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Ina SLNIC

Angela TULEI

UNIVERSITATEA DE STAT DIN MOLDOVA


Facultatea de Limbi i Literaturi Strine Catedra Limbi Germanice

Biology

Suport de curs la limba englez pentru Facultatea de Biologie si Pedologie

Aprobat de Consiliul Facultii de Limbi i Literaturi Strine

Chiinu 2009 CEP USM


CZU

Recomandat de Catedra Limbi Germanice

Prezentul suport de curs a fost elaborat in conformitate cu curriculumul actual. Lucrarea se impune prin actualitatea si originalitatea tezelor expuse si susinute cu argumente plauzibile. Merit remarcat dexteritatea si modul adecvat, prin care autorii realizeaz metalimbajul inerent spectrului de probleme abordate. Fiecare tem abordat este urmat de o serie de ntrebri care au drept scop evaluarea competenelor de cunoatere, aplicare i intergrare din biologie. n concluzie autorii propun referine gramaticale cu care studentii trebuie sa fie familiarizai la finele cursului.

Recenzent

Tamara MATEI doctor n filologie, confereniar universitar

Descrierea UP a Camerei Naionale - Crii

ISBN C Ina SLNIC, Angela TULEI, 2009 C USM, 2009

CONTENTS

Preface4 Chapter I Biology 1. The Science of Biology...5 2. The Cell.10 3. The Stuff of Life16 Chapter II Botany and Zoology 1. Plants and Animals...........23 2. Linnaean System of Classification29 3. Improvement of Plants.34 4. Animal Communication...40 Chapter III Anatomy and Physiology 1. The Cardiovascular System..54 2. The Respiratory System...60 3. The Digestive System...65 Chapter IV The Nervous System 1. The Nervous System Division..71 2. The Multiple Intelligences Theory...73 3. Nervous System Disorders...76 Chapter V Medicine and Health 1. Health Classification....83 2. Stomach and Intestinal Infections85 3. Skin Infections and Rashes...87 Chapter VI Nutrition 1. General Notes on Nutrition..92 2. Dieting..94 3. Metabolism...97 Chapter VII Evolution and Genetics 1. Charles Darwin and the Theory of Evolution103 2. The Science of Genetics.110 3. Famous Scientists and their Discoveries118 Chapter VIII Ecology and Environment 1. The Science of Ecology..138 2. Global Warming.....139 3. Environmental Organizations.140 Grammar Reference..146 References..160

Preface The present book represents a compilation of texts and assignments on various biology topics and is meant for the first year students of Biology and Soil Science Department who learn English as a second language. It can also serve as a great source of information for the students of other departments who are interested in the present field and are willing to enlarge their knowledge horizons. The book consists of eight chapters that have been included in the new curriculum. All the chapters have been divided into subchapters to facilitate readers comprehension. The structure of the eight chapters included is similar and the assignments are grouped according to the level of knowledge, application and integration. Each chapter is provided with italicized key terms and a transcription in the notes to the text section is given. In order to avoid any translation misinterpretation of the key terms, we decided to include Romanian and Russian translation of the key terms at the end of the text, as well as translation exercises in two languages, the Romanian and the Russian ones. The information belongs to a great amount of sources and in order to make it more available to the students with an intermediate and upper-intermediate level of English, it has been abbreviated and adapted. By the end of the academic course the learners will be able to master an enlarged vocabulary on specialized terms, idioms, grammar, etc. At the end of the book a Grammar Reference is provided in order to ease readers understanding when performing grammar exercises. The authors wish to thank Dr.Tamara Matei for encouragement and valuable comment and advice.

Chapter I. Biology

1. The Science of Biology

Biology (the word biology comes from two Greek words: bio-life and logos-discourse or study) is the study of living organisms and how they interact with their environment. Biology deals with every aspect of life in a living organism, it examines the structure, function, growth, origin, evolution and distribution of living organisms and classifies and describes organisms, their functions, how species come into existence, and the interactions they have with each other and with the natural environment. Biology as a separate science was developed in the 19th century as scientists discovered that organisms shared fundamental characteristics. Most biological sciences are specialized disciplines. Traditionally, they are grouped by the type of organism being studied: botany-the study of plants, zoology-the study of animals; and microbiology-the study of microorganisms. Biology tells us about our body: how it is constructed and how it functions. It gives us important information about other living things and how their lives affect mankind. Scientists have solved many mysteries of the body. They have discovered how blood circulates, how food is digested and many other secrets of life. They are now working in different fields of biology and their studies may lead to a solution of many problems. A biologists laboratory is a fascinating place. In it you may find a variety of plants and animals, some of which are invisible to the naked eye. There are powerful microscopes and other instruments there. One of the most important tools of a scientist is his laboratory notebook. He always keeps very complete and accurate records of his observations and experiments. In carrying out their work biologists use the scientific method. Steps in the scientific method commonly include: 1. Observation defining the problem to be explained they find out everything that is known about the problem by reading or by discussing the matter with others. 2. Hypothesis one or more explanations for the observation they think of several possible explanations or solutions. Some of these will prove to be wrong, one or more of the others may be right. 3. Experimentation controlled attempts to test one or more hypotheses they test all the possibilities by experiments, repeating the experiment several times and trying to make any effort to prevent errors. 4. Conclusion was the hypothesis supported or not? After this step the hypothesis is either modified or rejected, which causes a repeat of the steps above. When scientists have reached a conclusion, they inform other scientists who may repeat the work.

Notes to the text

Environment Species Zoology Microbiology Microscope Method

[nvarnmnt] [spiiz] [zuldi] [makrbaldi] [makrskp] [med]

mediul nconjurtor specie zoologia microbiologia microscop metod microorganism digera, a asimila ipotez
Exercises

Microorganism [makrgnzm] To digest Hypothesis [dadest] [hapss]

I. Comprehension check

1. Answer the following questions: 1. What is biology? Define it. 2. What are the three main subdivisions of biology? 3. What mysteries of the body have biologists solved? 4. Which are the steps of the scientific method? 5. Which is one of the most important tools of a scientist? 6. Why is biology so important? 2. Match the word with its definition: 1. biology 2. zoology 3. botany 4. development 5. learning 6. habitat 7. hypothesis 8. microscope a) the process that leads to modification in individual behaviour as the result of experience b) the progressive production of the phenotypic characteristics of a multicellular organism, beginning with the fertilization of an egg c) the study of living organisms d) the study of plants e) the study of animals f) the place in which individuals of a particular species can usually be found g) a device that uses lenses to make very small objects look larger, so that they can be scientifically examined and studied h) a piece of equipment which you use with your hands to

9. tool 10. conclusion

make or repair something i) the final part of something j) an idea or explanation for something that is based on known facts but has not yet been proved

3. Find in the text words for each definition below: 1. The scientific study of the natural processes of living things b____________ 2. A room or building with scientific equipment for doing scientific tests or for teaching science, or a place where chemicals or medicines are produced l _______ 3. A particular way of doing something m ___________________ 4. A test done in order to learn something or to discover whether something works or is true e_____________________ 5. An area or space occupied and defended by an individual or a group; trespassers are attacked (and usually defeated); may be the site of breeding, nesting, food gathering, or any combination thereof t __________________ 6. A single living plant, animal, virus, etc o _____________________ 7. To communicate with or react to i ______________________ 8. The air, water and land in or on which people, animals and plants live e ____ 9. A scientist who studies biology b___________________ 10. To change food in your stomach into substances that your body can use d________
II. Vocabulary and Grammar

1. a) Rewrite these active sentences as passive ones: 1. Columbus discovered America. 2. Shakespeare didnt write War and Peace. 3. The Government has changed the tax system. 4. Someone built that house in 1900. 5. Someone will deliver your new fridge tomorrow. 6. Did the police arrest your brother? b) Complete these sentences with one of the following verbs (in the correct form): arrest, wake, knock, check, translate, find, dive, make, spend, carry 1. A decision will not ___________until the next meeting. 2. That building is dangerous. It ought to __________down before it falls down. 3. When you go through customs, your luggage may _______by a customs officer. 4. I told the hotel receptionist that I wanted to __________up at 6.30. 5. Her new book will probably ___________into a number of foreign languages. 6. If you kicked a policeman, youd __________ . 7. The police are looking for the missing boy. He cant __________anywhere. 8. Do you think that less money should ____________on arms? 9. The injured man couldnt walk and had to _____________ .

10. I dont mind driving but I prefer to ____________by other people. 2. Insert the following words in the text below: animals, world, living, fields, plan, biology, laws, body, organism, processes Biology gives us an acquaintance with the (1) _____ of living things and an understanding of some of the great fundamental (2) _____and (3)_____of nature. There are many special (4)_____of knowledge and many phases and principles to which elementary training in general (5)_____is essential. These include medicine, physiology, agriculture, horticulture, forestry, sanitation, hygiene and many others. Because man is an (6)______subject to the same laws which govern all (7)____things and is built according to the same (8)_____as other higher (9)______, an elementary knowledge of biology gives us a basis for an understanding of our own (10)_____. 3. Match the idiom with its definition: 1. as cold as stone 2. beat the daylights out of someone 3. make waves 4. walking on air 5. where theres smoke, theres fire 6. worse things happen at sea 7. between a rock and a hard place 8. many moons ago 9. break the ice 10. at sea a) a position where you have to choose between unpleasant alternatives, and your choice might cause you problems b) cause a lot of trouble c) disorganized and chaotic d) when there is an indication or sign of something bad, usually the indication is correct e) this idiomatic expression is used as a way of telling someone not to worry so much about their problems f) hit someone repeatedly g) you are so happy that you feel as if you could float h) get over any initial embarrassment or shyness when you meet someone for the first time and start conversing i) a very long time ago j) unemotional

4. Fill in the gaps with the idioms from the box: 1. The representative from the USA is very shy. I think I will __________ and ask my questions. 2. Youve changed a lot. I think we met __________ . 3. Bill is a liar. People cant speak about him just like that. _________________. 4. Nothing can challenge him. He is ______________.

5. Poor Mary! Finally she decided to divorce. Her husband could have ___________. She will be in hospital for many weeks. 6. He is just as he is. He always ______________. 7. When Mary announced George that she was going to have a baby, he ___________. 8. Getting the letter and reading the bad news, he _____________. 9. Both guys are stupid, I have to choose ______________. 10. Dont say that, ___________.
III. Writing

1. Translate the following passage into English: Biologia este tiina despre organismele vii. Ea studiaz legile naturii: structura organismelor vii i cum ele funcioneaz. Rezultatele cercetrilor biologilor au o mare nsemntate pentru dezvoltarea multor domenii ale tiinei. Studiile lor ajut la rezolvarea multor probleme ale tiinei moderne. Ele faciliteaz s nelegem care este legtura dintre toate organismele i mediul nconjurtor. Esena vieii este una din subiectele de baz ale biologiei generale. . : . . . . . 2. Make up short dialogues on the following imaginary situations: 1. Your friend studies at the faculty of Chemistry. He urges you to transfer to this faculty. Reject his proposal and tell him that biology is your dream. 2. Next year you graduate. Tell your friend what you would like to do in the new year. Recollect how interesting it was to study at the University. Say you will do everything depending on you to make your work as interesting. 3. You are the Dean of the Faculty of Biology. Tomorrow you are to speak to the first-year students. What would you tell them? What would you wish your future students? 4. The boy next door is in the 5th form. He states that he studies botany but not biology. Explain his mistake to him. 3. Write an essay on the following statement: A Bad Tree does not Yield Good Apples.
2. The Cell

The word cell comes from the Latin cellula, meaning a small room. The cell is the unit of protoplasmatic organization. The name was given by Robert Hooke, one of the first scientists having used a newly developed biological tool, the microscope, to the tiny divisions that he saw in thin slices of cork. The cork slice, through his microscope, appeared to be made up of many small compartments, arranged in rows, and reminded him of the tiers of monks cells in English monasteries. He therefore called each compartment a cell and the name has survived, although it does not accurately convey the picture of a living unit. Observations of classical microscopists and those of their successors on individual cells as parts of organisms, both plant and animal, led to one of the greatest and for a time most useful of biological generalizations, the cell theory. It was a natural outcome of the many observations that had been made during the early part of the 19th and the preceding centuries. Briefly, it states that all organisms are composed of cells or of a single cell and that all cells, and hence all organisms, arise from the division of pre-existing cells. This theory was to biology, at that stage of its development, what Daltons atomic theory was to chemistry. Ideas about cell structure have changed considerably over the years. Early biologists saw cells as simple membranous sacs containing fluid and a few floating particles. Todays biologists know that cells are infinitely more complex than this. There are many different types, sizes, and shapes of cells in the body. For descriptive purposes, the concept of a generalized cell is introduced. It includes features from all cell types. A cell consists of three parts: - the cell membrane; - the nucleus, and between the two, - the cytoplasm. Within the cytoplasm lie intricate arrangements of fine fibers and hundreds or even thousands of miniscule but distinct structures called organelles. 1. Cell membrane. Every cell in the body is enclosed by a cell membrane. The cell membrane separates the material outside the cell, extracellular, from the material inside the cell, intracellular. It maintains the integrity of a cell and controls passage of materials into and out of the cell. All materials within a cell must have access to the cell membrane (the cells boundary) for the needed exchange. All living components within the cell membrane are often referred to as the protoplasm. 2. Nucleus and Nucleolus. The nucleus, formed by a nuclear membrane around a fluid nucleoplasm, is the control center of the cell. Threads of chromatin in the

nucleus contain deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), the genetic material of the cell. The nucleolus is a dense region of ribonucleic acid (RNA) in the nucleus and is the site of ribosome formation. The nucleus determines how the cell will function, as well as the basic structure of the cell. 3. Cytoplasm. The cytoplasm is the gelly-like fluid inside the cell. It is the medium for chemical reaction. Cytoplasmic Organelles are little organs that are suspended in the cytoplasm of the cell. Each type of organelle has a definite structure and a specific role in the function of the cell. Examples of cytoplasmic organelles are mitochondrion, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, and lysosome. There are eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Prokaryotes differ from eukaryotes since they lack a nuclear membrane and a cell nucleus. Prokaryotes also lack most of the intracellular organelles and structures that are seen in eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells have three architectural regions: appendages called flagella and pili proteins attached to the cell surface; a cell envelope consisting of a capsule, a cell wall, and a plasma membrane; and a cytoplasmic region that contains the cell genome (DNA) and ribosomes and various sorts of inclusions. Prokaryotes can carry extrachromosomal DNA elements called plasmids, which are usually circular. Eukaryotic cells are about 10 times the size of a typical prokaryote and can be as much as 1000 times greater in volume. The major difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is that eukaryotic cells contain membrane-bound compartments in which specific metabolic activities take place. Most important among these is the presence of a cell nucleus, a membrane-delineated compartment that houses the eukaryotic cells DNA. It is this nucleus that gives the eukaryote its name, which means true nucleus.
Notes to the text

Cell Membrane Nucleus Cytoplasm Protoplasm

[sel] [membren] [njuklis] [satplzm]

Celul Membran Nucleu Citoplasm Protoplasm AND

[prtplzm] Deoxyribonu [diksi cleic Acid rabnjuklik (DNA) sd] Ribonucleic [rabnjuklik Acid (RNA) sd] Mitochondri [matkndrin] on Fluid [flud]

acid ribonucleic (ARN) mitochondrion Fluid ,

Fibre Organelle Appendage Protein Capsule Genome

[fab] [gnel] [pendd] [prtin] [kpsjul] [dinm]

Fibr Organit apendice, anex Protein Capsul Genom


Exercises

, , , , ,

I. Comprehension check

1. Answer the following questions: 1. How can you define the notion of the cell? 2. What does cell theory state? 3. What does a cell consist of? 4. Which is the function of the cell membrane? 5. What is the nucleus formed of? 6. What are the peculiarities of the prokaryote cells? 7. What are the peculiarities of the eukaryote cells? 2. Match the word with its definition: 1. cell 2. cytoplasm a) the outer membrane of the cell; the plasma membrane b) a cell that is the offspring of a cell that has undergone mitosis or meiosis; the term daughter does not indicate the sex of the cell 3. cell theory c) one of several formed bodies with a specialized function, suspended in the cytoplasm and found in eukaryotic cells 4. organelle d) the entire contents of the cell, exclusive of the nucleus, and bounded by the plasma membrane 5. cell e) all living things are composed of cells; cells arise only membrane from other cells; no exception has been found to these two principles since they were first proposed well over a century ago 6. daughter cell f) a basic unit of living matter separated from its environment by a plasma membrane; the fundamental structural unit of life 7. division 8. connection g) when someone or something is related to someone or something else h) when something is separated into parts or groups, or the

9. appendage 10. monastery

way that it is separated i) a building in which monks live and worship j) something which exists as a smaller and less important part of something larger

3. Find in the text words for each definition below: 1. The smallest basic unit of a plant or animal c _________________________ 2. The way in which the parts of a system or object are arranged or organized, or a system arranged in this way s_________________ 3. An individual living thing, such as a bacterium, plant or animal o ___________ 4. An expert who studies or works in one of the sciences s ______________________ 5. The central part of an atom, usually made up of protons and neutrons; the part of a cell that controls its growth n ____________________ 6. The substance inside a cell which surrounds the cell's nucleus c__________ 7. The outer covering of a cell m________________ 8. Any of various usually liquid substances which can react chemically with and sometimes dissolve other materials a___________ 9. One of the many substances found in food such as meat, cheese, fish or eggs, that is necessary for the body to grow and be strong p____________ 10. One of various thread-like structures in the body, such as those found in muscle f__________
II. Vocabulary and Grammar

1. a) Rewrite these active sentences as passive ones: 1. People should send their complaints to the head office. 2. They had to postpone the meeting because of illness. 3. Somebody might have stolen your car if you have left the keys in it. 4. An electrical fault could have caused the fire. 5. They are going to hold next years congress in San Francisco. 6. They shouldnt have played the football match in such bad weather. 7. They cancelled all flights because of fog. 8. They are building a new ring-road round the city. 9. Somebody accused me of stealing the money. 10. The bill includes service. b) Complete these sentences using the verb in brackets. Choose whether it should be in the active or passive form: 1. On his last birthday Charlie ________ (give) lots of presents. 2. He _________ (become) president in 1998. 3. Your glasses _______ (break) by accident. 4. I dont want to read that book. I _____ (read) it before. 5. Two people ______ (sack) by the company because of corruption. 6. That tree ______ (cut down) tomorrow. 7. The car ______(repair) by a mechanic.

8. The drug dealer ______ (arrest) yesterday morning. 2. Insert the following words in the text below: microscopically, size, structural, different, cells, processes, organisms, groups, units, exceptions, function, colonies With few (1)________, protoplasm is organized into (2)_______visible units called cells. Cells are the smallest living (3)______(except for the viruses). They are variously shaped, have a considerable range of (4)______, and are associated in (5)______ways. They all have (6)_______features in common. In some instances single (7)________constitute entire (8)________, each such cell carrying on all the life (9)______. Or small numbers of cells may be associated in (10)_____. In these colonial (11)______all cells appear similar and have the same (12)________. 3. Choose the correct variant: 1. a drop in the ocean If something is described as being a drop in the ocean, it is: a. a small part of whats needed b. a huge part of whats needed c. all that's needed 2. a ray of sunshine The kids in the hospital had a ray of sunshine in their lives when a. some famous footballers visited them b. they were taken to sit outside in the sun c. the nurses checked their blood pressure 3. a voice (crying) in the wilderness Ken says he feels like a voice crying in the wilderness because a. he likes the sounds of wild animals b. he hurt his leg while hiking in the forest c. nobody seems to support his opinions 4. answer the call of nature While they were driving, Louisa said she had to answer the call of nature, so Mario a. gave her his phone b. said theyd go camping on the weekend c. stopped the car when they found a bathroom 5. at sea | all at sea Grant felt all at sea because a. he was sick of his job b. he was enjoying sailing c. it was his first day at university 6. beat around the bush | beat about the bush Its hard not to beat around the bush when you have to a. put out a bushfire

b. give someone some good news c. tell someone some bad news 7. cant see the forest for the trees Our operations manager cant see the forest for the trees because a. he doesnt know where to look b. hes too deep in the forest c. hes too involved in day-to-day matters 8. cant see the wood for the trees The safety officer cant see the wood for the trees because a. shes too focused on safety issues b. she thinks all the trees look the same c. she doesnt know which way to look 9. down to earth Which person would most people expect to be the most down to earth? a. a poet b. an artist c. a farmer 10. go with the flow Im trying to go with the flow more and a. float down the river b. be more relaxed about things c. control every aspect of my life
III. Writing

1. Translate the following passage into English: Celula - sistem viu elementar - const din dou pri de baz: citoplasma i nucleul. Ea este baza construirii i dezvoltrii activitii vitale a tuturor organismelor animale i vegetale. Celulele, care formeaz corpul bacteriilor, precum i a celor mai simple organisme, sunt de sine stttoare; spre deosebire de acestea, celulele care intr n componena esuturilor organismelor vii reprezint elemente ntru totul supuse ntregului organism. Structura celulelor animale i vegetale este asemntoare, dei exist unele trsturi care le difereniaz. , . , . , , ; , , , , . , .

2. Make up short dialogues on the following imaginary situations: 1. Ask your friend if there is any difference between a green plant cell and an animal cell, and between a cell membrane and a cell wall. Discuss his answer. 2. A new student joined your group. He had studied at the Faculty Physics. He doesnt know anything about the cell theory. Tell him all you know about it. 3. When the cells are placed under the microscope they will die if they become dry. From your knowledge of protoplasm explain the reason for this. 4. Some old scholars were convinced that protoplasm has a nucleus structure, others said it is fibrillar, the third group tried to prove that it is cellular. All of them were mistaken. Why so? 3. Write an essay on the following situation: A space ship carried some substance to the Earth from another planet. Examining it under the microscope you saw a cell. What conclusion can you draw from this fact?
3. The Stuff of Life

In their attempts to solve the mysteries of life, scientists have given much attention to the jellylike living material of the cell. This substance is called protoplasm. Protoplasm is the basic material of all living systems and its general properties are fundamentally the same in each system, plant or animal. It does, however, differ somehow from one plant species to another, from one animal species to another. Scientists have studied protoplasm under high-powered microscopes; broken it down into its basic chemicals; treated it with dyes and electric currents; and dissected it with microscopic needles. Yet no one has succeeded in making any protoplasm. It is one of the most complicated of all substances. Scientific research continues, because protoplasm is the key to a real understanding of life. Under the microscope, protoplasm is an almost colourless substance. At times it is quite liquid, but it can easily change to a more solid jelly. All the living parts of the cell, including the cell membrane, the cytoplasm, and the nucleus are made of protoplasm. With a high-powered microscope we csee many small particles and bubbles floating in the jelly. These are often in rapid motion. The chemical nature of protoplasm is not exactly known. Unfortunately, when chemists begin to analyze it, it dyes. This brings about changes in the material they are studying. We do know that protoplasm is usually more than 75% water. There are also salts and food materials such as sugars, fats, and proteins. Four chemical elements make up 98% of protoplasm. These are: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen. More than 15 other elements have been found. All of these are the common elements of which our earth is composed. There are no special elements that are found only in protoplasm. But such rare elements as strontium (Sr), nickel (Ni), rubidium (Rb), gold (Au), tin (Sn) and mercury (Hg) may enter into the

composition of protoplasm as well. Where the soil is especially rich in certain minerals, the plants growing there may incorporate them, and they may find their way into the tissues or hard parts of animals that feed upon the plants. In some parts of the world gold is particularly abundant in the soil, and the hoofs, horns and hair of the deer living on the vegetation in these regions show relatively large accumulations of it. Radioactive elements in some regions are accumulated in the mosses and in vegetation of the region. These plants are the food for many animals and analysis shows that these animals are also accumulating radioactive particles in their tissues. The food is extended to people living in these regions who feed upon these animals and in turn incorporate the particles in their own tissues. As a result their bodies contain a relatively high account of radioactive particles as compared with the population in general. As a summary it should be noted that protoplasm is a very complicated mixture of many kinds of substances. These are in constant activity, carrying on the processes of life. When the activity stops, life comes to an end.
Notes to the text

Salts Fats Proteins Carbon Oxygen Hydrogen Nitrogen Tissue Protoplasm Species Chemical Liquid Solid Jelly Strontium (Sr) Tin (Sn) Nickel (Ni) Gold (Au) Mercury (Hg) Mineral Hoof

[ slts] [ fts] [prtin] [kbn] [ksdn] [hadrdn] [natrdn] [tu] [prtplzm] [spiiz] [kemkl] [lkwd] [sld] [deli] [strntim] [tn] [nkl] [gld] [mkjri] [mnrl] [huf]

Sruri Grsimi Proteine Carbon Oxygen Hydrogen Azot esut Protoplasm Specie Chimicat Lichid Solid Jeleu Stroniu Staniu Nichel Aur Mercur Mineral Copit

()

Horn Moss

[hn] [ms]

Corn Muchi
Exercises

I. Comprehension check

1. Answer the following questions: 1. How can you define the notion of protoplasm? 2. What color is the protoplasm? 3. Which is the composition of protoplasm? 4. What happens when the activity of protoplasm stops? 5. What is the cell membrane, the cytoplasm and the nucleus made of? 6. How many per cent of water is protoplasm usually composed of? 7. How do people incorporate the particles of radioactive elements in their own tissues? 2. Match the word with its definition: 1. protein 2. energy 3. microbe 4. viable 5. element 6. system 7. needle 8. mineral 9. mystery 10. chemical a) able to live b) any substance that cannot be broken down to any other substance c) a three-dimensional biological polymer constructed from a set of 20 different monomers called amino acids d) the capacity to do work by moving matter against an opposing force e) a microscopic organism f) something strange or not known which has not yet been explained or understood g) a set of organs or structures in the body which have a particular purpose h) any basic substance which is used in or produced by a reaction involving changes to atoms or molecules i) a thin metal pin, used in sewing, which is pointed at one end and has a hole called an eye at the other end for thread j) a chemical that your body needs to stay healthy

3. Find in the text words for each definition below: 1. The outer covering of a cell m ______________________ 2. One of the many substances found in food such as meat, cheese, fish or eggs, that is necessary for the body to grow and be strong p ____________________ 3. A very small green or yellow plant that grows especially in wet earth or on rocks, walls and tree trunks m ________________________ 4. Material with particular physical characteristics s_______________ 5. A set of animals or plants in which the members have similar characteristics to each other and can breed with each other s______________

6. The hard part on the bottom of the feet of animals such as horses, sheep and deer h__________ 7. A hard, pointed, often curved part that grows from the top of the head of some animals, or the hard substance of which a horn is made h__________ 8. A colourless gas that forms a large part of the air on Earth and which is needed by people, animals and plants to live o____________ 9. The transparent liquid which is inside all living cells p_____________ 10. Achemical that your body needs to stay healthy m________________
II. Vocabulary and Grammar

1. Make a passive sentence from the words in brackets: 1. This is a very popular television program. (every / it / week / millions / by / of / watch / people) 2. What happens to the cars produced in this factory? (export / them / of / most?) 3. A: Was there any trouble at the demonstration? B: Yes, (arrest / people / about / 20) 4. A: There is no longer military service in Britain. B: Really? (Abolish / when / it?) 5. A: Did anybody call an ambulance to the scene of accident? B: Yes, (but / injure / nobody / need / so / no / it) 6. A: Last night someone broke into our house. B: Oh, dear. (anything / take?) 7. Mr. Kelly cant use his office at the moment. (redecorate / it) 8. George didnt have his car yesterday. (at / service / it / the / garage) 9. Wheres my bicycle? Its gone! (steal / it!) 10. The people next door disappeared six months ago. (since / they / see / not / then) 11. This room looks different. (it / last / since / paint / I / was / here?) 12. A tree was lying across the road. (down / it / the / blow / storm / in) 2. Insert the following words in the text below: units, characteristics, substance, mixture, consistency, organisms, phenomena, composition The (1)______of life are associated with a particular (2)_____ called protoplasm, which has definite and specific (3)________. Physically, protoplasm is a grayish jelly-like substance. Its (4)______varies with different internal and external conditions from a fluid to a firm jelly. Protoplasm is found within the cells of living (5)_____. They are the smallest microscopic structural (6)______of life. Chemically it is a complex (7)_______of many different combinations of elements. Analysis of the protoplasm of different kinds of organisms shows that thirty-four elements may enter into its (8)________. 3. Match the idiom with its definition:

1. bad blood 2. have blood on your hands 3. blood and thunder 4. blood is thicker than water 5. a blood brother 6. blood is thicker than something 7. be someones (own) flesh and blood 8. blood, sweat and tears 9. get blood from a stone 10. be after someones blood

a) to be someones relative b) family relationships are stronger and more important than other kinds of relationships, such as being friends c) a man who has promised to treat another man as his brother, often in a ceremony in which they cut themselves and mix their blood together d) to be responsible for someones death e) to want to catch someone in order to hurt them or punish them f) a speech or performance that is loud and full of emotion, especially anger g) to do something very difficult h) family relationships are stronger and more important than something else i) feelings of hate between people because of arguments in the past j) a lot of effort and suffering

4. Fill in the gaps with the correct idiom from the box: 1. Police say the attack may have been the result of ________ between the two families. 2. Hed cheated them and now they were _____________. 3. How can you be so cruel to him when hes your own ____________? 4. We sat through 2 hours of ________ and came out feeling exhausted. 5. They say __________, so how come so many families hate each other? 6. We were ___________ - I was ready to die for him. 7. The leaders of this war ________ of many thousands of people _________. 8. This house is the result of 3 years ______________. 9. Jesse tried to get a loan from her parents, but thats just trying __________. 10. We were old friends, but I couldnt side with her against my parents ___________________ to me.
III. Writing

1. Translate the following passage into English:

Descoperirea microscopului a iniiat studierea prilor componente ale celulei i protoplasmei. Sub microscop savanii au identificat nite particule mici, pe care le-au numit celule. Ceva mai trziu a fost descoperit protoplasma. Ea ndeplinete toate funciile vitale ale organismului . Ea este alctuit din nucleu, nconjurat de o substan numit citoplasm. Structura chimic a protoplasmei este complicat, ceea ce constituie un obstacol n studierea ei. n momentul cnd savanii ncep s-o studieze, ea i schimb structura i moare. ns cercetrile continu i, n prezent, se cunosc foarte multe lucruri despre calitile, structura i compoziia protoplasmei. . , . . . , , . , . , . , , . 2. Make up short dialogues on the following imaginary situations: 1. A student of your group is to examine protoplasm, but he does not know how to do it. Help him. 2. An acquaintance of yours has heard something about protoplasm and says that it resembles water. Describe the appearance of protoplasm and explain the difference. 3. Your friend declares that protoplasm is the most important substance in living things. Your point of view is that it is the nucleus that carries life functions. Try to prove it. 4. Your friend says that the words protoplasm and cytoplasm are synonyms. Explain the difference and prove it. 5. Discuss with your mate whether the protoplasm is an element, a compound or a mixture. 3. Write an essay on the following statement: Books and Friends Should Be Few but Good.

Chapter II. Botany and Zoology


1. Plants and Animals

The two great subdivisions of the science of biology are: Botany the special study of plants, and Zoology the special study of animals. Life exists in many places on the earth, often in spite of very difficult conditions. In the Arctic regions the temperature may fall to 60 degrees below zero, while in deserts it may climb to over 120 degrees. Some animals live under the immense pressure of the deep seas; others live near the tops of the highest mountains. But no matter where they exist, all living things must have certain necessary conditions. These are: - living things need oxygen; - living things must have the right amount of pressure; - living things must have water; - living things need the proper temperature; - living things must have food. Most people think that plants are not alive in the same sense that animals are, or that there is some fundamental difference between plant and animal life. But this is not so. Plants and animals have much in common. Their more important points of resemblance are: 1. The living substance of plants and animals is organized into protoplasm. Protoplasm is the basic material of all living systems and its general properties are fundamentally the same in each system both in plants and animals. 2. The living matter is organized in both plants and animals into microscopic units called cells. 3. Certain vital processes take place in plant bodies in the same manner as in animal bodies. These processes are respiration, digestion and assimilation. 4. Both animals and plants cannot live without water, air, food, light and moderate amount of heat. They both are of different shapes, sizes and colours. In fact the differences are not so many as likenesses although they are more apparent, for only three are important: 1. Plants are not conscious; 2. Plants are unable to move about; 3. Plants make their own food. No one knows how many different kinds of plants and animals there are. Many of them provide us with food, clothing, shelter and medicines. Some, including several kinds of insects, pierce our skin and feed on the blood. Others, both plants and animals, even live and grow inside our bodies. In this way they may cause disease.

Because there are so many different kinds of plants and animals, up to the present time more than 840.000 kinds of animals and 345.000 kinds of plants have been named and described. To keep track of this great number of living things a system of classification has been set up. Plants and animals are sorted into groups according to the way they are built. For example, the tiger, the leopard, and the lion will be all grouped together. All of them belong to the cat family. All the members of the cat family, in turn, belong to a larger group that includes such meat-eating animals as the dog and the bear. They have teeth that are built for tearing and cutting flesh. Their sharp claws help them to capture and eat their prey. In this way, all plants and animals were classified by their structure. All living plants and animals were divided into 2 kingdoms: the animal kingdom and the plant kingdom. The animal kingdom includes many thousands of different animals. Scientists classify them further as follows: Animal kingdom: a) Invertebrates (animals without backbones) 1. One-celled animals; 2. Sponges; 3. Cup animals (jelly-fishes and corals); 4. Spiny-skinned animals (star-fishes and their relatives); 5. Worms; 6. Mollusks (oysters, snails, squids); 7. Jointed-legged animals (lobsters, spiders, insects). b) Vertebrates (animals with backbones) 1. Fishes; 2. Amphibians (frogs, toads, salamanders); 3. Reptiles (snakes, lizards and turtles); 4. Birds; 5. Mammals. The plant kingdom includes tiny one-celled plants that can be seen only with a powerful microscope and the great redwood and the sequoia trees of the Pacific coast, the oldest and the largest living things on the earth. Some plants have no roots, stems or leaves. Some of them consist of only one cell. Others, like the giant seaweeds may be more than 100 feet long. They are divided into two main groups: - The algae have green chlorophyll. They can make their own food. - The fungi have no chlorophyll. They must get their food from other plants and animals.
Notes to the text

Respiration Digestion Assimilation

[respren] [dadestn] [smlen]

respiraie digestie asimilare

Kingdom Invertebrates Vertebrates Algae Jellyfish Coral Starfish Worm Oyster Snail Lobster Spider Amphibian Frog Toad Salamander Reptile Snake Lizard Turtle Mammal Redwood Sequoia Tree Seaweed Chlorophyll

[kdm] [nvtbrts] [vtbrts] [lgi] [delif] [krl] [stf] [wm] [str ] [snel] [lbst] [spad] [mfbin] [frg] [td] [slmnd] [reptal] [snek] [lzd] [ttl] [mml] [redwd] [skw tri] [siwid] [klrfl]

Regn nevertebrate vertebrate Alge meduze Coral Stea de mare vierme Stridie Melc homar pianjen amfibie broasc broasc rioas Triton Reptile arpe oprl broasc mamifer redwood sequoia Alge clorofil
Exercises

, , ,

I. Comprehension check

1. Answer the following questions: 1. How many different kinds of animals and plants exist in the world? 2. Why is the classification of living things necessary? 3. How are living things sorted into groups? 4. What are the differences between animal and plant kingdoms? 5. Which are the points of resemblance of plants and animals? 6. Which are the two great subdivisions of the science of biology?

7. Which are the two kingdoms all plants and animals are divided into? 8. What does the term invertebrates mean? 9. What does the term vertebrates mean? 2. Match the word with its definition: 1. zoology 2. vertebrate 3. seed 4. synthesis 5. vaccine 6. fundamental 7. blood pressure 8. protoplasm 9. desert 10. subdivision a) a chordate animal with a backbone: the mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and various classes of fishes b) the study of animals c) the formation of a more complex substance from simpler ones d) a harmless variant or derivative of a pathogen that stimulates a hosts immune system to mount defenses against the pathogen e) an adaptation for terrestrial plants consisting of an embryo packaged along with a store of food within a resistant coat f) any of the parts into which something is divided, or the act of creating these g) an area, often covered with sand or rocks, where there is very little rain and not many plants h) the force with which the atmosphere presses down on the surface of the Earth i) the transparent liquid which is inside all living cells j) forming the base, from which everything else develops; more important than anything else

3. Find in the text words for each definition below: 1. A taxonomic grouping of related, similar genera; the category below order and above genus f _______________________ 2. On or in a cell, a specific protein molecule whose shape fits that of a specific molecular messenger, such as a hormone r _____________________ 3. Breathing r ____________________ 4. To change food in your stomach into substances that your body can use d ____________________ 5. Any animal of which the female gives birth to babies, not eggs, and feeds them on milk from her own body m ___________________ 6. A type of very small animal with six legs, a body divided into three parts and usually two pairs of wings, or, more generally, any similar very small animal i ________________ 7. A small animal with a long narrow soft body without arms, legs or bones w __________________ 8. A small animal which has smooth skin, lives in water and on land, has long powerful back legs with which it jumps from place to place, has no tail, and is usually greenish-brown in colour f_____________ 9. Having a spine (= back bone) v___________

10. One of the sharp curved nails at the end of each of the toes of some animals and birds c_________
II. Vocabulary and Grammar

1. a) Look at the quotations below. Turn them into Reported Speech: 1. The beautiful doesnt matter to me. Picasso 2. All I need to make a comedy is a park, a policeman and a pretty girl. Charlie Chaplin 3. I have seen the future and it doesnt work. Philip Toynbee 4. Ive never hated a man enough to give diamonds back. Zsa Zsa Gabor 5. I dont know anything about music. I dont have to. Elvis Presley b) Read the dialogue, and then fill in the gaps below: Tracy: What did you do last night? John: I went to a restaurant with Sue. Tracy: Really? Thats nice. John: Not really. She doesnt want to see me anymore. Tracy: Im sorry, but to be honest, I dont like her anyway. Tracy _____ Jack what he ____ ____ the night before. Jack _____ that he _____ been to a restaurant with Sue, but that Sue doesnt want to see him again. Tracy _____ that she _____ like Sue. 2. Insert the following words in the text below: living, organism, groups, resemble, kinds, earth, enemies, large (1)__________ things are all about us. More than a million different (2)________ of plants and animals inhabit the (3)_______. Some are our friends, others are our (4)_________. Some are very large and some are very small. Yet each is a distinct (5)_________, and each has its own way of living. Suppose you were asked to learn the names of all the living things on the earth. Try to do it. No, you couldnt do it; no one could. Fortunately, there are (6)________ of animals and groups of plants that greatly (7)______ each other. Because of this fact living things may be classified into (8)__________ groups. 3. Give another word or phrase of similar meaning to the following: Substance, to be similar to, to study, to consider, to construct, discovery, important, resemble, minute, earth, century, water.

4. Match the idiom with its definition:

1. to see through rose-tinted glasses 2. no bed of roses 3. to be fresh as a daisy 4. money doesnt grow on trees 5. to shake like a leaf 6. to turn over a new leaf

a) money is not easy to get b) to see only the pleasant parts of something c) to shake a lot because of fright or nervousness d) to be full of energy and enthusiasm e) a situation that is difficult or unpleasant f) to start behaving in a better way

5. Fill in the gaps with the correct idiom from the box: 1. A: Oh... Im so tired! B: I can see that you are not a morning person. Me, I get up at 6 in the morning every day and I am______! 2. A: What happened to you? Youre_______! B: Yeah. I got chased by a big dog. It was so scary! 3. A: After ten years of drugs and gambling, he has finally decided to________. He is now off drugs and is working at a supermarket. B: Good for him! 4. A: Are you sure you really want to buy that expensive car? B: Yeah. Why not? A: Well, I think we shouldnt spend so much on a car.________, you know. B: Yeah, maybe youre right. 5. A: My grandmother is always telling me how good things were in the 50s. B: I think many old people tend to look at the past _________. 6. A: My job is_________. I have to work long hours and my boss is really demanding. B: Well, look on the bright side. At least you get a good salary.
III. Writing

1. Translate the following passage into English: Savanii susin c exist peste un milion de diferite specii de plante i animale. Plantele i animalele se deosebesc mult prin mrime, tip, culoare etc. Aceste deosebiri sunt vizibile dac comparm plantele, ierburile, copacii, florile sau diferite insecte, psri, peti, oameni. Cu toate acestea, organismele vii au i multe similitudini. Att plantele, ct i animalele depind unele de altele n meninerea funciilor vitale. , .

, , . . , , , , , , , . , . , . 2. Make up short dialogues on the following imaginary situations: 1. Many people like to keep pets at home. Your friend is no exception. Ask him what animals he keeps. Tell him about plants and animals. 2. Your younger brother asked you what a coral is. Tell him what you know about it and other sea inhabitants. 3. A friend of yours says that not only animals cannot live without plants. What is your opinion? 3. Write an essay on the following statement: A Bird in the Hand is Worth Two in the Bush.
2. Linnaean System of Classification

Carl Linnaeus was born in Sweden in a small wooden house painted red with a roof of live turf. It was like many other houses in the village, but the house had a garden around it, so that Linnaeus used to say later that it was a good place for a naturalist to be born. All the boys teachers at school thought him stupid, but one of his fathers friends observed that Carl took an unusual interest in plants and that he could identify a great many. He suggested sending Carl to study natural history. His father could give him only about forty dollars for his education, but it was thought that he could work his way. So, he set off for the University of Lund. After a year he transferred to the University of Uppsala, since Uppsala had a very fine course of botany. His professor very soon grew very fond of him and saw a great promise in his work. After Linnaeus had finished his studies at the University with his professors encouragement he made application to the Royal Society of Sweden to send him on a scientific expedition to Lapland. The Royal Society agreed to the commission. So, on May 12, Linnaeus set out on foot on the road leading north. He traveled mostly on foot over bad roads and through wild country for nearly a thousand miles. When he got back to Uppsala he gave a careful account of the things he had seen. The main thing among them was his new system of classification for plants and animals which he had worked out on his journey. Three years later this system was published under the title Systema Naturae. This system has brought order out of confusion. It was the system of nomenclature that has been used ever since. Linnaean system of classification was founded on the concept of a basic natural grouping of like individuals, called a species. He conceived of the species

as a fixed and unchangeable grouping of similar individuals. He based his comparisons principally on morphological features and species was characterized, named, and filed away as an immutable entity. According to Linnaeus system, every plant and every animal was given a double Latin name. The first word whose initial letter was capitalized would indicate to what genus or general class it belongs, the second word indicates a particular species. The naming of plants and animals in this way was a fascinating task. Linnaeus announced that everything in nature should be classified. So, science as orderly classified knowledge was coming into its own. The first edition of Systema Naturae was published in 1735. It contained only twelve pages, but its influence was enormous. Linnaeus is therefore considered the founder of taxonomy the study of the classification. All the known animal species were grouped into six classes: mammals, birds, insects, fishes, reptiles, and worms. The shortcomings were patched up easily enough later on. The form of binominal nomenclature has given the biologists an international language for life forms that has eliminated incalculable amounts of confusion. He even supplied the human species with an official name, one that has retained ever since Homo Sapiens.
Notes to the text

Nomenclature Species Genus Taxonomy Classification Immutable Entity Shortcoming Incalculable

[nmeklt] [spiiz] [dins] [tksnmi] [klsfken] [mjutbl] [entti] [tkm] [nklkjlbl]

nomenclatur specie Gen taxonomie clasificare neschimbtor Entitate deficien incalculabil


Exercises

, ;

I. Comprehension check

1. Answer the following questions: 1. Who suggested sending Carl Linnaeus to study natural history? 2. Which was the concept Linnaean system of classification was founded on? 3. What is taxonomy? 4. Who is considered the founder of taxonomy? 5. In which way were all the existing animals grouped in classes? 6. Which is the official name of the human species? 2. Match the word with its definition:

1. genus pl. genera 2. kingdom

a) the process that leads to modification in individual behavior as the result of experience b) the resurgence of development in an animal larva that transforms it into a sexually mature adult 3. learning c) a taxonomic category above the species level, designated by the first word of a species binomial Latin name 4.metamorphosis d) a taxonomic category, the second broadest after domain 5. identify e) the surface layer of land on which grass is growing, consisting of the grass and the soil in which its roots grow, or a piece of this which is cut from the ground and is usually rectangular 6. education f) a person who studies and knows a lot about plants and animals 7. botany g) to recognize someone or something and say or prove who or what they are 8. expedition h) the process of teaching or learning in a school or college, or the knowledge that you get from this 9. naturalist i) the scientific study of plants 10. turf j) an organized journey for a particular purpose 3. Find in the text words for each definition below: 1. The branch of biology concerned with naming and classifying the diverse forms of life t ___________________ 2. A system for naming things, especially in a particular area of science n _______ 3. An animal which produces eggs and uses the heat of the sun to keep its blood warm r ______________________ 4. A creature with feathers and wings, usually able to fly b__________ 5. A set of organs or structures in the body which have a particular purpose s____ 6. Not changing, or unable to be changed i________ 7. The covering that forms the top of a building, vehicle, etc r__________ 8. Something which exists apart from other things, having its own independent existence e________ 9. A scientist who studies biology b__________ 10. A living thing which grows in earth, in water or on other plants, and usually has a stem, leaves, roots and flowers and produces seeds p_____________
II. Vocabulary and Grammar

1. Yesterday you met a friend of yours, Charlie. Charlie told you a lot of things. Here are some of the things he said to you: - Im thinking of going to live in Canada. - My father is in hospital. - Nora and Jim are getting married next month. - I havent seen Bill for a while. - Ive been playing tennis recently.

- Margaret has had a baby. - I dont know what Fred is doing. - I hardly ever go out these days. - I work 14 hours a day. - Ill tell Jim I saw you. - You can come and stay with me if you are ever in London. - Tom had an accident last week but he wasnt injured. - I saw Jack at party a few months ago and he seemed fine. Later that day you tell another friend what Charlie said. Use Reported Speech. 2. Insert the following words in the text below: kinds, people, large, earth, organism, living, identified, to sort, conglomeration, living, animals, plants, enemies (1)_______things are all about us. More than a million different (2) _____ of plants and (3) ______inhabit the (4) _____. Some are our friends, others are our (5) _____. Some are very (6) ______and some are very small. Yet each is a distinct (7)______, and each has its own way of (8)_____. To study living things, it is necessary (9) ____them into groups. About a million and a half different kinds of (10) ______and animals have already been studied, (11)_____and named. In fact, for (12) _____who have not studied biology, the living world is a hopeless (13)_______of individual plants and animals. 3. Circle the correct answer: 1. A: Rosie wasnt really sad about Davids divorce from Clare. B: Yeah. She ________________. a. cried crocodile tears b. had a bee in her bonnet c. shes a snake in the grass 2. A: The boss is in a very strange mood this morning. B: I know. Shes _______________. a. being as slippery as an eel b. got a bee in her bonnet c. being a snake in the grass 3. A: I dont trust that new guy in the office. B: Me neither. I think he _________. a. cries crocodile tears b. has a flea in his ear c. is a snake in the grass 4. A: Shaun never gives me a straight answer. B: I know. He ________________. a. is a snake in the grass b. has a flea in his ear

c. is as slippery as an eel 5. A: Whats up with Pete? He seems upset. B: Yes. Hes definitely ___________. a. got a flea in his ear b. a snake in the grass c. as slippery as an eel 6. A: Nobody seemed very sad at the funeral. B: I know. I saw more than a few __. a. bees in peoples bonnets b. fleas in peoples ears c. crocodile tears 7. A: When I asked Nigel about last night he avoided my questions. B: Yes. He's _________________. a. as slippery as an eel b. got a flea in his ear c. a snake in the grass 8. A: What do think of Catherine? B: Uuf! I dont trust her at all. In my opinion, shes ________________. a. got a bee in her bonnet b. as slippery as an eel c. a snake in the grass
III. Writing

1. Give English equivalents for the following phrases: 1. El era pasionat de plante i putea deosebi speciile. 2. El obinuia s se trezeasc la ora 6 dimineaa. 3. El mi place mult. 4. A depus cerere pentru studii postuniversitare. 5. Am alctuit planul de lucru. 6. Cu toate c timpul era urt, el a mers pe jos. 7. A fcut tot ce a depins de el. 8. Conform clasificrii lui, toate organismele vii sunt mprite n dou regnuri. 1. . 2. 6 . 3. . 4. . 5. . 6. , . 7. , . 8. , . 2. Make up short dialogues on the following imaginary situations:

1. Youve come to a botanical museum and see a portrait of C.Linnaeus. Ask the guide about this scientist. 2. You saw a picture of a tiger with a sign Panthera Tigris. Ask your friend to explain what it means. 3. You are to prepare a story on the system of classification, but you dont know what sources to use. Ask your friend for advice. What books on Linnaeus can he recommend? 4. The teacher points to the tree and asks what it is. One student says that it is a common birch, the other that it is Betula Verrucosa. Each insists that he is right. How will you settle their argument? 3. Write an essay on the following statement: East or West Home is Be
3. Improvement of Plants

All varieties of crops have some desirable characteristics or they would not be used. Nevertheless, each of these varieties is known to possess one or more undesirable traits which, if eliminated, would result in higher yields and better quality. The aim of the plant breeder is to develop superior varieties by eliminating the undesirable characteristics and combining the desirable ones in the same variety. Plant improvement is based on the principles or laws of heredity which are included in the science known as genetics. Many of the principles and techniques used in plant breeding are complex and to understand them fully intensive study and training are required. Selection is a simple, but important method of improving plants. As the name suggests this method consists of selecting the outstanding types and discarding those that are undesirable because of certain characteristics being possessed by them. For example, in small grains, plants resistant to lodging may be selected; and with alfalfa those capable of surviving in severe winters are to be retained. After a period of testing, during which plants are selected for certain desired traits or characteristics, a superior strain may be developed. Improvement by selection cannot be accomplished, however, unless the variety from which the selections are being made possessed some plants containing the characteristics desired. Selection is not a new method of improving plants. Actually this process is as old as plants themselves. For many thousands of years plants have been subjected to the stern and relentless forces of nature, and only the fittest is left entirely to nature, the process is extremely slow. Man cannot wait for nature alone to improve plants for him. By selecting superior plants, he is able to bring about improvements in a few years that would require thousands of years of time if left to nature alone.

Two procedures are commonly used when new varieties are developed by the process of selection. They are referred to as: mass selection and individual selection. Mass selection consists of selecting a fairly large number of individual plants possessing the desired characteristics. The seed from such plants is then mixed and sown together, and the better individuals are again selected or the poorer ones discarded. This process of selection is to be repeated for a few years until the plants prove to be reasonably uniform for the qualities desired. Individual plant selection is commonly referred to as pedigree or pure-line selection. When this method is used, individual plants are selected that are superior for certain characters but instead of mixing the seed as in mass selection, the seed from each head or individual is planted in a row of its own in such a manner as to keep the progeny of each parent separate. The progeny of each plant are then carefully observed, a record being made of their appearance and performance. Comparisons between the different progenies are made, those with undesirable characters being discarded. Records of performance are carefully checked and compared each year with those of standard varieties which are also grown under the same conditions. If after a testing for a number of years, the strain proves to be superior to the standard varieties, it is then grown in larger plots to increase the supply of seed. A period of several years may be required for sufficient seed to be obtained for general distribution to farmers. As a rule, 8 to 14 years are usually required for making the selection, testing it and increasing it to the point where the new variety can be released to farmers.
Notes to the text

Yields Heredity Selection Grain Crop Breeder Discard

[jildz] [hredti] [slekn] [grein] [krp] [bri:dr] [dskd]

Road Ereditate Selecie Boabe Cultur cresctor a se debarasa de ceva Lucern a realize intransigent

( ), , , -. , ;

Alfalfa [lflf] Accomplish [kmpl] Relentless [rlentls] Fit Mass Selection [ft] [ms slekn]

, , a se potrivi , selecie n mas ,

Individual Selection Pedigree

[ndvdjul [selekn] [pedgri]

Selecie individual Pedigree

, ,

Exercises I. Comprehension check

1. Answer the following questions: 1. What is selection? 2. Which are the two procedures used in the process of selection? 3. What does mass selection consist of? 4. What is individual plant selection? 5. How many years are usually required for making the selection, testing it and increasing it to the point where the new variety can be released to farmers? 2. Match the word with its definition: 1. vitalism 2. variation 3. sexual selection 4. characteristic 5. strategy a) a typical or noticeable quality of someone or something b) the belief that natural phenomena are governed by a life force outside the realm of physical and chemical laws c) diversity among the members of a population; variation among individuals can exist at many levels, including genetic, physiologic and behavioral d) selection based on variation in secondary sex characteristics, leading to the enhancement of sexual dimorphism e) a group of related traits, evolved under the influence of natural selection, that solve particular problems encountered by living organisms; often includes anatomical, physiological, and behavioral characteristics f) to have or own something, or to have a particular quality g) a particular characteristic that can produce a particular type of behaviour h) an amount of something positive, such as food or profit, that is produced or supplied i) to keep animals for the purpose of producing young animals in a controlled way j) the process by which characteristics are given from a parent to their child through the genes

6. yield 7. breed 8. heredity 9. trait 10. possess

3. Find in the text words for each definition below:

1. The process which results in the continued existence of only the types of animals and plants which are best able to produce young or new plants in the conditions in which they live n________ s__________ 2. A plant grown as food for especially farm animals, or used in salads before it is completely developed a ____________________ 3. Not wanted, approved of or popular u ____________________ 4. The process by which characteristics are given from a parent to their child through the genes h____________ 5. The young or offspring of a person, animal or plant p___________ 6. A small round or oval object produced by a plant and from which, when it is planted, a new plant can grow s__________ 7. Someone who breeds animals b________ 8. not wanted, approved of or popular u___________ 9. a single person or thing, especially when compared to the group or set to which they belong i_________ 10. To continue to live or exist, especially after coming close to dying or being destroyed or after being in a difficult or threatening situation s__________
II. Vocabulary and Grammar

1. a) Complete the following sentences with said, told or talked: 1. Jack _______me that he was enjoying his new job. 2. Tom ______it was a nice restaurant but I didnt like it much. 3. The doctor ______that I would have to rest for at least a week. 4. Mrs. Taylor ______us she wouldnt be able to come to the next meeting. 5. Ann ______Tom that she was going away. 6. George couldnt help me. He _____to ask Jack. 7. At the meeting the chairman ______about the problems facing the company. 8. Jill _____us all about her holiday in Australia. b) Transform the following sentences into Reported Speech: 1. Eat more fruit and vegetables, the doctor said. 2. Read the instructions before you switch on the machine, he said to me. 3. Shut the door but dont lock it, she said to us. 4. Can you speak more slowly? I cant understand, he said to me. 5. Dont come before 6 oclock, I said to him. 2. Insert the following words in the text below: to develop, methods, anxious, varieties, temperature, crossbreeding, selecting, milk, chicken, production Man has been engaged in breeding and (1)_____plants and animals for thousands of years. During that time he has been able (2)_____a great many varieties. Breeders are always (3)_____to increase (4)_____. They try to get more

and better (5)____of berries from each bush, more (6)____per cow, and more eggs per (7)____. In many cases, the breeder has found it possible to develop new varieties that resist high or low (8)___ and diseases. They use three (9)_____in the effort to increase quality and production. These are selection, (10)____and the use of mutations. 3. Match the idiom with its definition: 1. let nature take its course 2. up a gum tree 3. Mother Nature 4. touch wood 5. hit the hay 6. seed money 7. jungle out there 8. flowery speech 9. watch grass grow 10. barking up the wrong tree a) the force that controls the natural world b) to allow something to happen naturally c) misunderstanding something or being totally wrong d) really boring e) in trouble or a big mess f) the situation is dangerous and there are no rules g) speech full of lovely words, but without any substance h) go to bed i) money that is used to start a small business j) to wish for good luck

4. Fill in the gaps with the correct idiom from the box: 1. By this stage, her illness was so severe that the doctors agreed to ____________ rather than prolong her suffering. 2. Look at those trees blown down in the storm. Just shows you what ___________ can do when she gets angry. 3. Normally, the Parks Department lets __________ and doesnt replace dead trees, but this situation is different. 4. Oh, your sun has changed his behavior. ______________. 5. I am sick and tired of listening to this nonsense, ____________. 6. I cant loose this ___________, my future depends on it. 7. When people use no rules, we say it is ________________. 8. Its late, I should better ____________. 9. Dear, stop that______________, youve promised so many times, but you never keep your word. 10. They are_______________, I meant something else.
III. Writing

1. Translate the following passage into English:

Obiectivul seleciei este crearea unor organisme nalt productive i omogene n ceea ce privete proprietile lor ereditare. Selecia include n sine metode i procedee practice de obinere i mbuntire a unor soiuri noi de plante i animale. Baza teoretic a seleciei este genetica. Obinerea speciilor noi se bazeaz pe dou proprieti caracteristice tuturor organismelor vii: variabilitatea i ereditatea. Procesul de obinere a speciilor noi const din urmtoarele etape: 1. studierea materialului iniial; 2. evidenierea formelor performante ale acestui material; 3. studierea comparativ multilateral a formelor performante; 4. gruparea soiurilor. . . . , . : 1. ; 2. ; 3. ; 4. .
4. Write an essay on the following statement: Mass Selection and Individual

Selection.
4. Animal Communication

Animal communication is any behavior on the part of one animal that has an effect on the current or future behavior of another animal. The study of animal communication, sometimes called zoosemiotics has played an important part in the development of ethnology, sociobiology, and the study of animal cognition. Animal communication, and indeed the understanding of the animal world in general, is a rapidly growing field, and even in the 21st century so far, many prior understandings related to diverse fields such as personal symbolic name use, animal emotions, animal culture and learning, and even sexual conduct, long thought to be well understood, have been revolutionized. The best known forms of communication involve the display of distinctive body parts, or distinctive bodily movements; often these occur in combination, so a distinctive movement acts to reveal or emphasize a distinctive body part.

An important form of communication is bird song, usually performed mainly by males, though in some species the sexes sing in alternation (this is called duetting). Bird song is just the best known case of vocal communication; other instances include the warning cries of many monkeys, the territorial calls of gibbons, and the mating calls of many species of frog. Less obvious is olfactory communication. Many mammals, in particular, have glands that generate distinctive and long-lasting smells, and have corresponding behaviors that leave these smells in places where they have been. Often the scented substance is introduced into urine or feces. Sometimes it is distributed through sweat, though this does not leave a semi-permanent mark as scents deposited on the ground do. Some animals have glands on their bodies whose sole function appears to be to deposit scent marks: for example cats have scent glands on their flanks, and deposit scent by rubbing their sides against objects; cats also have scent glands on their foreheads. Bees carry with them a pouch of material from the hive which they release as they reenter, the smell of which indicates if they are a part of the hive and grants their safe entry. Functions of Communication. While there are as many kinds of communication as there are kinds of social behaviour, a number of functions have been studied in particular detail. They include: - agonistic interaction: everything to do with contests and aggression between individuals. Many species have distinctive threat displays that are made during competition over food, mates or territory; much bird song functions in this way. Often there is a matched submission display, which the threatened individual will make if it is acknowledging the social dominance of the threatener; this has the effect of terminating the aggressive episode and allowing the dominant animal unrestricted access to the resource in dispute. Some species also have affiliative displays which are made to indicate that a dominant animal accepts the presence of another. courtship rituals: signals made by members of one sex to attract or maintain the attention of potential mate, or to cement a pair bond. These frequently involve the display of body parts, body postures (gazelles assume characteristic poses as a signal to initiate mating), or the emission of scents or calls, that are unique to the species, thus allowing the individuals to avoid mating with members of another species which would be infertile. food-related signals: many animals make food calls that attract a mate, or offspring, or members of a social group generally to a food source. When parents are feeding offspring, the offspring often have begging responses. alarm calls: signals made in the presence of a threat from a predator, allowing all members of a social group (and often members of other species) to run for cover, become immobile, or gather into a group to reduce the risk of attack. metacommunications: signals that modify the meaning of subsequent signals. The best known example is the

play face in dogs, which signals that a subsequent aggressive signal is part of a play fight rather than a serious aggressive episode. Intraspecies / Interspecies Communication. The sender and receiver of a communication may be of the same species or of different species. The majority of animal communication is intraspecific (between two or more individuals of the same species). However, there are some important instances of interspecific communication. Also, the possibility of interspecific communication, and the form it takes, is an important test of some theoretical models of animal communication. Human / Animal Communication. Various ways in which humans interpret the behaviour of domestic animals, or give commands to them, fit the definition of interspecies communication. The recent experiments on animal language are perhaps the most sophisticated attempt yet to establish human/animal communication, though their relation to natural animal communication is uncertain.
Notes to the text

Zoosemiotics Mammals Offspring Behaviour Ethnology Cognition Prior Conduct Reveal Emphasize Alteration Duet Urine Feces Sweat Hive Submission Courtship

[ zusemitiks] [mmlz] [fspri] [biheivj] [enldi] [kgnin] [prai] [kndkt] [rivi:l] [emfsaiz] [ltrein] [djuet] [jurin] [fisiz] [swet] [haiv] [sbmin]

zoosemiotic Mamifere Urmai comportare Etnologie cunoatere Precedent Conduit a dezvlui a accentua modificare Duet Urin excremente Sudoare Stup Supunere Curtare Legtur Gazel Prdtor metacomunicare Ulterior

[ktp] Bond [bnd] Gazelle [gzel] Predator [predeit] Metacommun [metkmjunikei ication n] Subsequent [sbsikwnt]

; , ; , , , , , ;

Sophisticated

[sfistikeitid]

Sofisticat
Exercises

I. Comprehension check

1. Answer the following questions: 1. How can you define the notion of animal communication? 2. What is zoosemiotics? 3. How do animals communicate? 4. Why do many animals make food calls? 5. Which are the functions of animal communication?

2. Match the word with its definition: 1. acclimatization a) the similarity of structure between two species that are not closely related; attributable to convergent evolution 2. analogy b) physiological adjustment to a change in an environmental factor 3. behavior c) a group of organisms of the same species living together in close association 4. bipedal d) all of the acts an organism performs, as in, for example, seeking a suitable habitat, obtaining food, avoiding predators, and seeking a mate and reproducing 5. colony e) walking upright on two feet 6. emphasize f) the comparative and historical study of different societies and cultures 7. to give or allow g) to show or state that something is very important or someone worth giving attention to something, usually in an official way 8. scent h) a small ape with long arms which lives in trees in the forests of S Asia 9. gibbon i) to give or allow someone something, usually in an official way 10. ethnology j) a smell produced by an animal which acts as a signal to other animals; a pleasant natural smell; a pleasantsmelling liquid that people put on their skin; perfume 3. Here is a list of animals. Some are from the text. Others might be new to you. Write each animal in the chart below. Is it a fish, insect, mammal or bird? Work with a partner. Use a dictionary if necessary for the new words.

chimp ant dog shark duck Fish

Bee Elephant Cat Eagle Tuna Insects

whale cockroach gorilla chicken human Mammals

vulture dolphins termite pigeon salmon Birds

II. Vocabulary and Grammar

1. Write what you would say in these situations: Example: Ann says I am tired. Five minutes later she says Lets play tennis. What do you say? You said you were tired. 1. Your friend says Im hungry. So you go to a restaurant. When you get there he says I dont want to eat. What do you say? You said_______________________ 2. Tom tells you Ann has gone away. Later that day you meet her. What do you say? Tom told_______________________________________________________ 3. George said I dont smoke. A few days later you see him smoking a cigarette. What do you say to him? You said_______________________________________ 4. You arranged to meet Jack. He said I wont be late. At last he arrives 20 minutes late. What do you say? You said__________________________________ 5. Sue said I cant come to the party tonight. That night you see her at the party. What do you say to her? You said_______________________________________ 6. Ann says Im working tomorrow evening. Later that day she says Lets go out tomorrow evening. What do you say? You said_________________________ 2. Insert the following words in the text below: a) animals, communicate, ants, exchange, to represent, location, insects, mammals, bees, language

(1)______ communicate with each other in different ways. Some (2)_______ such as ants use smell to tell other (3)_____, Theres food over there. (4)_____ communicate by sight. They do a kind of dance to tell other bees the (5)______of a supply of flowers. Many (6)_______ such as elephants and whales (7)_______ information by sound. A humpback whale can hear another whale 1,200 km away. We, humans, use (8)______ that is, a system of symbols (9)_______ ideas. Many people wonder, Do animals use language too? Can humans and animals (10)______ with each other? This is a very interesting question which requires much attention. b) to recognize, innately, animals, mother, life, behavior, lake, ducklings Another kind of learned (1)________is imprinting. Some (2)_______, such as ducks, geese, and other birds do not (3)______know how (4)______other members of their own species. They learn this in the first day or two of (5)______. For example, imagine a mother duck in a (6)______. Four or five (7)______are swimming after her. They know to follow her. Ducklings quickly imprint on the first moving thing that they see. Usually this is their (8)______, but not always. 3. Match the idiom with its definition: 1.big fish in a small pond 2. world is ones oyster 3. flea in ones ear 4. ants in ones pants 5. mad as a hornet a) very angry, in a fighting mood b) an idea or answer that is not welcome c) nervous overactivity, restlessness d) an important person in a small place e) one can get anything that one wants

4. Fill in the gaps with the correct idiom from the box: 1. He wasnt so important in New York but in Smallville he is a ____________. 2. He was ______________ when he came to work this morning. 3. I think that I put _____________ when I told him about the computer problems. 4. When you graduate from university ________________ so dont worry about the future. 5. The teacher asked the little boy if he had ______________ when he kept moving around in his seat.
III. Writing

1. Translate the following passage into English: Comportamentul este felul n care acioneaz animalele. De exemplu, cum i fac rost de hran sau cum i ngrijesc puii; cum i gsesc un loc unde s triasc sau cum s se apere de primejdii. O parte din aciunile animalelor sunt necondiionate, dei animalele nva multe n decursul vieii. Un exemplu simplu

de ceea ce nva animalele este deprinderea. Aceasta are loc atunci cnd animalele nva a se simi confortabil ntro situaie nou i absolut necunoscut lor. De exemplu, caii tineri au deseori fric de strzi glgioase, dar dup un timp, ei se deprind s nu atrag atenie la sunetele oraului. . , ; . , , . . , , . , , , , . 2. Write an essay on the following topic: A Bird in the Hand Is worth Two in the Bush.

Dolphins are marine mammals that are closely related to whales and porpoises. There are almost forty species of dolphin in seventeen genera. They vary in size from 1.2 metres and 40 kilograms up to 9.5 metres and ten tonnes. They are found worldwide, mostly in the shallower seas of the continental shelves, and are carnivores, mostly eating fish and squid. Dolphins evolved about ten million years ago. They are considered to be amongst the most intelligent of animals and their often friendly appearance and seemingly playful attitude have made them popular in human culture. The name is originally from Ancient Greek (delphs; dolphin), which was related to the Greek (delphys; womb). The animals name can therefore be interpreted as meaning a fish with a womb. A good deal has been written about these animals which look so very much like fish. What drives the numerous researchers in many countries to attempt to penetrate the world of the dolphin, to set up new laboratories, build new instruments and to put forward new hypotheses? First of all, it must be said that this interest is not the outcome of some mass hypnosis, but is a conscious attempt to find out how it happened that a mammal managed to conquer the ocean and to populate it from the Arctic to the Antarctic, and from the surface down to depths of hundreds of meters. It is necessary to find the answer to this riddle, for the time is coming when man will concentrate on mastering the ocean depths, on the same scale as he is now trying to conquer outer space. The study of the dolphins behaviour has its philosophical aspect, as well as the purely practical results. The dolphins, for example, possess a well-developed

brain, communication signs, and a complex pattern congregation, which leads some researchers to declare that the dolphins are on a par with humans in intellectual development, or are even more advanced than man, whereas others maintain that these cetaceans are ordinary animals, which respond well to experiments. This leads to the argument about the philosophical criteria of intelligence, about the variety of expressions of intelligence, about the stages in the development of consciousness, about the possibility of man making contact with some other section of the animal kingdom, and about the responsibility this places on human beings. The Dolphin Family. Dolphins are social, living in pods (also called schools) of up to a dozen individuals. In places with a high abundance of food, pods can join temporarily, forming an aggregation called a superpod; such groupings may exceed a thousand dolphins. The individuals communicate using a variety of clicks, whistles and other vocalizations. They also use ultrasonic sounds for echolocation. Research into the inter-relations within the school of dolphins provides grounds for supposing that their social system is matriarchal. The dolphins gregarious instinct is so strong that isolation leads to a deep and persistent depression. The animal loses its appetite completely, as well as all interest in its environment. This can last a day or two, or even a week, and if there is no way of distracting the animal or of establishing contact with it, then it has to be reinstalled in the school or it will perish. Senses. Most dolphins have acute eyesight, both in and out of the water, and their sense of hearing is superior to that of humans. Though they have a small ear opening on each side of their head, it is believed that hearing underwater is also if not exclusively done with the lower jaw which conducts the sound vibrations to the middle ear via a fat-filled cavity in the lower jaw bone. Hearing is also used for echolocation, which seems to be an ability all dolphins have. It is believed that their teeth are arranged in a way that works as an antenna to receive the incoming sound and make it easier for them to pinpoint the exact location of an object. The dolphins sense of touch is also well-developed, with free nerve endings being densely packed in the skin, especially around the snout, pectoral fins and genital area. However, dolphins lack an olfactory nerve and lobes and thus are believed to have no sense of smell, but they can taste and do show preferences for certain kinds of fish. Upbringing of the Young. The dolphin cubs are born with the ability to swim, dive and prod with their mouths at their mothers mammary glands, from which a jet of thick milk is injected into their mouths. The first 2-3 months the cub dolphin swims only by his mothers side, in which, by the way, hes assisted by the laws of hydrodynamics. After that he gathers strength and tries to assert his independence.

When the cub is 4-5 months old, the mother sometimes leaves it, though not for a long time, with other dolphins, usually with aunties - adult females who have no offspring. When it is about 6 months old, the cub takes each and ever opportunity of getting away from the mother it becomes irresistibly attracted to everything novel. The mother keeps a vigilant eye on the cub and goes out of her way to distract it. Sometimes the cub does manage to escape, but never for long, and is severely punished. The most effective punishment is to chase it under the water and not let it surface for a spell of fresh air. Another means is to throw the cub up into the air. In both cases the cubs become well-behaved for a time. At 7-9 months the mother punishes the cub by slapping it with her tail, bites or pushes it with her snout. This happens, for example, when the cub snatches a fish from under the nose of the older one. But this form of punishment is rarely effective for the cubs often consider it to be a kind of a game. Imitation is of tremendous importance in the life of dolphins. Should anyone of them invent a new trick, all the others learn it very quickly. Imitation is important in teaching the cubs. Practically, in his mothers school the dolphin goes through a sort of university and when it leaves the school at 4-5 years of age, the male is prepared for independent life and the female to rear her own cub. Play is a fairly important part of dolphins lives, and they can be observed playing with seaweed or playfighting with other dolphins. At times they also harass other local creatures, like seabirds and turtles. Dolphins also seem to enjoy riding waves and frequently surf coastal swells and the bow waves of boats. Occasionally, theyre also willing to playfully interact with human. In conclusion it must be said that dolphins are very contradictory. They are easily scared anything new evokes a defense reaction, and they are also very brave they are not afraid of sharks, allow man to catch and pat them or to transport them in ships or planes. They dislike everything new, but nevertheless are very inquisitive. They are particularly interested in man and quickly learn how to put their heads out of water to look at him. They are very lively and yet can stay still for hours. It will take much effort on the part of the research workers to amass bit by bit, their knowledge of the world of the dolphins, which should in the long run provide the answer to many questions. But today we can say with every conviction that man will be able to make the dolphin his assistant in the ocean.
Notes to the text

Whale Womb Aggregation Scar Gregarious

[weil] [wum] [gregein] [ska:] [grigris]

Balen pntece agregare cicatrice Gregar

Cub To dive

[kb] [daiv]

Congregation [k.gregein] Whistle Dozen Cetacean Ultrasonic Echolocation Matriarchal Snout Assert Squirt Submerge Rear Seaweed Conquer Target Jaw Antenna Fin Inject Vigilant Rescue Evoke Inquisitive Amass [wisl] [dz n] [sten] [l.trsn.k] [ekl.kein] [me.tri.kl] [snaut] [st] [skwt] [sbmd] [r] [si.wid] [k.k] [t.gt] [d] [nten] [fn] [ndekt] [vd..lnt] [reskju:] [vk] [nkwz..tv] [ms]

Pui a se scufunda n ap congregaie a uiera Duzin Cetaceu ultrasonor ecolocaie matriarhal Bot a afirma a stropi a cufunda a crete alge marine a cuceri int maxilar anten aripioar nottoare a injecta vigilent a salva a evoca iscoditor

() ; , , () ; , ; , , , , ; , () , , ; ()

a se aduna, a se , acumula
Exercises

I. Comprehension check

1. Answer the following questions: 1. How many species of dolphins are there on our planet? 2. Which is the interpretation of the name dolphin? 3. What senses do dolphins have? 4. What are the reasons for which male dolphins engage in acts of aggression? 5. Why do dolphins leap above the water waves? 6. Why are dolphins considered to be amongst the most intelligent of the animals? 7. What is their social system? 8. Can dolphins think? 9. How do dolphins communicate? 2. Match the word with its definition: 1. colony 2. behavior 3. brain 4. acclimatization 5. carnivore 6. womb 7. whistle 8. matriarchy 9. continental shelf 10. whale a) all of the acts an organism performs, as in, for example, seeking a suitable habitat, obtaining food, avoiding predators, and seeking a mate and reproducing b) physiological adjustment to a change in an environmental factor c) a group of organisms of the same species living together in close association d) the master control center in an animal; in vertebrates, the brain and spinal cord make up the central nervous system e) a very large sea mammal that breathes air through a hole at the top of its head f) the area of the bottom of the sea near the coast of a continent, where the sea is not very deep g) an animal that eats meat h) the organ in the body of a woman or other female mammal in which a baby develops before birth i) to make a high sound by forcing air through a small hole or passage, especially through the lips, or through a special device held to the lips j) a type of society in which women have most of the authority and power, or a society in which property belongs to women and is given to children by women rather than men

3. Find in the text words for each definition below: 1. A taxonomic grouping of related, similar genera; the category below order and above genus f _____________________ 2. A place or position l ________________________ 3. The nose and mouth which stick out from the face of some animals s ________ 4. A thin vertical part sticking out of the body of especially a fish or an aircraft which helps balance and movement f _________________________

5. A young lion, bear, wolf , etc. c ____________________________ 6. The young of an animal o _______________________ 7. To hurry after someone or something in order to catch them ch _____________ 8. To make a high sound by forcing air through a small hole or passage, especially through the lips, or through a special device held to the lips w______ 9. A type of society in which women have most of the authority and power, or a society in which property belongs to women and is given to children by women rather than men m________ 10. To jump into water, especially with your head and arms going in first, or to move down under the water d__________
II. Vocabulary and Grammar

1. Complete the sentences below using the verbs in brackets: 1. When ____ (go) to Paris, will you see Nadia? 2. I know you dont but imagine, if ___ (live) in Paris, ____ (become) bored of all the beautiful wine and food. 3. If your partner ____ (lie) to you, what ____ (do)? 4. You always drive too fast and the police _____ (arrest) you if they ____ (see) you. 5. Hes already done it three times and if my boss _____ (insult) me again I _____ (leave) my job. 6. The exam was really easy and if Bill _____ (pass), he _____ (go) to university. 7. The exam was really difficult, so its unlikely now, but if Richard _____ (pass), he ____ (go) to university. 8. I love the bracelet, thank you. It _____ (remind) of you when I _____ (look) at it. 2. Insert the following words in the text below: coloring, killer whale, belly, sunlight, blend, underneath, black, color, water, bottlenose Dolphin body (1)________ is highly variable. Some, like the (2)_______, are strikingly black and white. Other dolphins, like the pilot and false killer whales are almost solid (3)_______. The (4)_______ dolphin is usually some shade of gray, but it is much lighter on its (5)______ than on its back. This kind of (6)_______ may help camouflage dolphins in the (7)________. Looking down on them, the dark colors (8)_______ in with the ocean. Looking up from (9)_______, the patches of light and dark skin blend in with the (10)________ coming through the water. 3. Match the idiom with its definition: 1. be another/a different kettle of fish a) a difficult situation

2. be like a fish out of water 3. a big fish (informal) 4. a cold fish 5. drink like a fish (informal) 6. a fine/pretty kettle of fish 7. fish for compliments 8. have bigger/other fish to fry

b) to regularly drink a lot of alcohol c) a person who does not seem very friendly and does not show his emotions d) completely different from something or someone else that has been talked about e) to try to make someone praise you, often by criticizing yourself to them f) to have something more important or more interesting to do g) an important or powerful person in a group or organization h) to feel awkward because you are not familiar with a situation or because you are very different from the people around you

4. Fill in the gaps with the correct idiom from the box: 1. Andy was never very interested in school, but Anna, now she was a completely ___________________. 2. All the other children in the school had rich, middle-class parents, and she was beginning to feel _________________. 3. Mrs. Coughlin is one of the directors - ____________. 4. He isnt very demonstrative, but his mother was a __________ so he probably gets it from her. 5. Harriet had two bottles of wine with her meal - that girl _______________! 6. Thats a ___________ - the car wont start and I have to leave in five minutes. 7. Emma, you know you don't look fat in that dress. Are you _______________? 8. I couldnt waste my time trying to reach an agreement with them, I had ___________.
III. Writing

1. Translate the following passage into English: Organismele vii pot tri n diferite condiii. Unele triesc la temperaturi nalte, altele suport cu uurin gerul puternic. Toate aceste organisme au fost nevoite s se adapteze la mediul nconjurtor. Biologia studiaz procesele vitale att la animale, ct i la plante. Aceste dou mari subdiviziuni n biologie se numesc botanica i zoologia. Att plantele, ct i animalele trebuie s aib anumite condiii pentru existen. Ele nu pot tri fr aer, ap, hran i lumin. Procesele vitale: respiraie, digestie, cretere i reproducere sunt similare.

. , . . , , . . , . , , , . , , . , , . 2. Write a report on: a) The friendship of dolphins and men; b) Dolphins at the service of man.

Chapter III. Anatomy and Physiology


1. The Cardiovascular System

The cardiovascular system is sometimes called the blood-vascular or simply the circulatory system. It consists of the heart, which is a muscular pumping device, and a closed system of vessels called arteries, veins, and capillaries. The human heart is a hollow, pear-shaped organ about the size of a fist. The heart is made of muscle that rhythmically contracts, or beats, pumping blood throughout the body. The heart is like a pump or two pumps in one. The right side of the heart receives blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs. The left side of the heart does the exact opposite: It receives blood from the lungs and pumps it out to the body. The heart is made up of four different blood-filled areas, and each of these areas is called a chamber. There are two chambers on each side of the heart. One chamber is on the top and one chamber is on the bottom. The two chambers on top are called the atria (atrium- singular). The atria are the chambers that fill with the blood returning to the heart from the body and lungs. The heart has a left atrium and a right atrium. The two chambers on the bottom are called the ventricles .The heart has a left ventricle and a right ventricle. Their job is to squirt out the blood to the body and lungs. Running down the middle of the heart is a thick wall of muscle called the septum. The septums job is to separate the left side and the right side of the heart. The atria and ventricles work as a team the atria fill with blood, then send it into the ventricles. The ventricles then squeeze, pumping blood out of the heart. While the ventricles are squeezing, the atria refill and get ready for the next contraction. The blood moves through many tubes called arteries and veins, which together are called blood vessels. These blood vessels are attached to the heart. The blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart are called arteries. The ones that carry blood back to the heart are called veins. Of the vessels, the arteries carry blood away from the heart; the main arterial vessel, the aorta, branches into smaller arteries, which in turn branch repeatedly into still smaller vessels and reach all parts of the body. The movement of the blood through the heart and around the body is called circulation, and it takes less than 60 seconds to pump blood to every cell in your body. Systemic Circulation serves the body except for the lungs, oxygenated blood from the lungs returns to the heart from two pairs of pulmonary veins, a pair from each lung. It enters the left atrium, which contracts when filled, sending blood into the left ventricle. Pulmonary Circulation carries the blood to and from the lungs. In the heart, the blood flows from the right atrium into the right ventricle. In the lungs oxygen

is picked up and carbon dioxide eliminated, and the oxygenated blood returns to the heart via the pulmonary veins, thus completing the circuit. The body needs this steady supply of blood to keep it working right. Blood delivers oxygen to all the bodys cells. To stay alive, a person needs healthy, living cells. Without oxygen, these cells would die. If that oxygen-rich blood doesnt circulate as it should, a person could die. The body takes the oxygen out of the blood and uses it in your bodys cells. When the cells use the oxygen, they make carbon dioxide that gets carried away by the blood. The returning blood enters the right side of the heart. The right ventricle pumps the blood to the lungs for a little freshening up. In the lungs, carbon dioxide is removed from the blood and sent out of the body when we exhale. Circulatory Disorders generally result in diminished flow of blood and diminished oxygen exchange to the tissues. Blood supply is also impeded in such conditions as arteriosclerosis and high blood pressure. The low blood pressure resulting from injury (shock) is manifested by inadequate blood flow. Acute impairment of blood flow to the heart muscle itself with resulting damage to the heart, known as a heart attack or myocardial infarction are the most dangerous. Structural defects of the heart affecting blood distribution may be congenital or caused by many diseases, e.g., rheumatic fever, coronary artery disease, etc. Pulse Even though the heart is inside the body, there is a good way to know its working from the outside. Its the pulse. You can find your pulse by lightly pressing on the skin anywhere theres a large artery running just beneath your skin. Two good places to find it are on the side of your neck and the inside of your wrist, just below the thumb. Youll know that youve found your pulse when you can feel a small beat under your skin. Each beat is caused by the contraction of your heart. If you want to find out what your heart rate is, use a watch with a second hand and count the heart beats. You may even feel your heart pounding in your chest.
Notes to the text

Cardiovascular Heart Vena cava Ventricle Aorta Tissue Capillary Pulmonary Arterial Circulation

[k.di.vs.kj.l] cardiovascular inim [ht] [vin keiv] vena cav [ventrikl] ventricul aorta [e.t] [tu] [kpilri] [plmnri] [tril] [skjlen] esut capilar pulmonar arterial circulaie a

Carbon Dioxide

[kbn] [da ksad]


Ecercises

dioxid de carbon

I. Comprehension Check

1. Answer the following questions: 1. What does the circulatory system consist of? 2. What are the main characteristics of the heart? 3. What is the way the blood passes through the heart? 4. How many types of circulation can be distinguished? 5. Which is the main arterial vessel? 6. Hoe many types of arteries exist in the cardiovascular system? 2. Match the word with its definition: 1. aorta a) it consists of the heart and a closed system of vessels called arteries, veins, and capillaries 2. cardiovascular b) it is a hollow, pear-shaped organ about the system size of a fist. It is also made of muscle that rhythmically contracts, or beats, pumping blood throughout the body 3. heart attack c) the main artery in the form of a thick tube carrying blood from the heart and taking blood to the other parts of the body 4. pulmonary d) it serves the body except for the lungs, Circulation oxygenated blood from the lungs returns to the heart from two pairs of pulmonary veins, a pair from each lung 5. human heart e) carries the blood to and from the lungs 6. vena cava f) a serious medical condition in which the heart does not get enough blood, causing great pain and often leading to death 7. systemic g) one of the two very large veins through which circulation blood returns to the heart, one from the upper body and head and one from all of the body below the chest 3. Find in the text words for each definition below: 1. To force liquid or blood to move somewhere p___________ 2. One of the two spaces at the top part of the heart which receives blood from the veins and pushes it down into the ventricles a______________ 3. One of the two spaces at the bottom part of the heart which receives blood from the veins and pushes it down into the ventricles v ____________

4. The main artery which takes blood to the other parts of the body a_________ 5. A group of connected cells those are similar to each other, have the same purpose and form the stated part of the body t_____________ 6. Describes a disease or condition that exists at or from birth c___________ 7. Not good enough or too low in quality i____________ 8. A tube that carries blood to the heart from the other parts of the body c_____
II. Vocabulary and Grammar

1. Write the correct Present Perfect Simple or Present Perfect Continuous form of the verbs in the brackets: 1. I___________ (read) the book you gave me but I___________(not/finish) it yet. 2. Sorry Im late. Thats all right. I_________ (not/wait) long. 3. You look tired.______________ (you/work) hard? 4. My brother is an actor. He_________ (appear) in several films. 5. Bill and Andy make films. They _________ (make) ten films since they left college. 6. Jimmy is a tennis champion. He___________(play) tennis since he was 11. He___________ (win) the national championship four times. 7. Linda is from Australia. She________ (travel) around Europe for three months. 8. I________ (clean) the windows. So far I _______(clean) five of them and there are two more to do. 9. Theres a strange smell in here. _______________ (you/cook) something? 10.Tom started reading a book. He___________ (read) for two hours. He________ (read) 54 pages so far. 2. Match the idiom with its correct definition: 1. wear your heart on your sleeve 2. from the bottom of your heart 3. absence makes the heart grow fonder 4. chicken-hearted 5. your heart sinks 6. a heart of gold 7. a heart of stone 8. cry your heart out 9. have your heart set on 10. to steal your heart a) you become discouraged or disappointed b) not brave c) with sincere feelings d) to make your feelings and opinions obvious to other people e) being apart from someone you love makes you feel more love for that person f) an unfriendly and unkind character g) a kind and generous character h) to grieve i) wanting something badly j) to win someones love or attention

3. Fill in the gaps with the correct idiom from the box: 1. When I said I loved you, I meant it __________________ 2. Ive never seen such a kind-hearted person. She really has______________. 3. Jack always speaks about his feelings and thoughts to his colleagues, and I advised him to stop________________. 4. Even if they spent two years apart from each other, their feelings are much stronger, because__________________. 5. How can you work with such a mean person in the same office? Its awful to admit, but he has_________________. 6. Abraham felt that_______________ when he failed the exam on biology. 7. James was considered to be a very brave boy, but it turned out that he is _____________________. 8. No matter how sad you are, it is good for you to____________________. 9. My neighbour_____________ a new car, and even if its too expensive, he will do everything to buy it. 10.My brothers girlfriend is very intelligent and attractive, and she________________ of the whole family. 4. Insert the following words in the text below: get over , think of, caused by, take three weeks off , throwing his weight around, coped with, look after, put off , came across , go on , pills, prevention, side, cure, experience As a doctor, I have a lot of patients. One of them, called Simon, was brought to the hospital three weeks ago. It took him a long time to (1) _________ his operation. The pain was (2) ________ an abscess on his joint. Before that, he had taken some (3) ________ and he felt much worse. Because of the pain, he couldnt (4) ________the demands of the new job well. I told him: You need to (5) _________ the (6) ______effects before taking any medicine. I recommended him (7) ___________work following surgery. Working in the hospital is a great (8) ________. It is also interesting to (9) ________different patients. I always advise them not to (10) _______coming to the doctor, because (11) _________is better than (12) _______. All my colleagues are very nice, except for the new hospital manager; he's always (13) __________. I attended a conference recently and I (14) _________ a new cure, which will help the patients get over the operation much easier and they will (15) __________with their present lifestyle.
III. Writing

1. Translate the following passage into English: Inima este organul fibromuscular ce asigur circulaia sngelui n vasele sangvine. Forma este determinat de vrst, sex, constituia fizic, starea de

sntate etc. Inima este constituit din patru camere: atriul stng, atriul drept, ventriculul stng si ventriculul drept. Sngele circul din atriul drept spre ventriculul drept, i trece n plmni prin intermediul arterei pulmonare. Prin venele pulmonare sngele circul napoi n atriul stng i n ventriculul stng. - , . , , , , . , , . , . , . 2) Write an essay on the following statement: A merry heart is like medicine for the soul. (Joyce C. Lock)
Did you know?

If you stung together your blood vessels, they could circle the globe two times. The average three-year-old children have two pints of blood in their bodies. The adult heart pumps nearly 400 galloons of blood each day. You heart beats approximately 30 million times a year. The adult body contains over 60,000 miles of blood vessels.

2. The Respiratory System

The respiratory system includes the lungs, pathways connecting them to the outside environment, and structures in the chest involved with moving air in and out of the lungs. Air enters the body through the nose, is warmed, filtered, and passed through the nasal cavity. Air passes the pharynx (which has the epiglottis that prevents food from entering the trachea). The lungs are situated in the chest, and they are so large that they take up most of the space in there. There are two lungs, but they arent the same size, the lung on the left side of the body being a bit smaller than the lung on the right. The lungs are protected by a rib cage, which is made up of 12 sets of ribs. These ribs are connected to the spine and go around

your lungs to keep them safe. Beneath the lungs is the diaphragm , a dome-shaped muscle that works with your lungs to allow you to inhale (breathe in) and exhale (breathe out) air. From the outside, lungs are pink and a bit squishy, like a sponge. At the bottom of the trachea or windpipe, there are two large tubes. These tubes are called the main stem bronchi, and one heads left into the left lung, while the other heads right into the right lung. Each main stem bronchus then branches off into tubes, or bronchi, that get smaller and even smaller still, like branches on a big tree. The tiniest tubes are called bronchioles, and there are about 30,000 of them in each lung. Each bronchiole is about the same thickness as a hair. At the end of each bronchiole is a special area that leads into clumps of tiny air sacs called alveoli. There are about 600 million alveoli in your lungs. Each alveolus has a mesh-like covering of very small blood vessels called capillaries. Ventilation is the mechanics of breathing in and out. Inhaling is breathing in, when the diaphragm contracts and flattens out. This allows it to move down, so your lungs have more room to grow larger as they fill up with air. And the diaphragm isnt the only part that gives to the lungs the room they need. The rib muscles also lift the ribs up and outward to give the lungs more space. At the same time, you inhale air through your mouth and nose, and the air heads down the trachea, or windpipe. On the way down the windpipe, tiny hairs called cilia move gently to keep mucus and dirt out of the lungs. The air then goes through the series of branches in your lungs, through the bronchi and the bronchioles. The air finally ends up in the 600 million alveoli. As these millions of alveoli fill up with air, the lungs get bigger. Its the alveoli that allow oxygen from the air to pass into your blood. All the cells in the body need oxygen every minute of the day. Oxygen passes through the walls of each alveolus into the tiny capillaries that surround it. The oxygen enters the blood in the tiny capillaries and travels through layers of blood vessels to the heart. The heart then sends the oxygenated (filled with oxygen) blood out to all the cells in the body. When its time to exhale (breathe out), everything happens in reverse. The diaphragm relaxes and moves up, pushing air out of the lungs. The rib muscles become relaxed and the ribs move in again, creating a smaller space in the chest. The air that you breathe out not only contains wastes and carbon dioxide, but its warm, too. As air travels through the body, it picks up heat along the way. Bronchitis is an inflammatory response that reduces airflow and is caused by long-term exposure to irritants such as cigarette smoke, air pollutants, or allergens. Asthma narrows the airways by causing allergy-induced spasms of surrounding muscles or by clogging the airways with mucus Cystic fibrosis is a genetic defect that causes excessive mucus production that clogs the airways. How do we talk? The lungs are important for breathing and for talking, too. Above the trachea is the larynx which is sometimes called the voice box. Across the voice box are two

tiny ridges called vocal cords, which open and close to make sounds. When you exhale air from the lungs, it comes through the trachea and larynx and reaches the vocal cords. If the vocal cords are closed and the air flows between them, the vocal cords vibrate and a sound is made. The amount of air you blow out from your lungs determines how loud a sound will be and how long you can make the sound.
Notes to the text

Lung Pharynx Epiglottis Alveolus Capillary Ventilation Vocal cord Cystic fibrosis Asthma Bronchitis Rib cage Trachea Larynx

[l] [frks] [epglts] [lvils] [kplri] [ventlen] [vkl] [kd] [sstk][fabrss] [sm] [brkats] [rb] [ked] [trki] [lrks]

plmn faringe epiglot alveol capilar ventilaie coard vocal fibroz cistic astm bronit cutie toracic trahee laringe

a a

Exercises I. Comprehension Check

1. Answer the following questions: 1. What does the respiratory system include? 2. What is the way the air passes in the human body? 3. What is the main function of the bronchi? 4. What are the main characteristics of the lungs? 5. Which are the main steps of the process of ventilation? 6. What are the causes of bronchitis and asthma? 7. What does the cystic fibrosis cause? 8. How does the process of talking occur? 2. Match the word with its definition: 1. epiglottis a) this system includes the lungs, pathways connecting them to the outside environment, and structures in the chest involved with moving air in and out of the lungs b) a small flat part at the back of the tongue which closes when you swallow to prevent food from

2. vocal cords

3. respiratory system 4. bronchitis 5. asthma 6. lung 7. bronchi

entering the tube which goes to the lungs c) a pair of folds at the upper end of the throat whose edges move quickly backwards and forwards and produce sound when air from the lungs moves over them d) either of the two organs in the chest with which people and some animals breathe e) the two tubes that branch from the trachea and carry air into the lungs f) a medical condition which makes breathing difficult by causing the air passages to become narrow or blocked g) an illness in which the bronchial tubes become infected and swollen, resulting in coughing and difficulty in breathing

3. Find in the text words for each definition below: 1. To fall down suddenly because of pressure or having no strength or support c_________ 2. In the lungs, one of the very small tubes that branch out from the bronchi and connect to the alveoli b__________ 3. The bone that curves round from your back to your chest r_______ 4. To cause something to become blocked or filled so that movement or activity is difficult c_______ 5. To send air out of your lungs e________ 6. To breathe air, smoke, or gas into your lungs i_________ 7. A substance that makes part of your body sore or painful i_________ 8. The muscle which separates the chest from the lower part of the body d_____ 9. When a muscle suddenly and uncontrollably becomes tighter s_________
II. Vocabulary and Grammar

1. Supply the correct Present Simple or Present Continuous form of the verb in brackets: 1. Hurry! The bus_______ (come). I________ (not/want) to miss it. 2. The River Nile_______ (flow) into The Mediterranean. 3. The river________ (flow) very fast today - much faster than usual. 4. I can not drive, but my father_______ (teach) me. 5. _____________(it/ever/snow) in India? 6. I usually________ (enjoy) parties but I________ (not/enjoy) this one very much. 7. She________ (stay) with her sister at the moment until she finds somewhere to live. 8. The government is worried because the number of people without jobs________(increase)

Please, dont make so much noise. I_________ (study). 10. He_______ (be) a teacher, but he________(not/work) at the moment.
9.

2. Match the idiom with its correct definition: 1. at the top of your lungs 2. have a good pair of lungs 3. breathe new life into 4. a breath of fresh air 5. take your breath away 6. to waste breath 7. breathe a word 8. breathe your last 9. breathe easy 10. breathe down your neck a) to tell a secret b) to die c) something that is new and different, that makes everything seem more exciting d) as loudly as you can e) to relax and stop worrying f) trying to explain or to give an advice which is ignored g) to be able to cry very loudly h) to feel surprise and admiration for something that is beautiful or special i) to stay close to someone, watching what they do j) to bring new ideas and energy to something

3. Fill in the gaps with the correct idiom from the box: 1. It is awful having a boss who ________________all the time. 2. Jane is so cheerful and lively shes like _____________when she visits us. 3. We need some new people _______________into this project. 4. Her eyes fluttered open for a moment and then she_______________ 5. If you ____________of this to anyone, Ill be really upset. 6. Honestly, youre ____________he doesn't want to hear what anyone else has got to say. 7. The baby is crying too loud. He must have_________________ 8. Because of the noise in the class, the teacher had to speak____________ 9. After such a stressful event, finally she could____________________ 10. Jane was so impressed and could not concentrate on her homework. The new dress________________ 4. Insert the following words in the text below:

surgery/operation, lung, broken/fractured, twisted, waiting, attack, injection, syringe, care, sound, look forward to, well , plaster, vet, needle Jill slipped on the icy street and (1) ______ her ankle. It is not (2)______ so it is not in (3) ________but it hurts her a lot and she must rest and avoid walking. Grandma has had a (4) ________ cancer for the last few months caused by heavy smoking. She had to have a (5) _______ last Monday. We were all sitting in the (6) _______ room keeping our fingers crossed. Now she is getting better and shell be home for Christmas. We will also have a new puppy for Christmas too because our old Sara, who was deaf and blind, had a heart (7) ________ and when we took her to the (8) ______ he gave her a lethal (9) _________ to finish her suffering. I couldnt watch it and went out when I saw the doctor with a (10) ________ and a (11)________ on it. All in all, I think that public health (12) ________ in our country is nowadays much better for animals. Anyway, thats all my news for now. I hope all the family is (13) ________ soon and you can visit us next month. All of us (14) _______ seeing you again. I hope everybody will be safe and (15) _______
III. Writing

1. Translate the following passage into English: Sistemul respirator uman a fost creat de natur pentru realizarea mai multor funcii, ca esenial fiind cea de asigurare a organismului cu oxigen din atmosfer i de eliminare a dioxidului de carbon - produs final al metabolismului. Cile respiratorii i iau nceputul n cavitatea nazal i sfresc n alveolele pulmonare, unde are loc schimbul de gaze. Prin ptrunderea n cavitatea nazal i n cile nazale, aerul se nclzeste, se umezete i se cur. , - . , . , , , . 2) Write an essay on the following statement: The air we breathe is the product of human progress.

3. The Digestive System

The human digestive system is a coiled, muscular tube (6-9 meters long when fully extended) stretching from the mouth to the anus. Several specialized compartments occur along this length: mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus. Accessory digestive organs are connected to the main system by a series of ducts: salivary glands, parts of the pancreas, the liver and gall bladder. Digestion involves the mixing of food, its movement through the digestive tract, and chemical breakdown of the large molecules of food into smaller molecules. Digestion begins in the mouth, when we chew and swallow, and is completed in the small intestine. Typical movement of the esophagus, stomach, and intestine is called peristalsis. The esophagus is the organ into which the swallowed food is pushed. It connects the throat above with the stomach below. The food then enters the stomach. During a meal, the stomach gradually fills to a capacity of 1 liter. Pepsin is an enzyme that controls the hydrolysis of proteins into peptides. The stomach has three mechanical tasks to do. First, the stomach must store the swallowed food and liquid. The second job is to mix up the food, liquid, and digestive juice produced by the stomach. The third task of the stomach is to empty its contents slowly into the small intestine. The pancreas sends pancreatic juice to the small intestine through the pancreatic duct. In addition to this digestive function, the pancreas is the site of production of several hormones, such as glucagon and insulin. After a meal, blood glucose levels rise, prompting the release of insulin, which causes cells to take up glucose, and liver and skeletal muscle cells to form the carbohydrate glycogen. As glucose levels in the blood fall, further insulin production is inhibited. Diabetes results from inadequate levels of insulin. The liver produces and sends bile to the small intestine. Bile contains bile salts, which emulsify fats. In addition to digestive functions, the liver plays several other roles: 1) detoxification of blood; 2) synthesis of blood proteins; 3) production of bile; 4) storage of glucose as glycogen, and its release when blood sugar levels drop. The gall bladder stores excess bile for release at a later time. The small intestine is where final digestion and absorption occur. The small intestine is a coiled tube over 3 meters long. The absorption process also occurs in the small intestine. Food has been broken down into particles small enough to pass into the small intestine. Absorption is an active transport, requiring cellular energy. The small intestine is the major site for digestion and absorption of nutrients. The

upper part, the duodenum, is the most active in digestion. Secretions from the liver and pancreas are used for digestion in the duodenum. The large intestine is made up by the colon, appendix, and rectum. Material in the large intestine is mostly indigestible residue and liquid.
Notes to the text

Digestion Esophagus Stomach Pancreas Liver Diabetes Intestine Duodenum Glycogen Insulin Hydrolysis

[dadestn] [sfgs] [stmk] [pkris] [lv] [dabitiz] [ntestn] [djudinm] [glakudn] [nsjuln] [hadrulss]

digestie esofag stomac pancreas ficat diabet intestin duoden glicogen insulin hidroliz

a a

Exercises I. Comprehension Check

1. Answer the following questions: 1. What are the main compartments of the human digestive system? 2. What does the process of digestion involve? 3. How is the movement of the esophagus, stomach, and intestine called? 4. What are the main tasks of the stomach? 5. What are the functions of the liver and the pancreas? 6. Where does the final digestion and absorption occur? 7. Where are the glucagons and insulin produced? 8. What is the main role of the bile? 2. Match the word with its definition: 1. digestion a) The organ that secretes hydrochloric acid and pepsin. During a meal, it gradually fills to a capacity of one liter and has three mechanical tasks to do b) produces and sends bile to the small intestine via the hepatic duct c) the place where final digestion and absorption occur

2. digestive system 3. peristalsis

4. stomach

d) it is made up by the colon, appendix, and rectum. 5. liver e) typical movement of the esophagus, stomach, and intestine 6. small intestine f) it is a coiled, muscular tube (six - nine meters long when fully extended) stretching from the mouth to the anus 7. the large intestine g) it involves the mixing of food, its movement through the digestive tract, and chemical breakdown of the large molecules of food into smaller molecules 3. Find in the text words for each definition below: 1. To cause different substances to combine, so that the result cannot easily be separated into its parts m___________ 2. A division of something into smaller parts b________________ 3. The process of taking something into another substance a___________ 4. Any of various chemicals made by living cells which influence the development, growth, etc, and are carried around the body in the blood h______ 5. To cause food to move from your mouth into your stomach by using the muscles of your throat, or to use the muscles of your throat as if doing this s____ 6. Easily influenced or harmed by something s ___________ 7. The process by which a certain liquid is produced and released s___________ 8. Something added to a part, which has a useful or decorative purpose a______
II. Vocabulary and Grammar

1. Supply the correct Present Simple form of the verb in brackets: 1. Jane ________ (read) The Guardian newspaper, but I_______(read) The Independent. 2. Fred _________(cycle) to work, but his wife______(go) by car 3. Mark________ (to say) he_______ (to do) a lot of fishing, but he never______(to catch) anything. 4. How often__________ (Ann/watch) television? 5. Diana_______ (to like) Physics, Chemistry and Biology; She always_______ (to get) good marks in her science exams. 6. What ___________(you/do)? Im an electrical engineer. 7. If you need money, why________(you/not/get) a job? 8. I dont understand the word deceive. What __________(deceive) mean? 9. Where ___________(your/father/come) from? He_______(come) from Scotland? 10.The Earth________(go ) round the sun. The sun_______(not/go) round the Earth.

2. Match the idiom with its correct definition: 1. someones eyes are bigger than their a) to say what you think someone else stomach should say 2. have butterflies in your stomach b) to say exactly what someone else is about to say 3. a strong stomach c) to be soft and creamy 4. lily-livered d) do not criticize or feel doubt about something good that has been offered to you 5. have a frog in your throat e) to be the son or daughter of a very rich family 6. be born with a silver spoon in your f) to be unable to speak clearly until mouth you give a slight cough 7. not look a gift horse in the mouth g) not brave 8. melt in your mouth h) the ability not to be upset by unpleasant things 9. take the words (right) out of i) to feel very nervous, usually about someones mouth something you are going to do 10. put words in someones mouth j) something that you say when someone has taken more food than they can eat 3. Fill in the gaps with the correct idiom from the box: 1. I cant finish this piece of cake. Im afraid my ______________________ 2. She was nervous and she couldnt start singing. She had_______________ 3. You have to have a ______________to deal with so many troubles. 4. This boy is not courageous at all! He is such a ___________ 5. Before taking the exam, Jane was very stressed and had____________ 6. His complete lack of concern about money is natural of someone who was____________ 7. If I were you, is such a situation I wouldnt______________ 8. The cake looks great. It_____________ 9. I was just going to mention that, but you took the words _______________ 10. I have never told such things about our boss! Dont try to_______________ 4. Insert the following words in the text below: scars, suffer, diagnosis, examined, vaccine, runny nose, sore, pressure, prescription, ointment, chicken, itch, indigestion, headache, painkillers Winter started last week and all the family are already ill! Jane, my eldest sister, was the first. She came from school feeling not well. She had a terrible (1) _______ (She said her head was going to explode!), (2) __________ (nose

sneezing all the time) and a (3) _________ throat. She went to the doctor who (4) ________ her carefully: took the temperature and blood (5) ________, looked into her throat and made the (6) ________ you (7) _________ from flu. He gave her a (8) __________ for antibiotics and pain (9) __________ and sent her home telling that next year she should buy a (10) _________ against flu so that she doesnt catch it. Two days later my little brother caught (11) _________ pox in the nursery school. My mother said that it is typical of children .The doctor gave him some (12) _________ for the rash which looks like a cream but smells awfully! The spots he has all over his body (13) ________ him but mom says he shouldnt scratch because it may leave ugly (14) _______forever. My father is another story. He went to some very important party in his company with very expensive exotic food. As a result he has an (15) ____________!
III. Writing

1. Translate the following passage into English: Tractul gastrointestinal poate fi prezentat sub form de pip, cu o lungime de aproximativ 6-9 m. Compartimentele superioare ale tractului digestiv sunt reprezentate de cavitatea bucal, faringe, esofag, stomac, seciunea superioar a intestinului subire, precum i intestinul gros, cu seciunea sa final - rectul. Stomacul este reprezentat sub form de sac i este o expansiune a tubului digestiv, situat ntre esofag i duoden. Alimentele din cavitatea bucal ptrund n stomac prin esofag. Din stomac, alimentele parial digerate trec n duoden. - 6-9 . , , , , , . , . . , , . 2. Write an essay on the following statement: To eat is a necessity, but to eat intelligently is an art (La Rochefoucauld) Chapter IV. The Nervous System
1. The Nervous System Division

The nervous system is a collection of cells, tissues, and organs. It can be split into two separate divisions: the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system (CNS) acts as the command center of the body. It interprets incoming sensory information, and then sends out instructions on how the body should react. The CNS consists of two major parts: the brain and the spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is the part of the nervous system outside of the CNS. It consists mainly of nerves that extend from the brain and spinal cord to areas in the rest of the body. Cranial nerves carry impulses to and from the brain while spinal nerves carry impulses to and from the spinal cord. The PNS can be divided into two systems: the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. The somatic nervous system controls the voluntary movements of the skeletal muscles. The autonomic nervous system control activities in the body that is involuntary or automatic. These include theactions of the heart, glands, digestive organs and associated parts. The autonomic nervous system can be divided further into two subdivisions: the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems. These two subdivisions work against each other. The parasympathetic nervous system regulates involuntary activities that keep the body running under normal, everyday conditions. The sympathetic nervous system controls involuntary activities that help the body respond to stressful situations. The human brain is a soft, shiny, grayish white, mushroom-shaped structure. At birth, a typical human brain weighs between 350 and 400 grams. By the time an average person reaches adulthood, the brain weighs about 1.36 kilograms. The brain consists of gray and white matter. Gray matter is nerve tissue in the CNS composed of neuron cell bodies and axons; white matter is nerve tissue in the CNS composed chiefly of bundles of axons. The brain has three main parts, the cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the brain stem. The brain is divided into regions that control specific functions. Scientists divide the brain into four different sections called lobes. The lobes are responsible for many different things such as emotions, reasoning, hearing, vision, and more responsibilities. The location and the characteristics of the lobes are explained in the chart below:

Location

Characteristics

Frontal Lobe

- is found in the area around your forehead - is found behind

it is concerned with emotions, reasoning, planning, movement, and parts of speech. It is also involved in acts such as creativity, judgment, problem solving, and planning they are connected with the

Parietal Lobe

the frontal lobes, above the temporal lobes, and at the top back of the brain - is found on either side of the brain and just above the ears - is found in the back of the brain

Temporal Lobe

Occipital Lobe

nerve impulses related to the senses, such as touch, pain, taste, pressure, and temperature; they also have language functions they are responsible for hearing, memory, meaning, and language; they also play a role in emotion and learning, interpreting and processing auditory stimuli. it deals with the brains ability to recognize objects; it is responsible for our vision

The Anatomy of the Brain

The brain stem is the stalk of the brain and is a continuation of the spinal cord. All messages that are transmitted between the brain and spinal cord pass through the medulla. Centers that help coordinate swallowing, vomiting, hiccupping, coughing, sneezing, and other basic functions of life are also located in the medulla. Twelve pair of cranial nerves originates in the underside of the brain. Cranial nerves bring information to the brain from regions in the face, head, and neck. The only exception is the vagus nerve. It is the lone cranial nerve that serves other areas of the body. The Diecephalon lies above the brain stem, and includes the thalamus and hypothalamus. The thalamus receives information from the outside environment in the form of sound, smell, and taste. The hypothalamus controls normal body temperature and helps regulate the endocrine system, which produces hormones or chemical messengers that regulate body functions. It informs the body when it is hungry, full, or thirsty. The Cerebrum makes up about 80 percent of the brains weight. It lies above the diencephalon. The cerebrums outer layer, the cerebral cortex, is made entirely of gray matter. The left side of the brain functions mainly in speech, logic, writing, and arithmetic. The right side of the brain, on the other hand, is more concerned with imagination, art, symbols, and spatial relations. The cerebellum is located below the cerebrum and behind the brain stem, and is shaped like a butterfly. The cerebellum controls the actions of the muscular

system needed for movement, balance, and posture. All motor activity in the body depends on the cerebellum. The spinal cord is a continuation of the brain stem. It transmits impulses to and from the brain. The vertebral column or backbone encloses the spinal cord. This long channel, made of individual bones called vertebrae, protects the spinal cord from mechanical injury. Extending out from the spinal cord between the vertebrae are thirty-one pair of spinal nerves. The first or top eight pairs (located in the neck area) bring impulses to and from the head, neck, shoulders, arms, and diaphragm. The next twelve pairs (located in the chest area) bring impulses to and from the trunk of the body. The remaining eleven pairs bring impulses to and from the lower part of the bodythe hips, pelvic cavity, and legs.
Nerves

The human brain is full of billions of microscopic cells. Many of these cells are special messengers called neurons. Neuron means nerve cell. We have about 100 billion neurons in our body. Neurons carry special signals back and forth throughout the body. Nerves are a large amounts of neurons linked together in a small place. The neurons inside the brain have three basic parts: a cell body, an axon, and a dendrite. Neurons talk to each other by sending chemicals to each other across a very tiny space called a synapse. Learning happens when two neurons talk to each other. As the brain makes connections, it actually grows dendrites and makes stronger synapses.
2. The Multiple Intelligences Theory

This theory was first developed by Howard Gardner, who describes an array of different kinds of intelligences exhibited by human beings. Gardner suggests that each individual manifests different levels of intelligences, and thus each person has a unique cognitive profile. The theory was first laid out in Gardners 1983 book, Frames of Mind: the Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Originally, he identified seven core intelligences: linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal and intrapersonal. In 1999 he added an eighth, the naturalistic intelligence.
Linguistic Intelligence

Verbal-linguistic intelligence has to do with words, spoken or written. People with verbal-linguistic intelligence show a facility with words and languages. They are typically good at reading, writing, telling stories and memorizing words

and dates. They are also frequently skilled at explaining, teaching, etc. Careers which suit those with this intelligence include writers, lawyers, philosophers, journalists, politicians and teachers.
Musical Intelligence

This area has to do with rhythm, music, and hearing. Those who have a high level of musical-rhythmic intelligence display greater sensitivity to sounds, rhythms, tones, and music, and are able to sing, play musical instruments, and compose music. Careers which suit those with this intelligence include instrumentalists, singers, conductors, disc-jockeys, and composers. Logical-Mathematical Intelligence (%< 1-2-3) This area has to do with logic, abstractions, inductive and deductive reasoning, and numbers. Careers which suit those with this intelligence include scientists, mathematicians, engineers, doctors and economists.
Spatial Intelligence

People with a developed spatial intelligence have an ability to think in three dimensions and can often duplicate inner and external imagery. Careers which suit those with this intelligence include artists, engineers, architects, pilots, sculptors, and painters.
Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence

This area has to do with movement and doing. People are generally good at physical activities such as sports or dance and often prefer activities which use movement. People who have this intelligence usually learn better by getting up and moving around.
Intrapersonal Intelligence

Those who are strongest in this intelligence are typically introverts and prefer to work alone. They are usually highly self-aware and capable of understanding their own emotions, goals and motivations. They learn best when allowed to concentrate on the subject by themselves. Careers which suit those with this intelligence include philosophers, psychologists, theologians, writers and scientists.
Interpersonal Intelligence

This area has to do with interaction with others. People in this category are usually extroverts and are characterized by their sensitivity to others moods, feelings, temperaments and motivations. They typically learn best by working with others and often enjoy discussion and debate. Careers which suit those with this intelligence include politicians, managers, teachers, and social workers.
Naturalist Intelligence

This is the eighth and newest of the intelligences, added to the theory in 1999. Such people are good at recognizing and classifying different species. Naturalists learn best when the subject involves collecting and analyzing, or is closely related to something in nature. Botanists and gardeners have highly developed naturalist intelligences.
Here is a chart to show you more about each intelligence area:

Intelligence Area

Likes To Read and write Solve Problem Design, draw, or build Play sports and dance Sing, hum, and listen to music Talk to peole and join groups Work alone and reflect Work with nature

Learns Best Through Reading, hearing

Famous Examples T.S.Elliot, Abraham Lincoln Albert Einstein, Dewey J Pablo Picasso, Fischer B Michael Jordan, Charlie Chaplin Ella Fitzgerald, Mozart Ronald Reagan Eleanor Roosevelt, Sigmund Freud Charles Darwin

Is Strong In

Linguistic

Reading and writing

Mathe matical

Working with patterns Working with pictures Touching and moving Rhythm, melody, and listening Sharing, comparing, cooperating Work alone Working with plants animals

Math, logical thinking

Spatial

Reading maps, drawing puzzles Athletics, dancing Singing, picking up sounds and music Understanding people, leading, organizing Understanding yourself, setting goals Learning names of plants, animal and animals

Kinesthetic

Common Misbehavio urs Passing notes. reading during lessons Working on math or building during lessons Doodling, drawing, day dreaming Fidgeting, wandering around the room Tapping a pencil or your feet Talking, passing notes Disagreeing with others Staying outside too long

Musical

Inter personal Intra personal

Naturalist

3. Nervous System Disorders

Alzheimer s disease is a progressive disease that occurs in the brain and often results in the following: impaired memory, thinking and behavior, confusion, restlessness, personality and behavior changes, impaired judgment, impaired communication, language deterioration, etc. When Alzheimers was first identified by German physician, Alois Alzheimer, in 1906, it was considered a rare disorder. Today, with one in 10 persons over age 65 affected, Alzheimers disease is recognized as the most

common cause of dementia (a disorder in which mental functions deteriorate and breakdown). There is not a single, comprehensive test for diagnosing Alzheimers disease. At this time, there is no cure for Alzheimers and no treatment available to reverse the deterioration of Alzheimers disease. Epilepsy is a common chronic neurological disorder characterized by repeated unprovoked seizures. A seizure occurs when part(s) of the brain receives a burst of abnormal electrical signals that temporarily interrupts normal electrical brain function. While the exact cause of the seizure may not be known, the more common seizures are caused by the following: birth trauma, alcohol or drugs, head trauma, infection, etc. The person may have varying degrees of symptoms depending upon the type of seizure. Symptoms or warning signs may include: staring, jerking movements of the arms and legs, loss of consciousness, falling suddenly for no apparent reason, not responding to noise or words for brief periods, nodding the head. About 50 million people worldwide have epilepsy at any one time. Epilepsy is usually controlled, but not cured, with medication, although surgery may be considered in difficult cases. Meningitis is a medical condition that is caused by inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. The inflammation is usually caused by infection with viruses, bacteria, or other microorganisms but may also arise due to certain drugs, or other diseases. Meningitis is potentially life threatening due to the inflammations proximity to the brain and spinal cord; it is therefore a medical emergency. The most common symptoms of meningitis are headache and neck stiffness associated with fever, confusion or altered consciousness, and an inability to tolerate bright light (photophobia) or loud noises (phonophobia). If a rash is present, it may indicate a particular cause of meningitis. Meningitis is diagnosed using a technique called lumbar puncture, which involves inserting a needle into the spinal column to extract a sample of cerebrospinal fluid, the fluid that envelops the brain and spinal cord. Meningitis must be treated promptly with antibiotics and sometimes antiviral drugs. Meningitis can lead to serious long-term consequences such as deafness, epilepsy, hydrocephalus and cognitive deficit, especially if not treated quickly. Parkinsons disease is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that often impairs the sufferers motor skills, speech, and other functions. Parkinsons disease belongs to a group of conditions called movement disorders. It is characterized by muscle rigidity, tremor, a slowing of physical movement and, in extreme cases, a loss of physical movement. The primary symptoms are the results of decreased stimulation of the motor cortex by the basal ganglia. Secondary symptoms may include high level cognitive dysfunction and subtle language problems. PD is the most common cause of chronic progressive parkinsonism, a term which refers to the syndrome of tremor, rigidity, and postural instability. The disease is named after English physician James Parkinson, who made a detailed description of the disease in his essay: An Essay on the Shaking Palsy (1817).

Notes to the text

Cerebellum Spinal Nerve Hypothalamus Cerebrum Thalamus Synapse Lobe Cerebral Hemisphere Dysfunction Epilepsy Meningitis Tumour Trauma

[serbelm] [spanl] [nv] [hapulms] [srbrm] [lms] [sanps] [lub] [serbrl] [hemsf] [dsfkn ] [eplepsi] [menndats ] [tjum] [trm ]

cerebel spinal nerv hipotalamus creier talamus sinaps lob cerebral emisfer disfuncie epilepsie meningit tumoare traum
Exercises

I. Comprehension Check

1. Answer the following questions: 1. How can you define the nervous system and what are the divisions it consists of? 2. What are the systems of the PNS? 3. How many lobes is the brain divided into? 4. What are the main features of the brain? 5. What are the constituent elements of the nerve? 6. Which is the role of the Diecephalon? 7. What is the connection between Cerebrum and Cerebellum? 8. What are the peculiarities of the Spinal Cord? 9. What are the main nervous system disorders? 10. How many intelligences did Howard Gardner distinguish?

2. Match the word with its definition: 1. thalamus a) there are three vital centres controlling heartbeat, rate of breathing, and diameter of the blood vessels. It also comprises the centers that help coordinate swallowing, vomiting, hiccupping, coughing, and sneezing b) it is the lone cranial nerve that serves other areas of the body. This nerve branches extensively to the larynx, heart, lungs, stomach, and intestines

2. medulla

3.cerebellum

4. spinal cord 5. the right side of the brain 6. vagus nerve 7. hypothalamus 8. the left side of the brain

c) it interprets sensations of pain, pressure, temperature, and touch, and is concerned with some of our emotions and memory. It also receives information from the outside environment in the form of sound, smell, and taste d) it controls normal body temperature and helps regulate the endocrine system, which produces hormones or chemical messengers that regulate body functions e) is is concerned mainly with speech, logic, writing, and arithmetic f) it is more concerned with imagination, art, symbols, and spatial relations g) it controls the actions of the muscular system needed for movement, balance, posture and the motor activity in the body depends on it h) it comprises thirty-one pair of spinal nerves

3. Find in the text words for each definition below: 1. This is the system that controls activities in the body that is involuntary or automatic, including the actions of the heart, glands, and digestive organs and associated parts a ________ s__________ 2. It regulates involuntary activities that keep the body running smoothly under normal, everyday conditions p__________ s_________ 3. It controls involuntary activities that help the body respond to stressful situations s_______ s________ 4. This system controls the voluntary movements of the skeletal muscles s________ s_________ 5. People with this type of intelligence display a facility with words and languages v_____ l_______ 6. Those that are the strongest in this intelligence are typically introverts and prefer to work alone i_________ 7. People in this category are usually extroverts and are characterized by their sensitivity to others moods, feelings, temperaments and motivations i______ 8. People with this intelligence have an ability to think in three dimensions and can often duplicate inner and external imagery s__________
II. Vocabulary and Grammar

1. Supply the correct Past Perfect form of the verbs in the brackets: 1. Tom wasnt home when I arrived. He_____________ (just/go/out). 2. We arrived at the cinema too late and the film____________ (already/begin) 3. Sorry Im late. The car_______ (break) down on my way here. 4. He refused the invitation to the restaurant because he________ (just/have) dinner.

5. I was very pleased to see Nora after such a long time. I_______ (not/see) her for five years. 6. The local cinema was no longer open. It____________ (close) down. 7. When I got home, I found that someone_______ (to break) into my flat. 8. I didnt water the flowers because my sister_________ (already/do) this for me. 9. By 2 oclock p.m. the children_________ (already/have) lunch. 10. After she________ (write) the letter, she posted it. 2. Match the idiom with its correct definition: 1. be the brains behind something a) to refuse to think about an unpleasant situation, hoping that it will improve so that you will not have to deal with it b) to be the person who plans and organizes something, especially something successful c) the ability to stay calm and think clearly in a difficult situation d) to have just enough money to live or to continue a business e) to hurt someone f) to spend a lot of time worrying about a problem and thinking about how to deal with it g) to be worried about something you have to do h) to be very angry with someone and want them to be punished i) to get information and advice from someone j) a stupid person

2. beat your brains out 3. a bird-brain 4. pick someones brains 5. bury your head in the sand 6. a cool head 7. keep your head above water 8. harm a hair on someones Head 9. have something hanging over your head 10. someones head on a plate

3. Fill in the gaps with the correct idiom from the box: 1. He ____________many of the best films ever made. 2. Ive been ______ trying to think of a way of getting the money to her in time. 3. The new kids can ___________who have played against these teams before. 4. Parents complained about teachers attitude, but the headmaster just _______ 5. These are very stressful situations and you have to________________ 6. The company isnt a successful one. It takes great effort to_______________ 7. He adores the girl. He would never ___________ 8. I hate having so many debts _____________

9. The director was furious at what had happened and wanted Watts ________ 10.He is such a_____________. He never does his work correctly. 4. Insert the following words in the text below: realize, frame, pump, self-servicing , love, controlling, lasts, to, taken, measure, ones, faults, aware, types, laugh The human body is rather like a machine. Think of the brain as a computer and the heart as the (1) ________which beats 36 million times a year. The muscles are the engines. The skeleton is the (2) ________or chassis. A car only (3) _______about 12 or 14 years, but the body machine lasts up (4) ________100 years or more. Cars have to be (5) ________off the road for repairs and servicing. The body is (6) ________. Old cells are constantly replaced with new (7) _________. A car cannot be driven for more than a few hours without a rest, but the body machine is always ticking over. The brain works all the time, (8) ________everything we do. A man-made computer may be better at adding up, but it cannot (9) ________or cry. I believe we should not blame machines for the (10) ________we build into them. They can make us more (11) _________ of the need to look after ourselves. However, we should (12) ________ that the body machine needs different (13) ________of fuel. (14)________and excitements are two important examples. Well never be able to (15) _______such things on a fuel gauge, but we all know how important they are.
III.Writing

1. Translate the following passage into English: Sistemul nervos regleaz activitatea tuturor organelor i sistemelor, de asemenea, asigur contactul organismului viu cu mediul nconjurtor. Unitatea structural a sistemului nervos este neuronul. Sistemul nervos poate fi divizat in dou compartimente: sistemul nervos somatic i vegetativ (autonom). Sistemul nervos somatic ndeplinete funcia de contact al organismului cu mediul nconjurtor, asigurnd sensibilitatea i mobilitatea organismului. Sistemul nervos vegetativ acioneaz asupra proceselor aa-numitei viei vegetative . . . - , . , . .

2) Write an essay on the following statement: Mens sana in corpore sano (Juvenal)
Did you know?

A stegosaurus dinosaur weighed approximately 1,600 kg but had a brain that weighed only approximately 70 grams (0.07 kg). Therefore, the brain was only 0.004% of its total body weight. In contrast, an adult human weighs approximately 70 kg and has a brain that weighs approximately 1.4 kg. Thus, the human brain is about 2% of the total body weight. There are around 30,000 million nerve cells in the body. A nerve cell can transmit 1,000 nerve impulses each second. Unlike humans who can become paralyzed after damage to their spinal cord, fish and frogs can regenerate a severed spinal cord.

Chapter V. Medicine and Health


1. Health Classification

Mental health refers to an individuals emotional and psychological well-being. According to the World Health Organization, there is no single official definition of mental health. Cultural differences, subjective assessments, and competing professional theories all affect how mental health is defined. In general, most experts agree that mental health and mental illness are not opposites. In other words, the

absence of a recognized mental disorder is not necessarily an indicator of sound mental health. Physical health is good bodily health, and is the result of regular exercise, proper diet and nutrition, and proper rest for physical recovery. Hygiene is the practice of keeping the body clean to prevent infection and illness, and the avoidance of contact with infectious agents. Hygiene practices include bathing, brushing and flossing teeth, washing hands especially before eating, washing food before it is eaten, cleaning food preparation utensils and surfaces before and after preparing meals, and many others. This may help prevent infection and illness. By cleaning the body, dead skin cells are washed away with the germs, reducing their chance of entering the body. Stress management is the application of methods to either reduce stress or increase tolerance to stress. Exercising to improve physical fitness, especially cardiovascular fitness, boosts the immune system and increases stress tolerance. Relaxation techniques are physical methods used to relieve stress. Psychological methods include cognitive therapy, meditation, and positive thinking which work by reducing response to stress. Health care is the prevention, treatment, and management of illness and the preservation of mental and physical well being through the services offered by the medical, nursing, and allied health professions. According to the World Health Organization, health care embraces all the goods and services designed to promote health, including preventive, curative and palliative interventions, whether directed to individuals or to populations. Public health is the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health to communities and individuals. It is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. Public health has many sub-fields, but is typically divided into the categories of epidemiology, biostatistics and health services.

Immune System

The immune system is the bodys defense against infectious organisms and other invaders. Through a series of steps called the immune response, the immune system attacks organisms and substances that invade our systems and cause disease. The immune system is made up of a network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to protect the body. The cells that are part of this defense system are white blood cells, or leukocytes. Leukocytes are produced or stored in many locations throughout the

body, including the thymus, spleen, and bone marrow. For this reason, they are called the lymphoid organs. The leukocytes circulate through the body between the organs and nodes by means of the lymphatic vessels. Leukocytes can also circulate through the blood vessels. In this way, the immune system works in a coordinated manner to monitor the body for germs or substances that might cause problems. The two basic types of leukocytes are: 1) phagocytes are cells that chew up invading organisms. A number of different cells are considered phagocytes. The most common type is the neutrophil, which primarily fights bacteria. If doctors are worried about a bacterial infection, they might order a blood test to see if a patient has an increased number of neutrophils triggered by the infection. 2) lymphocytes are cells that allow the body to remember and recognize previous invaders and help the body destroy them .There are two kinds of lymphocytes: the B lymphocytes and the T lymphocytes. Lymphocytes start out in the bone marrow and either stay there and mature into B cells, or they leave for the thymus gland, where they mature into T cells. B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes have separate jobs to do: B lymphocytes are like the body's military intelligence system, seeking out their targets and sending defenses to lock onto them. T cells are like the soldiers, destroying the invaders that the intelligence system has identified. Antigens are foreign substances that invade the body. When an antigen is detected, several types of cells work together to recognize and respond to it. These cells trigger the B lymphocytes to produce antibodies, specialized proteins that lock onto specific antigens. Antibodies and antigens fit together like a key and a lock. Once the B lymphocytes have produced antibodies, these antibodies continue to exist in a person's body, so that if the same antigen is presented to the immune system again, the antibodies are already there to do their job. This is also why we use immunizations to prevent getting certain diseases.

Who is a couch potato?

A couch potato is a person who spends most of his or her free time sitting or lying on a couch. This stereotype often refers to a lazy and overweight person who watches a lot of television. Generally speaking, the term refers to a lifestyle in which children or adults dont get enough physical activity. The term couch potato was first coined in 1976 by a friend of American underground comics artist Robert Armstrong. In the early-

1980s, he registered the term as a trademark with the US government. The term eventually entered common American vocabulary, generally defining one who unceasingly watches television. The phrase was entered into the Oxford English Dictionary in 1993. Mingo, the Minister of Information and Propaganda for the official Couch Potatoes organization, explained why the potato was chosen as a vegetable role model: Were an underground movement, were all eyes when planted in front of the TV, vegetation is an important part of our existence, and were Tubers.
AIDS

AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is a set of symptoms and infections resulting from the damage to the human immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This condition progressively reduces the effectiveness of the immune system and leaves individuals susceptible to opportunistic infections and tumors. It is transmitted through direct contact of a mucous membrane or the bloodstream with a bodily fluid containing HIV, such as blood, semen, and breast milk. Many people who use needles to take intravenous drugs or steroids share the needles with others. A person with HIV who shares a needle also shares the virus, which lives in the tiny amounts of blood attached to the needle. Also, newborn babies are at risk of getting the HIV virus from their mothers if theyre infected. AIDS is now a pandemic. In 2007, an estimated 33.2 million people lived with the disease worldwide, and it killed an estimated 2.1 million people, including 330,000 children. Over three-quarters of these deaths occurred in Africa, retarding economic growth and destroying human capital. Most researchers believe that HIV originated in Africa during the twentieth century.
2. Stomach and Intestinal Infections

Appendicitis. The appendix is a small finger-like organ that is attached to the large intestine in the lower right side of the abdomen. The inside of the appendix forms a cul-de-sac that usually opens into the large intestine. When that opening gets blocked, the appendix swells and can easily get infected by bacteria. If the infected appendix isnt removed, it can burst and spread bacteria and infection throughout the abdomen and lead to serious health problems. Appendicitis mostly affects kids between the ages of 11 and 20, and is rare in infants. The symptoms are: significant abdominal pain, especially around the bellybutton or in the lower right part of the abdomen, low-grade fever, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, swollen or bloated abdomen, etc. A salmonella infection is a foodborne illness caused by the salmonella bacteria carried by some animals, which can be transmitted from kitchen surfaces and can be in water, soil, raw meats, and eggs. Salmonella infections typically affect the intestines, causing vomiting, fever, etc. You can help prevent salmonella infections by not serving any raw meat or eggs, and by not keeping reptiles or pets, particularly if you have very young

children. Hand washing is a powerful way to guard against salmonella infections, so its essential to teach kids to wash their hands. Not everyone who ingests salmonella bacteria will become ill. Children, especially infants, are the most likely candidates to get sick from it.
Bacterial and Viral Infections

Influenza, commonly known as the flu, is a highly contagious viral infection of the respiratory tract. The illness even has its own season from November to April, with most cases occurring between late December and early March. The flu is often confused with the common cold, but flu symptoms are usually more severe than the typical sneezing and stuffiness of a cold. Symptoms of the flu may include: fever , chills , headache , muscle aches, dizziness , loss of appetite , tiredness , cough , sore throat , runny nose , nausea or vomiting , weakness, etc. After 5 days, fever and other symptoms usually disappear, but a cough and weakness may continue. All symptoms are usually gone within a week or two. Chickenpox is a common illness among kids, particularly those under age 12. An itchy rash of spots can appear all over the body and may be accompanied by flu-like symptoms. Symptoms usually go away without treatment, but because the infection is very contagious, an infected child should stay home and rest until the symptoms are gone. Kids can be protected by getting the chickenpox (varicella) vaccine, usually between the ages of 12 to 15 months. Chickenpox causes a red, itchy rash on the skin that usually appears first on the abdomen or back and face, and then spreads to almost everywhere else on the body, including the scalp, mouth, nose, ears, and genitals. Measles is probably best known for the full-body rash it causes, the first symptoms of the infection are usually a hacking cough, runny nose, high fever, and red eyes. The measles rash typically has a red or reddish brown blotchy appearance, and first usually shows up on the forehead, then spreads downward over the face, neck, and body, then down to the arms and feet. Measles is highly contagious 90% of people who havent been vaccinated for measles will get it if they live in the same household as an infected person. Measles is spread when someone comes in direct contact with infected droplets or when someone with measles sneezes or coughs and spreads virus droplets through the air. Cold sores are caused by a virus called herpes. Herpes is one of the most common viral infections in the world. The medical name for the specific virus that causes cold sores is herpes simplex. Although both can cause cold sores around a persons mouth, most are caused by HSV-1. People can catch HSV-1 by kissing a person with a cold sore or sharing a drinking glass or utensils. Kids who get infected with HSV-1 may get cold sores occasionally for the rest of their lives. That is because even after the sores themselves dry up and go away, the virus stays in the body, waiting around for another time to come out and cause more sores. When a cold sore reappears, it is often in the same place as the previous one.

3. Skin Infections and Rashes

A rash can also be called dermatitis which is swelling or irritation of the skin. It can be red, dry, scaly, and itchy. Most people have had a rash or two. But some rashes, especially combined with a fever, can be signs of serious illnesses. Here are some other common types of rashes: Eczema, also called atopic dermatitis, is a common rash for kids. Eczema can cause dry, chapped, bumpy areas around the elbows and knees or more serious cases of red, scaly, and swollen skin all over the body. Irritant contact dermatitis is caused by contact with something irritating, such as a chemical, soap, or detergent. It can be red, swollen, and itchy. Even sunburn can be a kind of irritant dermatitis because its red and might itch while its healing. Allergic contact dermatitis is a rash caused by contact with an allergen, which is something you are allergic to, such as rubber, hair dye, or nickel. If you have nickel allergy, you might get a red, crusty rash wherever the jewelry touched the skin, like around your finger if you were wearing a ring. Immunization is the process by which an individuals immune system becomes fortified against an agent (known as the immunogen). When an immune system is exposed to molecules that are foreign to the body, it will orchestrate an immune response. This is a function of the adaptive immune system. Therefore, by exposing an animal to an immunogen in a controlled way, their body can learn to protect itself: this is called active immunization. Passive immunization is when these elements are introduced directly into the body, instead of when the body itself has to make these elements. Immunization can be done through various techniques, most commonly vaccination. Vaccines against microorganisms that cause diseases can prepare the bodys immune system, thus helping to fight or prevent an infection.

Notes to the Text

Antibody Dermatitis Eczema Salmonella Herpes Immunodeficienc y Appendicitis Leukaemia Hygiene

[ntibdi] [dmtats] [eksm ] [slmnel] [hpiz ] [mjn .dfnsi] [pendisats] [lukimi] [hadin ]

anticorp dermatit eczem salmonela herpes

imunodeficien apendicit leucemie igien a

Lymphocyte Antigen Cancer Chickenpox Measles

[limfsat] [ntdn] [knsr] [tknpks ] [mizlz]

limfocit antigen cancer varicel rujeol


Exercises

a p

Comprehension Check

1. Answer the following questions: 1. How can you define the process of immunization? 2. What are the most frequent rashes and skin infections? 3. What are the symptoms of influenza? 4. What is the difference between measles and chickenpox? 5. What are the main characteristics of AIDS? 6. What does the term couch potato stand for? 7. What are the main features of lymphocytes? 8. What are the peculiarities of influenza? 9. What are the main types of immunity humans have? 10. What are the best-known stomach and intestinal infections?
2.

Match the word with its definition: 1. antigen 2. cancer 3. lymphocyte a) a small finger-like organ thats attached to the large intestine in the lower right side of the abdomen b) when a body is unable to produce enough antibodies to fight bacteria and viruses, often resulting in infection and disease c) a serious disease that is caused when cells in the body grow in a way that is uncontrolled and not normal, killing normal cells and often causing death d) a substance that causes the production of antibodies in the body e) a type of white blood cell involved in fighting disease and infection in the body, some of which produce antibodies f) soft tissue containing a lot of fat in the centre of a bone g) a type of bacteria that exists in several forms, some of which live in food and make the people who eat it ill

4. salmonella 5. couch potato 6. phagocyte 7. immune system

8. bone marrow

h) a white blood cell which protects the body against infection by destroying bacteria 9. appendix i) the cells and tissues in the body which make it able to protect itself against infection 10.immunodeficiency j) a person who watches a lot of television and does not have an active style of life 3. Find in the text words for each definition below: 1. Fat and heavier than is allowed o__________ 2. A swollen underground stem or root of a plant from which new plants can grow, as in the potato t____________ 3. To be able to pass a disease from one person, animal or plant to another i______ 4. Very small organism that causes disease g__________ 5. A drug or medical treatment that reduces pain without curing the cause of the pain p__________ 6. Existing in almost all of an area or in almost all of a group of people, animals or plants p_________ 7. A sudden painful tightening in a muscle, often after a lot of exercise, which limits movement c_________ 8. When you feel as if you are going to vomit n__________
II. Vocabulary and Grammar

1. Supply the correct Future Perfect or Future Continuous form of the verbs in the brackets: 1. Im sure my sister __________ (write) her composition by eleven oclock. 2. Tomorrow we_________ (be) on holiday for one month. 3. By the end of September, the flowers _________ (to die). 4. Before she leaves, she________ (visit) every museum in the town. 5. By 8 oclock, my brother_______ (write) his homework. 6. This time next week we________ (travel) to Los Angeles. 7. It probably________ (snow) when they come back. 8. Tomorrow afternoon at this time they ________ (to fly) over the Rocky Mountains. 9. If you come before 7 oclock, we_________ (work) in the garden. 10.I________ (wait) for you in the park at this time tomorrow. 2. Match the idiom with its correct definition: 1) a clean bill of health 2) be the picture of health 3) in the pink of health 4) be as right as rain a) to be in excellent physical condition or extremely healthy. b) someone or something that is very annoying c) to be very healthy and strong d) when a doctor says that someone is

healthy 5) feel under the weather 6) a pain in the neck 7) be as fit as a fiddle 8) on your last legs 9) to recharge the batteries 10) be as fresh as a daisy e) to be full of energy and enthusiasm f) to look very healthy g) to be or feel ill h) to have a period of rest and relaxation so that you feel energetic again i) a person who is very tired or near to death j) to be healthy, especially after having been ill for a period of time

3. Fill in the gaps with the correct idiom from the box: 1. Caroline looked _____________after her holiday. 2. I cant believe theres anything seriously wrong with him hes the _______ 3. Hes been given __________of health by the doctor. 4. Im feeling a bit _______________- I think Ive caught a cold. 5. That child is very naughty- he is a real__________. 6. Wed been out walking all day and I was on my _________when we reached the hotel. 7. She took a trip to the South of France to ____________ 8. After a good nights sleep Ill be as ________________ 9. Despite his old age, he practices a lot of sports and is__________________ 10. The medicine helped her a lot. She felt as right______________________ 4. Insert the following words in the text below: calories, energy, weight, flexible, tightness, basket, happier, measure, need, fat, freely, pain, be good at, mood, releases Food gives your body fuel in the form of calories, which are a kind of (1)_______. Your body needs a certain amount of (2) _______ every day just to function, breathe, walk around, and do all the basic activities. But if youre active, your body needs an extra (3) ________ of calories or energy. If youre not very active, your body wont need as many calories. Whatever your calorie (4) ________ is, if you eat enough to meet that need, your body (5) _______ will stay about the same. If you eat more calories than your body needs, it may be stored as excess (6) ______. It feels good to have a strong, (7)________ body that can do all the activities you enjoy - like running, jumping, and playing with your friends. Being flexible is having full range of motion, which means you can move your arms and legs (8) ________without feeling (9) _______ or (10) _______. Its also fun to (11) _________ something, like scoring a (12) _______, hitting a home run, or perfecting a dive. But you may not know that exercising

can actually put you in a better (13) ________. When you exercise, your brain (14) _______a chemical called endorphins, which may make you feel (15) ________. Its just another reason why exercise is good!
III. Writing
1.

Translate the following passage into English:

Imunitatea reprezint capacitatea corpului uman i al animalelor de a rspunde n mod specific la prezena substanelor strine n corp. Aceast reacie ofer rezisten organismului i, prin urmare, fiind extrem de important pentru supravieuire. La baza reaciei chimice stau proteinele speciale, anticorpii, care particip n reacia cu substanele strine corpului - antigeni. tiina, care studiaz mecanismele imunitii, este numit imunologie. n trecut, termenul de imunitate se referea doar la reaciile mpotriva microorganismelor. n prezent, este utilizat pentru a desemna reacia corpului la antigeni. - - , . , . , , . , , . , . . 2. Write an essay on the following statement: The only safe vaccine is the one that is never used. Chapter VI. Nutrition
1. General notes on Nutrition

Nutrition (also called nourishment or aliment) is the provision to cells and organisms, of the materials necessary, in the form of food, to support life. The diet of an organism refers to what it eats. Dietitians are health professionals who specialize in human nutrition, meal planning, economics, preparation, and so on. Poor diet can have an injurious impact on health, causing deficiency diseases such as scurvy, beriberi, kwashiorkor, health-threatening conditions like obesity and metabolic syndrome, and such common chronic systemic diseases as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and osteoporosis.

A nutrient is food or chemicals that an organism needs to live and grow or a substance used in an organisms metabolism which must be taken in from its environment. Organic nutrients include carbohydrates, fats, proteins (or their building blocks, amino acids), and vitamins. Inorganic chemical compounds such as minerals, water, and oxygen may also be considered nutrients. Nutrients needed in relatively large quantities are called macronutrients and those needed in relatively small quantities are called micronutrients. Macronutrients are the chemical elements humans consume in the largest quantities, such as carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur. Carbohydrates may be classified as monosaccharide, disaccharides, or polysaccharides by the number of monomer (sugar) units they contain. They are found in large proportion in foods such as rice, noodles, bread and other grainbased products. Polysaccharides are often referred to as complex carbohydrates because they are long chains of sugar units, whereas monosaccharides and disaccharides are simpler. The difference is important because complex carbohydrates take longer to digest and absorb. Fiber is a carbohydrate that is incompletely absorbed in humans and some animals. Like all carbohydrates, it contains four calories per gram, but due to its limited absorption, it contributes fewer calories. There are two subcategories: soluble and insoluble fiber. The first dissolves in water; the second does not. Whole grains, fruits (especially plums, prunes, and figs), and vegetables are rich in dietary fiber. Fiber is important to digestive health and is thought to reduce the risk of colon cancer. Fats may be classified as saturated or unsaturated. Saturated fats have all of their carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms, whereas unsaturated fats have some of their carbon atoms double-bonded in place of a hydrogen atom. Proteins are composed of amino acids, sometimes many thousands, which are characterized by inclusion of nitrogen and sometimes sulphur. The body requires amino acids to produce new body protein (protein retention) and to replace damaged proteins. Humans use about 20 amino acids, and about ten are essential in this sense. Dietary sources of protein include meats, tofu and other soy-products, eggs, grains, legumes, and dairy products such as milk and cheese. Calcium is needed for muscle, builds bone, and supports synthesis and function of blood cells. Dietary sources of calcium include dairy products, canned fish with bones (salmon, sardines), green leafy vegetables, nuts and seeds. Water is one of the most important nutrients. It helps eliminate food waste products in your body, regulates body temperature during activity, helps digest, is involved in converting food into energy and helps lubricate joints. About 70% of the non-fat mass of the human body is made of water. To function properly, the body requires between one and seven liters of water per day to avoid dehydration. The precise amount depends on the level of activity, temperature, humidity, and other factors. With physical exertion and heat exposure, water loss will increase and daily fluid needs may increase as well. Normally, about

20 percent of water intake comes in food, while the rest comes from drinking water and assorted beverages (caffeinated included).
Vitamins

A vitamin is an organic compound required as a nutrient in tiny amounts by an organism. Vitamins are classified by their biological and chemical activity, not their structure. Thus, each vitamin may refer to several vitamer compounds that all show the biological activity associated with a particular vitamin. Such a set of chemicals are grouped under an alphabetized vitamin generic descriptor title, such as vitamin A, etc. Vitamins have diverse biochemical functions, including function as hormones (e.g. vitamin D), antioxidants (e.g. vitamin E), and mediators of cell signaling and regulators of cell and tissue growth (e.g. vitamin A). In humans, Vitamins are classified as either water-soluble, meaning that they dissolve easily in water, or fat-soluble vitamins, which are absorbed through the intestinal tract with the help of lipids (fats). In general, water-soluble vitamins are readily excreted from the body. Each vitamin is typically used in multiple reactions and, therefore, most have multiple functions. In humans there are 13 vitamins: 4 fatsoluble (A, D, E and K) and 9 water-soluble (8 B vitamins and vitamin C). In 1749, the Scottish surgeon James Lind discovered that citrus foods helped prevent scurvy, a particularly deadly disease in which collagen is not properly formed, causing poor wound healing, bleeding of the gums, severe pain, and death. In 1753, Lind published his Treatise on the Scurvy, which recommended using lemons and limes to avoid scurvy, which was adopted by the British Royal Navy. This led to the nickname Limey for sailors of that organization. Linds discovery, however, was not widely accepted by individuals in the Royal Navys Arctic expeditions in the 19th century, where it was widely believed that scurvy could be prevented by practicing good hygiene, regular exercise, and by maintaining the morale of the crew while on board, rather than by a diet of fresh food. In 1881, Russian surgeon Nikolai Lunin studied the effects of scurvy. He fed mice an artificial mixture of all the separate constituents of milk known at that time, namely the proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and salts. The mice that received only the individual constituents died, while the mice fed by milk itself developed normally. He made a conclusion that a natural food such as milk must therefore contain, besides these known principal ingredients, small quantities of unknown substances essential to life In 1884, Takaki Kanehiro, a British trained medical doctor of the Japanese Navy observed that beriberi was endemic among low ranking crew who often ate nothing but rice but not among crews of Western navies and officers who were entitled to a Western-style diet. This was confirmed in 1897, when Christiaan Eijkman discovered that feeding unpolished rice instead of the polished variety to chickens helped to prevent beriberi in the chickens. The following year, Frederick Hopkins postulated that

some foods contained accessory factors- in addition to proteins, carbohydrates, fats, that were necessary for the functions of the human body. Hopkins and Eijkman were awarded the 1929 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for their discovery of several vitamins.
2. Dieting

Dieting is the practice of ingesting food in a regulated fashion to achieve or maintain a controlled weight. In most cases the goal is weight loss in those who are overweight or obese, but some athletes aspire to gain weight and diets can also be used to maintain a stable body weight. There are several kinds of diets: Weight-loss diets restricts the intake of specific foods, or food in general, to reduce body weight. What works to reduce body weight for one person will not necessarily work for another, due to metabolic differences and lifestyle factors. Weight-gain diets is usually imposed on many professional athletes and football players, who may try to bulk up through weight-gain diets in order to gain an advantage on the field with a higher mass. Individuals who are underweight, such as those recovering from anorexia nervosa or starvation, may adopt weight-gain diets which, unlike those of athletes, have the goal of restoring normal levels of body fat, muscle, and stores of essential nutrients. An important but often overlooked factor in weight gain or loss - in addition to the kinds of foods that are ingested - is meal frequency. A number of studies on the subject have determined that eating more frequent, smaller meals or snacks during the day tends to lower total serum cholesterol levels, improve glucose tolerance, and mute weight gain. Lengthy fasting can be dangerous due to the risk of malnutrition and should be carried out under medical supervision. During fasting or very low calorie diets the reduction of blood glucose, the preferred energy source of the brain, causes the body to metabolize sugars from protein. Dieting, especially extreme foodintake reduction and rapid weight loss can have the following side effects: prolonged hunger, depression fatigue, irritability, fainting, muscle atrophy gallbladder disease, subsequent weight gain .
The Most Famous Diets

The Atkins Diet is a high protein, low carbohydrates diet. According to the popular way of following this plan, you are allowed to eat as much fat as you like as long as you consume very little carbohydrates. Atkins suggests eating

well, but not until stuffed. You are allowed to eat plenty of cold water fish and other foods containing Omega-3 fatty acids Olive oil. For frying, peanut and grape seed oil are recommended. Corn, soy, and sunflower oil are accepted in small amounts. Butter and other sources of saturated fat (e.g. coconut) are acceptable, but again should be eaten in balance with other fats. Margarine is not allowed in this diet. Atkins allows cheese, because it has less than a gram of carbohydrate per ounce. Potatoes, pasta, fruits, bread, dairy products (except aged-cheese), and sugar should be also excluded. Starchy-vegetables and foods are out of the question. Cutting off tea, coffee, soft drinks and alcohol is extremely important. Water is the vastly preferred beverage. Atkins advises 8 glasses of water per day. If you are hungry and it isnt a mealtime, try drinking water first - you might just be thirsty. The Blood Type Diet is a diet advocated by Peter DAdamo, a naturopathic physician, and outlined in his book Eat Right 4 Your Type. DAdamos theory is that blood type is the most important factor in determining a healthy diet. He also believes that our blood group determines how our bodies deal with different nutrients. His theory is based on the idea that each blood group has its own unique antigen marker (a substance that the body recognizes as being alien) and this marker reacts badly with certain foods, leading to all sorts of potential health problems. Type A people should be vegetarian and avoid meat and dairy products. Type B should eat red meat and fish. Type O should eat lots of animal protein and little carbohydrates. Type AB should eat a combination of Types A and B. The Cabbage Soup Diet is a radical weight loss diet designed around heavy consumption of a low-calorie cabbage soup over the time of seven days. It is generally considered a fad diet, in that it is designed for short-term weight-loss and requires no long-term commitment. The origins of the diet are unknown, and it first gained popularity in the 1980s. This is a typical outline of the diet: Day 1 - Cabbage soup plus as much fruit as you like, excluding bananas; Day 2 - Cabbage soup plus vegetables including 1 jacket potato with a little butter; Day 3 - Cabbage soup plus fruit and vegetables excluding potatoes and bananas; Day 4 Cabbage soup plus up to eight bananas and as much skimmed milk as you like; Day 5 - Cabbage soup plus beef and up to six tomatoes ; Day 6 - Cabbage soup plus as much beef and vegetables (excluding potatoes) as you like ; Day 7 - Cabbage soup plus brown rice, vegetables (excluding potatoes) and unsweetened fruit juice. The Rice Diet was first experimented in 1934, as a doctor at Duke Hospital, Dr. Walter Kempner started treating patients with malignant hypertension (very high blood pressure) and kidney disease with what he called when there was no other treatment available anywhere. He gave it the name as patients usually ate a bowl of white rice at every meal. It is crucial that the rice be brown rice. White rice has the fiber and nutrients stripped from it vitamins are often put back in but the fiber is lost. The Mediterranean Diet is a modern nutritional recommendation inspired by the traditional dietary patterns

of some of the countries of the Mediterranean Basin. In addition to regular physical activity, it emphasizes abundant plant foods, fresh fruit as the typical daily dessert, olive oil as the principal source of fat, dairy products (principally cheese and yogurt), and fish and poultry consumed in low to moderate amounts, zero to four eggs consumed weekly, red meat consumed in low amounts, and wine consumed in low to moderate amounts.
Vegetarianism

Vegetarianism is a popular choice for many individuals and families. Most dietary and medical experts agree that a well-planned vegetarian diet can actually be a very healthy way to eat. But special care must be taken when serving kids and teens a vegetarian diet, especially if it doesnt include dairy and egg products before switching to a vegetarian diet, its important to note that all vegetarian diets are not alike. Major vegetarian categories include: ovo-vegetarian: eats eggs, no meat lacto-ovo vegetarian: eats dairy and egg products, no meat lacto-vegetarian: eats dairy products, no eggs or meat vegan: eats only food from plant sources Many other people who have eliminated red meat are semivegetarians, but may eat poultry or fish. People may follow a vegetarian diet for a variety of reasons. Younger vegetarians are usually part of a family that eats vegetarian meals for health, cultural, or other reasons. Others may decide to become vegetarians because of concern for animals, the environment, or their own health. The main sources of protein and nutrients for infants are breast milk and formula (soy formula for vegan infants), especially in the first 6 months of life. Breastfed infant vegans should receive a source of vitamin B12, if the mothers diet isnt supplemented, and breastfed infants and infants drinking less than 1 liter formula should get vitamin D supplements.
3. Metabolism

Our bodies get the energy they need from food through metabolism, the chemical reactions in the bodys cells that convert the fuel from food into the energy needed to do everything from moving to thinking and growing. Specific proteins in the body control the chemical reactions of metabolism, and each chemical reaction is coordinated with other body functions. Metabolism is a constant process that begins when were conceived and ends when we die. It is a vital process for all life forms - not just humans. If metabolism stops, a living thing dies. After food is eaten, molecules in the digestive system called enzymes break proteins down into amino acids, fats into fatty acids, and carbohydrates into simple

sugars (e.g., glucose). In addition to sugar, both amino acids and fatty acids can be used as energy sources by the body when needed. These compounds are absorbed into the blood, which transports them to the cells. Anabolism, or constructive metabolism, is all about building and storing. It supports the growth of new cells, the maintenance of body tissues, and the storage of energy for use in the future. During anabolism, small molecules are changed into larger, more complex molecules of carbohydrate, protein, and fat. Catabolism, or destructive metabolism, is the process that produces the energy required for all activity in the cells. In this process, cells break down large molecules (mostly carbohydrates and fats) to release energy. This energy release provides fuel for anabolism, heats the body, and enables the muscles to contract and the body to move. Several of the hormones of the endocrine system are involved in controlling the rate and direction of metabolism. Thyroxine, a hormone produced and released by the thyroid gland, plays a key role in determining how fast or slow the chemical reactions of metabolism proceed in a persons body. Another gland, the pancreas secretes hormones that help determine whether the body's main metabolic activity at a particular time will be anabolic or catabolic. For example, after eating a meal, usually more anabolic activity occurs because eating increases the level of glucose the bodys most important fuel - in the blood. The pancreas senses this increased level of glucose and releases the hormone insulin, which signals cells to increase their anabolic activities.
Notes to the text

Dehydration Carbohydrate Monosaccharide Nutrition Fibre Vitamin Scurvy Calcium Iodine Potassium Antioxidant Metabolism Anorexia

[di.hadren] [k.b ha.dret ]

deshidratare carbohidrat

A A

[m.nosk..rad] monozaharide [njutrn ] [fa.b] [vt.mn] [va.t] (US) [sk.vi] [klsim] [a..din] [ptsim] [n.tik.s.dnt] [mtblizm] [nreksi] Nutriie Fibr vitamin Scorbut Calciu Iod Potasiu antioxidant metabolism anorexie

Obese Glycerol

[ bisti ] [glsrl]

obezitate glicerin
Exercises

I. Comprehension Check

1. Answer the following questions: 1. What is the impact of poor diet on health? 2. What does the term nutrient mean? 3. What are the main groups of nutrients? 4. What are the main peculiarities of fiber and fats? 5. What are the characteristics of carbohydrates and proteins? 6. What does the process of metabolism include? 7. What are the major vegetarian categories? 8. What are the major groups of vitamins? 9. What are the most famous diets? 10. What are the side effects of dieting? 2. Match the word with its definition: 1. nutrition 2. nutrient 3. thyroxin 4. fiber a) a hormone produced by the thyroid gland that controls metabolism and is important for normal development in children b) medical condition in which your blood pressure is extremely high c) also called nourishment or aliment, it is the provision to cells and organisms, of the materials necessary, in the form of food, to support life d) food or chemicals that an organism needs to live and grow or a substance used in an organisms metabolism which must be taken in from its environment e) it may be classified as monosaccharide, disaccharides, or polysaccharides by the number of monomer (sugar) units they contain f) it is a carbohydrate that is incompletely absorbed in humans and some animals, containing four calories per gram, but due to its limited absorption, it contributes fewer calories g) these are composed of amino acids, sometimes many thousands, which are characterized by inclusion of nitrogen and sometimes sulphur h) it is one of the most important nutrients. It helps eliminate food waste products in your body,

5.hypertension 6. proteins

7.carbohydrates 8. dietary minerals

9. water

regulates body temperature during activity, etc. i) the chemical elements required by living organisms, other than the four elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen

3. Find in the text words for each definition below: 1. Also called the destructive metabolism, it is the process that produces the energy required for all activity in the cells c___________ 2. Also called the constructive metabolism, it is all about building and storing a_________ 3. It is a constant process that begins when were conceived and ends when we die m__________ 4. This diet was first experimented in 1934, as a doctor at Duke Hospital, Dr. Walter Kempner started treating patients with malignant hypertension and kidney disease r_____________ 5. This is a modern nutritional recommendation inspired by the traditional dietary patterns of some of the countries of the Mediterranean Basin m_____________ 6. A radical weight loss diet designed around heavy consumption of a low-calorie soup over the time of seven days c______________ 7. It is usually imposed on many professional athletes and football players, who try these diets in order to gain a higher mass. w_________ 8. It restricts the intake of specific foods, or food in general, to reduce body weight w__________ 9. The organic compound required as a nutrient in tiny amounts by an organism, and which are classified by their biological and chemical activity, not their structure v________ 10. Health professionals who specialize in human nutrition, meal planning, preparation, etc. d_________
II. Vocabulary and Grammar

1. Supply suitable forms of shall and will: Jim: What sorts of questions do you think they______ask? Don: The same as they asked me. They______ask you why you want to work for them. Jim: Thats easy. I want to earn some money. Don: Yes, but you cant say that. You______ have to think of some better reasons. Jim: I cant think of any just now, but I expect you______think of something at the time. I hope I______ anyway! Don: Im sure you_______. What time is the interview? Jim: Its at three in the afternoon Don: I know it _____help very much, but I_____be thinking of you. Dont worry, everything ______be OK. Jim: When______I know if Ive got the job?

Don: They ______let you know in a couple of days. Thats what happened in my case. You_____get a letter which begins, We regret to inform you! 2. Match the idiom with its correct definition: 1. have your cake and eat it a) to eat very little 2. dog eat dog 3. eat like a bird b) to deal with someone or something easily and completely c) to have or do two good things at the same time that are impossible to have or do at the same time d) to eat a large amount of food in someones home e) a situation when people will do anything to be successful, even if what they do harms other f) to chat g) to admit that you were wrong h) to criticize someone very angrily i) you always eat a lot of food j) to be forced to admit that something you said before was wrong

4. eat like a horse 5. have to eat your words 6. eat someone/something for breakfast 7. eat someone out of house and home 8. chew the fat 9. eat humble pie 10. eat somebody alive

3. Fill in the gaps with the correct idiom from the box: 1. I enjoy meeting my friends in the caf and _________ 2. You want to obtain too many things in a short period of time. You should ____________. 3. In show business its _____________- one day youre a star, the next youve been replaced by a younger talent. 4. We went out for a meal, but she ate like a____________ and hardly said a word. 5. She eats like a ___________, so I dont know how she manages to stay so thin. 6. She told me Id never be able to give up smoking, but she had to__________ . 7. People say she eats her competitors_____________. 8. The boys have only been back two days and theyve already eaten me out of __________. 9. If we get our facts wrong well be___________ by the press. 10. After boasting that his company could outperform the industrys best, hes been forced_______________. 4. Insert the following words in the text below:

low dose, ambulance, casualty (emergency room), surgeon, nurse(sister), radiographer, anesthetic , ward, inpatient, physician, senior nursing officer , staff nurse, prescribe, amputate, outpatient A terrible thing happened to me last month. I was driving my car and suddenly I was involved in a car accident. Fortunately, someone called an (1) _________ that took me to the hospital. Firstly, I was brought into a room, and there was a (2) _________, who was operating a machine that uses radiation. Secondly, I was brought into the (3) _________, and the (4) _________operated me on my leg. There were also two (5) __________, who helped the doctor during the operation. The operation was performed under (6) ___________ and I didnt feel any pain. When I woke up, I noticed that I was moved into a (7) _______ together with two more (8)___________, Jack and Jill. While staying there, some other (9) _______came for treatment, but they did not stay any nights there. In case one of the patients didnt feel well, the nurse called the (10) _________ who has general skill and is not a surgeon. I was surprised to find out that there is a person in charge of all the nurses in a hospital , called (11)___________, and that there are people who take care of the ill and injured, but whose rank is below that of a nurse, called (12)____________. My family was very happy that I recovered and fortunately none of my legs have been (13)___________. The doctor (14) _________me a (15) __________of medicines and I was free to go home.
III. Writing

1. Translate the following passage into English: Vitaminele sunt substane organice necesare creterii i bunei funcionri a organismului, pe care le produce ntr-o cantitate insuficient pentru a-i acoperi nevoile (vitaminele B6, B8, D, K) sau pe care nu le poate sintetiza. Vitaminele trebuie deci oferite prin alimentaie sau, n lipsa lor, prin intermediul medicamentelor. Structura chimic si rolul biologic al celor treisprezece vitamine cunoscute n zilele noastre (acid folic, vitaminele A, B1, B2, B5, B6, B8, B12, C, D, E, K i PP) sunt foarte diferite. De altfel, vitaminele acioneaz n doze mici, singure sau n corelaie, i nu au nici o valoare energetic. , , ( B6, B8, D, K), . , , , . ( , A, B1, B2, B5, B6, B8, B12, C, D, , , PP) . , , , .

2) Write an essay on the following statement: Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
(Ralph Waldo Emerson, 1948)

Chapter VII. Evolution and Genetics


1. Charles Darwin and His Theory of Evolution

In biology, evolution is the process of change in the inherited traits of a population of organisms from one generation to the next. There are two major mechanisms that drive evolution. The first is natural selection, a process causing heritable traits that are helpful for survival and reproduction to become more common in a population, and harmful traits to become rarer. This occurs because individuals with advantageous traits are more likely to reproduce, so that more individuals in the next generation inherit these traits. Over many generations, adaptations occur through a combination of successive, small, random changes in traits, and natural selection of those variants best-suited for their environment. The second is genetic drift, an independent process that produces random changes in the frequency of traits in a population. Genetic drift results from the role probability plays in whether a given trait will be passed on as individuals survive and reproduce. Though the changes produced in any one generation by drift and selection are small, differences accumulate with each subsequent generation and can, over time, cause substantial changes in the organisms.

Evolutionary biology documents the fact that evolution occurs, and also develops and tests theories that explain its causes. Studies of the fossil record and the diversity of living organisms had convinced most scientists by the midnineteenth century that species changed over time. However, the mechanism driving these changes remained unclear until the 1859 publication of Charles Darwins On the Origin of Species, detailing the theory of evolution by natural selection. Darwins work soon led to overwhelming acceptance of evolution within the scientific community. Charles Darwin was born in Shrewsbury, England, on February 12, 1809. In those days schools did not teach science as they do today. Twelve-year old Darwin, who wanted to spend his time out of doors collecting plants and watching animals, had to stay inside and learn how to write poetry. He was very bad at it - so bad, in fact, that his father once wrote him angrily You care for nothing but shooting dogs, and rat-catching and you will be a disgrace to yourself and all our family. Charless father then decided that he should be a doctor and sent him to a medical school. But it soon became obvious that young Darwin was not at all interested in medicine. So, his father tried to make a clergyman out of him and sent him to the University of Cambridge. Still Darwin couldnt make himself care for anything but hunting and natural history. As soon as he graduated, one of Darwins professors, a scientist, who understood him better than his father, urged him to apply for the job of naturalist aboard of the H.M.S.Beagle. The ship was to make a voyage around the world, surveying trade routes and looking for ways to improve trade for British merchants in the far-off corners of the earth. The captain was willing to give up part of his own cabin to any young man who would go without pay as naturalist. Today no one remembers how much the Beagle helped the British merchants. The information the trip yielded about trade was far less important than the knowledge that was to change peoples way of thinking. It was during the trip on the Beagle that Darwin first began to develop his theory of evolution. Everywhere he sailed he collected facts about rocks, plants and animals. The more facts he gathered from different parts of the world, the more he became convinced that things he observed in nature could not be explained by the old idea that each species had been separately created. The more he wondered and observed, the more he began to realize there was only one possible explanation to the puzzle. If all these species of plants and animals had developed from common ancestors, then it was easy to understand their similarities and differences. At some time, Darwin thought, the common ancestors of both the island and mainland species must have traveled from the mainland to the inlands. Later, all the species in both places, through slow changes, became different from each other. After the Beagle returned to England, Darwin began his first notebook on the origin of species. During the next twenty years he filled notebook after notebook with still more facts that he and others discovered about the world of

living things. These facts all led to one conclusion: all living things are descended from common ancestors. Darwin proved the truth of evolution, the descent with change of one species from another. Where others before him have failed, Darwin succeeded in convincing the world that he was right about evolution. He succeeded for two reasons. He collected an enormous number of facts and put them together so that they told the whole story. And he not only declared that evolution occurred but he also explained how it worked and what caused it. This is called the theory of natural selection. Nearly a hundred years have passed since Darwins great book The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection was published. People have found out new facts about evolution, and especially about inheritance. These facts have made more precise our ideas of how natural selection works. This does not mean the theory was wrong. On the contrary, a true theory is alive; like everything else in the world it changes and grows. Only a dead, useless theory stays the same down to the last detail.
Notes to the text

Evolution Selection Clergyman Urge Survey

[i.vlun] [slekn] [kld.mn] [d] [sve]

evoluie selecie cleric a ndemna a sonda


Exercises

I. Comprehension check

1. Answer the following questions: 1. What is evolution in biology? 2. Which are the two major mechanisms that drive evolution? 3. What do you know of Darwins childhood? 4. What was the purpose of the Beagles sail? 5. What puzzled Darwin during his sail? 6. When did Charles Darwin begin to develop his theory of evolution? 7. Which is the conclusion Charles Darwin came to? 8. What is the theory of natural selection? 9. How did Darwin prove the truth of evolution? 2. Match the word with its definition: 1. genetic code 2. theory a) a generalization based on many observations and experiments; a verified hypothesis b) the system of nucleotide triplets in DNA and RNA that carries genetic information; referred to as a code because it

3. function 4. genotype 5. inherit 6. generation 7. natural selection 8. reproduction 9. inheritance

10. evolution

determines the amino acid sequence in the enzymes and other protein molecules synthesized by the organism c) the genetic makeup of an organism d) characteristic role or action of a structure or process in the normal metabolism or behavior of an organism e) the way in which living things change and develop over millions of years f) to be born with the same physical or mental characteristics as one of your parents or grandparents g) a physical or mental characteristic inherited from your parents, or the process by which this happens h) all the people of about the same age within a society or within a particular family i) the process which results in the continued existence of only the types of animals and plants which are best able to produce young or new plants in the conditions in which they live j) the process of producing babies or young animals and plants

3. Find in the text words for each definition below: 1. The study of how, in all living things, the characteristics and qualities of parents are given to their children by their genes g ______________________ 2. A long journey, especially by ship v _____________________ 3. To supply or produce something positive such as a profit, an amount of food or information y ________________________ 4. The dry solid part of the Earths surface, or any large piece of this which sticks up out of the ground or the sea r ______________________ 5. A person related to you who lived a long time ago; a plant, animal or object that is related to one existing at a later point in time a _______________________ 6. The state or fact of being related to a particular person or group of people who lived in the past d ____________________ 7. A situation which is difficult to understand p _______________________ 8. A person whose job is to buy and sell products in large amounts, especially by trading with other countries m _____________________ 9. A physical or mental characteristic inherited from your parents, or the process by which this happens i____________ 10. A formal statement of the rules on which a subject of study is based or of ideas which are suggested to explain a fact or event or, more generally, an opinion or explanation th___________
II. Vocabulary and Grammar

1. a) Match the beginnings and endings:

1. If I get a pay rise 2. I would give it back 3. When Rachel goes to university 4. If I dont have time to finish today 5. Why do you want to see the film 6. If you could live to be 100

a) if I found a wallet. b) Ill take you out for dinner. c) Ill do it tomorrow. d) David will miss her. e) would you want to? f) if youve already seen before.

b) Put the words into a correct order: 1. John / China / Chinese / if / he / learn / would / in / lived / to speak. 2. you / too / work / if / you / hard / become / will / ill. 3. I / to / bed / go / when / close / curtains / tonight / I / will / the. 4. ghost / saw / I / if / a / frightened / I / not / be / would. 2. Insert the following words in the text below: spent, mysterious, garden, chemical, hobbies, watching, biologist, men, legend, flowers, clergyman, countryside, to study, sorts, to be trained A hundred years ago people believed that plants and animals had always been as they are now. They thought that all the different (1)______of living things, including (2)______and women, had been put here by some (3)_____ power, a few thousand years ago. It was Charles Darwin, born in Shrewsbury on February 12, 1809, who showed that this was just a (4)_____. As a boy Darwin loved to walk about the (5)______collecting insects, (6)______and minerals. He enjoyed helping his elder brother at (7)_______experiments in a shed at the far end of their (8)______. Because of this, his school friends called him Gas. These (9)______interested him much more than Greek and Latin, which were his main lessons at school. His father, himself a doctor, sent Charles to Edinburgh University (10)_____ medicine. But Charles disliked this work. He (11)_____a lot of time with a zoologist friend, (12)_____birds and other animals, and collecting insects in the surrounding countryside. Then his father sent him to Cambridge (13)_____as a clergyman. Darwin didnt want to be a doctor or a (14)_________ . He wanted to be a (15)_______. 3. Match the idiom with its definition: 1. a birds eye view 2. eat like a bird a) completely free to do as you want b) available on satellite television

3. a bird in the hand is worth two in c) to be silly, useless, or not practical the bush 4. free as a bird d) used to say that if you do something

5. the early bird catches the worm 6. a little bird told me 7. kill two birds with one stone 8. the bird has flown 9. be (strictly) for the birds 10. on the bird

early or before other people, you will be successful e) used to say that it is better to keep what you have than to risk losing it by trying to get more f) to eat very little g) used to say that the person you are looking for has already left or escaped h) to achieve two things with one action i) a view of something from high above it j) used to say that you know something, but you will not say how you found out.

4. Fill in the gaps with the correct idiom from the box: 1. The convict escaped from jail and was as __________ for two days. 2. I might get a better offer, but _________________________. 3. Jane is very slim because she ______________________. 4. I get a huge book every month listing what programs are __________. 5. I didnt expect to see you studying at the library at this hour of the morning. ________, huh? 6. Its no use searching any more. The __________. 7. John learned the words to his part in the play while peeling potatoes. He was ______________. 8. So who told you shed got the job? Oh, lets just say ____________ so. 9. Gambling, games of chance - that sort of thing is strictly ______________. 10. We got _____________ of Cleveland as the plane began its descent. 5. Form the antonyms of the following words: Possible, regular, living, organic, legal, natural, like, compose, understand, necessary, pleasant, appear, able, dependent, conscious, approval, liberate, belief, calculate, countable, variability, valuable.
III. Writing 1. Translate the following passage into English:

Cel mai ndrgit lucru al lui Darvin era s colecioneze plante i s urmreasc viaa animalelor. Nu-i plcea s fac altceva nimic dect s adune diferite plante. El trebuia s devin doctor, dar nu era interesat absolut deloc de medicin. Odat a auzit c un vapor trebuia s fac o cltorie n jurul lumii. Anume pe acest vas Darwin a nceput s se gndeasc la teoria evoluiei. Cu ct mai multe tipuri de plante i animale vedea, cu att devenea mai sigur c are dreptate. Cnd s-a ntors din cltorie a nceput s scrie o carte despre rezultatele obinute n timpul acesteia. Nu-l interesa dect cartea sa. Continua s adune noi

fapte i, cu ct mai mult lucra, cu att mai clar i era legtura dintre evoluia diferitelor tipuri de animale. Dup o munc ndelungat i diferite observaii, Darwin a scris vestita sa carte Evoluia speciilor, iar n anul 1859 a descris cum i de ce o specie a evoluat de la alta. Charles Darwin a murit n anul 1882. . , . , . , . . , , . , . , . , . , 1859 , . 1882 .

2. Translate the text in writing and be ready to speak on the topic The Origin of Men. Since the days when man climbed down out of the trees, he has spread out all over the earth in hot countries and cold, in mountains, jungle swamps and fertile valleys. Wherever men went they lived in ways that suited the climate and geography of the particular place where they settled. For a long time they continued to look pretty much alike. Then there developed differences in their skin color, in the shape of their heads and in minor physical features. In Africa, the isolated group developed darker skins; in Asia, yellow skins and slanting eyes; in Europe fair or white skins. The feature most used to distinguish the mankind is the color of their skin. All three races black, white and yellow are very much the same in other physical features. In each race there are some people who are tall and some who are short; some are long-headed, some are round-headed. In each race there are some people who belong to blood group A, some to group B, some to AB and some to O. But all races are members of the same species. And wherever and whenever any group of any color had the chance, they did their part in forwarding the march of human progress. History does not belong exclusively to any one race; it is shared by all. No race is more generous than any other race. You can make an important invention or write a great book or become a hero whatever the color of your skin or the shape of your head may be. Climbing our Family Tree

By A. Novikoff 3. Make up short dialogues on the following imaginary situations: 1. You are to write an article about Charles Darwins voyage around the world. Make up a plan of your article. Which points of his voyage are the most important and why? 2. An acquaintance of yours is going to make a voyage around the world. Advise him to follow Darwins route, what places to visit and what to take note of. 3. A group of schoolchildren have come to visit our faculty. They have seen our wall-newspaper The Beagle and got interested in its title. Tell them what this title means. 4. Your friends grandmother is religious. She believes man was created by God. Tell her what Darwin proved. 5. Your friend doesnt believe in evolution. With the help of a time-machine you have managed to take him to the primitive age (several million years back). You see only amphibians and primitive scorpions around. Trace the development of life on earth. Discuss it. 4. Write an essay on the following statement: Lost Time Is Never Found Again.

2. The Theory of Genetics

The subdivision of biological science that deals with the inheritance of the individual is known as genetics. The primary observation on which this branch of knowledge is based is that individuals resemble their parents, and also their more remote ancestors, to a greater or lesser extent. Modern genetic theory has grown out the chromosome theory of inheritance and its corollary, the theory of the gene. It holds that the information that determines a character of an individual is carried as a unit of inheritance, or gene, in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). DNA constitutes a portion of the chromosomes of all higher organisms and is present also in bacteria and most viruses. Genetic theory further holds that genes are arranged in a linear order along the DNA molecule. Each organism contains one complete set of genes, or a complete set of information in each cell. The DNA molecule has the capacity to produce exact copies of itself, a process known as replication. The information carried by the DNA molecule from one generation to the next is expressed by its influence on protein synthesis. This accounts for the constancy of the characteristics inherited by a group of individuals descended from the same ancestor. However, changes can occur in the molecule. These are mutations, and individuals provide the variations upon which change and evolution depend.

A White-Eyed Fly

To scientists, the most important mutation that ever took place happened inside a milk bottle in an ordinary little fruit fly. For a year, starting in 1909, Thomas Hunt Morgan, professor of zoology at Columbia University, had been breeding this little fly called Drosophila. Drosophila is small, ordinary looking insect, the sort you often find in grape arbors. One day in 1910 professor Morgan noticed a very unusual sight in one of his fly-filled milk bottles. There, among all the red-eyed Drosophila was one with white eyes. Was the white-eyed fly really something new, or would its offspring go back to the red eyes of the rest of the flies? Professor Morgan bred his white-eyed fly and waited to see what colour the eyes of the breed would be. Some were white. He had discovered a real mutation. This single white-eyed fly started professor Morgan and his co-workers off on eighteen years scientific work. They are known to have studied 15 million flies and found about 500 mutations. The mutations affected the development of every part of the flies bodies, their legs, their shape and colour, their internal organs. Through the long years of work in the now famous fly-room at Columbia, Professor Morgan and his colleagues were able to show that the genes were arranged on the chromosomes like beads on a string. Drosophila seems almost made to order for scientists to study mutation. The flies are known to grow very easily on bananas or other simple food. They are hardly little creatures and will stand up under all kinds of treatment. They are known to have a great many clear, easy to recognize features. They have a very small number of chromosomes only 8 (man has 46 and the crayfish has 200). Most important of all, these flies breed very rapidly. It takes Drosophila only 12 days from the time an egg is laid to grow into mature fly ready to lay eggs in its turn. And under the right conditions, a single fly may lay over a thousand eggs. Drosophila, trees, bacteria, molds, man and every other living thing all have genes which pass along from parents to offspring generation after generation. What we learn about genes in one living thing tells us a lot about genes in all living things. In 1933, twenty-three years after the first white-eyed fly appeared in the milk bottle, Professor Morgan was awarded the Nobel Prize in medicine for his part in showing how characteristics pass from one generation to another. A few mutations are very striking and most mutations have little influence on development. Their results are so tiny that we never notice them. Occasionally, however, a mutation may have an important effect because it occurs under just the right set of circumstances. Mutations occur rarely, but over the years they begin to pile up. Remember that in evolution we deal with many thousands, even millions of years. After a

million years, offspring begin to have quite a few genes that are different from their ancestors. But what causes mutations? Unfortunately scientists still know very little about what actually does make genes mutate. We do know that mutations can pile up in any direction. By X-rays or other treatments, scientists have made mutations take place much more often than they do naturally. So far, they have not been able to control the direction in which mutations take place. By treating such things as bread, mold and bacteria with certain chemicals scientists are known to make them mutate in direct way. The possibility of directing mutations in more complicated plants and animals will certainly increase as we learn more about the genes chemistry and understand better what causes mutations in nature.
What is Intelligence?

Although the question has not yet been settled it is believed that mental ability is an inherited trait. The idea is based on studies of certain families in which a high degree of intelligence appears repeatedly in the offspring. Other families have been studied that indicate that low intelligence may be inherited as well. It is true, that identical twins seem to have about the same level of mental ability. This is what we would expect if intelligence were controlled by genes, since identical twins have the same gene combinations. Interesting studies have been made of identical twins who were separated after birth and raised in different homes. It was found that they sometimes showed greater differences in intelligence that would be expected if they had been raised in the same home. They also showed considerable differences in personality. Scientists agree that you can do nothing to change your genes, but you can do a great deal to improve the traits controlled by your genes. Education and training will develop the mental traits that you have inherited. You can even improve your physical traits. Actually there is no precise definition for this trait of intelligence. To most of us it means the capacity for learning or simply the ability to learn. We know some things about intelligence. We know there is extreme variation in mental capacity among human beings. It ranges from idiocy at one extreme to genius at the other extreme, with most people having average or near average intelligence. From this we may conclude that multiple genes are involved. Also it seems from evidence accumulated that the extreme variation in intelligence among human beings is partly hereditary and partly environmental. Education and training play an important part in bringing out intellectual potentialities. Yet even among persons with similar training there are great variations in general intelligence. It has been observed that when children of the same family differ from each other in mental capacity, they usually continue to differ despite the fact that they live in the same family. The important thing is for each one of us to apply ourselves and to get the most out of our inherited potentials. Very few of us do it.
Notes to the text

Genetics Inheritance Ancestors Chromosome Gene DNA Replication Mutation Offspring Remote Bacteria Virus Molecule Protein Crayfish Mold X-ray

[dnet.ks ] [nher.tns ] [nsest] [kr.m.sm] [din] [diene] [replikein] [mjutein] [f.spr] [rmt] [bktri] [vars] [mlkjul] [prtin] [kref] [mld] [eksre]

genetica motenire strmoi cromozom gen AND replicare mutaie urmai ndeprtai bacterii virus molecul protein langust mucegai raze Roentgen
Exercises

, , ,

I. Comprehension check

1. Answer the following questions: 1. How is the subdivision of biological science that deals with the inheritance of the individual called? 2. What are mutations? 3. What causes mutations? 4. Is intelligence an inherited trait or is it influenced by education and training? 5. Why was the Drosophila fly in Professor Morgans bottle of milk white-eyed? 2. Match the word with its definition: 1. mutation 2. mutant 3. bead 4. protein a) an organism carrying a gene that has undergone a mutation b) rare change in the DNA of genes that ultimately creates genetic diversity c) a small animal which lives in rivers and is similar to a lobster , or its flesh eaten as food d) a small coloured often round piece of plastic, wood, glass, etc. with a hole through it; it is usually put on a string with a lot of others to make jewellery

5. molecule

6. gene 7. virus 8. chromosome

9. synthesis 10. crayfish

e) the production of a substance from simpler materials after a chemical reaction; the mixing of different ideas, influences or things to make a whole which is different or new f) one of the many substances found in food such as meat, cheese, fish or eggs, that is necessary for the body to grow and be strong g) the simplest unit of a chemical substance, usually a group of two or more atoms h) a part of the DNA in a cell which contains information in a special pattern received by each animal or plant from its parents, and which controls its physical development, behaviour, etc. i) an extremely small organism which causes disease in humans, animals and plants j) any of the rod-like structures found in all living cells, containing the chemical patterns which control what an animal or plant is like

3. Find in the text words for each definition below: 1. A generalization based on many observations and experiments; a verified hypothesis t ________________________ 2. The ability to learn, understand and make judgments or have opinions that are based on reason i _________________________ 3. The process of teaching or learning in a school or college, or the knowledge that you get from this e ________________________ 4. The study of how, in all living things, the characteristics and qualities of parents are given to their children by their genes g____________ 5. The simplest unit of a chemical substance, usually a group of two or more atoms m___________ 6. A type of very small organism that lives in air, earth, water, plants and animals, often one which causes a disease b_________ 7. The way in which genes change and produce permanent differences m________ 8. To look like or be like someone or something r___________ 9. Any of the rod-like structures found in all living cells, containing the chemical patterns which control what an animal or plant is like c_________ 10. Either of two children born to the same mother on the same occasion t_____
II. Vocabulary and Grammar

1. a) Use the correct verb forms. Make each sentence refer to the past: 1. If my computer (not crashed) _____, I (finish) _____my work. 2. Nobody (burgle) ______your house if you (lock) ______the door. 3. We (get) _____better tickets for the concert if we (booked) ______earlier. 4. If you (remember) ______the map we (not get lost)______.

5. If Reagan (not be) ______a film star, he (not become) _______President. 6. You (not get) ______a flu, if you (swim) _____in the sea in winter. 7. Fiona (win) _______the game if she (concentrate) ______harder. 8. If Sue (learn) ______Italian at school, she (enjoy) ______her last holiday to Italy more. b) Put the words into the correct order: 1. exam / pass / if / worked / she / harder / she / might / the / have / had. 2. race / Charlie / won / the / could / his / if / leg / have / he / hurt / not / had. 3. been / to / boss / so / said / terrible / thing / I / not / would / such / a / my / have / if / drunk / I / had / not. 4. seen / if / you / yesterday / had / I / I / said / hello / have / would. 2. Insert the following words in the text below: Drosophila, germ, modification, changes, environmental, genetic, genes, forward, altered, replicate, generation, mutations In general (1)______are very stable. They (2)______exactly and remain unchanged from one (3)______to another. They are capable of undergoing change, however, and these (4)_______may result in (5)_______of the genes action. The geneticist recognizes this change in action in the phenotype. Once a mutation has taken place, the (6)_______form of the gene is copied exactly, and if the change occurred in a (7)_____cell or in a cell which will finally give rise to germ cells, it may be inherited and become a part of the (8)______make-up of the population. The frequency with which mutations appear depends to some extent on (9)______conditions. The study of (10)______and how they arise can lead to a clearer understanding of what genes are and how they function. For these reasons it was indeed a great step (11)_____when mutations in (12)________were discovered. 3. a) Match the idiom with its definition: 1. Wow! Its raining cats and dogs today, and I forgot my umbrella! a) I forgot my umbrella today. b) Its raining heavily. c) Cats and dogs are falling from the sky. 2. When I told my mom I would be at home around 2 am, she had a cow! a) My mom was really upset. b) My mom bought a baby cow. c) My mom is really strange. 3. Jean: How did you know it was my birthday today? Susan: Oh, a little bird told me! a) Jean told Susan it was her birthday. b) Susan told Jean it was her birthday. c) An unnamed person told Susan about Jeans birthday.

4. Frank: Why didnt your brother ride the roller coaster with us? Sam: Oh, hes such a scaredy cat! He wont ride on any fast rides. a) Sams brother didnt go to the roller coaster. b) Sams brother is afraid to ride the roller coaster. c) Sams brother is a cat. 5. When the telephone salesman told me I could buy some concert tickets for only $10.00 if I gave him my credit card number, it seemed a little fishy to me, so I hung up the phone. a) I thought he was dishonest and I felt suspicious of him. b) I thought he smelled like a fish and I didnt like that. c) I thought he was playing a joke. 6. I never learned how to use a computer, so I lost my job to a new employee. Its a dog-eat-dog world. a) People treat each other like dogs. b) Only the best will keep their jobs. c) Dogs are eating dogs at the office. b) Circle the correct idiom: 7. This is a suspicious situation. a) Its fishy. b) Its raining cats and dogs. c) Its a dog-eat-dog world. 8. My sister got really upset when I drank the last of the milk. a) Shes a scaredy-cat. b) She had a cow. c) A little birdie told me. 9. Its raining and raining and raining! a) Its a dog-eat-dog world. b) Its a scaredy-cat. c) Its raining cats and dogs. 10. The best always win. a) A little birdie told me. b) Its a dog-eat-dog world. c) Its fishy.
III. Writing 1. Translate the following passage into English:

Genetica i are nceputul n lucrrile lui Mendel nc din a doua jumtate a secolului XIX. ns numai la nceputul secolului al XX-lea, i anume n anul 1900, lucrrile lui au fost recunoscute, i astfel a aprut o nou direcie n biologie genetica. Dezvoltarea de mai departe a geneticii se datoreaz lucrrilor marilor savani, att peste hotare, ct i din ara noastr.

Genetica modern n prezent a avansat mult, n ceea ce privete tratarea bolilor transmise prin ereditate, i genetica medical are o importan tot mai mare. . XIX . XX , 1900 , , . , . , . 2. Make up short dialogues on the following imaginary situations: 1. The cover of the book Genetics is decorated with the picture of a Drosophila fly. Your friend from the Physics Faculty asks you if there is any connection between this fly and such a serious science. Can you give him your explanation? 2. As a tourist you come to the USA. Among other places of interest at Columbia University you are shown the Fly Room. Ask your guide to tell you about the room. 3. You have read a book by Mendel, published at the beginning of the century. Compare the state of genetics at the turn of the century and at present. 4. You are in love and intend to propose. Your friend thinks the heredity factor of the brides family should be taken into consideration. Should people who are planning to marry consider the heredity of their families? Discuss the question thoroughly. 3. Write an essay on the following topic: Experience is the Best Knowledge. 4. Write a report on the topic: Genetic Disorders

3. Famous Scientists and Their Discoveries Anthony Von Leeuwenhoek

Even the ancients had known that curved mirrors and hollow glass spheres filled with water had a magnifying effect. In the opening decades of the XVIIth century men began to experiment with lenses in order to increase this magnification as far as possible. In this, they were inspired by the great success of that other lensed instrument, the telescope, first put to astronomical use by Galileo in 1609. Gradually, enlarging instruments, or microscopes (from Greek words meaning to view the small) came into use. For the first time the science of biology was broadened and extended by device that carried the human sense of vision beyond the limit. It enables naturalists to describe small creatures with detail that would have been impossible without it, and it enabled anatomists to find structures that could not otherwise have been seen. The first man who made and used microscope was Anthony von Leeuwenhoek. He was not a professional scientist. In fact, he was a janitor in the city hall in Delft, Holland. He made more than 200 different microscopes, most of which had only one carefully polished lens. With his homemade lenses, he explored all sorts of things and discovered a world never seen by the eyes of man. He examined milk, water, insects, the thin tail of a tadpole, and many other objects. His discoveries of bacteria, blood capillaries, blood cells, and sperm cells made him famous. In 1675 he wrote the first description of the microscopic animals that live in water. Leeuwenhoeks microscopes were simple. But his great patience and keen powers of observation brought to light many new facts about the living things. The Modern Microscope. The microscopes of today are far more complicated than those of Leeuwenhoeks time. They are called compound microscopes because they contain more than one lens. At the top there is an eyepiece which has two lenses in it. Then there is a long tube with more lenses at the bottom. These are called objectives. You can choose different magnifying powers by swinging different objectives into position. The usual high school microscope has a choice of two powers. With the low power, you can magnify an object about 100 times. The high power objective with the usual eyepiece can enlarge things up to 500 times. If you wish to examine an object under the microscope you must pass a beam of light through it. As the light passes through the lenses, it is bent in such a way that a magnified image appears. For this reason, anything you wish to see must be very thin. If it is too thick, the light will not go through it. Most microscopes have a mirror at the base. This can be moved in any direction. It reflects light up through the object and the lenses. The object, mounted on a piece

of glass, is placed on a flat platform called the stage. Then the microscope is adjusted by moving the tube up or down. This places the objective at the correct height above the object. Unless you focus carefully in this way, you can not get a clear picture. The Electron Microscope. There is a limit to the magnifying power of the compound microscope. The very best of them can enlarge an object up to 4000 times. A new type of microscope has been invented that does not use light. Instead, beams of electrons are passed through the object and a picture is made on film. The electron microscope can give us an image 25 000 times larger than the object. This development illustrates an important principle of science: when a new instrument is invented, it may speed up discoveries in the laboratory. Already, the electron microscope has made it possible to see things never dreamed of by Leeuwenhoek. We may be sure that in the future it will continue to reveal many new secrets of nature.
Notes to the text

Sphere Decade Lens Telescope Reflector Hollow Magnify Enlarge Device Tadpole Eyepiece Tube Swing Beam Mount Stage Adjust Focus Electron Reveal

[sfi] [dekeid] [lenz] [teleskup] [riflekt] [hl] [mgnfa] [nl:d] [dvas] [tdpl] [api:s] [tju:b] [sw] [bi:m] [mant] [sted] [dst] [fks] [lektrn] [rvi:l]

sfer deceniu lentil telescop reflector gol, pustiu a mri a mri, a lrgi dispozitiv mormoloc ocular tub a roti, a suci raz a monta scen a ajusta a concentra electron a dezvlui
Exercises

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I. Comprehension check

1. Answer the following questions: 1. Who was the first man who made and used microscopes? 2. When did men first begin to experiment with lenses in order to increase magnification as far as possible? 3. What made Anthony von Leeuwenhoek famous? 4. How is the modern microscope built? 5. Which is the magnifying power of the modern microscope? 6. Which is the magnifying power of the electron microscope? 7. How are modern microscopes called? 2. Match the word with the definition: 1. ancient 2. device 3. lens 4. mirror 5. electron 6. tube 7. eyepiece 8. telescope 9. creature 10. microscope a) a device that uses lenses to make very small objects look larger, so that they can be scientifically examined and studied b) a cylindrical device for making objects that are far away look nearer and larger, using a combination of lenses , or lenses and curved mirrors c) any large or small living thing which can move independently; an animal d) an object or machine which has been invented for a particular purpose e) a curved piece of glass, plastic or other transparent material used in cameras, glasses and scientific equipment, which makes objects seem closer, larger, smaller, etc. f) a piece of glass with a shiny metallic back which reflects light, producing an image of whatever is in front of it g) an extremely small piece of matter with a negative electrical charge h) a long hollow cylinder made from plastic, metal, rubber or glass, especially used for moving or containing liquids or gases i) the part of a piece of equipment, for example a microscope, through which you look j) of or from a long time ago, having lasted for a very long time

3. Find in the text words for each definition: 1. A hole or empty space in something, or a low area in a surface h __________ 2. A hard transparent material which is used to make windows, bottles and other objects g _____________ 3. An object shaped like a round ball sph _________ 4. To make something look larger than it is, especially by looking at it through a specially cut piece of glass m __________

5. A small black creature with a large head and long tail which lives in water and develops into a frog or toad t _____________ 6. A very thin tube, especially one of the smaller tubes that carry blood around the body c ___________ 7. To change something slightly, especially to make it more correct, effective, or suitable a _______________ 8. A tool or other device, especially one without electrical power, used for performing a particular piece of work i __________________________ 9. To become bigger or to make something bigger e ___________ 10. To learn about a subject, especially in an educational course or by reading books s____________
II. Vocabulary and Grammar

1. Write sentences for the following situations: 1. You went for a job interview. You were late. You didnt get the job. 2. Paul went on holiday to Paris. He met Nicole, his wife. 3. A dog ran into the road. You crashed your car. 4. She didnt pass the exam. She didnt go to university. 5. The Titanic hit an iceberg. It sank. 6. My car broke down. I was late for work. 7. She stayed at home last night. She was bored. 8. John hit a policeman. He was arrested. 9. Charlie scored a goal. His team won the match. 10. Her father gave her some money. She was able to buy a house. 2. Insert the following words in the text below: water, membrane, stream, animal, full, foot, jelly, push out, ameba, thin, watery, inch By examining (1)________from a lake or (2)_________ we will find that it is (3)________ of life. If you look carefully, you may find there the simplest animal, the (4)_______. It is a tiny mass of (5)_______ usually about 1/50 of an (6)________ long. The ameba is surrounded by a very (7)_________ cell (8)_________, which is quite elastic. At times, a part of the membrane will (9)_________, forming a false (10)_______. The rest of the ameba will then flow into it. In this way, the little (11)_________ moves slowly about in its (12)_______ world.

3. Match the idiom with its definition: 1. clear as mud a) exaggerate the importance or seriousness of a

problem 2. to cut no ice b) to have to work hard or make a lot of progress to achieve something 3. dead air c) its very difficult to forget old things, especially the first love 4. in broad daylight d) to achieve a result 5. make a mountain out of a e) taking a big risk molehill 6. to have a mountain to f) people use this idiom to imply that people who climb are quiet and dont try to attract attention are often more interesting than people who do try to get attention 7. old flames die hard g) during the day 8. to run into the sand h) a period of total silence 9. skating on thin ice i) not to have any effect or influence 10. still waters run deep j) very confusing and unclear 4. Fill in the gaps with the idioms from the box: 1. I cant stand his speech, he is __________________. 2. Dont think that if he is quiet he cant do you any harm, ______________. 3. Bill is suffering; he cant imagine his life without Monica. _____________. 4. People usually __________, but they have to know that there are problems which cant be solved. 5. Imagine, I was taken the purse __________ and nobody interfered. 6. To be awarded the Nobel Prize he ______________. 7. I appreciate it, he ___________, and he did it for me. 8. Its a _____________. Nothing important is discovered. 9. He ____________. Nobody would obey what he says. 10. Well ____________. I feel it.
III. Writing 1. Translate the following passage into English:

Microscopul este un sistem optic de laborator folosit pentru obinerea imaginilor mrite ale microobiectelor n scopul studierii i implementrii lor n practic. tiina care se ocup de crearea i folosirea microscoapelor se numete microscopie. Cu ajutorul microscoapelor este determinat forma, dimensiunile, structura i multe alte caracteristici ale microobiectelor, la fel ca i microstructura macroobiectelor. Nivelul de ptrundere n microlume i studierea ei depinde de capacitatea sau puterea microscopului de a analiza dimensiunile microobiectelor. - , .

. , , , . , . 2. Make up short dialogues on the following imaginary situations: 1. You know that Leeuwenhoek was not a professional scientist. Yet he corresponded with the Royal Society in London, where he sent his descriptions of what he had seen through his microscope. One day he was visited by one of the members of the Royal Academy. Try to imagine the conversation that might have taken place. 2. Two schoolboys discuss which microscope is better: the electron microscope or the light one. From their conversation it becomes clear they dont quite understand the difference between the two. Ask them questions in order to help them comprehend what the difference is. 3. You are a teacher of zoology. This is your first lesson on the use of microscope. Instruct the students in its use. 4. Your younger sister comes up to you and asks what a microscope is. Tell her what instrument it is, how it is constructed and what it is used for. 5. You are going to make a report From Leeuwenhoek to the present. What will you include in it? 6. You are given a microscope without a mirror and asked to examine a leaf of an apple-tree. Will you be able to do it? Discuss it with your friend. 3. Write an essay on the following topic: All Roads Lead to Rome.
Christian Eijkman Food Factors

In the Dutch East Indies in 1897 men on the plantations were falling sick with a strange nerve disease. They were unable to eat or hold their food. Their arms and legs became paralyzed and shrunken. So many were sick, that the hospitals had no more room for the victims of this disease, known as beriberi (the origin of the word is from a Sinhalese phrase meaning I cannot, I cannot, the word being doubled for emphasis). The Dutch physician Dr. Christian Eijkman was sent from Holland to try to find out how to prevent and cure this disease. Eijkman was immersed in germ theory. He was sure that beriberi was a bacterial disease. He brought chickens with him and hoped to cultivate the germ in them. But in this he failed. However during the course of 1896 these chickens came

down spontaneously with a disease very much like beriberi. Before Eijkman could do much about it, the disease vanished. Searching for causes, he found out that a certain period of time the chicken had been fed on polished rice from the hospital stores and it was after that they sickened. Put back on commercial chicken food, they recovered. Dr. Eijkman also learnt that the favorite food of the people was whitepolished rice. This was prepared by rubbing off the brown outer coating of the rice grains. Dr. Eijkman decided to try an experiment. He fed a number of hens with polished rice until they became paralyzed. The hens were then divided into two groups. One group, the control, was kept on the usual polished diet. The other group was given not only polished rice, but the outer brown rice skins as well. In a short time, the control group which ate nothing but white rice died of beriberi. The test group that received the brown rice polishings was cured. This was the first carefully controlled experiment showing that there was something in the food that could prevent a dangerous disease. Eijkman did not appreciate the true meaning of this at first. He thought there was a toxin of some sort in rice grains and that this was neutralized by something in the hulls. The hulls were removed when rice was polished, leaving the toxin in the polished rice neutralized. However, why assume the presence of two different unknown substances, a toxin and an antitoxin, when it was only necessary to assume one: some food factor required in traces? The outstanding exponents of this latter view were Hopkins and a Polish-born biochemist Casimir Funk. Each suggested that not only beriberi, but also such diseases as scurvy, rickets were caused by the absence of trace of food factors. Under the impression that these food factors belonged to the class of compounds known as amines Funk suggested these factors be named vitamins (life amines) and ever since the name was adopted.
Notes to the text

Protein Germ Toxin Polished Hull Scurvy Rickets

[prti:n] [dm] [tksin] [plt] [hl] [sk:vi] [rkts]

Protein Germene Toxin curat, lustruit Coaj Scorbut Rahitism


Exercises

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I. Comprehension check

1. Answer the following questions: 1. Which are the symptoms of beriberi? 2. What does the term beriberi mean? 3. Was beriberi a bacterial disease? 4. Which was dr. Eijkmans experiment? 5. Which are the causes of beriberi? 6. What did dr. Eijkman find out after doing the experiment? 7. Are vitamins important for our health? 2. Match the word with the definition: 1. germ 2. antitoxin 3. plantation 4. vitamin 5. toxin 6. immerse 7. victim 8. vanish 9. diet 10. disease a) a large farm, especially in a hot part of the world, on which a particular type of crop is grown b) (an) illness of people, animals, plants, etc., caused by infection or a failure of health rather than by an accident c) someone or something which has been hurt, damaged or killed or has suffered, either because of the actions of someone or something else, or because of illness or chance d) a very small organism that causes disease e) a poisonous substance, especially one which is produced by bacteria and which causes disease f) a substance that stops or reduces the effect of a toxin (poisonous substance) in your body g) any of a group of natural substances which are necessary in small amounts for the growth and good health of the body h) the food and drink usually eaten or drunk by a person or group i) to become completely involved in something j) to disappear or stop being present or existing, especially in a sudden, surprising way

3. Find in the text words for each definition: 1. To prepare land and grow crops on it, or to grow a particular crop c _________ 2. A type of bird kept on a farm for its eggs or its meat, or the meat of this bird which is cooked and eaten c__________ 3. A seed from a plant, especially a plant like a grass such as rice or wheat g ____ 4. The natural outer layer which covers a person, animal, fruit, etc.s _______ 5. To rub something using a piece of cloth or brush to clean it and make it shine p ______________________ 6. Any feeling of illness or physical or mental change which is caused by a particular disease; any single problem which is caused by and shows a more serious and general problem s _____________________

7. A test done in order to learn something or to discover whether something works or is true e ____________________ 8. The condition of the body and the degree to which it is free from illness, or the state of being well h _____________________ 9. To remove the covering or the stem and leaves from some fruits, vegetables and seeds h _____________________ 10. a disease which children who do not have enough vitamin D can suffer from, in which the bones become soft and not shaped correctly r___________
II. Vocabulary and Grammar

1. a) Complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first: Example: I want to live in New York. I wish I lived in New York. 1. I want to have a swimming pool. If only__________________ 2. I want to live near the sea. I wish__________________ 3. I am working tomorrow. I dont want to. I wish__________________ 4. I have to pay tax. I dont like it. I wish__________________ 5. I want a girlfriend. If only__________________ 6. I didnt study at university. I regret this. I wish___________________ 7. I was horrible to my brother. I am sorry now. If only__________________ 8. I didnt take the exam. I should have. I wish___________________ 9. I crashed my fathers car. I regret this. I wish___________________ 10.I met my wife when I was 32. Earlier would have been better. If only____ b) 1. Match the beginnings and endings: 1. If you hadnt gambled all our money a) if I hadnt seen your advert in the Lonely Hearts column. 2. If you didnt have a lot of money b) unless he really needed it. 3. We wouldnt be together now c) we would still be rich. 4. If David hadnt stolen the money d) I would give it to the police. 5. He wouldnt have stolen the money e) I wouldnt have married you. 6. If he had hidden the money in my f) he wouldnt be in prison. house

2. Insert the following words in the text below: Tablets, hot, relieved, replace, painful, content, muscles, deficiency, symptom, salt Men working hard in (1)_____ moist atmosphere sweat much. If they (2)______ the water lost but not the (3)______, NaCl (4)______ is produced. A common (5)______ is wide-spread, intense and exceedingly (6)______ cramps of

the (7)______ probably due to the harmful effect of the low Na (8)______ of the intestinal fluid. The cramps are (9)______ by drinking saline solution (0.5 per cent) or by taking salt (10)_____. Nowadays such workers are given salt tablets prophylactically. 3. Match the idiom with its definition: 1. apple of her/his eye 2. bad egg 3. big cheese 4. cool as a cucumber 5. couch potato 6. hot potato 7. in a nutshell 8. in the soup 9. make ones mouth water 10. out of the frying pan and into the fire a) an important person, a leader b) a very lazy person c) briefly, in a few words d) someone or something that one likes a lot e) in serious trouble, in disorder f) look or smell very good, want to eat or drink very much g) a bad person, bum h) go from something bad to something worse i) a question or argument that is controversial and difficult to settle j) calm, not nervous or anxious

4. Fill in the gaps with the correct idiom from the box: 1. She quit the job because of some small problems but she has jumped __________ because now her problems are much worse. 2. She is really _______ now. She told her boss that she was sick but he saw her downtown shopping. 3. The issue of building the nuclear power plant is a real _________ for the local town council. 4. The restaurant is supposed to be wonderful and every time that I see the menu it makes __________. 5. He is a real _________ and just sits around watching TV and staying indoors all day. 6. He is a __________ in his company so you should be very nice to him. 7. We went to the meeting and they told us _______ what would be happening to everyone next year. 8. That man is a ________ so you should try and avoid him if you can. 9. The little girl is __________________. 10. He is always _____________ and never worries about anything.
III. Writing

1. Translate the following passage into English:

Vitaminele sunt produse alimentare necesare pentru meninerea funciilor vitale. Organismul omului i cel al animalelor nu sintetizeaz vitaminele, de aceea necesit s le primeasc sintetizate. Insuficiena de vitamine n alimente sau modificarea procesului de asimilare a lor duce la dereglarea schimbului de substane. Organismele trebuie s primeasc vitamine permanent n cantiti determinate. Dar cantitatea de vitamine n produsele alimentare este variat i nu tot timpul asigur necesitile organismului. , . , . . . . 2. Make up short dialogues on the following imaginary situations: 1. We are preparing for a TV program. The question to be discussed is vitamins. Interview a physician on this point. 2. You are a doctor. You are consulting a patient with a strange nerve disease. Cant it be beriberi? Ask the patient about the symptoms and diagnose his disease. 3. You are Dr. Eijkman. Youve made an experiment with two groups of chickens, one of which died. Share your impressions with your colleagues. 4. Arrange a competition entitled What do we know about vitamins? Divide the group in two. The team that utters the last sentence is the winner. 3. Write an essay on the following statement: An Apple a Day Keeps the Doctor Away

I.P.Pavlov

If you visit the Pavlov Biological Station at Pavlovo, near SaintPetersburg, you will see a very interesting monument there. It is a monument to the dog. The dog as you know played a very important part in all Pavlovs experiments on the activity of the higher nervous system. In the name of science and humanity, Pavlov wanted to thank the dog; so this monument was put up.

Then if you go to see Pavlovs study, the room in which the great scientist worked for so many years, you will notice another dog, a toy one, standing on the book-case. The toy dog has a very interesting history. It comes from Cambridge, England, where there is one of the oldest universities in the world. On the 18th of July 1912, a group of students stopped before the window of a toyshop in Cambridge and looked at the toy dogs there. There is the thing we want, said one of them, and he pointed to a big white dog in the shop window. They entered the shop and asked for this toy to be packed. Soon they came out with a parcel containing the big white dog. Then, laughing and talking, they hurried to the laboratory of their physiology professor and showed the dog to him. And professor did not understand what it was all about until Archibald Hill, now one of the greatest physiologists in the world told him about their plan. It was this. They knew that the next day some foreign scientists were to come to Cambridge. Among these was Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, the great Russian experimenter and physiologist. So the students wanted to present Pavlov with a toy dog. Where did you get the idea from? asked the professor. I think its an excellent one. I got it from the grandson of Charles Darwin, who is now a student here, answered Hill. When Darwin got his doctors degree at Cambridge, the students of that time gave him a toy monkey. That was how they showed that they supported his theory of the origin of man. Now we shall honour Pavlov in the same way. The next day was a great holiday at Cambridge. Thousands of people came to see the foreign scientists receive their diplomas. The students watched the ceremony from the gallery. When the Speaker had made his speech, which was in Latin, the chancellor gave the doctors their diplomas one by one and they sat down at the great table on the platform. Now it was Pavlovs turn. As he was moving slowly forward under the gallery, the students let the dog fall right down into his arms. He looked up, saw all the young smiling faces above him and immediately understood what they meant. The students knew him too. It was one of the happiest moments in his life. As this was taking place, an old professor on the other side of the hall said to his neighbour: Look, the students are giving Pavlov a toy dog. Did you see Darwin get his diploma? Do you remember him standing there with a toy monkey in his arms nearly forty years ago? History repeats itself, doesnt it? Ivan Pavlov set out to find out how the food made the stomach juice flow. Did it work through chemicals, or nerves, or what? Was this flow of juices influenced by what a person ate, how the food looked and tasted, by the persons thoughts? Doctors, Pavlov realized, had to know the answers to these questions if they were going to make people healthier or even save their lives. Here is what Pavlov did: he anesthetized a dog that is, he gave it some medicine that would keep it from feeling any pain. He made an opening in the outside wall of the dogs abdomen. Then he took a part of the dogs stomach and made a pouch of it. This pouch had all the nerves and blood vessels that the rest of

the stomach had. Pavlov made a separate opening in the pouch that led out through the hole in the abdominal wall. Then Pavlov fed the dog. As soon as food got into its mouth, juice began to pour into the stomach. Some juice also poured into the pouch, and the scientist collected it in a little bottle through the opening in the abdominal wall. This experiment was one more proof that food itself starts its own digestion going. Pavlov showed that the presence of food in the mouth started nerve impulses that went to the brain and then to the cells of the stomach, then secreted or poured out juices. When he cut the vagus nerves, which bring impulses from the brain to the stomach, the dogs mouth could be stuffed with food yet no juices would be secreted in the stomach. Just as you dont have to think in order to breathe, you dont have to think to digest. You can drink a glass of hot milk before you go to bed, and it will be digested long before morning. It is digested while you are asleep. We call such an activity of the body, which involves nerves and happens automatically, a reflex. When food enters the mouth, a nerve impulse goes to the medulla. This is then reflected back by the nerves to the stomach. When the impulse reaches the stomach, the muscles contract and the cells secrete their juices. Physically and chemically, digestion had started. Pavlov also showed that the sight, the smell, even the thought of food could start the reflexes going and the stomach secreting. At the thought of a nice thick steak, you could really say: My stomach waters. This kind of reflex Pavlov called a conditional reflex.
A Conditional Reflex

A hungry dog which is shown food will salivate. This is a reasonable reflex, for saliva is needed for the lubrication and digestion of food. If a bell is made to ring every time the dog is shown food, it will associate the sound of the bell with the sight of food. Eventually, it will salivate as soon as it hears the sound of the bell, even though it sees no food. This is a conditioned reflex; Pavlov was able to show that all sorts of reflexes could be set up in this fashion. In the case described above, if a part of the dogs brain called the cerebrum were removed, the dog would no longer perform the conditioned response. This proves that the cerebrum is the centre of conditioned reactions in the nervous system of dogs. Many animals, even earth-worms, can be made to learn things by conditioning. For example, a spoiled child learned that he can get his way by crying. He has connected the act of crying with his ability to get what he wants. Conditioning is really a very simple form of learning. You are not born with any conditioned reactions. But you develop them throughout your whole life.
An Unconditional Reflex

Harry was on his way to school in a great hurry. As he ran along, he kept thinking of what would happen if he arrived late for his first class. His teacher had spoken to him very seriously the last time he was late. She had explained the

importance of developing the habit of being on time. Suddenly he tripped over a stone and his books went flying in all directions as he fell heavily, face forward. After a moment, he was able to pick himself up off the ground. Fortunately he was not badly hurt, but then he looked at his hands. They were dirty, scratched and bloody. He wondered how he had been able to throw up his hands quickly enough to save his face from serious injury. He had done it automatically without thinking. It was a case of a reflex act performed in time to protect his face against harm. This is an example of an unconditional reflex.
Notes to the text

Nervous System Physiology Impulse Diploma Ceremony Anaesthetize Stomach Juice Cerebral Reflector Blood Vessel Vagus Nerve Medulla Oblongata Un / Conditioned reflex Salivate Cerebelum Trip over

[nvs sstm] [fz.ildi] [impls] [diplum] [seremni] [nistaiz] [stmk du:s] [seribrl] [reflektr] [bld vesl] [vegs n:v] [medl blgt] [n kndnd rifleks] [slvet] [srebelm] [trp v]

sistem nervos fiziologie impuls diplom ceremonie a anestezia suc gastric cerebral reflector vas sangvin nerv vag mduv osoas reflex condiionat / necondiionat a saliva cerebel, creierul mic a se mpiedica
Exercises

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I. Comprehension check

1. Answer the following questions: 1. Why was the monument to the dog put up in Pavlovo, near Saint Petersburg? 2. Which is the story of the toy dog in Pavlovs study? 3. How does the food make the stomach juice flow? 4. Which was Pavlovs experiment? 5. What is a conditional reflex?

6. What is an unconditional reflex? 2. Match the word with the definition: 1. reflex 2. impulse 3. nerve 4. humanity 5. cerebrum 6. muscle 7. salivate 8. brain 9. system 10. blood vessel a) a set of organs or structures in the body which have a particular purpose; a set of connected things or devices which operate together b) people in general c) one of many tissues in the body that can tighten and relax to produce movement d) an uncontrollable physical reaction to something e) any of the tubes through which blood flows in the body f) a short electrical, radio or light signal which carries information or instructions between the parts of a system g) the organ inside the head that controls thought, memory, feelings and activity h) the front part of the brain, which is involved with thought, decision, emotion and character i) to produce saliva j) a group of long thin fibres (structures like threads) that carry information or instructions between the brain and other parts of the body

3. Find in the text words for each definition: 1. A person who studies physiology ph ____________________ 2. Any basic substance which is used in or produced by a reaction involving changes to atoms or molecules ch ___________________ 3. The lower part of a persons or animals body, which contains the stomach, bowels and other organs, or the end of an insect's body a ____________________ 4. A group of long thin fibres (= structures like threads) that carry information or instructions between the brain and other parts of the body n___________ 5. To move air into and out of the lungs b ________________________ 6. To make a substance flow from a container, especially into another container, by raising just one side of the container that the substance is in p ________________ 7. a common animal with four legs, especially kept by people as a pet or to hunt or guard things d_____________ 8. The lowest part of the brain, situated at the top of the spinal cord and controlling activities such as heartbeat, blood pressure and breathing m __________________ 9. The red liquid that is sent around the body by the heart, and carries oxygen and important substances to organs and tissue, and removes waste products b__________ 10. An organ in the body where food is digested, or the soft front part of your body just below the chest s_____________
II. Vocabulary and Grammar

1. Read the situations and write sentences with if: 1. People dont understand him because he doesnt speak very clearly. But if he ______________, people _______________. 2. Im not going to buy that book because its too expensive. But if that book ______________________________. 3. She doesnt go out very often because she cant walk without help. But if _______________________________________. 4. Hes fat because he doesnt take any exercise. But _________________________________________. 5. We cant have lunch in the garden because its raining. ___________________________________________________. 6. I cant meet you tomorrow evening because I have to work. ___________________________________________________. 2. Insert the following words in the text below: ill, Death, discussed, affected, experiment, paper, heart, death-bed, trained, scientist, operation diagnosis,

At the age of 78 Pavlov was taken seriously (1)____. He had to undergo an (2)______. His age and the seriousness of the operation (3)______ his heart. Pavlovs (4)______ had never known tiredness, and now it was beginning to wear out. Nevertheless the great (5)_____ could not miss the opportunity for another (6)______. With a help of a (7)______ assistant he made some careful observations of his organism and soon a (8)______ appeared under the modest title Post Operation Neurosis of the Heart, Analyzed by the Patient Himself. I.P.P. He didnt stop his work, even on his (9)______, he studied his illness, made his own (10)______ on the basis of his activities, (11)______ his observations aloud. The great scientist knew that the end approached. He called in a nerve specialist to analyze his condition with him. He looked upon his (12)______ as his last experiment. 3. Match the idiom with the definition: 1. better be the head of a dog than the a) to argue violently all the time tail of a lion 2. fight like cats and dogs b) the hottest days of the summer 3. its a dogs life 4. the hair of the dog (that bit you) 5. dog does not eat dog 6. sick as a dog c) if you associate with bad people, you will acquire their faults d) to work very hard e) very sick; sick and vomiting f) something that you say which

means that life is hard and unpleasant 7. work like a dog g) a lucky person 8. the dog days h) one disreputable person will not harm other disreputable people 9. lucky dog i) out of control 10. barking dog never bites j) something that you say when it is raining very heavily 11. like a blind dog in a meat market k) something that has been done very badly 12. if you lie down with dogs, you will l) an alcoholic drink that you drink get up with fleas to cure the pain in your head that was caused by drinking too much alcohol the night before 13. Its raining cats and dogs! m) someone who makes threats all the time seldom carries out the threats 14. a dogs breakfast/dinner n) it is better to be the leader of a less prestigious group than to be a subordinate in a more prestigious one

4. Fill in the gaps with the idiom from the box: 1. Joe: I can be the headmaster of a small secondary school, or I can be a teacher at a famous university. Which job offer do you think I should take? Nancy: _______________. 2. She tried to cut her hair and _________ of it. 3. Ellen: My lawyer did such a bad job that I want to hire another lawyer to sue him. Jane: Youll never find a lawyer to take on that job. __________. 4. We get on very well as adults but as kids we _________________. 5. Some people believe there is a star called _________ which can only be seen during a hot period in the summer. 6. Granddaughter: Its not fair. Im starting to get a bad reputation just because Im friends with Suzy and she has a bad reputation. Grandmother: Its only natural. People think that if you ____________________. 7. I've got to go to the supermarket, then cook a meal, then pick Dave up from the station - _________! 8. He _________ all day to finish the wallpapering. 9. It was early in the morning and Catherine reached for her glass. _________? asked Lee with a smile.

10. __________ out there! Its a wonder any of the men can see what theyre doing! 11. Old Mrs. Smith keeps saying shell call the police if we walk on her lawn, but dont worry. ____________. 12. The drunk staggered out of the saloon __________ in a meat market, stumbling all over the sidewalk. 13. Weve never been so ill. The whole family was ________. 14. You won the lottery? You are __________!
III. Writing

1. Translate the following passage into English: P.I. Pavlov este marele fiziolog rus, fondatorul unor noi direcii n fiziologie care a rennoit metodele de studiere a ei. Pavlov a creat studiul materialist despre activitatea nervoas superioar, a introdus n practic experimentul cronic ce permitea studierea activitii organismului practic sntos. Cu ajutorul metodei reflexelor condiionate elaborate I.P.Pavlov a determinat c la baza activitii psihice stau procesele fiziologice materiale ce au loc n scoara cerebral. , , . .. , , . .. , , . 2. Read and translate the text in writing: A letter to the youth by I.P.Pavlov What would I wish for the youth who devote themselves to science? First of all, persistence. I can never speak without emotion of this most important condition for fruitful scientific work. Persistence, persistence, and again persistence. From the very beginning of your work train yourselves to be strictly systematic in amassing knowledge. Learn the ABC of science before attempting to ascend its heights. Never reach for the next step without having first mastered the preceding one. Never attempt to cover up the gaps in your knowledge by even the most daring conjectures and hypotheses. No matter how the colorings of such soap-bubbles may please your eye, they will inevitably burst, leaving you with nothing but confusion.

Train yourselves to discretion and patience. Learn to do the rough work in science. Study, compare, and accumulate facts. No matter how perfect a birds wing, it would never raise the bird aloft if it were not supported by air. Facts are the air of the scientist. Without them you will never be able to soar, without them your theories are useless efforts. Yet, while studying, experimenting, observing, try not to stop only at the surface of facts. Do not become an archivist of facts. Try to penetrate the mystery of their origin. Seek persistently the laws governing them. Secondly, modesty. Never think that you already know everything. No matter in what high esteem you are held, always have the courage to say to yourself: I am ignorant. Dont allow yourself to be overcome by pride. Pride will make you stubborn where it is necessary to agree; it will make you reject useful advice and friendly assistance; you will lose the sense of objectivity. In the group which I am called to direct, atmosphere is everything. We are all harnessed to one common cause and everyone furthers it to the best of his strength and ability. Often we cannot distinguish between what is our own and what is our neighbors, but through this our common cause only gains. Third passion. Remember, science requires your whole life. Even if you had two lives to give, it would still not be enough. Science demands of men effort and supreme passion. Be passionate in your work and in your quests. I.P.Pavlov

3. Make up short dialogues on the following imaginary situations: 1. You are a teacher of biology. The subject of your lesson is reflexes. Explain the difference between conditioned and unconditioned reflexes. 2. Two groups of students met to discuss the types of experiment on digestive tract. You are among the supporters of the chronic type. Try to prove that you are right to the other group which defends the acute type. 3. You are a professor of physiology. Your students are to be shown an experiment with a dog. But your assistant doesnt know how to prepare a dog. Teach him how to do it. 4. Write an essay on the following statement: Dogs are Our Friends.

Chapter VIII. Ecology and Environment


1. The Science of Ecology

Ecology is the scientific study of the distribution and abundance of life and the interactions between organisms and their natural environment. The environment of an organism includes physical properties, which can be described as the sum of local abiotic factors such as sunlight, climate, and geology, and biotic ecosystem, which includes other organisms that share its habitat. Ecology is usually considered as a branch of biology, the general science that studies living organisms. Organisms can be studied at many different levels, from proteins and nucleic acids (in biochemistry and molecular biology), to cells (in cellular biology), to individuals (in botany, zoology, and other similar disciplines), and finally at the level of populations, communities, and ecosystems. Ecology is a multidisciplinary science because of its focus on many other branches of science, especially geology and geography, meteorology, pedology, genetics, chemistry, and physics. It is also a broad discipline comprising many subdisciplines. Ecophysiology - examines how the physiological functions of organisms influence the way they interact with the environment, both biotic and abiotic. Behavioral ecology examines the roles of behavior in enabling an animal to adapt to its environment; Population ecology studies the dynamics of populations of a single species; Community ecology focuses on the interactions between species within an ecological community; Ecosystem ecology studies the flows of energy and matter through the biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems; Systems ecology is an interdisciplinary field focusing on the study, development, and organization of ecological systems from a holistic perspective.
Biosphere

The outer layer of the planet Earth can be divided into several compartments: the hydrosphere (or sphere of water), the lithosphere (or sphere of soils and rocks), and the atmosphere (or sphere of the air). The biosphere (or sphere of life), sometimes described as the fourth envelope, is all living matter on the planet or that portion of the planet occupied by life. The biosphere contains great quantities of elements such as carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, and oxygen. Although there is a slight input of geothermal energy, the bulk of the functioning of the ecosystem is based on the input of solar energy. Plants and photosynthetic microorganisms convert light into chemical energy by the process of photosynthesis, which creates glucose (a simple sugar) and releases free oxygen. Glucose thus becomes the secondary energy source that drives the ecosystem. Some of this glucose is used directly by other organisms for energy. Other sugar

molecules can be converted to molecules such as amino acids. Plants use some of this sugar, concentrated in nectar, to entice pollinators to aid them in reproduction. Cellular respiration is the process by which organisms break the glucose back down into its constituents, water and carbon dioxide, thus regaining the stored energy the sun originally gave to the plants. The proportion of photosynthetic activity of plants and other photosynthesizers to the respiration of other organisms determines the specific composition of the Earths atmosphere, particularly its oxygen level. Water is also exchanged between the hydrosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere in regular cycles. The oceans are large tanks that store water, ensure thermal and climatic stability, and facilitate the transport of chemical elements thanks to large oceanic currents.
2. Global Warming

Global warming is the increase in the average measured temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans since the mid-20th century, and its projected continuation . Global surface temperature increased 0.74 0.18 C during the 100 years. Human activity since the industrial revolution has increased the concentration of various greenhouse gases, leading to increased radioactive forcing from CO2, methane, tropospheric ozone, CFCs and nitrous oxide. Molecule for molecule, methane is a more effective greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide, but its concentration is much smaller so that its total radioactive forcing is only about a fourth of that from carbon dioxide. The atmospheric concentrations of CO2 and CH4 have increased by 31% and 149% respectively since the beginning of the industrial revolution in the mid-1700s. Fossil fuel burning has produced approximately three-quarters of the increase in CO2 from human activity over the past 20 years. Most of the rest is due to land-use change, in particular deforestation. Increasing global temperature is expected to cause sea levels to raise, an increase in the intensity of extreme weather events, and significant changes to the amount and pattern of precipitation. Other expected effects of global warming include changes in agricultural yields, modifications of trade routes, glacier retreat, mass species extinctions and increases in the ranges of disease vectors. The greenhouse effect is unquestionably real and helps to regulate the temperature of our planet. The greenhouse effect was theorized by Joseph Fourier in 1824 and was first investigated quantitatively by Svante Arrhenius in 1896. It is the process by which absorption and emission of infrared radiation by atmospheric gases warm a planet's lower atmosphere and surface. It is essential for life on Earth and is one of Earths natural processes. It is the result of heat absorption by certain gases in the atmosphere and re-radiation downward of some

of that heat. Water vapor is the most abundant greenhouse gas, followed by carbon dioxide and other trace gases. Without a natural greenhouse effect, the temperature of the Earth would be about zero degrees F (-18C) instead of its present 57F (14C). Human activity has been increasing the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The global concentration of CO2 in our atmosphere today far exceeds the natural range. According to the IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES), by the end of the 21st century, we could expect to see carbon dioxide concentrations of anywhere from 75-350% above the pre-industrial concentration.
3. Environmental Organizations

Greenpeace is an international nongovernmental organization for the protection and conservation of the environment and for promoting peace. Greenpeace utilizes nonviolent direct action, lobbying and research to achieve its goals. Greenpeace has a worldwide presence with national and regional offices in over 40 countries, which are affiliated to the Amsterdam-based Greenpeace International. The global organization receives its income through the individual contributions of an estimated 2.8 million financial supporters as well as grants from charitable foundations. Greenpeace is a global campaigning organization that acts to change attitudes and behaviors, to protect and conserve the environment and to promote peace by: Defending the oceans by challenging wasteful and destructive fishing, and creating a global network of marine reserves. Protecting the worlds remaining ancient forests and the animal, plants and people that depend on them. Campaigning for sustainable agriculture by encouraging socially and ecologically responsible farming practices. The WWF was founded in 1961. Originally, WWF stood for the World Wildlife Fund. However, as the organization grew over the 70s and into the 80s, WWF began to expand its work to conserve the environment as a whole, rather than focusing on selected species in isolation. Although they continued to use their wellknown initials, the legal name became World Wide Fund for Nature (except in North America where the old name was retained). In almost 5 decades, WWF has become one of the worlds largest and most respected independent conservation organizations. With almost 5 million supporters distributed throughout 5 continents, WWF has offices in over 90 countries and can safely claim to have played a major role in the evolution of the international conservation movement. All these projects and activities play a part in the campaign to stop the accelerating degradation of Earth's natural

environment, and to help its human inhabitants live in greater harmony with nature. Friends of the Earth fight to protect the rights of all people to live in a safe and healthy environment, both at home or in countries around the world. Their campaigns demonstrate the belief that the fight for justice and the movement to protect the health of the planet are part of the same struggle. Over the last 39 years, Friends of the Earth, its members and its activists have been the first to raise the alarm and draw attention to new environmental problems and stopped over 150 destructive dams and water projects worldwide. They also banned international whaling and pressed and won landmark regulations of strip mines and oil tankers. Earth Hour is an annual international event created by WWF (The World Wide Fund for Nature), held on the last Saturday of March, that asks households and businesses to turn off their non-essential lights and electrical appliances for one hour to raise awareness towards the need to take action on climate change. It achieved worldwide participation in 2008 . Earth Hour is all about the small changes that everyone is capable of making in their lives and building the Earth Hour ethos into each days living. Turning the lights off, represents turning the lights on in your mind, to the benefit of emissions reduction. Collectively we can make a big difference. Earth Hour joins people together, it can save you money and it can help save the planet.
Notes to the text

Biotic Deforestation Ozone Carbon dioxide Ecosystem Multidisciplinar y Greenhouse effect Environment Hydrosphere Biosphere Glucose Combustion

[bat.k] [difr.ste. n] [.zun] [ka:.bn] [daik.said] [ikusistm] [ml.ti.ds. plnri] [gri:nhaus] [fekt] [nvairnmnt] [haidrusfi] [baiusfi] [glu:kus] [kmbs.tn]

Biotic despdurire

Ozon dioxid de carbon Ecosystem multidisciplinar efect de ser mediu nconjurtor Hidrosfer Biosfer Glucoz Ardere e

Methane Photosynthesis

[mi.ein] [futu sinsiz]

Metan Fotosintez
Exercises

1. Comprehension Check

1. Answer the following questions: 1. Which are physical properties the environment of an organism includes? 2. What are the main branches of Ecology? 3. What are the sub-disciplines of Ecology? 4. What are the most important environmental organizations? 5. How can you define the process of global warming? 6. What are the compartments the biosphere consists of? 7. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the greenhouse effect? 8. What is the annual international event created by WWF? 2. Match the word with its definition: 1. ecosystem 2. habitat 3.photosynthesis 4. radiation 5.glacier 6. fossil fuel 7. absorption 8. conservation a) the process by which a plant uses the energy from the light of the sun to produce its own food b) all the living things in an area and the way they affect each other and the environment c) fuels such as gas, coal and oil, which were formed underground from plant and animal remains millions of years ago d) the natural environment in which an animal or plant usually lives e) a form of energy that comes from a nuclear reaction and that can be very dangerous to health f) the protection of plants and animals, natural areas, and interesting and important structures and buildings, especially from the damaging effects of human activity g) a large mass of ice which moves slowly h) the process of taking something into another substance

3. Find in the text words for each definition below: 1. Over the last 39 years, its members and its activists have been the first to raise the alarm and draw attention to new environmental problems and stopped over 150 destructive dams and water projects worldwide F____________ 2. In almost 5 decades, this organization has become one of the worlds largest and most respected independent conservation organizations W____________ 3. It is an annual international event created by WWF, held on the last Saturday of March, that asks households and businesses to turn off their non-essential lights and electrical appliances for one hour E______________

4. It is a global campaigning organization that acts to change attitudes and behaviours, and to promote peace by catalyzing, protecting, defending, etc., G_______ 5. This process is essential for life on Earth and is the result of heat absorption by certain gases in the atmosphere and re-radiation downward of some of that heat g____________ 6. The scientific study of life and the interactions between organisms and their natural environment e___________ 7. Sometimes described as the fourth envelope, is that portion of the planet occupied by life b___________ 8. The increase in the average measured temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans since the mid - 20th century g______ w_______
II. Vocabulary and Grammar

1. Supply the correct Past Simple or Past Continuous form of the verbs in the brackets: 1. The phone_______ (ring) when I ________ (have) a shower. 2. George_______(fall) off the ladder while he_______(paint) the ceiling. 3. Last night I_______ (read) in bed when suddenly I______ (hear) a scream. 4. __________ (you/watch) television when I phoned you? 5. Ann_______(wait) for me when I _______(arrive). 6. I________ (not drive) very fast when the accident________(happen). 7. Tom________ (take) a photograph of me while I _______(not/look). 8. We________ (not/go) out because it_________ (rain). 9. I________ (see) Carol at the party. She_______ (wear) a really beautiful dress. 10. While I ______ (work) in the garden, I______(hurt) my back. 2. Match the idiom with its correct definition: 1. be (in) the nature of the beast 2. let nature take its course a) a very good and honest person b) to have to start dealing with the unpleasant or boring things that happen every day after a period of excitement and enjoyment c) it cannot be avoided because it is part of the character of something d) to do everything possible in order to achieve something e) something extremely good

3. cant see the wood for the trees

4. be the salt of the earth 5. bring someone (back) down to

earth 6. go to the ends of the earth 7. run someone to earth 8. like nothing on earth 9.heaven on earth

f) to cost a lot of money g) to allow someone or something to live or die naturally h) very strange i) you cant see the whole situation clearly because youre looking too closely at small details j) to find someone after searching for them

10. to cost the earth

3. Fill in the gaps with the correct idiom from the box: 1. Relationships always involve some degree of dependence. Its __________ 2. By this stage, her illness was so severe that the doctors agreed __________ rather than prolong her suffering. 3. His mothers_____________. Shed give you her last penny. 4. I had a huge pile of work waiting for me on my desk so that brought me____________. 5. Some journalists would_____________to get a story. 6. The film star was ___________by reporters in an exclusive golf complex. 7. The music they play is unusual and strange. It is like_____________. 8. Brians parties are___________ the food is marvellous and the company is terrific. 9. The coat I bought was extremely expensive. It_____________. 10. If you pay attention to all the details, you will never manage to complete your work. You just___________. 4. Insert the following words in the text below: recycle, rubbish, discharge, breathe, escape, allergy, combustion, pesticide, motor, sewage, collection, fossil, help, pollutant, container. The process of burning, or (1) ________, sends pollution into the air. Whenever (2) ________fuels such as wood, coal, natural gas, oil, are burned, some wastes are produced. These wastes (3) _________into the air. They are in the form of smoke, dirt or gases. We call them (4) _________. Much of the pollution in cities is caused by (5) ________vehicles and the people may feel tired, they may cough or sneeze a lot or have trouble (6)_________normally. The condition of people with certain (7) ________may become worse. Getting rid of (8) _______ is another nightmare cities face. The problem of solid wastes could be greatly (9) ________if each family would throw away less. Suppose, for example, that every

family saved old newspapers, cans, and glass (10)________. These materials could be taken to (11) ________centers. Next the materials could go to special plants. There they would be changed into forms that could be used again. This is called (12) ________. Water sources are polluted by the chemicals, fibers and oils into the water sources, but harmful wastes drain off fields and orchards, too. These wastes include (14) ________and fertilizers. These polluting materials should be removed before wastes are (15) ________into waterways.
III. Writing

1. Translate the following passage into English: Ecologia este tiina care studiaz organismele vii i interaciunea lor cu mediul nconjurtor. Biosfera este nveliul superior al planetei, n interiorul creia exist via. Ea este alcatuit din partea inferioar a atmosferei (15-20 km), partea superioar a litosferei i hidrosfera. n structura biosferei intr cantiti enorme de carbon, azot, hidrogen i oxigen. Nu mai puin esentiale vieii sunt fosforul, calciul si potasiul, dar care sunt prezente n cantiti mai mici. , . , , . (15-20 ), . . , , , . , , , , . 2. Write an essay on the following statement: The Earth has enough for every mans need but not for every mans greed (Mahatma Gandhi)

Grammar Reference

Reported Speech If you report something, it means that you repeat a message that was said before, at an earlier time. You may also be in a different place. Because the time changes, tenses may change and also words like here, now, this morning and so on. Here are some guidelines: Spoken words Amanda: I need a new hat for the wedding on Saturday. Julie: Im meeting my lawyer at 9.30. Mark: I drove to work yesterday. Sally: Ive been to China. David: Ill see you soon. Steven: Where do you live? Alan: Do you love me, Rebecca? Reporting Amanda said (that) she needed a new hat for the wedding for the following Saturday. Julie told me (that) she was meeting her lawyer at 9.30. Mark said (that) he had driven to work the day before. Sally told me (that) she had been to China. Notes The Present Simple often changes to the Past Simple.

The Present Continuous often changes to the Past Continuous. The Past Simple often changes to the Past Perfect. The Present Perfect often changes to the Past Perfect. David told me (that) he The will often changes to would see me soon. would. Steven asked me where I In reported questions the lived? word order changes there is no subject / verb inversion. Alan asked Rebecca if she Yes / No questions are loved him. reported using if or whether. Passive Voice

These are the passive forms of the present, past and future tenses: Present Simple: am / is / are + done / cleaned etc. Active: Passive: Somebody cleans this room every day. This room is cleaned every day. was / were + done / cleaned etc.

Past Simple: Active: Passive:

Somebody cleaned this room yesterday. This room was cleaned yesterday.

Future Simple: Active: Passive:

will be + done, cleaned etc.

Somebody will clean this room tomorrow. This room will be cleaned tomorrow. am / is / are being done, cleaned etc.

Present Continuous: Active: Passive:

Somebody is cleaning the room at the moment. The room is being cleaned at the moment. was / were being + done, cleaned etc.

Past Continuous: Active: Passive:

Somebody was cleaning the room when I arrived. The room was being cleaned when I arrived. will be being + done, cleaned etc.

Future Continuous: Active: Passive:

Somebody will be cleaning the room tomorrow when I come. The room will be being cleaned tomorrow when I come. have / has been + done, cleaned etc.

Present Perfect: Active: Passive:

The room looks nice. Somebody has cleaned it. The room looks nice. It has been cleaned. had been + done, cleaned etc.

Past Perfect: Active: Passive:

The room looked much better. Somebody had cleaned it. The room looked much better. It had been cleaned. will have been + done, cleaned etc.

Future Perfect: Active: Passive:

Somebody will have cleaned the room tomorrow by 5 oclock. The room will have been cleaned tomorrow by 5 oclock.

Present Perfect Continuous: have / has been being + done, cleaned etc. Active: Passive: Somebody has been cleaning the room for 2 hours. The room has been being cleaned for 2 hours. had been being + done, cleaned etc.

Past Perfect Continuous: Active:

Somebody had been cleaning the room for 3 hours when I came.

Passive:

The room had been being cleaned for 2 hours.

Future Perfect Continuous: ------------------------------Active: Passive: Somebody will have been cleaning the room for 2 hours by 5 oclock. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Conditionals First and Second There are many types of conditional sentences. Here are two of the most usual: First Conditional If I see Mary, Ill invite her to the party. If youve been to Paris, youll know what I am talking about. Form: if + SUBJECT + PRESENT FORM SUBJECT + will + INFINITIVE In place of if we can use when to emphasize it is very likely to happen. In place of will we can use can (=be able to) or might (=will perhaps). Second Conditional If I had a million dollars, I would buy a big house. If she was having an affair, she wouldnt tell her husband. Form: if + SUBJECT + PAST SIMPLE or CONTINUOUS SUBJECT + would + INFINITIVE In place of would we can use could (=would be able to) or might (=would perhaps). The if part of the sentence and the main part of the sentence can be reversed. Ill invite Mary to the party if I see her. I would buy a big house if I had a million dollars. The first and second conditional both refer to the present or the future. The difference is how likely we think the situation is to occur. Compare: If you work hard, you will pass the exam. (You are a good student this is likely to happen.)

If you worked hard, you would pass the exam. (You are not a good student this is unlikely to happen, although it is possible.) The second conditional can also be used for many imaginary situations. If I was President, I would increase taxes. (But Im not the president, I am imagining the situation). Past (third) Conditionals If I had seen you last week, I would have invited you to the party. Form: if + SUBJECT + had + PAST PARTICIPLE SUBJECT + would have + PAST PARTICIPLE In place of would have we can use could have (=would have been able to) or might have (=would perhaps have). If clause: had + past participle If she had seen him. The result clause: would + have + past participle she would have told him. This form of if sentences is used to talk about unreal situations in the past. Compare: If I were rich I would buy a big house. (Now but Im not rich) If I had been rich I would have bought a big house. (Past I wasnt rich, so I couldnt buy a big house.)

If she hadnt married him, she wouldnt have become Queen. But she did marry him and she did become Queen. If I had known you were coming, I wouldnt have gone out. But I didnt know, so I did go out.

Tenses
Structure Examples We use the Present Continuous Tense:

The Present Continuous is made with the present form of the verb "to be" + the '-ing' form of the main verb. The '-ing' form of the verb is called the Present Participle.

1. Pamela is sleeping in the bedroom. 2. The telephone is ringing! 3. They are doing their homework. 4. I'm waiting for my girlfriend in front of the cinema. 1. I'm reading an interesting book. 2. Tom is looking for a new job. 3. We are studying English and Spanish. 1.My husband is working hard today. 2. They are spending this week in Paris. 3. She is teaching English this semester. 1. He is always complaining from his colleagues. 1. My son is always getting into trouble in school. 2. I'm leaving for Vienna tomorrow morning. 3. We are having lunch at 12.30 o'clock.

- we most often use the Present Continuous when we talk about something which is happening at the time of speaking (now, at the moment)

Affirmative form I am you are we are working they are he/she/it is Negative form I am not you are not working we are not they are not he/she/it is not Interrogative form Am I? Are you? Is he, she, it? working Are we? Are you? Are they? Contracted forms I am = I'm he/she/it is = he's/she's/it's you are = you're I am not = I'm not

- Present Continuous is also used when we talk about something which is happening at present, but not necessarily at the moment of speaking: - we can use the Present Continuous when we talk about temporary actions taking place only for a period of time (today, this week, this semester, this year): - we can use the Present Continuous when we talk about repeated actions which are irritating to the speaker (always, constantly): - sometimes we use the Present Continuous to describe a planned action in the near future.

Structure

Examples

We use the Present Simple Tense:

1. Philip gets up at 6 To form the Present o'clock every morning. Simple Tense we use the 2. I go to school every verb's base form (go, day. work, speak, study). In 3. She sometimes goes rd the 3 person singular out on Friday night. (he, she, it), the base form 4. I usually sleep late on of the verb takes -s/es. Sunday morning. 5. Peter works for 8 hours every day. Affirmative form I you work we they he/she/it works /-s/ Negative form I do not You do not work He,she,it does not We do not You do not work They do not Interrogative Form Do I? Do you? Does he, she, it ? work Do we? Do you? Do they? 1. I work in a bank. 2. Kate speaks English very well. 3. Tom lives in London. 1. The Earth is spherical. 2. My birthday is in May. 3. California is in the United States. 4. The sun rises in the east.

-when we talk about things that happen repeatedly or habitually - with Present Simple Tense we often use time expressions such as always, often, sometimes, usually, seldom, on Saturdays, rarely, never, every day, etc. - to indicate general truths, facts and scientific laws - when we talk about travel plans and timetables (mainly with verbs such as go, leave, arrive, start, come, return etc.)

These verbs are not 1. She loves jazz music. normally used in the 2. My aunt hates Continuous Tense: like, travelling by train. dislike, love, think, seem, 3. I like ice cream. I don't look, know, feel, like spinach. understand, want, need, 4. I think she is a hate, remember, forget, wonderful person. prefer, believe, mean, 5. Do you believe in taste, hear, see, have God? (when the meaning is 6. I have no money at the "possess"), own, belong, moment. etc.

Structure

Examples

We use the Past Simple Tense:

The past simple tense of the verbs (regular verbs) is formed by adding "-ed"/"-d" to their base form. (If the verb ends in "-e", we add "-d" to form the past simple.) There are also some verbs called irregular verbs that have special past tense forms. (See list of irregular verbs)

1. We arrived at 9:00 o'clock. 2. This morning I went to the supermarket. 3. The teacher went to the desk. 4. He didn't hear the telephone. 5. Susan bought her little sister a doll. 6. We came here in 1980. 7. I worked at Johnson & Co. from 1990 to 1995. 1. When she was young, she danced beautifully. 2. He played the violin when he was a child. 3. We often went there. 4. I saw her every day. 1. It happened one night in the winter. 2. She opened her bag, took out the key and unlocked the door. 1. World War II ended in 1945. 2. Romans built strong bridges. 1. When Peter arrived, I was reading a book. 2. I was having a bath when the phone rang.

- to describe actions and situations that happened in the past. These actions and situations were started and finished in the past. - the sentence often contains an adverb or adverb phrase of time, such as yesterday, the other day, last night, last week, three days ago, a few minutes ago, in (year), from (year) to (year), etc - to talk about habitual or repeated actions that took place in the past Note: This use is also often expressed with used to: For example: Bob used to smoke 20 cigarettes a day. - to tell a story and to express actions which follow each other in a story - to refer to the historical past or to events that have happened in the distant past relative to the speaker - to talk about action in the past that take place in the middle of another action

Affirmative form Regular verbs: base form + "-ed" or "-d": work + "-ed" = worked live + "-d" = lived - To form the negative and interrogative sentences we use the past form of auxiliary verb do / did: Negative form I you DID + NOT he/she/it /DIDN'T/ we + WORK they Interrogative form you DID he/she/it WORK? we they

Structure

Examples

We use the Present Perfect Tense:

to have + the past participle of the main verb.

I have lived in Canada since 1984. (and I still do) 1. She has been to the doctor twice this week. (and the week isn't over yet) 2. We have visited London several times. I have just finished my work.

Affirmative form I you d we they he/she/it have worke (has) He has seen Harry Potter. 1. I have worked here for five years. 2. She has lived here for twenty years. 3. They have been married for six months 1. I have lived here since 1998. 2. They have been married since June. 3. We have been at this school since last year.

Negative form I havent(hasnt) You worked He,she,it We You They

Interrogative form Have I Have you Has he, she, it worked? Have we 1. Have you ever been to Have you Canada? Have they 2. Haven't you ever eaten Thai food? 3. It's the first time I've ever eaten Thai food.

-when we talk about an action or situation that started in the past and continues in the present. -an action performed during a period that has not yet finished. -a repeated action in an unspecified period between the past and now. -an action that was completed in the very recent past (expressed by 'just') -an action when the result is very important but the time is not. -when talking about the length of time (duration), we use the present perfect with for + a period of time. -when talking about a starting point, we use the present perfect with since + a point in time. For + a period of time: for six years, for a week, for a month, for hours, for two hours. -since + a point in time: since this morning, since last week, since yesterday, since I was 12, since Friday, since 6 o'clock. -'Ever' and 'never' are always placed before the past participle.

Structure

Examples

We use the Present Perfect Continuous Tense:

The structure of the present perfect continuous tense is: verb(have/has)+auxiliary verb(been)+main verb+ing Affirmative form I you have been working we (has) they he/she/it Negative form I havent been working you havent been working he/she/ it hasnt been working we havent been working you havent been working they havent been working Interrogative form Have (has) I been working? you been working? he/she/it been working? we been working? you been working? they been working?

-we use the present perfect 1. I'm tired because I've continuous tense to talk been running. about an action that started 2. You don't understand in the past and stopped because you haven't been recently. There is usually listening. a result now. 1. I have been reading for 2 hours. [I am still reading now.] 2. We've been studying since 9 o'clock. [We're still studying now.] 1. I have been studying for 3 hours. 2. I have been watching TV since 7pm. -we use the present perfect continuous tense to talk about an action that started in the past and is continuing now. This is often used with for or since. -we use for to talk about a period of time - 5 minutes, 2 weeks, 6 years. We use since to talk about a point in past time - 9 o'clock, 1st January, Monday.

Structure

Examples

We use the Future Simple

Tense:

- The future simple tense is composed of two parts: will/shall + base verb.

1. I will finish my report later today. 2. The sun will rise at 6:03 am. Affirmative form 3. I'll go to the market I + shall / tomorrow. will + work 4. There will be another we conference next month. you 5. I'll come to see you he/she/it + will + work on Sunday. they 1. I'll close the window. Negative form 2. I'll have a cup of tea, I SHALL + NOT please. we /SHAN'T/ + 3. - The phone is WORK ringing. I - I'll answer it. you WILL + NOT he/she/it /WON'T/ 1. I think it will rain. we + WORK 2. The weather they tomorrow will be sunny Interrogative form and warm. To form interrogative 3. I think David Brown sentences we use will with will be the next mayor all persons: of our city. WILL I WORK? we 1. I'll be there at 7 p.m., you I promise. WILL he/she/it WORK? 1. Will you please help they me to do my homework? 1. If it begins to rain, I'll certainly need an umbrella. 2. She will tell him when he calls.

- to say that something will happen in the future. Adverbs of time that will indicate such tense may include tomorrow, today, later today, in five minutes, in two hours, on Monday, on Saturday afternoon, next week/month, this year, etc. - to express spontaneous decision or the action that is decided at the moment of speaking - to predict future events (for example, to say what we think or believe will happen), we use both 'will' and 'going to' - to make promises or threats - to request help or to offer help - to talk about consequences (with if, when, provided, unless, as, as soon as, as long as, etc.) - when the main verb is be even if we talk about planned events

Structure

Examples

We use the Future Continuous Tense:

The future continuous tense is composed of will+ to be+ verb (ing) Affirmative form I will + be working we you he/she/it they Negative form I you WILL + NOT he/she/it BE we + WORKING they Interrogative form I you he/she/it we you WILL they be working?

1. I will be watching TV when she arrives tonight. 2. I will be watching for you when the bus arrives. Tonight, they will he having dinner, discussing their plans, and having a good time.

- We use the Future Continuous to indicate that a longer action in the future will be interrupted by a shorter action in the future. - When you use the Future Continuous with two actions in the same sentence, it expresses the idea that both actions will be happening at the same time. The actions are parallel. - Like all future tenses, the Future Continuous cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. - It is important to remember that NonContinuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses.

While I am going to be finishing my homework, she is going to make dinner. - Not Correct While I am finishing my homework, she is going to make dinner. Correct 1. Jane will be being at my house when you arrive. Not Correct 2. Jane will be at my house when you arrive. Correct

Structure

Examples

We use the Future Perfect

Tense:

The form of the future perfect combines the forms of the future with will and the present perfect: will (or any modal verb) + have + past participle (third form of the verb) Affirmative form I will have read You will have read He, she, it will have read We will have read You will have read They will have read Negative form I will not have read You will not have read He, she, it will not have read We will not have read You will not have read They will not have read Interrogative form Will I have read? Will you have read? Will he/she/it have read? Will we have read? Will you have read? Will they have read? Contracted forms: I will not have read = I won't have read

At 2:30 tomorrow afternoon, I will have finished my third class. I hope that I will have finished this Hint by 9:30 PM. In about five minutes, I will have thought of at least five example sentences.

- The future simple perfect verb tense is used to state an action that occurs into the future until a later time in the future. - To state an event or action that will finish before another action event in the future. - The future simple perfect verb tense is used for actions that are non continuous. -The future simple perfect verb tense can't be used with "time clauses" such as when, while, "by the time", soon, before, after, if, unless, until , etc. -The future simple perfect verb tense often used with "by" and "not", "for" and "until" to state that the action or event will be completed at time in the future.

Next year, my niece will have been married for two years.

In December, 2001 our company will have been on the market for six years.

Structure

Examples

We use the Past Continuous Tense:

1. I remember that at 8 The Present Continuous is oclock my brother was made with the past tense watching TV. of the verb "to be" and 2. They were playing ing ending . football yesterday afternoon. 1. While Mary was crossing the street yesterday, she saw a flying saucer in the sky. Affirmative form I was You were He was She was working It was We were They were Negative form I was not You were not He was not She was not working. It was not We were not They were not Interrogative form Was I ? Were you? Was he, she, it? working Were we? Were you? Were they? Contracted forms Was not=wasnt Were not=werent 1. It was raining all day yesterday. 2. I was walking in the woods for quite a while. 1. I was walking across the field when I saw a plane. 2. I was cooking the dinner when my mother rang. 1. While my mother was cooking, father was reading a newspaper and the kittens were playing on the carpet.

- The Past Continuous is used to express continuous actions occurring in the past. -The Past Continuous tense is frequently used to refer to an ongoing action which was taking place when something else occurred in the past. - we use the past continuous to describe a longer action in the past: - we often use the past progressive and past simple when a longer action is interrupted by a shorter one: - we also use the past progressive to show that two or more actions were going on at the same time in the past.

-always is used to 1. The two children were express a repeated action always laughing during in the past which annoys my classes. the speaker.

Structure

Examples

We use the Past Perfect

Tense:

To form the Present Simple Tense we use had + past participle

The boy explained that -to express a past action he had seen somebody in that took place before a the garden. past action or before another action in the past Father came after Dick had done his homework. 1. Mary told us that her brother had just left. 2. We didnt know that he had already repaired his car. In 1980 I had been a teacher for ten years. I wish I had not missed the train. -Just, already, hardly and no sooner are used to show that the past action was finished a little time before another action in the past -since and for are used when the point of reference is past -to express an unfulfilled wish.

Affirmative form I you had worked we they he/she/it Negative form I You work He,she,it had not worked We You They Interrogative Form Had I? Had you? Had he, she, it worked? Had we? Had you? Had they?

She spoke about the play as if/though she had seen it. -to express a future action that takes place before I told my friend that I another action expressed would lend him the book by a Future-in the Past. after I had read it. -to express a Past I would have given her Conditional in a the book if I had met her. conditional clause.

-After had/would rather or as if/as though

Irregular Verbs Base Form awake be bear beat become begin bend bet bind bite bleed blow break breed bring breed bring built burn burst buy catch choose cling come cost creep cut deal dig do draw dream drive drink eat fall Simple Past Tense awoke Was/were bore beat became began bent bet bound bit bled blew broke bred brought bred brought built burned/burnt burst bought caught chose clung came cost crept cut dealt dug did drew dreamed/drea mt drove drank ate Fell Past Participle awoken been born beat become begun bent bet bound bitten bled blown broken bred brought bred brought built burned/burnt burst bought caught chosen clung come cost crept cut dealt dug done drawn dreamed/dreamt driven drunk eaten fallen Base Form Feel fight Find fight Fit Fly forbid forget forgive freeze Get Give Go grow Hear Hide Hit Hold Hurt keep know Lay Lead learn leave Lend Let Lie Lose make mean meet Pay Put Quit Read Ride Simple Past Tense felt fought found fought fit flew forbade forgot forgave froze got gave went grew heard hid hit held hurt kept knew laid led learnt/ed left lent let lay lost made meant met paid put quit read /red/ rode Past Participle felt fought found fought fit flown forbidden forgotten forgiven frozen gotten given gone grown heard hidden hit held hurt kept Known Laid Led learnt/ed Left Lent Let Laid Lost Made Meant Met Paid Put Quit read Ridden

Base Form risen run say see seek sell send set shake shine shoot show shut sing sink sit sleep speak spend spill spread stand steal stick sting strike swear swim take teach tear tell think throw understand wake wear weep

Simple Past Tense Rose Ran Said Saw Sought Sold Sent Set Shook Shone Shot Showed Shut Sang Sank Sat Slept Spoke Spent spilled/spilt Spread Stood Stole Stuck Stung Struck Swore Swam Took Taught Tore Told Thought Threw understood Woke Wore Wept

Past Participle Risen Run Said Seen Sought Sold Sent Set Shaken Shone Shot showed/shown Shut Sung Sunk Sat Slept Spoken Spent spilled/spilt Spread Stood Stolen Stuck Sting Struck Sworn Swum Taken Taught Torn Told Thought Thrown Understood Woken Orwn Wept

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