arms of our state governments, but for the most part their
role involves regulations dealing with feed and agricultural chemicals,
environmental management, animal health, food safety, interstate trade, and
certainly economic development. We have forged partnerships with these
agencies to conduct educational programming for our citizens but the educational
leadership originates in the university structure. The Land Grant University
Extension Service is a shared funding program with Federal USDA, State Line
Items, and each county financially supports the office costs and some of the
university staff salary in the county. In the early years Extension primarily
focused on agriculture production, family nutrition, youth programs (4-H), and
community development came later (with a focus on the rural communities).
Thus in most states, the administrative leadership of the extension service resides

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in agriculture with strong funding and support to academic units of consumer &
family sciences and veterinary medicine. The administration of the federally
funded programs of Extension and Agricultural Research resides with the Dean of
Agriculture at Purdue and there are Associate Deans of Agriculture who are also
Directors of Agricultural Academic Programs, Research Programs, Extension,
and International Programs.
As the Morrill Act intended, these universities are comprehensive
universities with broad academic strengths but always including agriculture. For
example Purdue University schools (faculties) include Agriculture, Consumer &
Family Sciences, Education, Engineering, Health Sciences, Liberal Arts,
Management, Nursing, Pharmacy, Science, Technology, and Veterinary Medicine.
Purdue is the only institution in Indiana (population 6.4 M) offering agriculture and
veterinary medicine; but likewise Indiana’s other major public university, Indiana
University has strong programs in Medicine, Law and Fine & Performing Arts.
Thus the state of Indiana is not funding replication in these fields. In addition to
undergraduate and graduate students on the main campus in West Lafayette, we
have four regional campuses and eleven statewide technology centers. These are in
partnership with Indiana University, Purdue county Extension offices, and other
educational institutions. The University is led by a President who is hired and
answers to a Board of Trustees who themselves are elected by alumni and
appointed by the State Governor. The Provost is the highest academic leader at the
university and she oversees Vice Provosts of Research & Discovery Park,
Engagement, Academic Affairs & and the Discovery Learning Center.

UNIVERSITY SRATEGIC PLANNING


Purdue President France A. Córdova http://www.purdue.edu/president/
said that the 2007-13 strategic plan will be created by working groups with
aggressive stakeholder input. The focus will be eight strategic areas: student
success and the student experience; large-scale research and its infrastructure;
economic development; quality of life in the workplace; globalization; campus
design; synergies between science/engineering and liberal arts; and attracting
students to careers in - science, technology, engineering, and math.
http://www.purdue.edu/strategic_plan/2007-13/framework.shtml
The previous strategic plan was designed to make Purdue a preeminent
university with strategies to advance quality in all areas, lead the world in basic
and applied sciences and engineering, and contribute to societal progress,
especially in Indiana. A strategic plan defines an institution's goals and objectives
and provides the basis for systematic and continuous improvement.
The plan for the West Lafayette Campus called for $156 million annually in
new resources that will support discovery, learning, and engagement, leading to a
wide range of advancements in undergraduate learning, interdisciplinary research, and
economic development for Indiana. http://www.purdue.edu/oop/strategic_plan/

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EDUCATIONAL MISSION
Purdue is one of the largest universities in the country, with 38,712
students enrolled in fall 2005 on its West Lafayette Campus. Purdue also offers
degrees at four regional campuses and 11 School of Technology sites statewide,
bringing its system wide enrollment to 69,098 students from all 50 states and 130
other countries. More and more the emphasis with our education systems is on
the integration of research, teaching, and extension. This does not mean that basic
research done by the very best minds in the world is not important, but rather it is
critical as the seed of discovery from which all applied research and education
will grow. An expectation of agencies funding research require a demonstration
of the results use in applied or practical application which shows clear impacts in
the future. We value this close relationship between the research generation and
the educational delivery system. This is not only important in educating students
on campus but also the citizens of the state that cannot come to the university.
An increasing amount of our applied research is being conducted by
Purdue University extension staff and faculty in Purdue Agricultural Centers
throughout the state and these trials serve as the basis of extension educational
programs. Across Indiana, Agriculture Research Programs operates eight Purdue
Agricultural Centers (PACs) in areas representative of the state's varied soil types
and microclimates, where more site-specific research is conducted and research
results are conveyed to local farmers and other residents. ARP also works closely
with Purdue Extension to transfer the research-based knowledge generated by
Purdue faculty and staff to citizens in all of Indiana's 92 counties.

PURDUE EXTENSION
The Cooperative Extension Service is one of the nation's largest providers
of scientific research-based information and education. It's a network of colleges,
universities, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, serving communities and
counties across America. http://www.ces.purdue.edu/index.shtml
Purdue Extension is a service tailored to meet the needs of Indiana, needs we
know firsthand. Our educators, specialists, and volunteers live and work in all 92
Indiana counties. We provide the link between Land Grant research and Indiana
citizens. Purdue Extension concentrates its efforts in four primary program areas:
Agriculture and Natural Resources
Extension educators with agricultural and natural resource specialties offer
programs and information on agricultural production and financial management for
farmers, food and fiber processors, manufacturers and consumers. We also provide
expertise in environmental issues, natural resource conservation and land use.
Consumer and Family Sciences
Consumer and Family Sciences Extension specialists and educators provide
education to people. We: help communities analyze, identify and meet the needs

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of families; train volunteers and paraprofessionals to assist in areas of critical


concern to families; motivate people to become leaders in address community
issues; collaborate with agencies, community organizations, and educational
groups to address the needs of families.
Economic and Community Development Purdue Extension provides Indiana
citizens with educational programs and information they can use to increase
community vitality, build leadership capacity, enhance public decision-making,
and resolve public issues.

4-H and Youth Development A dedicated network of Extension educators, parents,


local leaders and volunteer staff, makes Indiana 4-H one of the most valued youth
programs in the state. Purdue Extension youth educators develop individual talents,
life skills and leadership abilities among Indiana's young people through the
traditional venue of 4-H clubs and county fairs as well as through field-tested
school enrichment materials and local-led community programs.

While there will always be important issues related to production agriculture


and food and natural resources, many of the challenges facing the US society are
broader and involve interdisciplinary teams to solve. Most Land Grant Universities
are moving to further engagement communities in learning and discovery. As the
agricultural businesses become economically stronger and self-sustaining, they often
conduct their own research and hire university graduates to lead their research and
development programs. This in turn leads to less direct dependence on the traditional
extension educational systems and more collaborations and partnerships. This is the
result of the success of our graduates in developing and leading businesses and
production systems in agriculture. We now have more and more educational
programs provided for individuals and business clientele that demand higher level
programs and are willing to pay for the service. This allows the Land Grant system to
do more applied research and reach even more citizens that cannot afford to pay for
the service that is available for all citizens. The line-item public dollars coming into
the university from federal and state sources have not increased substantially in the
past five years. This has caused the university to rely much more heavily on
endowments, grants, and competitive funding from a very diverse source of funds.
Now more than one third of the total funds supporting extension are paid by the
county budgets. Purdue and other successful land grant universities must become
more and more strategic in seeking competitive funding opportunities. We will end
this presentation with an example of how Purdue University is emphasizing this close
engagement with citizens, government, and businesses

PURDUE RESEARCH AND EXTENSION PLAN OF WORK


The planned programs for Indiana are: natural resources and environment,
plants and their systems, animals and their systems, agricultural, natural

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resources, and biological engineering , food/non-food products: development,


processing, quality, and delivery, economics, markets and policy, human
nutrition, food safety, human health and well being , family well being, youth
development, and economic, community development.
These planned programs were determined after reviewing input from
stakeholder interviews and community sessions conducted throughout Indiana in
2003 and 2005. In 2005, nearly 4600 people participated in the interviews and
community sessions. Under-served and under-represented populations were included
in the interviews and community sessions. Approximately 10% of the 1700
interview participants were from underserved or under-represented populations.
Interviews with stakeholders representing state level organizations and agencies
were also conducted to assess the needs of the state. Stakeholders recognized Purdue
as a trusted source of information for families, farms, businesses, and communities.
They said that Purdue research and extension should continue to focus efforts to
strengthen families, farms, businesses, and communities.
In addition, many of the planned programs respond to issues identified in
the State of Indiana’s and Purdue University’s strategic plans. According to the
Indiana Department of Agriculture, Indiana is in a unique position to be a global
leader in several food and agriculture areas. This conclusion is based on the
state’s productive land base, central location to the U.S. population, innovative
research, and manufacturing expertise. Agriculture continues to have a significant
role in Indiana’s economy and represents an area for economic growth and
development. In Indiana the food and agricultural sector generates directly or
indirectly about twenty percent of the jobs and income in the state.
With Indiana’s diverse agricultural structure, Purdue research and
extension can play a role in helping people become more productive and
prosperous. Environmental safety and increases in bio-fuel production are also
high priority policy issues in Indiana. Several areas targeted for growth by the
State Department of Agriculture are included among the planned programs
identified in this plan of work. The natural resources and environment, plants and
their systems, animals and their systems, agricultural, natural resources, and
biological engineering, and economics, markets, and policy planned programs
describe research and extension efforts that address these issues.

ANIMALS AND THEIR SYSTEMS PLAN OF WORK


“Research projects will be targeted at understanding the biology of
poultry and livestock at the molecular, cellular, and systemic level, and improving
the profitability of poultry and livestock production while minimizing
environmental impacts on production and enhancing the health and well-being of
animals. Specific efforts will span fundamental areas of growth and development,
animal behavior and well-being, and sustainable and efficient production systems,
using a multi-disciplinary approach. Research projects will also investigate the

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efficient use of by-products and co-products from ethanol and biofuels production
facilities as feed for poultry and/or livestock. Extension activities will seek to
improve producers’ management skills to improve economic viability, enhance
environmental stewardship, improve awareness among youth of the opportunities
in poultry and livestock production, and to promote a positive image of poultry
and livestock production in Indiana. These activities will be accomplished
through publications, workshops, road-shows, and on-farm assistance. In addition,
Extension programs will be presented for small livestock and poultry producers,
in which often the producer has limited technical knowledge or experience or is
attempting to use alternative production techniques. “

ANIMAL SCIENCES STRUCTURE


The mission of the Department of Animal Sciences
http://www.ansc.purdue.edu/ is:
“The Purdue University Department of Animal Sciences provides leadership
and inspiration to educate individuals to anticipate and effectively respond to
challenges facing the global animal industries. Animal Sciences facilitates scientific
research and technology transfer for efficient and sustainable production of high
quality animal products with optimal animal well-being, enhancement of the human
diet, and advancement of sound environmental practices.”
The vision of the Department of Animal Sciences is very simple. We
desire to be the "place to go" for the citizens of Indiana and beyond for
knowledge in animal sciences. This includes students, traditional commodity
groups, government, consumers, and many others.
Our shared or common goals are:
• to provide students with a rigorous and relevant education thus prepared for a
lifetime of learning;
• to achieve scientific preeminence in selected areas, and be able to develop
teams to find and solve real problems in a real world; and
• to meet the needs of clientele making the best use of emerging technologies.
The 45 faculty members have expertise in the disciplines of growth and
development, nutrition, breeding and genetics, physiology, management, and
animal well-being and behavior. Fifteen faculty members serve as extension
specialists with the responsibility of leading the Purdue educational effort in their
species and discipline expertise. http://www.ansc.purdue.edu/species.htm
Faculty members in Animal Sciences serve as extension specialists to support
the county extension educators and we offer examples of how the Department of
Animal Sciences and its collaborators bring science and technologies education to
the public policy making. Our effectiveness is derived from a close working
relationship between the industry leaders (stakeholders) and the university
specialists who are involved in conducting relevant research in the area.

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Examples include:
• milk quality and required labeling,
• EPA and IDEM regulations for Confined Animal Feeding Operations,
• use of cereal grains and forages for fuels and animal feeding,
• land use and zoning,
• animal wellbeing requirements related to animal production
• transportation and harvesting methods.
Methods used to affect the process include applied research, unbiased
reporting of results and data, writing while pages and extension fact sheets,
conducting educational meetings, consulting when invited with public officials,
serving on and often co-chairing industry committees, addressing industry and
commodity panels, and testifying at legislative and other government hearings
and sessions, Many extension staff have also been involved in consulting and
assisting large industry corporations who seek input in constructing animal
production and processing quality audits and purchasing agreement expected
production practices.

SUMMARY
In reality, the United States Land Grant system provides federal, state,
and county funding initially from the governments to solve real problems of
residents. This flow of money is supplemented more and more by private and
corporation collaborations and grants to solve more specific and complex
problems. This system is only effective in delivering outputs and improved
quality of life and sustainable economic agricultural systems if the research and
education is relevant. The role of the faculty of animal science disciplines is to
stay in direct communication with the stakeholders and that the shoes
stakeholders communicate the relevance and importance of the university
Extension system to their livelihoods. The system of extension is totally
dependant on the relationships with communities and industry leadership and
serving their current and anticipated needs.

REFERENCES
USDA Cooperative State Research, Education & Extension Service http://www.csrees.usda.gov/
Indiana State Department of Agriculture, http://www.in.gov/isda/
Purdue University, http://www.purdue.edu/
Purdue President France A. Córdova http://www.purdue.edu/president/
Purdue University Strategic Plan http://www.purdue.edu/strategic_plan/2007-13/framework.shtml
Purdue University College of Agriculture, http://www.agriculture.purdue.edu
Purdue Extension is...Knowledge to Go. http://www.ces.purdue.edu/index.shtml
Purdue University Department of Animal Sciences http://www.ansc.purdue.edu/
Purdue Department of Animal Sciences Extension Information
http://www.ansc.purdue.edu/species.htm

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DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM
OF THE KOSAROM S.A. COMPANIES GROUP

L. APOSTOL, T. F. APOSTOL, E. L. POPOVICI

The paper presents the development program of the Iaşi Kosarom


Companies Group, designed to be applied on short, medium or long terms.
Main goals to achieve are related to the establishment of new capacities or to the
extension of the existing ones, as listed below for each company:
1. S.C. Avi-Top S.A. Iaşi:
- building of 2 new broiler farms, having 200000 chickens
capacity each;
- increasing of the rearing capacities at the three existing
broiler farms.
- establishing of a continuous flow technological line for
convenience food products processing.
2. S.C. SUINPROD S.A. Roman:
- development of rearing and exploitation capacities for the
Mangaliţa swine breed, in order to create availabilities of
genetic material for exportation.
3. S.C. KOSAROM S.A. Paşcani:
- increasing of slaughtering capacity for swine;
- establishing of a continuous flow technological line for
producing sliced meat products, packed under vacuum
conditions.

Kosarom group comprises four companies (Kosarom, Avi-Top, Suinprod


and Agricola), that function within an integrated system. Thus, the cereals
produced by the Agricola Tg. Frumos Company serve as raw matter for supplying
both mixed fodders processing plants, which provide feed to the poultry in the
Avi-Top Iaşi Company and of the swine in the Suinprod Roman Company, as
well.
Poultry meat is obtained within the Avi-Top slaughterhouse, located in
Războieni place, while pork issues from Kosarom Paşcani slaughterhouse.
Kosarom S.A. Company processes both poultry and pork meat, provided by own
farms.
The invested capital signifies more than a pure financial matter, knowing
the group comprises four companies, which function on a double capital basis:
one of trust, one for technology.
The amount of the investments designed for Kosarom Paşcani Company
in 2008 reached 12 millions EUR. In order to improve and modernize the swine
slaughterhouse, 2 millions EUR have been drawn through the SAPARD program,
6 millions EUR from bank network and also 4 millions EUR from own sources.

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

The slaughterhouse will be able to slaughter 120 pigs/hour. Trenching department


will be modernized, in order to achieve a processing capacity of 34–35 tones of
meat /day.
A wide modernization program also runs within the Pre-Packing
department of the S.C. Kosarom S.A. Company; delivery capacity will be also
extended and a new storehouse for dry and fresh salami and sausages will be
built. Long term investments pool will pass over 32 millions EUR in Kosarom
Paşcani Company.
Major investments will be carried on during 2007-2008 in S.C. Avi-Top
S.A. Iaşi Company. During May, the poultry slaughterhouse, situated on
Războieni platform, will be inaugurated. Slaughtering capacity of the new facility
reaches 4000 chickens/hour, having also the availability to be extended. An
elementary calculation reveals a daily slaughtering capacity of 32.000 chickens.
The investments in Războieni poultry slaughterhouse reached 12 millions EUR,
from which 2 millions issued from SAPARD program, other 5.5 millions from
bank credit and the remaining sum from own funding.
Two broiler farms will be opened this year, each of them will be able to
accommodate 200000 chickens/series. Other three farms pass during
modernization stage. The development schedule will allow us to manage the meat
production according to the “all in, all out“ modern principle, that is essential in
preserving fowl health and ensuring final products quality. Meantime, an
appropriate supply of the slaughterhouse will be provided by the right design of
the poultry production flows, meaning a very correct politics of the company.
Right now, 750000 chickens per each series are raised within the S.C. Avi-Top
S.A. Iaşi Company.
The new slaughterhouse in Razboieni processes both chickens from own
farms or from satellite farms, owned by private breeders. An amount of 200000
broilers/series are slaughtered from private farms. These farms are supplied with
biological material and mixed fodder by S.C. Avi-Top S.A Iaşi. During an year,
6.3-6.7 rearing series could be completed. Production and financial results
achieved by S.C. Avi-Top S.A. Iaşi kept the Company in the best poultry meat
producers top in Romania. Thus, during 2007, the S.C. Avi-Top S.A., considered
a middle size company, which produces 3500-10000 tones of weight gain per
year, eas placed on the 5th place at national level, outrunning many companies
with tradition in poultry rearing and processing. Meanwile, S.C. Avi-Top S.A.
Iaşi, was placed on the 1st national place for low mortality rates (1.66%).
Exceptional achievements have been also recorded in incubation department, the
hatching rate reaching also the best national value – 84.56% - for the eggs
provided by meat type breeders. Moreover, the new built slaughterhouse could be
considered as the latest modernity in Romania, having similar performances to the
most modern slaughterhouses across the world.
S.C. Suinprod S.A. Roman, a company specialized for swine rearing and
fattening, reached 9.5 millions EUR as cash flow during 2007 and an amount of

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115000 reared and delivered pigs. All processes in the own feed factory are
computer controlled, fact that allowed removal of any human error or of any cross
microbial contamination incidence.
S.C. Suinprod S.A. started from 2005 a program related to the
safeguarding of the Mangaliţa indigenous breed genetic patrimony. This swine
breed is rustic, tardy, has high fat content in carcass but provides high quality
meat and lard at slaughtering that are able to be used to obtain traditional meat
products, highly required on central and western European market. Meat and fat
issued from Mangaliţa pigs also contain low levels of cholesterol. Moreover, it
occur high levels of unsaturated fatty acids, as compared to other swine breeds.
Consequently, the Company targeted for 2011 to reach a flock of 1000 Mangaliţa
sows (500 matured + 500 juvenile). This will allow us to export genetic material
to any interested country.
Grace to a consequent development policy, the Kosarom Companies
Group is the Number One Brand in Moldova. It could be stated that, through its
achievements, this companies group entered the European Union with a step
forward prior to Romania’s adhering.

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

POPULATION AND LABOUR FORCE IN THE IASI


COUNTY AGRICULTURE
Ramona ALEXA-AIRINEI, M. DASCĂLESCU

The population is defined as a community of people that live on a


certain geographical area. From the socio-demographic point of view, the
population the population can be described as a social subsystem which has in
view the number of the inhabitants, density, the structure on age and sex, births
and deaths, feminization, migration and others.
The specific of a society is given by the size of the population and its
characteristics (demographic, socio-economic and training). It is important the
knowledge of the population structure on age and sex, the level of training, the
degree of occupation, the activity domain, in order to adapt the policies of
development to the present society.
Population has an important role in economy. It actions as a consumer
of products and services on the one hand and generator of physical and
intellectual work, in quality on the other hand, in quality of human resource, the
labor force serves in order to put forward the financial resources and
exploitation capital in agriculture, decisively influencing the production results.
One of the main indicators that characterize human resources is the
population density. This is an element of great variability in space, being a result
of geographical, historical, economic and social conditions specific to each zone.
At the Iaşi county level the number of the population at 1 July 2006 was
of 824083 persons. In comparison with past year 2005, there is an increase with
10140 persons more than at 1 July 2005.
Regarding the population repartition on habitation areas of the total of
the population, in 1990, 48,8% lived in the urban area and 51,2 % in the rural
area, and in 2005, 47,3% of the population lived in the urban area and 52,7% in
the rural area.
The number of persons employed within the economy of Iasi County
dropped as value total nominal value, being with -53,7 thousand persons lower
in 2004 than in 1992, reaching this year the lowest value in the last 5 years. It is
interesting to mention the fact that on the general background of diminution of
population employed in economics, the commerce registers the highest growth,
with +14,4 thousand persons while in agriculture there are registered high
diminutions of 47,8 thousand of persons. One significant part of this number is
due to the migration of labour force abroad.

MATERIAL AND METHOD

In this scientific paper wants to present the social, demographic,


economic educative changes that appeared in the rural communities of Iasi
County. We use statistic materials gathered both though sociological investigation
and official documents data.

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On the results of proper calculations, though annual statistic series or


censuses we analyzed both the demographic structure of rural population with its
main indicators: birth rate, death rate, natural increase, as well as their socio-
economic characteristics: structure of active and employed population in the two
areas rural and urban of Iasi County.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

The labour force has the main role in the flows that underlie the
accomplishment of the production processes. This is the conscious factor of the
activities of the agricultural production, through which the labour means are used,
the labour processes rationalize and advanced processes of production
organization are applied.
Iasi County population at 1 January 2006 was of 814198 inhabitants,
representing 3,8 of the total population of Romania (Iasi County occupying the
third place after Bucuresti and Prahova County) (Table 1.)
Here was an increasing trend of Iaşi county habitant’s number. This way
in an 76 years period (1930-2006) the population has grown by 87.7 percents.
The population density is a factor that influence the social problem in the
territory (of living, of occupancy, of environmental protection) and which
fundaments the aspects regarding infrastructure, collective equipment, public
services of a certain area.
The economic factor used in order to quantify the density is the “number
of inhabitants / km2”. This indicator expresses the population distribution on
administrative territory of an area, at a certain moment and allows the distribution
of different population models of the territory, identifying the zones of population
concentration and zones with rare, dispersed population.
Table 1
The evolution of its population and density between 1930 and 2006
Years Number of inhabitants Inhabitants / km2
29 December 1930 420488 76,8
25 January 1948 431586 78,8
21 February 1956 516635 94,3
15 March 1966 619027 113,0
5 January 1977 729243 133,2
7 January 1992 811342 148,2
18 March 2002 816910 149,2
1 July 2005 813943 148,6
1 January 2006 814198 148,7
Source http://www.iasi.insse.ro

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

As regards the population density, we can notice a positive quantitative


jump comparable with 1930, when the density was of 76,8 inhabitants per km2 ,
reaching in 2002 at 149,2 inhabitants per km2. After this year it can be noticed
the tendency of decrease of density value, reaching in 2006 at 148,7 inhabitants
per km2 .

160 .2 7 29-Dec
.2
2
8 . 14 9 8.
6 8.
140 3 14 14 14 25 ianuarie 1948
13
120
3 1 13 21 februarie 1956
100 .
.8 .8 94 15 martie 1966
80 76 78 5 ianuarie 1977
60
7 ianuarie 1992
40
18 martie 2002
20
0 1 iulie 2005
Locuitori / km2 1 ianuarie 2006

Figure 2 Evolution of the population between 1930 and 2006

We observe a structural evolution of the population percent in the two


areas, and doesn’t exists a stabilization process of this percent. (tab. 2)

Table 2
Population on areas (%)

Areas Year 1990 Year 2003 Year 2004 Year 2005

Urban 48.8 47.1 46.3 47.3


Rural 51.2 52.9 53.7 52.7
Source: Anuarul statistic al judeului Iaşi 2006

In 2006 there were registered 10124 born – alive, with 90 less than
in the previous year, determining a birth rate of 12,5 born at 1000 inhabitants.
With this rate, Iasi County occupies the first place in the country, where the
average is of 10,2 born at 1000 inhabitants. (tab.3)
In 2006 the number of deceased was of 7895 persons, with 251 persons
less than in 2005, decrease reflected in the diminution of general death rate
from 10, 1%o in 2005 to 9, 7%o in 2006.
The decrease of infant mortality (deceased under 1 year at 1000 born)
also continued in 2006 with 13,7%o in comparison with 14,4%o in 2005, being
in the tendency of the last years and maintaining under the country average
(1 3,9%o ).

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The evolution of birth and death determined a positive natural


increase (+2229 persons), which corresponds to a rate of 2,8 persons to 1000
inhabitants, which rises in comparison to 2005 (2,5%o) and situating Iasi County
on the first place in the country.
The natural encrease of population represents the difference between
the average birth rate and average death rate.

Table 3
Natural movement of the population in 2006 in comparison with 2005

Year ABSOLUTE DATA (number)


Natural Deceased
Born Deceased Marriages Divorces
increase under 1 year
2005 10214 8146 2068 5459 707 147
2006 10124 7895 2229 5671 602 139

RATE (at 1000 inhabitants)


Birth Death Natural Marriage Infant
Divorce rate
rate rate increase rate mortality*
2005 12,6 10,1 2,5 6,7 0,87 14,4
2006 12,5 9,7 2,8 7,0 0,74 13,7
Note: * to 1000 born
Sursa : http://www.iasi.insse.ro

In order to accomplish the objective analysis of resources it is necessary


to know the distribution of employed population activities within the national
economy. For Iasi County, along the analyzed period of time, the data referring to
this indicator are presented in table 4.
As it is shown in table 4, the number of persons occupied within the
economy of Iaşi County dropped as total nominal value, being with -47.8
thousand less than in 2005 in comparison with 1992, reaching the lowest value in
this period. It is interesting to mention is the fact that on the general background
of the decrease of the employed population in economy, the commerce registers
the highest growth, with +14,4 thousand persons while in agriculture there are
registered high decrease, of 27.8 thousand persons. This shows the fact that the
population of the rural area are more and more migrating to the urban area or
abroad.

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

Tabelul 4
The population employed, on activities of national economy (at the end of the year)
Thousand of persons
Iaşi County 1992 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Total economics 344,2 342,6 318 316,2 302,8 298,2 290,5 296,4
Agriculture, hunting
and forestry 130,3 125 136,7 134,7 115,4 110 100,7 102,5
Fishing and
pisciculture 0,3 0,2 0,1 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,2
Industry, of which: 98,3 79,7 65,8 64,4 71,2 67,2 61,3 55,8
Extractive industry 0,1 0,2 0,1 0,2 0,1 0,1 - 0,1
Processing industry: 92,5 73,4 59,4 58,9 66,1 62,3 56,7 51,2
Electric and thermal
energy, gasses and
water 5,7 6,1 6,3 5,3 5 4,8 4,6 4,5
Constructions 14,4 14,6 12,9 12,9 13,3 14,4 13,2 17,7
Commerce 18,5 44,1 28,3 28,5 27,8 28,7 29,9 32,9
Hotels and restaurants 4,6 3,4 3,5 3 2 2,6 4 4,1
Transport, storage and
communications 18,6 18,4 12,7 12,5 12,3 11,8 11,4 12
Financial brokerage 1,4 1,7 1,8 1,8 1,8 1,8 2,1 2,4
Real estate transactions
and other services 13,7 9 8,5 9,7 9,5 11,2 13,2 12,5
Defense and public
administration 3,3 3,5 3,6 3,7 3,8 4 4 4,7
Education 22 23,1 21,7 21,8 21,3 21,3 22,6 22,7
Health and social
assistance 12,6 14,3 16,7 17,1 17,8 18,3 19,2 18,9
Other activities of
national economy 6,2 5,6 5,7 5,9 6,4 6,7 8,7 10
Source. Anuarul statistic al judeului Iaşi 2006

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40
.1
.9
35
38
36

.7

.6
34

34
30

25

.5
.5
23
20
22

.1
21

.8
18
15

10

.1
.3
11
6
10
2
9.
9.
5

5
5

2
6
8

4.
4

8
4.

4.
4.

1
4.

3.
3.
0
agricultură,vânatoare şi silvicultură industrie construcţii comerţ tranzacţii imobiliare şi alte servicii

2002 2003 2004 2005

Fig.2The structure of the population employed in the main activities of the national
economy

Demographic dimension of an area which is the main dimension of


economic analysis, because the population, through the elements that
characterizes it, expresses the development potential of a territory.

Table 5
Population on age groups (years)
Age groups Year 2003 Year 2004 Year 2005
Total 816003 821621 813943
15-19 years 73026 76283 73095
20-24 years 74646 75625 69770
25-29 years 70004 71721 71103
30-34 years 66725 64854 64939
35-39 years 51376 57475 62420
40-44 years 45998 43541 42169
45-49 years 55477 55335 52857
50-54 years 53346 52102 52697
55-59 years 31653 36191 41410
60-64 years 34978 32636 29260
65-69 years 35623 36064 36447
70-74 years 29512 29502 29703
75-79 years 20477 20996 21766
80-84 years 10196 11004 11837
85 and over 4824 4975 5168
Source. Anuarul statistic al judeului Iaşi 2006

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

From the dates that are presented in table 5 result in a relatively big
percent of young life section 15-29 years, compared with over 55 years life
section, this movement is maintained in the studied time period.
The innovation index of labour force, expresses the renewal process of
active population (of the labour force) and is calculated as a report between the
population of the age group 15-29 years and the population of the age group of
30-40 years.
In Iasi County , the index of population renewal in 2004 was of 3,9, and
in 2005 is of 3,3 (tab. 5).
At the national level, the difference between the contingent of 30-40 years
and that of 15-29 years was very small (90,1 %), the renewal index of the labour
force being of 1,91. the index of 1,91 shows that in the following 15 years on the
labour force could be found with 91 % more persons with high productive
capacities, existing the possibility for an better level training, an raised
enterprising spirit, attributes that are present in the 15-29 years group. (Table 11)

CONCLUSIONS
The remaining of the younger population in the rural area is a decisive
role for the revitalization of the rural, for economic diversity, for the establishing
of demographical equilibrium, especially in the highly deficient zones. This
population contingent is the main beneficiary of the rural development policy that
has to be elaborated. A proof of the efficiency policy of the undergone rural
development is to establish this segment of population dimensioned according to
the natural, economic and social possibilities of each zone.
The 1990-2005 period was for Iasi County, a period of eloquent
movement regarding the human resources. There was a decrease of urban
population percent and a increase of that from rural area.
In Iasi County, the index of population renewal in 2004 was of 3,9, and in
2005 – 3,3, this is giving the hope regarding the insurance with human resources
needs for economy sector, in generally, and for agriculture in particularly.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Alecu I., Merce E., Pană D., Sâmbotin L., Ciurea I.V., Bold I., Doberscu N., – Management în
agricultură, Ed. Ceres, Bucureşti, 1997
2. Ciurea I.V., "Management", Editura "Ion Ionescu de la Brad", Iaşi, 1993
3. Ciurea, I.V. şi colab, “Management”, Editura „Ion Ionescu de la Brad”, Iaşi, 2005
4. Institutul naţional de statistică, Direcţia judeţeană de statistică Iaşi, Anuarul statistic al
judeţului Iaşi 2006,Editura Alfa, 2006
5. *** Anuarul Statistic al României 2005, Comisia Naţională pentru Statistică, 2000
6. ***www.iasi.insse.ro

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MATHEMATICS AND BIOLOGY


INTERDISCIPLINARY ASPECTS
Dumitru Mihai ANDREI, Laurenţia CĂLIN

Mathematics is one of the fundamental patterns for human thinking. For


a long time now, mathematics has been building methods, theories which
connects it to other studying objects, being the basis for experimental and social
sciences, an instrument that can be successfully applied to all possible sciences
and approaches.
In the present paper, we introduce some interdisciplinary elements, with
reference to mathematical terms used in various biological fields such as
Anatomy, Cytology, Genetics and Ecology.

Mathematics is one of the fundamental patterns for human thinking. For a


long time now, mathematics has been building methods, theories which connects
it to other studying objects, being the basis for experimental and social sciences,
an instrument that can be successfully applied to all possible sciences and
approaches. Mathematics represents a model science
Mathematical truths are generally available and necessary. They could be
reached using deduction chains, linked by fundamental truths, obviously
themselves.
Demonstration forms logical chains wile intuition reveals basic truths.
Life sciences are considered as a basic pattern. Natural phenomenon
could be uncovered by experience, not by intuition.
From this perspective, mathematics could be perceived as “pure” (it
represents the internal logical relations between concepts) or as “applied” (it
represents the extrapolation based on experience).
Mathematics does not tell a think about the world, but serves as
normative research instrument, bringing order in the initial concepts disposing,
whose consequences are finally achieved.
It is certitude that nobody doubts today that mathematics became an
indispensable component of each human being’s general knowledge. Extension of
mathematics applications toward other sciences is continuously developing.
This paper includes certain interdisciplinary elements which reveal the
mathematical notions used in other scientific fields, such as genetics, cytology,
ecology, human anatomy and botanic, as following:
* Gregor Mendel, biologist and mathematician, tried to apply
probabilities computation to the interpretation of the results issued from plants
hybridizing. When crossings between organisms differing by a single characters
pair (AA and aa) are practiced, heterozygote individuals (Aa) issue in first
generation, expressing the dominant character; these heterozygote organisms
produce two kinds of gametes (A and a), in equal proportions. Crossing between

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

heterozygote individuals (AaxAa), lead, through the probabilistic gametes


combination, to the occurrence of several organisms types: AA (25%), Aa (50%),
aa (25%).
* Chromosomes maps establish the distance existing between certain
genes, using the crossing-over occurrence frequency as measure unit, respectively
the frequency of recombined organism occurrence. The basic logical argument is
that which states that more distant are placed the genes on the same chromosome,
higher crossing-over occurrence become possible, more than they’d be closer.
* Using the probabilistic algorithm of gametes recombination, the
percentage of healthy or sick organisms could be established, mainly when
parents are in good health, but mother carries the genes for those maladies (color
blindness, albinism or hemophilia).
* Knowledge of the quantitative variability laws could be applied by
biometry. The students should measure high amount of beans, using the caliper
and centralizing the data into a table). Arithmetic mean could be calculated by
formula:

Sum of all measured lengths


X=
Beans amount
* Mapping of human genome (genetic, physical or integrated maps).
* Heritability expression (involvement of genetic factors could be
estimated)
* Analysis of familial pedigree (analysis of continuous variations of
quantitative features – height, weight), using certain standardized symbols.
* Energy flow through antropic ecosystems (statistics related to energy
consumption within certain European cities).
* Urbanization and its incidence toward environment (expression of
environmental quality indexes).
* Cytology – calculation of microtubules within cell when cilium or
flagella amounts are known. It is known that each cilium comprises nine
peripheral groups of twin microtubules and two microtubules in its center.
Consequently, cilium amount could be multiplied by 20, in order to find out cilliar
microtubules in the analyzed cell. Mean cell dimensions could be also expressed
as values: environ 20-30 microns, spermatozoid: 5-7 microns, striated muscular
fiber 15 cm length.
* Anatomy - knowing blood represents 8% from the entire body weight,
blood volume could be calculated, starting from body weight value and applying
simple three correspondent rule:

100Kg bodyweight ……………………….8 l blood


60Kg bodyweight……………………….X l blood

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60 × 8
X= = 4.8l blood
100
* Physiology - knowing that nervous impulse circulates with 100m/sec.
through the myelinized axons, the requested time of nervous flow passage could
be calculated, if the axon length is also known.
Mathematical calculations could be used to reveal the vital capacity and
the whole pulmonary capacity, knowing the Current volume (V.C.=500ml air),
the Provisional aspiratory volume (V.I.R.=1500ml air), the Provisional expiratory
volume (V.E.R.=1000-1500ml air) and the Residual volume (V.R.=1500ml air)
values.
Vital capacity (C.V.)=V.C.+V.I.R.+V.E.R.
Pulmonary whole capacity (C.P.T.)=C.V.+V.I.R.+V.E.R.
Starting from the glomerular rate of filtration in kidneys (120ml/min),
filtration rate could be calculated for a 24 hours period, obtaining the primary
urine volume.
120ml x 1440minutes = 172800ml primary urine.
* Botanic - knowledge about graphics could be used to establish the light
and temperature influence on photosynthesis.
* Fractions could serve to teeth formula expression, such as this in
human:

2 1 2 3
I C PM M
2 1 2 3
I = incisors; C = canines; PM = premolars; M = molars.
* In ecology studies, the prey-predator relationship could be expressed by
Volterra’s law.
The graphs could be used in ecology as well, to represent the populations’
increases or decreases (eg. – graphic illustration of a bacteria population
increasing rate in milk; time period (hours) is represented on the vertical axis and
bacteria amount on the horizontal one).

Types of problems, solved


1) Knowing that glucose passes with 100 cm/hours speed through the
riddled pipes, and a riddle pipe reaches 200mm length, how long will take to a
glucose molecule to pass such a pipe?
A mole of glucose serves to produce 38 moles of ATP, grace to the
aerobe respiration. How many ATP moles issue from 12 moles of glucose?
Solution:
200 mm = 20 cm
100cm ……..……1 hour
20 cm …………. x hour

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

20 × 1
x= = 0.2 ore = 12 minutes
100
1 glucose mole ……….38 ATP moles
12 glucose moles ……... x ATP moles
x = 12 × 38 = 456 ATP moles

2) Knowing that hemolymph contains 90% water, calculate the quantity


of several substances solved in 20g of hemolymph.
Solution:
Percent of solved substances:
100% − 90% = 10%
Quantity of substances solved in 20 g of hemolymph is:
10% × 20 = 2g of solved substances

3) Knowing that encephalon volume reaches 1500 cm3 , establish how


much of it will be affected (%) if ataxia, postural instability, atony and asthenia
simultaneously occur at a person.
Solution:
Cerebellum volume is 1/10 of the encephalon one. Ataxia, postural
instability, atony and asthenia occur consecutively after cerebellum ablation.

1
V = 1500 × = 150 cm3 ⇒ in percents, the cerebellum contributes with
10
10% in whole encephalon mass.
4) A 17 years old professional sportswoman, have 1.72 m height and
70 kg weight.
Request:
a) Amount of bones in the upper and lower limbs, excepting phalanges.
b) Amount of trunk bones.
c) Quantity of water comprised within her muscles.
Solution:
a) 2 × (7 tarsals + 5metatarsals) + 2 × (8carpals + 5metacarpals) = 50 bones
b) 33 – 34 vertebras + 24 ribs + 1 sternum + 2 coxal bones = 60 – 61 bones
c) 70kg × 40/100 × 75/100 = 21kg

5) From the analysis of a 200 ml water sample, taken from an aquatic


ecosystem, several data have been achieved:
- mass of the dried filter paper, prior to filtration = 2g
- mass of the filter paper after sample filtration = 18g
Which are the quantities of plankton and organic matter within the sample
suspension?

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Solution:
Calculation formula to apply in order to find plankton content and
suspension substance quantity is listed below:
Gps = ( m 2 - m1 ) × 1000/V , where:
- m1 = mass of the dried filter paper, prior to filtration
- m 2 = mass of the filter paper containing plankton and suspension substance after
sample filtering
- V = water sample volume
Consequently, Gps = ( 18 - 2 ) × 1000/200 = 80g/l

REFERENCES
Ariniş, Ioana; Mihail, Aurora; Costache, Ştefan Viorel – Biologie, manual pentru clasa a IX a,
Ed. liceALL2000, pag. 12, 13, 91, 97
Ariniş, Ioana; Nanea, Mariana ; Vasile, Adriana – Biologie, manual pentru clasa a XI a, Ed.
Sigma, pag. 5, 64, 99, 101, 102, 107, 112, 125, 141, 142, 143, 150
Ene, Stelică; Brebenel, Gabriela; Iancu, Elena Emilia – Biologie, manual pentru clasa a XII a,
Ed. Gimnasium, pag. 15, 52, 66, 83, 95, 102, 107, 108, 112
Revuz, Andre; Matematica modernă, matematica vie – Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică Bucureşti
1970.

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

STUDIES REGARDING THE CAPITALISATION OF THE


TOURIST AND AGRO-TOURIST POTENTIAL
OF BACAU COUNTY
Şt. BREZULEANU

The tourist potential of a territory is defined by the ensemble of natural,


economic, cultural-historical elements that stand for just as many opportunities
of tourist capitalisation, but only a single tourism functionality, thus constituting
a premise for the development of the tourist activity per se. A territory is of
interest under the aspect of its tourist potential, in that it displays natural tourist
and anthrop resources, whose capitalisation may generate some tourist activity
and may circumscribe it to the domestic and international tourist circuit.
Located in the Eastern part of Romania, in the very heart of Moldavia,
Bacau county is blessed with a special natural heritage that harmoniously
combines meadows, hills and mountains, rivers and lakes. The varied and
picturesque relief, numerous art and historic monuments, stately homes, natural
parks and spas turn Bacau into one of the most attractive tourist destinations of
Romania.

MATERIAL AND METHOD


The information source that was the starting point of the study is
represented by the official data existing in the specialized units of the north-
eastern region and the direct investigations done in the researched area.
The method used for the study of the tourist and agro-tourist potential of
the north-eastern region is the diagnosis analysis which makes a point for the
favouring factors of rural tourism and agro-tourism in Bacau County, as well as
the restrictive ones, indicating at the same time the necessary measures for a
superior capitalization of the agro-tourist potential. The research of different sides
and components of the agro-tourist potential of the studied area has different
conceptual and applicative valences adequate for the area of the objectives aimed.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


Situated in the east of Romania, more precisely in the centre of Moldova,
Bacau County is a blessed area. The landscape combines harmoniously the plane,
hills and mountains, crossed by rivers and crystal lakes. The varied picturesque
relief, its numerous historical and art monuments, memorial houses, natural
reservations and spas place Bacau among the zones with the highest tourist and
agro tourist potential in the country.
Bacau County beneficiates of the existence of a valuable tourist
patrimony, an important part being held by its natural resources. They are offered
by the geographic landscape favourable for the unfolding of some important agro

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tourist activities, its components taken as a whole or individually, all coming as


an answer to the tourist motivations of major interest.
Bacau county has large possibilities of development of tourism in the
rural area and its practising is necessary in the present stage. The incomes from
this activity – consequence of the co-interest of the peasants for tourism practicing
through renting rooms and commercialization of natural products or engaging the
tourists in agricultural or household activities – can substantially contribute to the
living and civilization upraise and settling of the young in rural localities.
The geographic configuration of the north-eastern region, with high relief,
offers ideal conditions both for proper agro –tourism and for practising the winter
sports; thus, it is a reserve of potential which is used on a small scale, being a
possible resource of supplementary incomes which, if well influences and used,
can be turned to good accont in a short period of time with minimum investment.
The economy of the north-eastern region is highly dependent of mineral
resources, thing which determined the appearance of localities connected to rock
oil, salt an other resources. Activities related to salt extraction have been
imagined and put to practice in the last 40-50 years. The interior of the salt pits
(Târgu Ocna)have been used in therapeutic, sport and tourist purpose. The
diversity of such activities can be enlarged and put in the category of positive
external issues (camps for salt sculpturing, extension for therapeutic practises,
storage of noxious substances, setting up a salt museum etc).
We consider that the mineral resources have a decisive role in the
economy of the north eastern region. The economic effects have to be seen also in
social context, the capitalization of the mineral resources offer the opportunity of
creation new places of employment, stimulates and sustains the horizontal
industry and services for industry, forms an economic support for the localities
which are almost totally dependent by one mineral resource or their capitalization.
The mineral water resources make up a real treasure within the patrimony
of mineral resources of the north east region. Their diversity as chemical formula,
the distribution on a large scale within the county, the checked therapeutic effects
make them play an important role in the county’s economy, in its development
(improvement of population health, creation of new places of employment, agro
tourism development etc).
By far the best known spa in the north-eastern region is Slanic Moldova,
known by the tourists as “Pearl of Moldova” which gained its name due to the
natural therapeutic factors discovered more than 150 years ago. The variety of the
mineral waters, choke damps, microclimate, negative air-ionization and a rich
cultural tourist patrimony have increased the popularity of the spa. Annually over
30000 tourists beneficiate from complex therapy in the treatment bases equipped
with modern apparatus and specialized medical staff and also from the possibility
of rest and recovery in pleasant unpolluted surroundings. Although at present it is
on a wane as it is also the general tendency on the national scale, the degree of
occupancy of the tourist structures maintains over 57%, which shows that this spa
is among the preferential tourist destinations.

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

The information taken from the tourism societies and local public
authorities shows that although the value and variety of the tourist potential
allows a revival of the tourist activity, this cannot be done without a
diversification of the offer, especially through leisure diversification which could
lead to the enlargement of customer segment for who it is destined the newly
created product and finally for the revival of agro tourism in the zone and its
surroundings.
As regards the elements of material and spiritual culture, Bacau county
has a series of objectives, which through their artistic and historic content increase
the tourist value of this territory, allowing a large diversification of its agro tourist
offer. The historic past of these lands is presented in archaeological vestiges,
architectural monuments and memorial houses. It can be noticed the large number
of churches present in almost all localities of the county as well as the frequency
of peasant monuments and castles.
The ethnographic and folklore elements have an old tradition and
complete the tourist value of the zone. There are acknowledged and appreciated
the homespun from the Poiana Sărată-Oituz ethnographic zone of a special
beauty, the sculptures in wood, as well as the local folklore manifestations which
can be capitalized within tourist programmes.
Less capitalized are the climatic factors that can be used in preserving,
maintaining and improvement of health state of the human organism through: air
therapy, heliotherapy and through area therapy which is generically called
climatic therapy. Identification and use of these natural resources will contribute
to the development and promotion of agro tourism in rural are in the north-eastern
region.
The entropic potential of the north-eastern region is identical to the
potential tourist offer of that geographic area. Trying to make a subdivision of the
entropic potential we notice that it is mainly made up of the cultural-historic
background of the zone and of the economic objectives which represent a tourist
interest.
Analysing the rural area of the north-eastern region, we can notice that it
is the keeper of a inestimable treasure of historic, architectural or art monuments,
historic vestiges, as well as of a genuine ethno-folkloric patrimony of a real purity
and value.
The tourist villages as development resources of agro-tourist activities are
the spinal column of the rural community which through their specific and
particular issues (location, natural resources, architectonic or historic monuments,
ethno-folkloric tradition) together with the special quality of good hosts, can be
transformed into a rural tourist product, at the same time being prepared to satisfy
a large range of motivations of intern and international tourism. In Bacau County,
they can be met on Trotuş couloir (Poiana Sărată)or in the mountainous zone of
Berzunţi, Asău etc.

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Many times, during the unfolding of a tourist programme some of the


attractions is represented by economic activities of that area (barrages, water
reservoirs, hydroelectric power stations, bridges etc). it is normal to happen like
this as the tourists are willing to have the acknowledgement of the cultural
background which they have in their holidays especially within the tourist cultural
products, these attractions being the main of the trip.
Without discussion there are other economic-social objectives considered
to be resources for agro-tourist development of rural zones in Bacau County such
as: ceramic workshops, lime, brick, ceramic furnaces; installations – small works
for wood stone, marble processing; agricultural farms, handicraft centres that can
contribute to the accomplishment of some forms of specialized tourism.
Many more tourists want to see “live” the hospitality, gastronomic
customs, and handicraft and village rituals. The relaxation, fresh air, fresh food
consumption, wine degustation, fresh products of peasant gastronomy, all these
are solid arguments for practising rural tourism. Popular art, religion and old
customs and Christian traditions, the possibility of being in the middle of the
specific local events (bees, rejoicings, fairs, festivals etc) and even the therapy
through physical work are equally considered attraction points. Hunting, sport
fishing, trips, resting near rivers and lakes, all these can be considered a reason for
spending the holiday under different conditions.
Bacau county is a region full of history, with a lot of traditions and
secular traditions that are still present in villages, with a lot of feast days and
traditional events. During the feast days, tourists can participate at certain cultural
events: concerts („Mărţişor”, „Cireşar”, „Ion Drăgoi” etc.), theatres, parades and
mass manifestations of independence day, titular saints’ day.
The harvest days are marked in the towns and villages of the north-east
region by traditional fairs. During these events, the tourists have the opportunity
to know better the folklore, handicraft pieces and specific traditional costumes.
All these are combined in a series of specific elements of the agricultural,
pastoral, religious and civil calendar have transformed in a permanent source of
hospitality, benevolence and warmth in all the county of Bacau.
The Trotuş, Tazlău, Siret, Berheciu, Zeletin and Bistriţa valleys are real
ethnographic and folkloric bottom where on the ancient background of popular
culture there can be noticed the marks of Romanian tradition and modernity.
The main ethnographic centres are: Brusturoasa (carpentry, centre of
fabrics, carpets, cloths with geometric patterns, popular costumes of dacic origin,
embroidery, traditional architecture), Oituz (pottery and hazel knitting centres),
Sălătruc (gates of sculptured wood), the ethnographic centre of Balcani
(unpolished black pottery); the ethnographic centre of Berzunţi (embroidery on
traditional jackets, traditional architecture, wooden gates); the ethnographic centre
of Fundu-Răcăciuni (valuable pieces of popular art); the ethnographic centre of
Glăvăneşti (carpets with zoomorphic and floral ornaments); the ethnographic
centre of Prăjeşti (popular costumes worn by women); Scorţeni village
(numerous values and variables in domains of folkloric creations).

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

In Bacau county, the folklore bands reappear together with the coming of
winter holidays. Most of them are made up o young persons, especially teenagers,
but also of the olders of the villages who are most adequate to get involved in
such projects.
In order to make evident the use of resources for agro tourism
development in Bacau county, we have made a SWOT analysis where we found
the following:
Strengths:
ƒ The network of urban localities, as regards their number and order is
among the best within the north-eastern development region, being
the basis of economic projects for development.
ƒ Bacau county is crossed by two transport mains ( roads and railways)
which connect on the one hand the north of Moldova and the south of
the country and on the other hand, Transylvania.
ƒ On the territory of Bacau county there are a series of zones with a
complex natural and cultural patrimony, especially on the west part,
being in a better shape than the other parts of the country, which is a
valuable tourist and ethno-folkloric patrimony.
ƒ The existence of an equilibrated system of urban localities along Trotus
valley.
ƒ Good density of roads network.
Weaknesses:
ƒ Bacau county has accessed in a modest way the different funds of
development in comparison to the specific potential and problems and
has few projects of inter-communal cooperation, which has limited
the access to efficient financing for infrastructure development which
can lead to a stronger development of agro tourist activity;
ƒ The eastern of the north-east region is characterized by a complex of
restrictive factors of rural development;
ƒ Multiple disequilibrium between the east of the county and the rest of
the territory, manifested through large downshifts of social-economic
nature, leading to the risk of development stagnation on larger
territories;
ƒ The east of the county has rural localities situated in an area which
lacks towns, so it presents a reduced accessibility to services (lack of
a polarizing centre in the rural area in the east of the county).
ƒ Large downshifts between the eastern part of the county and the rest of
the territory as regards the cultural, sport, education and health
equipment, but also hoses equipping with water supplies and the
communal instalments of water and canalization.
ƒ Massive rooting out done injudiciously and excessive occupancy of
some forest territories with constructions led to the disappearance of
some species of local fauna and flora and amplified the losses
produced by torrents and earth flows.

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ƒ Pollution of some areas with mine exploitations, wells and urban


pollution (CHs, water floods), but also the lack of a system of
integrated household of wastes and disparities in the space
distribution of waste platforms.
ƒ Low possibilities of capitalization of the natural and cultural patrimony
due to the lack of information and education of the potential local
agents, of reduced accessibility and lack of material, technical,
accommodation and public alimentation infrastructure, and also
because of the considerable level of degradation.
ƒ The medium size of the population in the villages that make up the
county is very low (755 inhabitants), which leads to the increase of
administration costs of the developing projects.
ƒ Major disparity between the incomes of the local budgets between the
urban and rural localities.
ƒ Important zones (especially in the east and south) with high potential
and probability of earth flow and flood risk.
ƒ Small number of works at the hydro-technical infrastructures and land
improvements in comparison to the necessary ones.
ƒ Degradation of the communal, county and local roads and the existence
of some problems regarding the technical state of the railways.
ƒ Attrition of the networks of water and canalization.
− Modest capitalization of tourist potential.
Opportunities
ƒ Potential of qualified labour force, allowing the rapid development of
some projects of economic development.
ƒ The existence of fundamental studies for the setting up a zone of
associated localities within Bacau municipality.
ƒ A large part of the population is grouped around municipalities and
towns, which represent an important reserve of labour force.
ƒ The existence of some rural zones with valuable local specific, capable
of generating opportunities for agro tourism or ethnic-folkloric
tourism (in the west and south-western zone).
Threats:
ƒ Although there are on its territory as series of reservations and nature
monuments, as well as objectives of cultural patrimony of national
interest, Bacau County is overpassed by the neighbour counties,
which have larger opportunities of tourist attractions;
ƒ The accomplishment of an express road between Iasi, Piatra Neamţ and
then to Târgu-Mureş, will diminish the importance of road connection from
Bacau to Transylvania.
ƒ The poverty of the rural areas of Bacau County and the surrounding
areas can produce supplementary pressures on the environment

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

(especially on the forestry fund) and of the services concentrated in


the urban areas.
ƒ The difficulty of managing the protected areas due to the lack of
preparing this action with projects for their delineation and protection
can lead to the destruction of the existing values.
ƒ Arrangement of most communes with more than 9 component villages
in the eastern of the county can accelerate the process of
destructuralization of the network in the zone.
ƒ Re-rural-isation as phenomenon due to the low standard living, lack of
places of employment, lack of cheap living resources in the urban
area, which generates a migration form urban to rural.
ƒ Growth of risks on medium and long term regarding the decrease of
productivity of agricultural lands.
ƒ Uncontrolled urbanizations (extension of towns), can be a process of
compromise and pollution of the existing tourist potential.
From the study of the localities of Bacau county there results that the
rural tourism manifests according to different criteria: size of units that practise
agro tourism and which are appreciated generally according to the number of
accommodation places and the services offered by the agro tourist unit
(accommodation, meals, bed and breakfast and other services); the zones where
they are placed the localities with agro tourist specific; the affiliation of agro
tourist units to different specific organizations with local, national and
international character etc.

CONCLUSIONS
The main offer of the north-eastern region is made up of natural
landscape componenets, represented by the natural agro-tourist resources and play
a determining role in the development of agro tourism.
We consider that the agro tourism of Bacau county must evaluate more
rigorously the chances of revival and at the same time, to become again one of the
complementary resources of income, especially in the under-privileged zones
from the agricultural point of view. Thus there have been made a series of
remarkable positive effects of which we mention: creation of new places of
employment, geographic transfer of resources, design and systematization of the
territory, equilibration of local budgets, faster integration of our country in the
structures of European Union through tourism.
In Bacau county which has faced in the latest years profound
transformations imposed by the process of transition to the market economy, the
rural tourism proved to be the most sensible sector to social-economic stimuli, a
phenomenon which could be felt both in the research domain and in that of tourist
products offer.

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Formation of tourist product implies both the analysis of tourist potential


(natural and historic-cultural, geographic position, labour force, psycho-social
features of the population etc.), human and financial material (sources and
financing means) and the possibilities of capitalization, all these make up a
competitive tourist offer. Through studies of conjuncture there can be chosen the
most favourable markets, means and ways of promotion and advertisement.
In order to accomplish this demarche, we must take into account: the
value and variety of tourist resources, agro-pastoral activities and ethno-folkloric
traditions in the area, favourable position on an important tourist route or near
some tourist centres and well-known spas, the closeness to mountains of great
attractiveness and tourist circuit, high social-economic development of villages
that have a comfortable standard living in households with good effects for tourist
reception and accommodation, including the foreigners, psycho-structural features
of the population which offer a high level of hospitality, honour and morality,
high level of inhabitants emancipation (know foreign languages).
It is also necessary the stock-taking of natural and social-economic tourist
resources of the north-eastern region, which has to be continued with the detailed
analysis of the possibilities of capitalization of the tourist product.
In conclusion, a high quality rural tourism supposes high quality services.
It comes to reason why the rural tourism organizations have to have modern
sanitary equipment for comfortable accommodation conditions as well as for
public alimentation, access ways and civilized communication. We consider that
it must be paid a certain attention to the promotion of rural tourist product which
needs: publishing some newsletters, setting up a specialized review annual
publication of a catalogue of European standards, elaboration of some media
programmes, setting up an office of information and broadcasting.

BIBIOGRAPHY
1. Apetroaie Camelia, 1996 – Valorificarea resurselor locale prin activitatea de turism rural,
comuna Vama, judeţul Suceava. Turismul rural românesc.
2. Acatrinei Marilena, 2002– Tendinţe în dezvoltarea turismului rural. Turismul rural românesc.
3. Brezuleanu S., Brad I. 2001- Consideraţii privind activităţile agroturistice din landul Baden -
Wurttemberg, Germania. Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi,
Facultatea de Agricultură, Lucrări Ştiinţifice. Ciurea I. V., Chiran A., Brezuleanu S., Gîndu
Elena, Ungureanu G. 1998 -Researches regarding the efficiency of technical-economic
activities of some mountain farms from western carpathians. Programul TEMPUS-PHARE –
Contributi allo studio dell’a transizione dell agricoltura rumena verso il mercato: aspetti
strutturali, economici ed estimativi. Editione Conquiste, Bologna
4. Glăvan V., 1995– Agroturismul – factor determinant în dezvoltarea economico-socială a
satului românesc, în Revista Română de Turism nr. 4.
5. Popa C., 2004 – Oportunităţi de dezvoltare a turismului rural şi agroturismului în Regiunea
Nord-Est a României. Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară, Facultatea de
Horticultură, Lucrări Ştiinţifice.

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

LOTKA-VOLTERRA MODEL FOR TWO SPECIES IN


COMPETITION
Il. BURDUJAN

Multispecies mathematical models in ecology are analyzed. A parti-


cular interest is paid to the two-species models in competition. The correspond-
ding mathematical model consists of a special quadratic dynamical system in
plan, the so-called Lotka-Volterra system, containing six parameters. Since their
use in real situations implies necessarily to estimate these parameters, it
becomes important to make firstly a classification of such dynamical systems. We
shall apply some specific algebraic techniques to analyze these models.

A BRIEF HISTORY
It is well known that the idea of applying mathematics to biological or
biomedical problems goes back to the Enlightenment period. Unfortunately, for a
long time period the application of mathematics in biology was identified with the
use of elementary computations. The modern development in mathematical
biology took place roughly between 1920 and 1940, a period now referred to as
the “Golden Age of Theoretical Biology”. That means to make a conceptual
application of mathematics in biology, i.e. the building of an appropriately
methodology of bio-mathematical researches. However, a considerable progress
in this direction was remarked until the second half of the 19th century, under the
impulse of Darwin’s evolution theory. The essential feature of the theory of
evolution is its dynamical conception of life phenomena, conception which
opened the way to “number” in biological research. The works of F. Galton and
K. Pearson provided the mathe-matical foundation of evolution theory by
applying the statistical analysis as well as elementary quantitative techniques to
the handling of biological information in connection with the study of evolution.
It was a remarkable aprioric confirmation of the following truly beautiful remark
of V.A. Kostitzin: “Mathematics entered into the natural sciences through the gate
of statistics…” The development of animal ecology enhanced interest in the study
of populations. The economical aspects regarding the development of biological
procedures were the starting points for the economical entomology and fishery
management. As a natural result and success of economical entomology studies
was the foundation in 1902 of the “Conseil international pour l’exploration de la
mer”. Galton’s ideas on the statistical quantification of the laws of evolution were
took over by R. Pearl and R. Fisher who introduced a large set of mathematical
tools to be used in solving problems in population genetics. Moreover, Fisher’s
works as well as J. B. S. Haldane’s and S. Wright’s had created a statistical model
of evolution that combined the Mendelian heredity with natural selection what
can be considered an issue for the emergence of the so-called “evolutionary

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synthesis”. In the 19th century, the theory of probability receives new stimuli in
connection with the development of natural sciences and with practical
requirements of society. An important moment in the whole development of the
so-called later mathematical biology was the appearance of V. Volterra papers on
population dynamics. Volterra held a determinist point of view expressed in
differential equations, whereas Fisher, Haldane and Wright used extensively
probabilistic techniques. For Volterra, statistical and probabilistic methods “could
be very useful but less reliable than infinitesimal analysis”. He wasn’t favorable
to Galton’s and Pearson’s idea to build the foundational principle of biometrics on
the statistical concept of correlation considered as a generalization of causation.
The legitimacy of applying mathematical concepts in biology was contested by
several biologists who felt that biology could not follow the “blind mathematical
laws of physics or submit to the simplification requirements of a mathematical
formulation”. An important point in all these discussions was the fit of the
biomathematical equations and laws to experience. Practical problems in
agriculture, as well as in fishery, motivated a special interest in quantitative
methods in biology. Volterra himself began with a problem laid out by D’Ancona
regarding data from fishery in the Adriatic.
Ecosystem models are generally used to try to understand and predict the
behavior of the system. However, the fisheries models are used for more than this,
namely, they are used to try to determine the optimum harvest and, for the
management of fisheries, to establish the allowable catch of the various species.
Actually, the management of fisheries is a part of the so-called the management of
renewable resources which is based on the concept of maximum sustainable yield
(MSY); it assumes that either too much or too little fishing or hunting or
gathering would reduce the amount obtained in the long run.

A MULTISPECIES MODEL
In a previous paper [4] was analyzed the simple or surplus yield model of
Schaefer, which is a one-compartmental model having a logistic equation as its
mathematical foundation. But it is natural to consider multispecies models.
Indeed, many of the commercially fished species inhabit the same region and
compete for the same food. Recall that the concept of competition is a central one
in population dynamics and ecology. Begon et al. [2] defined (in 1996) the
competition as being “an interaction in which one organism consumes a resource
that would have been available to, and might have been consumed by another.
One organism deprives another and, as a consequence, the other organism grows
more slowly leaves fewer progeny or is at greater risk of death”. There exists an
extensive and important body of population biological theory concerning the
competition for shared resources between different consumer species (see [8]).
However, competition may be about many different things that have nothing to do
with feeding, such as nesting sites, territoria and mating partners. Competition

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

may be between individuals of the same species, in which case we call it intra-
specific competition, or of different species, in which case it is called interspecific
competiton. In an ecosystem where coexists two species, the competition has both
these traits: intraspecific and interspecific. Such an ecosystem can be schema-
tically represented by a weighted digraph in which the vertices represent the
species and the flows are arcs. Actually, a two-compartmental model is obtained.
In Figure 1 is given the digraph representing the flow-diagram of a two-
compartmental model.
b1 b2
a12
a11 x1 x2 a22
a21
d1 d2

Figure 1: A two-compartment model for two species of fishery.


b1, b2, d1, d2 represent the flows from and to the outside; aij are
the flows between the comparments

The corresponding mathematical model is


 1 dx1
 x dt = b1 − a11x1 − a12 x 2
 1
 (1)
 1 dx 2 = b − a x − a x
 x 2 dt 2 21 1 22 2

Recall that the most well-known model for competition for two species has been
proposed by Lotka and Volterra in 1925 and has been extensively studied by
Gause starting by 1934. In the Lotka-Volterra model, the competition between
two species is represented without any reference to resources, i.e. for a particular
species the presence of a competitor is simply assumed to reduce its growth. A
very important assumption used in this model is that in the absence of the compe-
titor, the growth of both species 1 and 2 follows the logistic growth model.
Let us denote the volumes of the two species by N1 and, respectively, N2.
When both species are present their dynamics are described by the following
ordinary differential system
 1 dN1  N + β12 N 2 
 = r1  1 − 1 ,
 N1 dt  K1 
 (2)
 1 dN 2  N + β 21 N1 
N = r2  1 − 2 .
 2 dt  K2 

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Here r1 and r2 are the logistic population growth rate of species 1 and 2, while K1
and K2 are the carrying capacity of both species. The term β12N2 can be thought
of as the decrease in growth rate of species 1 due to the presence of species 2, i.e.
the parameter β12 represents the per capita decline (per individual of species 2); a
similar meaning have β21N1 and β21, respectively. Of course, the system (2) is a
special form of (1). Since N1 and N2 represent the number of individuals the two
species, they must be necessarily positive numbers. The standard analyze of
Lotka-Volterra model means to reach the following steps:
• determine the isoclines,
• determine the steady states,
• determine the stability properties of these steady states.
We put this system in a form suitable for an algebraic study, namely
 dx1
 = 2a101 x1 + a111 (x1 )2 + 2a112 x1 x 2 ,
dt
 2 (3)
 dx = 2a 2 x 2 + 2a 2 x1 x 2 + a 2 (x 2 )2 .
 dt 02 12 22

It must be remarked that the right hand sides of this system represent two dege-
nerate conics into pairs of concurrent lines. In order to associate this system with
a commutative binary algebra, we homogenize it and get the system:
 dx1
 = 2a101 x1 z + a111 (x1 )2 + 2a12
1 1 2
xx ,
 dt
 dx 2
 = 2a 02
2
x 2 z + 2a12 x x + a 222 (x 2 )2 ,
2 1 2 (4)
 dt
 dz
 = 0.
 dt
Certainly, we are interested in the solutions of (4) with z=1. The right hand sides
of (4) represent two quadrics degenerated into pairs of concurrent planes. The x1-
isoclines are
x1=0, z=1
2a101z + a11
1 1
x + 2a12
1
x 2 = 0, z = 1.
Similarly, the x1-isoclines are
x2=0, z=1
2
2a02 z + 2a12
2 1
x + a 22
2
x 2 = 0, z = 1.
The four isoclines can be graphically represented in first quadrant of the plane
z=1 (see Fig.2)

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

x2 x2 x2 x2

x1 x1 x1 x1

Figure 2: The four isocline cases for system (4).


Thick dashed lines indicate x1-isoclines; thick solid lines indicate x2-isoclines.

If B=(e1, e2, e3) is the natural basis in Ρ3 then we associate to (4) the following
algebra A(⋅) on Ρ3
“⋅” e1 e2 e3
e1 1
a11e1 a12e1 + a12e 2 a01e1
1 2 1

e2 a12e1 + a12e 2
1 2
a 222e 2 2
a02 e2
e3 1
a e a e2 0
01 1 02 2
This algebra has a 2-dimensional ideal namely SpanΡ{e1, e2}, which is comple-
mentary to a 1-dimensional (null) algebra. The steady states of (4) are just the
nilpotents of order two of A(⋅). Their coordinates can be obtained solving the
system
 2a101 x1 z + a11
1
(x1 )2 + 2a112 x1 x 2 = 0,
 2 2 (5)
 2a 02 x z + 2a12 x x + a 22 (x ) = 0.
2 1 2 2 2 2

According with the four cases of isoclines one gets the following steady states
 2a 2   2a 2 
A1 (0, 0, z), A 2  − 101 z, 0, z  , A 3  0, − 202 z, z  ,
 a11   a 22 
 2(a1 a 2 − 2a112a 02
2
) 2(a111a 02
2
− 2a12
2 1
a 01 ) 
A 4  − 101 222 z, − z, z  .
 a11a 22 − 4a12a12
1 2
a11a 22 − 4a12a12
1 2 1 2

Recall that the only steady states of interest for us are those with z=1. A1 is called
the extinct state and corresponds to the case when both species are absent. In the
x1-only state A2 species 1 reaches its carrying capacity (K1), while species 2 goes
extinct. A4 is an internal steady state in which both species have non-zero
abundance; it is usually called the coexistence state. The nature of each steady
state A(x1A , x 2A , z A ) is studied by means of the characteristic roots of the
Jacobian matrix J(A) of the right hand sides of the system computed in it. But
J(A) is connected with left multiplication by
1
J(A) = L X where X A = x1A e1 + x 2A e 2 + z A e3 .
2 A

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 51 seria Zootehnie

One gets:
a111 x1A + a12
1
x 2A + a101 z A 1 1
a12 xA a101 x1A 
1 1 
J(A) = L =  2 2
a12 xA 2 1
a12 x A + a 22
2
x 2A + a02
2
zA 2
a02 x 2A 
2 XA 2
 0 0 0 

The characteristic polynomial is
P(λ ) = λ (λ 2 − Tr L XA λ + ∆ A )
where
Tr L XA = (a11
1
+ a12
2
)x1A + (a12
1
+ a 22
2
)x 2A + (a101 + a 02
2
)z A ,
∆ A = (a11
1 1
x A + a12
1
x 2A + a101z A )(a12
2 1
x A + a122 x 2A + a02
2
z A ) − a12
1 2 1 2
a12 x A x A .
A steady state point with z=1 will be stable or not depending on Tr L XA is
negative and ∆A is positive.
It is of interest to find the idempotent elements of A(⋅), because their
existence assure that origin is an unstable equilibrium.
Finding of idempotents means to solve the equivalent systems
 2a101 x1 z + a111 (x1 )2 + 2a112 x1 x 2 = x1 , a111 (x1 )2 + 2a112 x1 x 2 = x1 ,
 2 2  2 1 2
 2a 02 x z + 2a12 x x + a 22 (x ) = x , ⇔  2a12 x x + a 22 (x ) = x , (6)
2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

  z = 0,
 0 = z, 
which assure that the only idempotents of A are just the idempotents of its
maximal ideal. One gets three idempotent elements, namely
1 1 a 222 − 2a112 a111 − 2a12
2
E1 = 1 e1 , E2 = 2 e 2 , E3 = 1 2 e1 + 1 2 e2 ,
a11 a 22 a11a 22 − 4a112a12
2
a11a 22 − 4a112a12
2

if a111 ≠ 0 , a 22
2
≠ 0 , a11
1 2
a 22 − 4a12
1 2
a12 ≠ 0. In case when one or more of the entities
a111 , a 222 , a111a 222 − 4a112a12
2
are zero, then we get accordingly 0, 1 or two idem-
potents.
As it was already remarked, in order to decide the nature of the steady states we
need to know the signs of Tr L XA and ∆A. Some results can be established for
Lotka-Volterra model. We notice that
r1 1 r r
a101 = , a11 = − 1 , a112 = − 1 β12 ,
2 K1 2K 1
r2 2 r r
2
a02 = , a12 = − 2 β 21 , a 222 = − 2 .
2 2K 2 K2
This time, the steady state points of interest are

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

 K 1 − β12 K 2 K 2 − β 21K 1 
A1(0,0,1), A(K1,0,1), A3(0,K2,1), A 4  , ,1  .
 1 − β12β 21 1 − β12β 21 
In case of two interacting species we have necessarily K1 > 0 and K2 > 0.
Moreover, if r1=0 or r2=0 then N1=const., respectively N2=const., what is not
realistic from biological point of view. β12=0 or β21=0 means that the presence of
species 2 (resp., species 1) do not affect the growth of species 1 (resp., species 2)
what is not the case for an interspecific competition. Consequently, in what
follows we shall consider r1 > 0, r2 > 0, K1 > 0, K2 > 0, β12 > 0 and β21 > 0, i.e. A(⋅)
has necessarily three idempotent elements. It means that A1 is an unstable critical
point. Certainly, the steady state points have strong connection with the isoclines.
For Lotka-Volterra model the isoclines are depicted in Figure 3 (see [5]).
N2 I N2 II N2 III N2 IV
K2 • K1/β12
K2 K1/β12
K2 •
K1/β12 K1/β12
K2

N1 N1 N1 N1
• K2/β21
• K2/β21

K1 K1 K2/β21
K1 K2/β21 K1

Figure 3: The four isocline cases for Lotka-Volterra model.


Thick dashed lines indicate N1-isoclines; thick solid lines indicate N2-isoclines.
Bullets design the steady state points.

The stability of steady states can be graphically analyzed (see [5]). In order to
answer to the problem of their asymptotically stability we need to decide the sign
of real parts of characteristic roots. It is enough to do this analyzing the signs for
Tr L XA and ∆A; to this end we must necessarily express them by the coefficients
of system (4). One gets
1 1
Tr L XA = − (2r1K 2 + r2 K 1β 21 )x1A − (2r2 K 1 + r1K 2β12 )x 2A +
2K 1K 2 2K 1K 2
1
+ (r1 + r2 )z A ,
2

 r r  r r 
∆ A =  − 1 x1A − 1 β12 x 2A + r1 z A   − 2 β 21 x1A − 2 x 2A + r2 z A  −
 K1 2K 1   2K 2 K2 
rr
− 1 2 β12β 21 x1A x 2A .
4K 1K 2

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 51 seria Zootehnie

For example in case III, A2 and A3 are asymptotically stable. Indeed, this is a
consequence of equalities
r2
Tr L XA = − r1 − (K β − K 2 ) < 0, ∆ A2 = 0,
2
2K 2 1 21
r1
Tr L XA = −r2 − (K β − K 1 ) < 0, ∆ A3 = 0.
2
2K 1 1 12
Similar can be studied the nature of any equilibrium.

CONCLUDING REMARKS
Taking into account of the four cases naturally appearing in an
interspecific competition it must be remarked that in cases I-III one species
outcompetes the other species. The only case when the coexistence of both
species is theoretically assured is case IV. In nature, there exist many situations of
competitive exclusion. But there exists examples of apparently competitive
species which can coexist. An explanation could be the fact that the Lotka-
Volterra model is obtained by neglecting many complicating factors. This
criticism is not completely correct because it consider only singular points which
are in the finite part of phase space, although can exist singular points at infinity.
That is, it is possible to obtain the coexistence in very long run, depending on the
position of the two species in phase space in the initial moment. Such problems
can be studied using the classification results obtained by Schlomiuk&Vulpe [7].

REFERENCES
1. Barbu V. (1985), Differential Equations (Romanian), Ed. Junimea, Iaşi.
2. Begon M., Harper J.L., Townsend C.R. (1996), Ecology: Individuals, populations and com-
munities. 3rd Edition, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.
3. Brauer F., Castillo-Chavez C. (2001), Mathematical Models in Population Biology and
Epidemiology, Texts in Applied Mathematics, 40, Springer-Verlag, New-York.
4. Burdujan I. (2004), - On fisheries models, Ann. U.S.A.M.V. Iaşi, seria Zoot. v.47, p.635-639
5. Farkas M. (2001), Dynamical models in Biology, Elsiver Inc.
6. Georgescu R-M. (2007), Applications of groups theory to the bifurcation study of some models
in biological dymamics. (Romanian) Ph. D. Thesis, Univ. Piteşti.
7. Schlomiuk D., Vulpe N.(2001), Geometry of quadratic differential systems in the neighbourhood
of the line at infinity, Report no. 2701, Centre de recherches mathématiques et de
Statistiques, Université. de Montreal.
8. Tilman D. (1982), Resource competition and community structure. Princeton University Press,
Priceton, N.J.

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

SURVEY ON DEVELOPMENT AND DIVERSIFICATION OF


ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES FOR GENERATING MULTIPLE
ACTIVITIES AND ALTERNATIVE INCOME BY
IMPLEMENTING MEASURE 3.4 OF SAPARD PROGRAM IN
SOME ANIMAL HUSBANDRY FARMS FROM NORTH-
EAST 1ST REGION
A. CHIRAN, Anca COSOVANU, Elena GÎNDU

The present survey presents the influence of the measure 3.4 of


S.A.P.A.R.D Program on the development and diversification of the economic
activities for generating some multiple activities and alternative income, in some
animal husbandry farms from North-East 1st region.
The survey was carried out within the Regional Payment Center for
Rural Development and Fishery and focused on the underlining in virtue of a
system of specific indicators of the most important outputs of the animal
husbandry farms (fishy, apicultural, snail farming) that benefited form
investments by SAPARD Program.
The survey showed that this field was insufficiently exploited because of
the farmers’ lack of trust in the promotion of new activities, of less favorable
natural conditions and of a less performant management and marketing in the
promoting and improvement of the products obtained in conditions of economic
efficiency.

Modern farmer must be an expert in many fields. It is necessary for him


to take lots of decisions starting with the status of crops, various agricultural
operations, and financial solutions for purchasing some equipment, the
constructions to develop, methods of solving some management formalities up to
applications for various sub-ventions and funds.
The success of an agricultural farm consists firstly in the ability to
manage them, to prevent the implication of the enterprise in the negative effects
chain that reverberates upon it and, at the same time, to provide a strategic line for
future evolution (Alecu I., 2003; Draft R., 1989; Gradinariu M., Manolescu
Irina, 2006; Oancea Margareta, 2003; Tracy M., 2000).
Along with the integration of Romania in the European Union, the
national economy and its agricultural and food sector must align to the standards
and norms requested by EU (Zahiu Letitia, 2006).
The pre-adherence special program for agriculture and rural
development– S.A.P.A.R.D. set the technical and financial requirements
necessary for the process of adherence to the European structures.
The main objectives of the measure 3.4 are: supporting the agricultural
activities in the rural environment by assistance of specific services – for this
purpose, one proposes the support of setting the organization of agricultural

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 51 seria Zootehnie

machines and maintenance services for agricultural services; supporting the


activities of youngsters and women; supporting the activities specific for rural
tourism (agricultural and sylvan tourism); maintenance and development of
traditional handicraft activities, development of aquaculture, apiculture, snail
farming and growth of mushrooms.
MATERIAL AND METHOD
The object of the survey is the influence of SAPARD Program over the
North - East 1st region during 2004 -2006 and it was carried out within the
Regional Payment Center for Rural Development and Fishery.
The survey focused on the following objectives: drawing the research
plan for collecting of information, bibliographic research, monitoring of statistical
data and centralizing of questionnaires addressed to the department of promotion.
For the determination of some important results, there were analyzed the
following indicators:
¾ evolution of investments by categories;
¾ comparative situation of the 3 types of investments from the value
point of view;
¾ rate of investments in the North-East 1st region;
¾ review of investments in animal husbandry sector (apiculture,
fishery and snail farming) by counties.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


A first indicator analyzed refers to the dynamics of the projects submitted
during 2004 – 2006 (table 1).

Table 1
Evolution of investments by categories
Total projects Out of which for apiculture, fishery and
Item Year submitted Measure 3.4 snail farming:
0 0
N N %
1. 2004 38 5 13,2
2. 2005 84 23 27,4
3. 2006 174 56 32,2
Total 296 84 28.4

From the presented data, it is observed an increase of the number of


projects submitted, thus in comparison with year 2004, in year 2006 the increase
was of 16, 8 times.
This increase is determined by the positive influence of the following
factors: facilitation of access too financing by simplification of procedures,
aggressive promotion of measure 3.4 by the apparition of some related financial

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

instruments that purpose is facilitating the access to financial resources necessary


for co-financing of projects, such as:
¾ Farmer Program;
¾ Rural Credit Guarantee Fund;
¾ Fund of Credit Guarantee for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises.
In comparison with the total number of projects submitted within 3.4
measure, the projects in the field of fishery, apiculture and snail farming have
relatively low rates: 4,4 % (fishery farms), 11,5 % (snail farming) and 12,5 %
(beekeeping farms).

Table 2
Rates of investments in the North-East 1st Region

Measure 3.4
% of total Other projects of
Investments No projects Investments M 3.4 investments of
measure 3.4
Fishery farms 13 4,4
Apiculture 37 12,5 212
Snail farms 34 11,5
Total 84 28,4 296

From the value point of view, it is observed an important change


regarding the rate occupied by the investments of the third categories (fig. 1).

Snail farming
Apiculture 1200 thousand
1509 thousand Euro
Euro 20,7%
26%

Fishery
3090 thousand
Euro
53,3%

Figure 1 - Comparative situation of the 3 types of investments by value

The current situation may be justified by the following:


¾ The apiculture raised the highest interest for investments due to
the advantageous report between the size of investment and the

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 51 seria Zootehnie

profit it generates, to the existence of a traditional trade, as well


as to the favorable natural conditions for the development of
apiculture in the region of Moldova;
¾ The snail farms represent the second option by the criterion of the
number of projects in which the beneficiaries tend to invests. This
situation is explained by: aggressive promotion, the possibility to
get a high profit with a relatively small investment, as well as by
the need to improve the exploitation of a margin sector in the
animal husbandry production, a sector which is less developed
and represented in Romania;
¾ Fishery occupies the last place as regards the number of projects
due to the high level of investment, as well as of the complexity of
the situation.
Quantitatively, the territorial distribution in the three directions:
apiculture, snail farming and fishery is irregular and insufficient (fig. 2, fig.3,
fig.4).
This is due to the concentration of capital, to a high level of knowledge,
as well as to an efficient promotion in report to the high receptivity of the
potential investors of the big and well developed counties, such as Iasi and Bacau.
If from the point of the geo-climatic conditions, counties such as Piatra
Neamt, Suceava, Botosani and Vaslui have better conditions in comparison with
Iasi and Bacau counties, the economic factor is critical in this situation.
Nevertheless, it is remarked the low penetration of the investments in these
directions in relation with the expectations and funds allotted by the European
Union by SAPARD Program.
10000

2602
1655
1015
1000 824
500

199

100 Number of projects


Thousand Euro

10
4
3
2 2
1 1
1
Iasi Bacau Botosani Neamt Suceava Vaslui

Figure 2 - Review of investments in fishery, by counties, according to


the number of projects

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

1000
690

292 265
215

100

28 Num ber of projects


18 Thous and Euro

11
10

4
3

1 0 0
1
Ias i Bacau Botos ani Neam t Suceava Vas lui

Figure 3 - Review of investments in apiculture, by counties,


according to the number of projects

1000 791

246
186 211

112
100

Number of projects
Thousand Euro

10 8 8 7
6
5

0 0
1
Iasi Bacau Botosani Neamt Suceava Vaslui

Figure 4 - Review of investments in snail farming, by counties,


according to the number of projects

The motivation for the low degree of development of these directions


consists in the generally low receptivity towards them due to the reserve of the
potential beneficiaries by the lack of vision over the perspective of developing a
successful business. This situation is generated by objective factors such as
amortization of investment on long term, climatic instability of the last years, and
lack of business management knowledge, promotion and purchase of products.
As regards value, there were no evident differences.

CONCLUSIONS
1. During the review period, although there was an evident growth both of the
number of projects and of its value, the results in this field were not in
accordance with the existent potential in the North-East 1st Region, the
available funds and the planed development targets.

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 51 seria Zootehnie

2. The main arguments that determine the placing of some counties on the first
places are: existence of capital, degree of information, features of the region
and tradition.
3. Although, the interest shown towards the three directions of investments was
relatively low, it must be noticed that the investments carried out contributed
to the process of development and efficiency of the fishery, apiculture and
snail farming.
4. For the future one needs to identify new means for a better information
regarding the traction of the receptivity of the potential investors and the
implementation of projects so that to ensure a durable development,
supporting and efficient.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Alecu I., 2003 - Agricultural Management in Romania. Past, Present and Future Ceres
Publishing House, Bucharest.
2. Chiran A. and coll., 1998 – The policy of rural development in Romania. Rev. Cercetări
agronomice în Moldova, Bucureşti.
3. Chiran A., Ciurea I.V., Gîndu Elena, Ignat Gabriela, 2006 – Management, marketing şi
gestiune economică. Ed. Performantica, Iaşi.
4. Dona I., 2000 - Politici agricole.Ed. Semne, Bucureşti.
5. Dona I., 2002 – Managementul dezvoltării rurale. Ed. Economică, Bucureşti.
6. Draft R., 1989, Management, The Dryden Press, New York.
7. Gradinariu M., Mihai C., 2006 - Management of Romanian Agricultural Enterprise to the
Market Economy, Alexandru Ioan Cuza Publishing House, Iasi.
8. Oancea Margareta, 2003 - Modern Management in Agricultural Unities, Publishing House
Ceres, Bucharest.
9. Tracy M., 2000, Food Products and Agriculture in Market Economy, Impex Publishing House
92.
10. Zahiu Letitia and coll., 2006 - European Union Agriculture under the impact of the Common
Aricultural Policy Ceres Publishing House, Galati.

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

RESEARCHES ON THE ACTIVITY OF TOTAL AMYLASE -


AN ENZYME INVOLVED IN THE MOBILIZATION OF
RESERVE SUBSTANCES - IN SOME GRAMINACEAE
SPECIES
Elena CIORNEA, Gabriela VASILE

The investigations were devoted to the activity of total amylase, an


enzyme involved in the mobilization of the reserve substances in some
graminaceae species: Panicum miliaceum (millet), Setaria pumila (bristle grass),
Festuca pratensis (hair grass) and Sorghum sudanense (Sudan grass). At the
same time, the germinative capacity of the caryopses under study was
determined, alongwith the optimum pH conditions of the amylolitic activity.
The caryopses have been treated with 3% oxygenated water, for the
removal of the possible pathogenic germs or of some substances that might have
influenced the germination process, and then let to soak for 24 hours.
Germination of caryopses was made at room temperature, in Petri boxes lined
inside with filtering paper wetted with distilled water, samples taking over being
performed at intervals of 24 hours, for 10 days.
The enzymatic activity was determined by the Noelting-Brenfeld method
and as the substrate of amylase is the starch, the concentration of this
polysaccharide has been evaluated, for each series of samples, by the
polarimetric method. Also, for evidencing enzyme’s specific activity, the
concentration of proteins was dosed by the Bradford method, finally the results
being processed statistically.
The obtained data, agreeing with those provided by literature, show that
the total amylasic activity in germinated caryopses of millet, bristle grass, hair
grass and Sudan grass is maximum for a pH interval ranging between 5.5 - 6.5.
Along the 10 days of the germination process, the total amylasic activity
shows a Gauss-type dynamics in all species taken into study, certain differences
being registered as to the moment in which the maximum activity is attained. Thus,
in Panicum miliaceum, the maximum specific activity of total amylases was
registered at 120 hours of the germination process, in Setaria pumila and Festuca
pratensis - at 144 hours, and in Sorghum sudanense - at 168 germination hours,
respectively, along with a correlation between the enzymatic activity and the ratio
of substrate mobilization.

MATERIALS AND METHODS


The experiments were developed on germinated caryopses of Panicum
miliaceum, Setaria pumila, Festuca pratensis and Sorghum sudanense.
The caryopses have been treated with 3% oxygenated water, for the
removal of the possible pathogenic germs or of some substances that might have
influenced the germination process, and then let to soak for 24 hours.
Germination of caryopses was made at room temperature, in Petri boxes lined

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 51 seria Zootehnie

inside with filtering paper wetted with distilled water, samples taking over being
performed at intervals of 24 hours, for 10 days.
The enzymatic activity was determined by the Noelting-Brenfeld method,
based on the reduction of the free maltose resulting from the enzymatic hydrolysis
of starch with 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid, with formation of 3-amino-5-nitrosalicylic
acid, orange in color, determined colorimetrically at 540 nm.
As the substrate of amylase is the starch, the concentration of this
polysaccharide has been evaluated, for each series of samples, by the polarimetric
method. Also, for evidencing enzyme’s specific activity, the concentration of
proteins was dosed by the Bradford method, and the results were processed
statistically (BRADFORD, 1976; ARTENIE and TĂNASE, 1981; FOWLER et al.,
2000; COJOCARU, 2005).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


As the amylolytic activity depends strictly on both the germination degree and
pH of the incubation medium, a first stage of the present study was oriented towards the
determination of the germination capacity of the seeds from the species under
investigation, as well as of the optimum incubation pH. The germination capacity of the
analyzed caryopses is of 71% at Setaria pumila, 83% at Panicum miliaceum, 85% at
Festuca pratensis and 91%, respectively, at Sorghum sudanense.
For attaining an as high as possible reproducibility degree of the
experimental results and for eliminating the errors induced by possible differences in
the operation mode, a first series of experiments was devoted to the determination of
the optimum pH conditions for the activity of the enzymes taken into study.
Literature data (COJOCARU et al., 2007) evidence the apical part played by
the pH action of the enzymatic catalysis, the biological catalysts being especially
sensible to the large variations of this parameter. Generally, the pH may affect the
enzymatic activity either in an irreversible manner - when denaturation of the
protein-enzyme macromolecules occur, - or reversibly, by influencing the ionization
degree of the substrate, of the enzyme or of the enzyme-substrate complex. For all
enzymes known up to now, the graphical representation of the dependence of the
enzymatic reaction speed on the pH of the incubation medium appears as a Gauss
curve, the maximum catalytic activity being registered at well-determined pH
values, known as optimum action pH, which differs from one enzyme to another
(COJOCARU, 1997; COJOCARU et al., 2007).
The influence of pH on the stability of the enzyme is tested by exposure
to different values of the hydrogen ions concentrations, by readjusting the pH to
the optimum action value, and by testing the catalytic activity.
The present investigations analyzed the manner in which the ionization
state of the enzyme or of the enzyme-substrate complex influences the rate of the
enzymatic reaction. To this end, the samples were incubated at 40°C, for 30
minutes, in aqueous media with various pH values, obtained by addition of either

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

acetic acid or sodium hydroxide to the acetate buffer solution, on maintaining


constant all the other reaction conditions. The data expressing the activity of total
amylase under various pH conditions are synthetically given in Figure 1.
Micromoles maltose/g 3000

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0
3.5 4 5.5 6.5 7
pH

P. miliaceum S. pumila F.pratensis S.sudanense

Fig.1. Influence of the incubation medium pH on the activity of total amylase


in some cultivated and spontaneous graminaceae

Data referring to the dependence of the enzymatic activity on the pH of


the incubation medium show that the activity of total amylase in germinated
caryopses of Panicum miliaceum, Setaria pumila, Festuca pratensis and Sorghum
sudanense is maximum over a pH interval between 5.5 - 6.5, which agrees with
literature information, according to which, in the case of millet, the optimum
action pH of α-amylase is of 5.4, while β-amylase has an optimum pH of 6.0
(GIMBI and KITABATAKE, 2003). In the lentil cotyledons (Lens esculenta L.), the
optimum action pH of α-amylase is of 6.1 (SHAHA et al., 2004), while the
optimum action pH of the α-amylase from coffee beans is between 4.5 - 5.2
(VALENCIA et al., 2000), and the β-amylase from the sweet potato has - according
to LEE and WHELAN (1965) - an optimum pH situated between 4.0 - 5.0,
somehow higher values (5.3 - 5.8) being reported by VITAL et al. (1994).
At low pH values, a pronounced decrease of the enzymatic activity may
be observed, to be explained - on one hand, by the cleavage mechanism of the
glycosidic link imaged by Thoma and Koshland (1960), in which an important
role in catalysis is played by the D - 179, E - 204, D - 289 dicarboxylic
aminoacids, at low pH values the carboxylic group occurring in a non-ionized
form while - as the aminoacid cannot fix glycosidic rest - the catalytic process is
blocked. On the other hand, the 3.5 - dinitrosalicilic reactive is strongly basic, as
due to sodium hydroxide, while the incubate from which the amount of maltose
might induce - as a result of its intensely acid pH - denaturation of the reactive,
thus modifying the process of color development. At high pH values, a slight
decrease of the enzymatic activity may be noticed, over this value the acetate
buffer solution loosing its buffering capacity.

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 51 seria Zootehnie

During germination of the graminaceae seeds under analysis, the activity


of total amylases suffers some modifications. Thus, for each of the samples
considered, three parallel determinations were made the results obtained being
processed statistically, on also calculating the standard error, standard deviation,
the coefficients of mean's variation and means precision.
In the graminaceae caryopses occurring in biological repose (moment
zero), the activity of total amylase attains its maximum threshold; after a
germination period of 24 hours, total amylase records a slight increase, the
maximum activity being registered in the middle of the time interval under
analysis, differences being evidenced from one species to another (i.e., in millet,
the maximum peak occurs after 120 hours of germination, in bristle grass and hair
grass at 144 hours from the beginning of the germination process and in Sudan
grass, respectively, at 168 hours) (CIORNEA et al., 2006).
Such dynamics of the total amylasic activity permits the assumption that
mobilization of the reserve starch for assuring the energy necessary in metabolic
processes starts as early as the first hours of the germination process even if, in
the beginning, the catalytic activity is modest.
The gradual diminution of the amylolytic activity in the second stage of
the interval under study might be explained by a gradual diminution of the
amount of starch and also by a possible initiation of the photosynthetic process,
which assures itself the precursors of the metabolic processes.
Another objective of the present study involved determination of the
amount of starch in the caryopses during germination, once known that, in
cereals, starch synthesis occurs - at the level of the endosperm - according to an
unique mechanism, involving enzymatic isoforms which are not to be found in the
tissues of other non-cereal plants (GENSCHEL et al., 2002; JAMES et al., 2003). On
the other hand, starch represents the main reserve polysaccharide in cereals,
which might mean that, during germination, a perfect correlation is manifested
between the total amylolytic activity and the rate of starch degradation.
However, a comparison between the dynamics of starch concentration
(or, in other words, the rate at which this polysaccharide gets degraded) and the
total amylasic activity evidences no perfect similitudes. On one hand, the total
amylolytic activity increases progressively in the first period, while the starch
concentration records a progressive decrease, yet not entirely superposable with
the amylasic activity. On the other hand, in the second period over which the
experiments were performed, the amylasic activity decreased quite rapidly, yet
without any diminution in the rate of starch degradation (Figs. 2 - 5).

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

Fig.2. Correlation between starch concentration and total amylase


in germinated caryopses of Panicum miliaceum

Fig.3. Correlation between starch concentration and total amylase


in germinated caryopses of Setaria pumila

Fig.4. Correlation between starch concentration and total amylase


in germinated caryopses of Festuca pratensis

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 51 seria Zootehnie

Fig.5. Correlation between starch concentration and total amylase


in germinated caryopses of Sorghum sudanense

Intensification of the metabolics processes assumes the occurrence of a


dynamics characteristic to the concentration of the total soluble proteins, at least
due to the activity of the enzymes and to the acceleration of the biosynthesis of
some new ones.
As to the dynamics of soluble protein concentration, this is somehow
different from that of starch. Thus, in the first three days, a progressive - yet not
intense - decrease of proteic concentration is registered, followed by its increase
in the next five days, up to values which do not exceed the reference ones, after
which they get stabilized at approximately the same level with that of the
reference. This means that, after the first three days, the biosynthetic processes are
also considerably accelerated, starting - probably - with the biosynthesis of all
enzymes necessary in the metabolic processes for assuring the development of
both embryo and plantlet (Fig. 6).
18
mg % 16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
0 24 48 72 96 120 144 168 192 216 240

Hours of germination

Fig.6. Soluble protein concentration in germinated caryopses of Panicum miliaceum

On the basis of protein concentration, the specific activity could be


subsequently determined, the fact that this dynamic is highly similar to the one
calculated for the total amylolytic activity demonstrating that the investigators
succeeded in maintaining relatively constant the conditions of samples

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

homogenization and of total amylase extraction, as well as the conditions under


which the other stages of determinations have been performed (Fig. 7).
80
70
Micromoles maltose/
mg protein 60
50

40

30
20

10

0
0 24 48 72 96 120 144 168 192 216 240

Hours of germination

Fig.7. Specific activity dynamics of total amylase in germinated


caryopses of Panicum miliaceum

As to the Setaria pumila species, one may observe that both proteins
concentration and the specific activity show a similar dynamics, the only observation
to be made being that the recorded values are somehow lower (Figs. 8 - 9).
14
mg %
12

10

2
0
0 24 48 72 96 120 144 168 192 216 240

Hours of germination

Fig.8. Soluble protein concentration in germinated caryopses of Setaria pumila


60
Micromoles maltose/

50
mg protein

40

30

20

10

0
0 24 48 72 96 120 144 168 192 216 240

Hours of germination

Fig.9. Dynamics of the specific activity of total amylase in germinated caryopses


of Setaria pumila

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 51 seria Zootehnie

25

mg%
20

15

10

0
24 48 72 96 120 144 168 192 216 240
Hours of germination

Fig.10. Soluble protein concentration in germinated caryopses of Festuca pratensis

In Festuca pratensis, mention should be made - on one side - that both


proteins concentration and the specific activity follow a different curve (the
values of proteinemy recording a slightly ascending increase up to 144
germination hours, followed by a slow decrease, the specific activity being
maintained relatively constant up to 144 germination hours, when a sudden leap is
recorded) while, on the other hand, the values of the two parameters are much
higher than the values of the previously analyzed species (Figs. 10 - 11).

120
Micromoles maltose/

100
mg protein

80

60

40

20

0
0 24 48 72 96 120 144 168 192 216 240
Hours of germination

Fig.11. Dynamics of the specific activity of total amylase in germinated


caryopses of Festuca pratensis

As to the Sorghum sudanense species, a quite ample oscillation of proteic


concentration may be observed from one germination day to another, while the
specific activity attains its maximum threshold - which is about four times higher
than in the other species under study - at 168 hours from the beginning of the
germination process (Figs. 12 - 13).

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

12
mg %
10

0
0 24 48 72 96 120 144 168 192 216 240
Hours of germination

Fig.12. Soluble protein concentration in germinated caryopses of Sorghum sudanense

500
Micromoles maltose/

450
400
mg protein

350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0 24 48 72 96 120 144 168 192 216 240
Hours of germination

Fig.13. Dynamics of the specific activity of total amylase in germinated


caryopses of Sorghum sudanense

Starting from the statistical analysis of the experimental results obtained,


a comparison between the calculated and the critical values of the factors permits
the following assertions:
¾ the calculated value of the factor on columns (31875.885) is considerably
higher than its critical value (2.282) - which means rejection of the null
hypothesis (H01) and acceptance of the alternative one (H11), namely that
significant differences are observed as to the activity of total amylase in the
species under study;
¾ the calculated value of the factor on rows (16149.482) is much higher than its
critical value (1.903), which means rejection of the null hypothesis H02 and
acceptance of the alternative one; consequently, significant differences should be
mentioned between the activity of total amylase and the germination hours;
¾ as to the interaction factor, one may see that its calculated value (3630.762) is
higher than the critical one (1.447), which means rejection of the null hypothesis
and acceptance of the alternative one - that is, both the species and the
germination time influence the enzymatic activity, even if in different ratios.

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 51 seria Zootehnie

3000

micromoles maltose / g
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
0 24 48 72 96 12 0 14 4 16 8 19 2 21 6 24 0
Hours of germination

Panicum miliaceum Setaria pumila


Festuca pratensis Sorghum sudanense

Fig.14. Comparative representation of total amylase individual values


in some graminaceae during the germination period

CONCLUSIONS

¾ Along the 10 days of the germination process, the total amylasic activity shows
a Gauss-type dynamics in all species taken into study, certain differences being
registered as to the moment in which the maximum activity is attained. Thus, in
Panicum miliaceum, the maximum specific activity of total amylases was
registered at 120 hours of the germination process, in Setaria pumila and Festuca
pratensis - at 144 hours, and in Sorghum sudanense - at 168 germination hours,
respectively, along with a correlation between the enzymatic activity and the ratio
of substrate mobilization.
¾ As to the dynamics of the concentration of total soluble proteins, obtained for
the determination of the specific activity, this is somehow different and
fluctuating from one species to another, attaining values that exceed those of the
reference, after which they get stabilized at approximately the same level, which
means that - possibly - after the first days, a significant acceleration of the
biosynthetic processes occurs, probably starting with the biosynthesis of all
enzymes necessary for the metabolic processes assuring the development of both
embryo and plantlet.

REFERENCES
1. ARTENIE, V., TANASE, ELVIRA, 1981 - Practicum de biochimie generală, Ed. Univ.
„Alexandru Ioan Cuza” Iaşi, 94 - 99.
2. BRADFORD, M. M., 1976 - A rapid and sensitive method for the quantification of microgram
quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding, Anal. Biochem., 72: 248 - 254.
3. CIORNEA, ELENA, ARTENIE, VL., COJOCARU, D. C., VASILE, GABRIELA, 2006 -
The dynamics of total amylase’s activity in Panicum miliaceum and Setaria glauca during the
germination period, An. Şt. Univ. „Alexandru Ioan Cuza” Iaşi, s. II a Genetică şi Biologie
Moleculară, Tom VII, Fasc. 1, 43 - 48.
4. COJOCARU, D. C., 1997 - Enzimologie, Ed. Gama, Iaşi, 22 - 26.
5. COJOCARU, D. C., 2005 - Enzimologie practică, Ed. Tehnopress, Iaşi, 233 - 246.

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

6. COJOCARU, D. C., SANDU, MARIANA, 2004 - Biochimia proteinelor şi acizilor nucleici,


Ed. Pim, Iaşi, 61 - 71.
7. FOWLER, J., COCHEN, L., JARVIS, P., 2000 - Practical statistics for field biology,
Second Edition, Ed. by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., England, 186 - 207.
8. GENSCHEL, U., ABEL, G., LORZ, H., LUTTICKE, S., 2002 - The sugary type isoamylase
in wheat: tissue distribution and subcellular localization, Planta, 214: 813 - 820.
9. GIMBI, D. M., KITABATAKE, N., 2002 - Changes in alpha and beta - amylase activities
during seed germination of American finger millet, Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr., 53 (6): 481 - 488.
10. JAMES, MARTHA, DENYER, K., MYERS, A., 2003 - Starch synthesis in the cereal
endosperm, Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 6: 215 - 222.
11. LEE, E., WHELAN, W., 1965 - An enzymic impurity in crystalline sweet- potato beta-
amylase, Biochem. J., 95: 27.
12. SHAHA, R. K., SANA, N. K., KARIM REZAUL, M., 2004 - Characterization of alpha
amylase from lentil (Lens esculenta L.) cotyledons, Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 7 (6):
1050 - 1056.
13. VALENCIA, A., BUSTILLO, A. E., OSSA, G. E., CHRISPEELS, M. J., 2000 - Alpha
amylases of the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) and their inhibition by two plant
amylase inhibitors, Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol., 30 (3): 207 - 213.
14. VITAL, HAGENIMANA, LOUIS, VEZINA, RONALD, E.S., 1994 - Sweet potato alpha
and beta amylases: characterization and kinetic studies with endogenous inhibitors, Journal of Food
Science, 59 (2): 373.

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 51 seria Zootehnie

ON THE DYNAMICS OF THE ACTIVITY OF TOTAL


AMYLASE IN VARIOUS ORGANS OF PANICUM
MILIACEUM AND SORGHUM SUDANENSE –
A COMPARATIVE STUDY
Elena CIORNEA, Gabriela VASILE

The paper develops a comparative analysis on the dynamics of the total


amylasic activity in various organs (root, embryonic grain and leaf) in two
gramineae species - Panicum miliaceum (millet) and Sorghum sudanense (Sudan
grass). Determination of enzymatic activity, as well as dosing of the soluble proteins
(for the calculation of specific activity) in the respective supernatants involved - each
- three parallel samples, the results obtained representing the mean value of these
repetitions.
The activity of amylases was determined by the Noelting - Brenfeld method,
based on the reduction of the free maltose resulted from the enzymatic hydrolysis of
starch, with 3, 5 - dinitrosalicylic acid, which is accompanied by the formation of an
orange-colored 3-amino-5-nitrosalicylic acid, evidenced colorimetrically at 540 nm.
At the same time, the concentration of proteins has been dosed by the Bradford
method, for determining the specific activity of the enzyme, followed - in a final step -
by the statistical processing of the results obtained.
In millet grains, after 168 hours of germination, the activity of the enzyme is
almost imperceptible (8.007 - 10.808 µM maltose/g, which is the result of the starch
reserve exhaustion, representing one third of the activity grasped in the roots and the
one - seventeenth part, respectively, from that of the whole plant.
The results of the experimental investigations evidenced the fact that, for
both species under study, the amylolytic activity is considerably higher at the leaf
level, a possible explanation referring to the role played by the foliar tissue - that of
“central residence” of the substances metabolism.
As to the protein concentration and specific activity in the extracts from the
analyzed samples, one may observed that in both species they follow the same curve,
in Sorghum sudanense the values obtained being, nevertheless, higher (0.405 - 2.026
µM maltose/mg protein in the roots, 0.730 - 1.507 µM maltose/mg protein in the
grain and 3.008 - 12.958 µM maltose/mg protein in the leaves).

MATERIALS AND METHOD


The experiments have been developed on small roots, embryonic grain
and stems of Panicum miliaceum and Sorghum sudanense.
The activity of amylases was determined by the Noelting - Brenfeld
method, based on the reduction of the free maltose resulted from the enzymatic
hydrolysis of starch, with 3, 5 - dinitrosalicylic acid, which is accompanied by the
formation of an orange-colored 3-amino-5-nitrosalicylic acid, evidenced
colorimetrically at 540 nm. The enzymatic activity has been expressed in µM
maltose/g. At the same time, the concentration of proteins has been dosed by the
Bradford method, for determining the specific activity of the enzyme, followed -

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

in a final step - by the statistical processing of the results obtained (BRADFORD,


1976; ARTENIE and TĂNASE, 1981; FOWLER et al., 2000; COJOCARU, 2005).
For a differentiated determination of the amylase activity in root, grain
and stem, these organs have been separately harvested, the enzyme extraction
being performed with distilled water, at +4°C, for 30 minute, followed by
centrifugation of the homogenates at 3000 rpm, for 15 minutes.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


As generally known, during the germination period, the enzymes act upon
the reserve substances, for the formation and differentiation of the various tissues
and organs which - once individualized - have the capacity of growing and of
reaching maturity by a metabolism of their own.
Consequently, our investigations were aimed, among other, at
determining the activity of total amylase in various tissues (roots, embryonic
grain, leaves), for further evidencing the possible differences or similarities
recorded in the activity of this enzyme. As such organs appear towards the end of
the germination period, the samples have been taken over beginning with the 7th
day, up to 240 hours of germination, from the Panicum miliaceum and Sorghum
sudanense species, seen as harmoniously developing under laboratory conditions
(CIORNEA et al., 2005).
Figure 1 shows that, in Panicum miliaceum, the activity of total amylase
in the roots ranges between 10.235 - 28.988 µM maltose/g - a value
approximately 25 times lower than the total amylase in the whole plant.
30
Micromoles maltose/g

25

20

15

10

0
168 192 216 240
Hours of germination

Fig.1. Total amylase activity (µM maltose/g) in Panicum miliaceum roots

As to the presence of total amylase in millet grains, after 168 hours of


germination, the observation may be made that the activity of the enzyme is
almost imperceptible (8.007 - 10.808 µM maltose/g, which is the result of the
starch reserve exhaustion, representing one third of the activity grasped in the
roots and the one - seventeenth part, respectively, from that of the whole plant.

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 51 seria Zootehnie

12

Micromoles maltose/g
10

0
168 192 216 240

Hours of germination

Fig.2. Total amylase activity (µM maltose/g) in Panicum miliaceum grains

In the millet leaves, the activity of total amylase is very high,


comparatively with that developed in roots and grains, ranging between 113.080 -
370.290 µM maltose/g (Fig. 3), as probably due to the very intense metabolism
recorded at this level, on also knowing that the foliar tissue becomes the “head
quarters” of substance metabolism, which supports the idea of ASATSUMA et al.,
2005, according to whom the α-amylase from chloroplasts and from the Golgi
endoplasmatic reticule plays an essential part in degrading the starch from the rice
leaves (Oryza sativa). Other authors (LEVI and PREISS, 1978; KAKEFUDA et al.,
1986) evidenced that, in the case of barley (Hordeum vulgare), the α-amylase is
either absent or it develops a much diminished activity in the chloroplasts of the
green leaves.
400
Micromoles maltose/g

350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
168 192 216 240
Hours of germination

Fig.3. Total amylase activity (µM maltose/g) in Panicum miliaceum leaves

Starting from the mean values and standard deviation of all analyzed
samples, there have been subsequently calculated the upper and lower limits of
the confidence intervals, on the basis of the critical value t (α, n-1), given by α =
0.05 and by n-1 degrees of freedom, i.e. t (0.05, 3), as illustrated in Figure 4.
As to the concentration of proteins in various organs, the observation to
be made is that - in the case of millet - the protein dynamics is different from one
organ to another, being nevertheless relatively constant - at the level of the same
organ - from one germination day to another (Fig. 5).

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

400
350

Micromoles maltose/g
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
168 192 216 240 168 192 216 240 168 192 216 240

Root Grain Leeaf


Hours of germination

Fig.4. Confidence intervals of total amylase activity in


Panicum miliaceum roots, grains and leaves

35
mg% 30
25
20
15
10
5
0
168 192 216 240
Hours of germination

Root Grain Leaf

Fig.5. Protein concentration in different organs of Panicum miliaceum

The comparative graphical representation of the specific activity of total


amylase evidences a clear-cut difference, in favor of the foliar tissue (Fig. 6).
14
12
Micromoles maltose/

10
mg protein

8
6
4
2
0
168 192 216 240
Hours of germination

Root Grain Leaf

Fig.6. Specific activity dynamics of total amylase


in different organs of Panicum miliaceum

In Sorghum sudanense, the activity of total amylase in the roots is


somewhat higher than in Panicum miliaceum, varying between 12.162 µM
maltose/g, at 168 germination hours, and 40.395 µM maltose/g, in the last day of
germination under analysis (Fig. 7).

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45

Micromoles maltose/g
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
168 192 216 240

Hours of germination

Fig.7. Total amylase activity (µM maltose/g) in Sorghum sudanense roots

In the Sudan grass grains and leaves, the dynamics of the total amylase
activity follows the same curve as the one described for the millet, with the only
difference that the minimum value in the grain is even lower (6.737 µM maltose/g
at 240 hours from the initiation of the germination process), while - in the leaf - it
is more pronounced (421.634 µM maltose/g) (Figs. 8 - 9).
16
Micromoles maltose/g

14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
168 192 216 240

Hours of germination

Fig.8. Total amylase activity (µM maltose/g) in Sorghum sudanense grains

450
Micromoles maltose/g

400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
168 192 216 240
Hours of germination

Fig.9. Total amylase activity (µM maltose/g) in Sorghum sudanense leaves

Here, again, the limits of the confidence intervals have been calculated
and plotted graphically for all organs subjected to analysis, very narrow values

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

being recorded - which shows that the deviation from the mean value is non-
significant (Fig. 10).
450

Micromoles maltose/g
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
168 192 216 240 168 192 216 240 168 192 216 240

Root Grain Leaf


Hours of germination

Fig.10. Confidence intervals of total amylase activity


in Sorghum sudanense roots, grains and leaves

As to the protein concentration and specific activity in the extracts from the
analyzed samples, one may observed - as also evidenced by the graphical illustration
(Figs. 11 - 12) - that they follow the same curve as the previously analyzed sample,
the values obtained being, nevertheless, higher (0.405 - 2.026 µM maltose/mg
protein in the roots, 0.730 - 1.507 µM maltose/mg protein in the grain and 3.008 -
12.958 µM maltose/mg protein in the leaves of Sorghum sudanense).
40
mg % 35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
168 192 216 240
Hours of germination

Root Grain Leaf

Fig.11. Protein concentration in different organs of Sorghum sudanense


14
Micromoles maltose/

12
mg protein

10
8
6
4
2
0
168 192 216 240
Hours of germination

Root Grain Leaf

Fig.12. Specific activity dynamics of total amylase


in different organs of Sorghum sudanense

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Further on, a comparative study was devoted to the activity of total


amylase in different organs (roots, grain and leaves), during their formation, for
evidencing the possible similarities or differentiations in the dynamics of the
amylolytic activity. Consequently, a comparison between the values of the two
(calculated and statistical) factors led to the following conclusions:
¾ considerable differences were registered in the enzymatic activity of the two
species, the calculated value of the factor on columns (129.83) being significantly
higher than its critical value (4.493);
¾ the calculated value of the factor on rows (4980.743) is, again, much higher
than its critical value (3.238), which indicates that some differences exist between
the activity of total amylase in the roots and the germination hours;
¾ as to the interaction factor, one may observe that its calculated value (210.827)
is higher than the critical one (3.238), both factors (the species and the
germination time) influencing the enzymatic activity.

Table I. Anova model bifactorial test (summary) with replication of total amylase activity
in Panicum miliaceum and Sorghum sudanense roots during the germination period
Species Count Sum Average Variance
Panicum miliaceum 12 208.414 17.367 58.068
Sorghum sudanense 12 273.319 22.776 133.474

Table II. Calculated and critical values of total amylase activity factors in
Panicum miliaceum and Sorghum sudanense roots during the germination period
Source of variability SS g. l. SS Calculated F Critical F
Rows 2019.334 3 673.111 4980.743 3.238
Columns 175.527 1 175.527 1298.83 4.493
Interaction 85.475 3 28.491 210.827 3.238
Within 2.162 16 0.135
Total 2282.499 23
SS = sum of squares, g. l. = degree of freedom, SS = average sum of squares
45
Micromoles maltose/g

40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
168 192 216 240
Hours of germination

Panicum miliaceum Sorghum sudanense

Fig.13. Comparative representation of the individual values of total amylase activity in


Panicum miliaceum and Sorghum sudanense roots during the germination period

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

The data systematized in Tables III - IV and Figure 14 permit the


following assertions:
¾ appreciable differences exist between the enzymatic activity recorded in millet
and Sudan grass, the calculated value of the factor on columns (157.383) being
significantly higher than its critical value (4.493), meaning that the null
hypothesis is therefore rejected;
¾ the calculated value of the factor on rows (193.362) is, once again, much
higher than its critical value (3.238), which evidences the existence of
considerable differences in the activity of total amylase developed in grains and
the germination hours;
¾ as to the interaction factor, the observation was made that its calculated value
(143.894) is higher than the critical one (3.238), which means rejection of the null
hypothesis (H03) and acceptance of the alternative one (H13), both factors (species
and germination time) influencing the enzymatic activity.

Table III.Anova model bifactorial test (summary) with replication of total amylase activity
in Panicum miliaceum and Sorghum sudanense grains during the germination period
Species Count Sum Average Variance
Panicum miliaceum 12 114.518 9.543 1.597
Sorghum sudanense 12 137.132 11.427 11.052

Table IV. Calculated and critical values of the factors of total amylase activity in
Panicum miliaceum and Sorghum sudanense grains during the germination period
Source of variability SS g. l. SS Calculated F Critical F
Rows 78.537 3 26.179 193.362 3.238
Columns 21.308 1 21.308 157.383 4.493
Interaction 58.445 3 19.481 143.894 3.238
Within 2.166 16 0.135
Total 160.457 23
SS = sum of squares, g. l. = degree of freedom, SS = average sum of squares
18
Micromoles maltose/g

16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
168 192 216 240
Hours of germination

Panicum miliaceum Sorghum sudanense

Fig.14. Comparative representation of the individual values of total amylase activity in


Panicum miliaceum and Sorghum sudanense grains during the germination period

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As to the activity of total amylase in the leaves of Panicum miliaceum


and Sorghum sudanense, the data listed in Tables V - VI and Figure 15, along
with the comparative analysis of the calculated and, respectively, critical values of
the factors, lead to the following conclusions:
¾ the calculated value of the factor on columns (3330.06) is higher than its
critical value (4.493), which means rejection of the null hypothesis (H01) or, in
other words, considerable differences are observed between the activity of total
amylase in the leaves of millet and, respectively, Sudan grass;
¾ the calculated value of the factor on rows (132819.2) is much higher than its
critical value (3.238), which means rejection of the null hypothesis (H02) and
acceptance of the alternative one, permitting the assertion that pronounced
differences do exist between the activity of total amylase in the leaves and the
germination hours;
¾ as to the interaction factor, its calculated value (1184.444) is higher than the
critical one (36.238), which means rejection of the null hypothesis (H03), the
conclusion being that both factors (species and germination time) do influence the
enzymatic activity.

Table V. Anova model bifactorial test (summary) with replication of total amylase activity
in Panicum miliaceum and Sorghum sudanense leaves during the germination period
Species Count Sum Average Variance
Panicum miliaceum 12 2601.681 216.806 10614.004
Sorghum sudanense 12 2837.48 236.456 14812.303

Table VI. Calculated and critical values of the factors of total amylase activity in
Panicum miliaceum and Sorghum sudanense leaves during the germination period
Source of
SS g. l. SS Calculated F Critical F
variability
Rows 277206.207 3 92402.07 132819.2 3.238
Columns 2316.715 1 2316.715 3330.06 4.493
Interaction 2472.045 3 824.015 1184.444 3.238
Within 11.131 16 0.695
Total 282006.1 23
SS = sum of squares, g. l. = degree of freedom, SS = average sum of squares

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

450

Micromoles maltose/g
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
168 192 216 240
Hours of germination

Panicum miliaceum Sorghum sudanense

Fig.15. Comparative representation of the individual values of total amylase activity in


Panicum miliaceum and Sorghum sudanense leaves during the germination period

CONCLUSIONS

The dynamics of total amylasic activity in the roots, grains and leaves of
Panicum miliaceum and Sorghum sudanense records very high values in the
leaves, which is probably due to the very intense metabolism developed at this
level, once known that the foliar tissue becomes the “headquarters” of the
substance metabolism.
In both species of graminaceae taken into study, the limits of the confidence
intervals of the amylolytic activity are extremely narrow in all the three organs
under investigations, which suggests a very low deviation from the average value.

REFERENCES
1. ARTENIE, V., TANASE, ELVIRA, 1981 - Practicum de biochimie generală, Ed. Univ.
„Alexandru Ioan Cuza” Iaşi, 94 - 99.
2. ASATSUMA, S., SAWADA, C., ITOH, K., OKITO, M., 2005 - Involvement of alpha-
amylase in starch degradation in rice chloroplasts, Plant and Cell Physiology, 46 (6): 858.
3. BRADFORD, M. M., 1976 - A rapid and sensitive method for the quantification of microgram
quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding, Anal. Biochem., 72: 248 - 254.
4. CIORNEA, ELENA, COJOCARU, D. C., VASILE, GABRIELA, 2005 - Some preliminary
data on the activity of total amylase, α- and β-amylase in the small roots and strains of millet and
bristle grass, Studii şi Cercetări, Biologie, Serie nouă, Ed. Univ. din Bacău, 10: 161 - 163.
5. COJOCARU, D. C., 2005 - Enzimologie practică, Ed. Tehnopress, Iaşi, 233 - 246.
6. FOWLER, J., COCHEN, L., JARVIS, P., 2000 - Practical statistics for field biology,
Second Edition, Ed. by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., England, 186 - 207.
7. KAKEFUDA, G., DUKE, S.H., HOSTAK, M. S., 1986 - Chloroplast and extrachloroplastic
starch - deradind enzymes in Pisum sativum L., Planta, 168: 175 - 182.
8. LEVI, C., PREISS, J., 1978 - Amylopectin degradation in pea chloroplast extracts, Plant
Physiology, 61: 218 - 220.

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E-LEARNING TECHNOLOGIES IMPROVE TEACHING OF


NATURAL SCIENCES AND ECONOMY TO STUDENTS IN
AGRICULTURE
N. COJOCARU, M. CĂLIN, Cecilia POP, C. CHIRUŢĂ

The curricula in different specialties of Agriculture (Agronomy,


Horticulture, Animal Husbandry etc.) include courses in natural sciences and
economics. Previous expertise shows that teaching disciplines like Physics or
Economics is quite difficult, as the core knowledge of students in agricultural
sciences is remote from those areas, and their skills in dealing with the respective
concepts are not always very strong. Nowadays, e-learning technologies are
considered to be among the most efficient ways to improve the quality of teaching
and studying. There are more and more e-learning applications in service. The
paper presents an e-learning approach for two university courses: one in
Biophysics, addressed to first year students in Agronomy and Animal Husbandry,
and another one in the Science of Commodities, addressed to M.Sc. students in
Quality Management of Agrifood Products. They are part of a more complex e-
learning service under development within a Grid Computing project that was
initiated by five universities of Iasi, Romania. This project is aimed to ensure a
powerful distributed and integrated computational resource to the partners and
to create a collaborative research environment for people acting in various
scientific branches. The e-learning service for agricultural sciences is one of the
tasks that The University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of
Iasi are developing as project partner. This service would be enriched with more
and more modules to cover a larger spectrum of topics in agricultural sciences
and veterinary medicine and to provide a modern and efficient learning
environment for all types of educational frameworks.

INTRODUCTION
E-learning means education via the Internet, network, or standalone
computer. One of the most confusing aspects of e-learning is that many people
reduces its meaning to using electronic support to provide learning tools. In fact,
the "e" doesn't stand for "electronic", but could be better defined as Evolving or
Everywhere or Enhanced or Extended [2]
However, e-learning would not be possible without a modern computer
infrastructure, as it uses electronic applications and processes to learn, and
transfers skills and knowledge via network. E-learning applications and processes
include Web-based learning, computer-based learning, virtual classrooms, and
digital collaboration. Content is delivered via the Internet, intranet/extranet, audio
or video tape, satellite TV, and CD-ROM.
E-learning can have different goals, forms, costs, and applications. It may
be categorized with three types [3]. The first type is an open-university education.

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Another type of e-learning is short courses, which last only a few weeks and
comprise a single subject. A third type is self-study by means of tutorials.
The e-learning platforms represent virtual realities which change the way
people experience and interact with computers. Using online learning through the
Internet, individuals can share information through remote interaction with each
other. Students can collaborate to learn, solve problems, can meet and interact.
The virtual environments can be used in the field of education, as a technology
having the potential to facilitate more active student and instructor collaboration
and learning, and help to provide distance education. Environments allow the
instructor to teach courses at their own technological comfort level by providing
templates for course management. A student should get the real classroom
experience even while accessing the courses remotely [4]
Moodle
The design and implementation of courseware, allowing remote student-
teacher interactions, can be achieved by using the features of Moodle, a software
package for producing internet-based courses and web sites. Moodle [5] is an
ongoing development project designed to support a social constructionist
framework of education. It is provided freely as Open Source software (under the
GNU Public License). The word Moodle was originally an acronym for Modular
Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment. The Founder and Lead
Developer Managing Director is Martin Dougiamas (Perth – Australia).
Moodle supplements the traditional face-to-face learning by providing
online-classes, is user friendly, simple, efficient, easy to install on any platform
that supports PHP. It requires an underlying SQL database. The entire system is
managed by an admin user during setup. Moodle has the following main modules.
Site Management. This module is used for site management used for web
interface. This application incorporates authentication mechanisms using plug-in
modules. The usual email mechanism enables students to create their own login
accounts which are verifiable by confirmation. The administrator can specify
which fields to use.
User Account Management. The account management is done through an
web interface; different sets of accounts can be created on the server. The admin
account has administrative privileges and controls course creation and user
accounts. Every individual has one account assigned for the entire server;
however access privileges may vary for these accounts. A course creator account
can be assigned privileges to create courses and teachers typically have editing
privileges which can be revoked to prevent course modification. Teachers can
also enroll and unenroll students manually. This process can however be
automated.
Course Management. The administrator has admin privileges to restrict
other teachers and also to control the overall settings for a course. The teacher can
set the course formats by week, by topic or by social format. An array of course
activities such as Quizzes, Forums, resources, assignments, etc can be developed.

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The course catalog homepage could be used to display any changes to the courses.
The webpage can also be used to post grades for quizzes and assignments. These
web pages can be edited using a web-based programming editor such as an
HTML editor. Activity reports can also be generated for logging and tracking
access information. Graphs and visual information can be embedded in these
reports.
Assignment module. This module is used to post assignments with due
dates wherein students can upload their assignments. It also provides a provision
to timestamp student submissions and to display grades.
Chat module. This module is, as obviously, text-based communication.
Choice Module. The Choice Module is used to obtain student feedback
through votes. It also supports graphical data.
Forum Module. This module enables discussions between teachers,
teachers and enrolled students, or between students. Discussions can be single or
multi-threaded. The module also supports images and also allows discussion
threads to be moved from one forum to another.
Quiz Module. The quiz module relies on a database of questions and is
able to generate a quiz for every student. Questions can be sequential or random.
The module allows quizzes to be created automatically and inserting the time-
frame for each quiz. At the teacher’s discretion, quizzes can be set for students to
attend multiple times and can also include images, true or false questions, short-
answer questions, embedded answer questions, etc.
Resource Module. In this module only text information are displayed in
present. The module supports interactive content such as video, sounds,
PowerPoint, flash, etc. It can also be seamlessly linked with external applications.
E-learning courses: pedagogy and technology
The pedagogy of a courses is based on facts that students have different
education background and that e-learning is unknown to most of participants.
Culture differences in the relation between teacher and participant may exist.
Therefore, an introductory e-learning example is first held to train students in
using the courseware. Participants and teachers get acquainted to each other and
an introduction to the topics is given. During the courses the progress of the
learning is tested by the participants themselves (self-tests) and/or by the teacher.
The participants of the e-learning courses must have access to the Internet,
a browser (for example Internet Explorer) and an e-mail program. The teachers
post lessons, literature, assignments and comments to the participants; the
participants send answers and questions to the teacher; participants can be
monitored. A calendar informs about the schedule of the course. Communication
between the participants and the teacher can also be carried out by means of
chatting, where several persons can take part at the same time. The browser has to
have some plug-ins in order to receive and to display different types of
courseware. General plug-ins are the pdf-file reader (for example Acrobat
Reader), the Flash Player and the Java byte code interpreter (also called Java

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

Virtual Machine) that translates applets into machine code of the used client
computer. Besides the electronic means of communication, hard-copy material
such as books and CDs, may be handed out to the participants of the courses. The
mixture of hard-copy material and electronic material may disappear when
e-learning will be more used in future.
Developping an e-learning service for students in agriculture
In 2006, four faculties and a research institute in Iasi, Romania started the
research project named Academic Grid for Complex Applications. The acronym
of the project is GRAI. The five participants in the project are:
ƒ The Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Automatic Control and
Computer Engineering (which also holds the leadership of the
GRAI project);
ƒ Institute for Computer Science, Romanian Academy, in the
location of the Faculty of Electronics and Telecommunication;
ƒ The “Al. I. Cuza” University of Iasi, Faculty of Computer Science,
ƒ The University of Medicine and Pharmacy Iasi, Faculty of
Biomedical Engineering
ƒ The University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine
of Iasi, Faculty of Horticulture.
As its title shows, the GRAI project aims to develop a grid computing
structure for research and for other academic purposes. To achieve them, two
main directions must be followed:
1. Development of a grid computing system that would interconnect
the scientific and computational resources of the five partners.
2. Development of grid services and specific applications based on
them.
One of the tasks that The University of Agricultural Sciences and
Veterinary Medicine of Iasi undertakes within the project is the development of
an e-learning service for students in agricultural sciences. This service would be
enriched with more and more modules to cover a larger spectrum of topics in
agricultural sciences and veterinary medicine and to provide a modern and
efficient learning environment for all types of educational frameworks.
Currently, five courses are under construction: (1) E-learning exemple:
orientation in Moodle; (2) Biophysics and Agrometeorology; (3) Biophysics; (4)
Climatology (5) Science of Commodities.
Courseware design
The design of a courseware is planned in accordance with the contents, the
pedagogy and the technology. The contents is given by the curricula. An
introduction into the topic may be necessary. The participant should learn by
doing. A high degree of interactivity makes the learning much more interesting,
and the students should experience the progress in learning. Different assignments
are attached. It is be possible for students to perform self-tests. The courses are
also being updated according to the gained expertise and updating is quite easy.

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Basically, a courseware consists of a user interface, literature, learning programs,


multiple-choice quizzes and assignments.

Fig. 1. First page (start page)

Fig. 2. Available courses of fundamental sciences

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

Fig. 3. Course categories

CONCLUSIONS
Nowadays, e-learning technologies are considered to be among the most
efficient ways to improve the quality of teaching and studying.
Moodle is a suitable, Open Source development environment for creating
and using e-learning courseware.
E-learning can improve the efficiency of teaching in all areas of agricultural
sciences, but would have a special effect in teaching topics in sciences and
economics to students in agriculture.

Acknowledgement. The GRAI project runs under the CEEX grant no. 74
II03/31.07.2006. CEEX is the excellence research framework created by the
Romanian Ministry of Education and Research.

REFERENCES
1. Calin M. , ACADEMIC GRID FOR COMPLEX APPLICATIONS, Coord. Craus M., UT Iasi,
Partner USAMV Iasi, CEEX, Cod MEC 2288, 2006-2008.
2. From http://www.managersforum.com/
3. Hőhle J. “Designing of Course Material for e-learning in photogrammetry” from
http://cartesia.org/
4. Jeffery, C., Dabholkar, A., Tachtevrenidis, K., Kim, Y. (2005). A Framework for Prototyping
Collaborative Virtual Environments. CRIWG, Retrieved December 21, 2005 from
http://www.cs.nmsu.edu/~jeffery/vcsc/vcsc.pdf].
5. Moodle home page: http://www.moodle.org; installation support, hosting, development,
consulting at http://moodle.com/.

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THE CONTENT OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE


SUBSTANCES OF PROPOLIS
Tatiana DABIJA, N. EREMIA

The problem concerning the establishment of the composition of the biologic


active substances from the propolis composition, especially in the aggravated
ecological environment is very actual. Accordingly to that, the aim of the
experiment was to study the propolis biologic active substances in different areas
and periods of collecting in Republic of Moldova. There was taken the samples
from collected propolis from each area (South, Centre, North) in spring time (April
- May), autumn (August-September) ant there was established the composition of
the biologic active substances (micro-, macroelements and heavy metals).
The experimental results showed that in the studied propolis the average
of the dry matter at the temperature of 650C was- 98,81%, but at the temperature
of 1050C it was – 96,73%. The average of beginning water in the propolis is -
1,19%, hygroscopic average– 2,08%, and total – 3,27%.
There was established that the quantity of studied microelements in the
collected propolis in spring time was 53,3 mg/kg in Central area and 133,8
mg/kg in South area. There was the higher amount of Zn – 70,9 and Mn – 11,5
mg/kg. At the same time in the collected propolis the amount of Cu was between
2,18 – 13,7 mg/kg, Co – 0,5 – 1,0 mg/kg, and Cr – 0,6 – 5,4 mg/kg.
The total quantity of studied microelements increased by 41,81 mg/kg, where
Co increased by 1,09, times Mn – 1,34, Cu – 1,36, Zn – 1,46 and Cr – 2,53 times.
The total amount of macroelements in collected propolis during spring
time was 5244,6 mg/kg, but in autumn time it was 3921,25 mg/kg. The higher
amount had the level of Co, which varied between 1000 – 4270 mg/kg in spring
time and 1130 - 1990 mg/kg in autumn time.
It is necessary to mention that the quantity of some elements in autumn
time increased: Mg – 1,69 times, Fe – 1,28 times, but the content of Ca, Na, K
and F phosphates felt down.
The average of ash faction in spring time consisted – 1,53%, and in
autumn time – 2,29%.
It was established that the total amount of heavy metals in collected
propolis from different areas of Republic of Moldova in spring time vary between
46,5mg/kg – 120,9mg/kg, and in autumn time it has been increased by 1,37 times,
the average being 114,4mg/kg.
The most part in heavy metals had Zn, its quantity in collected propolis
vary between 39,1 -153,0 mg/kg, Pl 1,85 – 8,33mg/kg and Cu 2,18 – 15,7mg/kg.
There was found a small amount of Cd which vary between 0,11 – 0,36mg/kg.
The problem of the ecological situation in whole world is getting worth,
and concerning to that, the question of improving the sanitary quality of bees
products has to be studied.
The quantity of macro-, and microelements and heavy metals in propolis is
not the same in different areas of Republic and different times of active season
and it mostly depends of the plants species from which it has been collected.

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INTRODUCTION
The propolis is a resinous substance, which has a green or a brown colour,
sometimes it has yellow or red nuances, it has a pleasant smell of trees bulbs.
The bee use the propolis for covering the holes from their beehive for
making smaller the bee entrance, usually they use the propolis for greasing
sealing board for better cheeping of the temperature in the nest, to get stronger the
elements from the beehive and other. When the mice get into the beehive, usually
the bees kill then, and their bodies can not be thrown outside the beehive, the bees
cover them with the propolis, and they do not decompose. The propolis has
bacteriological and antiseptic characteristics, what does not allow the
development of decompose processes, and it has the protection role of the family
for different microorganismes. When the beehive is heated by the Sun the volatile
and ether substances, of the propolis volatilize, forming the aerosols what have
an antiseptic and disinfection influence inside the beehive. The bees families
which are on the Sunny places are less affected by the illnesses.
The bees collect the propolis from the bulbs, cheery, hazel, plumb, pine,
peach and horse nut trees, but the most valuable propolis is that what was
collected from the poplar tree. The propolis has the vegetal origin (Hristea C.,
1976).
The propolis is a natural product, secreted by the bees, and its chemical
composition, is not finial studied till now. The propolis is move and more used in
medicine that is way is necessary to receive its high quality. Does not exist a real
form of these material under the chemical composition till now (Вахонина Т.,
Душкова Е., 1987; Vahonina T., Duşcova E., 1990).
The propolis is a bioactive substance what has a huge importance and it has
a bio stimulation and bio regulator effect. Its activity can be explained for its
elements from the composition which can be used as a catalysts of biological
activity of the body as are vitamins what take part in the propolis chemical
composition.
There is a real danger when the propolis is collected because of the metals
with the mutation and cancer effect of genetic cell apparatus after the pollution of
the environment (Косовец Ю.Т., Демидов В.В., Коган Б.С., 1990).
During the last ten years, the propolis became the subject for the study with
the chemical and pharmacy character.
During several years there were developed the studies concerning the
chemical composition of propolis (Eremia N., Dabija Tatiana, 2005; 2007).
After the scientific literature study we can give the conclusion that the
propolis presents a complex product, but its quality and biologic peculiarity
depends on its chemical composition, plans species and geographical areas.
The exact show of the propolis quality during the active season will help the
right organisation of its collecting and determination of the technology for the
receiving of these product.

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At the same time the quantity and the quality as well its price depends of its
chemical composition, receiving technology, geographical avea, plants species
visited by the bees, its storing and using.
The determination of the technology and the study of its biologic active
substances, especially in worth ecological conditions it is very important
theoretically and practically.
Accordingly to that the aim of the experiment was the study of the biologic
active substances of the propolis in different periods and from different areas in
our country.

MATERIAL AND METHODS


As a subject of the experiments was the families of honey bees from
different areas of Republic of Moldova (South, Centre, North).
From each family there were collected samples of propolis to determine the
weigh of the dry matter, the beginning water content at the temperature of 650C
and hygroscopic at 1050C. The other zootehnical researches have been done
accordingly to the recognised methods of Петухова E.A. (1981), Разумов В.А.
(1982).
The content of macro-, and microelements, the content of heavy metals in
propolis composition has been determined accordingly to the atomic
spectroscopic method at Metrological Centre of Scientific Researches at Scientific
Academy of Moldova.
The received results have been worked using the statistical variation
method by the computer programmes.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


The propolis or bees glue is a natural product what the bees collect from the
bulbs secretions and plants and where the bees add their secretions.
These product are collected from different plants, its composition presents
large variety.
At the temperature at about 30 - 380 C the propolis is getting soft, at the
temperature at 150C it is tuff and crumbly, but at the temperature of 1000C it gets
liquid. It melts at 780C, it gets tuff at 14 – 150C. It has different colours from dark
green, yellow – red to black.
The propolis has the density 1,112 – 1,136, it is soluble in the alcohol,
petrol, acetone, chloroform, ether and other. It has a pleasant smell, its taste is bit
and sharp.
The experimental results showed that in the studied propolis the average of
dry matter at the temperature of 650C was 98,81%, but at the temperature of
1050C – 96,73%. The average of beginning water in propolis composition was
1,19%, the hygroscopic – 2,08%, and total – 3,27%.

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There were found micro- and macroelements and heavy metals in propolis
composition.
The results showed that the microelements quantity in studied propolis in
spring time varied from 53,3 mg/kg (Central area) to 133,8 mg/kg (South area).
There is higher amount of Zn – 70,9 and Mn – 11,5 mg/kg. At the same
time the quantity of Cu in collected propolis varied between 2,18 – 13,7 mg/kg,
and Co quantity was between 0,5 – 1,0 mg/kg, and Cr varied between 0,6 - 5,4
mg/kg (tab.1).

Table 1
The microelements quantity in studied propolis, mg/kg
Spring Autumn
(April - May) (August - September)
Microelements
The limit The limit
X ±Sx X ±Sx
(min-max) (min-max)
(Mn) 11,5±1,79 (8,4-14,6) 15,4±0,90 14,5-16,3
(Cr) 3,3±1,42 (0,6-5,4) 8,34±0,09 8,25-8,43
(Co) 1,0±0,0 (0,5-1,0) 1,09±0,015 1,07-1,12
(Zn) 70,9±17,29 (39,1-98,6) 103,3±49,70 53,6-153,0
(Cu) 6,09±3,80 (2,18-13,7) 8,27±4,82 3,45-13,1
(Ni) 1,8±0,03 (1,75-1,88) - -
The
microelements 94,59 53,3-133,8 136,40 82,85-189,97
quantity

During autumn time (August - September) the total quantity of


microelements got higher with 41,81 mg/kg, where Co got lower with 1,09 times,
Mn – 1,34, Cu – 1,36, Zn – 1,46 and Cr – 2,53 times.
Between studied macroelementes in spring time the higher amount has Ca,
which varied between 1000 – 4270 mg/kg, in autumn 1130 – 1990 mg/kg (tab. 2).
The total quantity of studied macroelements in propolis composition in
spring time was – 5244,6 mg/kg, but in autumn – 3921,25 mg/kg. At the same
time we can mention that the quantity of some elements during autumn time got
higher as it is: Mg – 1,69 times, Fe – 1,28 times, but the Ca, K, Na and
phosphates felt down.
The average of ash faction in spring time consisted – 1,53%, and in autumn
time – 2,29%.
It was established that the total amount of heavy metals in collected
propolis from different areas in Republic of Moldova in spring time vary between
46,5mg/kg – 120,9mg/kg, and in autumn time it has been increased by 1,37 times,
the average being 114,4mg/kg.

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The most amount of heavy metals had Zn, its quantity in collected propolis
vary between 39,1 -153,0 mg/kg, Pl 1,85 – 8,33mg/kg and Cu 2,18 – 15,7mg/kg.
There was found a small amount of Cd which vary between 0,11 –
0,36mg/kg.
The problem of the ecological situation in whole world is getting worth, and
concerning to that, the question of improving the sanitary quality of bees
products has to be studied.
The quantity of macro-, and microelements and heavy metals in propolis is
not the same in different areas of republic and different times of active season
and it mostly depends of the plants species from which it has been collected.

Table 2
The macroeliments quantity in studied propolis, mg/kg
Spring Autumn
(April - May) (August - September)
Macroelements
The limit The limit
X ±Sx X ±Sx
(min-max) (min-max)
(Ca2+) 2790±956,60 1000-4270 1560,0±430,0 1130-1990
(Mg2+) 206,7±24,60 179-255,8 349,75±16,75 333-366,5
(Fe) 456,4±37,95 407,5-531,1 585,0±15,00 570-600
(K+) 956,7±104,77 750-1090 690,0±190,00 500-880
(Na+) 84,8±16,80 62,2-118,8 62,2±15,25 47-77,5
(P2O5) 750±85,04 660-920 675,0±25,00 650-700
The
microelements 5244,6 3595,7-6339,1 3921,25 3670,5-4173,5
quantity
The ash faction, % 1,53±0,20 1,18-1,88 2,29±0,16 2,13-2,45

Table 3
The heavy metals quantity in studied propolis, mg/kg
Spring Autumn
(April - May) (August - September)
Heavy metals
The limit The limit
X ±Sx X ±Sx
(min-max) (min-max)
Plumb (Pb) 6,37±1,07 4,9-8,33 2,57±0,72 1,85-3,3
Cadmium (Cd) 0,17±0,05 0,11-0,28 0,24±0,12 0,11-0,36
Cuprum (Cu) ,09±3,80 (2,18-13,7) 8,28±4,82 3,45-13,1
Zinc (Zn) 70,9±17,29 (39,1-98,6) 103,3±49,70 53,6-153,0
The heavy metals
83,53 46,5-120,9 114,4 59,0-169,8
quantity

The quantity of micro-, macroelements and heavy metals in propolis is not


the same in different areas of republic, in different periods of active season and
mostly it depends on the plants species from which it was collected.

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

CONCLUSIONS
1. There was established that the propolis has in its composition 96,73% dry
matters, 1,19% beginning water 2,08% hygroscopic, 5,95mg/g monoacids.
2. There was determined that the total quantity of studied microelements in
propolis varied between 53,3 – 133,8 mg/kg in spring time and 82,85 –
189,97 mg/kg in autumn time. The average of macroelements quantity in
propolis was 3922,25 – 3964 mg/kg, and heavy metals 85,53 – 114,4
mg/kg.
3. The quantity of biologic active substances (aminoacids, micro-,
macroelements and heavy metals) in propolis is not the same in different
areas of republic and it depends on the plants species from which it was
collected.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Eremia, N., Dabija, T. L´etude du contenu des metaux lourds danslepropolis // Lucrari
ştiinţifice. Zootehnie şi Biotehnologii. – Timişoara, 2005, vol. 38, p. 585-587.
2. Eremia, N., Dabija, T. Particularităţile producerii şi calităţile biochimice ale propolisului.
Chişinău, 2007, 25 p.
3. Hristea, CL. Stupăritul nou. Bucureşti, 1976. 491 p.
4. Вахонина, Т.В., Душкова Е.С. Качество прополиса // Прополис, Бухарест, 1987, с. 240 –
245.
5. Vahonina, T.V., Duşcova E.S. Calitatea propolisului // Propolis, Bucureşti: Apimondia, 1990,
p. 27-28.
6. Косовец, Ю.Т. Демидов, В.В. Коган, Б.С. Микроэлементный лазерно – спектральный
анализ наследственных структур и репродуктивных тканей в целях генетического
мориторинга загрязнения окружающей среди тяжелыми металлами / Микроэлементы в
биологии и их применение в сельском хозяйстве и медицине, Самарканд, 1990, с. 369.
7. Петухова, Е.А. Зоотехнический анализ кормов. М.: 1981, с. 23.
8. Плешков, Б.П. Практикум по биохимии растений. М.:Колос, 1976, с.3-254.
9. Разумов, В.А. Массовый анализ кормов: Справочник. – М.: «Колос», 1982, 176 с.

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 51 seria Zootehnie

THE DEVELOPMENT OF LIVESTOCK BREEDING IN THE


AGRO-ECONOMIC AREA OF GALATI
Fl.-M. DIMA, A. CHIRAN, Elena GÎNDU

The agro-economic area of Galati includes the territories of 8 localities,


with an agricultural surface of 5.8 thousand ha, representing 14.73% of the total
agricultural surface of Galati County.
The researched area offers favorable conditions for livestock breeding,
so that, comparatively to the year 2002, the number of animals increased (except
for birds), reaching in present a total of 8,818 cattle, of which 5,938 cows and
calves, 6,990 swine, 14,529 sheep and goats, 5,193 beehives etc.
The animal production also recorded a positive evolution, so that in
2006, in direct correlation with the year 2002, the increase substantiated in 210
tons of meat, 31,119 hl. dairy cattle and sheep milk, 50 tons of honey etc.
The production results obtained especially in the last 2 years of the
period subjected for analysis (2002-2006) are a consequence of the
implementation of the National Support Program for Animal Husbandry (acc.
HG 785/2005 and 1288/2006) “The sustainable development of animal
husbandry and of the efficiency of the animal production field, as well as the
lucrativeness of aquaculture in Romania”.
In this context, the authors wish to highlight the main coordinates of
animal husbandry development in the agro-economic area of Galati: the size of
animal farms, the number of animals, the crops, the animal production and its
destination, investments etc.
Key words: region, development, livestock breeding

MATERIAL AND METHOD


The research has been done in the agro-economic area of Galati which
includes the territory of 8 localities, with an agricultural area of 51.8 thousand
hectares, of which the feedlot represents 2108 hectares, complete with 2907
hectares of natural grassland.
The region offers favourable conditions for animal husbandry which
represents a priority considering the necessity of providing Galati city with fresh
agricultural products, including animal products.
The analysis covers a period of 5 years (2002-2006) and is based on a
series of indicators, of which we mention: size and structure by livestock species
of zootechnical farms; the livestock population by species and categories; total
livestock production by categories of products; investments; feedlot etc.

RESULTS AND DEBATES


During the period comprised between 2002-2006, the livestock population in the
agro-economic area of Galati, recorded a positive evolution except for poultry, for
which the population decreased with approximately 15% (tab. 1, fig. 1):

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Table 1
The evolution of livestock population, by species, in the agro-economic area of Galati
between 2002-2006
Specification 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 %/2002
Cattle – total of which: 8774 9259 8994 8730 8818 100,5
- cows + heifer 5463 5582 6057 5404 5938 108,7
Pigs – total 5592 6850 6291 5243 6990 125,0
Sheep + Goats – total 10170 10751 11623 12204 14529 142,9
Bee Families 3168 3531 4154 4674 5193 163,9
Poultry – total * 232,3 222,3 214,3 204,2 200,3 86,2
• thousand heads

ANIMAL AND POULTRY POPULATION


IN THE AGRO-ECONOMIC AREA OF GALATI
250000
NUMBER OF HEADS

200000 CATTLE
150000 PIGS

100000 SHEEP AND GOATS

POULTRY
50000

0
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
YEARS

Fig.1 The evolution of livestock population in the agro-economic area of Galati

During the period subject for analysis the investments in animal


husbandry were relatively small and were mostly translated into means of
harvesting and processing the feed, milking machines, cooling and quality
analysis of the milk, electricity generators (Tab. 2).

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Table 2
Structure of investments made in the agro-economic area of Galati
Name of the Area of which, by localities:
machine total Bra- Fru- Sche- Şen- Smâr- Tulu- Vâ- Ga-
niştea mu- la dreni dan ceşti nă- laţi
şita tori
Ind. Group for 16 1 - 8 1 - 1 1 4
milking
Feed chopping 12 2 - 4 - - 1 1 4
machine
Mowing 8 - - 2 - - 1 - 5
Machine
Electricity 9 - - 4 - - 1 - 4
Generator
Milk Cooler 4 - - 3 - - - - 1
Milk Analysis - - - - - - - -
Machine
Total 49 3 - 21 1 - 4 2 18

From the data presented above, one can observe that over 40 % of the
investments were made in Schela, which hold an important percentage of the
livestock population of the locality. In the other localities, given the small number
of animals, the investments were also smaller, while in Frumuşiţa and Smârdan,
there were no investments in a animal husbandry.
The total animal production for the main species recorded a positive
evolution, except for poultry products (tab. 3).

Table 3
The evolution of total production for animal products in the agro-economic
area of Galati between 2002-2006 – tons
Product 2002 2003 2005 2006 %/2002
Meat – total of which: 1483,6 1581,6 1437,5 1693,4 114,1
- Beef 456,6 567,5 451,5 492,8 107,9
- Pork 558,5 646,9 533,2 668,2 119,6
-Mutton + Goat Meat 147,4 159,9 170,9 206,3 140,0
- Poultry meat 321,1 307,4 282,4 276,8 86,2
Dairy cow milk* 72586 76604 72859 74270 102,3
Sheep+Goat milk* 4703 4912 5285 6138 130,5
Extracted honey 74,5 84,8 112,1 124,0 166,4
Chicken eggs** 9714 9312 8567 8426 86,7
• hl; ** - mill. pieces

The most significant increases were recorded for “extracted honey” and
“sheep and goats meat and milk”, while for other products the increases were smaller.

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The destination of animal production was oriented mainly towards the


free market.
For example, in average for the 5 years under analysis, 47,3 % of beef
production was sold on the free market, 40,7 % was used in self-consumption,
while 12 % was destined for the state fund (fig. 2).
For honey, over 92 % of the total production was sold on the free market,
and the rest as used for self-consumption (fig. 3).
For the other products, the production destination was similar.
In the agro-economic area of Galati, most of the animal husbandry farms
are small (tab. 4).
DESTINATION OF BEEF PRODUCTION BY
AGRO-ECONOMIC AREA

300
CANTITY (TONS)

250

200 State funds


150 Free market

100 Family use

50

0
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
YEARS
Fig. 2 Destination of beef production in the agro-economic area of Galati (2002-2006)

DESTINATION OF HONEY PRODUCTION BY


AGRO-ECONOMIC AREA

200

150
CANTITY(tons)

Family use
100
Free market
50

0
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
YEARS

Fig. 3 Destination of honey production in the agro-economic area of Galati


(2002-2006)

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Table 4
The size of the agricultural farms in the field of animal husbandry in the agro-economic area of Galati

Size of Species or category of animals


zootechnical Reproducing Sows and young Swine Goats Sheep Poultry
farms cows and heifer sows for breeding
num- heads number heads number heads number heads number heads num- heads
ber ber
Total of which: 2385 2992 701 713 - - - - - - - -
- with 1-2 heads 2349 2830 693 693 - - - - - - - -
- with 3-5 heads 31 102 8 20 - - - - - - - -
-over 5 heads 6 90 - - - - - - - - - -
Total of which: - - - - 3485 5425 - - - - - -
-under 3 heads - - - - 3478 5362 - - - - - -
-over 3 heads - - - - 7 62 - - - - - -
Total of which: - - - - - - 223 1466 - - - -
-under 10 heads - - - - - - 209 516 - - - -
-over 10 heads - - - - - - 14 950 - - - -
Total of which: - - - - - - - - 1183 14755 - -
-under 10 heads - - - - - - - - 1026 3450 - -
-11-20 heads - - - - - - - - 56 689 - -
-21-50 heads - - - - - - - - 30 746 - -
-50-100 heads - - - - - - - - 26 1854 - -
-over 100 heads - - - - - - - - 45 8642 - -
Total of which: - - - - - - - - - - 14847 276665
-under 25 heads - - - - - - - - - - 12466 187930
-26-50 heads - - - - - - - - - - 1532 48076
-51-100 heads - - - - - - - - - - 797 33159
-over 100 heads - - - - - - - - - - 52 7500

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For example, in the case of farms for “reproducing cows and heifer”,
farms with “1—2 animal heads” accounted for 98,5 %, those for “sows and
young sows for breeding”, 98,9 %.
In the case of “swine”, the most significant percentage is held by farms
with a livestock population of “under 3 heads” (99,8 %), for goats and sheep, the
farms with “under 10 heads” dominate (93,7 – 86,7 %) while in poultry farms,
84,0 % have a livestock population of “under 25 heads”.
All these examples demonstrate the fact that there is a possibility of
concentrating the livestock population in a small number of farms with a livestock
population that would insure the viability, sustainability, and efficiency of the
farms.
The development of animal husbandry in the agro-economic area of
Galati is tightly connected to the provisions of feed supplies (tab. 5).
From the data presented above, one can observe a negative phenomenon,
in the sense that the area used for feedlots has drastically diminished in 2006, only
23 ha being cultivated. In exchange, as a consequence of the fact that the medium
production of perennial feedlots marked a significant increase, the total
production increased with approximately 20 %, insuring, in general, an increase
with over 7 %.

Table 5
The evolution of the feedlot in the agro-economic area of Galati

Specification Measur 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 %/2002


ement
unity
Total area with ha 2253 2238 2300 2305 2108 93,6
fodder plants of
which:
-perennial cultures ha 1931 1931 1883 1888 2085 108,0
-annual cultures ha 322 307 417 417 23 7,1
Total production tons 43880 44813 52895 42056 46821 106,7
of which: m.v.
-perennial cultures tons 38717 39413 48267 36718 46621 120,4
m.v.
-annual cultures tons 5163 5400 4628 5338 200 3,9
m.v.

It is estimated that the total production of fresh feed and the stock of feed
sorts recorded at the beginning of the hibernation period (1st of November) covers
the monthly requirements for consumption until a new harvest for the livestock
population of cattle, sheep+goats, and horses.
Regarding the succulent feed from root crops, one can notice a deficit for
the hibernating period which is compensated by the surplus of gross feeds (cobs

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 51 seria Zootehnie

and straws), as well as by the secondary products obtained in the processing


industry (spent brewer’s grain, beet noodles).
The concentrated cultivated feeds used in the feed intakes for pigs and
poultry, insure the feeding of the livestock population until the new harvest.
Within the National Program “The sustainable development of the
animal husbandry and of the efficiency of the animal production field, as well
as the rehabilitation of aquaculture in Romania”, in Galati a county program
of rehabilitation of natural grassland was funded, as an integral part of the
National Program for the period between 2005-2008.
Within this program, the owners of natural grassland (town halls and
landlords) have established actions and measures which, applied between 2005-
2008, would lead to the rehabilitation of natural grasslands (tab. 6).
Because between 2005-2006 the sources for financing were only local
budgets, the regeneration actions for natural grasslands and the fertilization with
chemical substances were used on small areas.

Table 6
Actions for the rehabilitation of natural grasslands between 2005-2008

2005 Program
Specification Program Reali- 2006 2007 2008
sed
Regeneration of natural 2010 20 2500 3100 3400
grasslands of which:
-inseminations 810 10 1050 1300 1400
-over inseminations 1200 10 1450 1800 2000
Chemical fertilizations 6847 1872 7950 10500 11000
Organic fertilizations 19000 19622 19500 20000 20500
Amendments application 50 - 50 50 100
Maintenance works 40972 40848 40972 40972 40972
Deforesting 265 - - - -
Drainage 100 - 150 150 150
Fighting against soil erosion 100 - 150 150 150

At the same time, the town halls in the agro-economic area of Galati, as
well as the whole county, have felt the lack of technical and economic
management for the actions and measures for the rehabilitation of natural
grasslands, which they had under administration.

CONCLUSIONS
1. The agro-economic area of Galaţi presents favourable conditions for livestock
breeding, which explains the increase tendency of livestock population
(except poultry) during the period subject for analysis. Between the years

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2002-2006, the level of investments in the zootechnical field was rather low
and concentrated mainly (79.6 %) to the localities Schela and Galaţi.
2. The total production obtained for the main animal products presented a
positive trend with the exception of poultry products for which the tendency
was contrary.
3. Over 90 % of the total animal production in the agro-economic area of Galaţi,
was sold on the free market, with few differences by categories of products.
4. The majority of zootechnical farms is small and very small, the phenomenon
of concentration by association being very weakly represented.
5. The structure of the feedlot, structurally speaking, does not correspond to the
requirements of insuring a scientific feeding with favourable effect on the
quality of the animal output.
6. For the rehabilitation of natural grasslands, the town halls and landlords have
appointed certain funds which were insufficient for applying certain actions
and measures (regenerations, fertilizations, inseminations, over inseminations,
amendments applications, fighting against soil erosion etc.).
7. In the future, measures for the financial support (from national and European
funds) for livestock producers in the agro-economic area of Galati are bound
to be taken in order to succeed in the major desideratum to provide the
population of Galati with fresh animal products.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Chiran A., Jităreanu G., 1994 – Le processus de réorganisation et de privatisation du secteur
agricole de la Roumanie. Lucr. şt. Univ. Agron. Iaşi, vol. 37, seria Agronomie.
2. Chiran A. şi colab., 1998 – The policy of rural development in România. Rev. Cercetări
agronomice în Moldova, vol. 3-4, Iaşi.
3. Chiran A. şi colab., 2000 – Aspecte tehnico-economice privind fermelwe familiale specializate
în creşterea taurinelor în zona de nord a Irlandei. Rev. Cercetări agronomice în Moldova,
vol. 3-4, Iaşi.
4. Chiran A., Dima Fl.-M., Gîndu Elena, 2007 – Marketing în agricultură. Ed. Alma Print, Galaţi.
5. Dima Fl.-M., Chiran A., Gîndu Elena, 2006 – Agricultura în zona agroeconomică Galaţi :
prezent şi tendinţe de viitor Lucr. şt. USAMV Iaşi, vol 49, seria Agronomie.
6. Lup A., 1998 – Consideraţii privind dimensiunea exploataţiilor agricole. Rev. Tribuna
economică, nr. 23, Bucureşti.
7. Otiman I.-P., 1997 – Dezvoltarea rurală în România. Ed. Artprint, Timişoara.
8. Petrache A., 2001 – Investiţiile în agricultură pe criterii de eficienţă. Rev. Tribuna economică, nr.
49, Bucureşti.
9. Timariu Gh., 1998 – Superioritatea economică şi socială a exploataţiilor mari asociative – din
experienţa germană. Rev. Tribuna economică, nr. 38, Bucureşti.
10. Zahiu Letiţia, 2001 – Dezvoltarea durabilă a agriculturii şi a spaţiului rural. Rev. Tribuna
economică, nr. 2, Bucureşti.

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 51 seria Zootehnie

GEOSYNTHETIC FIBBERS IN CONSTRUCTIONS


C. LEONTE, Doina LEONTE, A. GRUBER

Employ an ample documentation of speciality, in work it analysis


fonctions and role the syntetic fibers in constructions, in comparison which on
classic materials.
In trace investigation conclusion that the syntetic fibers because of, the
functiones and the special characteristics, together with the advantages imosed
their use in differet constructions works especially,: railway bed (for the slopes,
banks, barrages and dams consolidation), drainages, roads, earthwork for
railroad, ecological garbage containers.

Geosynthetic functiones
Sealing
Acting as liquid and gasbarrieres, geomembranes have become a
fundamental component in civil engineering, due to the heightened need for
groundwater protection. High density polyethylene(HDPE) geomembranes,
specifically those with a certification by government regulators and thickness’ of
more than 1,5 mm, are most commonly used.Personnel from those companies that
have been approved by the certyfing agency, are employed to both deploy and
weld the geomembranes where an area needs to be sealed. For sealing purposes in
road constructions and environmental protection, HDPE geomembranes and
geosynthetic clay liners are gaining use due to the importance of a quality seal.

Protection
Geomembranes, structures, coated materials as well as related
construction elements must often be protected from potential mechanical
damage.Without suitable protection, damage may occur from sharp-edged objects
such as stones, from the unevenness of the subsoil or even by the cover material.
Mechanically bonded needle – punched nonwovens as well as composite
materials manufactured from poly propylene( PP) or (HDPE) are commonly used
for protections layers. Specific to nonwoven geotextiles, the protection function is

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directly related to the thickness and mass per unit area, as a heavier and thicker
nonwoven is more likely to provide better protection.

Drainage
Drainage materials are required for the surface collection and diversion of
grownd water, as well as the general collection of fluids and their discharge into a
drainage system. Drainage system are thypically designed with individual
material layers or in combination with other components to create pre-formed
composite drainage elements.Composite drainage elements consist of at least one
filter layer and one collection layer.The percolation layer is required for the flow
and discharge of fluids at a collection point, without the build-up of pressure.
Single and multiple component geosynthetic drainage system made from hight
density polyethylene as well as polypropylene often replace the conventional
thick aggregate drainage layer.

Erosion control
Single-component geosynthetic layer and tree – dimensional multi-
component composite material are used to prevent surface erosion.By preventing
soil particle from being washed off slopes or channels, rapid vegetation is
ensured when erosion control mats are used.

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 51 seria Zootehnie

Reinforcement
Geosynthetic are installed beneath or between soil layers to improve the
mechanical properties soil layers by absorbing the tensile foces and minimizing
deformation.Geotextiles, geogrids and composite synthetic materials are used in
application such as retaining structures according to the principles of “ reinforced
soil”, slope stabilization or for foundation reinforcement of earthen dams where
the subsoil exhibits poor bearing capacity. The use of geosynthetic for
reinforcement applications minimizes expensive constructive measures, can
readuce soil intermixing and eliminate the need for additional soil layer.

Separation
As a separation layer, geotextiles are used to prevent adjacent soil layers
or fill materials from intermixing. Synthetic nonwovens that exhibit an elongation
capacity, are the materials of choice in most applications.The selection of suitable
product is dependant upon the base course grain size and the operational loads to
be expected. The main use of separation nonwovens are in road and railway
construction, hydraulic and landfill engineering, and field construction.

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Filtration
In filtration applications such as hydraulic engineering drainage system,
nonwoven geotextiles are used to retain soil particles while allowing the passage
of liquids through the filter media. There are two aspects to filtration that should
be evaluated when designing. The mechanical filter efficiency( does the fabric
have sufficient soil retention capacity) and the hydraulic filter efficiency( does the
water discharge whitout a hydraulic pressure buil-up). As with aggregate filter
layers, the geotextile thickness directly benefits the long – term mechanical and
hydraulic efficiency of the filter.

CONCLUSION
For the construction of classified roads, geosynthetics are used to the
fulfill separation, reinforcement, filtration and drainage functions.
Separation and soil filter stability can by achivied using Secutex®
geotextiles, and the bearing capacity can by increased with either Secugrid® or
Combigrid®.
Other advantages of using Secutex® nonwoven geotextiles for the
constructions of concret pavements include the prevention of craks upon the
casting of the paving slab, cushioning the slab from vibration damage during
service, and protection against subgrade erosion.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. MAN T.,1996 – Piscicultural requirements, Timişoara, University Tehnique.
2. CONSTRUCTIV – Magazin of report in construction area , nr 3/2004.
3. ANTREPRENORUL – Magazin of construction , nr 4/2004.
4. www.naue.com

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 51 seria Zootehnie

ECOLOGICAL ALTERNATIVES TO ENHANCE


ENVIRONMENT CONDITIONS IN ZOOTECHNICAL UNITS
Doina LEONTE, Vasilica ONOFREI

Nowadays, an important problem for both agriculture and population is


the dejections administration and integration in the efficient agricultural circuit.
The purpouse of this paper is to show the efficiency of the active biological
products on prophylactics actions used on zootehnic sector, comparative polluted
consequence of decontaminations of chemical nature. As a studying material it
was utilized the Kopros product, produced by BIOMA company.
Treating zoo technical dejections by using the ecological product
KOPROS means the reduction of ammonia emanations, fighting larva and
insects, insuring optimal conditions for the animals’ growth and development
and finally, and implying a simultaneous humification process.
Conclusively, the achievement of ecological agricultural products in
conditions of high productivity and superior organoleptic qualities, allows an
efficient environment protection, by complete removal or assimilation of factors
harmful to the soil, the waters, the plants and animals, and above all, harmful to
the human being.

Integration of Romania in the European Union implies a greater


impotance given to deciding fators, but also to operators on all levels when it
comes to environment protection, ensuring a natural frame so as to stimulate a
harmonious development of plants and animals, without bringing about
environment changes which might harm the humans.
Obviously, this proof of responsibility towards nature, but also towards
our own health, could be achieved if we were willing to make important changes,
not only from a technological point of view, but also when it comes to
mentalities, by a high degree of information and by concrete involvement.
Nowadays, an important issue, not only for agriculture, but also for the
entire population, is the handling of dejections as well as their integration within
the productive agricultural circuit. Be it unorganized abandonment, or deposit on
a systematic platform, the presence of dejections can be easily „noticed”, due to
the unpleasant smell, the insects and birds, but also due to the degrading aspect of
the piece of land unadequately used.
Beyond this image susceptible to the senses, there are far more complex
phenomena, contaminating the soil and subsoil with harmful substances, which
could be completely eliminated only in decades or even centuries.
Futhermore, another complex issue is represented by wastewaters, for
which the current physical and chemical treatments applied practically replace
some harmful compounds with others less harmful, but with still unknown long-
term implications to our health, since the sediments coming from the water
treatment plants occupy ever increasing surfaces of land.

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Zootechnical units encounter major difficulties when it comes to the issue


of handling and reintegration if dejections, which rather often are discharged in
neighbouring rivers, being partially or even not all treated and containing high
amounts of ammonia and pathogenic agents.
After a thorough analysis of all these aspects, which have a negative
impact upon nature, but also upon the human beings, the GEOLIFE technology
created some products, which provide a biological treatment without the
contribution of chemical substances, and having significant results.
As part of its research programmes, GEOLIFE technology offered special
attention to the zootechnical and piscicultural field, where the hygiene conditions
and the environment safety play a fundametal role in ensuring productivity.
Widely acknowledged throughout the world is the product KOPROS
(photo 1), which is addressed to the treatments of zootechnical dejections, by
significantly reducing their corrosive and toxic impact. This treatment reduces
ammonia emissions, eliminates larvas and insects and ensures optimal conditions
for animal breeding, by achieving at the same time an accelerated humification
process.

Photo 1 – Presentation form for KOPROS product

KOPROS is 100% ecological, being represented through such cultures


like Aspergillus orizae and Bacillus thuringensis, free of salmonella, produced by
means of „Selected spontaneous culture” and far from any form of genetic
modifications.
Aspergillus orizae produces lipases, cellulases, proteases, which are more
active when the pH is lower in comparison to the corresponding enzymes,
significantly stretching therefore the field of activity of those enzymes.

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Bacillus thuringensis, present in lyophilized form, produces endotoxins


(biotoxins) for the control of insects, by means of the direct interaction between
its own biochemical complex and the metabolism of the insect in larvar stage.
As hydrolitic catalyzers KOPROS contains amylases, which hydrate, liquify
and digest the substrate containing amides, transforming it into simpler, more
soluble sugars.
These bacteria cultures are not pathogenic, and therefore KOPROS is not
toxic for humans, animals or the environment.
KOPROS is made up of a biocatalitic mix which allows the symbiosis
activity, and also contains species of microorganisms, which multiply in that
environment and which catalyze naturally and atoxically all organic substances
from zootechnical dejections.
These microorganisms cause and accelerate the speed of oxido-reductive
reactions degrading organic compounds, do not destroy themselves during the
reactive process and remain active in time. Furthermore, they may reproduce very
rapidly.
As a result of the final reaction, one obtains carbon anhydride, water and
other bacteria, with the following consequences:
• the removal of ammonia emissions from shelters and the subsequent fresh air
supply (the enzymes produced by the bacteria contained in KOPROS rapidly
interact, using the organic nitrogen in dejections, which is turned into stable
nitrogen, thus preventing the appearance of ammonia nitrogen);
• the removal of ammonia from zootechnical shelters occurs very rapidly
(values which range among 80 – 100 p.p.m. to 0 p.p.m.);
• the removal of dangerous and harmful rotting formations;
• the pathogenic germs control;
• the removal of insects (present in pits, basins and dejections), of their eggs
and larvas – one should take into account the fact that each fly in summertime
may lay up to 10,000 eggs every 20 days, which within a month become adult
and 20 days later lay another approx. 10,000 eggs;
• the enrichment of nutritious values N-P-K in the garbage pit, and the
mineralization of organic substances for cultures and for humificated land,
rapidly degrading residues from the anterior culture, generally speaking
animal and vegetal rests;
• the immediate use of dung, in order to improve land fertility;
• the maintainance of clean straw beds for a long period of time;
• the removal of organic crusts from shelters and lattice works, turning the
crusts into liquid materials easy to clean;
• decrustation of basins from dejections;
• decrustation of canals, pumps, mechanic tools;
• decrustation of shelters, feeders and panels that separate the docks;
• reduction of energy consumption with about 50% when it comes to running
the water treatment plants.

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European norms and the ever increasing interest for products achieved in
atoxical conditions grant the strong belief that chemical-free products may find
their aplicability also in the field of stock raising.
Investing for the future depends a lot on the way and concept we decide
to follow, which may fullfil many of the imposed exigencies, having a medium or
long-term positive impact not only on the environment, but also on our health.

CONCLUSIONS

• By reducing ammonia emissions, by exerting control upon larvas and insects,


by decrustating the surfaces and by means of liquifying dejections, the use of
biologically active products creates optimal conditions for stock raising.
• The enzymes produced by bacteria cultures generated by KOPROS product
naturally and atoxically catalyze all organic substances from zootechnical
dejections.
• The microorganisms from the KOPROS product do not destroy themselves
during the reactive process, but remain active in timp, furthermore being able
to reproduce very rapidly.
• The achievement of ecological agricultural products in conditions of high
productivity and superior organoleptic qualities, allows an efficient
environment protection, by complete removal or assimilation of factors
harmful to the soil, the waters, the plants and animals, and above all, harmful
to the human being.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
***, 2007 – Presentation materials - BIOMA Co
*** - Law no. 5/29 June 1989 concerning rational management, protection and safeguard of water
quality
*** - Law regarding quality of drinking water 458/ 8 July 2002
*** - Law 311/28 July 2004 concerning changes and additions to Law 458/ 8 July 2002 concerning
quality of drinking water
*** - Emergency decree concerning environment protection 195/22 December 2005.

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SIZES OF THE RURAL TOURISM AND OF AGROTOURISM


ON EUROPEAN LEVEL
Mirela Salvia MITULESCU

The rural tourism and the agrotourism have had a different evolution
from one European country to another. The developed countries created their
own national programs to support the development of these branches of tourism.
Since the development of this activity started in the 80’s, the number of
participating farms doubled in countries such as Italy, France and Great Britain.
The number of agro-tourist farms exceeds 600.000; the percentage of the farms
which offer tourist services is 8% in Western Germany, 4% in Holland and 2% in
France and Italy. Austria exceeds the percentage of 10% due to its 300.000
farms, and in Sweden and Switzerland the percentage of the farms that offer
tourist services is 20%.
The promotion of the rural tourism and agrotourism ranges among the
political, economic and financial objectives of the European Union, mainly due
to the positive effects which the development of these sectors may generate at
economic and social level in the European villages.

GENERAL ASPECTS
The rural tourism and the agrotourism constitute two concepts which have
their own history. The rural tourism and the agrotourism start gaining more and
more grounds related to the preferences of the tourists both in the European
countries as well as in the rest of the highly industrialized countries. The
pollution of the great cities, the daily stress, the rediscovery of the authentic
culture constitute the reasons for choosing to spend the holidays at the country
side. The studies show that every fourth European spends his holidays at the
country side. (2)
In the last years more and more of the developed countries created their
own national programs of support for the development of the activities of rural
tourism and agrotourism adapted to the resources available to them.
As a result of that spectacular evolution, more and more persons from the
rural environment are interested in developing activities of rural tourism and
agrotourism. In this context the majority of the European countries pay increased
attention to developing the rural tourism and especially the agrotourism.
If we make reference strictly to Europe, we notice there are a series of
reasons which were the basis of developing the activities of rural tourism and
agrotourism:
• The change in the behavior of the hikers;
• The promotion of the forms of tourism which seeks economic
development of the rural areas;
• The need for protecting the environment;

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• The elaboration of certain strategies for development of these forms of


tourism (3)
With the integration in the European Union, with the increase of the
incomes and reduction of the work hours, the money funds register increases, and
the time allotted to travels increases. These are only a few of the indicators which
denote the real situation in the field. Particularly the statistics record the fact that
in the last years the travels in Europe register significant increases, and the
expansion of the European Union creates the conditions for their continuous
growth. The concern for the environment protection which is stressed more and
more stimulates the development of the rural tourism and especially of the
agrotourism.
The development of the rural regions within the context of the European
evolution involves:
• Varied types of accommodation offers;
• Supply with agroalimentary products;
• Contact with the folk art, trades and local folklore, etc.;
• Environment protection;
• Work places paid in the rural environment;
• infrastructure (3)

By harmonizing these elements one laid the foundations for the field
activities.
By expanding the area of interest one may observe that the situation is
similar on other continents as well, where one of the tourism branches is the rural
tourism.
The services provided aim mainly at satisfying the tourists’ needs. The
international tourist fluxes “represent one of the most dynamic components of the
international economic changes’. (4)

RURAL TOURISM AND AGROTOURISM IN EUROPE


The rural tourism and agrotourism have had a different evolution from
one European country to another. By following the models of other countries, the
more developed countries from Europe also created their own national programs
to support the development of these branches of tourism.(1) To these programs
one adds also the numerous laws and publications which regulate this field. In
general, the countries which become component of the European Union are
guided by the valid regulations in the process of development of the services.
All the valid legislative regulations, national and international programs
converge to the improvement on one side of the services in order to meet the
demands of the customers (infrastructure, accommodation, meal, possibilities for
spending spare time, etc.), and on the other side, towards creating/offering these

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services without harming the environment, with a view to protecting it so that the
next generations may also benefit from the existent resources.
The tendency to shift from the mass tourism to the individual tourism, as
well as the modification of the preferences regarding the holidays’ time,
determined the actors of the field to offer alternative services.
By mid 80’s the rural tourism was registered on top of the preferences of
the tourists of Europe with an average of 25% of the population which preferred
the holidays in the rural environment. Here are some of the tourist destinations
preferred by the tourists from the countries of the European Union:

Table 1
Types of tourist destinations

Country Rural Mountain Cities Seaside


areas (%) (%) (%)
(%)
Belgium 25 19 5 55
Denmark 35 14 40 42
Spain 27 19 27 53
France 29 27 18 51
Greece 8 1 20 70
Ireland 27 8 37 46
Italy 11 24 19 58
Luxemburg 19 29 17 62
Holland 39 32 21 36
Portugal 29 8 24 62
Germany 34 30 15 44
Great Britain 29 13 19 58
EU average 25 23 19 52
Source: Europeans and their Holidays, Commissions of the European Communities

The operators from the rural tourism and agrotourism began to focus on
activities such as: visits to farms, nature walks, sports activities, in general
activities oriented towards health.
Ever since the development of this activity began, in the 80’s, the number
of participating farms doubled in countries such as: Italy, France and Great
Britain. The number of agrotourist farms exceeds 600.000, the percentage of the
farms which provide tourist services is 8% in Western Germany, 4% in Holland
and 2% in France and Italy. In Great Britain, more than 15% of the total amount
of farms officially recorded is involved in tourist activities. Spain, which is one of
the main tourist centers of the world, does not have the farm tourism developed
yet. Austria exceeds the percentage of 10% by its over 30.000 farms and 300.000
accommodation units. In countries such as Sweden and Switzerland, the
percentage is 20%.

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By mid 90’s, 12 European countries- Belgium, Denmark, Greece,


Holland, Portugal, Spain, Ireland, Great Britain, Italy, Austria, France and
Germany had over 100.000 farms included in the tourist circuit. (10)
Another relevant aspect which resulted from these reorientations
constitutes the focus on promoting the specific services. Thus, the rural tourist
products and those from agrotourism find their place in the brochures and
catalogues of the European tour-operators.(5)
The complexity of a program for tourist development involves the
unfurling in parallel of certain programs of marketing and financing.
Starting from these reasons, an important initiative of the European Union
constitutes the programs intended for rural development, which have as purpose
the promotion of the activities complementary to those from agriculture in rural
areas and the supporting of local project for development.
Such programs take place at European level. Among the most relevant we
mention:
• PHARE Programs – an initiative of the European Community, which
supports financially the countries from central and western Europe and
aims at: development of rural tourism from the point of view of global
economic development, local economic development as well as the
development of the agricultural sector.
• SAPARD Program – by which one aims at finalizing the agrarian reform
by creation of infrastructures compatible with a developed market
economy; creation of the infrastructure of the agricultural sector;
intensification of the investments in the field; development of the
relations between the households suppliers of raw material and processing
enterprises; achievement of a viable crediting system for the agricultural
sector;
• The structural Funds for the rural tourism – The European Fund for
Regional Development (EAFRD) – intended for development of
infrastructure;
- The Social European
Fund (SEF) – intended for forming and capitalization of the human
resources from the rural environment;
- The European Fund
of Orientation and Agricultural Guarantee (EFOAG) – intended for
regional and local development of the rural settlements;
- Action Group
LEADER - which aims at organizing seminars, exchange of experts,
study visits, transfer of information and statistic data, with a view to
developing this branch of tourism;
- Community program
undertaken by „EUROAGRITOUR” – which reunites the representatives
of the national syndicates of the farmers with a view to debating the

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social, fiscal problems from the field of tourism within the existent
agricultural exploitations;
- „The Village I love”
Program, organized by EUROTER – intended for promoting the
agrotourist products at European level;
-„EUROPEAN
RURAL TOURISM NETWORK” program initiated by EUROGITES,
EUROTER, in cooperation with 12 other organizers from rural tourism
from 9 European countries- it includes 3 components: knowledge of the
European market from the field, formation of a network of tourist
dwellings in the rural space of Germany, Spain, Hungary, Portugal an
Czech Republic as well as informing about the existence of the network
and the promotion of the provided services;
-„Rural Lodging”
program, initiated by „Federation de Gites de Wallonie” – which had as
purpose the persuasion of the owners from the rural environment to renew
and modernize the dwellings, so that then they may include them in the
rural tourist circuit;
- „INTERREGIONAL
CELTIC COOPERATION” Program – which sought the promotion of
the rural and cultural tourism of 8 agricultural regions from Spain,
France, Ireland, Great Britain, focusing on culture and elements of
history;
- „DATA BASE OF
RURAL TOURISM SERVICES” Program - which had as purpose the
achievement of a data base regarding the quantity and quality of services
from the rural tourism;
- „TRAINING
SEMINAR FOR RURAL TOURISM OPERATOR” program, initiated by
The Commission for Agriculture and Rural Tourism within the European
Union, involved the organization of 5 seminars of professional training of
the operators from the rural tourism (Denmark, Ireland, Great Britain,
Poland, Hungary).
- EXPERT Program –
which sustained projects from countries such as: Belgium, Czech
Republic, Cyprus, Germany Luxemburg, Poland, Sweden, Hungary,
focusing on durable development of the targeted areas.

- Program for INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT OF


THE RURAL TOURISM – represent the third stage of the
strategy of the European Union for durable development of the
rural tourism and benefits from the LEADER strategy and the
structural funds;

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- „AGRICULTURE-ENVIRONMENT -TOURISM”
Program– elaborated by France, Italy, Spain and Belgium aimed
at opening agriculture towards other activities (1,5)

The support granted by promoting the economic and financial facilities,


as well instituted as the examples of good practice made so that, more and more
farmers became aware of the advantages brought by the involvement in the tourist
activities. The achieved studies in the countries where the rural tourism has an
extended tradition, underline a tight correlation between the sizes of the
accommodation offer, the degree of modernization of the households as well as of
the development of the respective zones.
In the majority of the European countries the rural tourism benefits from
the income tax exemption for a determined period of time, and the initiatives of
the farmers who wish to carry out tourist activities are supported by granting
credits funded by regional organizations or by the European Union. For example,
in Austria, the localities homologated as “tourist recreation villages” are
supported by the Ministry of Trade and Reconstruction and by the Ministry of
Agriculture and Forestry, by granting credits with small interest. Aside from that
one adds the 40% contribution granted by the tourism agencies for publicity.
In countries such as Belgium, Luxemburg, France, Portugal and Spain the
rural tourism is supported by public financial support. (7)
Regarding the tourist offer, this varies from one country to another. The
most pronounced diversification of the tourist product is recorded in countries
such as: France, Ireland, Great Britain, Spain, and while in countries such as:
Germany, Austria, Belgium, Holland, Denmark, Italy, the agrotourism is
predominant, by means of arranged farms.
Preoccupied by achieving a common economic and monetary market, the
European Union promotes the durable development, the growth of the quality of
life, the economic and social cohesion. (7)
In many European countries the efforts of the governments for sustaining
the rural tourism are obvious.

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Table 2
Stimulation of the development of the rural tourism

Country Possibilities of stimulation of the development of the rural tourism


Belgium The regional authorities grant facilities for 30% of the total costs for
projects
Denmark The government supports The National Association for Agrotourism
offering a fixed sum each year.
France The regional authorities support the initiatives of the new enterprisers from
the rural environment; likewise it offers professional support for the
marketing activities and studies of feasibility; the regional and national
authorities support the associations from the rural tourism establishing an
annual sum.
Greece The projects from the rural tourism of the Region Pertra Kersov were
supported by the government, local authorities and EU.
Ireland The Agency for Development of Tourism in the rural areas „Ballyhoura
Failte Society” is financed by the government, local authorities and EU.
Italy The Association of Agrotourism is financed by the government.
Holland Several associations from the field are financed by the government.
Germany The support granted for the development of the rural tourism is distributed
on multiple levels: Bayern is financed by the government Niedersachsen by
the regional authorities; Hessen by the regional authorities; Baden
Wurtemberg by the regional authorities; Rheinland Pfalz by the regional
authorities and other sources, etc.
Portugal The general office for torurism has a developed system for supporting the
initial investments in the rural areas.
Spain „Galice-Investments” bears up to 30% of the total costs of the investments;
„Asturies” – 30% of the total costs of the investments; „Catalogne” and
„Canaries” grant subventions for the cultural and ethnographic shows in
localities which have less than 2000 inhabitants. The Basque Association
of Agrotourism is financed by EU.
Great There is a special involvement of the regional and national authorities in
Britain developing the rural areas: The Department of Environment, Alimentation
and Rural Businesses (DEFRA) included the development of the rural
tourism in the various development schemes.
Austria The government grants support or is not interested in levying taxes for the
new investors; also grants indemnities.
Source: Krizman-Pavlovic, D. (2001) – Turizam na seoskim gospodarstvima, Marketing.

It is obvious that many European countries have a positive attitude


regarding the support of the initiatives that aim at the development of the rural
tourism due to the multiple advantages of this strategy in the development of the
rural areas. Apart from the interest that each country shows for the development
of the tourism in the rural areas a series of initiatives for this purpose of OECD,
EU and other profile institutions are added.(9)

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The proposal of the Council of the Community for achievement of a


strategy for Rural Development (2007-2013) focuses on the development of the
rural tourism offering opportunities for the development of the micro-businesses
from the rural economy.
According to the European Commission, the general Directorate for
Agriculture, in the year 2001, 5.556 projects approved for diversification of the
agricultural activities were recorded, of which 1.682 projects, representing a
percentage of 30% were for agrotourism.
In the year 2002 there were 10.529 projects of which 7% were for
agrotourism and in 2003 there were 28.042 projects approved of which 4% for
agrotourism. (9)

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Alecu, I. N., Constantin, M.,– Agroturism şi marketing agroturistic, Editura Ceres, Bucureşti,
2006;
2. Bran, Florina, Marin, D., Simon, Tamara – Turismul rural – modelul european, Editura
Economică, Bucureşti, 1997;
3. Buciuman, E., – Economia turismului rural şi a agroturismului, Editura Pro Transilvania,
Alba – Iulia, 1999;
4. Cristureanu, Cristiana – Strategii şi tranzacţii în turismul internaţional, Editura C. H. Beck,
Bucureşti, 2006;
5. Glăvan, V. - Turism rural – agroturism – turism durabil – ecoturism, Editura Economică,
Bucureşti, 2003;
6. Krizman-Pavlovic, D. – Turizam na seoskim gospodarstvima, Marketing, 2001;
7. Petrea, Rodica, Petrea D.– Turism rural, Presa Universitară Clujeană, Cluj-Napoca, 2000;
8. *** Commissions of the European Communities – Europeans and their holidays;
9. *** OECD, 1994 – Tourism Strategies and Rural Development, Paris;
10. http://www.rural-europe.aeidl.be.

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PRESENT SITUATION OF THE RURAL TOURISM


IN ROMANIA
Mirela Salvia MITULESCU

Over the last years, in Romania, rural tourism has known an increasing
evolution. The main types of structures of rural tourism are: halting places, motels,
guesthouses, campings, holiday villages. In 2007, the offer for rural tourism is
represented at the level of 8 development regions. These regions are heterogeneous
regarding the touristic potential and development.
The development of rural tourism has an important influence on economy.
In addition to economical aspects, the rural tourism has also a social and cultural
component , by developing communication relations between tourists and natives, by
taking part to the education of young tourists regarding the cultural-instructive role
and widening the sphere oh human knowledge regarding rural environment.

INTRODUCTION

The apparition of the classic tourism followed by the development of


rural tourism and agro tourism in the last years is strongly connected to creating
“some economical and social conditions we call premises of their occurrence”. (1)
Among these premises there are: the increasing of the urban population, vacations
/ free time the employees have, increase of the population’s income, the non-
diversified offers of the classical tourism, the access to fast means of transport,
etc.
The National Agency for Rural and Cultural Tourism (ANTREC)
defines tourism as representing “all tourist activities performed in the countryside
in order to benefit from the natural and human potential in the villages”. (4) The
rural tourism is a particular form of tourism based on a certain “art” of welcoming
the tourist, it is a “mood” that implies hospitality from the rural community and
respect for the rural environment from the tourists. (5) This type of tourism is
characterized by three elements: “rural space, people and products”. (6) The rural
space is represented by the rural places, natural resource and the types of
accommodation. People represent the human resources implied in offering tourist
services (accommodation, food, traditions, customs, etc.) The products are
represented by the tourist products themselves, attractions that are the subject of
the tourist activities.
Thus, the rural tourism has as performing place the countryside and
appears as a background for relaxing vacations in nature. The rural tourism can be
considered as a possible alternative to enliven some villages, traditions, handcrafts
and customs. The rural tourist spaces are different according to the existent
resources, the usage of the land, the tourist activities performed, etc. The
following specific categories can be distinguished: rural houses – represented by
the place itself; forests, water, agricultural lands. (5)

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FEATURES OF RURAL TOURISM


There are a series of factors of influence in the occurrence and
development of this form of tourism: pollution of the urban environment, worsen
the health problems of the population; scenery and the new of rural places; the
exceptional diverse offer of the mountainous areas; the need to refresh in non-
polluted areas; reduce of the work week; access to new opportunities of spending
the free time; prices accessible for any category of consumers; increase of interest
for the traditional food; households and farms in the rural environment have an
extra dwelling place (2).
Next, we present some characteristics that differentiate the rural tourism
from the classical tourism.(table 1)
Table 1
Differences between the activities specific to the classical tourism and
those to the rural tourism
No. Activities specific to classical tourism Activities specific to rural tourism
1. Social economical activities in resorts Social economical activities mainly
and tourist cities agricultural and forestry
2. Increased density of the built space in Decreased density of the built space in
the inner area the inner area
3. High level of residents’ density Low level of residents’ density
4. Quantitative dense infrastructure Quantitative reduced infrastructure
5. Buildings with modern architecture Buildings with regional and local
architecture
6. Multiple, autonomous tourist activities Complementary tourist activities
7. Significant distance between Closeness between residence and daily
residence and work place activities
8. Reduced season High season
9. Anonymous, interpersonal Close, individualized relationships with
relationships with the tourists the tourists
10. Complex forms of administration and Simplified forms of administration and
accountability accountability
11. Multiple possibilities of promoting Reduced possibilities of promoting and
and selling tourist services selling tourist services
Source: Alecu I. N., Constantin M., 2006, page 67

In particular, the complementary activities performed by the tourist


services suppliers in the countryside are the following: trip in nearby places,
mountain tracking, climbing, explorations in wild areas, walking or boating, ski
fond, ski on slopes; travel by carts; cycling, riding horses, watching the nature,
taking photos (vegetation, animals), watching the scenery, getting to know the
rural patrimony, knowing the collectivity, the rural holidays, fishing, hunting,
nature sports, jogging, aerobics. (2,3)
The rural tourism has a larger frame then the other forms of tourism. In
Romania you can meet all types of welcoming at European standards.

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The main structures developed in the rural tourism are: holiday villages
with centers of villas and bungalows for individual or group accommodation,
around common places of dining and spending the time; tourist halting places,
represented by hotels for passing by tourists, near certain tourist tracks, with a few
rooms and a restaurant; motels for tourists who travel by cars; rustic hotels as
pavilions; camping for tents or caravans; pensions which have more rooms then
the halting places and rooms for preparing and serving dinner.(table 2)
Table 2
Types of establishments of tourist reception with functions of tourist accommodation
– on types of structures within rural tourism
-Number-
Types of establishments of
tourist reception with functions 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
of tourist accommodation
TOTAL 1846 2046 2125 2184 2496
Motels 137 143 149 161 154
Tourist inns 16 16 15 11 9
Tourist villas 669 676 691 716 742
Bungalows 259 265 279 305 297
Holiday villages 1 2 2 3 2
Campings 71 74 72 3 2
Tourist halting places 11 15 25 29 31
Rural tourist boarding houses* 682 781 892 956 1259
*Including agrotourist boarding houses
Source: reference – National Institute of Statistics – „Romanian Tourism” in
Figures, 2005.
- National Institute of Statistics – „Romanian Tourism” in
Figures, 2007.

The analysis of the overall evolution of tourist welcoming structures with


accommodation shows a significant increase of the number of villas and pensions
(including the agro tourist pensions). The most spectacular increases were recorded
for the rural tourist pensions, from 682 in the year 2002 to 1259 in 2006.
As regards the number of places in tourist pensions, they increased
progressively from 6219 in 2002 to 14551 in 2006.(table 3)

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Table 3
Existing accommodation capacity on types of structures within rural tourism
-Number of bed places-
Types of establishments of
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
tourist reception
TOTAL 63790 63447 64919 66071 69443
Motels 5812 5795 5992 6189 5725
Tourist inns 422 378 385 292 278
Tourist villas 16669 16464 16107 15157 16005
Bungalows 4584 4769 4854 4963 4698
Holiday villages 36 56 56 266 110
Campings 29263 27598 26894 26568 26962
Tourist halting places 785 877 1226 1485 1114
Rural tourist boarding 6219 7510 9405 11151 14551
houses*
*Including agrotourist boarding houses
Source: reference – National Institute of Statistics – „Romanian Tourism” in
Figures, 2005.
- National Institute of Statistics – „Romanian Tourism” in
Figures, 2007.

TOURISTIC REGIONAL DIVISION OF GUESTHOUSES


In Romania the offer of rural tourism (8) from 2007 is represented at a
level of eight developing regions. These regions are heterogeneous concerning the
potential and the valuing of tourism. The regions are delimited in the following
way:
The Region of North-East of Moldova has guesthouses affiliated to
ANTREC in the following counties:
- Bacău county: 16 guesthouses;
- Iaşi county: 5 guesthouses;
- Neamţ county: 26 guesthouses;
- Suceava county: 28 guesthouses.
The Region of South -East has guesthouses affiliated to ANTREC in
the following counties:
- Buzău county: 18 guesthouses;
- Constanţa county: 13 guesthouses;
- Galaţi county: 2 guesthouses;
- Tulcea county: 22 guesthouses;
- Vrancea county: 53 guesthouses.
The Region of South - Muntenia has guesthouses affiliated to
ANTREC in the following counties:
- Argeş county: 16 guesthouses;

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- Dâmboviţa county: 6 guesthouses;


- Giurgiu county : 1 guesthouses;
- Prahova county: 13 guesthouses.

The Region of South – West Oltenia has guesthouses affiliated to


ANTREC in the following counties:
- Dolj county: 1 guesthouses;
- Gorj county: 54 guesthouses;
- Mehedinţi county: 22 guesthouses;
- Vâlcea county: 17 guesthouses.

The Region of West has guesthouses affiliated to ANTREC in the


following counties:
- Caraş Severin county: 13 guesthouses;
- Hunedoara county: 6 guesthouses;
- Timiş county: 2 guesthouses.

The Region of North - West has guesthouses affiliated to ANTREC in


the following counties:

- Bihor county: 27 guesthouses;


- Bistriţa-Năsăud county: 16 guesthouses;
- Cluj county: 20 guesthouses;
- Maramureş county: 16 guesthouses;
- Sălaj county: 4 guesthouses.

The Central Region has guesthouses affiliated to ANTREC in the


following counties:
- Alba county: 73 guesthouses;
- Braşov county: 79 guesthouses;
- Covasna county: 21 guesthouses;
- Harghita county: 44 guesthouses;
- Mureş county: 3 guesthouses;
- Sibiu county: 22 guesthouses.

Bucharest – Ilfov Region has guesthouses affiliated to ANTREC in the


following counties:
- Ilfov county: 6 guesthouses;
- Bucharest-2 guesthouses.

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CONCLUSIONS
We can conclude that the rural tourism in Romania has had an
ascendant evolution lately. This evolution occurs as a result of improving the
economical, social and cultural conditions, valuing the existent resources that
helped to make viable strategies of intervention. There is also the permanent
tendency to improve the infrastructure, and the structure of quantitative and
qualitative elements that are components of tourist activities.
The development of rural tourism has an influence on the economical
plan but also on the social and cultural plan. It has a major contribution to the
economic life of the village by: the possibility to accomplish a developing policy
on a long term, and the policies in the agriculture, infrastructure and environment
protection. It also offers a support for developing new business, having an effect
on the growth of jobs locally, it encourages the local traditional activities, values
the local resources (preparing the agro alimentary products for trade and tourists’
consumption), aspect that contributes to the increase of the villagers’ income and
the quality of life in the countryside. (7,1)
Besides the economical aspects, the rural tourism has a social
component and a cultural one too, especially by developing the communication
between tourists and villagers, by the contribution to the education of young
tourists about the cultural-educative role of the countryside, the intercultural
exchange and the integration of the tourist in the rural society in order to discover
an authentic and new lifestyle.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Alecu, I. N., Constantin, M., – Agroturism şi marketing agroturistic, Editura Ceres,
Bucureşti, 2006;
2. Bran, Florina, Istrate, I., – Economia turismului şi mediul înconjurător, Editura
Economică, Bucureşti, 1996;
3. Bran, Florina, Simon, Tamara, Nistoreanu, P.– Ecoturism, Editura Economică,
Bucureşti, 2000;
4. Cândea, Melinda, Bran, Florina – Spaţiul geografic românesc, Editura Economică,
Bucureşti, 2001;
5. Petrea, Rodica, Petrea D. – Turism rural, Presa Universitară Clujeană, Cluj-Napoca,
2000;
6. Petroman, I, Petroman, P.– Turismul cultural, Editura Eurostampa, Timişoara, 2005;
7. Tacu, A, P, Glăvan, V.,– Turismul rural românesc. Actualitate şi perspectivă,
Editura Pan Europe, Iaşi, 1999;
8.*** Catalogul Naţional al Pensiunilor Turistice şi Agroturistice, ANTREC, 2007;
9. *** INS – Turismul României. Breviar statistic, 2005;
10. *** INS – Turismul României. Breviar statistic, 2007.

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THE EXPERIENCE OF GERMANY AND CROATIA IN THE


RURAL TOURISM AND AGROTOURISM
Mirela Salvia MITULESCU

In Germany, the only farm of accommodation in the rural environment is


the habitation for tourists within the agricultural farm. There are approximately
20.000 agricultural exploitations which possess accommodation rooms within the
farms, and on lands the number of rooms made available for the tourists rise to
440.000.
In Croatia, the majority of the family farms are small; have between 1 and 5
ha compared to the farms available in the neighbouring countries. The family farms
which begin the tourist activity reduce the agricultural production. This is a
drawback which drew the attention and for which one tries to identify viable
solutions for solving certain possible problems which may occur.

THE EXPERIENCE OF GERMANY IN RURAL TOURISM AND


AGROTOURISM
The organization of trips in villages began in Germany since 1965. In
Germany there are two organizations which militate for farmer’s interests –
German Society for Agriculture (DLG), which offers certificates to the houses
which accomplishes the conditions for the inclusion in the circuit of tourist’s offer
and the organization for Public viewpoint Stimulation (IMA). (2,4)
In 1990 in Germany it was established “The work group for vacation in
peasantry household and rural tourism” (ANG), which has as purpose the
elaboration of a strategy for tourism promotion and of rural tourism in peasantry
household. (8)
In Germany, the only type of accommodation in rural environment is the
house for tourists as part of agrarian farm. There are about 20 000 agrarian
exploitations which have accommodation places as parts of the farms, and on the
provinces the number of the rooms available for the tourists rise up to 440 000.
The most of the accommodation places are in Bayern provinces – 10 000, here
being the most of the rooms 50 000. The tourists are in the large majority from
Germany and they come from middle social class. The tourists from Belgium and
Holland choose to spend their holidays in Germany. (1)
The main items identified with the occasion of accomplishing of a study
regarding the development of agrotourism and marketing instruments in
agrotourism in Germany are the followings:
• the existence of varied instruments which promote the investment and
planning in agrotourism;
• the existence of some associations which promote the tourism services
on the market;
• initiatives which sustain the development of agrotourism;

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• the existence of quality standards defined by the German agrarian


society, which stand on the basis of specific activities.
In Germany some programs sustain the investment promotion or taking
the conceptual measurements in agrotourism field for agrarian areas. Beside the
direct subsidies the farmers can as well get loans for activities initiation in area.
Thus, the existence of LEADER program supports the development of
agrotourism both directly and indirectly through specifically projects. (6)
As it can be seen, all implied actors in offering services in rural tourism
area and agrotourism from Germany give a special attention to the capitalization
of those rural areas where there are villages and bucolic farms very well
maintained. It is estimated that 20% from peasant’s income who rents rooms
comes from tourism. Rural tourism in Germany exerts a big influence over the
commerce and little industries both by selling agroalimentary products, and
through the investments for household’s modernization.
Starting from these correspondents the accent was set step by step on
activities diversification specific to rural tourism. On national level the action
“Holydays at bucolic farms” was initiated. The state sustains the initiatives of
interested persons for arranging the household for giving touring services.
Statistical data discloses the facts that as the result of this action were put at
tourist’s disposition in Schwartzwald region and in north side of Messen province
over 7500 beds, their number increasing annually. Another relevant aspect is the
fact that for the children is practiced big prices discounts. (4)
The state intervention in what regards giving financially support for rural
tourism development is made by central funds or provinces, this support being
given to the organizations. (3)

THE EXPERIENCE OF CROATIA IN RURAL TOURISM AND


AGROTOURISM
In the last years, in Croatia it is established an attitude change vis-à-vis of
rural tourism development. Besides the development of traditional tourism in little
Mediterranean rural settlements which interweave elements both from the urban
and rural life, the tourism develops in more rural settlements from the entire
country. There are small projects, named unofficially ”Etno-eco villages” which
aim the revitality of some abandoned villages. The sensitive point of these
projects is the fact that being artificially created the villages won’t have the spirit
of an alive rural community.
The increase of interest in rural tourism development can be the best
explained by the increase of household’s number which offers services to the
tourist. In 2002 there were registered 177 farms implied in different touring
activities. Of this number 68 of these are in the north-west side, in Istria area, 39
in Dubrovnik area, 15 in Zadar area, 6 in Sibenik area and 4 in Split area. It is
amazing that traditional agrarian areas from North of Croatia are less involved in

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rural tourism than the one’s situated on the coast or islands. Thus, in Zagrebsunt
13 farms were included in the touring circuit, in Krapina-Zagorje area, one of the
most rural picturesque areas we find 8 of this kind, in Varazdin area are registered
6 farms implicated in touring activities. (5)
One of the reasons of this situation can be the absence of touring tradition
in north comparative with the one from maritime resorts. Another reason could be
the passive relative attitude of national or regional authorities vis-à-vis to the
encouraging of rural tourism development. The Croat rural inheritance is
spectacularly rich, but, unfortunately the politic factors from tourism field do not
capitalize it appropriately. Obviously, the official documents are dealing only
with tourism at farms, being forgotten the fact that this kind of tourism is only a
small part from the concept of rural tourism, where the role of rural community is
inevitable in creating a rural comprehensive product.
Thus, in 2002 the chamber of commerce of Croatia (the sector for
tourism) introduced a set of laws for farms which are interested to involve
themselves in tourism. As a part of First international Conference of Agriculture
and Rural Development, organized in November 2006 in Croatia there were made
known the results of a study made in Croatia regarding the development of
agrotourism in this county. The study was made in 2002 and contained 43
agrotourism farms from Istria area, one of the most developed touring areas of
Croatia.
It is remarked the fact that the size of farms is closely bounded by the
development of agrotourism activities and that is why there is a bound between its
size and the type of farm tourism. According to the obtained data, the majority of
familial farms from Istria have between 1,01-5,00 hectares and 5,01-10,00
hectares, from the agrarian territory. Comparative with the existent farms in the
neighbor countries, for example Italy and Slovenia, the farms from Croatia are
small. For example, according to the Familial Associations Catalogue of Tourism
at the farm in 2002, in Slovenia, from the total number of 161 farms, most of
them have 10 hectares, the average being of 26 hectares. In Italy, the medium size
of agrotourism households is of 68, 5 hectares.
Starting from these data, the average of agrotourism households is of
12,7% in Istria, and in Croatia of 2,59%, according to the Agrarian Census made
in 2003.
This problem is the result of many years of wrong management of
agrarian territory, agrarian productions being small in agrotourism households.
The request and the offer of agrotourism households products and services is
presented thus: (figure 1)

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Tour operators and private


tourist agency

Tourist Rural
market evironment
Agrotourism
household

Agro touristic Agrotourism Agricultural Agricultural


market activity activity producers

Tourist association of
counties and local Figure 1. Demand and offer of
communities products and services of agrotourism
households
Source: Journal of Central European
Agriculture (2006), vol. 7, no. 3.

Demand

Offer

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From the presented model we can observe that the agrotourism


households are formed from two segments: touring and agrarian. The agrotourism
households have an impact over the rural environment, these being able to sell
their products and services both directly and indirectly through touring
associations, touring agencies and trips operators. Even if it was started from an
offer of products fairly restrained, the specialized producers of regional products
(wines, bacon, olive oil, honey, etc.) have diversified their offer along the years as
a result of the changes in consumers request in general.
In currently manner, the most common situation in Croatia is bounded by
the fact that the familial farms which begin their agrotourism activity reduce the
agrarian production. This is a shortcoming, which drown the attention and for
which it is tried the identification of viable solutions for resolving some problems
which may appear.
Croatia has perfect opportunities for developing these touring offers the
more so as it is one of the few countries in the world which interweaves
harmoniously varied climate elements, natural and socio-cultural characteristics.
So, it can be drawn a conclusion that the rural touring product is a big
competitive advantage of Croat tourism on the market always bigger and
pretentious of international tourism.

CONCLUSIONS
In Germany, Bayern region is financed by the government, thus the
support offered for the development of rural tourism is distributed on multiple
levels depending on each region from Germany.
In Croatia, agrotourism, this form of tourism which takes place inside of
familial households, represents a specific form of business, with impact over
economic and social development of space from rural areas, the same as in the
other countries where it doesn’t develops. The lack of financial resources with
which lots of farmers from West Europe are confronting (here being included
even those from Croatia), constitutes one of the problems with which these are
confronting. The development of tourism activities appears as a possible strategy
which can generate additional amounts at the income of farmers.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Bran Florina, Marin D., Simon Tamara - Turismul rural – modelul european, Editura Economică,
Bucureşti, 1997;
2. Ghereş Marinela - Agroturism, Editura Risoprint, Cluj – Napoca, 2003;
3. Glăvan V. – Turism rural. Agroturism. Turism durabil. Ecoturism, Editura Economică, Bucureşti,
2003;
4. Mitrache Şt. (coordonator) – Agroturism şi turism rural, Editura Fax Press, Bucureşti, 1996;
5. *** Chamber of Commerce of Croatia, 2002;
6.***INW - Continuative survey on the development of agrotourism in the Pomerania region,
Berlin, 2005;
7. ***Journal of Central European Agriculture (2006), vol. 7, no. 3;
8.***Tribuna Economică nr. 32/1996, Bucureşti

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THE INFLUENCE OF FRENCH ON THE GERMAN AND


ROMANIAN ANIMAL HUSBANDRY LANGUAGE
(POULTRY BREEDING)
Maria MORARU, Elena PETREA, R.A. MORARU

The specialized foreign terms and expressions are, often, a clue for the
history of the concerned field, the place/the land where one certain theory
appeared, where it has been discovered or it has been done something in
connection with the discussed field, the approached phenomena etc. In the
present paper the authors are trying to investigate with help of some linguistic
instruments from a incontestable value, some proves of the massive influence of
the French language in the sphere of a poultry language, one higher influence
then that of the English, at least for a certain period. The authors aims to
cataloguing a few specific Romanian and German terms of French origin,
reflected by Romanian and German specialty literature concerning poultry and
included in the first German-Romanian Poultry Dictionary, 1997, Iaşi. Thus, it
must be mentioned that the most part of this terms are in connection with the
exterior examination of the animal, with breeding technologies, types of fodder,
animal foodering or with the structure of egg, the physiologic processes which
are place in the egg, with the hunting, etc., also with all the sub-fields of the
poultry breeding. The authors are considering that those elements are a proof
that the French poultry had one great influence upon the development of this
branch of the animal husbandry in Romania.

A specialized dictionary represents only apparently a simple collection of


specific terms and expressions of some field in a certain language. By one
attentively analysis it may be observed that this, in fact, constitutes itself in a real
monograph of the field or of the subject to which it is dedicated, while it is giving
us concrete, explicit information, or sometimes only implicitly (through borrowed
words and expressions), about the history of the approached field, of the evolution
of the concerned language, about the manner of formation of the terminology
(through archaisms or old words/expressions), also about the actually stage of
researches (through the used notions, through the evolution/frequency of them,
through synonyms which are usually placed within the dictionary according to
their frequency). Also, the specialized foreign terms and expressions are, often, a
indication about the history of the concerned field, the place/the land where one
certain theory appeared, where it has been discovered or it has been done
something in connection with the discussed field, the approached phenomena etc.

MATERIAL AND METHOD


Some specialized terms and expressions from the specialty Romanian and
German literature about poultry, included in our Dictionar german-roman de

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aviculturã, Iaşi, ed. Gama, 1997 and Dictionar roman-german de aviculturã, ed.
Ion Ionescu de la Brad, Iaşi 2005, suggested us the idea that the beginning of the
scientific study of poultry in Romania is laying under the auspices of the French
specialty literature concerning poultry. In our paper we will discuss a part of this
terms

REZULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


A first term which may be summit to the analysis is :
ANVIZAJARE f. sg. s. (Engl. Envisaging, Germ. Anvisieren n. sg.), in the
expression anvizajarea furajului (Engl. Envisaging of the fodder, Germ.
Anvisieren des Futters). So it may be ascertained the fact that the expression
ANVIZAJAREA FURAJULUI has in German an equivalent too, which led us
to the French language.
None dictionary of Romanian has registered this term excepting DRGAv
2005; instead, we have found in other German explicative dictionary1, published
in 1999 (WDtS), the corresponding verb with the following explanation:
ANVISIEREN, v. tr. (s. hat anvisiert; mit Akk., Engl. to envisage); 1. Ins
Blickfeld nehmen (Engl. to take into account, Rom. a avea în vedere, în
perspectivã); 2. Als Ziel setzen (1. to cut through with the look, a pãtrunde cu
privirea; 2. to establish an objective, a fixa un obiectiv). The presence of this term
in the German complicate the situation, while the term anvizajare, of a
incontestable French origin, could come to us very well through the German way.
The verb a anvizaja is not appearing in MDA2, but it is to found in MDN3
with following explanation : “(v.tr.) to take in consideration/ “a lua in
considerare” (<Fr. envisager). The Romanian borrowed only one of this meanings
from the French term (meaning 3, cf. Le Nouveau Petit Robert de la langue
française, 2007, abrev. Petit Robert, s. lower down :
Fr. ENVISAGER (v.tr.), attested in 1560, formed from the pref. en- and
the noun visage (“face, chip”), the first meaning of them, out of use, is “to look to
the person in the face”; 2. (attested in 1653) Fr. «examiner par la pensée» (Engl.
“to examine in mind, to look, to see”, Rom. “a examina in gând, a privi, a
vedea”) ; the meaning 3 « prendre en considération, avoir en vue » was taken by
Romanian too “a lua în considerare”; 4. envisager de +inf. – Rom. “a se gândi la,
a proiecta să”, Engl.”to think of, to plan to ….”.
However, the fact that the Romanian term comes closely to the French
makes us to suppose that it is coming to us directly from French, therefore it is
possible, that the Germ. anvisieren had a direct source in French too.

1
x..x..x. Wörterbuch der Deutschen Sprache,
2
x..x..x. Micul dicţionar academic, vol. I-IV,
3
Florin Marcu, Marele Dicţionar de Neologisme,

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The term PELETĂ and its derivative PELETIZARE registered some


differences from one dictionary to another in Romanian. So, in MDN we have :
PELETÃ f. sg., (Engl. “pellet”)– “granulã obţinutã prin peletare”, Engl.
“a granule obtained through pelletization”, obviously a borrowed word <fr., Engl.
pellet, rom. pelet. ;
PELETIZARE f.sg., (Engl. “pelletization”): : “aglomerare mecanică a
granulelor unui minereu fin măcinat and umezit, rostogolit (după Fr.
pelletisation)”, Engl. “mechanical aglomeration of granules of the fine ground
and wet, rolled (after Fr. pelletisation).
The explanation of the words is identical in MDA, but this dictionary
indicates only the English language as origin of the rom. neologism peletă,
attested for the first time in Romanian in the Dictionarul de neologisme
(Dictionary of neologismes), ed. a II-a, 1978, while the etymology of the noun
peletizare is considered unknown; his attestation is less older in the Lexiconul
tehnic român, 1957 (Romanian technical lexicon). By studying the Petit Robert,
we can obtain important dates : pellet m.sg. has the mention “anglicism”
(Anglicismus), and its derivative pelletisation is only indicated; therefore it is not
registered as a dictionary item.
The electronic data-base Le Grand Dictionnaire Terminologique,
exclusively to the specialized terminology indicates us the Fr. granulé as
equivalent for the Engl. pellet (in the animal husbandry). Some dictionary
mention that, according to specialty (mine industry, pharmacology, animal
husbandry, geology etc.), the Engl. pellet and pelletization have as equivalents
various words: boulette and bouletage, granule and granulation, pastille. But it
seems to us interesting the following specification : Rappelons que l'anglais pellet
vient du français pelote, issu lui-même du latin populaire pilotta, « petite balle »,
diminutif de pila (Engl. pellet vine din Fr. pelote <lat.pop. pillota, “minge mică”,
diminutive de la pilla), “Remember that the English pellet comes from the
French. pelote <lat.pop. pillota, “ a small ball”
The term in discussion – PELETÃ – was borrowed not only by Romanian,
but by others languages too, for example, we can find it in German too undo the
form Pellet n. sg.; Pellets pl.; here it enters in the composition of some
specialized expressions or composed-terms in German, for example: Rom.
diametrul peletului, Germ. Pelletdurchmesser n., Engl. pellet’s diameter; Rom.,
formă de pelet, Germ. Pelletform f., Engl. pellet form; Rom. efect de peletare,
Germ., Pelletierungseffekt m., Engl. pellet effect. The preference of German for
composed-words is obviously.
In WDtS we find:
Pelle f:11) 1. dünne Schalle (Kartoffel-) (thin pelle at potatoes, Rom.
pieliţa finã a cartofului) 2. Umhüllung der Wurst (Engl. skin fell of the sausage,
Rom. învelişul cârnatului) (Lat. pellis “Fell, Haut”).*

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pellen V. 1., hat gepellt, mit Akk. Die Pelle von etwas entfernen, schälen
Kartoffeln (Engl. to pell off, Rom. a îndepãrta pieliţa de pe ceva, a curãţa cartofi.)
pelletieren (v. 2. hat pelletiert, mit Akk pelletisieren**)
pelletisieren (v. 2. hat pelletisiert; zu Pellets pressen <auch> pelletieren,
engl” to press up to pellete”)
It surprised us the fact that in WtDS we couldn’t find the term Pellets such
as item, we met it only in the expression: zu Pellets pressen (Rom. a presa pânã
la peletă ). Either the authors of the dictionary considered that it is a too
specialized term, with a too limited circulation, which has no place in a such
general dictionary, or they have omitted to include it here. It is sure that in
German exists the entire word family (s. the verb pellen = a decoji, to pell off).
PELETARE f. sg. (Rom. “mod de preparare a furajelor combinate”, Engl.
“pelletisation, way to prepare a combined fodder) was borrowed in German too
and adapted undo the form Pelletierung f. sg. ; s. also Rom. efect de ~
Pelletierungseffekt m.
The noun ECLOZIUNE s.f., Engl.“hatching” and the verb a ECLOZA
“to hatch” are borrowed from French too.
MDN indicates three meanings for the noun ecloziune and gives us the
French etymon :
1. “ieşirea a puilor sau a larvelor din ou”, (Engl. to go out from egg). 2.
(fig.) “ieşire la iveală, inflorire ; manifestare” (Engl. turn out:
blooming/flowering; occurrence”. 3. (med.) Intervenţie medicalã prin care este
scoasã din funcţie o parte a organului, cu scopul de a fi extirpatã (Engl. “Surgery
intervention through which is taken out of function a part from the organ, in order
to be extirpated.”) (<fr.éclosion)
The verb ecloza appears with three meanings : v.intr. 1. (cu privire la
larve, pui) a ieşi din ou (concerning about larva, nestling, chicken) “to come out
from egg.” 2. (despre flori) a înflori (about flowers), Engl. “to to flower, to
blossom” 3. (fig.) a se naşte, a apãrea, a se ivi (Engl. “to born, to appear “) (after
Fr. éclore, éclosion)
The verb ecloza and the neutral noun eclozionator Engl. “hatchery” (<Fr.
éclosionnateur) are, both, attested for the first time in the Dictionarul de
neologisme, ed. 1978, while the fem. noun ecloziune appears for the first time in
Memoriile of Eugen Lovinescu.
The French CHALAZE was borrowed by the Romanian with the adjusted
form ŞALAZĂ (attested : Dictionarul de neologisme, 1978 : “albuminous
filament which suspends the yolk of the egg in its covers”), and in German
appears with the form Chalazen pl.
Even if in German we meet the verb transchieren, it is obviously that this
word is not genuine German, but it represents an adaptation to the morpho-

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phonetical and grammatical system of German language of the verb Fr. trancher,
confirmed by the DLR, where we find the indication: “a desfac|e vt. (un animal
tăiat), Engl. to trench, Germ. ausschlachten vt., tran(s)chieren vt.”idem”.
The verb TRANŞA comes from Fr. trancher (cf. MDN) ; MDA indicates
a double etymon, Fr. trancher, Germ. transchieren. Attested for the first time in
the Dictionarul limbei romane of A.T.Laurian and I.C.Massim (1873-1877), the
Romanian term had taken also the own meanings, as the figurated ones of the
French etymon.
The term FURAJ, which comes to complete the autochthonous NUTREŢ
(<inherited from lat. nutricium) comes, certainly from Fr. fourrage, what is
obviously after the graphia of furaj in German (Fourage), where, is, too,
utilizated and is going in the composition of some composed words, for example:
comerţ with nutreţ/de furaje = Germ. Fouragehandlung f. sg.
It exists in German also one term formed on autochthonous ground, which is
authentic German – Futtermittel, with the same meaning, but with a larger
spreading.
The term SILAGE appears in German in the expression Germ.
Silageentnahme f.sg., Engl. discharging from the ensiled fodder”, rom.
“descărcarea furajului insilozat” (de ex. din turn, din tranşee). The French
ensilage was borrowed with this form in germ: Ensilage f.sg., Gärfutterbereitung
f. sg., Rom. INSILOZARE f. sg.
The term BURSITĂ “inflamaţie a mucoaselor seroase”, Engl. inflamation
of serous mucous membranes) and REGIM are not raising problems with regard
to the etymology, French obviously: Fr. bursite and Fr. régime. The last term
appears also in German near a genuine composed word: Germ. Regime n.sg.,
Haushalt n. sg., Rom. regim n. sg.
The Rom. term VOLIERÃ f. sg., Engl. “aviary”, Germ. Voliere f.,
appears in DEX and in MDN with the explanation:
“Cuşcã sau ansamblu de cuşti de dimensiuni mari, confecţionate din plasã
de sârmã, in which se ţin pãsãrile din grãdinile zoologice – (Engl. Cage or
ensemble of cages of large size, made up from wire net, for keeping of the birds in
the zoological gardens)- from Fr. volière”.
MDA registers the term with the same meaning and with its attestation in
the Mic dictionay enciclopedic (Small enciclopaedic dictionary), 1972. In French,
volière, attested in the XIV-century, is formed from the verb voler (Rom. “a
zbura”, Engl. to fly), and the meaning is similar with that taken in Romanian too.
With regard to the specialized dictionaries, the term in discussion is to met
for the first time in DGRAv4, published in 1997, being, up to recently5, the only
existing dictionary in Romania for the sub-field poultry of animal husbandry.

4
Moraru, Maria, Hara, Otilia, Dicţionar german-român de avicultură, Iaşi, 1997.

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In German we can met this French noun in the expression “system of


aviaries”: Germ. Volieren-System n., rom. “sistem de voliere”.
In cynegetic field, is indubitable the fact that the Germ. Falkonier m.
(“şoimar”) comes from Fr. fauconnier (<faucon, “şoim”).
For this field in Romanian we can mention following terms:
FALCONIFORME s. pl., “order of wild birds to prey with an strong body,
long wings , an long and dick beak”, from Fr. falconiformes. In German exist
more words with this root: falc-: der Falke “şoim”, der Falkonier m. “şoimar” m.,
der Falkner m.”idem”, from French falconièr.
Howewer, the number of the French borrowed words is not finished yet.
We can mention also:
ELEVEUZÃ s. f., “cloşcã artificialã, bruder”, from the French eleveuse
“idem”, Germ. Schirmglucke. The German created an own word for this device,
more explicit/transparent than the French one.
DEBECAJ s. n., “tãierea, scurtarea ciocului”, Engl. “cutting of the beak of
birds” from the French débécage (idem”). In German exists the equivalent
Schnabelkupierung f. sg., a composed word from Schnabel “beak” and the French
“couper “ , Rom.” a tãia”.
All this words penetrated the Rumanian specialty language through the French
specialty literature and most of them are incomprehensible for the big part of
Romanians, which are not at home in the field of poultry breeding. We can
establish also the relatively age of this borrowed words, the period, when they
penetrated the Romanian language. Par example, about FURAGE we could say,
that is the oldest of them, while it is understood by all the Romanians and it has
developed here a large word family: A FURAJA vb. tr,. to fooder, the noun
FURAJARE s.f., the foodering, the adj. FURAJAT Engl. foddered.

CONCLUSIONS
The few terms which we summit to analysis are bringing new proves about
the contacts among languages, in form of loan of terminology, specific for some
fields of the science. We tried with the present paper, to investigate with the help
of some linguistic instruments of a incontestable value, some proves of the
massive influence of the French language on the poultry language, a higher
influence then that of English, at least for a certain period of time. Thus, it can
conclude that the most part of the analyzed terms are in connection with the
exterior examination of the animal, with breeding technologies, types of fodder,
foodering of animals, or with the structure of egg, the embryology, the physiology

5
Recently appeared in the Editura Universitãtii “Ion Ionescu de la Brad” in redaction of
Maria Moraru, R.A. Moraru andi Elena Petrea the rjoinder to this, Dicţionarul român-
german de aviculturã, Iaşi, 2005, 208 pg.

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processes which are place in the egg, with the hunting etc., also with all the sub-
fields of the poultry breeding.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
x..x..x.Wörterbuch der Deutschen Sprache, Berlin, 1999 (WtDS);
x..x..x. Micul Dictionar Academic, vol. I-IV, Bucureşti, Univers Enciclopedic, 2001-2003 (MDA);
x..x..x.Dictionarul Explicativ al Limbii Român , Bucureşti, Univers Enciclopedic, 1998 (DEX);
x..x..x Le Nouveau Petit Robert de la langue française, Paris 2007 (Le Petit Robert);
Bãlãşescu M., Bãltan Ghe., Dascãlu Al., Vancea I., Avicultura, Bucureşti, 1980.
BRANDSCH H. şi colab., Geflügelzucht, Berlin, 1979.
Marwith, Florin, Marele Dictionar de Neologisme, Bucureşti, Saeculum I.O., 2006;
Moraru, Maria, Hara, Otilia, Dictionar german-român de avicultură, Iaşi, 1997) (DGRAv, 2001);
Moraru, Maria, Moraru, R.A., Petrea, Elena, Dictionay român-german de aviculturã, Iaşi, 2005
(DRGAv 2005)
Schwark-Mazanowski P., Internationales Handbuch der Tierproduktion. Geflügel, Berlin, 1987.
Vacaru Opriş I., Tehnologia creşterii pãsãrilor, partea I şi a II-a, Iaşi, 1993.

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ASPECTS REGARDING THE ORIGIN OF SOME


ZOOTECHNICAL TERMS IN THE ROMANIAN LANGUAGE
AS WELL AS IN OTHER INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES.
II. SLAVIC ELEMENTS
Maria MORARU, Roxana MIHALACHE, R.A. MORARU

The specialized foreign terms and expressions are, often, a clue for the
history of the concerned field, of the place / the land where a certain theory
appeared, where something has been discovered or it has been done related to the
discussed field or the approached phenomena etc. In the present paper, the authors
are trying to investigate with the help of some linguistic instruments of
incontestable value, some proves of the massive influence of the French language
in the sphere of the poultry language, noticed as a higher influence then the
English one, at least for a certain period of time. The authors aim to catalogue few
specific Romanian and German terms of French origine, reflected by the
Romanian and German specialty literature concerning poultry and included in the
first German-Romanian Poultry Dictionary, 1997, Iaşi. Through the following
foreign elements in the Romanian special terminology, the authors ascertain the
existence of some French words such as eleveuzã, anvizajare, volierã, ecloziune,
furaj etc., which are, in their most part, no more percepted as foreign elements by
the Romanian people; others, like eleveuzã, anvizajare, volierã., show their real
origin not only to persons who know several foreign languages. Thus it must be
mentioned that the most part of these terms are related to the external examination
of the animal, breeding technologies, types of fodder or with the egg’s structure,
with the physiologic processes which occur in egg, with the hunting, etc., and also
with all the sub-fields of the poultry breeding. The authors are considering that
these elements represent a proof that the French poultry had one great influence
upon the development of this branch of the animal husbandry in Romania.

According to the researches that have been done till now regarding the
origins of the basic zoo technical technology, the conclusions are that most of the
names of domestic animals – pig, sheep, ox, cow, horse, poultry etc – entered the
primitive Indo-European languages, more precisely from Asia and the Caucasus,
arriving in Europe together with the animals they name. Starting from these,
several equivalences developed in different dialects which allowed us to conclude
that not only the Romanian appellatives for domestic animals come mostly from
Latin but also many of the appellatives for parts of the body or different organs
proved to be of Latin origin: rom. cap < capus, capitis; rom. frunte < frons,
frontis; rom. os < os, oseum; rom. inima < lat. anima, ae; rom. plãmâni lat.
pulmon, nis, etc. There are also of latin origin words which refer to primary
animal products such as carnea, laptele, lâna, sângele. But, at the same time,
when confronting Romanian with other languages, we can easily conclude that

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part of the primary terminology referring to animals and some processed products
is of Slavic origin.

MATHERIAL AND METHOD


The names for animals usually belong to the relatively stable vocabulary of
a language *. As regards Romanian as we could see, most of them are inherited
from the mother tongue – Latin: rom. animal < lat. animal, is, rom. vacã < lat.
vacca, ae; rom. bou < lat. bos, bovis; rom. miel < lat. agnielum; rom. lup < lat.
lupus,i etc. we can say that the only name of a big domestic animal which has a
Slavic origin is BIVOL, as it undoubtedly comes from bg. Bivoly**. The
southern-Slavic etymology is obvious, because in the northern Slavic language
there appears the group uj (rus. bujvol), while in Bulgarian, Romanian and
Hungarian we have i vowel. Even DEX: 102 confirms the origin of the Romanian
word from bg. BIVOLŮY.
Unlike the other species of domestic animals which have been bred on the
territory of our country for millenniums, the buffalo is relatively recent as it was
brought here only in the 9th century by the Bulgarians. It is known that starting
with the 6th century, the Bulgarian state situated in the south of the Danube had
become powerful enough, as it was permanently at war against the Byzantine
Empire. Having remained without defence after the withdrawal of the roman
armies and the migrations which devastated the human settlements, the territory in
the north of the Danube was tempting for the neighbours in the south who hurried
to take it. This can explain that the first state formations on Dacia’s territory were
set up by the Bulgarians Menumorut, Ken and Sen (9th Century), but also by Glad
and Gelou who were Romanians. The Bulgarians brought with them not only the
language, but also a big horned animal, the buffalo, that found here, especially in
the Transylvanian Plateau, especially in Sãlaj and Târnave, good conditions for
development. Here as well as on the entire territory where the Dacians- Romans
lived, numerous old Slavic elements had entered the language of the native people
starting with the 6th century (may earlier) as a result of the migrations ofthese
tribes. Thus it is no wonder that the buffalo presered its original name. the
analysis of he structure of this name makes us suppose that we have a compound
word made up from a compound word, formed from -vol (see sl. voly = ox) and
the prefix bi- which might easily come from the adj. sl. bujnyi (“furious”).
Its relative, the aurochs, is also of Slav origin, whose name comes from
sl. zubrъ.

*
v. Mihãilã, Împrumuturi vechi ....
**
v. DEX.

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Among the appellatives that denominate parts of the animal body we can
mention the ones considered to have a Slav origin: GREABÃN, GLEZNÃ,
LABÃ şi COPITÃ.
As regards the word GREABÃN n.n. “part of the body at some (large)
animals, situated between the neck and backbone”, cfr. DEX:433, it might come
from din sl. grebeni “comb”. In fact, the meaning of “comb” is only one of the
multiple meanings of the Slavic word greben’ (Ozegov Dictionary mentions 8
meanings for this word), and we are not sure and we are not sure if this very
meaning of “comb” gave the name for this part of the animal body. Referring to a
part of the animal body “situated between neck and backbone:, i.e. in its superior
part, we consider that GREABÃN is closer in meaning to another one, that of
“upper part, superior part of an object”. Another meaning of this Slavic word is
that of “the top of the hill” which, in our opinion, also comes from the meaning
mentioned above.
Less controversed is the origin of GLEZNÃ n.f., “part of the leg of some
animals between fistula and fetlock”, on which almost most of the authors
consider that they might come from bg. glezna, glezinu, with the same meaning
(DEX:432), without anyone finding another argument.
Instead, for the origin of the word LABÃ there is a tooth and nail in the
specialized literature: DEX and part of the linguists attach to this word a
Hungarian origin, Ion. Pop Sireteanu* on contrary, advocates for the in-land
origin. On I. Balasz** opinion and ours, LABÃ is of Slavic origin, from lapa
“paw, animal leg”.
As for us, we argue this supposition by counting on the greater phonetic
proximity between the two words-the Romanian and Slavic ones – in comparison
to the Hungarian one, which lost the final vocal a from sl. Lapa, thus remaining
monosyllabic see. Hung. Lá; this rapprochement between the Slavic and
Romanian word is encouraged and it can be a possible transformation of the
voiced labial sl. p in voiceless labial b in Romanian, a phenomenon that we
noticed under certain conditions, for example src. serpskij = rom. sârbesc. For we
have noticed such a transformation at a south-Slavic dialect, we tend to consider
that Romanian could have borrowed this word from an idiom like this.
As regards the last noun mentioned above, copita, it has for sure a Slavic
origin, from sl. Kopyto, being present in all the Slavic languages and not only:
bg. kopito, mac. kopito, scr. kopito, slovenã kopito etc.
Nor for poultry, the appellatives of Slavic origin are not too numerous.
The only ones are COCOŞ, GÂSCA and GÂNSAC*.

*
Siriteanu, I. Pop, Memoria… p. 86.
**
Balaj, I., Despre originea şi evoluţia semanticã … p. 102-109.

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KOKOS n. m. “cocoş” < scr. kokotъ “idem”, Rom. lit. “idem” (see
Melich:110). Also DEX:192 presents the Slavic origin of the word “kokoši”. But,
although DEX indicates for this fowl the Slavic origin, from kokoši, with the
meaning of “hen”, we consider that this appellative was rather used with the
meaning of “fowl” **, if we tend to believe Melich. As a matter of fact, if we take
a closer look we can notice that even in those times, there were lexical differences
among the Slavic languages as regards the denomination of this fowl: the north
Slavic languages preferred the Russian petuh/scr. Petéh, while the south ones had
pe kokotъ*. Anyway it stands to reason why both Romanian and Hungarian took
this word from a south Slavic language, which they have been in direct contact
with for a long period of time.
AS regards the Slavic origin of the appellatives GÂNSAC, see bg.
gъnsaka, and GÂSCÃ – bg. gъska, supported by Scãrlãtoiu (v. Rsl., op. cit. p.
109), we presume that these appellatives could have come in our language
through the Slavic channel, but that they must have had an Indo-European root,
for in German we find Gans “goose”, in Russian “gus’”, on the one hand and the
geese that have been in this region for thousands of years must have had a name,
on the other hand.
Much numerous appellatives of Slavic origin are connected to the fish
fauna. Thus, we meet:
MREANÃ n.f., is thought to have been borroed from mac. mrenka
“Barbus fluviastilis” (Scãrlãtoiu, op. cit. p.112);
CRAP n.m., an old Slavic borrowing from krap, bg. krapъ, mac. krap, germ
Karpfen, another Indo-European root probably (idem);
PLÃTICÃ n.f., an old Slavic borrowing *platika, bg. platika, alb
platice “small fish” (idem);
PÃSTRAV n. m. < bg. pãstãrvъ “idem” (DEX:766)” Rom. lit.
“pãstrãv”;
RAC n.m. “rac”, from bg. rak “idem” (idem);
ŞTIUCÃ n.f. < sl. ščuka “idem” (idem);
The relatively large number of these appellatives in comparison to the rest
could be explained by the fact that the Slavs who came on the territory of our
country first settled in more fertile zones, along the river meadows, where they
could find fish for nourishment, while the autochthon population retreated to safer
regions. The coming of the new migratory populations – the Hungarians, banished
the Slavs to higher regions and more protected, but the name of these inhabitants
remained, remaining in Romanian and even in Hungarian*.
Also of Slavic origin, more precisely Bulgarian, are the following
appellatives used in the domain of animal husbandry:

*
. Melich, Die Herkunft..., p. 103.
*
V. Moraru, Elem vechi slave….IV, pag. 439.

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ŞIŞTAR n.n. < from bg.. şiştar (wood container of cylindrical form used
at milking),
SMÂNTÂNÃ n.f. < bg., ucr. smetana (fat from the upper part of the curd)
IESLE n.f. < from sl. iasli (chute for animal feeding)
POIATÃ n.f., – sl. pojata (rudimentary shelter for fowls, swine and cattle)

Moderate opinions as regards the role of the Slavic element in the


formation of Romanian had I.A.Candrea Les elementes latins dans la langue
roumaine. Le consonantisme, Paris, 1902, p. XIII, who for the first time supports
the idea of the formation of Romanian before the Slavs came. “Lorsque les Slaves
font irruption dans leur pays balcanique, c’est a dire vers le VII-ième siècle, la
periode latine peut-être considerée (p.583) comme terminée et la langue roumaine
comme formée” (se Florica Dumitrescu, I.A.Candrea, lingvist şi filolog, B., 1974,
p. 23-24). This idea was supported by Sextil Puşcariu, Limba românã, I,
Bucureşti, 1940, p. 284”,too: ”Influenţa superstratului slav (….) a început într-o
vreme când principalele legi fonologice erau încheiate în româneşte şi când
organizarea limbii era fixatã în trãsãturile ei principale.”(see also Th. Capidan,
Elementul slav în dialectul aromân, B., 1925). Half a century later, I. Pãtruţ in
Studii de limbã rusã şi slavisticã, Cl, 1974, states that “elementul slav nu a
participat la procesul de formare al limbii române, ci el este un adaos ulterior”
(op. cit. p. 931). On the other hand, I. Pãtruţ tries to show that the inferior limit of
the Slavic-Romanian relations cannot be traced before the 9th century, even the
10th (ibid) idea which we can not agree with *.
There are undeniable proofs that the Slavs came on today Romania in the
6th century AD, fact that cannot be ignored. How even can we imagine that for
three centuries, i.e. till 10th century this influence could not have been noticed on
the native tongue, if we take into consideration the close intimate relations
between the two ethnic populations and the large number of toponyms and
hydronyms of Slavic origin all over the country which replaced the autochthon or
Latin ones long before the arrival of the Hungarians (9th century), otherwise these
would not have resisted to the new influences.

CONCLUSIONS
Besides the large number of appellatives of Latin origin which can be
found in the animal regnum there entered some Slavic elements belonging
especially to the south Slavs; it can be easily explained through the secular
“symbiosis“ of the natives with the Slavs during the migrations till their
assimilation by the Romanians. It is remarkable that within the appellatives for
domestic small and large animals, only two are of Slavic origin: BIVOLUL and
ZIMBRUL, while the others, of Latin origin, perpetuated unaltered.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. 1.Adrados, F.C., Lingvistica indoeuropeea, 1975, I şi II.;
2. 2.Balaj, I., Despre originea şi evoluţia semanticã a rom. gând, în SCL, nr. 1, 1987, p. 102-109.
3. 3.Capidan, Th., Elementul slav în dialectul aromân, B., 1925
4. 4.Dumitrescu, Florica, I.A.Candrea, lingvist şi filolog, B., 1974, p. 23-24.
5. 5.Devoto, G., Origini indoeuropee, Sanson, Firenze, 1962.
6. 6.Ivănescu Gheorghe, Vérité et erreur dans la recherche des dialectes proto-indo-européens,
Iasi, Philologica, I, p. 9 – 34, 1970.
7. 7.Melich, Johann, Die Herkunft der slavischen Lehnwörter der ungarischen Sprache, extr. din
”Archiv für Slavische Philologie”, 32. Band, erstes und zweites Heft, Berlin, 1910, p. 92-117.
8. 8.Mihãilã, G , Împrumuturi vechi slave în românã, Bucureşti, 1967.
9. 9.Moraru Maria, Moraru, R.A., Elemente vechi slave în maghiara si romana, IV., Regnul
animal, Lucrãri ştiinţifice, vol. 50/3, seria Agronomie, USAMV. Iaşi, p. 436-442.
10. 10.Pãtruţ, I., Studii de limbã rusã şi slavisticã, CL, 1974.
11. 11.Pãtruţ, I., Criteriul determinãrii împrumuturilor slave în limba românã, în St.C. Lingvisticã,
XXII (1971), 1971, p. 351-368.
12. 12.Scãrlãtoiu, Ecaterina, Împrumuturi vechi slave în dialectul meglenoromân, Romanoslavica,
XIV, Bucureşti, 1986, p.59-117
13. 13.Simenschy, Th., Ivănescu, Gh., Gramatica comparată a limbiloe indoeuropene, Ed.
Didactică şi pedagogică, Bucureşti, 1981.
14. 14.Sireteanu, I.Pop, Memoria limbii române, vol. I, Iaşi, Ed. Bucovina, 1997, p.96.
15. 15.Wald, Lucia, Sluşanschi, D. Introducere în studiul limbii şi culturii indoeuropene, Ed.
Ştiinţifică şi enciclopedică, Bucureşti, 1987.

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CONNECTIVE PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS


IN HEPATO-CELLULAR AFFECTIONS
Anca-Mirela PAŞPARAN, C. MISĂILĂ

The paper analyzes the recovery rhythm of hematological insufficiency after


the application of an anti-hepatic treatment on a batch of patients suffering from
hepatocell affections (all from the Districtual Hospital of Botosani), as a function of
the seriousness of the iron-deficiency hypochromic anemia recorded in the moment of
their hospitalization. Determinations have been made, both in the moment of
hospitalization and after the treatment, on 3 groups, of 10 patients each as follows:
patients affected by a mild (A), moderate (B) and severe anemia (C), respectively, on
calculating: the hemoglobin concentration (g Hgb/dL blood), the hematocryte (Hct
%), the number of red blood cells (x 106/µL), along with the values of the
erythrocytary constants: mean corpuscular volume – MCV (µm3/erythrocyte); mean
corpuscular hemoglobin – MCH (pg Hgb/erythrocyte); mean corpuscular
hemoglobin concentration – MCHC (g Hgb/dL erythrocyte amount).
A general hematological failure, evidenced by 26 - 51% lower values of the
Hgb concentrations, by 19 - 45% lower values of Hct and by 25 - 46% lower number of
red blood cells, respectively, was registered in the moment of patient’s hospitalization.
After the treatment, the failure was partially brought to a normal state,
in all the three variants, the Hgb concentration attaining levels representing 8 -
33% of the normal values, while the Hct concentration and the number of red
blood cells come to represent 5 - 31% and, respectively, 17 - 36% of the normal.
The recovery of the hemoglobin is 21% more active than that from the Hct level
and 39%, more active, respectively, than that of the number of red blood cells.
Instead, the recovery of Hgb, Hct and MCHC proceeds independently on the
initial degree of anemia seriousness, which is not the case of the red blood cells
number, when the recovery is more active in the variants with moderate and
severe anemia, where about 10 - 13% of the initial failure is re-established,
comparatively with the mild anemia variant, when the recovery is only of 8.2%.

INTRODUCTION
The relation between an affected liver and the structural and functional
blood integrity has been amply studied, numerous scientific investigations having
been devoted to this aspect. Starting from its multiple functions – from that of
exocrine gland and center of biosynthesis, of depositing and degrading the
biologically active substances, up to the neutralization and inactivation of several
drugs and toxins present in the organism, the liver is, equally, an important center,
especially during prenatal life (Paun, 1997; Misaila and Comanescu, 1999). In
adult condition, the hematopoietic function of the liver is almost wholly inhibited,
yet its involvement in storing vitamin B12, in view of erythropoiesis, and also its
extravascular physiological hemolysis are maintained, besides its other functions,
such as: center of biosynthesis for most of the plasmatic factors of coagulation, of

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the main plasmatic proteins, a 5-10 % ratio of the total amount of erythropoietic
included, a. s. o. An abundant blood irrigation of the liver, along with the complex
chemical modifications of the carried substances, represents only a few elements
expressing the multiple functional connections between the liver and the blood
tissue. All these interactions are responsible for the blood homeostatic
perturbations occurring any time when the functional integrity of the hepatic cells
is at stake.
In the case of hepato-cellular affections - either an icteric syndrome or
some cases of hepatitis or hepatic cirrhosis - the homeostatic modification
produced at the level of the peripheral blood appear as connective functional
implications, manifested the more severely, the more sever the liver disfunction
is. Generally, the hepatic affections induce perturbations both in the normal
metabolism of the iron – thus influencing both the hemoglobinosynthesis and the
normochromy of the red cells – and in a corresponding storage and utilization of
vitamins B10 (the folic acid) and B12, known as participating to the normal
maturation of the elements appearing in erythropoiesis, all these aspects
contributing to associating the liver maladies with the anemia (Sulkowski, 2003;
Andreana et al., 2004; Gupta et al., 2005; Cengiz et al., 2007; Savage et al., 2007;
Grimaldi et al., 2008).
The present study analyzes the results of the investigations devoted to the
connective hematological modifications observed in patients suffering from
hepatitis, investigated in the Clinical Laboratory of the Mavromati Districtual
Hospital of Botosani between April-September 2006. The severity of the anemia
in the moment of hospitalization, along with the recovery extent of the
hematological failure as a result of the antihepatitic treatment applied have been
estimated from the values of the main specific indices under analysis and also
from the derived erythrocytary constants.

MATERIALS AND METHODS


The study starts from the results of the laboratory analyses performed in
blood samples taken over - both in the beginning of their hospitalization and after
5-15 days from the application of the antihepatitic treatment and of a
hepatoprotecting food regime - the patients affected by hepatitis under
consideration. Taking over and analysis of the blood samples were performed by
the specialized staff of the Clinic, with vacuum-collecting tubes and the EDTA K3
anticoagulant substance, on an ABX Pentra 60 C+ type automatic hematological
analyzer. The main hematological indices usually involved in evidencing and
characterizing the anemic state, namely: hemoglobin concentration (g Hgb/dL
blood), the hematocryte (%), the number of red blood cells (x 106/µL), have been
analyzed, along with the mean corpuscular volume – MCV (µm3/erythrocyte);
mean corpuscular hemoglobin – MCH (pg Hgb/erythrocyte); mean corpuscular
hemoglobin concentration – MCHC (g Hgb/dL erythrocyte amount).

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


Out of the total number of 303 adult patients suffering from
hepatocellular affections, followed in the laboratory along the above-mentioned
period, 37.3 % (i.e. 113 cases) have been found as suffering from various forms of
hepatitis (29.2 % acute hepatitis B, 46 % acute hepatitis C and 24.7 % chronic
hepatitis) and 47.9 % (i.e. 145 cases) from hepatic cirrhosis.
On considering the reversible character of the hematological
insufficiency, characterized by the tendency of a post-treatment recovery of the
initial values, the present study develops a comparative evaluation of the recovery
rhythm, recorded on groups of patients affected by mild, medium and severe
forms of anemia. To this end, the patients suffering from hepatitis have been
divided into 3 different groups, each formed of 10 persons, as follows: group A -
the mild form of anemia (Hgb = 10-12 g/dL); group B - moderate anemia (Hgb =
7-10 g/dL) and group C - severe anemia (Hgb = below 7 g/dL). The comparative
evolution of the levels of hematological indices analyzed is plotted synthetically
in Figures 1 to 6, each value representing the arithmetic mean of the 10 samples.
A comparative analysis between the mean values of hemoglobin in the
patients with hepatitis and the mean of the physiologically normal values of this
parameter (fig. 1) shows that, in the beginning of hospitalization, the Hgb
concentration records significant decreases, comparatively with the normal level,
up to 10.8 g/dL in group A, 9.2 g/dL in group B and 6.8 g/dL in group C – which
means lowering of the Hgb value up to 74.3 %, versus the normal, in patients with
mild anemia, up to 63.2 % in those with moderate anemia, and up to 48.6 % of the
normal values, respectively, in people affected by severe anemia.

16 14.5
14 13.3
11.5
12 10.8
10 9.2 9.4
Hgb (g/dL)

8 6.8
6 A B C
A B C
4
74% 63% 49% 100% 92% 79% 67%
2

0
Initial Regular physiological Final
values mean

Fig.1. Post-treatment hemoglobinic recovery in hepatitis-affected patients

Generally, anemia is defined as a severe breathing insufficiency,


provoked by inhibition of the Hgb biosynthesis, an effect with multiple causes,
usually accompanied by the reduction in the number of red blood cells and,
implicit, of the Hct too. Evolution of the values of the erythrocitary constants

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orientates the diagnosis, for the establishment of the type of anemia. More than
that, in some forms of anemia the range of perturbations may also affect the over
figurative elements of blood.

50
43.5
45 41.5
40 35.3 35.7
35 30.2 29
30
Hct (%)

25 23

20 A B C
A B C
15
10
100%
81% 69% 55% 95% 82% 69%
5
0
Initial Regular physiological Final
values mean

Fig.2. Post-treatment recovery of the hematocryte values in patients affected by hepatitis

The distribution of patients on groups, according to the seriousness of the


anemy, was based on the values of Hgb concentration (fig. 1), yet the data
illustrated in Figures 2-3, on Hct and number of red blood cells, evidence a close
correlation with those on hemoglobin. Thus, the initial values of Hct (fig. 2) are
18.9 % lower in patients with mild anemia, versus the normal ones while, in
groups B and C, the differences increase up to 30.6 % and 45.2 % respectively.
Such drastic decreases of Hct may be explained only by the numerical
diminution of the red blood cells (fig. 3), as the initial MCV values remain quite
close to the normal ones (fig. 4). Indeed, Figure 3 shows that the initial values of the
red blood cells number decrease (as in the case of Hgb) up to 74.7 % from the normal
in group A, up to 57.4 % in group B and up to 54.2 %, respectively, in group C.

6
5.1
5
4.2
3.8
4 3.6
RBC (Mil./µl)

3.1
2.9
3 2.6

2
A B C A B C
1
75% 57% 54% 100% 83% 71% 65%
0
Initial Regular physiological Final
values mean

Fig.3. Post-treatment evolution of the number of red blood cells in patients suffering
from hepatitis

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120

92.5 93.9 96 95.2


100
83.7 87 86.5
80
MCV (fL)

60

40 A B C A B C

20 106% 108% 96% 100% 110% 109% 99%

0
Initial Regular physiological Final
values mean

Fig.4. Post-treatment evolution of the MCV values in patients suffering from hepatitis

Following the applied antihepatitic treatment and the recommended


alimentary regime, a visible recovery of the hematological insufficiency present
in the beginning of hospitalization is to be observed in the hemogramme, as a
result of the amelioration of the functional condition of the hepatocyte. This
process is even more ample in the case of Hgb than in Hct and number of red
blood cells. Thus, the differences recorded comparatively with normal cases are
reduced, after the treatment, with 17.5 % at Hgb – in group A (mild anemia), with
16.2 % in group B (moderate anemia) and with 18.5 %, respectively, in group C
(severe anemia). The hematocryte shows a slower recovery, the differences being
reduced, in the three groups, with 14.3 %, 12.7 % and 14.2%, while the recovery
rhythm of the erythrocyte’s number is even slower, the differences versus the
mean physiologically normal values being only of 8.2%, 13.2 % and 10.4%
respectively.
As evidenced by the results obtained, recovery of the hematological
insufficiency is not total, not even in patients with mild anemia, and, besides this,
the seriousness of anemia, in the moment of hospitalization, does not influence
the recovery rhythm, which is seen as evolving - in all variants - along curves
with parallel direction.
Equally, the results of the investigations confirm the functional response
of the hepatocyte, which partially re-establishes the synthesis ability of the
biologically-active compounds, both involved for increasing the field of the
hemoglobinosynthesis and for the homeostatic recovery of the erythropoiesis.

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

35 32
31.3 31.5
30.3
28.2 29
30
26.1
25
MCH (pg)

20

15
A B C A B C
10

5 97% 108% 90% 100% 109% 110% 104%

0
Initial Regular physiological Final
values mean

Fig.5. Post-treatment evolution of the MCH values in patients suffering


from hepatitis

40
35
35 32.2 32.2 32.4
30.6 30.1 29.5
30
MCHC (g/dL)

25
20
15 A B C A B C

10
87% 86% 84% 100% 92% 92% 93%
5
0
Initial Regular physiological Final
values mean

Fig.6. Post-treatment evolution of the MCHC values in patients suffering


from hepatitis

The more active recovery of the hemoglobinic insufficiency,


correlated with the post-treatment increasing tendency of the mean MCH (fig. 5)
and MCHC (fig. 6) in both taking over operations suggest the pre-eminent
occurrence of the hypochrome forms of anemia, associated with some
macrocytosis tendencies (Munteanu, 1997).

CONCLUSIONS
1. A general hematological failure is observable in the patients taken into
study, in the moment of their hospitalization, evidenced by a 26-51 % decrease in
the Hgb concentration, of 19-45 % in the Hct and of 25-46 % in the number of red
blood cells, comparatively with the normal values.

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 51 seria Zootehnie

2. After 5-15 days of antihepatitic treatment and hepatoprotecting food


regime, the hematological insufficiency is partially recovered in all variants, the
Hgb concentration coming to obtain 8-33 % of the normal values, while that of
Hct reaches 5-31 % and the number of red blood cells, respectively, 17-36 % of
the normal.
3. Hemoglobinic recovery is 21 % more active than that of Hct and 39 %
more active than that of the red blood cells number.
4. In the case of Hgb, Hct and MCHC the recovery evolves along some
curves with parallel orientation in all three variants, regardless of the initial
seriousness of the anemia.
5. Recovery in the erythrocyte’s number is more active in the case of
moderate and severe anemia, when 10-13% of the initial insufficiency is
recovered, comparatively with variant A (mild anemia), in which the re-
establishment is of only 8.2%.

REFERENCES
Andreana, A., Cesaro, G., Giordano, M.G., Ricciotti, R., Andreana, L., 2004: Hepatitis-associated
aplastic anemia: description of a new case, Infez. Med. 12 (4), 274-277
Cengiz, C., Turhan, N., Yolcu, O.F., Yilmaz, S., 2007: Hepatitis associated with aplastic anemia:
do CD8(+) Kupffer cells have a role in the pathogenesis?, Dig. Dis. Sci. 52(9), 2438-
2443.
Grimaldi, D., Limal, N., Noizat-Pirenne, F., Janvier, D., Godeau, B., Michel, M., 2008: IgA-
mediated auto-immune haemolytic anaemia revealing a hepatitis C virus infection, Rev.
Med. Interne 29(2), 135-138.
Gupta, A., Bansal, D., Marwaha, R.K., Trehan, A., 2005: Hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia:
successful outcome following immunosuppressive therapy, Indian J. Gastroenterol. 24(4),
175-176.
Misăilă, C., Gianina Comănescu, 1999, Elemente de Hematologie generală, Ed.Corson, Iaşi
Munteanu, N., 1997: Anemiile hipocrome, in: Păun, R., 1997 (sub red.): Tratat de Medicină internă-
Hematologie, vol.I, Ed. Med., Buc.
Păun, R., 1997 (sub red.): Tratat de Medicină internă-Hematologie, vol. I, Ed. Med., Buc.
Savage, W.J., DeRusso, P.A., Resar, L.M., Chen, A.R., Higman, M.A., Loeb, D.M., Jones, R.J.,
Brodsky, R.A., 2007: Treatment of hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia with high-dose
cyclophosphamide, Pediatr. Blood Cancer 49(7), 947-951.
Sulkowski, M.S., 2003: Anemia in the treatment of hepatitis C virus infection, Clin. Infect. Dis. 37,
Suppl 4, 315-322.

The author’s address: „Alexandru Ioan Cuza ” University of Iaşi, B-dul Carol I, Nr. 20A, 700506,
Iaşi-Romania, e-mail: pcamanca@yahoo.com

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

HEMATOLOGICAL MODIFICATIONS IN HEPATIC


CIRRHOSIS ASSOCIATED WITH ANEMIA
Anca-Mirela PAŞPARAN, C. MISĂILĂ

The paper analyzes the connective hematological modifications in 3


groups of 10 patients, each suffering from cirrhosis (namely, mild, moderate and
severe anemia), treated at the Botosani County Hospital, between April -
September 2006. The seriousness of the anemy was evaluated in the beginning of
the hospitalization period together with the re-establishment of the hematological
failure as the result of the anti-cirrhosis treatment applied, which involved
determination of the main indices here involved: hemoglobin, the hematocryte,
the number of red blood cells, the number of thrombocytes, as well as the derived
erythrocitary constants.
In the beginning of the hospitalization period, the average values of the
hemoglobin represented 35 - 75% of the normal level, while, those of the Hct 39 -
82%. In the same moment, the thrombocytary failure was much more severe than
the erythrocytary one, the initial number of red cells representing 37 - 70% of the
average normal values, while that of the thrombocytes was of only 25 - 57%.
The post-treatment recovery is active in all the three variants. The levels
of Hgb, Hct and red blood cells number are re-established, in the severe anemy
variant, in a more active, compensating manner, comparatively with the cases of
mild and moderate anemy. The initial thrombocytary failure is, however, more
severe, so that the recover of the thrombocytes is occurring more slowly,
comparatively with that of the red blood cells, in cirrhosis.

INTRODUCTION
As generally known, the liver is a very special, unique organ of the
human body, as due to its capacity to regenerate after maladies or temporary
lesions having affecting it. Any modification occurring at hepatocyte level
disturbs its structural equilibrium, thus putting into evidence the interferences
with its functions (Paun, 1997; Gherasim, 2000). For example, a multiple
functional relation is active between the liver and the blood tissue, while the
homeostatic modifications at blood level appear as the more severe, the more
pronounced is the liver disfunction. In most situations, the hepato-cell complaints
assume perturbations in the organism’s iron supply, or in its absorption and
transport (Hilgard and Gerken, 2005), one of the immediate consequencies being
a depression of the hemoglobinosynthesis rhythm, which causes anemia.
Consequently, in the case of hepato-cell maladies of the hepatitis and
cirrhosis type, the hematological component is usually manifesting in the form of
associated anemia disease, with various degrees of seriousness, which may
aggravate the evolution of the hepatic disfunction, and those curing may improve
the functional condition of the liver (Bladé et al., 2007; Bruno et al., 2005).

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Hepatic cirrhosis is an extremely severe disease, in which the functions of


the hepatic cells are blocked by the intracytoplasmatic cerrides, structurally
characterized by an association with fibrose, regeneration nodules and
hepatocytary necroses, therefore, alteration of the hepatic architecture. Hepatic
cirrhosis ranks among the ten fatal maladies, the most pregnant causes of its
installation being the hepatic viruses and the alcohol (Malik et al., 2002; Haruta et
al., 2007). Besides these, a faulty alimentation, precarious living conditions, auto-
imune hepatitis, biliary stasis, the drugs, heart insufficiency may also provoke
hepatic cirrhosis (Martín and de Las Heras, D., 2004; Nacoulma et al., 2007).
Generally, deterioration of the patients’ health condition up to the stage of
cirrhosis is reflected, as well, in the seriousness degree of the anemia
accompanying it. The present paper discusses the results of some investigations
devoted to connective hematological modifications in patients suffering from
cirrhoses, hospitalized in the Mavoromati Districtual Hospital of Botosani,
between April and September 2006.
At the same time, the study estimates the seriousness of the anemia in the
beginning of the treatment and the re-establishment of the hematological failure
after the application of the anticirrhotic treatment, from the viewpoint of the
values of hemoglobin, hematocryte, number of red blood cells and number of
thrombocytes, as well from that of the derived erythrocytary constants.

MATERIALS AND METHODS


The experiments were made on blood samples taken over from the
patients affected by hepatic cirrhosis both in the moment of their going to the
hospital and after 5-15 days of anticirrhotic treatment and hepatoprotecting food
regime. Taking over and analysis of the blood samples were made by the
authorized staff of the clinic, vacuum-collecting tubes and the EDTA K3
anticoagulant, and an automated ABX Pentra 60 C+ type hematological analyzer
being used. The main hematological indices involved in evidencing and
characterization of the anemic states (Misaila and Comanescu, 1999) were
considered in the study, namely: hemoglobin concentration (g Hgb/dL blood), the
hematocryte (%), the number of red blood cells (x 106/µL), the number of
thrombocytes (x 103/µL), along with the mean corpuscular volume – MCV
(µm3/erythrocyte); mean corpuscular hemoglobin – MCH (pg Hgb/erythrocyte);
mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration – MCHC (g Hgb/dL erythrocyte
amount).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


The investigations were performed on 145 adult subjects affected by
hepatic cirrhosis, representing 47.9 % of the total number of 303 patients
suffering from hepatocell affections. Out of the remaining number of patients

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

registered in the laboratory along the period taken into study, 113 cases (37 %)
suffered from various forms of hepatitis, namely: 29.2 % acute hepatitis B, 46 %
acute hepatitis C and 24.7 % chronic hepatitis.
Considering the reversible character of the hematological failure in
hepato-cell affections, marked by a post-treatment recovery tendency of the initial
values (Pasparan and Misaila, 2008), the paper compares the recovery rhythms,
recorded on groups of patients, i.e. patients with mild, moderate or severe forms
of anemia, on the basis of the mean hemoglobin concentration registered in the
beginning of hospitalization. We constituted 3 different groups of patients, each
formed of 10 subjects (5 men and 5 women), as follows: group 1 - the mild form
of anemia (Hgb = 10-12 g/dL); group 2 - moderate anemia (Hgb = 7-10 g/dL) and
group 3 - severe anemia (Hgb = below 7 g/dL). The results obtained have been
illustrated in Figures 1 to 7, each value representing the arithmetic mean of the 10
samples.
16
14.5
14 13.2

12 10.9 11.2

10
8.8
Hgb (g/dL)

8.4
8

6 5.1

4 1 2 3 1 2 3

75% 61% 35% 100% 91% 77% 58%


2

0
Initial Regular physiological Final
values mean

Fig.1. Post-treatment hemoglobinic re-establishment in patients


suffering from hepatic cirrhosis

The seriousness degree of the anemia in the moment of hospitalization:


the data in Figures 1-4 show that, in the moment of their hospitalization, the
patients with cirrhosis showed much lower average levels than the average of the
regular physiological values considered as normal, both for Hgb and Hct, and for
the number of red blood cells and thrombocytes. Consequently, from value of
14.5 g/dL - taken as the mean of the regular values -, the Hgb level decreases to
10.9 g/dL in the patients from group 1, to 8.8 g/dL to group 2 and to 5.1 g/dL to
group 3, respectively. This represents a pronounced hemoglobinic failure, the
levels record in the moment of patients’ hospitalization representing 75-35 % of
the regular values (fig. 1). Similar decreases have been also registered for the
mean values of the Hct (fig. 2) and of the red blood cells number (fig. 3), in these
last cases the failure attaining up to 82-39 % in the Hct and up to 70-37 % of the
normal red blood cells number.

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50
43.5
45 41
40 35.6 35.2
35
28.3
Hct (%)

30 25.7
25
20 17.1
15 1 2 3 1 2 3
10
5 82% 65% 39% 100% 94% 81% 59%
0
Initial Regular physiological Final
values mean

Fig.2. Evolution of the hematocryte values in patients affected by cirrhosis

6
5.1
5 4.6

4 3.6 3.7
RBC (Mil./µl)

2.8 3
3
1.9
2
1 2 3 1 2 3
1
70% 54% 37% 100% 91% 74% 59%
0
Initial Regular physiological Final
values mean

Fig.3. Evolution of the red blood cell number values in patients affected by
cirrhosis

Such values demonstrate the advanced degree of hepatic destruction in the


patients under study, the hepatic cells having no possibility, any more, of
functionally assuring the normal development of both hemoglobinosynthesis, and
erythropoiesis and thrombocytopoiesis (fig. 4). This later aspect is especially
interesting, as the thrombocytary failure in the moment of hospitalization is much
more severe than in the above - mentioned parameters.

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

300

250 240

PLT (x 1000/µl) 200 189

151
150
113
92 95
100
61
1 2 3
50 1 2 3

47% 38% 25% 100% 79% 63% 40%


0
Initial Regular physiological Final
values mean

Fig.4. Evolution of the thrombocyte number values in patients affected by


cirrhosis

Consequently, if in variant 1, that is, in patients with mild anemia (as a


function of the Hgb level), the number of red blood cells is 30 % lower than the
normal, the number of thrombocytes decreases - in the same variant – with 43 %,
comparatively with the normal. In variant 3 (severe anemia), in the beginning of
hospitalization, the red blood cells decrease with 63 %, while the thrombocytes
with 75%.
As to the erythrocytary constants under analysis (Figures 5-7), mention
should be made of the fact that, both in the moment of hospitalization and after
the treatment, the values recorded in the three variants are much closer to the
normal average value, comparatively with the other parameters investigated. In
variants 1 and 3, MCV is 5-6 % lower, in the beginning of hospitalization (fig. 5),
besides the numerical diminution of the red blood cells, both of them justifying
the low Hct values.

100 94.2
90 86.4 87 86.6 86.9
82.8 81.9
80

70

60
MCV (fL)

50

40 1 2 3 1 2 3

30

20

10 95% 99% 94% 100% 99% 108% 100%

0 Regular physiological
Initial Final
values mean

Fig.5. Evolution of the MCV values in patients affected by cirrhosis

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In a similar manner, the MCHC values (fig. 7) recorded in the moment of


hospitalization are 11-16 % lower than the normal ones, being correlated with the
initial levels of the hemoglobin concentration.
35
32
31
30
29 29
30 28
25
25
MCH (pg)

20

15
1 2 3 1 2 3
10

5 100% 103% 86% 100% 107% 110% 97%

0
Initial Regular physiological Final
values mean

Fig.6. Evolution of the MCH values in patients affected by cirrhosis

40
35
35 32.2 31.9 33
30.7 31.2
29.6
30
MCHC (g/dL)

25

20

15 1 2 3 1 2 3

10

5 88% 89% 84% 100% 92% 91% 94%

0
Initial Regular physiological Final
values mean

Fig.7. Evolution of the MCHC values in patients affected by cirrhosis

The re-establishment rhythm of hematological failure after the treatment-


the regeneration capacity of the hepatocyte, following the diminution of the
destructive effects and application of drug treatments with active recovery, along
with a hepatoprotecting regime induces the occurring of the hematological
recovery - usually present in milder affections (icterus, hepatitis) - even in
cirrhosis.
The present investigations evidenced that, as a result of the anticirrhotic
treatment and of a corresponding alimentary regime, a visible recovery of the
hematological failure - recorded in the moment of hospitalization - is observed.
From this point of view, the recovery rhythm of the anemia, in the three variants
of seriousness of the malady, has - with only few exceptions - an almost parallel
course, for both hemoglobin and hematocryte, and the number of the red blood

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

cells and thrombocytes. For example, in the case of mild and moderate anemia,
the hemoglobin regains 16 % of the initial difference from the normal, and 23 %,
respectively in severe anemia. As to the hematocryte, 12-16 % are recovered in
variants 1 and 2 and 20 %, respectively, in cases of severe anemia. As to the
number of red blood cells, the recovery recorded might be defined as a
compensating one, being more active in patients suffering from severe anemia,
comparatively with the other two variants.
In the case of thrombocytes, the rhythm is comparable to that of the other
indices, special mention being nevertheless made of the quite large difference,
maintained even after the treatment, between the values registered in the three
groups of patients and the normal physiological values (21% in mild anemy, 37%
in moderate anemy and 60% in severe anemy). Such data suggest a more ample
homeostatic involvment of the liver which, a hematologically, generally exceeds
the hemoglobinosynthesis and the erythropoiesis, being manifested at the level of
the thrombocytes, as well.

CONCLUSIONS
1. In the moment of their hospitalization, the patients affected by hepatic
cirrhosis evidenced a severe anemia manifested - as a function of the seriousness
degree - by a hemoglobin decrease up to 35-75 % and of the mean values of the
Hct, up to 39-82 % of the normal ones.
2. The thrombocytary failure observed in the beginning of hospitalization
is much more severe than the erythrocytary one, the initial number of red blood
cells being reduced up to 37-70 % of the normal, while thrombocytes decreased
up to 25-57 % of the normal mean physiological values.
3. Decrease of the hematocryte prior to the treatment was caused first by
the decrease in the number of red blood cells and secondly by the decrease of the
MCV values.
4. The post-treatment recovery of the initial hematological failure is also
active in patients with a cirrhotic liver, in all variants of initial seriousness of the
anemia.
5. The recovery rhythm of Hgb, Hct and of the red blood cells number is
more active, in a compensating way, in variant 3 (severe anemia), comparatively
with that observed in variants 1 and 2.
6. The homeostatic role of the liver, in a hematological perspective, is
also manifested in the regeneration of thrombocytes, besides its involvment in
Hgb biosynthesis and in erythropoiesis. Apart from the more severe initial
thrombocytary failure, recovery of the number of thrombocytes in cirrhosis is
relatively slower than that of the red blood cells, a quite significant difference
being maintained - even after the treatment - between the values recorded in the
three groups of patients and the mean normal values (21 % in mild anemia, 37 %
in moderate anemia and 60 % in severe anemia).

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REFERENCES
1. Bladé, J.S., Desramé, J., Corberand, D., Lecoules, S., Blondon, H., Carmoi, T., Zyani, M.,
Béchade, D., Algayres, J.P., 2007: Diagnosis of anemia in alcoholic cirrhosis, Rev. Med.
Interne. 28(11), 756-765 (Review).
2. Bruno, C.M., Sciacca, C., Cilio, D., Bertino, G., Marchese, E., Politi, G., Chinnice, L., Pellicano,
R., 2005: Chronic anaemia and adhesion molecules in patients with liver cirrhosis. A
preliminary report, Minerva Gastroenterol. Dietol. 51(2), 187-191.
3. Gherasim, L., 2000 (sub red.): Medicina internă-Bolile digestive hepatice şi pancreatice, vol. III,
Ed. Med., Bucureşti
4. Haruta, I., Hashimoto, E., Kabutake, A., Taniai, M., Tokushige, K., Shiratori, K., 2007: Spur cell
anemia associated with a cirrhotic non-alcoholic steatohepatitis patient, Hepatol. Res.
37(6), 482.
5. Hilgard, P., Gerken, G., 2005: Liver cirrhosis as a consequence of iron overload caused by
hereditary nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia, World J. Gastroenterol. 11(8), 1241-44
6. Malik, P., Bogetti, D., Sileri, P., Testa, G., Blumenthal, S.A., Wiley, T.E., Layden, T.J.,
Benedetti, E., 2002: Spur cell anemia in alcoholic cirrhosis: cure by orthotopic liver
transplantation and recurrence after liver graft failure, Int. Surg. 87(4), 201-204.
7. Martín, M., de Las Heras, D., 2004: Spur-cell anaemia in a patient with cirrhosis, J. Hepatol.
41(1), 167.
8. Misăilă, C., Comănescu, Gianina, 1999: Elemente de Hematologie generală, Ed.Corson, Iaşi
9. Nacoulma, E.W., Zongo, S., Drabo, Y.J., Bougouma, A., 2007: Types of anaemia in patients with
cirrhosis at the Yalgado Ouedraogo hospital centre of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso),
Sante. 17(2), 87-91.
10. Paşparan, Anca-Mirela, Misăilă, C., 2008: Connective physiological implications in
hepato-cellular affections
11. Păun, R., 1997 (sub red.): Tratat de Medicină internă-Hematologie, vol. I, Ed. Med., Buc.

The author’s address: „Alexandru Ioan Cuza ” University of Iaşi, B-dul Carol I, Nr. 20A, 700506,
Iaşi-Romania, e-mail: pcamanca@yahoo.com

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NORMOLIPIDIC PORK MEAT –


A POSSIBLE WAY TO AMELIORATE THE RISK
FACTORS TO THE PORK MEAT HUMAN CONSUMERS
Cornelia PENCEA, R. LICHIARDOPOL, I. SURDU,
Veronica HEBEAN, Aurora CIOCÎRLAN

Lipids’ quality, the ratio of saturated over unsaturated fatty acids and
the apport of cholesterol play an important role in atherosclerosis disease
development and progression and subsequently in cardiovascular illnesses.
It is a known fact that saturated fatty acids influence blood cholesterol
content, while unsaturated acids are PG’s and Tx’s precursors, as involved in
cardiovascular diseases. It must not to be forgotten that a raised dietary level of
polyunsaturated fatty acids entails an equivalent apport of antioxidants,
especially E vitamin. Serious lipo-peroxidation processes are thus avoided in
organism, circumventing blood vessel degradation, atheromatous plaque and
thrombosis development.
Our main focus regarding this project was supported by all above mentioned
information, intending to evaluate short term effect in experimentally modified pork
meat (augmented fraction of saturated over unsaturated fatty acids, plus an enhanced
content in antioxidant) towards lipidic, proteic and glucidic metabolism, in human
subjects, with or without diabetes mellitus or diagnosed dislipidemia.
For this project were used 40 human subjects( with or without diabetes
mellitus, 25 women and 15 men), whom were clinical and biochemical monitorized
for short term (one month). The subjects were randomically splited in 2 equal groups
(2 x 20), depending on the type of meat gave it to be consumed during the monitoring
period. The first group ( 8 men and 12 women, 10 persons with diabetes mellitus- 4
men included) consumed “normal pork meat” and was named as “benchmark
group”, while the second group (9 persons with diabetes mellitus- 4 men included)
consumed “experimental pork meat” and was named “experimental group”. The
diagnosed patients with diabetes mellitus had, in average, an illness history of 7
years, for the first group, and 11.22 years, for the second group,. During this 30 days
study, the patients received a daily pork meat quantity of 200 grams.
At the end of 1 month of monitoring the “benchmark group”, it was
observed at the diabetes mellitus (DM) patients, as well as at non-diabetes
mellitus (NDM) patients, a slightly increase in medium value for serical
cholesterolemia, (190.63 vs 208.45 for DM patients and 191.67 vs 207.68 for
NDM), without support from other lipidic parameters.
At the end of 1 month of monitoring the “experimental group”, it was
noted a decrease in medium values of cholesterolemia (197.78 vs 182.63 in DM
and 221 vs 206.6 in NDM patients) and of LDL-cholesterol (124.23 vs 104.7 in
DM and 152 vs 145.36 in NDM patients). Same sense variation of
triglyceridemia (133.06 vs 114.86) accompanied these kind of modifications at
DM patients, although they maintained the same diet, same physical exam and, if
required, same hipolipemiant dosage, during the whole surveying time.
It can be concluded, based on obtained data, that patients consuming
experimental meat had a slightly improvement in the lipidic profile,
independently of the rate of glycemic control at DMs, without negative effects
towards other metabolisms.

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INTRODUCTION
Based on the last statistics, metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus
affect more than half of the adult Romania’s population and could be an
explanation for the big number of deceases caused by the cardiovascular illnesses,
more than 50 % of the total deceases;
It is general accepted the fact that food is an important factor for the
healthiness in human being. The diet is considered to be an indispensable part of
illness prevention and/or cure process. More than that, for some kind of illnesses,
it represents the only therapeutically element.
The prescription of a diet is a specialist’s responsibility and it requests
from him/her to have a solid background of nutritional principles and take into
account the patient specific characteristics, such as : sex, age, physical and social
life, nutritional status and pattern, associated pathology and last, but not least, his
financial healthy. Establishing a therapy through diet follows very closely the
scientifically knowledge. The main idea is to refer to “correctional” alimentary
schemes, based on “soothing” the sick organism. Physiological and
psychopathological grounds for diet’s clues are consequently investigated. We are
already looking to a scientifically development regarding food habits.
Metabolic equilibrium is essential to the cell homeostasis and for the
individual human being healthy. By their nature, the food’s constituents are very
important in maintaining this equilibrium, through their quality and action.
Therefore, they are involved in all kind of biochemical processes, which are
affecting the metabolism and the cell defensive response and responsiveness.
As part of nutritional principles, lipids have gained a special role in the
nutritional process during the last decades. Besides playing their part as
energetically source, construction material for membranes and transports for
liposoluble vitamins, the lipids are also very important as source of
polyunsaturated fatty acids, phosphatides, sterides, and as basic material for
physiologically-active substances like prostaglandins (PG), prostaciclins,
tromboxanes (Tx).
Prostaglandins are involved in controlling and regulating the smooth
muscles tonus, inflammatory response, neural system functions and cell
multiplication.
Tromboxanes are engaged in platelet aggregation and prostaciclins in
controlling vascular tonus.
The role of lipids as nutritional factors is endorsed by all the facts
mentioned above, with great implications in cardiovascular illnesses. Lipids’
quality, the ratio of saturated over unsaturated fatty acids and the apport of
cholesterol play an important role in atherosclerosis disease development and
progression and subsequently in cardiovascular illnesses.
It is a known fact that saturated fatty acids influence blood cholesterol
content, while unsaturated acids are PG’s and Tx’s precursors, as involved in

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cardiovascular diseases. It must not to be forgotten that a raised dietary level of


polyunsaturated fatty acids entails an equivalent apport of antioxidants, especially
E vitamin. Serious lipo-peroxidation processes are thus avoided in organism,
circumventing blood vessel degradation, atheromatous plaque and thrombosis
development.
Our main focus regarding this project was supported by all above
mentioned information, intending to evaluate short term effect in experimentally
modified pork meat (augmented fraction of saturated over unsaturated fatty acids,
plus an enhanced content in antioxidant) towards lipidic, proteic and glucidic
metabolism, in human subjects, with or without diabetes mellitus or diagnosed
dislipidemia.

MATERIALS AND METHODS


For this project were used 40 human subjects (with or without diabetes
mellitus, 25 women and 15 men), whom were clinical and biochemical
monitorized for short term (one month). The subjects were randomically splited in
two equal groups (2 x 20), depending on the type of meat gave it to be consumed
during the monitoring period. The first group (8 men and 12 women, 10 persons
with diabetes mellitus- 4 men included) consumed “normal pork meat” and was
named as “benchmark group”, while the second group (9 persons with diabetes
mellitus- 4 men included) consumed “experimental pork meat” and was named
“experimental group”. The diagnosed patients with diabetes mellitus had, in
average, an illness history of 7 years, for the first group, and 11.22 years, for the
second group. During this 30 days study, the patients received a daily pork meat
quantity of 200 grams.
For the purposes of this study, a Monitoring Sheet was used for each
patient in both groups, containing the next information:
- personal data: family name, surname, PNC, complete address, phone
no.
- administrative hospital data: no. of, Monitoring Sheet
admission/releasing data
- anthropometric data: height (w/o shoes), weight (slightly dressed),
BMI, waist measure (cm), hips measure (cm), WHR
- inherited-related factors: IHD, AHT, CVA, DM, dislipidemia (first
degree relatives)
- smoking data (i.e.: duration, type of cigarettes, no. of cigarettes per
day; if he/she quitted, since when)
- personal pathological data: DM (type, duration, presence/type of
complications, no. of CAD chart)
- medicamentous treatment data before each visit (i.e.: normalizing
lipemia and treatment of comorbidities)
- pathological clinical exam data (short description)

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- biological exam (a jeune, after 12 hours of nocturnal fasting):


glucose, AlcHb, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol,
AGL, TGO/TGP, urea, creatinin, albumin/creatinin fraction
- glycemic profile (including a jeune, pre-prandial and postprandial
glycemia)

RESULTS OF THE EXPERIMENT


“Benchmark group”
At the end of 1 month of monitoring the “benchmark group”, it was
observed at the diabetes mellitus (DM) patients, as well as non-diabetes mellitus
(NDM) patients, a slightly increase in medium value for serical cholesterolemia,
(190.63 vs. 208.45 for DM patients and 191.67 vs. 207.68 for NDM), without
support from other lipidic parameters. The anthropometric parameters (height,
waist and hips measure, BMI) remained practically constant during the study and
it was not noted a significant statistically modification of the biological
parameters reflecting the proteic metabolism (i.e. urea, creatinine, uric acid).
Some data regarding this group are shown in the table 1:

Table 1. Benchmark group


DETAILS DM* NDM**
Parameters Initially After Initially After
(medium) 1 month 1 month
Cholesterol 190.63 208.45 191.67 207.68
Triglycerides 144.36 151.53 148.24 149.25
HDL-Cholesterol 44.27 46.00 50.10 50.90
LDL-Cholesterol 137.80 138.00 132.70 116.70
Uric Acid 4.05 4.05 4.12 4.15
Creatinine 0.94 0.96 1.00 1.01
Glycemia 136.70 129.70 94.20 90.10
AlcHb 7.70 7.50 5.27 5.28
Waist measure 110.10 100.85 88.20 88.35
Hips measure 108.30 108.10 97.80 97.70
BMI 28.72 28.88 23.67 23.60
Weight 77.90 77.45 64.87 64.67
* DM = Diabetes Mellitus patients
** NDM = Non- Diabetes Mellitus patients

“Experimental group”
At the end of 1 month of monitoring the “experimental group”, it was noted
a decrease in medium values of cholesterolemia (197.78 vs. 182.63 in DM and 221
vs. 206.6 in NDM patients) and of LDL-cholesterol (124.23 vs. 104.7 in DM and
152 vs. 145.36 in NDM patients). Same sense variation of triglyceridemia (133.06

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vs. 114.86) accompanied these kinds of modifications at DM patients, although they


maintained the same diet, same physical exam and, if required, same hipolipemiant
dosage, during the whole surveying time. As for the standard group, it were not
observed a significant statistically modification in biological parameters reflecting
proteic metabolism, i.e. urea, creatinine, uric acid.
Anthropometric parameters were constant. At DMs it was noted an
improved glycemic control, due to an enhanced lipidic profile, followed by a
secondary insulino-resistance (AlcHb 7.55 vs. 7.3; medium a jeune glycemia 145
vs. 108.5).
It can be concluded that patients have shown a slightly improvement of
lipidic profile, without any relationship to glycemic control in DM or negative
effects towards other metabolisms.
Some data regarding this group are shown in the table 2:

Table 2. Experimental group


DETAILS DM* NDM**
Parameters Initially After Initially After
(medium) 1 month 1 month
Cholesterol 197.78 182.63 221.00 206.60
Triglycerides 133.06 114.86 92.06 104.65
HDL-Cholesterol 45.11 45.40 47.83 49.27
LDL-Cholesterol 124.23 104.70 152.00 145.36
Uric Acid 4.23 4.50 4.40 5.80
Creatinine 1.02 0.98 1.00 0.97
Glycemia 145.00 108.50 87.58 83.50
AlcHb 7.50 7.33 5.20 5.10
Waist measure 101.18 100.85 88.20 88.35
Hips measure 115.52 115.03 106.70 106.82
BMI 29.53 29.44 72.50 72.04
Weight 83.88 83.55 25.82 25.64
* DM = Diabetes Mellitus patients
** NDM = Non- Diabetes Mellitus patients

GENERAL CONCLUSIONS
Should be mentioned the fact that both groups patients had at the start at
the experiment a similar gliycemic equilibrium (AlcHb 7.5% - the experimental
group and 7.55 % - the benchmark group). The experiment had this requirement
in order to be able to note and measure the influence of quality and type in pork
meat consumption on the lipidic metabolism of the patients with similar gliycemic
equilibrium.
DM patients from the both groups have shown no significant modification
in glucidic metabolism, as proven by registering values for a jeune glycemia and
AlcHb.

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It can be concluded, based on obtained data, that patients consuming


experimental meat had a slightly improvement in the lipidic profile,
independently of the rate of glycemic control at DMs, without negative effects
towards other metabolisms.
Another result of the experiment was the fact that the process of digesting
the normal or “Normolipidic” pork meat was good for both groups’ patients.
The current results obtained on analyzing the effects on human glucidic
and lipidic metabolism by consuming on short term the “ Normal/Normolipidic”
pork meat are still preliminary due to the fact that many other laboratory
investigation are in progress.
To facilitate significant statistically results it would be necessary to cover
a longer period of experimentation and use a bigger number of subjects. At least
for the moment, the lack of financial resources has made this goal impossible. We
are looking forward to fulfill our goals as soon as possible.

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Diabetic Medicina 17: 558–559, 2000.
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and their genes. J. Annu Rev Nutr 17:277–303, 1997.
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MR: Actualităţi în lipidologie. Ed. Mirton: 160–175, 1999.
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antibodies after discontinuing insulin treatment (Abstract). Diabetologia 21: 285, 1981.
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Editura Medicală, Bucureşti, 1985.

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17. Mincu I, Popescu A, Ionescu-Tîrgovişte C: Elemente de biochimie şi fiziologie a nutriţiei. Ed.


Medicală, Bucureşti, 1985.
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zaharat. Infomedica 4: 14–17, 1995
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insulin and proinsulin concentrations measured by two oral glucose tolerance tests in a general
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MANAGEMENT OF PROCESSES WITHIN THE EUROPEAN


REGULATIONS ON QUALITY
Cecilia POP

The paper goal was to debate the main aspects which consist into the basis
of the process approach according European norms and as under the perspective of the
excellence, as a target to be reached through quality.
The processes and their management represent the central attractive and
interesting point within an organization. A desired result is achieved more efficiently
when activities and related resources are managed as a process.
The method “process based approaching”, for design of a quality
management system, should be have next steps: defining the objectives of the
organization’s processes; defining a process that will achieve specific objectives
(strategic processes, operative processes and support processes); establishing clear
responsibility, authority and accountability for managing the process; determining the
stages in the process necessary to achieve the results; determining the activities
required to accomplish each process stage; identifying the inputs and outputs of the
process; taking action to eliminate the cause of nonconforming inputs or outputs;
measuring process outputs, efficiency and effectiveness.
In conclusion, all these processes having a strong impact on any organization
competitiveness could to be controlled through the implementation of the ISO 9001
system procedures. The implementation of the system procedures, as required by the
standard (e.g. documents checking, non-conform product checking, internal audit etc.)
and of the operational procedures (e.g. personnel training, design-development,
customer satisfaction evaluation etc.), assures the achievement of a high efficiency
within the accomplishment of the management functions.

The experience of the high success companies, that continuous improved


the quality, across the ISO 9000 standards, demonstrates that the targets could be
accomplished only if the activities are managed as a process.
The processes and their management represent the central attractive and
interesting point within an organization.
Otherwise, some of the first steps in the design of a quality management
system should be the identification of the processes within the organization as
good as the establishing of the process’s owners (individuals having the control
on the process and on its interactions). It is essential that the employees should
manifest so called owner behaviors, in order to improve the quality related
performances. Thus, they must know the company’s business targets (sells, costs,
incomings, customer’s satisfaction etc.) and especially the exact way in which
their work could contribute to the achievements of these objectives; furthermore,
they must know the way in which the organization acts to reach that situation.
Once these elements are assured, “the owners” will be able to design their
processes in a manner that will lead to the best beneficial way to transform the
input element into output elements (the latter being frequently themselves input
elements for other processes).

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Within the management system of an organization there are three types of


processes: strategical processes, operative processes and support processes.
Strategical processes supporting the long existence of the organization, by
ensuring its competitiveness, by concentrating on the customers’ requirements
and of the legal and the regular ones, as well as on the interested parties, for
instance the stakeholders, the employees, the clients and the society, within the
long-term decisions. The strategical processes are superior processes having as
their aim the guarantee of the efficiency of the management system.
Operative processes having as their aim the product performing and being
directly connected to the customers’ requirements and expectations.
Support processes facilitating and supporting the strategical and operative
processes, their output data contributing to the raising of their efficiency.
Suitable these type of processes, within the management system of an
organization, there are three operating levels.
The first level within which the top management elaborates the strategy, the
policy and the objectives of the organization, so that there could be accomplished
the harmonization of the values and the internal rules designed to perform the
business objectives, both with the staff and the customers’ interests and with the
social interests, of labor and environment protection of the local community and
of society, generally.
The second level within which the executive management elaborates
medium and long-term strategical programmes and plans in order to reach the
organization strategy, policy and objectives (strategies of production, market,
human resources and relationships with customers, investment etc).
The third level within which the organization staff performs the
implementation of the strategic programmes and plans by developing the current
processes, including measuring the customers’ satisfaction.
The process based approaching, that supposes the identification, the
appliance and the management of a system of processes and of their interactions
within an organization.
The principle “process approach” is expressed as follows: “A desired
result is achieved more efficiently when activities and related resources are
managed as a process.”
Processes are the means transform inputs value into value added outputs.
They include all the materials, machines, environment, personnel, documentation
and techniques needed to covert given inputs into required outputs.
The method “process based approaching”, for design of a quality
management system, should be have next steps: defining the objectives of the
organization’s processes; defining a process that will achieve specific objectives;
establishing clear responsibility, authority and accountability for managing the
process; determining the stages in the process necessary to achieve the results;
determining the activities required to accomplish each process stage; identifying
the inputs and outputs of the process; taking action to eliminate the cause of

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nonconforming inputs or outputs; measuring process outputs, efficiency and


effectiveness.
A process is under control when actions induced cause variation in the
results. When variations in the results occur by chance, the process is not under
control. Therefore, a process that produces unpredictable results is out of control.
The spread of variation in results may exceed the limits or the requirements but, if
this is predictable, the process is under control. Process control is, therefore, about
understanding variation.
For many years quality management systems has been perceived as a
passive set of documents. Documents alone do not achieve results and, therefore,
cannot be regarded as a system. For a system to achieve results, it has to comprise
dynamic processes that bring resources, activities and behaviors together in the
right relationship, and focus effort on the achievement of objectives.
The main necessary processes for performing continuous improved the
quality of management system are:
o Defining the policy objectives by the top management in the field of
quality, including the target objectives and the internal communication. This is the
first process within sensibilizing, informing and motivating the personnel at all
the levels of organization regarding the intention of the top management to
implement and improvement management system.
Leaders establish unity of purpose and direction of the organization.
They should create and maintain the internal environment in which people can
become fully involved in achieving the organization’s objectives.
Unity of purpose is a state in which everyone in the organization knows
why the organization exists – they share the same purpose. Effective leaders
bring about this unity of purpose through the manner in which they communicate
both formally and informally. This principle is expressed in ISO 9001 trough the
requirement for a quality policy to be established, communicated and understood.
Unity of direction is when everyone pulls in the same direction. They
share common goals and objectives. ISO 9001 express this principle through the
requirement for quality objectives to be established at relevant functions and
levels within the organization. It also means that leaders constantly re-examine
the direction in which they are leading the organization and make adjustments to
keep the organization focused on its purpose.
Effective leaders motivate people to achieve their objectives and the
means of motivating people is to create an environment in which the needs of
people are respected, their efforts rewarded and their contribution encouraged.
o Documentation of the quality management system is other important
process. The activities which are connected to this process are as follows:
identification of the processes within the organization, of the relationships among
them and of the processes owners; establishing the limits for each process;
establishing the input and output data of the processes; integration of the aspects
specific to the quality management system within the processes existing in the

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organization; documentation the complying with the requirements in the reference


documents.
The development of a positive attitude, related to the quality management
documentation (quality manual, proceedings, technical specifications, recordings),
is a very important point. This documentation assures the conformity and the
technological discipline achievement in all the organization activities. The
position and the function of every individual into the system, in the team spirit
development, in the customer-supplier relationship internalization process etc.,
must be clearly specified.
All of these elements suppose the creation of a climate that encourage the
freely communication which will guarantee the personnel access to pertinent data.
The communication must be sharp, punctual, credible, based on real data and
facts. The involved data refers to costs, looses level, customers’
satisfaction/insatisfaction level, salary urges etc. When they belong to a quality
management system, the employees must act as process managers, solving
problems and having their own decisions; otherwise, they could not accomplish
these functions without accessing an appropriate data.
o Implementation of the documentation belonging to the quality
management system in all the organization compartments, with the active
involvement of the whole organization personnel.
People at all levels are the essence of an organization and their full
involvement enables their abilities to be used for the organization’s benefit.
An organization is a group of people that is formed for a particular
purpose. Without the people the organization does not exists; people are not
machines and when treated as such become dissatisfied, unproductive, ineffective
and de-motivated and are unlikely to fulfill the organization’s objectives.
Involving people in matters that affect what they do and how they do it will lead
to improved productivity. The people doing the job are more likely than anyone
else to know what is preventing successful achievement of their objectives than
anyone else.
o The last important process is the continues improvement of the
efficiency of the quality management system, documented and implemented
within the organization in order to satisfy the customers’ requirements referring to
the products quality.
The activities connected to this process could be: analysis of feed-back from
the customers; analysis of the rival organizations performances; establishing the
methods of improving the system; determination and analysis of the new
requirements applicable to the organization; implementing the revised
documentation ; implementation assessment.
Continual improvement of the organization’s overall performance should
be a permanent objective of the organization. Improvement means a beneficial
change and continual improvement means recurring beneficial change. The
beneficial change that this principle focuses on is the organization’s overall

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performance; this means the organization’s performance with respect to its


customers, its people, society and its investors. In reference to continual
improvement, ISO 9001 refers frequently to continually improving the
effectiveness of the quality management system, that one of the key outputs from
Quality Management System is product quality.

CONCLUSIONS

A system is a set of interconnected processes that achieve specific


objectives; therefore identifying the processes that comprise the system is critical
to its effectiveness. When the processes in an organization are not formed into a
coherent system, there will be disconnections and the outputs of one process will
not match with the input requirements of other processes. In practice, people
compensate for these inadequacies and it appears to top management that
operations are running smoothly. An organization applying the principle “system
approach to management” would be one in which people are: defining the
organization as a system that is established to achieve organizational goals;
defining the system by identifying or developing the processes that affect a given
objective; structuring the system to achieve the objective in the most efficient and
effective way; understanding the interdependencies among the processes of the
system; continually improving the system through measurement and evaluation;
establishing resource constraint prior to action so that system integrity is
maintained when changes are made.
The unstructured systems could not guarantee that customers would be
supplied with products and services that consistently met their expectations.
Unstructured systems are susceptible to unpredictable variation since the
processes that cause the result can be driven by personal motives, which may be
at variance with the goals of the organization. Internal competition can cause
friction and knowledge can be used to exert power over others, regardless of the
overall effect on the organization’s performance.
All the processes having a strong impact on any organization’s
competitiveness are easy to be controlled through the ISO 9001 procedures. The
implementation of the system procedures, as required by the standard (e.g.
documents checking, non-conform product checking, internal audit etc.) and of
the operational procedures (e.g. personnel training, design-development, customer
satisfaction evaluation etc.), assures the achievement of a high efficiency within
the accomplishment of the management functions.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Bayer M., Pirna I., Muraru Ionel C., Muraru V., 2004, Integrated management systems:
quality, environment. Quality assurance, nr. 38, Romanian Society for Quality Assurance,
Bucuresti.
2. Chang R. Y., 1995, Continuous process improvement. Kogan Press, Londra.
3. Hoyle David, 1998, ISO 9000 Quality system development handbook. Asystems
engineering approach. Buterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, U.K.
4. James F. Riley, Jr. - Managing Business Process Quality. Ed. Mc. Graw-Hill, New
York, 1992.
5. Hoyle David, 1998, ISO 9000 Quality system development handbook. A systems
engineering approach. Buterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, U.K.
6. Juran J.M., A. B. Goodfrey, (coord.), 1998, Juran’s quality handbook. McGraw-Hil,
New York.
7. Nigel Bauer & Asociaţii, 2005 - Evaluarea sistemelor de management al calitatii. Curs
de instruire certificat IRCA pentru formare auditor/auditor sef - seria ISO 9000:2000. TÜV Nord
Romania, Bucuresti.
8. Pop Cecilia. 2007, Managementul calitatii. Ed. Alfa Iasi.
9. *** ISO 9001:2000 Quality management systems - Requirements. European Commitee
for Standardization.

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 51 seria Zootehnie

ECOLOGICAL DATA REGARDING SOME PARASITOIDS


SPECIES WHICH ARE CONTROLLING THE PLUTELLA
XYLOSTELLA L. POPULATIONS
A. PRELIPCEAN, Gh. MUSTAŢĂ

Plutella xylostella or diamond back moth is a destructive pest of


Brassicaceae crops. The species has a highly adaptability potential to chemical
control. The present study is describeing the interrelations between the moth
parasitoid species. Tracking the parasitoid biocenosys dynamical evolution, I
observed Plutella xylostella` s populations, the parasitoids efficiency in controlling
the pest and the established trophical relations. 30 years ago the primary parasitoids
efficiency in limiting dimond back moth was 80 to 90 %. Today, the researches are
confirming that the parasitation levels have dropped to 66,8%. From the probes
gathered in different cabbage crops, obtained parasitoids, determination of the
biological matherial and data centralisation, I obtained important informations
regarding the actual situation of this pest. From the total of 29 parasitoids species,
19 were primary parasitoids and 9 acted as hyperparasitoids (seccondary
parasitoids). The main parasitoid species are Diadegma semiclausum, Diadegma
fenestrale and Cotesia plutellae.

Fitofague organisms have always been a problem for crops. In the


management of these insects, scientists have taken a series of measures for
improving crops production by using biological control. Even if it was successful
used for a long time, biological control remains mostly unknown to the large
public, especially to farmers.
The present research studyes the parasitoid complex that limits the
Plutella xylostella (diamond back moth) populations, harmful lepidopters in the
cabbage crops. The analisys were made in the some areas near the romanian
littoral of the Black Sea in 2006. It reveals interesting interaction aspects between
the parasitoid biocenosis species. The obtained informations compleate the
reasearches made in this area over the years, reflecting the integrity of the natural
balance in this type of biocenosis. It represents a useful scientific base for
development and applications in the biocontrol management, by using parasitoids
complexes.

MATERIAL AND METHOD


For compleating the targeted objectives we made a series of observations
outside, in the fields and in the laboratory. The probes have been gathered from
locations near Poiana, Agigea and Valu lui Traian. The selected crops were
chemical untreated.
In the small cultures (50-100 cabbage plants) the samples were taken by
controlling all the plants; in the larger ones the colections were made randomly.

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

In order to understand the parasitoid complex that controls Plutella


xylostella, the host-parasitoid interrelations, a rich biological material was
collected, represented by diamond back moth in larva and crisalid stage. There
were colected 1302 probes. These were colected in test tubes, with labels
containing the location and the date of the colection. Subsequent, in the
laboratory, the probes were precesed for parasitoids rearing.
The Plutella xylostella larvas were introduced in plastic boxes among
with cabage leafes – for the crysalid to develop. A series of measures were taken
to prevent the deterioration of the biological material: the boxes were designed
with air holes covered with textil material for ventilation and filter paper was used
to avoid the humidity excess.
The crysalids were also sorted by data and colection location; then
introduces in separated test tubes in order to obtain parasitoids. These were also
labeled. From pupas emerged Plutella xylostella adults and parasitoids.
Subsequent, the parasitoids were identified. On field, some parasitoids species
were recognized by the cocon aspect. The species determination was made
together with prof. dr. Mustaţă Gheorghe from “Alexandru Ioan Cuza”
University, and in the laboratory, using speciality literature.
The obtained informations have been introduced in table 1 and 2 by
colection place, date, number of obtained individuals for each species, the
parasitism/hyperparasitism degree.

Table 1. Plutella xylostella data situation

Plutella xylostella L.
Location and data
of collection Individs Obtained adults
Obtained adults
collected percent
Poiana
12.06.2006 58 31 53,44%
12.06.2006 30 12 40%
7.07.2006 118 27 23,07%
7.07.2006 29 10 34,48%
7.07.2006 42 8 19,04%
12.07.2006 24 5 20,83%
12.07.2006 13 5 38,46%
12.07.2006 48 21 43,75%
12.07.2006 42 13 30,95%
12.07.2006 50 17 34%
14.08.2006 48 15 31,25%
14.08.2006 108 36 33,33%
14.08.2006 57 18 31,57%
14.08.2006 123 42 34,14%
14.08.2006 73 31 42,46%
TOTAL Poiana 863 291 33,71%

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Agigea
8.06.2006 48 14 29,16%
16.06.2006 44 11 25%
16.06.2006 34 8 23,52%
16.06.2006 60 29 48,33%
27.07.2006 120 42 35%
1.08.2006 26 6 23,07%
1.08.2006 22 7 31,81%
TOTAL Agigea 384 123 32,03%
Valu lui Traian
12.08.2006 55 16 29,09%
TOTAL sites 1302 430 33,2%

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


In the researches made in 2006, the parasitoid complex actions were
monitorised. There have been identificated 26 parasitoid species from wich:
- 17 species – primary parasitoids: Diadegma semiclausum Hellén,
Diadegma fenestrale Holmgren Diadegma armillatum Gravenhorst,
Diadegma chrysostictos Gmelin, Diadegma rapi Cameron, Diadegma
salicis Horstmann, Diadegma tenuipes Thomson, Diadromus collaris
Gravenhorst, Diadromus subtilicornis Gravenhorst, Hemichneumon
elongatus Ratzeburg, Herpestomus brunnicornis Gravenhorst,
Phaeogenes bellulus Cresson (Ichneumonidae), Microchelonus
contractus Nees, Cotesia plutellae Kurdjumov, Cotesia rubecula
Marshall, Apanteles appellator Telenga (Braconidae), Oomyzus
sokolowskii Kurdjumov (Eulophidae)(figure 2)
- 9 species – secondary parasitoids: Pteromalus semotus Walker,
Trichomalopsis acuminatus Graham, Trichomalopsis peregrinus Graham,
Catolaccus ater Ratzeburg (Pteromalidae), Mesochorus anomalus
Holmgren Mesochorus acuminatus Thomson, Mesochorus curvulus
Thomson, Mesochorus gracilis Brischke, Mesochorus facialis Bridgman
(Ichneumonidae)(figure 2).

From the total of 1302 probes collected, 873 were parasited (table 2),
representing a parasitism rate of 66,8% (figure 1). From these, 817 were primary
parasitoids (93,62%) and 56 were secondary parasitoids (6,38%).
Three caracteristical species were identified amoung primary parasitoids:
Diadegma semiclausum, Diadegma fenestrale and Cotesia plutellae. These are
the same three species that developed hiperparasitoids. Their role is estabilishing
a throphical equilibrium in the parasitar complex, limiting the primary parasitoids
action. This natural selfadjusting system is initiated by the high abundance of
some species, determining a reduction in number of the primary parasitoids.

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

33,20% Plutel
adults
66,80% Paras
xylost

Figure 1. Parasitism rate in Plutella xylostella populations

Figure 2. The trophic relations in Plutella xylostella populations

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 51 seria Zootehnie

- Diadegma semiclausum has registrated the highest number of secondary


parasitoid species. From the total of 873 parasitated individuals of
diamond back moth, 294 have been hosts to this parasitoid, representing a
parasitation degree of 22,58% (figure 2, table 2). The following species of
hiperparasitoids were obtained.
- 276 DBM have been hosts to Diadegma fenestraleand it has a parasitation
degree of 21,19%. It was hiperparasitated by Pteromalus semotus,
Mesochorus gracilis and Mesochorus facialis. (figure 2, table 2)
- Cotesia plutellae was hiperparasitated by Mesochorus anomalus and
Catalaccus ater (figure 2). It has a parasitation degree of 4,68%.

Table 2. The parasitoids complex wich limits Plutella xylostella populations


Total
Parasitoid species Poiana Agigea Valu lui Traian parasitoids
(per species)
Diadegma armillatum 9 5 2 16
Diadegma chrysostictos 11 10 21
Diadegma fenestrale 196 65 15 276
Diadegma rapae 1 2 3
Diadegma salicis 2 2
Diadegma semiclausum 231 49 14 294
Primary parasitoids

Diadegma tenuipes 6 1 7
Diadromus collaris 2 6 8
Diadromus subtilicornis 6 8 14
Hemichneumon elongates 1 1 2
Herpestomus brunnicornis 2 1 3
Phaeogenes bellulus 1 1
Microchelonus contractus 5 5
Apanteles appelator 13 24 37
Cotesia rubecula 3 18 21
Cotesia plutellae 34 25 2 61
Oomyzus sokolowskii 29 19 48
Pteromalus semotus 4 3 7
Trichomalopsis acuminatus 3 5 8
Secondary parasitoids

Trichomalopsis peregrinus 2 7 9
Mesochorus anomalus 1 2 3
Mesochorus acuminatus 2 2
Mesochorus curvulus 1 1
Mesochorus gracilis 1 1
Mesochorus facialis 3 1 4
Catalaccus ater 8 10 2 21
Total parazitoids 573 261 39 873

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CONCLUSIONS
- It was analysed the afferent biocenotic complex of parasitoids of Plutella
xylostella.
- It was elaborated a sistematic list of species within the parasitoid
biocenosis that includes 26 species from 4 families (Ichneumonidae,
Eulophidae, Braconidae, Pteromalidae) of Hymenoptera order.
- The level of parasitation has recorded a maximum value of 66,8%
sustaining the importance of primary parasitoids in mentaining the
damage produced by Plutella xylostella under a accepted economical
threshold.
- From 17 species of primary parasitoids identified, 3 of them were
limitated by the action of 9 hiperparasitoids species.
- Relating with the researches made 30 years ago by prof. dr. Mustaţă
Gheorghe, when the parasitation level was 80 to 90 percents, we observed
a decrease to 66,8% in 2006. This is because of the excess use of
pesticides in chemical control. The research shows an increased
efficiancy in the existent complexes, fact that encourages practical use of
biological or integrated control.
- The obtained results are showing the importance of the knoledge of these
interrellations in order to apply biological control in a efficient way.
- This study represents a solid base for interdisciplinar research and
collaborations with institutes interested by this problem especially in
biological control, for educational programs development and for the
agroecosystem biodiversity protection methods.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Costea Gabriela, Mustaţa Gh., Lozan A., 2002 – Role of Braconidae (Hymenoptera) in limitation of
Lepidoptera cabbage pests populations in Romania. Parasitic Wasps: Evolution,
Systematics, Biodiversitz and Biological Control. Agroinform, Budapest
Costea Gabriela, Mustaţa Gh., 2003 Cercetări privind cunoaşterea complexului de parazitoizi care
limitează populaţiile de Lepidoptere dăunătoare culturilor de varză din sud-estul României –
phd thesis, Iaşi, Univ. “Al.I.Cuza”
Fitton, M.; Walker, Annette, 1992 – Hymenopterous parasitoids associated with diamonthback
moth: the taxonomic dilemma. Management of Diamondback Moth and Other Crucifer Pests:
Proceedings of the Second International Workshop. Shanhua, Taiwan, Asia Vegetable
Research and Development Center
Mustaţă, Gh., 1978 – The Parasite complex limiting Plutella maculipennis Curt.(Lepidoptera,
Plutellidae) populations in Moldavia. Stud. Cercet. Biol. Ser. Biol.Anim.
Mustaţă, Gh., 1992 – Role of parasitoid complex in limiting the populations of Diamondback Moth
in Moldavia, Romania, in: Management of Diamondback Moth and Other Crucifer Pests:
Proceedings of the Second International Workshop. Shanhua, Taiwan, Asia Vegetable
Research and Development Center, pp. 203-211.
Mustaţă, Gh., Mustaţă Mariana, 2001 - Rolul biocenozelor parazitoide în păstrarea echilibrului
natural. Ed. Univ. “Al. I. Cuza” Iaşi (bilingv român- englez)

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 51 seria Zootehnie

DIAGNOSTIC STUDY REGARDING THE DEVELOPMENT


OF THE RURAL LOCALITIES FROM VRANCEA
DEPRESSION
Mihaela-Loredana RUSU, I.V. CIUREA

The research carried out proposes the analysis of the rural space of
Vrancea Depression by the opportunities and threats of region. The aim of the
scientific demarche is the rural development of the region in view of complying with
the demands imposed by the European Union. It was studied the territorial
administrative units from Vrancea Depression, used specific indicators for the
characterization of the rural space. The information sources were the applied fields
within the city halls of Vrancea county and the direct investigations from the field.
We used existent statistical data for every commune. The total surface of land of the
communes from Vrancea Depression is of 121,621.86 ha of which 95% represents the
surface outside the commune and 5% represents the surface within the commune.
Analysed the inhabitants of the communes of Vrancea Depression who is 28,709 of
inhabitants, it resulted structure according to the communes as fallows: Bîrseşti -
6,55%, Jitia - 6,22%, Năruja - 6,92%, Negrileşti - 12,40%, Nereju - 15,46%,
Nistoreşti - 9,11%, Păuleşti - 7,84%, Spulber - 5,22%, Soveja - 9,73%, Tulnici -
10,28%, Vrîncioaia - 10,27%. The SWOT analysis used in the scientific demarche
pointed out the fact that the region is prevalent agricultural with an extremely
important woodsy fund for the national wealth. Vrancea Depression hold an
important natural tourist potential who it is prefered by tourists for rural tourism
and agricultural tourism. Reduced access to grants with non-reimbursable credits ,
to activities carried out in the rural environment, the cause being represented by the
reduced access to information.

MATERIAL AND METHOD


It was studied the territorial administrative units from Vrancea
Depression. It was used specific indicators for the characterization of the rural
space. The information sources were the applied fields within the city halls of
Vrancea county and the direct investigations from the field.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


The rural space characterized by the Recommendation 1296/1996 of the
Parliamentary Meeting of the European Council is composed of: agriculture,
sylviculture, aquaculture and fishing; the economic and cultural activities of the
inhabitances from these areas (handicraft, industry, services, etc.); territorial
arrangements in the non-urban areas for the leisure or entertainment (natural
reservations); other usages (with the exception of the inhabitance ones).
The researches carried out led to the conclusion that the rural areas must
accomplish three functions at the same time, namely: the economic function, the
ecological function, and the socio-cultural function.
The new philosophy of the European rural space promotes a precious
landscape space, fruit of a long history whose salvation is a live preoccupation for

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

the society. The rural romanian space will be competitive on the European market
only if it remains an attractive live and original space, endowed with: a developed
infrastructure, the deployment of viable activities in agriculture and sylviculture,
the development of small and middle-sized companies in the rural space;
protecting the environment, nature and landscape.
The components, which contribute to the development of the rural space,
are: agriculture, sylviculture, rural tourism, habitat and culture, small and middle-
sized companies, environment, nature and landscape.
It was chosen as a study from the Vrancea Depression because of the
economic, social , cultural and tourism importance.
Vrancea Depression, with the position of sub-Carpathian internal depression
and the most typically achieved geomorphologically, has the form of a deep slot
(with the bottom of 400-600 m), with width of 3-13 km, comprised between the
backfall of Vrancea Mountains at the west and the one of the internal sub-Carpathian
hills at the east and prolonged on a distance of about 60 km. The area is represented
by three Meso-depressions, namely: the Soveja Depression (in the superior basin of
Susiţa and its affluent Crimineţ). The proper Vrancea Depression (is compartmented
by the superior affluents of Putna in the micro-depressions: Negreşti-Tulnici,
Bîrseşti, Vrîncioaia, Năruja and Nereju) and Jitia Depression (Bisoca-Niculele). It is
presented, in figure 1, the map of Vrancea Depression.

Fig. 1 – The map of Vrancea Depression (according to Cotea, V., 2003)


Vrancea Depression is delimited by the following piedmonts : N –Soveja Depression, E –
Vrancea Sub-Carpathians S – Neculelor Depression, V – Vrancea Mountains.
The area is composed of : Soveja Commune (villages : Dragosloveni, Rucăreni); Negrileşti
Commune (village: Negrileşti); Tulnici Commune (villages: Tulnici, Coza, Lepşa, Greşu);
Bîrseşti Commune (villages: Bîrseşti, Topeşti); Păuleşti Commune (villages: Păuleşti,
Hăulişca); Vrîncioaia (villages: Vrîncioaia, Poiana, Spineşti, Muncei, Ploştina, Bodeşti);
Nistoreşti Commune (Nistoreşti, Bîtcari, Făgetu, Romîneşti, Ungureni, Vetreşti-Herăstrău,
Podu Şchiopului, Brădetu, Valea-Neagră); Năruja Commune (villages: Năruja, Podu Stoica,
Podu Nărujii, Rebegari); Paltin Commune (villages: Paltin, Ţipău); Spulber Commune
(villages: Tojanii de Sus, Spulber, Cipău, Carsocheşti-Corăbiţa, Păvălari, Tojanii de Jos,
Morăreşti) ; Nereju Commune (villages: Nereju, Nereju Mic, Săhăstru, Chiricari, Brădăceşti) ;
Jitia Commune (villages: Jitia, Cerbu, Măgura, Dealu Sării, Jitia de Jos).

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Table 1
The total surface of Vrancea Depression and the distribution
according to communes
Total surface (ha)
Commune Surface within the Surface outside the
commune commune
Bîrseşti 48.00 1,407.00
Jitia 376.00 4,192.00
Năruja 296.00 5,041.00
Negrileşti 160.00 3,040.00
Nereju 735.00 17,545.00
Nistoreşti 343.00 24,717.00
Păulesti 203.00 17,141.00
Spulber 950.00 2,550.00
Soveja 82.00 9,330.00
Tulnici 1,422.86 26,153.00
Vrîncioaia 1,690.00 4,200.00
TOTAL 6,305.86 115,316.00

Table 1 presents the surfaces of land within and outside the communes
from Vrancea Depression. According to the statistical data, the total surface of
land is of 121,621.86 ha of which 95% represents the surface outside the
commune.

Surface within the commune


95% 5%
Surface outside the commune

Fig. 2 – The total surface of land of the communes from Vrancea Depression

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

Table 2
The population and structure according to the communes

Population
Commune %
(loc.)
Bîrseşti 1.880 6,55
Jitia 1.787 6,22
Năruja 1.986 6,92
Negrileşti 3.560 12,40
Nereju 4.437 15,46
Nistoreşti 2,615 9,11
Păulesti 2,250 7,84
Spulber 1,500 5,22
Soveja 2,793 9,73
Tulnici 2,951 10,28
Vrîncioaia 2,950 10,27
TOTAL 28,709 100.00

According to statistic data, table no. 2 reveals that the total number of
inhabitants of the communes of Vrancea Depression is 28,709 of inhabitants.
In what follows we present the main investment projects developed as a
consequence to SAPARD and regional development programs.
- Bîrseşti Commune – providing water supply and extending the water network
of the commune; drainage; modernizing the commune roads; setting up the
land meant for the organization of traditional fairs; possibilities for
agrotourism.
- Jitia Commune – providing the potable water supply in Cerbu, Jitia and Dealu
Sării villages, rehabilitating 12 km of National Road 2N; building two schools
by means of the funds from the World Bank.
- Năruja Commune – modernizing county road 205 A Năruja – Paltin and
Năruja – Nistoreşti; modernizing commune roads in Năruja, Podul Stoica,
Podul Nărujii and Rebegari villages by ballasting them with local material;
providing water supply in Năruja, Podul Stoica, Podul Nărujii and Rebegari
villages.
- Negrileşti Commune – rehabilitating commune roads - providing potable
water supply; building a folkloric creation center; modernizing county road
205 F Negrileşti – Soveja; developing mountain agrotourism.
- Nereju Commune – rehabilitating the rural infrastructure.

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- Păuleşti Commune – there has been no project here, as the commune was
founded in 2003.
- Spulber Commune – rehabilitating the commune and village roads; water
supply; creating a human and veterinary clinic; founding a kindergarten.
- Soveja Commune – a € 700,000 - worth depuration plant; completing the
drainage network; public-private partnership in order to introduce the €
65,000 - worth cottages into the tourism circuit and making new investments
in tourism in Poiana Punga; ski lift installation (€ 1,300,000).
- Tulnici Commune – providing the commune with potable water supply and
creating the ski slope.
- Vrîncioaia Commune – providing water supply in Poiana village; human
clinic and apartment for the medical doctor.
Vrancea Depression includes numerous natural, historic and cultural
objectives.
- Bîrseşti Commune – “Baba Vrîncioaia” (Old Woman Vrîncioaia) memorial
house, Stephan the Great’s Monument, the Museum of Bîrseşti village;
“Sfânta Cuvioasă Parascheva” (“Saint Parascheva”) Orthodox Church of
Bîrseşti, “Sfinţii Arhangheli Mihail şi Gavriil” (“Saint Archangels Michel and
Gabriel”) Orthodox Church of Topeşti.
- Jitia Commune – Poiana Mărului Monastery, over 200 years old; “Saint
Dumitru” Church of Jitia village; “Saint Nicholas” Church of Jitia de Jos
village; “Saints Peter and Paul” Church of Dealu Sării village; Vârful
Ulmuşoru (Ulmuşoru Peak), Vârful Măgurii (Măgurii Peak), Pădurea
Schitului (Schitului Forest), Poiana Negari (Negari Glade), Piatra Matei
(Matei Rock), Lacul Giurgiului (Giurgiului Lake).
- Năruja Commune – natural tourist reservations: Muntele Lapoş (Mount
Lapoş), Platou Podul Nărujii and Lunca Deasă; Historic monuments –
“Cuvioasa Parascheva” (“Saint Parascheva”) Church of Năruja village and
“Valea Neagră” Monastery.
- Negrileşti Commune – geographic settlement optimum for the development of
agrotourism, as the commune is situated in the lowland, surrounded by hills
with sylvan pine woods.
- Nereju commune - Lacul Negru – formed in 2005 being a natural lake with a
surface of 1 ha, depth of 10 m, altitude of 1350 m; Dealul Negru mountain
areas, altitude of 1400 m; Căldările Zăbalei representing a protected area
along the course of Zăbala river.
- Păuleşti commune – ecological area; picturesque places without pollution.
- Spulber commune – Old Church from Spulber locality, 200 years old; the
Buciumaşi Formation and the "Spulber" dance with masks.
- Soveja commune – tourism (Soveja resort); agrotourism; valorization of forest
fruits; and chlorous and sulphurous sources; strong ionized air (concentration
of negative ions), Matei Basarab Monastery; the Mausoleum of Heroes from
the First World War; The military Museum; The Statue of Simion Mehedinţi,

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the founder of modern geography; the place where Mioriţa balad was
discovered ; popular traditions.
- Tulnici Commune – Putna waterfall; Lepşa Monastery; The natural
reservation Cheile Tişiţeii; The Pine Reservation Silvestru Galaciuc; Trout
farm Lepşa.
- Vrîncioaia Commune – The seismological observatory "Dr. Cornelius Radu".

A SWOT analysis was performed at the level of the entire Vrancea


Depression.
The investigation based on the SWOT analysis is used as part of the
social and economic systems for the understanding of the phenomenes, for the
prevision and reaction of the external environment, at the same time with the
receptivity to the actions and with the capacity of projection of the organizational
strategies and processes.
The strong and weak points, the opportunities and the threats of the
researched area were identified .

Strong points
- Agriculture: the cultivation of the agricultural fields, husbandry, fruit farming;
- Processing of the animal origin products and their valorization;
- Existence of an extremely important woodsy fund for the national wealth;
- Forester works (tree planting, cleaning and setting free);
- Wood gross and finite exploitation and manufacture locally;
- Collection and manufacture of the forest secondary products (forest fruit,
mushrooms, medicinal plants, etc.);
- Existence of rural localities in the tourist circuit;
- Very beautiful and attractive tourist area - according to the data offered by the
Romanian National Agency of Travel Companies for the year of 2007, the
rural area of Vrancea was preferred both by national and international
tourists;
- Development of mountaineering tourism, of rural tourism, of agricultural
tourism;
- Activities of offering accommodation, alimentation, recreation;
- Valorization of the natural tourist potential: natural reservations, flora and
fauna reservations, landscapes, sulphurous water and medicinal plants
reservations, etc.;
- Field systematization for the organization of the traditional trades;
- Possibility of valorization of the local and county traditions;
- Manufacturing works (weaving, various sewing);
- Relatively cheap grounds and working force – ideal for the development of
the rural small and middle companies;
- Existence of the economic activity: commercial companies, retail commercial
activities, carpentry workshops, service supply companies.

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Weak points
- Low qualified or unqualified working force;
- Rural infrastructure less developed in comparison with the urban
infrastructure;
- Insufficient valorization and development of the natural tourist potential of
the Vrancea Depression due to the inexistent or weakly developed access
ways.

Opportunities
- Developing and modernizing the localities – extending the technical and
construction equipments;
- Elaborating and promoting some eligible programs for the local and regional
development with finances from the Structural Funds FEADR. The elaborated
programs will refer to :
- Instituting some administration services, support and counseling of
farms, and also some counseling services in the forest sector from
Vrancea Depression.
- Modernizing the agricultural exploitation existent in the rural
localities from Vrancea Depression;
- Improving and developing the necessary infrastructure for the
evolution and adapting the agricultural and forest sectors;
- Supporting the farmers in view of adapting to the imposed
standards, adopted based on the community legislation;
- Supporting the farmers who have unproductive investments;
- Supporting the reconstitution of the forest potential and adopting
some preventive measures;
- Supporting the constitution and development of micro-companies,
promoting the entrepreneurial spirit and consolidate the economic
tissue;
- Promoting and developing the villages in Vrancea Depression;
- Conserving and emphasizing the rural patrimony at the local level;
- Public-private partnerships at the local level, named “local action
groups”

Threats
- The weak competition of the profile companies from Vrancea Depression
with those from the member states of EU;
- The increase of the erosion degree of the soil because of the reduced
possibilities to carry out the works for land improvement;
- Reduced access to grants with non-reimbursable credits , to activities carried
out in the rural environment, the cause being represented by the reduced
access to information.

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CONCLUSIONS
1. The rural localities from Vrancea Depression have a high natural,
economic and tourism potential which can be competitive in the European
Union. Which is characteristic to the Vrancea village are numerous
natural resources represented by mineral resources: oligometallic waters
(Nereju, Lepşa), alkaline and alkaline earth waters (Tulnici, Nereju,
Paltin), chloride-sodium waters (Herăstrău, Nereju), iodide waters (Lepşa,
Nistoreşti, Herăstrău), sulphate waters (Nistoreşti), ferric waters (Lepşa,
Nistoreşti), carbonated waters (Greşu, Lepşa, Tulnici); salt.
2. The rural localities from the Vrancea depression gather, at the same time,
important picturesque, mountain, river place; inestimable religious and
cultural inheritances; very rich flora and fauna; old traditions: art and
crafts (music, poetry, dance, picture, sculpture).
3. A weak equipment of the infrastructure is maintained, especially, the
quality of the means of communications and the precarious character of
the Media means.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Cotea, Valeriu – Vidra – Poarta Vrancei – Bucureşti, Editura Academiei Române, 2003
2. Popescu, D; Traian, I. – Agroturismul si economia rurala –Editura Preuniversitaria,
Craiova, 2005
3. Otiman, P.I. – Dezvoltarea rurala durabila in Romania – Editura Academiei Romane,
Bucuresti, 2006
4. Otiman, P.I. – Dezvoltarea rurala in Romania – Editura Agroprint, Timisoara, 1997
5. http://www.afaceriagricole.net/primarii/judet/Vrancea.html (accessed on the 7th January
2008 )
6. http://www.ghidulprimariilor.ro/ (accessed on the 10th December 2007 )

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THERMOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION FOR DETECTING


THERMAL IRREGULARITIES IN AGRICULTURAL
BUILDINGS ENVELOPES
Ioana TANASESCU, Marcela SIRBU

The paper presents optimized inspection of the heat insulation properties of


building envelopes ensured by combining thermo graphic express diagnostics, heat
transfer and air exchange measurements in existing buildings and mathematical
modeling of their heat balance. A special database of information about micro-
climate conditions in agricultural buildings in the 6-th North-West Region of
Romania has been created within the research project CEEX Nr.6108/2005 “Data
base integrate application for adapting and restructuring of Natural and Artificial
Environment Protection Factors in Agricultural and Animal Breeding Farms”. The
researches for inside environmental conditions were performed during 2005-2008, a
period when the climate in our country was very mild during winter, a fact that
determined the main micro-environment recorded parameters in the studied cases to
be, generally, in the permissible limits by the current regulations.

INTRODUCTION
For the European integration of our country, in the agricultural domain,
there are a series of measures to ensure the products’ quality and security. These
measures do not aim only the products’ obtain processes but, as evidenced in the
European Regulations, also the quality of the final product is given, in an equal
share, by the quality of the environment conditions, the applied technologies, the
impact of these on the built environment and the users.
Our project approaches the constructive component of these demands,
requirements and performance criteria specific for the agricultural - animal
breeding sector where vast documentation, analysis, expert appraisement of the
environmental factors, natural and artificial pollution factors that intervene during
the process activities take place.
Irregularities in the thermal properties of the components constituting a
building envelope result in temperature variations over the surfaces of the
structure [11]. The energy emitted by a surface at a given temperature is the
spectral radiance and is defined by Planck’s Law. Surface temperature
distribution can thus be used to detect thermal anomalies. A thermal anomaly
represents a thermal pattern of a surface that varies from a uniform color or tone
when viewed with an infrared imaging system. Infrared thermography is a process
in which an infrared imaging system (an infrared camera) converts the spatial
variations in infrared radiance from a surface into a two-dimensional image, in
which variations in radiance are displayed as a range of colors or tones. So the
objects in the image that are lighter in color are warmer and darker objects are
cooler. Infrared thermography locates moisture anomalies in building envelopes

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by exploiting the thermal properties of water. The greater the specific heat (the
amount of heat required to raise the unit mass of material one unit of
temperature), the more energy is required to heat or cool a particular material. The
difference in temperature can be imaged and measured using an infrared camera.
The recorded visual image is a thermogram or thermal scan. The most accurate
thermographic images usually occur when there is a large temperature difference
(at least 10°C) between inside and outside air temperatures. In northern regions,
thermographic scans are generally done in the winter.

MATERIAL AND METHOD


A thermographic inspection is either an interior or exterior survey. The
specialist decides which method would give the best results under certain weather
conditions. Interior scans are more common, because warm air escaping from a
building does not always move through the walls in a straight line. Heat loss
detected in one area of the outside wall might originate at some other location on
the inside of the wall. Also, it is harder to detect temperature differences on the
outside surface of the building during windy weather. Because of this difficulty,
interior surveys are generally more accurate because they benefit from reduced air
movement.
Thermographic scans are also commonly used with an open door test
running. The method helps exaggerate air leaking through defects in the building
envelope. Such air leaks appear as black streaks in the infrared camera's
viewfinder (fig.1, 2.).
In general, thermography uses specially designed infrared video or still
cameras to make images (called thermograms) that show surface heat variations.
This technology has a number of applications. The most accurate thermographic
inspection device is a thermal imaging camera, which produces a 2-dimensional
thermal picture of an area showing heat leakage. By visually seeing heat with the
use of an infrared imaging camera it is possible to avert problems before they
become problems and make the necessary repairs or changes.
The thermography was performed using a FLIR Systems Thermovision
infrared imaging system. A visual record has been realized of each area surveyed
during the case study at Experimental Farm-“Sapca Verde” of University of
Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine in Cluj-Napoca.
Within the dairy cow shelter volume there are a number of moisture
sources such as moisture from the animals and their physiological mechanisms,
evaporating forage and manure moisture, open water tank, cleaning solutions and
other technological processes. The building volume exchanges air to and from
outside environment.
Because of the decomposition of the organic substances from the animal
wastes, appears the sulphuretted hydrogen, that also has a limited corosive effect

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on concrete, while the reinforcements can be intense corroded forming iron


sulphide (FeS) in the case when the concrete cover is too thin.
As a result of the applying of desinfecting and washing substances,
appear the alkaline substances (pH > 7) with negative effects upon the
construction materials. To all these it's added the high relative humidity (frequent
values higher then 85%) that facilitate the appearance of the condensation
phenomena.

REZULTS AND CONCLUSIONS


Infrared thermographic observations of the dairy cow shelter were
conducted to identify moisture and thermal anomalies in the envelope. Several
test locations were chosen for infrared examination.Representative thermograms
and the corresponding photographs are shown in Figures 1 and 2.
This thermographic images taken at the interior sides of the elevation on
22 of January 2008 showed thermal anomalies in the brick walls and windows
surface. The suspected wet areas are relatively warm and clearly visible in this
thermogram as red, yellow and white areas. Cooler, dry areas are blue, green, and
black.

Photo 1. Dairy cow shelter- left (E)

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Fig.1. Defects in the building envelope-left side.

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Photo 2. Dairy cow shelter- right (W)

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Fig.2. Defects in the building envelope-right side.

Moisture in building materials can destroy structural integrity and create


proper conditions for mold and insect infestations. Infrared cameras distinguish
between wet and dry materials by exploiting the thermal characteristics of wet
materials. These characteristics include the ability to store heat very well and to
warm up or cool down more slowly than dry materials. Mold in particular is a
growing concern for specialists, developers, and farmers because of the growing
number of filings of health-related claims. Certain molds can cause a variety
of adverse animal and human health effects.
Infrared thermography is a useful and effective tool for the detection of
moisture anomalies in building envelope systems; because of the complexities of
building construction and performance of infrared detection and measurement,
however, considerable care must be exercised in both collection and interpretation
of thermographic data.
These investigations demonstrate that qualitative infrared thermography
coupled with an informed visual inspection and quantitative substantiation using
moisture meters is an effective protocol to detect moisture anomalies in building
envelopes.
In very cold climates, poorly installed insulation and vapor barriers can
lead to condensation problems and the degradation of the building itself.

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For agricultural and animal breeding farms with specialized technologies,


badly designed, poorly constructed, poorly maintained, leaky buildings are not
energy efficient and often have moisture and mold problems. In some cases,
damage to the building is caused by insufficient ventilation or an under-designed
evacuation system. Preventive maintenance in animal shelters of all types is very
uncommon.
For cattle shelters (were no additional heat sources exist) it has to be
taken into consideration the balance between animal heat, produced by
metabolism and the buildings’ capacity to assure the inside conditions required by
the technological needs of the species.

REFERENCES
[1] SR EN ISO 13187/2000 Performanţa termică a clădirilor. Detecţia calitativă a neregularităţilor
termice în anvelopa clădirilor. Metoda termografică
[2] EN ISO 7345/1995 Thermal insulation. Physical quantities and definitions. (Izolare termică.
Mărimi fizice şi definiţii).
[3] SR EN ISO 10077/1 Performanţa termică a ferestrelor, uşilor şi obloanelor – Calculul
transmitanţei termice. Partea I: Metoda simplificată.
[4] SR EN ISO 6946 Părţi şi elemente de construcţie - Rezistenţa termică şi transmitanţa termică -
Metodă de calcul.
[5] SR EN 12524 Materiale şi produse pentru construcţii - Proprietăţi higrotermice – Valori de
proiectare tabelate;
[6] SR EN ISO 9288 Izolaţie termică. Transfer de căldură prin radiaţie. Mărimi fizice şi definiţii.
[7] SR EN 22726 Ambianţe termice. Aparate şi metode de măsurare a mărimilor fizice.
[8] NP 048-2000 Normativ pentru expertizarea termică şi energetică a clădirilor existente şi a
instalaţiilor de încălzire şi preparare a apei calde de consum aferente acestora, B.C. nr.
4/2001.
[9] NP 049-2000 Normativ pentru elaborarea şi acordarea certificatului energetic al clădirilor
existente, B.C nr. 5/2001.
[10] NP 047-2000 Normativ pentru realizarea auditului energetic al clădirilor existente şi a
instalaţiilor de încălzire şi preparare a apei calde de consum aferente acestora, B.C. nr.
5/2001.
[11] International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Thermal Insulation—
Qualitative Detection of Thermal Irregularities in Building Envelopes—Infrared
Method. International Standard ISO6781-1995.
[12] Maldague, X.P. Theory and Practice of Infrared Technology for Nondestructive
Testing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2001.

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ASPECTS REGARDING THE MORPHOLOGY OF THE


REPRODUCTIVE APPARATUS OF THE DOMESTIC QUAIL
(COTURNIX COTURNIX JAPONICA)
(BIBLIOGRAPHICAL STUDY)
Anca TEUŞAN, V. TEUŞAN, A. PRELIPCEAN

Today, people are looking for new avian species that can be breed for
their production of meat and eggs because there is an accentuated need for food
caused by the continuous growth of population number. One of these species is
the domestic quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) wich is breed especially for its
production of eggs. For a better understanding of the egg development
mechanism, different biological aspects of reproductive male and female
apparatus is necessary. Regarding the differences between domestic quails
reproductive apparatus and the other species reproductive organs there are
some peculiar aspects that can be mentionated. Thereby, the male’s testicles are
about 3,91 % of its weight, while the female reproductive apparatus represents 6
– 7 % of its alive weight. The female’s mature gonads weigh 4 – 4,5 grams that
represents 3,1 – 3,3 % of its alive mass.

The breeding of birds (aviculture) is one of the oldest human ocupation.


Over the years man has obtain and breed a large variety of hibrid birds specialised
on the production of eggs and meat.
The domestication of wild quails started in Asia at the begining of the
twelve century, first for their delighful songs and then for thir eggs.
Today domestic quails are breed intensivly in some of the most well
developed countrys of the world like Japan, China, United States of America etc.,
especially for their hight quality eggs.
For these birds breed mostly for their production of eggs it is necesary to
know some aspects regarding morphology and physiology of the reproductive
apparatus.

MALE GENITAL APPARATUS OF THE DOMESTIC QUAIL


The male genital apparatus is composed of two gonads (testicles), two
deferential tubes and one rudimentary penis (copulator organ).
The yellowish testicles are located in the abdominal cavity, under the two
kidneys; they have an apricotlike shape and they can reach 1,7 cm long and 1 cm in
diameter at full maturity. The average weight of the fully grown domestic quail
testicles is 1,7 – 2,25 g (3,5 – 4,5 g both testicles) wich represents 2,92 – 3,91 % of
the entire body mass of the adult male (115-120 g). In fact the weight of testicles
grows in the same time with the age and the body mass of the male (tab. 1).

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Table number 1. The weight evolution of domestic quail testicles term age
Age Body Testicles weight Seminifer tube
(days) weight(g) mg % of body mass diameter(µ)
1 6,80 0,720 0,0106 19,0
43 108,70 1111,23 1,0223 171,0

The male gonads have a soft onsistence, a slide, elastic albuginea. The
testicular parenchym is composed of seminifer tubes wich measure 171 µ in
diameter at the age of 43 days. The epididimum is small and short, with a
vermicular aspect and it is followed by the deferent canal. These two sinuos
deferent canals have colour, are 5 cm long and they open inside of cloaca at the
limit of urodeum and proctodeum. The domestic quail male has a pink cloacal
gland vizible from outside because it is not covered with feathers. This cloacal
gland develops inside of the proctodeum, comunicates with cloaca and it is
composed of many glandular bags wich open inside of the cloaca and are covered
with a simple cylindric epithelium. After the process of castration this cloacal
gland regresses and the simple cilindric epithelium becomes simple cubic or
pavimentos epithelium. The cloacal gland whitish and foamlike secretion has a
very important role in the protection and transportation of the sperm. The
treatments with testosteron helps to develop the cloacal gland and to enhance its
specific secretion.
Spermatogenesis is developing slower until the age of 10 days but it is
accelerated between the age of 15 and 30 days. At the age of 30 days, in the
seminifer tubes, mature spermatozoon (sperm cells) already exist. However full
maturity may establish at the age of 63 days when the male’s fertility is complete.
Light is one of the factors that influence by hasten or retarding the
development of male gonads and the sexual maturation of the domestic quail
males (tab. 2).

Table number 2. Light influence over the growing of male quail gonade
Number of hours Age of male Testicle weight
of light/day (days) (mg)
12 35 110,50
14 35 159,70
16 35 283,60
24 35 454,40

Therefore the domestic quail male ckicks and young ones must be
provided with 24 hours of light per day with a intensity of 7-8 W/m2. Regarding
the fertility of the seminal material the literature records that the doemstic quail
sperm cells are very sensible and they are loosing thei mobility and fecundity in
several minutes while they are „in vitro”. On the other hand, while they are „in
vivo” (in the female cloaca and oviduct) they can survive for a longer period of
time (days).

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FEMALE GENITAL APPARATUS OF THE DOMESTIC QUAIL


The same as the other birds, female domestic quails have an asimetric
genital apparatus, composed of the left ovary and oviduct only. The right side of
the female genital apparatus suffers a involution process therefore after hatching
these organs are some hardly visible rudiments.
The left ovary and the left oviduct are situated in the left side of the
abdominal cavity near the digestive and excretory organs. The grapelike ovary is
composed of a complex ovisacs wich are suspended with a short pedicle on the
ceiling of the abdominal cavity (fig.1).

Figure number 1. Female domestic quail genital apparatus (personal draw)


1 – collecting funnel(infundibulum); 2 – magnum; 3 – isthmus; 4 – uterus; 5 – vagina

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Each ovisac contains a Graafian follicle. The colour of the matture quai
female ovary is orange – yellow or even redish – brown.
The domestic quail oviduct is a 30-35 am long sinuous tube that makes the
connection between the ovary and cloaca; it captures the ovula wich is fecundated
and then it is civered by all three layers (albumen, shell and shell membrane). This
sinuous tube is composed of 5 (five) segments: infundibulum, magnum, isthmus,
uterus and vagina (fig.1). Each segment has a certain lenght (tab. 3).

Table number 3. Lenght proportion represented by the five component parts of the
oviduct at some domestical avian species
Avian UM Component parts of the oviduct
species Infundibulum Magnum Isthmus Uterus Vagina Total
oviduct
Turkey % 14,8 42,6 15,3 13,5 13,8 100,00
Hen % 9,6 45,0 13,4 16,0 16,0 100,00
Domestic cm 5,7 14,7 6,3 3,1 1,5 31,30
quail % 18,21 46,97 20,13 9,90 4,79 100,00
Source: Wodard, A.E.; Mather, F.B., 1964.

The infundibulum has a funnellike shape and represents the place where
the spermatozoon fecundates the ovula (the yolk or vitelus). Magnum is the
longest part of the oviduct (14,7 cm) and has a corion composed of albumen
glands. Domestic quail isthmus is a very well developed segment of the oviduct,
because at this point are a lot of glands wich synthetize colagen wich is the main
component of shell membrane. Inside of the uterus (a 3,1 cm long segment) the
shell is formed and pigmentated (with porfirinic pigments). The shell of domestic
quail eggs is thin and fragile. The shortest segment of the oviduct is vagina (1,5
cm) wich keeps the eg until it is expelled outside of the quail’s body.
All five segments of the oviduct measure 31,30 cm total lenght and wight
4-6 grams at the age of 49 – 51 days, while at the same age the approximate
weight of the ovary is 4 - 5 grams. Therefore the ttal weight of the genital
apparatus of the female domestic quail is 8-11 g wich represents 5 – 9 % from the
total body weight of the adult female quail (130-150 g).
Light is another factor that influences the development of female gonads
and the sexual matturation (tab. 4).
In the scientific literature regarding the process of ovulation, egg forming
and positioning there are some basic data such as: ovulation takes place after 10 –
30 minutes after oviposition (one egg has been laid). The ovula (yolk) crosses
through the infundibulum in maxim 30 minutes (table number 5), it is fecundated
and after that it is rolled inside of magnum where it is wraped in layers of
albumen during two hours. Then the yolk covered with albumen reaches isthmum
where it receaves two sheel membranes. Inside of utherus the egg will stay for 19
– 20 hours to form and pigmentate it’s shell (tab. 5).

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Table number 4. The influece of day light period over the development of
female genital apparatus
Age Light Body Ovary Oviduct Genital
(days) (h) weight weight weight apparatus
/day (g) (OW)(g) (OW*)(g) weight
(GA)(g)
mg % OW mg % OW* mg %GA
49 6 104- 26-38 0,0306 18-19 0,0177 44-57 0,0483
105
49 14 121- 4420 3,18- 2310-4140 1,91- 6730- 5,56-
139 3,65 2,98 8560 6,16
51 14 132- 4370 3,12- 50-70 3,62- 9440 6,74-
140 3,31 3,84 7,15
Source: Wilson, W.O.; Abplanalp, H.; Anrington, L., 1982.

In the scientific literature regarding the process of ovulation, egg forming


and positioning there are some basic data such as: ovulation takes place after 10 –
30 minutes after oviposition (one egg has been laid). The ovula (yolk) crosses
through the infundibulum in maxim 30 minutes (table number 5), it is fecundated
and after that it is rolled inside of magnum where it is wraped in layers of
albumen during two hours. Then the yolk covered with albumen reaches isthmum
where it receaves two sheel membranes. Inside of utherus the egg will stay for 19
– 20 hours to form and pigmentate it’s shell (tab. 5).

Table number 5. The trace covered by egg through genital apparatus of hen and
domestic quail
Avian species Biological developement
Hen Domestic quail of the egg
Oviduct
Time after the
segment Crossing Crosiing Ovulation and
preceding
time time fecundation
ovipositon
Wrapping of yolk in
Infundibulum 15-20 min 30 min 15-30 min several layers of
albumen
Shell membranes
Magnum 190 min 120 min 2,5-3,0 h
development
Shell development and
Isthmus 75 min 90-120min 3,0-5,0 h
pigmentation
Uterus 21 h 18-20 h 23-25 h Expulzation of the egg
through vagina and
Total oviduct 25-26 h 22-24,5h 22-25 h
cloaca

Hence we can say that the domestic quail egg it is completly formed
during 24 hours (with two hours less than hens)wich makes daily egg laying
possible.

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When domestic quails are beeing breed in safeand optimal conditions, they
can reach full sexual maturity at the age of 6 weeks and start egg laying. At the
begining of the laying period the domestic quail egg is smaller (22 – 25 mm-big
diameter; 15 – 18 mm-small diameter; 8 – 8,5 mm grams). At the age of 12 weeks the
egg measures 33 mm-big diameter, 22 – 25 mm-small diameters and 9 – 13 grams.
The weight of the egg and of its components are beeing presented in table number 6.

Table number 6. The weight and proportion of domestic quail egg and its
components
Specificare Greutate (grame) % din total ou
gălbenuş 4,07 30,74
albuş 7,89 59,59
coajă 1,28 9,67
Total ou 13,24 100,00
Source: Vacaru-Opriş, I., 2002; Van, I. and colab., 2003.

One can observe that the yolk reprezents 30 – 31 % from total egg weight,
almost the same as at hen eggs, while the albumen (egg - white) represents 66 %
and the mineral shell 9,67 – 9,70 %

CONCLUSION
Domestic quails are birds from the same category (order) as hens
Galliformes, Phasianidae family. Therefore their reproductive apparatus does not
differ from the one of hens or even of other birds.
The longest segment of the oviduct is magnum, while the shortest
segment is vagina.
Domestic quail egg shell and shell membranes are thicker at this species.
Regarding the structure of genital apparatus of the both sexes of domestic
quail, it is the same as at the other birds.
The weight of testicles, ovary and oviduct grows in the same time as the
weight body.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
CONSTANTIN, N. – 1993 – Fiziologie veterinară, Editura Veterinaria, Bucureşti.
CONSTANTIN, N. şi colab. – 1998 – Fiziologia animalelor domestice, vol. II, Editura Coral-
Sanivet, Bucureşti.
CONSTANTIN, N., COTRUŢ, M., ŞONEA, A. – 1998 – Fiziologia animalelor domestice, vol I-
II-III, A.M.C.-USA,Bucureşti.
MARCU, ELENA; PAVEL, GETA – 1999 – Fiziologie, Editura Vasiliană-98, Iaşi.
MICLEA, V. – 1997 – Biologia reproducţiei în creşterea păsărilor. Editura BAHA’I, Cluj-Napoca.
POLEN, T., − 2001 – Creşterea prepeliţelor, Rev. Ferma Timişoara, nr. 9; 10; 11; 12.
REECE, O.,W. – 1991 – Physiology of Domestic Animals, Lea Febiger, Philadelphia – London.
STOICA, LILIANA, MADALINA – 2005 – Bazele fiziologice şi nutriţionale ale producţiei de
ouă, Editura Coral-Sanivet, Bucureşti.
VACARU-OPRIS, I. şi colab. – 2002 – Tratat de Avicultură, vol. II, Editura Ceres, Bucureşti,
ISBN 973-40-0463-8; 973-40-0564-2.

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STUDY REGARDING THE LABELLING OF SOME


SUGARLIKE PRODUCTS (CHOCOLATE)
COMMERCIALIZED ON THE MARKET OF IAŞI CITY
Anca TEUŞAN, Cecilia POP

The label represents a important instrument of the market by intervening


in the producer – consummer comunication through the esential informations
provided regarding that product.The regulations regarding the labelling and
marking of some products made of cocoa and chocolate consists of Order no.
335/2003 published in Monitorul Oficial number 661 from 18/09/2003, H.G. No.
511/07.04.2004, etc. There are some producers that do not respect the labelling
laws. For example, in the present study, Romanian brands like Baton, Galactic,
Rom-Autentic, Primola Zoo and Făgăraş do not have on their label any
nutritional informations, although the labelling law shows that nutritional values
are obligatory. The brand Primola Zoo does not have on its label any
informations about the storage conditions. There are also labels (Milka M-joy
brand) that respects the legislation, offering all the necessary informations, clear
an readable printed. Acording to the present study, the consumer has certain
preferences when he is looking through the informational message on the label.
He is interested in the product brand (24,11 %), minimal durability date (18,82
%), ingredients list (11,76 %) and nutritive values.

Acording to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted by


O.N.U. in 1984 “any person has the right to live, to freedom, to feel safe,
regarding especially the food […] ”. Consequently, most of the experts in this
domain say that the label represents “the producer’s visit card”. The labelling’s
purpose is to give to the consumer all the necessary, adequate and verifiable
informations.
The legislation regarding the labelling of alimentary products which are
being commercialized in Romania includes some normative acts and a few
governmental resolutions:
- H.G. No. 511/07.04.2004
- H.G. No. 1719/14.10.2004
- H.G. No. 106/2002 which has been supplemented with others normative acts.
The regulations regarding the nature, content, origin, the labelling and
marking of some products made of cocoa and chocolate can be found in Order no.
335/2003 published in Monitorul Oficial number 661 from 18/09/2003. Acording
to this order, the name of „chocolate” can be given only to those products that are
made of cocoa and sugars and have a minimum 35 % dry cocoa matter and
minimum 16 % coca butter content. This name can be associated with another
name: „cuverture” or „coat” when the product cantains a minimum of 35 % dry
cocoa matter, minimum 31 % cocoa butter and minimum 2,5 % dry cocoa matter
without fat.

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The chocolate product may contain milk, dry matter from milk, almonds,
hazel nuts or other similar fruits, entire or even shreddered which do not pass 60%
of the product total weight. All these ingredients must be mentioned on the label
together with their weight in percents.
Acording to the normative acts upmentioned regarding the labelling of
chocolate products a list of ingredients is required in which these are mentioned in
decreased order, in percents.
The adding of animal fat and all its derivate matters which do not come
from milk, flour, granulated or powder starch in chocolate are forbiddened. These
are accepted only as ingredients for some products known as “a la taza
chocolate”. The quantity of these ingredients can not exceed 40 % of the total
product weight.
Also there are others mentions that must exist on the label: the lot; the
minimal durability date; depositing conditions; informations regarding the name
or the commercial name and address of the producer, wrapper or distributor; the
brand; the name under which the product is being selled.
“Filled chocolate”, “Chocolate filled with…”, “Chocolate with an interior
of…” (bar) are names accepted for those chocolate products that are filled with
cream and/or fruits, excepting those products that are filled with panification
products, wafer, biscuits, cakes, icecream .The chocolate coat of the bar must
represent 25 % from the product mass.
The bars are related with food that can be consumed anytime anywhere
because they are wrapped in small doses which makes them easy to be eaten. Bars
have a good consistency because they contain important quantity of chocolate,
nuts, peanuts, toffee etc.
The bars market is up to 20 millions of euro each year, which represents
about 20 % from the total market of chocolate. The main concerns that produce
chocolate bars are: Master Foods, Kraft Foods, Ülker, Excelent and Supreme
Chocolat. Which is way we have choosen for our study chocolate bars with
different stuffing produced by those firms under some brands like: Poiana Delicii
(Kraft Foods Romania), Maestro (Ülker), Baton (Bon Sweet Bon), Bounty
(Master Foods Romania), Galactic (Food Distributione), Milka M-joy (Kraft
Foods Romania), Rom-Autentic (Kandia - Excelent), Primola Zoo (Supreme
Chocolat), Kinder-country (Ferrero Romania), Făgăraş (Kandia - Excelent),
Milky Way (Master Foods Romania).
All these products can be included in chocolate bars category. There are
some brands that use the term „bar” to depict their products (Poiana Delicii,
Maestro, Baton, Rom-Autentic şi Făgăraş). Likewise some of the analised labels
have some words like „tender”, „cool”, „soft”, „light”, „soft” to describe the
properties of the product and its ingredients (tab. 1).
The ingredients list exists on all analised labels and it is preceded by the term
„Ingredients”, but for those brands that are produced in Romania only (Poiana
Delicii, Primola Zoo) this list it is mentionated only in romanian language.

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Table 1. The brands under which the bars are beeing traded
No. The brand The name of the product
1. Poiana Delicii „nougat and peanut bar wrraped in milk chocolate”
„milk chocolate coated bar with caramel,
2. Maestro
peanut and nougat”
3. Baton „bar with flavor of sour cherries and cream”
4. Bounty „tender and cool cocos heart wrraped in milk chocolate”
5. Galactic „milk chocolate with cocos cream”
6. Milka M-joy „chocolate with milk from Alpi and nuts”
7. Rom-Autentic „chocolate bar with rum cream”
8. Primola Zoo „milk chocolate with berry cream”
9. Kinder-country „delicate milk chocolate with milk and cereals stuffing”
10. Făgăraş „currant and rum bar”
11. Milky Way „milk chocolate with light and soft heart”

The brand maestro has the ingredints list writen in eight languages
including romanian.
Regarding the net quantity all the labels that have been analised had theirs
mentioned and preceded by letter „e”.
All the labels contain informations regarding the quantity of ingredients
expressed in percentage, in their ingredint list.
The minimal durability date must exist on any label, acording to the law.
For chocolate products producers must use words like: „best before end …:
day/mounth/year ”, because these group of products are seif to be consumed after
the date mentioned on the wrapping.
All the labels analised have the minimal durability date.
Table 2. Mentions regardin the storing conditions

No. Brand Storing conditions


1. Poiana Delicii „keep in dry place an dat a temperature of 18±3°C”
2. Maestro „keep in dry and cool place”
3. Baton „keep in dry and cool place”
4. Bounty „keep in dry and cool place”
„keep in dry place an dat a temperature of 10-18°C.
5. Galactic
Keep away from sunlight”
„keep at a temperature of 14-18°C and at a 65% air
6. Milka M-joy relative humidity. Keep away from direct contact
with sunlight”
7. Rom-Autentic „keep in dry and cool place”
8. Primola Zoo --
9. Kinder-country „keep in dry and cool place”
10. Făgăraş „keep in dry and cool place”
11. Milky-Way „keep in dry and cool place”

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Some brands like Maestro, Baton, Bounty, Rom-Autentic, Kinder country,


Făgăraş and Milky-Way do not have the temperature of storing mentioned on the
label (tab. 2). The most complete label regarding the storing conditions
(temperature, air humidity, sunlight) is comercialised under the brand Milka M-
joy. Primola Zoo does not have any lettering about the storing conditions.
The name and the adress of the producer, importer or distributer are
mentioned on each label analised. The most complete informations about the
address, phone and fax of the producer are offered by Maestro and Bounty. The
brand Galactic does not offer any data about its producer. Brands like Rom-
Autentic and Milka M-joy have also the web address of the producer.

Table 3. Data regardin the lot of the analised brands


No. Brand Lot
1. Poiana Delicii 2224BE/UO4 74772
2. Maestro 6347
3. Baton --
4. Bounty 742FINLD0105
5. Galactic --
6. Milka M-joy P231007
7. Rom-Autentic 05.07.2008/2
8. Primola Zoo 6106107
9. Kinder-country L254FA5
10. Făgăraş --
11. Milky-Way PF14

The lot of the product is comprised of numbers and sometimes letters.


Some brands (Baton, Galactic, Făgăraş) do not have any informations regarding
the lot (tab.3).
Regarding the nutritional facts, all the labels offer different data for 100
grams and for the weight of the product. These informations are disposed in
simple (Poiana Delicii, Maestro, Milka M-joy) or even coloured tables (Kinder
country) which makes these informations easy to read. Further, the label of
Kinder country offers informations about the recomanded daily doze and some
vitamins (E,B2, B12). There are also some label which do not offer nutritional
informations: Baton, Galactic, Rom-Autentic, Primola Zoo şi Făgăraş (they are
produced in Romania).
Informations regarding ingredients containing mutated organisms appear
only on two of the analised labels (Făgăraş, Rom Autentic): „Free from any
genetic modifications contents”.
The brand Poiana Delicii is represented through colours that appeals the
customer which makes the product easy to be observed on the store shelves.
Poiana Delicii with peanuts also has a sugestive desing of the label which shows
the interior of the bar meaning the most important ingredients. The combination
of light red and orange invites the customer to buy this product.

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The brand Maestro has on its label a design that alows the customer to see
two of the most important ingredients of this chocolate coated bar. The bright
colours are used to make the product easy to see.
The brand Baton with flavor of sour cherries and cream shows its
ingredients with colours like bright red and pure white. The outline of the letters
that compose the brand’s name is dark blue and contrasts with the rest of the
label.
The brand Bounty has an original design: the letters of the brand’s name
are coconut shapelike. The colours, the coconuts from background makes the
customer think about a light, fresh cocos chocolate coated bar. There is a contast
between colours: white with light blue and green which offer a pleasing sensation
ans aspect of the label and the product.
The brand Galactic has an original font and together with the coconut and
the butterfly from background sugests that this bar is light and safe, but the
combination of colours is rather misfit.
The product comercialised under the brand of Milka M-joy is represented
by strong, bright colours – the well known Milka mauve – the „M” comes from
Milka and the word „joy” represents the feeling of the customers when they taste
this hazelnut and milk chocolate bar.
The brand Rom Autentic uses a word that is conected to a tasty product
comercialised some years ago in Romania: „Rom”. This word underscores the
main ingredient of the product. The combination of colours makes the product
easy to be observed by the interesed customers.
The name of the brand Primola Zoo is drawn with an original white font
on a dark red background that seems like red berrys, the main cream ingredient.
The brand Primola Zoo includes the rest of the labe’s design: wild african animal
cartoons.The combination of colours „speak” about the berry cream chocolate
coated bar, addressing mostly to childrens.
The brand Kinder country is represented with the well known font and
combination of white and red. Under the name of the brand is a coloured design
that shows all five ingredients of this product: milk chocolate, milk cream and
cereals (barley, rice, corn, grain, buckwheat).
The name of the brand Făgăraş is very simple with red letters on a white
background and black border to set the brand so that the buyers would be
interesed. Beside the original font Făgăraş has a mountain shape design referring
to the name of the brand and its importance (Făgăraş is one of the talest group of
romanian mountains).
Milky – Way is a well known brand due to the rich milk cream (white
letters) and its humorous graphic from the packing. The combination of colours
attracts the atention of the customers over this product.
This study is proposing also to determine the preferences of the customers
concerning chocolate and their need to be informed regarding the data that the
prodecers offers on the label. This analysis has been made on 85 persons from 8

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to 70 years old. Most of these 85 persons (42,36 %) are eating sweets daily.
Among sweets the most consumed product is chocolate (60,83 %), the second
place is taken by toffee and jelly (23,32 %). From all the types of chocoate that
exist on the market today the customers favourite is milk chocolate (55,33 %).
Dark chocolate is situated on the second place. Regarding the chocolate
assortment consumption bars (the subject of our present study) are situated on
second place (27,27 %). The first place is taken by chocolate tablets.
When consulting the informational mesage on the label, customers are
interesed in some aspects that are important for them: the name of the brand
(24,11 %), minimal durability date (18,82 %), the ingredients list (11,76 %) and
the informations regarding the nutritive values. Only few customers dont read the
informations on the label at all.

CONCLUSIONS
Today there are labelling laws that are being observed In European Union.
For example, the term “identical natural flavour” is completely forbidden. But
romanian producers (part of European Union since 2007 ) does not respect this
law.
Brands like Bounty, Baton şi Milka M-joy do not have the ingredients list
translated to english language.
The brand Rom Autentic does not respect the legal measures regardind the
fact that the ingredient list must contain the quantity of each ingredient in percents
The most complete informations regarding the conditions of storage of the
product are offered by the label of brand Milka M-joy which contains data about
the storage temperature, air humidity and sunlight.
The brand Primola Zoo does not have on its label any informations about
the storage conditions.
Kandia-Excelent is the only producer that posts on the label of its products
(Rom-Autentic and Făgăraş in this case) informations about the ingredients that
contain or not geneticaly modified organisms: „Free from any genetic
modifications contents”.
The label of brand Galactic has a combination of colours (dark blue and
orange for the backround and golden or bronze for letters) that not alows the
customer to read easily the information data.
Romanian brands like Baton, Galactic, Rom-Autentic, Primola Zoo şi
Făgăraş do not have on their label any nutritional informations, although the
labelling law shows that nutritional values are obligatory.
The brand Milka M-joy produced by Kraft Foods has the most complete
informations on its label. It is notable also because of its distinctive colour that
atracts the interes of customers.

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Atanasie, I.; Ioraşcu, I.; Pâslaru, C. (coordonator) – 1996 – Dicţionar de merceologie – terminologie
generală, A.S.E., Bucureşti.
Bologa, N. – 2001 – Merceologia produselor alimentare, Editura Oscar Print, Bucureşti.
Deneş, Delia – 2004 – Merceologie alimentară şi industrială, Editura BURG, Sibiu.
Klein, L. – 2002 – Expertiză merceologică. Expertiza calităţii mărfurilor, Editura University Press
„V. Goldish”, Arad.
Mâlcomete, Otilia - 2003 -Merceologie, Ediţia a II-a, Editura Fundaţiei Academice „Gh. Zane”, Iaşi.
Olaru, Marieta; Schileru, I.; Pamfilie, Rodica; Purcărea, Anca, Negrea, N.; Atanase, Anca; Stanciu,
C. – 2001 – Fundamentele ştiinţei mărfurilor, Editura Economică, Bucureşti.
Pop, Cecilia – 2001 – Rolul prezentării informaţional estetice în promovarea produselor
alimentare, Lucrări ştiinţifice, Editura Ion Ionescu dela Brad, Iaşi.
Pop, Cecilia – 2002 - Merceologie generală, Editura TipoMoldova, Iaşi.
Pop, Cecilia – 2004 – Merceologia produselor alimentare, Editura TipoMoldova, Iaşi.
***Hotărârea Guvernamentală nr. 511/07.04.2004
***Hotărârea Guvernamentală nr. 1719/14.10.2004.
***Ordinul nr. 335/2003 pentru aprobarea normelor cu privire la natura, conţinutul, originea,
fabricarea, etichetarea şi marcarea unor produse din cacao şi ciocolată destinate
consumului uman.

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 51 seria Zootehnie

RESEARCHES REGARDING THE STRUCTURE


AND ULTRASTUCTURE OF SILVER FOX
(VULPES VULPES FULVA) OVARIES
V. TEUŞAN, Anca TEUŞAN, R.M. RADU-RUSU

In order to accomplish some studies regarding the gonads structure of


the silver fox (Vulpes vulpes fulva), there have been harvested ovaries from a
group of 16 to 18 months of age individuals, being in reproductive rest. The
gathered pieces have been processed using the paraffin sectioning technique
acquiring 20 histological blades. These have been studied using a binocular
photonic microscope MC3 type, previously calibrated. Histological and
cytometric assessments have been done in the microscopic field, the medium
diameter of the ovarian follicles has been of 552 µ; of ovocites 76,6 µ, and 19,23
µ for the ovocite nucleus. The polyovocitar aspect of the ovarian follicles at this
species was also revealed.
Keywords: silver fox, ovary, ovocyte, ovarian follicles

Fur animals rearing and husbandry proved to be economically beneficial


and efficient in most country applying it. Several fur species are raised in our
country, including silver foxes
. The systematic enclosure of these animals is listed below:
- Regnum: Animalia
- Phylum: Chordatha
- Class: Mammalia
- Order: Carnivora
- Family: Canidae
- Genus: Vulpes
- Species: Vuples vulpes fulva
Although the silver fox it is raised for 70 years in many countries, the
biology of the species is insufficiently known, mainly concerning those aspects
related to the reproductive system structure and functioning. Scientific references
provide wide range of data related to silver fox rearing technologies and fur
quality, but there are lacks of fundamental biological data, of anatomic and
physiologic kind. This is the conjuncture comprising our researches, which could
bring a modest contribution to the biological knowledge of the species.

MATERIAL AND METHOD


Biological material consisted in the ovaries sampled from several
specimens of silver fox, slaughtered for their fur. These animals were 16-18
months old, passing a reproduction break period (diestrus), and an average
bodyweight of 5.0-6.5 kg. They have been raise in intensive farming conditions.

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Histological samples (ovaries) reached 6-10 mm (8.14±0.26 mm) length


and 3-6 mm (4±0.29 mm) thickness. They have been processing through the
paraffin sectioning, resulting 20 smears. Trichromic “HEA” (haematoxylin, eosin,
methylene blue) coloration has been applied to proper express the structural
elements of the ovary. Histological smears have been studied using a binocular
microscope, MC3 type, previously adjusted and calibrated for several
ocularsXobjectives (OCXOB) associations. Microscope calibration has been
achieved by the computation of some micrometric values (MV): 15.000 µ for
OC6XOB10; 2.372 µ for OC10xOB10. They were used to calculate the
dimensions of the ovarian follicles and of other structural elements (ovocites,
nuclei, nucleoli, follicular cells etc.). A micrometric device has been introduced in
one of the oculars, serving to measurements run. Microphotography has been shot
using an 8MP digital camera.
Certain histometric and cytometric assessments have been carried on:
large and small diameter of 75 matured ovarian follicles (75 x 2 = 150); large and
small diameter of 155 mature (2nd order) ovocites (155 x 2 = 310); large and small
diameter of 84 ovocites nuclei (84 x 2 = 168); granulosa and corona radiata
thickness at 92 de mature ovarian follicles (92 x 2 = 184); diameter of 30 ovocites
nucleoli and the thickness of pellucid area in 77 mature ovocites. 994
measurements have been done. The average diameter of the ovarian follicles, of
the ovocites and of their nuclei has been calculated, while the amount of ovocites
comprised within ovarian mature follicles has been counted. All data achieved
through microscopic measurements and computation has been statistically
processed, obtaining: statistical average and its standard error, standard deviation,
variance and variation coefficient.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


Exploration of the ovarian histological samples, within the microscopic
areas, revealed the existence, from outer to inner side, of the classical structural
formations, such as germinative epithelium, albuginea, ovarian parenkyma,
systemised by a thicker cortical area (preponderant) and by a thinner medullar
one. In silver fox, ovaries have ovoid like shape, with a convex free edge and with
a visible hilum on the medial edge. Their surface is smooth, while thecolour is
brown-red (Pamfilie, I.; Teuşan, V. at al., 1995).
Germinative epithelium, disposed at ovary periphery, is represented by a
single row of cubic cells, whose dimensions are of 4-6 µ, having a single nucleus
and being supported by a very thin basal membrane, of fibrous kind (delicate
reticulin fibrils) (Fig. 1).
Albuginea – it seems to be more likely a peripheral condensation of the
ovarian cortical, without all the structural characteristics of a conjunctive capsule.
Its thickness is variable, of 30-50 µ, the feature having low uniformity (Fig. 1).

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Fig. 1 – Cortical area of the ovary in silver fox


(simple cubic germinative epithelium; albuginea)

Ovarian parenkyma – is structured in two distinguished areas: cortical and


medullar, each of them having different structures and proportions. Cortical area
is predominant, reaching at least 70-75 % from ovary structure; it comprises a
citogenic chorion which includes the ovarian follicles in several development
stages (primordial, primary, secondary, tertiary and matured). Connective stroma
has a multitude of collagen and reticulin fibres and cell elements as well, from
mesenchymal cells to mastocytes. In certain areas, collagen and reticulin fibres
are circularly disposed, forming some “vortexes”, which also comprise several
connective cells.
Matured ovarian follicles are organised similarly to those found in other
mammals, presenting two follicular cases, one granulosa, one thin Slawianski
membrane, a cavity with follicular liquid, one or more corona radiata. The
essential feature of the silver fox ovary is given by the preponderant occurrence of
the poly-ovocyte ovarian follicles, which seems to be the final maturation stage of
these ovarian formations.
From a total amount of 121 analysed ovarian follicles, 34.71 % (42) had a
single ovocyte, 46.28 % (56) had two ovocites; 6.61 % (8) had three ovocites;
6.61 % (8) had four ovocites and 5.79 % (7) had five or six ovocites (Fig. 2, 3).
Consequently, in silver fox, 65.29 % of all ovarian follicles had more than
one ovocyte and they were considered matured, prior to ovulation, the others
34.71 % being with a single ovocyte and considered secondary follicles (Fig. 4).

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Fig. 2 – Polyovocitar ovarian follicles Fig. 3 – Ovarian follicle


in silver fox ovary containing 5 ovocites

Ovarian follicles dimensions are presented in Table 1. According to these


data, their large diameter varied between 345 µ and 1350 µ, with an average of
665.6 ± 28.02 µ. Small diameter was found within the 285 µ and 675 µ interval,
while the average issued from the 75 assessments reached 438.4±11.40 µ. Mean
diameter of the ovarian follicles in silver fox varied between 322.5 µ and 1012.5
µ, with a middle value of 552±18.67 µ (Table 1).

Fig. 4 – Monovocitar ovarian follicle

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Very high values have been calculated for the variation coefficient (v =
22.52 – 36.46 %) at these features but the situation could be considered as normal,
knowing the wide variety of follicles dimensions within the microscopic field.
The biggest ovarian follicles contained more than one ovocyte (5 to 6 ovules) and
had pyriform appearance (fig. 2), while the other follicles are ovoid. This latter
shape is given by the ration existing between their large and small diameters,
which counted an average value of 1.511/1, with limits of 1.031/1 and
respectively of 2.286/1 (v = 22.46 %) (Table 1). The DM/Dm ratio reached values
of 2/1 – 2.25/1 at the pyriform follicles.

Table 1
Main statistical indexes related to some histometric assessments
of matured ovarian follicles in silver fox ovaries
Statistical indexes Variation limits
Variable n
x± sx s V(%) Minimal Maximal
Large diameter
75 665.6± 28.02 242.668 36.46 345.0 1350.0
(DM) (µ)
Small diameter
Maturated ovarian follicle

75 438.4± 11.40 92.719 22.52 285.0 675.0


(Dm) (µ)
Mean diameter
75 552± 18.67 161.654 29.29 322.5 1012.5
(D x ) (µ)
DM/Dm ratio
75 1.511± 0.04/1 0.339 22.46 1.031/1 2.286/1
(x/1)
Follicular
granulosa 91 41.12± 0.80 7.660 18.63 24.03 63.08
thickness (µ)
Corona radiata
90 28.06± 0.70 6.635 23.65 18.02 48.06
thickness (µ)

The follicular granulosa thickness has been also measured. Values


between 24.03 µ and 63.08 µ have been found, with an average of the 91
assessments reaching 41.12 ± 0.8 µ (v = 18.63 %) (Table 1) (Fig. 5).
Follicular surrounding corona radiata thickness was studied. The values
have been comprised within the 18.02 µ – 48.06 µ interval, with a mean of
28.06±0.7 µ (v = 23.65 %) (Table 1) (Fig. 6).
The dimensions of the ovocites contained by the mono-ovocitar and poly-
ovocitar follicles are presented in Table 2.
The large diameter of these cells varied between 60 µ and 117 µ, having an
average value of 88.79 ± 0.99 µ (v = 13.95 %). Ovocites small diameter has a
statistical mean of 76.6 ± 0.78 µ (v = 12.64%) (Table 2). The shape of these cells
was slightly oval, proved by the average value of the ratio between their large and
small diameters, which reached 1.391±0.015/1 (v = 13.56%) (Table 2) (Fig. 3; 7; 8).
Matured ovocites presented a very thick pellucid area, with a mean of 5.48±0.18µ
(v=20.16%) (Table 2) (Fig. 3; 7; 8; 11; 12). Ovocites of 2nd order are single nucleate

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cells, their nucleus having spherical or rather ovoidal shapes. Thus, both diameters
(large and small) have been measured and the average one has been calculated. The
acquired data are also presented in table 2 (Fig. 3; 7; 8; 9).
According to these, the large ovocyte diameter varied between 13.32 µ
and 30.64 µ, with an average of 22.23±0.43 µ (v = 17.90%). The small diameter
of the ovocyte nucleus was of 16.23±0.31 µ, while the 84 measurements varied
between the 10.21µ and 21.76µ limits (v=17.54%) (Table 2).

Table 2
Main statistical indexes related to some cytometric assessments
of the maturated ovocites (II). comprised within silver fox ovary structure
Statistical indexes Variation limits
Variable n
x± sx s V(%) minimal maximal
Large diameter
155 88.79± 0.99 12.389 13.95 60.0 117.0
(DM) (µ)
Small diameter
155 64.42± 0.75 9.372 14.55 45.0 90.0
(Dm) (µ)
Ovocites II

Mean diameter
155 76.60± 0.78 9.685 12.64 53.25 100.50
(D x ) (µ)
DM/Dm ratio
155 1.391± 0.015/1 0.189 13.56 1.087/1 2.033/1
(x/1)
Pellucid area
(membrane) 77 5.48± 0.13 1.105 20.16 3.26 8.30
thickness (µ)
Large diameter
84 22.23± 0.431. 3.979 17.90 13.32 30.64
(DM) (µ)
Small diameter
84 16.23± 0.31 2.845 17.54 10.21 21.76
(Dm) (µ)
Ovocites nucleus

Mean diameter
84 19.23± 0.34 3.126 16.26 12.21 25.76
(D x ) (µ)
DM/Dm ratio
84 1.384± 0.023/1 0.211 15.22 1.026/1 2.225/1
(x/1)
Nucleolus mean
30 4.85± 0.12 0.680 14.02 2.97 5.93
diameter (µ)
Follicle cells mean
25 10.03± 0.32 1.579 15.75 4.74 11.86
diameter (µ)

Mean diameter of ovocyte nucleus varied between the minimal of 12.21µ


and the maximal of 25.76µ, while the intermediary value reached 19.23±0.34µ
(v=15.22%). The ratio between large and small diameters (1.384/1) has been
found closer to that of the ovocytes (1.391/1). Nucleus position within ovocites
could be central, eccentrically and peripheral (fig. 3; 5; 7; 8; 9). Thus, from the 84
studied nuclei, 47.62% (40) were centrally placed, 29.76% (25) were more or less
eccentrically disposed, while 22.62% (19) had peripheral disposition reaching the
vitelline membrane or laying near to it.

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Ovocyte nucleus presented one or two nucleoli. In most cases they were
spherical and were centrally, eccentrically of peripheral disposed. Among the 30
nucleoli observed within the microscopic field, only 6.67 % (2) were centrally
placed; 33.33 % (10) were eccentrically disposed and 60 % (18) presented
peripheral disposition, reaching the inner side of nucleolema (Fig. 3; 7; 8; 9). As
shape, 63.33 % of them (19) were spherical and 36.67 % (11) were oval. Mean
nucleoli diameter reached an average value of 4.85 ±0.12µ (v=14.02%) (Table 2).

Fig. 5 – Three matured ovocites, surrounded by corona radiata,


comprised by a polyovocitar ovarian follicle

Fig. 6 – Two ovocites surronded by a very thick corona radiata,


comprised by a biovocitar ovarian follicle

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Follicular cells constituting granulosa and corona radiata had ovoidal or


polygonal shape and an average diameter of 10.03±0.32µ (v=15.75 %) (Table 2).
They are mononucleated cells, with the nucleus centrally or quite
eccentrically disposed. Concerning the existence of these polyovocitar follicles as
matured ovarian follicles, we suppose that repeated mitoses occurred within,
followed by the reassembly of various accompanying structural elements (corona
radiata, proliger disc), as captured in microphotography (Fig. 10).

Fig. 7 – Oval shaped ovocyte, Fig. 8 – Two oval shaped ovocites


with visible nucleus and nucleoli, with visible nucleus, nucleoli and
into a monoovocitar follicle pellucid area, inside of a biovocitar
follicle

Fig. 9 – Nuclei and nucleols Fig. 10 – Ovocyte mitosis inside a


within ovovites monoovocitar ovarian follicle

This ovarian feature is related to the fact that fox is a monoestral species,
with spontaneous ovulation and with short-term rut exteriorisation, but giving 4–
10 cubs/birth. Consequently, the release of a relatively high amount of ovocites
from one or two matured ovarian follicles seems to be the “fortunate” and

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“rational” manner used by the Inteligent Designer, to solve this problem, in order
to prevent the brutal “riddling” of the ovarian cover. It might also exist, in silver
fox, a narrow ovulatory slit (within ovary) which serves for the ovulation,
beginning from 1–3 polyovocitar ovarian follicles.

Fig. 11 – Very thick pellucid membrane Fig. 12 – Ovocites presenting thick


at the studied ovocites pellucid membrane, inside of a
polyovocitar ovarian follicle

This partial description of the ovary in silver fox seems to be in


accordance with the interstitial gland appearance, which is formed of several
“balls” of endocrine cells, delimited by delicate stromal fibrilar elements (fig. 2).
Vascular arterial and venous and nervous terminations have been also identified
within this histological frame.

CONCLUSIONS
1) Ovary at silver fox (Vulpes vulpes fulva) presents a series of very interesting
histological features, perfectly matching the biological reproductive
performances of the species.
2) The existence of certain polyovocitar follicles (containing 2 – 6 ovocites)
prevents the brutal and futile riddling of the ovary, meantime providing
multiple and quick ovulation of matured ovules, prepared for fecundation and
specific fecundity achievement (4-10 cubs/parturition).

REFERENCES
COŢOFAN, V.; VALENTINA, HRIŢCU şi col. – 2007 - „Anatomia animalelor domestice”, vol II,
Editura Orizonturi Universitare, Timişoara, pg. 369-397.
GURAYA, S. – 1985 – „Biology of follicles in Mammals”, Springer, Verlog, Berlin, Germany.
PAMFILIE, I; TEUŞAN, V.; NEGREA, A.; ELENA, MAN – 1995 – „Particularităţi
morfostructurale ale ovarelor la vulpe argintie, crescută în captivitate”, Animel Science
Serie – Scientific papersm vol. 37, 38, pg. 346-350, U.S.A.M.V., Iaşi.
SÎRVU, V.; PĂSTÎRNAC, N. – 1980 – „Creşterea naimalelor pentru blană”, Editura Ceres,
Bucureşti, pg. 174-182.

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

FIGURATIVE ELEMENTS STUDY AND HEMATOLOGICAL


VALUES AT RATTUS NORVEGICUS SPECIES
V. TEUŞAN, R.M. RADU–RUSU, Anca TEUŞAN

Vascular blood samples have been harvested from a couple of individuals of


Rattus norvegicus. A series of hematological values have been determined by
studying the prepared smears using a MC3 type binocular photometrical
microscope, previously calibrated. Some cytometry determinations have been
carried on using an ocular micrometer (in the microscopic field) on the main
figurative elements level. We obtained the following results: amount of red cells =
6821 x 103/mm3 blood; total white cells number = 7845/mm3; red blood corpuscle
diameter = 7.14µ and white cells diameter = 12.97µ; platelets amount =
239x103/mm3 blood; hemoglobin quantity = 13.7g/dl; hematocrit = 43.5%;
glycemia = 117.9mg/dl; total cholesterol quantity = 68.9 mg/dl; VEM=64.25µ3;
HEM=21.57pg and CHEM = 31.23 g/dl.
Keywords: Rattus norvegicus, blood, red blood cells, glycemia.

Human being, endorsed with a vivid wish of knowledge, always tried to


deepen the research of several physical, biological, cosmic, spiritual and of any
other kind phenomenon.
Among many challenges that humans meet across the time, the biological
phenomenon has been investigated with a major curiosity, studying many plant
and animal species, in order to make them able to be used for own purposes.
If man gathers food and other products from several live species, some
animals serve him as experimental material to study some diseases or to find
cures for them. These are animals for experimental laboratories. Mankind duty is
to protect them, to better know their biological features and to use them with
parsimony and respect. Among these species, it is comprised the white rat for
laboratory (Rattus norvegicus), which belong to the following systematic:
Regnum: Animalia Suborder: Sciurognathi
Phylum: Chordata Family: Muridae
Class: Mammalia Genus: Rattus
Order: Rodentia Species: Rattus norvegicus
White laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus), posess a mean life length of 3 –
4 years, a 250-300 grams body weight as adult; it reaches sexual maturity at 50 –
60 days old; the estrus lasts 4 – 5 days, while gestation counts 21 – 33 days. It is
not difficult to rear this species in laboratory, with minor expenses, while it
provides real services to humans, being used in most of the medical researches
across the world.
Deepen knowledge of its biology and especially of its hematology
constitutes a high practical and theoretical scientific importance.

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MATERIAL AND METHOD


The biological material we used is represented by 10 individuals,
belonging to Rattus norvegicus species, Wistar bloodline, male gender, aged 70 –
84 days (10 – 12 weeks), reared within the Iaşi Public Health Institute
experimental farm.
The animals were normally developed, in full health and accommodated
in optimal conditions, at a temperature of + 18 - + 20°C and relative air moisture
of 40 – 60 %. Their feeding diet consisted in: bread, milk, carrots and oat beans,
while water was ad-libitum provided.
The rearing coops have been well ventilated and isolated awaz from the
external environment factors.
From these 10 animals, there have been taken venous blood samples (6 – 8
ml/individual), from the orbital cavernous sinus, according to the method described
by Barna, I., 1999. The instruments and reactants used for blood sampling
comprised: Pasteur pipettes, well efilated; ether; cotton wool; crystallizers, and
EDTA as anticoagulant. These blood samples have been processed to assess the
hematological indexes and to obtain blood smears. Hematological indexes have
been assessed by specific methodologies, as listed below:
- „Potain” method, for erythrocytes amount assessment;
- „Sahli” method, for hemoglobin measurment;
- „May – Grünwald Giemsa” method, for blood smears preparation and
coloration;
- „Guest” method, for hematocrite measurement;
- „Brecher - Cronkie” method, for thrombocytes amount assessment;
- Mathematical methods (formulas) for VEM; HEM; CHEM calculation
and of statistical data processing.
Other experimental materials comprised: laboratory glassware; anatomic
instruments; oven; hemocytometer; Janetzky centrifuge; spectrofotometer,
„Bürker - Türker” device; Potain pipettes; hematocrite pipe; „Sahli”
hemoglobinmeter, micrometer; binocular „MC3” photonic microscope;
microphotography camera; computer; different reactants (clorhydric acid n/10,
cedar oil, „May – Grünwald” and „Giemsa” colorants, „EDTA” anticoagulant,
methyl blue, pure methylene alcohol, etc.); glass plates and lamelles, etc. The
microscope used in hemocytometric assessments has been calibrated for the
micrometric value of 2.372 µ, at ocular 10 x objective 40 association (OC10 x
OB40). Cytometry arrays have been carried on blood smears issued from 6 of 10
studied individuals. The acquired data have been processed for each individual
and for whole group. Statistical comparisons have been run between the 6
specimens (analysis of variance), Fisher and Tukey tests being calculated.
For hematological assessments (hematological indexes and plasma
chemical composition), the data have been statistically processed, without any
comparison between individuals.

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Overall, from the 6 studied specimens, 600 assessments for erythrocytes


and 1521 assessments for leucocytes have been carried on (2121 micrometric
measurements). Statistical processing comprised 56 analyses for the estimators
and 6 “ANOVA” analyses.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


The results of our studies refer either to the aspect, amount or dimension
of the blood (venous) cells from the Rattus norvegicus species, either to certain
hematological indexes at the same species. The erythrocytes have been found in
the highest amount, the analyses (at 10 specimens) revealing values within the
6.070 – 7.840 millions/ml of blood. Statistical average of the 10 values reached
6.821 ± 0.19 millions/ml of blood, with low variability (v=8.79 %) (table 3). On
the „May – Grünwald – Giemsa” colored smears, the erythrocytes (red blood cells
– RBC) had brown – reddish color and an appearance of biconcave disk with
thicken and rounded edges. They are cells without nucleus (Fig. 1-12). Very low
amounts of equinocytes (erythrocytes with membrane expansions) and of other
erytrocytes shapes have been observed within the microscopic field. The diameter
of the red blood cell disk has been measured in all 6 individuals, the statistically
processed values being presented in table 1.
Thus, at the 1st specimen, the erythrocytes mean diameter reached
7.07±0.08µ (v=10.99%), the limits of the 100 measured values being of 5.34 and
of 9.25µ (table 1). At the 2nd individual, RBC had a mean diameter of 7.44±0.07µ
(v=9.07 %); at the 3rd specimen, these blood cells reached an average diameter of
7.09±0.06µ (v=8.12%); in the 4th rat blood, the erythrocytes mean diameter was of
6.94±0.07µ (v=10,37%); at the 5th specimen, the RBC measured 6.96±0.07µ as
diameter while, at the last studied individual, no. 6, the erythrocytes had a mean
diameter of 7.32±0.06µ (v=7,73%) (table 1). The average of all individuals,
related to erythrocytes mean diameter, was calculated at 7.14±0.08 µ (v=2.82%)
(table 1).
The achieved data were found to be closer to those specified in the
scientific literature. Thus, Barna, I. and Manolescu, N., 1999, specified values of
6,3–8,0µ for erythrocytes diameter, while their amount is comprised within the
6.0–10.0 millions/ml of blood, at the adult rat.
From the whole erythrocyte diameter (7.14µ), its thicken edge area (1.5–
2.0µ) represents 21.96%, meaning 1.568µ, while the central area, that is thinner
(0.5 µ), represents 56.09%, meaning 4.005µ.

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Table 1
Main statistical indexes, related to the size of erythrocytes
in the blood of the Rattus norvegicus species (white rat)
Statistical indexes Variation limits
Notice UM n
x± sx s V (%) Min. Max.
1st specimen µ 100 7.07 0.08 0.777 10.99 5.34 9.25
2nd specimen µ 100 7.44 0.07 0.675 9.07 5.22 9.25
Erythrocytes

3rd specimen µ 100 7.09 0.06 0.576 8.12 5.46 9.01


diameter

4th specimen µ 100 6.94 0.07 0.720 10.37 5.46 8.78


5th specimen µ 100 6.96 0.07 0.744 10.69 4.74 9.25
6th specimen µ 100 7.32 0.06 0.566 7.73 4.74 9.01
All 6 specimens µ 6 7.14 0.08 0.201 2.82 6.94 7.44

Hemoglobin content in the Rattus norvegicus species blood has been


found at various levels between the 13 and 15 g/dl limits, while the average of the
10 assays reached 13.7±0.21 g/dl, their variability being reduced (v=4.93%) (table
3). As comparing to the reference values (11.9–13.5 g/dl), our findings were
approximately 8% higher. The hematocrite assessments revealed values from 42%
till 48%, with a statistical mean of 43.5±0.62% (v=4.50%) (table 3). The three
hematological indexes related to erythrocytes amount and hemoglobin quantity
(VEM, HEM & CHEM) have been measured on the 10 rats and the values are
presented in table 3.
Thus, for VEM, the 10 measurements gave values comprised between the
58.44µ3 and 73.33µ3 limits, their statistical mean reaching 64.255±1.50µ3
(v=7.38%). Values comprised within the 19.28pg and 23.02pg have been found
for HEM, with a statistical average of 21.572±0.405pg (v=5.94%), while for
CHEM, the assessed values oscillated between 30.02g/dl and 32.85g/dl, with an
average of 31.233±0.258g/dl (v=2.61%) (table 3). As compared to the values
reported in the „Coulter - Counter” table for this rodent species (VEM=52µ3;
HEM=16pg; CHEM=30g/dl), the values we found were 23.57%; 34.82%,
respectively 4.11 % higher.
As in other mammal species, in the Rattus norvegicus one, the leucocytes
types are very different, but all of them having globe, spherical appearance and
presenting nucleus (their nucleus is variable as shape, size, and intracellular
position). Several membrane expansions have been noticed, presenting amoeboid
movements and playing specific functions in the immunocompetence field
(diapedesis and phagocytosis).
In Rattus norvegicus species, white blood cells (WBC) comprise two
categories: granular and agranular. The first one includes: neutrophils, eosinophils
and basophils, while the second one comprises the lymphocytes and the
monocytes.
The neutrophils (Fig. 3, 6, 7, 8), characterized by a polylobular and
polymorph nucleus (matured cells), had diameter dimensions values from 10.44–
10.67µ till 14.23–15.89µ, in all 6 specimens, their average being calculated at

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12.61±0.16µ (v=3.21%-9.01%) (table 2). Their amount reached a mean value of


1800.2±221.77/ml of blood (v=38.96%), representing thus 21.7±1.71% from the
total WBC count (v=24.87%) (table 4). These cells presented, within cytoplasm,
thin red granules. They act as active phagocytes, being rapidly interposed in the
inflamed tissues. Young neutrophils, imatured, had ring-shaped or 8-shaped
nucleus, being frequently observed in the microscopic field.

Table 2
Main statistical indexes, concerning leucocytes size in the circulating blood of
the Rattus norvegicus species (white rat)
M Statistical indexes Variation limits
Notice n
U x± sx s V% Min. Max.
st
1 specimen µ 100 9.90 0.13 1.253 12.66 7.12 11.86
LYMPHOCYTE

2nd specimen µ 100 10.31 0.12 1.187 11.51 8.30 14.23


S diameter:

3rd specimen µ 100 10.55 0.15 1.465 13.80 8.06 14.23


4th specimen µ 100 10.39 0.12 1.1237 11.91 8.30 13.99
5th specimen µ 100 9.96 0.12 1.169 11.73 7.35 13.05
6th specimen µ 100 10.19 0.13 1.288 12.64 7.59 14.71
All 6 specimens µ 6 10.22 0.10 0.252 2.46 9.90 10.55
1st specimen µ 100 12.28 0.10 0.912 7.43 10.67 15.42
NEUTROPHILS

2nd specimen µ 100 12.02 0.10 0.920 7.65 10.67 14.23


3rd specimen
diameter:

µ 100 12.99 0.11 1.024 7.88 11.27 15.47


4th specimen µ 100 12.58 0.13 1.133 9.01 10.44 15.42
5th specimen µ 100 13.06 0.12 1.037 7.94 11.62 15.89
6th specimen µ 100 12.74 0.12 1.088 8.54 10.67 15.86
All 6 specimens µ 6 12.61 0.16 0.405 3.21 12.02 13.06
1st specimen µ 100 13.24 0.16 1.035 7.82 11.39 16.13
2nd specimen
MONOCYTES

µ 100 13.20 0.13 0.866 6.56 11.86 14.47


3rd specimen µ 100 14.20 0.19 1.207 8.50 11.86 16.60
diameter

4th specimen µ 100 13.76 0.16 1.010 7.34 11.86 15.46


5th specimen µ 100 14.03 0.20 1.281 9.13 11.86 16.84
6th specimen µ 100 13.41 0.18 1.174 8.75 11.38 17.31
All 6 specimens µ 6 13.64 0.17 0.421 3.09 13.20 14.20
1st specimen µ 100 13.88 0.31 1.198 8.63 11.86 16.13
BASOPHYLES

2nd specimen µ 100 14.09 0.31 0.991 7.04 12.81 15.42


3rd specimen µ 100 15.58 0.32 1.233 7.91 14.23 17.79
diameter

4th specimen µ 100 14.98 0.34 1.080 7.21 13.64 16.60


5th specimen µ 100 16.07 0.37 1.653 10.29 13.05 18.98
6th specimen µ 100 16.21 0.44 1.947 12.01 13.05 21.34
All 6 specimens µ 6 15.13 0.40 0.992 6.56 13.88 16.21
1st specimen µ 100 12.97 0.38 1.465 11.30 10.67 15.89
EOSINOPHILS

2nd specimen µ 100 13.40 0.21 0.662 4.94 12.10 14.23


3rd specimen µ 100 13.94 0.23 0.982 7.05 11.86 15.42
diameter

4th specimen µ 100 13.28 0.22 0.981 7.39 11.86 15.42


5th specimen µ 100 13.20 0.35 1.370 10.38 11.62 16.60
6th specimen µ 100 12.59 0.22 0.998 7.93 10.67 14.23
All 6 specimens µ 6 13.23 0.18 0.450 3.40 12.59 13.94

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From the blood of Rattus norvegicus species, the leucocytes shape,


cytometry and the leucocytes formula have been also assessed on the 5 cellular
species belonging to this hematological category.
Thus, the values concerning the whole leucocytes amount have been
found between the limits of 5250 and 10250 white cells/ml of blood, with a
statistical average of 8045±569.33 white cells/ml of blood (v=22.38%) (table 4).

Table 3
Main statistical indexes related to some hematological features of the white rat blood
(Rattus norvegicus)
Variation
Statistical indexes
Notice UM n limits
x± sx s V(%) Min. Max.
Erythrocytes amount Nx
10 6.821 0.190 0.5997 8.79 6.070 7.840
/1ml blood 106
Hemoglobin (Hb) g/dl 10 13.7 0.210 0.675 4.93 13.00 15.00
Hematocrit (HCT) % 10 43.5 0.620 1.958 4.50 42.0 48.0
Studied hematological indexes

Mean corpuscular
µ3 10 64.255 1.50 4.74 7.38 58.44 73.33
volume (VEM)
Mean erythrocytar
pg 10 21.572 0.405 1.282 5.94 19.28 23.02
hemoglobin (HEM)
Concentration of the
mean erythrocytar g/dl 10 31.233 0.258 0.815 2.61 30.02 32.85
hemoglobin (CHEM)
Glycerin mg/dl 10 117.9 4.615 14.594 12.38 103.0 147.0
Total cholesterol mg/dl 10 68.9 3.860 12.206 17.72 53.00 87.00
Triglycerides mg/dl 10 46.0 2.055 6.498 14.13 40.0 61.0
Total serum proteins g/dl 10 6.37 0.159 0.503 7.90 5.70 7.50

The eosinophils (Fig. 2, 4, 7, 10) are nucleated leucocytes, with bilobated


or trilobated nucleus and with small and uniform granules in the cytoplasm. Those
having bilobated or trilobated nucleus are predominant. This kind of nucleus has
been previously described as an U-shaped one. As absolute number, they were
found in very low amount, respectively of 100.5±22.73/ml of blood (mean value)
(v=71.53%) (table 4). Very high variations have been noticed between the 10
studied specimens. As proportion, the eosinophils represents 1.23±0.23%
(v=57.81%) from the whole WBC amount (table 4). Eosinophils size varied
between 10.67µ and 16.60µ, the average value reaching 13.23±0.18µ (v=3.40–
11.30%) (table 2). Eosinophils diemater was found 4.92% higher than that of the
neutrophils.
Basophils – at Rattus norvegicus species (Fig. 1), this cell type is the
highest among the granular leucocytes, but the fewest as amount and proportion.
Thus, related to their diameter, cytometry assessments revealed values between
11.86µ an 16.13 µ, with an average of 13.88±0.31µ (v=8.63%), at the 1st
specimen; from 12.81µ till 15.42µ, with a mean of 14.09±0.31µ (v=7.04%), at the
2nd rat; between 14.23µ and 17.79µ, with an average of 15.58±0.32µ (v=7.91%),

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at the 3rd individual; between 13.64µ and 16.60µ, with an average of 14.98±0.34µ
(v=7.21%), at the 47h specimen; from 13.05µ till 18.98µ,with a mean of
16.07±0.37µ (v=10.29%) at the 5th rat and from 13.05µ till 21.34µ,with an
average of 16.21±0.44 µ (v=12.01%) at the 6th specimen (table 2). The average of
all studied individuals reached 15.13±0.40µ (v=6.56%) (table 2). Their
appearance is spherical, the nucleus is often tri- or multilobated. Specific
metachormatic granules could be observed in the cytoplasm. The amount of these
leucocytes varied between a minimal value of 11/ml of blood and a maximal one
of 93/ml of blood (at 10 rats), the statistical mean reaching 36.2±7.95
basophils/ml of blood (v=69.41%) (table 4). As proportion, the basophils
represented 0.2%-1.0%, the average value of the 10 assessments being calculated
at 0.46±0.10% (v=68.13%) (tabelul 4).

Table 4
Main statistical indexes,
related to leucocytes formula at the white rat (Rattus norvegicus)
Statistical indexes Variation limits
Notice UM n
x± S x s V(%) Min. Max.
Whole leucocytes amount n/ml 10 8045 567.33 1800.378 22.38 5250.0 10250.0
Absolute
Segmented n/ml 10 1800.2 221.77 701.309 38.96 689.0 2730.0
values
neutrophils
Relative
(PMNs) % 10 21.7 1.71 5.396 24.87 13.0 28.0
values
Absolute
n/ml 10 100.5 22.73 71.888 71.53 41.0 287.0
Eosinophils values
(Acidofile) Relative
% 10 1.24 0.23 0.717 57.81 0.50 2.80
Leucocytar formula

values
Absolute
n/ml 10 36.2 7.95 25.125 69.41 11.0 93.0
values
Basophils
Relative
% 10 0.46 0.10 0.313 68.13 0.2 1.0
values
Absolute
n/ml 10 5787.8 363.0 1147.926 19.83 4095.0 7215.0
values
Lymphocites
Relative
% 10 72.6 1.81 5.739 7.90 66.0 83.0
values
Absolute
n/ml 10 320.3 28.91 91.426 28.54 159.0 487.0
values
Monocytes
Relative
% 10 4.0 0.26 0.816 20.41 3.0 5.0
values
n x 103
Whole platelets amount in blood ml 10 239 21.830 69.033 28.88 120.0 320.0

The lymphocytes (Fig. 2, 3, 4, 8, 10, 11, 12) are the smallest agranular
leucocytes, but with the highest occurrence in whole WBC amount. According to
their variable size, the lymphocytes could be small, medium and large. From the
600 measured lymphocytes (at 6 individuals), 54.3% had sizes of 7-9,5µ,
belonging to the microlymphocytes category; 20.17% had the diameter comprised
between 9.5–11,5µ, belonging to mesolymphocytes type and 25.50% had the

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diameter within the 11.5–14.5 interval, belonging to macrolymphocytes category.


Thus, in the Rattus norvegicus circulating blood, the large and small lymphocytes
are predominant, representing together 74.5%. No matter their size, these cells are
spherical, mononucleated, without granules in the cytoplasm. The nuclei were
large, mainly spheroidal (also reniform or oval), appearing not to be compact as in
other mammal species (horse, cow etc.). Nucleus size was measured at an average
value of 8.54±0.37µ, representing thus 75.5±1.95% of the cells mean diameter.
When they were measured together, the three lymphocytes types (small, medium,
large), had a diameter that varied between 7.12µ and 14.71µ, with averages (as
related to each specimen) of 9.90–10.55µ and with variability values of 11.51%-
13.80% (table 2). Lymphocytes amount has been found at high levels,
respectively of 4095–7215 cells/1ml of blood (at 10 individuals), with an average
of 5787.8±363 cells/ml of blood (v=19.83%) (table 4). As proportion, the
lymphocytes represented 66.0–83.0% from the whole WBC count, with a mean
value of 72.6±1.81% (v=7.90%) (table 4).
The monocytes (Fig. 1, 5, 6, 9) are agranular cells with polymorphic
nucleus, with vacuolated basophil cytoplasm but presenting, in the studied
species, thin granulations that don’t occur in every monocyte. As size, monocytes
could be considered immediately after the basophils, in Rattus norvegicus species,
having diameters from 11.38µ till 17.31µ, while the averages of the 6 studied
individuals varied between 13.20±0.13µ (at I2) and 14.20±0.19 (at I3). The mean
value for all 6 specimens was calculated at the 13.64±0.17µ value (v=3.09%)
(table 2). The monocytes amount reached values comprised within the 159 – 487
cells/ml of blood interval, with an average of 320.3±28.91 cells/ml of blood
(v=28.54%) (table 4). As proportion, they represented 3 – 5 %, respectively an
average of 4.0±0.26% (v=20.41%) from whole leucocytes amount (table 4).
The platelets amount has been found between the 120 – 320 thousands/ 1
ml blood, with an average of 239 ± 21.83 thousands/ml of blood. A pronounced
variability occurred for all 10 studied specimens (v=28.88 %) (table 4). The
values we found for the whole leucocytes amount or for neutrophils, eosinophils
and basophiles proportions were lower than those specified in the „Coulter -
Counter” table for this species, while the values of lymphocytes and monocytes
were higher (Barna, I.; Manolescu, N., 1999). The significances of the differences
between the sizes of 6 cellular kinds have been tested. Thus, it resulted that 71
(78.89%) of all 90 comparisons (differences) were statistically insignificant; 17
(18.89%) differences were statistically very high significant; one difference
(1.11%) was statistically distinguished significant and another one was found as
significant (table 5). The study of the serum and plasma compounds revealed a
glycemy level of 117.9±4,615 mg/dl (v=12.38%) (table 3), at the 10 Rattus
norvegicus individuals. Mean cholesterol quantity reached 68.9±3.86mg/dl
(v=17.72%); average triglycerides quantity was found of 46.0±2.055mg/dl
(v=14.3%), while the whole serum proteins amount reached 6.37±0.159g/dl
(v=7.90%) (table 3).

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Table 5
Statistical significance of the differences between the 6 specimens of Rattus
norvegicus, related to the size of erythrocytes and leucocytes in blood

significance
Fα at: 5; 246 LD for:

Statistical
Variable

n1 Differences between F̂ at Tukey:


/n2 the 6 individual means 5; 246 W = 0.01
LD
p≤0.05 p≤0.01 p≤0.001

100 I1–I2 7.07–7.44= 0.370 ***


100 I1-I3 7.07-7.090=0.020 n.s.
100 I1-I4 7.07-6.94=0.130 n.s.
100 I1-I5 7.07-6.96=0.110 n.s.
Erythrocytes diameter (µ)

100 I1-I6 7.07-7.32=0.250 n.s.


100 I2-I3 7.44-7.09=0.350 ***
100 I2-I4 7.44-6.94=0.500 ***
100 I2-I5 7.44-6.96=0.480 8.600 2.210 3.020 4.100 0.324 ***
100 I2-I6 7.44-7.32=0.120 n.s.
100 I3-I4 7.09-6.94=0.150 n.s.
100 I3-I5 7.09-7.32=0.130 n.s.
100 I3-I6 7.09-7.32=0.230 n.s.
100 I4-I5 6.94-6.96=0.020 n.s.
100 I4-I6 6.94-7.32=0.380 ***
100 I5-I6 6.96-7.32=0.360 ***
100 I1-I2 13.88-14.09=0.210 n.s.
100 I1-I3 13.88-15.58=1.700 **
100 I1-I4 13.88-14.98=1.100 n.s.
100 I1-I5 13.88-16.07=2.190 n.s.
Lymphocytes diameter (µ)

100 I1-I6 13.88-16.21=2.330 n.s.


100 I2-I3 14.09-15.58=1.490 n.s.
100 I2-I4 14.09-14.98=0.890 n.s.
100 I2-I5 14.09-16.07=1.980 3.892 2.210 3.020 4.100 0.604 n.s.
100 I2-I6 14.09-16.21=2.120 n.s.
100 I3-I4 15.58-14.98=0.600 n.s.
100 I3-I5 15.58-16.07=0.490 n.s.
100 I3-I6 15.58-16.21=0.630 n.s.
100 I4-I5 14.98-16.07=1.090 n.s.
100 I4-I6 16.07-16.21=1.230 n.s.
100 I5-I6 16.07-16.21=0.140 n.s.
80 I1-I2 12.97-13.40=0.430 Tukey:
Fα at: 5; 474 G for: n.s.
F̂ W = 0.01
80 I1-I3 12.97-13.94=0.970 p≤0.05 p≤0.01 p≤0.001 ***
80 I1-I4 12.97-13.28=0.310 n.s.
Neutrophils diemeter (µ)

80 I1-I5 12.97-13.20=0.230 ***


80 I1-I6 12.97-12.59=0.380 n.s.
80 I2-I3 12.02-12.99=0.970 ***
80 I2-I4 12.02-12.58=0.560 ***
80 I2-I5 12.02-13.06=1.040 ***
80 I2-I6 12.02-12.74=0.720 12.588 2.210 3.020 4.100 0.544 ***
80 I3-I4 12.99-12.58=0.410 n.s.
80 I3-I5 12.99-13.06=0.070 n.s.
80 I3-I6 12.99-12.74=0.250 n.s.
80 I4-I5 12.58-13.06=0.480 n.s.
80 I4-I6 12.58-12.74=0.160 n.s.
80 I5-I6 13.06-12.74=0.320 n.s.

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significance
Fα at: 5; 246 LD for:

Statistical
Variable

n1 Differences between F̂ at 5; Tukey:


/n2 the 6 individual means 246 LD W = 0.01
p≤0.05 p≤0.01 p≤0.001

42 I1-I2 13.24-13.20=0.040 n.s.


42 I1-I3 13.24-14.20=0.960 ***
42 I1-I4 13.24-13.76=0.520 n.s.
42 I1-I5 13.24-14.03=0.790 n.s.
Monocytes diameter (µ)

42 I1-I6 13.24-13.41=0.170 n.s.


42 I2-I3 13.20-14.20=1.000 ***
42 I2-I4 13.20-13.76=0.560 n.s.
42 I2-I5 13.20-14.03=0.830 6.066 2.210 3.020 4.100 0.810 ***
42 I2-I6 13.20-13.41=0.210 n.s.
42 I3-I4 14.20-13.76=0.440 n.s.
42 I3-I5 14.20-14.03=0.170 n.s.
42 I3-I6 14.20-13.41=0.790 n.s.
42 I4-I5 13.76-14.03=0.270 n.s.
42 I4-I6 13.76-13.41=0.350 n.s.
42 I5-I6 14.03-13.41=0.620 n.s.
15/10 I1-I2 13.88-14.09=0.210 F̂ at 5; Fα at: 5; 84 LD for: 2.440 n.s.
15/15 I1-I3 13.88-15.58=1.700 84 LD p≤0.05 p≤0.01 p≤0.001 1.892 n.s.
15/10 I1-I4 13.88-14.98=1.100 2.440 n.s.
15/20 I1-I5 13.88-16.07=2.190 2.042 ***
Basophils diameter (µ)

15/20 I1-I6 13.88-16.21=2.330 2.042 ***


10/15 I2-I3 14.09-15.58=1.490 2.440 n.s.
10/10 I2-I4 14.09-14.98=0.890 2.317 n.s.
10/20 I2-I5 14.09-16.07=1.980 2.315 n.s.
10/20 I2-I6 14.09-16.21=2.120 6.884 2.338 3.272 4.624 2.315 n.s.
15/10 I3-I4 15.58-14.98=0.600 2.440 n.s.
15/20 I3-I5 15.58-16.07=0.490 2.042 n.s.
15/20 I3-I6 15.58-16.21=0.630 2.042 n.s.
10/20 I4-I5 14.98-16.07=1.090 2.315 n.s.
10/20 I4-I6 14.98-16.21=1.230 2.315 n.s.
20/20 I5-I6 16.07-16.21=0.140 1.638 n.s.
15/10 I1-I2 12.97-13.40=0.430 F̂ at 5; Fα at: 5; 93 GL LD for: 1.662 n.s.
15/19 I1-I3 12.97-13.94=0.970 93 LD p≤0.05 p≤0.01 p≤0.001 1.406 n.s.
15/20 I1-I4 12.97-13.20=0.310 1.390 n.s.
15/15 I1-I5 12.97-13.20=0.230 1.413 n.s.
Eosinophils diameter (µ)

15/20 I1-I6 12.97-12.59=0.380 1.390 n.s.


10/19 I2-I3 13.40-13.94=0.540 1.590 n.s.
10/20 I2-I4 13.40-13.28=0.120 1.576 n.s.
10/15 I2-I5 13.40-13.20=0.200 1.662 n.s.
10/20 I2-I6 13.40-12.59=0.810 3.086 2.326 3.246 4.573 1.576 n.s.
19/20 I3-I4 13.94-13.28=0.660 1.304 *
19/15 I3-I5 13.94-13.20=0.740 1.406 n.s.
19/20 I3-I6 13.94-12.59=1.350 1.304 n.s.
20/15 I4-I5 13.28-13.20=0.080 1.390 n.s.
20/20 I4-I6 13.28-12.59=0.690 1.224 n.s.
15/20 I5-I6 13.20-12.59=0.610 1.390 n.s.

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Fig. 1 – Monocyte, basophils and erythrocytes Fig. 2 – Eosinophil, lymphocyte and erythrocytes

Fig. 3 – Lymphocyte, neutrophil and erythrocytes Fig. 4 – Eosinophil, medium lymphocytes and erythrocytes

Fig. 5 – Monocytes and erythrocytes Fig. 6 – Monocyte, neutrophil, and erythrocytes

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Fig. 7 – Eosinophil, neutrophil and erythrocytes Fig. 8 – Lymphocyte, immature neutrophil and erythrocytes

Fig. 9 – Monocyte and erythrocytes Fig. 10 – Eosinophil, lymphocytes and erythrocytes

Fig. 11 – Lymphocytes during poiesis and erythrocytes Fig. 12 – Lymphocytes during poiesis and erythrocytes

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CONCLUSIONS
1) Some of the blood figurate elements values at Rattus norvegicus
species have been found similarly to those specified in the scientific literature
(erythrocytes diameter = 7.14 µ and their amount = 6821 x 103/mm3 of blood;
hemoglobin quantity = 13.7 g/dl etc.), while some parameters were higher or
lower than the reference.
2) As compared to other mammals, the Rattus norvegicus blood has
some specific features, such as: erythrocytes shaped as biconcave discs were
predominant, while their size had almost constantly values; lymphocytes
represented the most numerous leucocytes population (72.6 %); monocytes were
not the biggest leucocytes, being endorsed with thin granules in cytoplasm; many
unmatured neutrophils (with ring-shaped nucleus) were frequently enough in the
blood stream, while the small and medium size lymphocytes were predominant,
having a nucleus – plasma ratio of approximately 0.75/1.

REFERENCES
1) BERCEANU, ŞT.; MANOLESCU, N. – 1985 – „Hematologie Comparată”, Editura Medicală,
Bucureşti.
2) CIUDIN, ELENA – 1994 – „Biologia animalelor de laborator”, Editura „Ion Ionescu de la Brad”,
Iaşi.
3) CIUDIN, ELENA – 2005 - „Animale de laborator”, Editura Ceres, Bucureşti.
4) MARCU, ELENA; GETA, PAVEL – 1999 – „Fiziologie animală”, Editura „Vasiliană - 98”, Iaşi.
5) MANOLESCU, N. şi colab. – 1999 – „Tratat de hematologie animală”, vol. I, Editura Fundaţiei
„România de Mâine”, Bucureşti, pg. 201 – 214.
6) TEUŞAN, V.; RADU-RUSU, R.M.; VOICU, P.M. – 2005 – „Cercetări privind morfologia
elementelor figurate din sângele speciei Equus cabalus”, Simp. Ştiinţ. Stud., 13 – 27 mai,
USAMV, Iaşi.

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INTERCULTURAL EDUCATION OF AGRICULTURAL


STUDENTS FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF THE EUROPEAN
INTEGRATION
Carmen-Olguţa BREZULEANU

The education evolution is connected by the culture evolution, by the


system of representation and values that are offered in society. Agricultural
education from Iasi, uses these values as instruments witch are helping to enrich
the students spirit, their universe of knowledge.
In the context of accession to UE, the actual Romanian model of
agricultural education must be redefined and to take into account the
extraordinary dynamical of mutual knowledge. Thus, the universities must train
the young people in the spirit of intercultural education.

Within the context of Romania’s adhesion to the European Union, the


present model of agronomical education should take into account the
extraordinary dynamism of the mutual knowledge, which must be developed at
the education institutions of the European countries. The actual communicational
relations redefine the knowledge and cropping model specific to each European
country.
The right to education and the participation in the cultural life are
priorities for the Universal Statement of Humans Rights. Therefore, the
intercultural education should consider different lifestyles, adapt to the needs and
interests of each individual, making the individuals and societies be more
attentive to the cultural dimension of their existence.
The UNESCO Commission for education in the XXlst century, directed by
Jacques Delors, has promulgated four pillars of the education in the future:
• Learning to know
• Learning to learn
• Learning to live together.
Therefore, the challenges of intercultural education have a clear trump of
the pillar “Learning to live together”.

MATERIALS AND METHODS


The agronomical universities must play an important role in the students’
education from the viewpoint of the European intercultural relations, teaching
them to respect the values represented by others, the multicultural diversity and
the tolerance and solidarity. The agronomical education is tightly connected to
culture and must capitalize all the cultural resources and solve the problems
issued from the impact of the new cultural model of the European society – inter-
culturality, because the European integration is a diversity cultural unit. After

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interviewing the students of the second and the third year of study, who attend the
D.P.P.D. courses, we found that most of them had no knowledge and experience
as concerns the intercultural relations.
The University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Iasi,
having a collaboration experience with over 20 universities of the same profile
from Europe, as concerns the exchange of teaching staff and students, it is
important for the young students to study in the European countries and to be
trained in the spirit of the intercultural education. Therefore, the teaching staff,
who teach not only psycho-educational but also other disciplines, must train the
students for knowing and accepting the cultural values brought by each country
into the Union, in order to become aware of, accept and respect the inherent
differentiations.
The goal of this work was to give methodological suggestions to the
agronomical students as concerns the intercultural education.
An important charge for the ones who take charge of intercultural
education and intercultural learning (professors and students) is the development
of critical thinking capacity. In order to make possible this process, all the people
involved must reflect permanently and find the best solution of communicating
with persons belonging to other culture or religion. Thus, acquiring knowledge,
skill training and modeling intercultural attitudes may be done interactively,
becoming potentialities for a “transformative learning”.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


After the interpretation of the results on interviews with students
attending the D.P.P.D. courses, the organization of a round table was necessary
within the students’ circle The Romanian and European culture – mutual
knowledge through commune agronomical studentship projects. At the seminaries
within the discipline of Scientific Communication Techniques, debates were
organized, having the aim of forming the intercultural competence as a base
competence of the nowadays-European students. Therefore, “the transformative
learning” must have as goal:
• Development of students’ ability to think creatively as concerns
the knowledge of the national values and their comparison to the
ones from the European countries, having the aim of accepting
the cultural influences;
• Becoming aware of the fact that developing European cultural
exchanges contributes to a good knowledge and observation of
cultural values, in order to live together within the European
Union;
• Cultivating the European citizen conscience in the students
participating in the interuniversity studentship exchanges;

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• Learning English and the language spoken in the country students


go for training, in order to make possible the social intercultural
integration. By learning the respective language, understanding,
solidarity and dialogue between different countries and cultures
are being promoted.
For the success of the intercultural education, the teachers must also
experience the intercultural communication and be attentive at the following
elements, for ensuring this quality of the experience:
• To organize democratically the students’ group, which allow to
each of them learning and expressing;
• To offer each student different roles for experimenting (animator
or leader);
• To respect each student’s culture, ethical and religious belief and
abilities;
• To watch the place given by each student to languages, cultures,
ethic and religious believes and abilities;
• To extend the group’s views towards exterior, in order to develop
the intercultural knowledge.
Another successful activity for the intercultural education is the
Christmas show, performed by the students of our university. This performance is
a tradition, maintained and transmitted from one generation to another. This
shows that in the Romanian folklore, Christmas and New Year customs have a
special significance. The activity is done successfully, as a competition between
agronomical, horticulturist, zootechnist and veterinary students, deans, psycho-
educational professors and foreign languages professors. Every year, the quality
of the performance is increasing by its intercultural dimension. Among their
activities, the students sing carols in Romanian and foreign language, and have as
guests the dance formation of Greek students from Iasi. Students and professors
consider these moments as an applied means for knowing the intercultural living.
In the next years, in December, within the D.P.P.D. activities, student
debates will be organized on the theme “ How do different people meet the arrival
of the New Year”, which is a support for the intercultural discovery.
Every year, within the didactic practice of the zootechnist and veterinary
students in the lllrd and the lV th year of studies, who attend DPPD courses, a
didactic visit is being organized at the Museum of Agriculture from Moldavia –
“Prince Dimitrie Sturdza”, which is located in the courtyard of the
“M. Kogălniceanu” Agricultural Scholar Group of Miroslava. This visit gives the
students the opportunity of intercultural learning by visiting the exhibits –
products of peasants’ intercultural living on the Romanian land in the last
centuries.
Within this activity, there is a debate, named “Spreading knowledge and
impressions from the cultural viewpoint”. Its structure comprises:

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1. Tell your colleagues about the impressions on a certain museum or a


memorial house you have just visited. Use pictures or movies,
leaflets, books, albums, etc., for illustrating what you have found,
discovered, known, leant or felt on the occasion of the visit.
2. What do you think is there the guide’ role in a museum? How much
does he help us understanding what we see? Could the guide give us
all the necessary information on the objective we have seen?
Answer the above questions and argue your points of view.
3. Accumulate the materials concerning the different special museums
and the curiosities they present.
4. Make short information for your colleagues and discuss on what you
have found out. What are your proposals for “strange collections” ?
Could you achieve them?
5. What do you know about the activities developed in a museum? Is
this a proper place for the intercultural research work? Do you think
is it a proper place for the research work? How difficult (or simple)
do you think is it to make up a collection and to preserve it? What do
you know about the artwork restoration and the restoration
techniques?
6. This debate raises the students’ interest in knowing the intercultural
living of Romanians on these territories.
7. You are the ones who have the mission to defend in the future the
creation of all the past generations and the fortune of the museums
from Romania. You are also the future museum guiders and the
possible founders of museums.
Are you interested in making collections? Do you know how to set up an
exhibition showing your preoccupations in a certain field of activity?

CONCLUSIONS
As a result of the development of activities concerning the intercultural
education, the finalities are the following:
• They facilitated the understanding by professors and students of
the importance of intercultural education;
• The interest of students and professors in taking part in the
activities done for supporting the intercultural knowledge has
increased;
• They determined the degree of knowledge and respect of the
values of cultural societies by young students improving the
degree of intercultural perception;
• They pointed out the cultural values from the Romanian
traditional holydays;

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• They identified the Romanian own values and discovery of the


European values accepted by students and professors within the
intercultural changes;
• The results of intercultural projects, which are developed by the
presentation of dissertations and works within international
microzones, will be disseminated .

REFERENCES
1. Bâzea Cezar, 1994 – Les politiques educatives dans les pays en transition, Strasbourg, Concil
of Europe Press.
2. Brezuleanu Carmen-Olgu a, 2006 – Tehnici de comunicare Ştiinţifică, Iaşi, suport de curs pt.
I.D.P., U.S.A.M.V. – D.P.P.D.
3. Cucoş Constantin, 2000 – Educaţia. Dimensiuni culturale şi interculturale. Ed. Polirom, Iaşi.
4. Rey Micheline, 1999 – De la logica ”mono” la logica de tip ”inter”. Piste pentru o educaţie
interculturală şi solidară. În Educaţia interculturală. Experienţe, politici, strategii. Ed. Polirom,
Iaşi.

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

METHODOLOGIES USED TO ASSESS THE


DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AND AGRI-TOURISM IN THE
NE OF ROMANIA
Şt. BREZULEANU, Carmen Olguţa BREZULEANU, R.A. MORARU

The North Eastern administrative rural area presents the territorial


peculiarities of no less than 463 communes and 2445 villages from Bacău,
Botoşani, Iaşi, Neamţ, Suceava and Vaslui counties that host a number of
2,171,838 inhabitants, accounting for 56,6% of the total area population.
The rural area of the North Eastern region is a relatively autonomous
universe, whose analysis may be approached endogenously or exogenously. A
number of methods may be used in order to assess the rural tourism and agro-
tourism phenomenon and their management in the North Eastern Region, namely
statistic monograph, selective enquiry, statistic report, polls, extrapolation,
correlation, projection and questionnaire.
The analysis will resort to simple table methods, statistic procedures,
regression and factorial analysis. There are cases in which researchers fail for
not taking into account such problems, for there is the risk that the data they
have collected does not fit the analysis technique designed to lead to a certain
type of results.

MATERIAL AND METHOD


The direct and correct information about the ensemble of agro tourism
and rural tourism in the North-Eastern Region is scarce and have a disparate
character.
At present, the partial and unilateral information about this activity,
especially that referring to the physical part of the phenomenon ( respectively the
number of localities with private agro tourist pensions, accommodation, seat
number for meals and even the number of tourists accommodated) has been
gathered from the National Commission for statistics, through the direct and
indirect help of County statistic governance, national authority for tourism
through the Office of Accrediting and Control in tourism, National Association of
Rural and Ecologic Tourism (ANTREC).
In studying the phenomenon of rural tourism, agro-tourism and its
management, in the North-Eastern Region there can be used a large number of
methods that can present the tourist phenomenon on the whole, such as: statistic
monograph, selective enquiry, statistic report, polls, extrapolation, correlation,
projection and questionnaire.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


The rural area the administratively belong to the North-Eastern Region
comprise the territory peculiarities of no less that 463 communes and 2445

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villages from Bacău, Botoşani, Iaşi, Neamţ, Suceava and Vaslui, where they
unfold their activity approximately 2.171.838 inhabitants, accounting for 56,6 %
of the region population.
The rural area of the North Eastern region is a relatively autonomous
universe, whose analysis may be approached endogenously or exogenously.
For the analysis there will be used simple charts, statistic methods, such
as regression or factorial analysis. There are cases when he researchers fail ij
dealing with these problems, existing the risk that the collected data didn’t match
the analysis technique desired in order to get a certain type of results.
The statistic monographs are done after there has been gathered some
statistic information on the main tourist objectives and which becomes an
interdisciplinary paper.
The statistic monograph aims at gathering information regarding a tourist
phenomenon: a tourist zone, a tourist locality with beautiful landscape, with forms
of rural tourism and agro tourism, the equipment within the agro tourist pensions,
tourist tour etc.
In doing the monograph of the North-Eastern Region from the agro
tourist point of view, there has been gathered information through discussions
with persons that are directly involved in the tourist phenomenon (tourists,
managers, hosts etc), thus making a selective research through the direct
observation of the localities and agro tourist pensions and researching all the
information, historic, economic, political and geographic materials.
Moreover, in the statistic monographs, an important role is held by the
researchers’ feeling at the researched place.
The monograph cannot remain only a means of registering the geographic
conditions, the historic monuments, landscapes that attract the tourists, customs,
monuments, tourist equipping, influencing factors on the local tourism etc, but it
has to make a point of the domains that have to be helped and suggests some
ways that should be undertaken.
The statistic monographs have a major importance as it is source of
information and data necessary in underlining the strategies of rural tourism.
We consider that in the present conditions of the agro –tourism evolution
it is important to intensify the monographic methods, due to the fact that the
development of agro tourist activity has rushed its scientific knowledge and
analysis. Also, a rigorous study of rural tourism implies a scientific underlining of
the gathering and registering systems, and an information analysis in this domain.
With the help of statistic monographs we have the opportunity to know
the structure, the level of development of rural tourism and agro tourism, the
connections of this domain with other segments of the rural activity as we deal
with a profound multi lateral research activity.
Although there are areas which are not tourist adapted, they still seem to
attract – through surroundings and customs – a lot of tourists. In order to discover
these zones, to take the necessary measures for tourist development, the only
statistic method that can underlie these decisions is the method of statistic polls.

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Among the objectives of the statistic poll we can mention the appreciation
of the service quality, knowledge of tourist behaviour, as well as the
determination of future tourist tendencies.
Necessary statistic polls in order to know the rural tourism can be done:
a)in the households that offer rural tourism services, b)places frequented by
tourists but not tourist adapted, c) as the foreign tourist leave abroad.
Selective polls done in households which offer tourist services that can be
done on the persons that offer services, either for local or foreign tourists.
Persons that offer rural tourist services can offer a some information
regarding: the type of services and proportions of the demand, forms of practiced
tourism, service quality, tourist behaviour as well as the number of tourists on
seasons .
Statistic reports are papers of total chronological registration that have as
basis the primary book keeping of the tourism units. The forms are official
documents done according to the law. They appreciate the followed indicators,
the way of calculation as well as the number of the copies. The persons from the
tourist institutions that fill in the forms are also in charge with the authenticity of
the filled-in data.
A lot of indicators of the rural tourist phenomenon are not included in the
present statistic reports.
The statistic analysis of the rural tourism bring necessary information in
deciding the future means of development, in foreseeing the ways that have to be
followed.
An important issue in rural tourism development is the living standard of
the population. Even if the people have free time necessary for practicing rural
tourism, as long as their incomes will not allow the unfolding of such activities,
not the tourism will not gain momentum.
The system of statistic reports is the fundamental form of data gathering
in tourism. The present form of organization and functioning of the information
statistic system uses three specific statistic reports: TOURISM 1A, regarding the
frequency of tourist receiving according to accommodation on trimesters,
TURISM 1B, regarding the capacity of tourist accommodation on 31st July and
TURISM 2, regarding the activity of tourism agents on trimesters.
Periodic registrations (registrations at a certain moment) are sketches of
the phenomenon at a certain moment and can take the form of statistic inventory
of fix means in economy, done with the aim of their evaluation and re-evaluation
, the inventory of different means etc.
In rural tourism, the current registrations take the form of statistic reports
used for gathering data from the tourist activity. Their filling out is done on the
technical-operative basis, on accountancy and statistic evidence at the level of
economic agent.
The indicators that characterize rural tourism are determined as : absolute
indicators (accommodation and alimentation capacity, total tourist request etc)

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and relative indicators presented as averages (average value of fix means, average
number of employees, average period of holiday etc), as structure (structure of
tourist requests according to the origin country of the tourists, to the used means
of transport etc), as coordination (monthly traffic coefficient, quarter traffic
coefficient, monthly concentration coefficient).
In order to do a prognosis within the tourist activity there is a varied range
of methods and techniques the will be presented.
Extrapolation is a means that consists of the prolongation of a statistic
series introducing after the old terms, a new term that is according to the series
law. From the graphical point of view, extrapolation is determined by the
coordinate of a point situated in the extension of the curve and which checks its
equation.
Extrapolation is thus based on the hypothesis that the future evolution of
the tourist phenomenon will be done on the same law as in the previous period.
As regards the territory of out study, there can be distinguished two types
of agro tourist units: agro tourist pensions and agricultural households where there
are practiced activities of agro tourism.
The agro tourist pension generally supposes special constructions, with
well established functions based on private investments or ones taken on credits
from banks. In order to finish these units, there have to be taken into account the
norm acts specific to the aim.
The second form, the agricultural household with tourist activity unfolds
their activity in the owner’s house where there have been done some adjustments
that correspond to the aim, i.e. equipping with specialised equipment and
necessary material in order to make sure that the services offered to the tourist are
appreciated and satisfactory.
In order to individualize the rural tourism and agro-tourism and especially
to capitalize it in a competitive tourist offer, the ANTREC subsidiaries from the
North-Eastern Region have analysed the natural, economic and cultural potential
of the are, its folkloric and ethnographic traditions, pastoral and agricultural
activities, the proximity of the well-known tourist zones, general elements of
infrastructure, psycho-social characteristics of the population from the North-
Eastern Region.
As regards the natural potential, the North-Eastern Region has a large
variety and alternation of the mountains (Rarău, Călimani, Cehlău, Tarcău)
imposing themselves through their originality regarding the tourist potential of the
zone, being noticed due to the beauty of woods and water rivers (Bistriţa,
Moldova) different mineral water springs (Slănic Moldova, Vatra Dornei, Poiana
Negri, Şarul Dornei) or other different hunting and fishing constructions (Valea
Putnei, Dragoş Vodă).
The hilly, meadow and plain zones offer favourable conditions that can be
capitalized in a complex way through a rural tourism oriented towards leisure,
hunting and fishing, being present a series of hydro-energetic accumulations

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(Bicaz, Răcăciuni, Stânca-Costeşti) or stock ponds (Orbeni, Soleşti, Podu Iloaiei,


Belceşti, Fălticeni, Drăcşani).
Moreover, in the North-Eastern Region we could see a multitude of
historic, architectural and art monuments that are destined to the tourist purpose.
There are a lot of monasteries and religious locations that can favour the
development of ecumenical tourism (Putna, Moldoviţa, Suceviţa, Voroneţ,
Humor, Secu, Agapia, Sihăstria, etc), medieval citadel and archaeological sites
(Suceava, Neamţ), museums and memorial houses of Mihai Eminescu, Alexandru
Vlahuţă, Ion Creangă, George Enescu, Mihail Sadoveanu. There also can be
added a series of localities that have a folkloric tradition (Tîrpeşti-Petricani,
Dărmăneşti, Ruginoasa, Marginea, Straja), that have a long tradition in handicraft
and manufacturing (ceramics, wood and stone processing).
As there is a large demand for a large variety of handmade articles,
tourism offers new perspectives of opening for the trades of the village. Thus, the
artisans from Bucovina are already integrated in the strategy of tourist
development of the member villages of Bucovina Association – Moldova Reţeaua
Verde, a strategy that bases on the patrimony capitalization and consolidation of
the managerial components of the artisans and the identification of promotion
tours.
Through the enumerated activities, the artisans and the service givers see
their interest merge. The crafts of the village contribute to the tourism
development and opening new tourist fluxes in the certain areas. It is especially
about the ceramic centres, selling expositions, ethnographic and folklore
collections, demonstrative lessons presented in front of the tourists etc, which
determine the space distribution of the tourist fluxes, but also the popularization
of some tourist objectives.
Using the poll method, in the North-Eastern Region we were able to
identify the following forms of rural tourism, in association with the tourist
potential as follows:
• Rural tourism developed around well-known tourist zones from the
counties of Suceava, Neamţ and Vrancea and which fills the tourist offer
of the tourism agencies;
• Rural tourism based on vine growing and tree culture (Bucium, Cotnari,
Odobeşti, Panciu, Vânători) which offers the possibility to participate in
the agricultural campaigns;
• Proximity rural tourism (around the large urban centres, county capitals)
where the town inhabitants can spend the week-end in the rural area in
order to rest and consume fresh agricultural products.
In the North-Eastern Region within ANTREC network there are homologated
130 agricultural pensions in different counties: 4 pensions in Iasi County, 84
pensions in Suceava County, 26 pensions in Neamţ County and 16 agro tourist
pensions in Bacău county. All these agro tourist pensions have adequate

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conditions for practising rural tourism, being classified according to the norms of
the Tourism Ministry and ranges from 2 to 4 daisies.
Analysing the territory repartition of the agro tourist pensions within the
North-Eastern Region we can notice that about 65 % are situated in Suceava
Coutny, thing that can be explained by the existence of historic monuments,
originality and variety of the traditions and also by the introduction of this
mountainous zone in the international tourist tour (Mănăstirile from Bucovina).
To all these we also could add the level of the social-economic development in
the mountainous villages, where the population have well –equipped houses and
chalets and need minimum investment in order to be homologated within the
ANTREC network. Numerous areas of the North-Eastern Region have natural and
cultural values that can be integrated within the natural and international tourism.
In order to supplement the incomes in the rural area, there have been developed
complementary activities such as rural tourism and agro tourism. Although
between the two forms of tourism there are significant differences, both have in
view the inter-conditioning the traditional side with the modern tourism demands
and suppose a superior value of the economic, natural and anthropological
valences of the zone.
In the latest 10 years new houses have been built in the rural area. Many
of the new constructions can be the upholder of some tourist activities. Tourism in
the rural area of the counties from the north-eastern region represent a means of
development and can take part in the increase of the local life standards through
some priority actions: the modernization of the existing road network, water
supply through pipes, canalization in the areas with high density of houses,
achievement of some district heating, development of processing activities of
agricultural products, insuring services and goods for the consumers’
consumption, improvement of hygiene, health, education, culture and information
activities. Achievement of such works also satisfies the demands of the local
population, but they will also be decisive factors in winning more segments of
tourists. On the other hand, all the leisure equipments at the level of rural
communities become goods that can be at hand for the members of the local
population, under the condition that it doesn’t bring negative influences on the
basic elements of traditional cultures. The meeting between this fragile medium
and the new dynamism imposed by the tourist phenomenon raises the problem of
de-structuring risk and imposes the choice of an evolution strategy.

CONCLUSIONS
Using different methods to analyse the development of rural tourism and
agro tourism and especially the method of social-statistic monographs can have in
view more restrict aspects, such as those connected to capital, material base used,
tourist tour etc, or can tackle a wider problem, such as history, culture, popular
architecture etc., in this case having to deal with more complex monographs. Of

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course, for efficient information and influence of the interested ones, the social-
statistic monographs have to offer a series of images of the presented objectives.
In the organization and unfolding of he tourism activities in the tourist
villages of the North-Eastern Region, an important part is the tackling of this
activity in a management –marketing system starting from the formation of the
tourist project on components and on the whole till the establishing of the costs,
ways and means of promotion and advertising.
The organization of the tourist product implies both the analysis of thee
tourist potential (natural and cultural-historic, geographic position, labour force,
psycho-social features of the population etc), human and financial material
(sources and means of financing) as well as the possibilities of capitalization, all
these make a competitive tourist offer.
In order to succeed it must be taken into account of: value and variety of
the tourist resources, agro-pastoral activities and ethno-folkloric traditions in the
area, the favourable position on an important tourist road or near some tourist
centres, close to the mountains, high social-economic development of villages
with good effect on hosting tourists, the psycho-structure of the population which
offer hospitality , honesty and morality and a large emancipation level of the
inhabitants (know foreign languages).
It is also necessary the listing of all the natural tourist resources that have
to continue with the detailed analysis of the capitalization possibilities. It
generally involves: designs for development of general infrastructure, rise of the
households comfort, technical equipments and for sport leisure ( for ski, sport
fields, tourist paths etc).

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Biji, E.M., Roşca E., Şerban, D. 1999– Unele probleme cu privire la indicatorii resurselor
materiale din turismul rural, în volumul „Turismul rural românesc. Actualitate şi perspectivă“,
Editura Pan Europe, Iaşi.
2. Botez G., Lupu N., Miron A., Penciu A., Stoian M. , 1998 – Îndrumar pentru turismul rural,
Editura Rentrop & Straton, Bucureşti.
3. Bran Florina, Istrate I., Manole V. 1996– Agroturism şi turism rural, Editura Economică
Bucureşti,.
4. Brezuleanu, S. Ciurea I., Brezuleanu Carmen-Olguţa, 1999 -Agriculture in mountain and
submountain areas of Moldavia. Present and Development prospects. Revista Cercetări
Agronomice în Moldova, vol 3-4, S.C.A. Podu-Iloaiei, Iaşi.
5. Ciurea I.V., Brezuleanu S., Bodescu D., Mihalache Roxana 2004 - Studii privivnd valorificarea
potenţialului agroturistic în zona Caşin-Oituz, judeţul Bacău. Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole
şi Medicină Veterinară, Facultatea de Horticultură, Lucrări Ştiinţifice
6. Lanquar, R., Holtier, R. – Le marketing turistique, P.U.F. Paris, 1993

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 51 seria Zootehnie

THE FINANCIAL STABILITY ANALYSIS THROUGH THE


RATES AT S.C. VASCAR S.A. VASLUI

Z. BULIGA, Gabriela IGNAT

Any enterprise that guides itself on the market economys’ principles


must carry out its activity following its main objective – the extension of the
enterprise value in circumstances of profitableness. An enterprise activity must
generate positive effects that lead to the providing of the activity continuity,
which means that it has to be balanced.
The central objective of the company’s activity supposes a permanent
optimal employment of its capital, a carefull and close sizing of the funds needs
and the obtaining on time and in the necessary amount of resources that are the
most advantageous for the enterprise. This desiteratum concurs with the
requirement of the financial balance.

MATERIALS AND METHODS


In order to describe the financial structure and the financial balance, the
composition, the debts and the liquidities rates as traditional indicators that can
bring more information are analysed.

RESULTS AND DISSCUSSION


The evolution of the active and passive elements’ composition, as well as
their influence on the financial balance, can be assessed relying on the functional
balance data.
Table 1
The evolution of the active’s structure at S.C. VASCAR S.A.
Year 2005 2006 2007
Immobilized actives rate 49,62% 48,08% 40,58%
Circulating actives rate 50,37% 51,91% 59,42%
Total 100% 100% 100%

In active, we can observe a progressive increase of the circulating actives


in the total actives from 50,37% in 2005 at 51,91% in 2006, reaching 59,42% in
2007, simultaneously with the decrease of the amount held by the immobil actives
in the total active. The imobil actives recorded a decrease in the analysed period,
from 49,62% in 2005, reaching 40,58% in 2007, which led to an increase of the
elasticity of the active of S.C. VASCAR S.A. It has also been found that the
circulating actives have a weight that is superior to the immobilized actives in the

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total active, which can be interpreted as a normal situation from the active’s
structure perspective.
The evolution of the pasive structure can be analysed following the data
from table 2.
Table 2
The evolution of the passive structure at S.C. VASCAR S.A. Vaslui
Year 2005 2006 2007
Rsf = permanent
The financial constancy rate assets / Passive 54,15% 62,7% 63,18%
total x 100%
Short term debts /
Short term debts rate 48,85% 37,3% 36,82%
Passive total
Total 100% 100% 100%
The global financial Raf = Own assets /
54,15% 59,43% 63,18%
authonomy rate Total debts
Rig = Total debts /
The global debts rate 45,85% 40,57% 36,82%
Passive total
Total 100% 100% 100%

Regarding the passive structure, we can ascertain the progressive increase


of the permanent assets’ weight in the total passive, from 54,15% in 2005 at
63,18% in 2007, simultaneously with the decrease of the short-term debts, from
45,84% in 2005 to 36,81% in 2007, which leads to the increase of the elasticity
degree, determining the company to easily adapt itself to the external factors and
the decrease of the dependence degree upon third persons.
The global financial authonomy rate is superior to the 1/3 ratio, which
means that S.C. VASCAR S.A. holds assets that are sufficient to ensure its
financial authonomy, a premise of the financial balance. The globat debts rate is
subunitary and in reduction, meaning a decrease of the company’s debts,
simultaneously with the increase of the financial authonomy.
The debts rates point out the degree of the borrowed assets’ employment
in comparison with those of S.C. VASCAR S.A:
Table 3
The evolution of the debts rates at S.C. VASCAR S.A. Vaslui
Year 2005 2006 2007
The global debts CIG = Total debts / 36,81%
45,84% 40,57%
coefficient (CIG1) total passive
The global debts CIG = Total debts / 58,26%
84,65% 68,26%
coefficient (CIG2) own assets ≤ 2
On term debts CIT = On term debts / 0%
0% 5,51%
coefficient (CIT1) own capital ≤ 1
On term debts CIT = On term debts / 0%
0% 5,22%
coefficient (CIT2) permanent capital ≤ 1/2

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The degree of the company’s dependency towards third persons, reckoned


with the global debts coefficient, shows an unfilled debts capacity of the
company, which is much more inferior to the superior bound established by the
banks, respectively 2/3 and 2.
We can also observe the decrease of the debts degree from 45,84% in
2005 to 36,81% in 2007, determined especially by the decrease of the short-term
credits contracted by the company.
Analysing the debts coefficient on term, one can notice the absence of
long-term debts in 2005 and 2007, and in 2006 the long-term debts do not
represent bank credits, but a credit granted by the purveyors.
The liquidity or treasury rates characterize the financial situation of the
enterprise, commencing with the financial balance structure. In fact, the rates
measure the enterprise’s payment ability, respectivelly the short-term solvency.

Table 4
The solvency reckoning at S.C. VASCAR S.A.Vaslui
Year 2005 2006 2007
Patrimonial solvency S = Cs / Eper + Cs x 100 24,55% 22,61% 81,86%
The long-term solvency Rstl = Own assets / total 1,18% 1,46% 1,71%
degree debts

Taking into account the fact that the patrimonial solvency indicator shows
a positive situation when it records values between 50% and 100%, we can notice
that in 2005 and 2006, S.C. VASCAR S.A. recorded a solvency that is inferior to
the minimum bound of the indicator, which influences the liquidity, as well as the
financial balance on the whole. In 2007, thanks to the company’s decision of
diminishing the short-term bank credits, the enterprise’s solvency increases,
oscilating between normal values.
The reckoning of the solvency degree on long-term shows that, although
it recorded increasing values, from 1,18 in 2005 to 1,71 in 2007, in the first two
years, respectively 2005 and 2006, the values are inferior to the 1,5 limit, which
means a deterioration of the solvency with negative effects on the financial
balance of the company. In 2007, the solvency degree goes beyond the minimum
value, leading to the straightening of the financial situation of the enterprise.
The liquidity represents the company’s ability to deal with the short-term
debts through its financial means, which have to be at least at the exigible
payments’ level. In order to emphasize the liquidity level at S.C. VASCAR S.A.,
different types of rates can be used: the general, relative and the immediate
liquidity rates.

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Table 5
The reckoniong of the liquidity rates at S.C. VASCAR S.A.
Year 2005 2006 2007
The general liquidity rate 1,09 1,39 1,61
The relative liquidity rate 0,14 0,21 0,37
The immediate liquidity rate 0,0043 0,10 0,16

The over-unitary general liquidity shows that the current passives have
been covered by the circulating actives transformed in liquidities, meaning that
the company succeeds to pay its short-term debts.
The evolution of this rate in 2005 – 2007 is increasing, from 1,09 in 2005
at 1,61 in 2007. In order to avoid the danger of an insufficient treasury, the rate
must be as high as possible, the optimum values of the indicator being situated
between 2 and 2,5.
However, the recorded values have an increasing tendance, which shows
an improvement of the S.C. VASCAR S.A liquidity.
The reduced liquidity rates offer important information on the liquidity
degree at S.C. VASCAR S.A., because it excludes the stocks from the circulating
actives, assessing the extent to which the other circulating active elements can
cover the debts.
This rate has also an increasing tendancy, from 0,14 in 2005 to 0,21 in 2006,
reaching 0,37 in the last analysed year. In spite of the increase of the rate’s value in
2005 – 2007, the recorded values do not reach the optimum level of 0,8 – 1.
This situation is generated by the important weight of the circulating
actives in comparison with the other circulating active elements – clients debts,
pecuaniary availabilities, investments.
The immediate liquidity rate has also recorded increasing, but insufficient
values, from 0,042 in 2005 to 0,15 in 2007, taking into account the fact that, in
order to guarantee the real liquidity of S.C. VASCAR S.A., the indicator must
have values between 0,2 and 0,3. We can notice that in 2007, the values are the
highest, getting closer to the normal state.
The insufficient values of the liquidity rates show that S.C. VASCAR S.A
does not hold enough availabilities on short-term (excluding the stocks) in order
to cover the repayment needs.
The liquidity state’s assessment of the company supposes a detailed
analysis of the operating cycle, because the way in which the material and the
pecuniary flows are developed, the rhythmicity of the provisioning, the
production and the sale, the way in which the resources are administred represent
factors that influence the liquidity.

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A careful study of the liquidity supposes the knowing of the structure and
the circulating actives elements’ rotation relying on the stocks, the clients and the
purveyors rotation speed indicators.

Table 6
The evolution of the rotation speed of the total assets at
S.C. VASCAR S.A. Vaslui
Year 2005 2006 2007
Sales figure 29756126 32993367 47919405
Total assets 12247410 12200843 14251185
Number Number Number
Number Number Number
Speed of of of
of days of days of days
rotations rotations rotations
Total assets
2,42 148 2,7 133 3,36 107
rotation speed

Throughout the analysed period, the sales figure recorded an ascending


evolution, which had a positive effect on the evolution of the rotation speed of the
total invested capital, which increased from 2,42 in 2005 to 3,36 in 2007.
The increase of the sales figure had a positive influence on the length in
days of a rotation which diminished in 2007 at 107 days in comparison with the
148 days in 2005.
The analysis of the rotation speed of the total invested capital can be
continued by reckoning the fixed and the circulating capital rotation in the sales
figure.

Table 7
The reckoning of the rotation speed of the immobilized and circulating actives at
S.C. VASCAR S.A. Vaslui
Year 2005 2006 2007
Rotation Number of Number of Number of Number of Number of Number of
speed rotations days rotations days rotations days
Immobilized
4,89 74 5,62 64 8,28 43
actives rate
The
circulating 4,82 75 5,2 70 5,65 64
actives rate

The rotation speed of the immobilized actives, as well as the rotation of


the circulating ones is ascending during the analysed period, leading to the
diminishing of the number of days suitable to each rotation. The highest increase
was recorded by the rotation speed of the immobilized actives, which almost
doubled in 2007, in comparison with 2005, from 4,89 to 8,28. Also, the
circulating actives increased the speed of rotation from 4,82 in 2005 to 5,65 in

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2007, proving their good administration and concuring in the reduction of the
discrepancy between the funds inputs and outputs.
The analyse of the efficiency of the operating capital employment can be
elaborated through the individual assessment of the rotation of each essential
element of the operating active, respectively the administration of the stocks, the
clients’ debts and the debts towards the purveyors.
Table 8

Year 2005 2006 2007


Sales figure 29756126 32993367 47919405
Medium stock 5543742.5 5342906 5920917
Number of rotations 5.36 6.17 8.09
The number of days
67 58 44
afferent to a rotation

The increase of the rotation speed of the stocks from 5,36 in 2005 to 8,09
in 2007 proves a good stocks administration. The increase was supported by the
progressive growing of the sales figure, of 10,87% in 2006, in comparison with
2005 and 45,23% in 2007 in comparison with 2006, which also led to an increase,
but to a smaller extent: with 0,46% in 2006 in comparison with 2005,
unsignificant increase. A more pronounced increase was recorded in 2007 in
comparison with 2006, of 21,12%.
The subtraction of days afferent to a stock rotation, respectively to a
period of time necessary in order to transform itself in money, will positively
influence the liquidity of S.C. VASCAR S.A.

Table 9
The reckoning of the rotation speed of clients and purveyors
Year 2005 2006 2007
Sales figure 29247410 32993367 47919405
Clients 549576 619076 1188751
Purveyors 2623175 1566352 1413321
Clients’ rotation speed 53.21 53.29 40.31
The humber of days that
7 7 9
correspond to a rotation
Total provisioning 16415324 16535617 28161247
The rotation speed of the
6.25 10.5 19.92
purveyors
The humber of days that
58 34 18
correspond to a rotation

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Analysing the rotation speed of the credits granted by S.C. VASCAR S.A
to its clients, in comparison with the credits that the enterprise obtains from the
purveyors, we can notice, as the table 3.1.2. shows, that the clients’ speed rotation
is superior throughout the whole analysed period of time to the purveyors’
rotation speed. From the evolution of the two rotation speeds we can observe a
decrease of the rotation speed of the clients from 53,21 rotations in 2005 to 40,31
rotation in 2007.
In accordance with the decrease of the rotations number, we can notice an
increase of the rotation speed of the purveyors from 6,25 in 2005 to 19,91 in 2007
(respectively the decrease of number of days in which de debts towards the
purveyors must be payed from 58 days to 18 days in 2005 – 2007). This will
negatively influence the company’s posibility to use the resources drawn relying
on the favourable difference between the period of time of the credit granted by
the purveyors and the one granted by the company to its clients.

CONCLUSIONS
Reaching the equilibrium state in only one year out of the three that were
taken into account in this analysis shows that the equilibrium is not a permament
state in the economic life of the enterprise. Thus, depending on the evolution of
the different factors that influence the enterprise, this can record financial lacks of
balance, whose exceeding, simultaneously with the reaching of the financial
equilibrium at another level, leads to the dynamic financial balance.
The financial balance or its lack represents the result of a process of
internal or external factors with positive or negative influence. Among the
elements that have a positive influence on the financial balance of S.C. VASCAR
S.A. we can mention:
- the domain in which the enterprise carries out its activity is the
meat products (alimentary industry), which leads to the diminishing
of the rotation speed of the stocks, as well as the gaining of clients,
with positive influence on the liquidity of S.C. VASCAR S.A.;
- the company’s markets network, whose cashing are daily deposited
in the unit’s pay office, ensuring a fast money circulation, with
positive impact on the financial balance.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Gratiela Ghic Analiza economico financiara, Editura Universitara, 2006
2. Isfanescu A Analiza economico financiaraa, Ed ASE, Bucuresti 2002
3. Stancu I, Finante, Ed. Economica, Bucuresti 2002
-

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THE ANALYSIS OF THE FINANCIAL-BOOK-KEEPING


RESULTS RELYING ON THE PROFIT AND LOSS
ACCOUNT AT S.C. GALMOPAN S.A

Z. BULIGA, Gabriela IGNAT

In order to achieve the accountancy roles of informing, decision and


control, the information generated by the accounts and the book-keeping
reckonings, following the actual accountancy works, should be periodically
synthetized in relevant and suggestive synthesis documents, approachable not only
by the specialists, but also by those who are interested in the patrimonial unit
administration, as an investor, a manager, a bank, a creditor, fiscality and other
economic and social structures. These synthesis documents represent the main
subject of the financial book-keeping, because they reproduce an accurate image of
the patrimonial situation, the results and the financial situation of the enterprise.
The book-keeping balance is considered to be the document that describes
an enterprise position at a certain moment, indicating the extent of the result.
However, the presence of another book-keeping modelling instrument that can
explain the way that the result is formed and allows to draw out some conclusions
over the enterprise activity performances, appears to be necessary. This instrument
is the second structure of the financial situations – the profit and loss account.

MATERIALS AND METHODS


The financial analysis of the results obtained by the company in 2005 –
2007 is made relying on the elements given by the profit and loss account, which
supposes in a first stage drawing up the cascade indicators of the interjacent
administration debit balances, and implicitly of its draft during the whole period
of time, starting with the commercial interval, until the net result of the exercise.
The exercise output offers an accurate image of the real activity of the
enterprise during an administration period of time, including the sold production,
the stored production and the immobilized production.

RESULTS AND DISSCUSSION


The exercise output had a superior rythm of growing in comparison with
the growing rythm of the added value, and in 2006 the company recorded a
significant increase, of 124,5%, in comparison with the previous year, the rising
being considered as the result of the currency increase from one period of time to
another, the company using prices in Euros, at the current exchange rate, in 2007
diminishing with just 43% in comparison with 2006. The values of this indicator
are pointed out in figure 1.1.:

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250 224

200 181

150
100 The exercise
100 output

50

0
2005 2006 2007

Figure 1.1. The evolution of the exercise output.

The added value represents the overflow of cashing over the consumption
value proceeding from third persons, the richness created through the capitalizing
of the technical, human and financial resources of the enterprise.
If the sales figure represents the enterprise’s ability to sell, the added
value expresses the economic contribution, the production overflow resulting
from its own effort. Thus, the added value in this company has a growing rythm
that is inferior to the exercise output and this because of the expenses rising with
the consumptions coming from third persons from one year to another (the largest
increasing weight being recorded for the expenses of consumables and those for
works and services carried out by third persons). Thus, the highest increase is
recorded in 2005, increase that concurs with the obtaining of the biggest volume
of the net output of the exercise, creating the premises of the employees’, the
creditors’, the state’s remuneration, as well as for insurance of the sums for future
investments.
The gross operating surplus shows the gross accumulation from activities
that are strictly related to alimentary industrial, commercial and service
performing production, main resource of the enterprise, with determining
influences over the economical profitableness and the investments self-financing
potential ability.

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300
256
250
221
200

150
Added value
100
100

50

0
2005 2006 2007

Figure 1.2. The evolution of the added value.

In the case of the enterprise we analysed, the gross operating surplus varied
differently from one year to another, recording negative values in 2005, the main
cause being the increase of the expenses. The highest increase of this category of
expenses was recorded in 2006 and 2007, and the constant growing of the expenses
representing assimilated taxes and deposits. The positive values recorded in 2006
and 2007 points out, on one hand, the company’s profitableness increase in terms of
difference between the encashable operating incomes and the payable operating
expenses, and on the other hand, it emphasizes the sum remained at the disposal of
the company for the capital investors’ remuneration, after the employees’ payment
and after the elimination of the state’s influence, thus correcting the less favourable
situation from the commercial activity, especially in 2005.
The operating output concerns the normal and current operating activity
of the company and expresses the absolute size of the operating activity’s
profitableness, obtained through the deduction of all the expenses, from the
operating incomes. Although the operating incomes have increased from one year
to another, the operating output records negative values in 2005 and 2007,
decrease that is dued to the growing of the operating expenses in a faster rythm in
comparison with the increase of the incomes. A recurrence of the operating output
is recorded in 2006, when its value was 10.715.373 thousand lei.
The current output, determined by the normal and the current operating
output, as well as by the result of the financial activity, is an interjacent
administration debit that is not influenced by the extraordinary elements of the
company, which allows the effectuation of a dynamic analysis of the current
results.

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The current result records positive values throughout all the analysed
years and with higher values than the operating output, with one exception (the
year 2005), as a consequence of the positive influence generated by the financial
output of the enterprise.
The net output of the company, as well as all the other indicators from the
interjacent administration debit image is fluctuating. The net loss of 12.829.322
thousand lei, recorded by the company in 2005 is mainly dued to the increase of
the expenses liquidation, of 23.770.923 thousand lei, as an effect of the re-
estimation by the company of the fixed means in accordance with the legislation
in force. The net output of the exercise records positive values of 11.103.843
thousand lei in 2006 and 910.082 thousand lei in 2007, favourable aspect for the
enterprise.
The profit accumulated in the two financial years out of the three that
were taken into consideration in the present anlysis shows its profitableness, its
ability to cover the expenses proceeding from its own incomes without resorting
to external loans.
In addition to this, the company proceeded to the distribution of the profit
under the shape of divvies to its shareholders and so we can go on to the
determination of another indicator, which, although it is not a part of the
interjacent administration debits frame, the ability of self-financing representing a
global monetary surplus, it reflects the financial economic growing potential of
the company, respectively the internal general financing source by the production
and the commercial activity of the company after the decrease of all the expenses
payable at a certain date. The self-financing ability expresses the financial surplus
coming from the profitable activity of the enterprise. It displays an ascending
tendance, from 10.941.601 thousand lei in 2005 at 31.482.341 thousand lei in
2006, when the gross operating overplus and the net output of the exercise have
recorded the highest values. Substantial changes throughout the year 2006 are
determined by the incomes obtained from administration operations and from
capital operations through the resigning of the actives.
Analysing the self-financing indicator, we can see that the company
carried out a policy that is oriented towards re-investment during the three years,
as follows: in 2005 - 81%, in 2007 – 92%, so a restrictive policy concerning the
divvies distribution, except for 2007, where a concern for the allocation of the
whole profit under the shape of divvies towards shareholders and implicitly a
decrease of this indicator’s level is observed.
Through the size of the recorded values, the self-financing concurs with
the increase of the financial independence of this company and the consolidation
of its outstanding debts capacity. Being under the incidence of the two elements –
the self-financing ability and the distributed divvies, one can see that these have a
varying evolution, directly influencing the size of the self-financing indicator
(changing the self-financing ability leads to the increase of the self-financing,
while the increase of the divvies leads to its decrease).

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It is important to note that, through its evolution and size, the self-financing
represents a way of financing the company’s own activity, an independent and stable
source, a higher degree of freedom in choosing the investors, but also a decisive
factor in choosing the investors and reducing the financial expenses.
The evolution of the gross profit interval, the exploitation gross profit
interval and the net profit interval is shown in table 1.2.

Table 1.2.
The table of the evolution of the interval indicators
Indicators 2005 2006 2007
The gross profit interval -14.61 7.26 0.58
The exploitation gross profit interval -23.56 5.45 -2.79
The net profit interval -14.61 5.65 0.58
The gross economic profitability -1.57 11.67 1.79
The economic net profitability -31.98 1.66 -7.85

The whole system of economic financial performance indicators hows, once


more, the low level of the results obtained by the analysed company starting with
2005 until 2007.
The size of these indicators’ values, during the analysed period of time, can
also be influenced by the inflation we witnessed and that is why it would have
been necessary to compare the data:
- through the increase amount of the prices for the sold wares and the service
performing in the analysed company, method that would allow the showing of the
inflation’s effects on the atractiveness of the company’s field of activity;
- through the prices increase rates at the national economic level, updating it at the
entire economy’s level.

CONCLUSIONS
The financial analysis of the company’s results was made relying on the
elements given by the profit and loss account, which supposed the setting up in
cascade of the interjacent administration debits.
The profit gained by the company in two out of the three financial years
considered in the analysis, demonstrates its profitableness, its capacity to cover
the expenses from its own incomes without resorting to external loans. In addition
to this, the company distributed the profit as divvies to its shareholders, and so,
we can establish, through both methods, the self-financing ability indicator.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Gratiela Ghic Analiza economico financiara, Editura Universitara, 2006
2. Isfanescu A Analiza economico financiaraa, Ed ASE, Bucuresti 2002
3. Stancu I, Finante, Ed. Economica, Bucuresti 2002

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 51 seria Zootehnie

THE CORRELATION BETWEEN THE MILK


ELECTRIC CONDUCTIVITY AND THE SODIUM
CHLORIDE CONTENT
Rodica CĂPRIŢĂ, A. CĂPRIŢĂ

The electrical conductivity (EC) of a solution is a measure its ability to


conduct electric current. It is a property attributable to presence of ions in the
solution. Milk electric conductivity is affected mostly by its mineral composition.
Conductivity is a nonselective measurement, any charged ion contributing to the
total conductivity. The goal of the study was to establish the correlations between
this physical parameter and some inorganic milk components. The experimental
data revealed no correlation between electric conductivity and Ca and K, and
positive correlation between electric conductivity and Cl and Na.

INTRODUCTION
Milk is isotonic with blood. The osmotic pressure is given by the
inorganic and organic components, especially by the ions and small molecules.
Although the two biological liquids have almost the same osmotic pressure (about
300 mOsmoles), the mineral content and the proportion of the ionized forms and
the bound ones is quite different. So, the calcium and potassium content is higher
in milk than in blood (Belitz. 1987, Ghergariu et al 2000).
Lactose is the main organic component whose concentration influences
the osmotic pressure. At lowered lactose concentration, the mineral ions content
increase, in order to maintain isotonia. The electrolytes content is estimated by
the electric conductivity. The electrical conductivity (EC) of a solution is a
measure of the ability of that solution to conduct the electric current. It is a
property attributable to the ions present in the solution. Electric current is
transported through solutions.

MATERIALS AND METHODS


The experiment had in view the variation of the electric conductivity with
the milk ion concentration. We took into consideration the calcium, potassium,
sodium and chloride ions, which occur in higher concentration in milk, so that
their variation might influence significantly the electric conductivity.
The electric conductivity was determined with the conductivity meter
type OK-102/1 (Radelkis), the chloride ions were determined by the Mohr
method, calcium was determined by complexometry with EDTA, Na and K were
determined by flame photometry (Caprita 2001).

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


The electric conductivity is in negative correlation with the lactose
content (Caprita 2001). From the determined experimental data and the graphic
representations of the conductivity variation as a function of the calcium and
potassium concentrations, it hasn’t been observed any correlation between these
milk parameters (Figures 1 and 2).

1.2

Ca g/L

0.8

0.4
y = 0.0824x + 0.2434
R2 = 0.1239

0
4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 mS
Figure 1. The electric conductivity (milliSiemens) variation as a function of the calcium
ion concentration

2
K g /L
1.6

1.2

0.8

0.4 y = 0.3499 x - 0 .8 651


R 2 = 0.12
0
4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 mS

Figure 2. The electric conductivity (milliSiemens) variation as a function of the potassium


ion concentration

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The graphic representations of the electric conductivity as a function of


the chloride and sodium ions (Figures 3 and 4) reveal a positive correlation
between these biophysical and biochemical milk parameters.

0.8
Na g/L

0.4

y = 0.1858x - 0.598
R2 = 0.5693
0
mS
4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5

Figure 3. The electric conductivity (milliSiemens) variation as a function of the sodium


ion concentration

1.6
Cl g/L
1.2

0.8

0.4 y = 0.2854x - 0.4314


R2 = 0.5028

0
mS
4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5

Figure 4. The electric conductivity (milliSiemens) variation as a function of the chloride


ion concentration

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These results may lead to the conclusion that the sodium chloride content
in milk induces the variation of the electric conductivity. In order to maintain the
osmotic pressure, the chloride ions and concomitantly the sodium ions are
transferred from blood in milk. These observations confirmed the presumption
that the equilibration of the osmotic pressure is due to the chloride ions,
transferred from blood, as NaCl.

CONCLUSIONS

There is a positive correlation between the electric conductivity and the


chloride ion (r = 0.709), respectively the sodium ion concentration (r = 0.7545).
The conclusion of these results is that the NaCl concentration in milk
induces the variation of the electric conductivity.

REFERENCES
1. Belitz, H. D., Grosch, W. (1987): Food Chemistry, Ed. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg
2. Caprita, R. (2001): Principii si tehnici in biochimie, Ed. Mirton, Timisoara
3. Căpriţă, A., Căpriţă, R. (2001): The effect of lactose content on the milk electric conductivity,
Ann. Western Univ. Tim., ser. Chem., 10 (2) p. 375-378
4. Ghergariu, S. et al (2000): Manual de laborator clinic veterinar, Ed. All Educational, Bucureşti

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BIOCHEMICAL STUDY ON THE TOTAL PROTEIN AND


PROTEIN FRACTIONS IN THE BLOOD SERUM OF
BROILER CHICKENS

Rodica CĂPRIŢĂ, A. CĂPRIŢĂ

The high basal metabolism and the high body temperature determine
great energetic demands in chickens. These induce both lower blood protein
values and albumin/globulin ratio in comparison with the mammalians. The
albumin/globulin ratio is important to determine whether there is an
overproduction or underproduction of gamma-globulin. The goal of the study
was to investigate the correlation between the plasma protein, the albumin
concentration and the albumins/globulins ratio in chickens. The absolute
increase of albumin is very rare because the albumin is used as substrate for
globulin production. The mechanism could be explained by the maintenance of
the colloid-osmotic pressure.

INTRODUCTION

Blood serum proteins are a significant indicator of the health condition


and production features of the organism because of their numerous physiological
roles. Relative and total amounts of plasma protein fractions are affected by
infections, inflammation, and the nutritional and physiological status, and are
therefore important health indicators in animals (Parvu 1992).
The albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio represents the serum albumin compared
to serum globulin level. The value is important to determine whether there is an
overproduction or an underproduction of gamma-globulin. A low A/G ratio may
be due to he overproduction of gamma-globulin (monoclonal/polyclonal
gammopathy, multiple myeloma or autoimmune diseases etc.) or due to low
albumin (low production as in cirrhosis or excessive loss as in nephrotic
syndrome or protein losing enteropathy etc.). In contrast, if the A/G ratio is high
then one should look for diseases with low gamma-globulin production such as
gammaglobulinemia.
The goal of the study was to investigate the correlation between the total
protein, the albumin content and the albumin/globulin ratio in the blood serum of
broiler chickens.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Blood samples were drawn from 49 days old broiler chickens fed with
combined feed according to NRC. Chicken blood collected during the slaughter of
animals. The blood samples were allowed to stay at 37°C for 60 min, and then

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the serum was decanted. Total protein was determined by spectrophotometry


with the biuret reagent (Caprita 2001). The globulins were separated by
precipitation with sodium sulfate and the albumins were then determined by the
biuret method. The globulin content was calculated by subtracting the albumins
from the total protein.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The catabolic processes in birds occur with high intensity. Their high
basal metabolism and their higher body temperature determine greater energetic
demands. These induce both lower blood values in total protein and in
albumin/globulin ratio in comparison with the mammalians.
The assessment of total blood proteins has a low diagnostic importance
because the pathological modifications of the proteins are very seldom and are not
specific. Instead, the pathological modifications of the protein fractions are of
diagnostic importance. Most of the proteins are permanently catabolised and
renewed, so that it is maintained a balance between the two metabolic pathways
(Caprita 2000).
The protein concentrations depend on the hormonal balance, the
nutritional status, the hydric balance, as well as other factors that affect the health
status.
The serum protein concentrations influence the protein metabolism; when
the albumin or γ/globulin is increasing, the catabolic rate is increasing too. On the
contrary in hypoproteinemia there is a prolonged time for replacing.
The experimental data are presented in Table 1.
Figures 1 and 2 reveal greater variations of the globulin concentrations
and of the albumin/globulin ratios in comparison with the protein and albumin
content.
The relative concentration of a protein fraction can change without the
modification of the total plasma protein. When the globulins increase, the
albumins decrease. The absolute increase of albumin is very rare because the
albumin is used as substrate for globulin production. The adjusting mechanism for
albumin synthesis by the liver is not well known although a possibility often
mentioned is the change in colloid-osmotic pressure (Schmid et al. 1985).

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Table 1
The plasma protein and protein fractions
Sample Protein Albumins Globulins Protein/ Albumins/
g% g% g% Albumins Globulins
1. 2.35 1.45 0.95 1.62 1.52
2. 2.64 1.45 1.41 1.82 1.03
3. 2.64 1.54 1.12 1.71 1.37
4. 2.19 1.58 0.76 1.38 2.07
5. 2.35 1.58 0.85 1.48 1.85
6. 2.06 1.49 0.91 1.38 3.49
7. 2.39 1.50 1.03 1.59 1.45
8. 2.54 1.36 1.37 1.86 0.99
9. 2.57 1.30 1.30 1.97 1.00
10. 2.13 1.20 1.20 1.77 1.00
11. 2.69 1.49 1.24 1.80 1.20
12. 2.64 1.25 1.54 2.11 0.81
13. 2.35 1.36 1.17 1.72 1.16
14. 2.46 1.25 1.54 1.96 0.81
15. 2.68 1.36 1.43 1.97 0.95
16. 2.35 1.09 1.31 2.15 0.83
17. 2.45 1.54 1.12 1.59 1.37
18. 2.35 1.52 0.98 1.54 1.55
19. 2.64 1.45 1.34 1.71 1.08
20. 2.45 1.49 1.04 1.64 1.43
21. 2.35 0.90 1.57 2.61 0.57
Xm ±s 2.44±0.181 1.388±0.173 1.199±0.236 1.78±0.636 1.31±0.709

3 3
g% g%
2.5 2.5

2 2

1.5 1.5

1 1

0.5 0.5

0 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

Protein Albumins Globulins

Figure 1. The variation of total protein, albumins, globulins

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3.5 4

3 3.5
3
2.5
2.5
2
2
1.5
1.5
1
1
0.5 0.5
0 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Potein/Albumins Albumins/ Globulins

Figure 2. The variation of protein/albumins and the albumin/globulin ratio

CONCLUSIONS

The protein catabolism in chicken is intense and therefore the proteinemia


has low values.
The changes in concentration of individual protein fractions were not
always consistent with the total quantity in the blood serum.
The protein and albumin values are lower than those in the literature,
maybe due to hepatic or renal dysfunctions.
Significant variations were observed in the globulins values. The
globulins and albumins are not highly correlated.

REFERENCES
1. Căpriţă, R. (2000): Biochimie animală, Ed. Mirton
2. Caprita, R. (2001): Principii si tehnici in biochimie, Ed. Mirton, Timisoara
3. Pârvu, Gh. (1992): Supravegherea nutriţional metabolică a animalelor, Ed.Ceres Bucureşti
4. Schmid, M. Schindler, R. and Weigand, K. (1985): Is albumin synthesis regulated by the
colloid osmotic pressure? Effect of albumin and dextran on albumin and total protein synthesis
in isolated rat hepatocytes, Journal of Molecular Medicine,

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OBSERVATIONS ON THE BIOCHEMICAL BEHAVIOUR OF


CERTAIN STRAINS OF YERSINIA ENTEROCOLITICA
M. CONDREA

Using biochemical tests, we investigated 60 strains of yersinia


enterocolitica from pigs (44), taurines (5) and dogs (11).
No matter the incubation temperature, all the studied strains
decomposed the following secondary layers (1% concentration), making the
environment more acid: L-arabinose, glucose, galactose, manose, L-sorbose,
laevulose, saccharose, maltose, D-trechalose, starch, glycerol, sorbitol, inositol,
manitol.
The strains of yersinia enterocolitica studied didn’t modify the following
secondary layers (1% concentration): L-ramnose, melibose, D-rafinose, dextrin,
inulin, D-adanitol, dulcitol. They didn’t decompose either sodium manolat,
phenylalanine, lysinehe, arginine.
From the secondary layers (tests) studied we think that the following
ones are especially important for identifying and biotyping yersinia
enterocolitica: saccharose, D-terchalose, D-sorbitol, D-ramnose D-rafinose,
melibiose, D-xilose, salicylic acid, esculin, ornitin, as well as the production of
indol, Voges-Proskauer reaction, use of sodium citrate as an only source of
carbon, the presence of lecithinase, the type of lactose metabolisation.

MATERIAL AND METHOD


The 60 strains of Yersinia enterocolitica taken from swins, taurines and
dogs were investigated from the point of view of the biochemical behaviour,
using the classical method of Enterobacteriaceae.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


The research on the enzymatic activity of these strains allowed on the one
hand the taxonomic classification of Yersinia enterocolitica and on the other hand
the metabolic variations towards some other secondary layers led to the sub-
division of this species into chemotypes and to their correlation with other
properties.
All the studied strains were catalase-positive and oxidase-negative, which
are peculiarities characteristic to the family of Enterobacteriaceae. Studying the
activity of these enzymes is a taxonomic criterion used on a large scale, being one
of the characteristics used by the group of taxonomic specialists (10) for
classifying Yersinia enterocolitica into the family of Enterobacteriaceae.
The property of producing acid out of glucose and other carbohydrates is
a characteristic of the family of Enterobacteriaceae.
No matter the incubation temperature, all the