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Lucrarea de fafa' se adreseaza' tuturor celor care vor sa' fnvefe limba engleza', indiferent de virsta' ~i este rezultatul unei munc de 25 ani de predare la catedra'. Ea prezinta' concis toata' gramatica de baza' a limbii engleze, fa'ra' a avea preten fia de a epuiza su biectul. Autoarea nu a tratat sintaxa fn capitol separat, deoarece problemele importaite de sintaxa' apar pe tot parcursul ca'i;ii fn cadrul fieca'rui capitol. Traducerea exemplelor a fost fa'cuti foarte nguros, uneon' fntr-un mod mai pu fjn obi~nuit vorbirea In uzuala' pentru o cfi mai bun2 fnfelegere a nuanfelor incluse in context. Pentru a putea studia mai profund problemele de gramatici expuse in aceasta' lucrare, autoarea va publica ~io carte de exercifiigramaticale , tipa'nta'de aceea~i ura'. edit
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CUPRINS

ARTICOLUL ............ ...................................................................... ............................&..4 . .............i........................ ................................. 4 ' Articolul nehotikit ......................... ..........~ .....................i. Articolul homit ......... .............................................................................. : Articolul zero ...................................................... ; .*..........*......................... ......................... 5 5 . SUBSTANT,IVUL .......... ................................................................................................. 7 Clasificarea Substantivelor ................................................................ ........................... 7 :.... . . Genul substantivelor ...................!................................................:... .................................. 8 NumLul substantivelor ................... 1................................................................................ . . II Cazul substantivelor ..........: : .... .............................................. :......................................... 19 Formarea substantivelor ........................ .... .................................................................. -.20 PRoNuMELE ......................................................................................... ...................... ,23 : Pronumele personal .............................................. ..................................... ...................... 23 ...................................... 24 . Pronumele poxsi v ...........:............ ......:..................................... 1 . . PronUmele reflexiv pi pronurnele dc inurirc .................................................................... 24 Pronumele demonstrativ ........................................... ..........:........................................... 25 Pronurnele interogativ ...................................................................................................... 25 Prm.u-nele rclativ ..................................... ............................................................... 26 -. 1 ............;.........--................................................ Pronumele nehotilrit'............ ; ................... 27 ADJECTIVUL .... ........................................................................................................... 31 : Comp~aiia adjectivelor .................................................................. .............................: 31 . Comp~atia adjectivelor compuse ........................................... .......................................... 33 Formarea adjectivclor .............................................................. ........................................ 35 Adjective determinative ........................................................................ ............................ 36 NUMERALUC ................................... .......................................................................... - 3 9 ! NumeraluI cardinal ............................ ................ ...........:........................................... 39 Numeralul ordinal .................................... ................................................................. ......... 39 . . Numeralul fractionar ............................. .......................................................................... 40 Numeralul colectiv ............................................................................ ..............................1 4 0 Numeralul multipIicativ ............................................. .................................................... 41 :. Numeralul distributiv ...................................................................................................... 41 i VERBUL .............. ........................................................................................................ 42 Aspectul ................................ ................................................................ ........................... 43 Verbe auxiliare ... ............................... : ............................................... ............................... 45 . Yerbe modale ......................................$......... .................................................... ............... 47 Verbe tfanzitcve $i intranzitive ............................ ................................................ .............. 52 Diateza .................. ................................................................................. ;. ........................ 53 . . Moduri personale .............................................................*...*......................................... 54 ............................................... Modul indicativ ..........: .................... 54 ........................ ; The simple Present Tense ..................... .......................................................... ................ 55 The Present Continous Tense .......................... ............-................................................. 54 :. The Simple Past Tense ............................................................................... ............ : ...... 56 ...................................................................... 56 . The Past Continuous Tense ....................... : The Simple Future Tense .................... .....-.....-..A2 .............................................. . ..... 57 .

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Future Continous Tense ................................................................................................. 57 The Near Future ................................................................................................................. 58 The Present Pcrfcct Tensc ............................................................................................. 58 Thc Prcscnt Perfcct Continuous Tcnsc ............................................................................ 59 The Past Perfect Tensc ...........................2...................................................................... 60 .The Past Perfcct Continuous Tensc ................................................................................ The Future Perfcct Tensc ................................................................................................. The Future Perfcct Continuous Tcnsc ............................................................................ The Future in IJIC Past Tense ........................................................................................ :.. The Future Perfect in the Past Tcnsc .,............................................................................. Concordan\a timpurilor ................................. ............................................................... : Modul subjonctiv .......................................................................................................... Modul condiiional .......................................................................................................... Fraza conditional3 ............................................................................. :.......................... .............................: ....................................................................... 70 Modul irnpcrativ ......: Moduri i~npcrsonalc....................................................................................................... 7 1 ............. : Infinitivul : ........................................................................................................ 7 1, Construc\ia acuzativ cu infinitiv ............................................................................. 72 : Construc\ia nominadv cu infinitiv ............................................................... :.............. 7 . . Paticipiul, ................. :.....................................................................L ....................... 73 Construc[ii participiale .................................................................................................... 76 . No~ninativabsolut ........... .............................................................. ............... .......... . 76 Par~icipiu absolut .......................................................... : ............................................. 76 The Gerund ................ :................................................................................................... 77 .... Deosebiri intrc purticipiul prczcnt $i gcrurid ....................................: :............ ........... 79' Infinitiv. Gcrund. Difcren\icri .........................: ........................................................ S O Construc\ii altcmativc ......................................................................................................7 1 ~om;arcll vcrbclor ............................................................................................................ 82 . Vcrbc can: sc confund5 ................................................................................................. 8.3 ADVERBUL ...... ........................................................................................................... S(7 Clasificarca adverbclor ..................................................................................................S O Reguli de ortografie .............................................................................................. :....... 87 Locul aciverbclor .................................................................................................... 87 . Situatii spcciale ........................................................................................................... : S9 ........................................................... 9 I PREPOZITIA ................................................... : CONJUCTIA .............................................................................................................. 100 : VORBIREA DIRECTA 81 INDIRECTA ................................................................. 102 ~NTRESARI DISJUNCTI\'E ................................................................................. 105 CONSI'RUC~IILE (AND) SO....(AND) R'EITI-Il1R ................................................ 106 ORDINEA CUVINI ELOR i N PROPOZIrKIE........................................................ 107 Gmpul subiectului ......................................................................................................... 107 Subiecte irnp&sonale ...............................................................................................: . . . 108 Grupul predicatului ..............................:....................................................................... 108 Complementul direct .................................................................................................... 106 Complernentul indirect .................................................: ............................................. 10s Complementul prepozitional ......................................................................................... 108 ~ o m ~ l e m e n tcircum~tan\ial loc ............................................................................. 109 ui de

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. . . . Complementul c i ~ c u m a w ~ ~ l l ............................. :..;..;.............. itc Limp ......................... 109 Cornplcmentul c~cumstanyjal mod ...................................... de . . ................................. Complemenhl c i w m a n [ i a l dc caurii ......................................... ................. ..... 100 .....: ......... 109 Complementul cucim-stanp:ll de scop ..:................................... ............................... 1 ...... 100 Complementul cucumst:1n(i.: (ie condi(ie ...................... .............................. ;._._._._._._. ........ 109 Com~lemen!ulcircumswn(ial concesiv ...................:............................................... ....... PRORLEME SPECIALF. ............................................................................................ I00 There isnhere are ..'.........., ...................................... ....................................................... I I!) 110 Semfificalia lui "s" cu sau IXr3 aposvof ......................................... ................:............. 110 Redarea in limbs englefi cuvinlu:ui rornlincsc 'rnai".:..,: ...................... ............ I I 0 Still. Yet ..-.........,... :...................................... ................................................. .............. 112 112 Diminutive ........................................................ ............................................................. TABEL CU VERIIELE NEREGULA'I'E ..................................................................... .l i 4 BI~LIOGRAFIE ........................................................................ .................................. 126
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(THE ARTICLE)
Articolul este o partc dc vorbire care insote$te, de rcgul2, un substantiv. ^In limba cngled exist5 trei tipuri dc articole. Acestm stau Pntotdeauna in fi~p substantivului. 1.Articolul nehomt cste a, an $i se intrebuintw2 numai la singular. A se pronun@ lei] cind este accentuat ~i [a] cind estc neacccntuat, fiind folosit in l a p unui substantiv care i ~ ~ c c cu consoan2, sau cu unul din sunctelc semivocalice w $i y : pe a dog a horse a window a unity An pronunpt [am], [an], [n] cste inlrebuin\atPnfaya unul cuvint care incepc cu vocal5 sau cu h mut: an apple an hour an honourable man Folosirea articolului nehotkit 1) atunci cind nu 9 t h nimic desprc substantivul respcctiv: Therc is a boy in the street. 2) inaintea unui substantiv nume de profesie, meserlc, nationalitate plasat dupB vcrbclc to be, to become: She is a teacher. He will become a doctor. You are an Englishman. 3) cu Zn\eles de numeral: A boy is reading, two girls are playing. 4) in f a p cuvintclor little ~i few conferindu-le aceswra un plus de cantitate: He has few English books = El arc putinc cilrp engleze~ti. He has a few English books = El are multe (ccva!) carp cngle~c$tl. 5) dup5 niany (urmat de substantiv la singulsr), quite, rather, such, uhat, \\itliout, as, half: Many a man would like this. She is quite a Lady. Such a nice girl! What a morning! She is a woman without a husband. Write this as an introduction. 6) in unele expresii curente: a t a distance = la distant5 on an average = in medie on a large/small scale = pe scar5 largll/redus2 with a view to = in scopul de a it is a pity!/a shame! = e pacat!, e ru~ine! , , to be in a hurry = a fi gribit to have an answer for everything = a avea raspuns la toate
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A RTICOL UL

to keep it a secret = a tine secgt to make a fortune = a face avere to make a fuss = a face caz to take a seat = a lua loc to go for a walk1 a sail/ a drive/ a ride/ ctc. = a se duce la pllmbare/ pe jos/,cu yola sau cu vaporull cu autornobilul/ etc. to catch a eold = a r5ci to have a headache = a avea o durere de cap 7) in f a p numelor de mBuri (timp, distanp, cantitate): once a day = o (fat5 pe zi three miles an hour = irei mile pe or5 30 lei a dozen = 30 lei duzina

1I.Articolul hothit, the, se pronun@lda] in f a p unui substantiv care idcepe consoan2 ri [ail in fata unui substantiv care incepe cu vocal3 sau h mut ca $i atunci cind vreln s5 accentua ceva in mod special: Is he "the" Johnson you were talking about ? El e ace1 Johnson dcspre care vojbeai : ' Folosirea articolului hotirit 1) in Tap unui substantiv cunoscut anterior sau bine determinat: The boy sitting in the comer is my brother. 2) in fafa numelor proprii la plural sau determinate de un aliibut: We shall dine with the Browns. \ Vom lua masa cu familia Brown. The famous John Smith will come tomorrow. The John i saw you with is not the John I know. 3) in faia numelor de munti la plural sau de lanturi muntoase: The Carpathians, the Caucasus

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- Numele a trei munri la singulaf sint articulaie:


the Jungfrau, the St-Bernard ~i the St.Gothard.
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4) in f a p substantivelor care numesc intinderi de ape (oceane, m&i, esturtre, fiuri): the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, the Thames. 5) in f a p numelor punctelor cardinale. 6) in f a p substantivelor precedate de p@poziGi: on the table in the classroom 7) in f a p numeralelor ordinale. 8) in f a p adjectivelor la gradul superlativ relativ. 9) cu sens de pronume demonstrativ Stephen the Great. b
111. Articolul zhro rnarcheazii qbsenta articolului: absent5 care este to! atit de semnificativii ca ~iprezenja lui.
' Cazuri i n care apare articolul zero 1) nume proprii (aici se poate vorbi despre inexist=r;a articolului din cauza caracterului de unicitate a substantivului)

to hdve a fancy for = a avea chef de


to have an opportunity = a avea prilejul to have a right to = a avea drept la

to have a talent for = a avea talent la, penuu

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2) substantive abstracte ncdcfinite life is wonderful. The life in that house is unbearable. dar: . -3) atunci cind subsuntivele bed, cliurch, court, harbour, hospital, jail, alarket, port, prison, school, sea, shore, table, town, sint folosite pcntru a numi locur~lc rcspcctive utilizate in scopul pentru carc ele au fost frcute: It's timc to go to bed = E timpul d n1;rgem la culcare. The boy has put the book 011 the bed, dar: The teacher and h e pupils go to schoql. The woman goes to the school LO wash the windows. dar: Thc crlminal was sent to prison. They turned the prifon into a museum. dar: 4) Numele meselor zilei, cind sint folosite cu sens abstract: In our house dinner is served at sevcrt. We enjoyed the dinncr wc had yesterday. dar: 5) nuve de zile, luni, anotimpuri. NOTA - Articolul the poati apkea in fa\a numelor de anoumpuri cu sensul this, that. - In the (his) summcr wc shall go to France. 6) nume de obiecte de studiu, jocuri sau sporturi: We learn history and geography. Evcry body likcs football. 7) nume de @riformate dintr-un slngur cuvint: Ro~SXnla, England Excepiii: the Argentine, the,Sudan 8) nume de orave: London, Bucharest Exceptii: the Hague 9) substantiv6la plural hate in sens general: Childrcn like swcets. 10) in unele locutiuni adverbiale vi unele exprcsii:
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SUBSTANTIVU~

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1.Clasificarea .substantivelor

(TI-IENOUN)

Substantivul este par!ea de vorbire care denumc~tefiinte, plantc, lucruri, insugiri, acliuni, stLi, nokiuni, abstracfiietc.

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to be at sea to change qolour. to declare war against to lose courtlge to send word arm in arm day by day handandhand day m day out from time to ttme

at hand by heart on contlition that on Soot from bcginning to cnd from day to clay from hand to moulh from hcad to Soot from right to lcll from top to bottom . etc,

1) Substantive proprii: - denumesc fiinte, locuri gcografice, evenimente istoricc, nationalit2ti; titluri ereditare sau onorifice, intreprindcri, lunile anului ~i zilcle ssplilminii etc: Tom,'RomTnia, Yorld War I, English, Sir John Fitzgerald, British Broadcasting Corporation, Saturday, January. Toate substantivele proprii sc scriu cu majuscuIb. ATEWE! Unelcsubstantive proprii au dcvcnit substantivc comune vi in acest caz se scriu cu liters mica: china = poqclan - China jersey = jerscu - Jcrscy hovqrcraft = vehicul cu pcm5 dc acr - Hovercraft = rnarca fabricii machintoch = hain5 de ploaie -Charles Machinloch - nurnclc inventatorului tcddy bcar = ursulef de p l u ~ Thcodore Rooscvclt - prc~cifintc SUA al . tommy = soldakin armata cnglez3 -Tommy Atkins = nume complcut ca. indrumar in formularclc oficialc volt = voli - Alessandro Volm - fizician italian . 1 wati = watt -Jamcs Wau - ingincr ~i inventator scotian , * In uncle cazuri se pAstreu.5 rn~ajuscula: I a Grigorcscu = un tablou dc Grigorcscu a Judas = un trr'idi3tor- Juda carc I-a LrLTdat pc Isus Cristos
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a) substantive concrete - numcsc pcrsoanc, plante, anirnalc, fcnomcnc, lucruri carc pot fi'a~insc rnina: spoon, audicncc, cat, tree, mothcr,,chair, hair, moon, rain. cu b) substantive abstracte - numcsc stki, scntimcntc, actiuni, notiuni in general: love, happiness, health, work. A T ! Uncle substantive abstracte pot fi folositc ca substantive concrete, dar cu a11 inples: surgery = cabinet medical (concret) = chirurgic (abstract) delicacy = dclicatesa, uufanda (concret) = delicatete (abstract) curiosity = obicct rar (concret) = curbzitrlte (abslract) . . medicine = doctorie (concret) = medicins (abstract) c) Substantive colective - lasingular numesc o pluralitate de obiecte similare privite ca un tot unitar: army, fleet, audience, team, galaxy, flock, government, congress, council, public. d) Substantive numirabile - sirit acele substantivc c'xe au fo~ma singular yi de plural: de boy - boys, ball - balls.
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2) Substantive comune: table, c a t flowcr, friendship, love.

e) Substantive nenumirabile - nu au decit form3.de singular gi nu primesc arlicolul hotlirit a/ an in fap lor. Se folosec cu verbul la singular. Exemple: fun, heat, light, news, darkness, laughter, meat, steam, smoke, bacon, Europe, music, knowledge, peace, youth, football etc. AlENpE! Anumite substantive nenumikabile pot deveni numiIrabile cu altinycles: coffee - sg. = cafea crud5 sau lichid - pl. = cafele, categorii de c a f a - sg. = came de vid beef - pl. categorii de came de via lamb - sg. = carne de rniel, rniel - pl. miei air - sg. - aer - pl. = to put on airs = a - ~da aere i silver - sg. = argint - pl. = pieces of silver - moncde argint lace - sg. = dantels, giret \ - pl.= ~ireturi change - sg. =rest (de bani); mkunyi~; schimbarc - pl. = schim&lri - sg. = carne de peSte, specie de peSte, un pepc fish - pl. = pe~ti general in toast - sg. = piine pr3jitti. toast - pl. = toasturi (Vezi subcapilolul 1 1 Pluralul subst3livelor). 1:
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chauffeur czar sultan

- chauffeuse - czarina
- sultana
FEMININ sister mum,mummy countess mother lady, gentlewoman wife queen lady

signor hero Paul

- signora
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- Pauline
FEMININ landlady woman niece mamma madam; lady, daughter aunt vicereine witch

heroine

b) cuvinte diferite care indics genul masculin gi genul feminin: MASCULIN brother dad, daddy earl father friar monk gentleman husband king lord MASCULIN landlord man nephew Pap sir, son uncle viceroy wizard .

11. Genul substantivelor

in limba englezg exist2 pam genuri: rnrtsculin, ferninin, neutm $i comun. 1) Genul masculin este folosit penmu a nurni fiinie de sex b5rbZitesc: man, boy, brother. cock, bull, etc. 2) Genul ferninin este folosit penuu a nurni fiinie de sex ferneiesc: woman, sister, hen, cow. etc. 3) Genul neutru este folosit penuu a nulni obiecte ne'insuflc\ite sau fiinte al caror sex nu intereseazs: table, house: joy, cat, baby, etc. 4)-Genul cornun este folosit penyu a numi substantive cu o singuri form5 pentru alnbele sexe: teacher, child, doctor, friend, pupil, shcep, horse, etc. Genul masculin gi genul ferninin pot f exprilnate prin mai multe metode lexicale: i a) prin adsugarea unor sufixe la substantivul de gen masculin se obiin substantive de gen feminin: ambassador - ambassadress lion - lioness actor - actress manager - manageress marquis, adventurer - adventuress author - authoress marquess - marchioness baron - baroness mastcr - mistress count - -countess negro - negress doctor - doct(o)rcss poet - poetess duke - duchess prince - princess god - goddcss , steward - stewardess , heir . - heiress tiger - tigress waiter -.waitress I executor - execuuix don - dona

Animale Masculin boar, hog = vier buck, stag = cerb bull = taur cock, rooster = coca? dog, hound = copoi drake = rsfoi fox = vulpoi gander = giscan stallion = armssar ram = berbec
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Feminin sow = scroaf5 doe = dprioarii


COW

Gen comun pig, swine deer


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hen = =sing bitch = d p a duck vixen goose mare = iaps ewe

fowl dog duck fox goose horse sheep

c) folosirea unui cuvint care indid sexul: Persoane Masculin Feminin bride bridegroom = mire boy (sau man) friend girl.friend grandson = nepot de bunic granddaughter nurse male nurse male patient female patient male servant female servant mankind : womankind * airman ainvoman barman barmaid I chairman =pre$edinte chairwoman madman madwoman mihian milkmaid salesman saleswoman policeman policewoman spaceman . spacewoman businessman businesswoman

Gen comun spouse friend , grandchild patient servant pilot bar attendani

salespeople @I.) police astronauL space mvelfer businessperson

Animale buck-rabitt , bullelephant male elephant tom cat cock pheasant = fazan cock sparrow = w5bioi peacock = Nun turkey cock = curcan dog wolf = lup ' he-bear = urs he-goat = p p
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doe-rabitt COW elephant female elephant tabby cat hen pheasant hen-sparrow= vritbiut;l peahen = @uni@ turkey hen = curd bitch wolf - lupoaicit she-bear = wsoaicll she-goat = caprit

rabbit elephant elephant cat pigeon spmw peafowl turkey wolf bear goat

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- nme de p ,de ambarqiuni, vehicule (Romania, boat, ship, car etc.) i Precizilm d'acestea sint ctitexii generale de ahiiuin a genului, saiitorul sau vorbitorul avfnd toaa libertatea de a h& singur. I I Num5;ul substantiveior I.
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Pentru a exprim? sexul unei persoane care apaqine unei anumite naponalit2p se adaugii cuvintele man, respectiv woman, la substantivul care indicll nafionalitatea. Dacll acest substantiv nu este insopt de cuvintele menlionate mai sus, el este de gen comun. African American Asian Briton Britisher Bulgarian Burmese Chinese Czechoslovak Danish gtian English Finn German Greek Hungarian Italian Japanese Magyar Malay New-Zealander Norwegian Pole Portuguesse Romanian Russian Siamese Slovak Spaniard Spanish . Swede Turkish Swiss Yugoslav Devonian . .
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NOTA Substanitvele baby, infant $i child, ca $i cele care denumesc animale, sint de. genul neutru. Animalele pot fi desemnate pxit~pronumele corespundtor sexului lor (he, she) in urmlltoarele situap: a) din considerente de ordin afectiv b). cind animalul este personificat. In acest caz substantivele care desemneazg animale mari sau putemice sint de gen masculin (lion, elephant, tiger, dog, horse, donkey, eagle, pig, etc), iar cele care desemn& animale mici sint de obicei de gen feminin (cat, mouse, parrot, etc). Intr-o lucrare literarll automl are dreptul sll hot&ascil sexul animalului . , respectiv in funcpe de propria sa fantezie. Exisd o serie de obiecte sau nopuni abstracte c& pgt fi personificate $i in acest caz criteriile generale de fixare a genului masculii sau feminin sint urmittoarele: a) sint de gen masculin substantivele care d e s e m n a : - pasiuni puternice sau acpuni violente (love, hat% war, anger, murder, crime, fear, a terror, etc.) - fenomene naturale puternice precum $ aspecte impresionante din natu-5(wind, st-, river, mountain, sun, summer, autumn, winter, day, death, nume de flvvii, Guri $ munp, etc.) b) sint de gen-feminin substantivele care denumesc nogiuni ce sugeremll ceva bfind, lipsit de putere, c $iideea de fertilitate. a \ - sentimente $ ^mqiri(fiiendship, pity, modesty, faith, hope, wisdom, patience, etc.) - trflsllhui de caracter negative (envy, vanity, ambition, jealousy. pride, avarice, etc.) - aspecte din n a m (spring, morning, evening, night, moon, nature, sea, earth, etc.) - nopuni abstracte (liberty, peace, victory, eternity, experience; proiperity, memory, etc.)
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1) NumM singular este'folosit atunci cAbdsubstantid desemneazil un singur obiect. 2) Numllrul plural este folosit atunci chlsubstantivul desemn& mai multe obiecte. Pluralul substantivelor se formaaughdu-se -s la forma de singular. Reguli de ortografie la augarea terminapei -: s a) substantivele terminate in -s, -5 -sh, -ch primesc termha* -es pronunpd [iz] bus - buses ' fish - fishes class - classes match - matchw fox - foxes sandwich - sandwiches . b - buzzes watch - watches NOTA In cazul substantivelor terminate b -ch pronunpt F ] sau [h] se adaugit terminagia -5. epoch [k] - epochs - epochs F] Czech [k] - Czechs F] , patriarch R] - patrfarchs b ] loch ms] - lochs [hs] b) : final precedat de consomit se m f o r m l l in -ie: y baby - babies story -stories Exceppe fac numele proprii terminate I -y cit $ anumite p&p de vorbire substantivizate: n two Marys whys (de ce-uri) c) Unele substantive terminatein -f, -fe form& pluralul in -ves: leaf - leaves shelf - shelves thief - thieves wolf - wolves loaf - loaves knife-knives calf - calves - life- lives . half - halves wife - wives Alte substantive terminate in -f, -fe primesc terminapa -s: chief - chiefs cliff - cliffs dwarf - dwarfs grief - griefs handkerchief - handkerchiefs gulf - gulfs roof - roofs proof - proofs d) Substantivele terminate in -0 pmxLu de consoan2prim&rmin'a@ i aatuni cind a ele au fost introduse de mai mult timp in limba englea cargo -cargoes negro - negroes domino - dominoes potato -potatoes hero - heroes veto - vetoes moschito - moschitoes volcano -volcanoes echo - echoes tornado - tornadoes D a a -0 este p - e t de v&alii sau substantivul este introdus recent in limba engled se adaugit terminagia -s: embryo -embryos . radio - radios fdio - folios scenario -scenarios bamboo -barnboos kangaroo - kangaroos cuckoo . - cuckoos - taboos taboo

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flamingo fresco

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- flamingos, flamingoes - frescos, frescoes

law memento

-lassos, & ' - mementos, rnemenw


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motto - motto?,, mottoes - sopranos, soprani soprano zero - zeros, zeroes e) Substantiveleterminate ?n-th primesc terminaria -s: breath -breaths month -months birth - births death - deaths health - healths faith - faiths growth -growths bath - baths mouth -mouths path - paths youth - youths earth - earths truth , - mths oath - oaths grotto halo

- grottos, grottoes - halos, haloes

Substantive cu plural neregulat: man - men mouse -mice louse - - lice goose -g= OX - oxen bison - bison moose -moose game - game carp - carp - cod cod trout - trout * -swine swinw Plurale s t r s n e a) plurale latine: alga - algae libra - librae bacillus -bacilli . Papyrus -papyri radius - -radii addendum addenda bacterium - bacteria -desiderata --g , '4symposium - symposia vortex - vortices matrix -matrices Plurale grece~ti acropolis - acropoleis ' antithesis - antitheses axis - axes - crises crisis ellipsis - ellipses hypothesis - hypoteses neurosis - neuroseS paranthesis - parantheses apsis - apiides ephemeron - ephemera

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foot tooth woman child brother sheep deer fish pike mackerel salmon
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- feet - teeth - women - children - brethren


- sheep

- deer - fish - pike - mackerel - salmon

desidgy

larva persona grata cumulus poIYPus stimulus agendum , datum erratum s t r : urn ~ codex helix

-larvae , - personae gratae - cumuli - polypi. - stimuh -agenda

- data - errata - strats


-codices
,

- helices

analysis- analyses : apotheosis -apotheoses basis -bases , diagnosis ,- diagnoses metamorphosis - metamorphoses .. emphasis - emphases

oasis
p

synopsis ' - synopses ephemeris - ephemendes phenomenon -phenomena

- oases

Plurale italiene gondoliere - gondolieri condottiere - condottieri amoretto - amorettl' bambino - bambini palzzzo ' - palazzi autostrada - autostrade ' , ATENTIE !asupra pronuntiei gi plurzlului urm2toarelor substantive: singular plural axis ['aeksis] axes ['ceksi:~] basis ['beisis] bases ['beisi:~] crisis ['kraisis] crises ['kraisi:~] .-. thesis ['@i:sis] - theses [@i:si:z] Anumite substantive de origine strilinil mai des intrebuinpte au primit gi forma de plural englezesc cu terminapa -s: antenna - antennas, antennae arena - arenas; irenae formula - formulas (7n gtiinye) lacuna. - - lacunas, lacunae formulae maximum - maximums, maxima - vertebras cactus - cactuses, cacti vertebra vertebrae focus - focuses, foci - funguses, fungi fungus hippopotamus - hippopotamuses, retina - retinas, retinae hippopotami gladiolus - gladioluses, gladioli nimbus - nimbuses, nimbi - narcissuses, nuclei narcissus dictaam - dicrms, dicta nucleus - nucleuses, narcissi lustrum - lustnims, lustra sarcophagus - sarcophaguses, sarcophagi maxium - maximums, maxima ' syllabus - syllabuses - aquariums, aquaria - syllabi aquarium compendium - compendiums, candelabrum - candelabrums, compendia candelabra curriculum - cuniculums, curicula mausoleum - mausoleums, gymnasium - gjrmnasiums,gymnasia mausolea medium rnediums, media memorandum - memorandums, memoranda - minimums, minima minimum moratorium - moratoriums, moratoria referendum - referendums, referenda sanatorium - sanatoriums, sanatoria spectrum - ~pecf~ums, spectra ultimatum ultimatums, ultimara apex - apexes, apices trauma - -- traumas, traumata index - indexes, indices automaton - automatons, automata necropolis - necropolises appendix - appendixes, appendices minus - minuses metropolis - metropolises chrysalis - chrysalides, chrysalises criterion - criterions, criteria syrinx - syrinxes, syringes acropolis - acropolises -adieu - adieus, adieux iris. - irises, hides plateau - plateaus, plateaux larynx - larynxes, larynges maestro - maestri - sphinx - sphinxes, sphinges banditto - bandits, banditti octopus - octopuses, octopi tempo - tempos, tempi . beau - beaus, beaux arena - -arenas . trousseau , trot?sseaus, trousseaux diploma - diplomas - solo - solos, soli encyclopedia - encyclopedias arm - areas

idea panacea peninsula sofa umbrella bonus campus circus ignoramus chorus impetus

- ideas . - panaceas . - peninsulas - sofas - umbrellas -bonuses . - campuses - circuses - ignoramuses - choruses . - impetuses -

dilemma drama era Opera panorama quota sonata villa (omni)bus genius

- dramas

- dilemmas
'

-.eras - operas - panoramas - quotas - sonatas - villas - (omni)buses - geniuses, genii

damage drawer draught

avarie

damages drawers draughts draught effects feelings flannels


-

sertar
curent de aer etc.

1.avarii , 2.despiigubiri 1.sertare 2.indispensabili, .izmene,

chiloti
jocul de "dame" construit cu deterrninanpi gi verbui la sing.) 1.efecte 2.efecte, bunuri mobile, ^knbddminte 1.sentimente 2.sensibilitate, susceptibilitate, simpatie 1-flanele 2.costum de haine de flanelil, in special pantaloni de flanelil purtaii la cricket s8u la alte jocuri 1.motive 2.221~;parc in jurul unei cliidiri 1.scrisori;litere 2.literatd 1.moduri 2.maniere. p w e 1.minute 2.proces-verbal al unei @in& 1.dureri 2.ostene.alll l.p&p;rolwi 2.meIeaguri 1.premise 2.local. imobii, Gcintll 1.sferturi 2.locuin& cantonarnent 1.chitanp 2.incasi41-i 1.inapoieri 2.venituri 1.game;solzi 2.ba1an~.cintar 1.bndtele. fraemente 2.restuh (de $rime), d w m i (de metal etc.) 1.spectacole 2.ochelari 1.termene;trimestre 2.temeni, relag, raportun, ' condip, ,

effect feeling
A

efect sentiment flanelg

~xistg substantive a1 &-or plural poate avea $i un inieles diferit de eel al sigularului, in multe cazuri existind gi alte forme de plural.

SINGULAR
brother

IQLES
hte

*PLURAL

WELES

brothers brethern

COW

vad

COWS

die
I

l.matri@penmi 2.m geniu, om de geniu index (in c w ) mediu (persomil)


-

kine dies

fra$ frao de singe; confrafi. membri ai aceleiqi comunitilp, societilti etc. vaci vaci (arhaic, literar) matrile

flannel

ground
letter manner minute pain Part premise

motiv scrisoare; lited mod minute durere Partem1 premid

grounds letters manners minutes pains P m premises

genius index medium

dice geniuses genii indexes indice's I mediums media pennies pence staffs
.

zanui genii spirite, duhwi indexuri - indici (in maternaticil. chimieetc.) mediumuri mijloace (de culturalizarea maselor etc.) vezi mass media gi multimedia
valoarea in penny

penny staff

moned5 de un penny l,(mil.) st-. --'-cadre, persoanl al unor instituF, etc 2.pdjinil de steag, - toiag etc.

q-,
receipt (muz.) portativ 1.chiulase 2qantaloni p-%&I sau sub la genunchi -..lL 1.culori 2. 2. drape1 1.busole 2.compas 1.obiceiuri 1.obiceiuri 2.vamH
3

, sfert
chitanv inapoiere

quarters
receipts

breech colour compass custom

".-chidasa anpi ----arme


culoare busolH obicei

staves 'breeches colours compasses customs


=
P

return

-.

returns

scale
d

garnil (muz.); solz


bucil$cil, hgment

scales scraps spectacles


terms

,-

spectacle
I

spectaco1 terrnen, perioad, duratil, trimesm

term

tweed water fruit people abuse business character

un fel de stof5 de l i d ~PS fruct popor

tweeds
waters

fruits fruit peoples people

l.sto& de ling 2.costum de tweed l.ape 2.ape minerale fructe de mai multe feluri h c t e de acelwi fel '

bearing

conduia, purtare,

bearings

direcpe; pozipa relativg

game hair ice Paper Sport sand wood

l.abuz abuses ( 2.insulte l.pr?lv&lie; intreprinderebusinesses Z.afaceri, come 1.personaj fin&-: characters povestire, pies& etc.); liter2 2.caracter 1.joc games 2.v'nat l.fu de p& . hairs 2.ph 1.inghepd ices 2.eheatii (nume de materie) l-.hA%tie; ziar, Papers comuniwe, tezil 2.hA%tie (nume de materie) l.sport Sports 2.juc8rie (fig.), disaactie nisip sands 1.piidure woods

popoare oameni, lume, neamuri. familie abuzuri .


pdv&lii, intreprinderi personaje; litere

cost honour middle age


practice

respect work

cost onoare, cinste virsd mijlocie, maturii clientel5(a unui medic);exerci{iu; practic5 respect, stim5, consideratie munc5

costs cheltuieli honours onoruri - the Middle evul mediu Ages = practices mqinatii, practimeiorativ) 'respects works omagii, respecte mecanism al unui ceas sau
at unei mqini

jocuri fm.de p & inghepte hAXi,acte, documente; ziare; teze, comunicZIri spoituri plaja p5lduri

Numele de culori la plural au intelesuri speciale: = o melodie hisd; un dans melancolic, trist a blues the blues = deprimare, melancolie iZr==S = verdepri whites = haine alk. pantaloni de flanelg albg = haine gri, pantaloni de flanelZI gri; cai cenugii W S Y Substantive nenumlrabile care devin numgrabile cu alt bfeles:

Substantivele nenumsrabile care au numai form5 de singular (folosite cu verbul la singular): a) luck, nonsense; information, advice, luggage, furniture, nonsense, equipment, au forme de singular dar sens de plural. Dacs vrem s5 exprimlm singularul, folosim consmc@a:a piece of: a piece of advice = un sfat; a piece of furniture = o pied de mobilier b) knowledge, news, business, intelligence (informapi secrete), merchandise, money. (au inreles de plural $i form5 de singular) c)substantive abstracte, nurne de materii etc.: happiness, peace, bread, meat, sand, rice, progress, thunder, etc. Pentru a reda singularul recurgem la cuvinte ajutiitoare: a loaf of bread - o piine a slice of bread - o felie de piine a flash of lightning - un fulger a crash of thunder - un tunet a bar of chocolate - o ciocolatii a grain of sand - un fu de nisip a spoonful of sugar - o l i g d de z&& a glass/bottle of water - un paharlo sticl5 de ap5, etc Substantive care au numai form5 de plural (cu verbul la plural): a) boli $i st%i de spirit: measles, mumps, blues, hysterics, etc. A m ! - measles $i mumps se folosesc cu verbul la singuliu.) b) imbr2cgminte compusa din dou5 p f yi: braces, breeches, jeans, overalls, pants, shorts, tails, trousers, etc. c) instrumente compuse din dou2 p&(i: binoculars, glasses, nutcrackers, scissors, spectacles, tongs, etc. d)-$tiinre$i obiecte de studiu (folosite cu verbul la singular): aesthetics, athletics, cybernetics, economics, ethics, gymnastics, mathematics, informatics, therapeutics, etc. e) nume geografice: the Alps, the Carpathians, the United States of America etc. f ) p q i ale corpului: genitals, loins, vitals, etd. g) diverse: annals, barracks, clothes, customs, damages, manners, means, odds, quarters, stairs, thanks, whereabouts etc.
-17-

SINGULAR
advice

A s sfaturi aer scrum de tigiri$cenu$ e n $tiin@,comeq) harac2

PLURAL
advices

~J'IXES

air
ash barrack

airs
ashes
.

informafii, ~tiri.comunic&i, in$tiin@ri, avize aere (figurat) cenu$ cazarmg

barracks

Puralul substantivelor cempuse: Terminaria -s se adaug2 de obicei la sfiugitul substantivului compus exisdnd ins2 gi exceppi: lookers-on class-felllows tax collectors godfathers lawsuits , headaches fathers-in-law 20-year-olds ' grown-ups merry-go-rounds forget-me-nots Excepfii Substantivelecompuse cu cuvintele "man'.'sau "woman" businesswoman - businesswomen fireman .-firemen - fisherman - fishermen Englishwoman - Englishwomen postman - postmen gentleman - gentlemen policeman - policemen man-of-war - men-of-war Pentru a arilta distincpa de sex, arnbii termeni primesc semnul pluralului: woman dentist - women dentists manservant - menservants woman teacher - women teachers Cind substantivele au rol de atxibut, semnul pluralului este primit numai de substantivul principal: man-eaters man-killers man-hunters woman-haters 1 Pluralul nlimelor proprii'se formeaz2 prin adilugarea terminapei -s, iar -0 gi -y finale se I menpn chiar cind sint precedate de consoad: the Marinos the Brwons the Lelys Pluralul abreviafiilor: ' sg.G.P. = General Practitioner - p1.GS.s sg.MP. = Member of Parliament - p1.M.P.s sg.P.G. =Paying Guest - p1.P.G.s sg.p.c. = postcard -pl.p.c.s sg.hr = hour - pl.hrs . sg.Mt = Mountain - p1.Mt.s sg.vo1. = volume - pl.vols sg.yd = yard - pl.yds sg.Co. = Company - pl.Cos. sgS.0. = Post-Office; Postal Order - p1.P.O.s sg.p. = page - pl.pp. Alte douil abreviapi au un plural special: sg. Mr. = Mister - pl - Messs sg.Mrs. = Mistress - pl.Mesdames Alte pHrfi de vorbire formeaz51pluralul conform regulii generale: Yo>-nos and whys are quite useless in this case. ,Their career was full of ups and downs. We could do nothing as the pros and cons were equal in number. You should stop your ifs now; everything is quite clear. a Se folosegte 's c semn al plwalului in cazul numelor de litere sau, atunci ?id scriitorul o doregte, la orice cuvint care nu a t e substantiv: Write this word with two 1's. Don't forget to cross yap t's. Your no's drive me mad
-182
I

1V.Cazul substantivelor fn limba englez2 substantivul are patru cazuri: nominativ, genitiv, dativ gi acuzativ. 1) Cazul nominativ este cazul subiectului gi al numelui predicativ. El rlspunde laintrebilrilewho?, which?, whai? The boys are playing tennis. (who?) He is a doctor. (what?) 2) Cazul genitiv este cazul atributului exprim2 posesiunea sau apartenenp gi dspundc la intreb&ile whose?, which?, what? Din punct de vedere al formei exisd: a) genitivul sintetic, folosit mai ales cind posesorul este fiinp. b) genitivul analitic, folosit cind posesoml este substantiv neutm. c) genitivul implicit, folosit ca atribut substantival genitival. a)Genitivul sintetic sau genitivul cu apostrof gi s ('s) se formeaz2 prin ad2ugare desinen~ei la forma de singular a substantivului. Pronunfia acestei desinente respecL 's r* e aplicat3in cazul terminapei pluralelor substantivelor In cazul substantivelor care form& p l d u l prin adilugarea terminafiei -s gi a numelo] proprii terminate in s,genitivul se formpunind numai apostrof. The boys' exercises are correct. Dickens' novels are on the top shelf. ($i forma Dickens's este folosit3). ATENp?! De$i in cazul numelorgroprii terminate in s nu apare desinenfa s, ea totugi se pronun@(iz). Ex.: Dikens' (dikensiz). Genitivul sintetic este de asemenea folosit in expresii w e exprim2 m f uri ale timpului, distanpi sau valorii. a ten days' trip = o excursie de zece zile a mile's distance = disap de o mil2 %.dollar'sworth = valoarea de un dolar today's paper = ziarul de ai z Monday's mail = corespondenfa de luni A Midsummer Night's Dream = Visul unei nope de The Winter's Tale = Povete de iarnii b) Genitivul analitic sau prepozifional se form& cu ajutorul prepozipei of. The windows of the room are open. c) Genitivul implicit nu este exprimat printr-un semn exterior. Substantivul in genitiv are rol de atribut gi este qezat in fap substantivuIui care denumegte obiectul posedat. school garden = @dins gcolii The United Nations Organization = Organizafi Natiunilor Unite Aceasg form2 de genitiv este multYolosia in limbajul oficial, articole de ziare, etc. NOTA: 1.A.tunci cind intr-o propozipe exist2 mai multe genitive, toate se f o r m a - c u ajutorul prepozipei of in afar2 de ultimul pentm care se foloqte 's: the colour of the knob of the room's door the book of the daughter of the father of John's friend = cartea fiicei taMui prietenului lui John 2J?olos& atit a genitivului sintetic cit gi a celui analitic in situafii ca cele de mai jos duce la fnliiturarea unor confuzii: a description of Balzac = descriere a persoanei lui Bahac a description of Balzac's = o descriere @cuGde Balzac a portrait of Tonitza = un portret in care este pictat Tonitza a portrait of Tonitza's = un portret pictat de Tonitza

'

3) Cazul dativ este cazul complementului indirect $i rkpunde la intreb5lrile to whom?, to what?, to which? Acest caz se formeazii cu sau f3r3 ajutorul prepoziriei to $i anume: ztunci cind substantivul in dativ este agezat imediat dupii verb, deci in f a p substantivului E acuzativ, n nu se folose~te prepozipa to. Dacii substantivul in dativ este agezat dupii cel 'in acuzativ, folosirea prepozipei to este obligatorie. He told the child a story. ( D + A) He told a story to the child. (A + D). Alegerea uneia sau alteia dintre cele doul construcpi absolut identice ca inreles rlmlne la latitudinea vorbitorului. 4) Cazul acuzativ este cazul complementului direct $i dspunde la intrebikile whom?, what? Orice substantiv preccdat de o prepozipe se aflL h cazul acuzativ, (exceptie Bcind prepozioa to pentru Dativ). I saw a boy in the street. V. Formarea substantivelor

0 mare parte din substantivele unei limbi s-au format prin trei procedee, ~i anume: 1) Compunere 2) Derivare 3) Schimbarea categoriei gramaticale . 1) Compunerea este un procedeu fome folosit, care consta din unirea a douZ sau mai multe p LQ de vorbiie, obpnindu-se astfel un cuvht mu. PQle componente se pct scrie Zr separat, legate prin liniup sau intr-un singur cuvint. jet plane, air hostess rock-and-roll, he-wolf, dining-room. T-shirt, baby-sitter, passer-by, a has-been, riff-raff, clip-clop, a good-for-nothing, a merry-go-round, catch-as-catch-can classroom, icecream, breakfast, screwdriver, knowhow, bypass In limba engled exist2 un tip de substantiv "telescopet" numit portmanteau word, format din buciifi din doul sau rnai multe cuvinte legate h u e ele. motel - motorists' hotel scurry - scutter + hurry smog - smoke + fog travelogue - travel + catalogue 2) Derivarea este o metodil prin care se p a t e forma un substan~lt prin adaugarea unui prefix sau a unui sufix la o rildilcinii. Iat2 citeva dintre cele rnai folosite prefixe ~i sufixe:

writer, reader, leader, runner, actor, vibrator agreement, basement, adornment marriage, passage . refusal, .recital. .trial prudence, appearance, resistance, performance -ee refugee, employee -ese Chinese, Portuguese -as lio~ess, actress -ine heroine -ion, -tion. +ion description, legion, suspension beauty, loyalty -sm , ,heroism, realism -1s; pianist, artist, scieritist -etu . cigarzttz, kitchenette -ness goodness, carelessness -ship fiiendship, hardship -hood childhood, brotheri~ood -ing . smoking, cleaning, reading, drawing

misnonneooverpostpreproreselfsemisubsuperunderviceSUFXXE: -er, -or -ment -age -al -ence, ance

misprint, mistake, misunderstanding nonconformist, nonsense neologism, neoplasm overall, overcharge, overdose postmeridian, postface, postscript, post-war precaution, preconception, preface, preposition proclamation, proconsul, procreation, pro-rector recover, reform, return, reassurance, reaction self-confidence, self-pity, self-respect, self-support semi-centenary, semicircle, semi-globe, semitone subtitle, subaltern, subdivision, sublunar, supercharge superstructure, superabundaim, supercharge undercharge, underclothes, underdose, undergrowth yice-admiral, vice-president, viceroy

-Y

PREFME: ante-, anti- anticlimax, antibiotic, antechamber, antedate, anteroom arch- archbishop, archangel, archetype CO-, con- co-partner, cu-author, coexistence, confederacy, contact counter- counter-attack, counteraction, counterpoint dissatisfaction, dishonour, disgust, display disex-soldier, exchange exfore- forefinger, forefather, forehead, foreleg, foreman ininattention, incorporation, increase, indecision imimposibility, imbalance, imbibition, immobility midday, midland, midway, midwife mid-

3) Schirnbarea categoriei gramaticale se refeala subsianGvizarea altor p3rO de vorbire. a. M ca partea de vorbire a-qi schimbe forma, se pot obime substantive din: -ADJECTLVE: the wise = inplepfii a sweet = ceva dulce the English = englezii a lunatic = un nebun the noble = nobilii a native = un bg~tinq the dead = moqii an equal = un egal the violet = violetul an inferior = un inferior h e young = tineretul the sublime = sublimul to do one's best = a face tot posibilul to go from bad to worse = a merge din fiu h mai r3u to take a turn for the better = a lua o intorsgturL bun3 to give/takS something for good = a da/ lua ceva penm totdeauna = P intregirne n on the Ghole ' in general = in general , in the open = in are liber in short = pe scut

all of a sudden etc. . .. .

= dintr-o d a d

- PARTICIPII:

PRONUMELE
= o fiinp

a being handwriting a painting the living the missing

= scrisoare de min2 = o ... pictur2 = v111 = cei absen$ .

the accused . the Jeceased the unlcnown the unemployed the aged

= acuzap

(THE PRONOL'N)
i

= decedafii = necunoscufii = gomerii = bgtfinii etc.

: = o bard cu pahu vislqi a four a ten = nota zece etc. - VERBE: to have a drinW walk /rest/ swim/ try etc. = un fost, o fostll a has-been . = a suna pe cineva la telefon to give somebody a ring = a sim$ nevoiade fumat to feel like a smoke - ADVERBE, PREPOZIp, C O W C p ,ONOMAmPEEetc. Tell me the when, the how and the why of it all = Spune-mi cind, cum gi de ce (amhuntele in aceasd problem%). Show him the inside of the house. = biziitul mupelor the buzz of f i s le = ciripitul findunelel01 the twitter of swallows b. cu aaugarea literei -s pentru a marca pluralul: - ADJECITVE: chemicals elders goods riches shorts news greens valuables - EORME VERBALE: comings and goings winnings surroundings doings contents likes and dislikes : tens, hundreds, thousands = a umbla in patru la& to walk on all fours He was born in the late sixties = S-a n2scut in ultima parte a anilor 60. - ADVERBE,CONNC'JT, PREPOZTII: = da-urile gi nu-urile din parlament the ayes and noes the ups and downs in one's life = urcugurile gi coborigurile din viap cuiva c. cu modificarea aceentului se &fin substantiqe din verbe. Substantivele sint accentuate pe prima d a b 2 iar verbele pe a doua: SUBSTANTIV VERB 'conduct tb con'duct 'digest to di'gest 'record to re'cord

..

i
t
I

I3

Pronumele este partea de vorbire care inlocuiegte un substantiv. El este la acela~i numk, gen, caz gi persoan2 ca gi substantivul pe care il inlocuie~te. 1) Pronumele personal Cazul nominativ plural singular I =eu we =noi you = tu, d-ta, d. you = voi, dv. he =el, dinsul she = ea, d i n s they = ei, ele, d%$ii, finsele it = el, ea (neuhu) Cazurile dativ ~i acuzativ singular plural IJS = nou2, ne, ni; pe noi, ne me = mie, mi; pz mine, m2 = V O Uvi,, V& dv; pe voi, pe dv. ~ you you = $e, ifi, fi, d-tale, dv; pe tine, te; pe d-ta, pe dv. hih = lui. 8,i; dinsului; pe 1 -el, il, -1, pe dumnealsi her ' = ei, ii, i, dumneaei them = lor, li, le, dingilor, Cmselor; pe I pe ea, o, pe dumneaei ei, ii, -i, pe ele, le, pe dingii, pe dinsele . it = 1%. ii, i, ei, ii, i; pe el il, pe ea, o -1. (neum) I NOTA a) Pronumele I se scrie intolaeauna cu liter2 mare, chiar $i in mijlocul propozifiei. b) Exist2 diferenie intre vorbirea formal2 gi cea %olocvial2in privinra folosirii pronumelui personal dup2 verbul to be, dup2 as gi than ~i in anumite construcrii: in vorbirea formal2 se folosqte nominativul iar in cea colocvialg, acuzativul. Who's there? It's I. (Vorbire formal2) It's me. (Vorbire colocvial2) He is better than I. (Vorbire formal&) He 'is better than me. (Vorbire colocvialil) I cannot swin as well as he. (Vorbire formals. I cannot swim as well as him. (Vorbire colocvial3) ' Im frightened! So am 1. (Vorbire formaB ' Me too. (Vorbire colocvial2) It is I who is going to help you. (Vorbire formal2) -It is me who is going to help you. (Vorbire colocvial2) c) Pronumele personal 3n cazul dativ este precedat de prepozi$a to atunci cind este spat dup2 un substantiv sau pronume in cazul acuzativ. Tell me a story. Tell a story to me. d) Formele arhaice ale pronumdui personal la persoana a 11-a: singular plural N. thou = tu Ye, you = voi b D.+Ac. thee = fie, pe tine you, ye = vou& pe voi

-22-

e) Folosirea pronumelui it: ca subiect pentru verbe impersonale it rains, it snows, it seems, it is late, it is cold - introcluctiv, ca subiect gramatical a1 unei propozipi a1 c&ei subiect logic lipsegte sau nu . este qezat ^mfappredicatului: To know the truth is important for me. It is imprtant for me to know the truth. It doesn't matter whether you come or not. It's no use crying. Cuvintele subliniate sbt subiectelelogice ale propoziriilor b care se g&egte it. 2) Pronumele posesiv inlocuiqte un substantiv, n9mindu-ltotodat.2 gi pe posesor. plura! ' singular ~ u r s = a1 nostru, 'a noastr2, ai nogm, ale mine =al meu, a mea, ai mei, noastre ale mele yours = al vosm, a voastr2, ai vogtri, yours = al au, a ta, i t&, ale tale ale voastre his = al lui, a lui, ai lui, ale lui theiis = a1 lor, a lor, ai lor, ale lor hers = al ei, a ei, ai ei, ale ei = al lui, a1 ei, a hi, a ei, its ai lui; ai ei, ale hi, ale ei (neutru) Forma arfiaic2: thine = al au, a ta, zi t&,ale +de. 3) Pronumele reflexiv ~i pronumele de intirire an aceeqi form2, dar folosire diferid Ele sbt singurele pronume care, la persoana a doua, au forme diferite la singular gi plural. -

PRONUME SINGULAR myself yourself himself herself itself oneself (impersonal) PLURAL oursselves yourselves themselves

TRADUCERE REFLEXIb I DE INTinsumi, ins5mi insup, indli ' insugi . ins%$ insu~i, ins+i insugi ne v B se ingine, insene ingiv2, Ensev2 ingigi, insegi, insele

.NOTA Pronumele reflexiv gi de int?lrire care se refer2 la o singurB persoan5, dar este folosit pentru o autoritate sau ca form2 de politete, este ourself ~i yourself g nu i ourselves gi yourselves. . Your Higness, you asked for that yourself. Bonumele reflexiv poate fi folosit in expresii in general cu sensul singur, fiM a fi ajutat: By oneselt I did that by myself. = Am mcut-o singur. For oneself: Come and see for yourself. =-Vinogi vezitu insuQ (cu ochii t&) He should speak thr himself. = Ar trebui sg vorbeascg numai In numele lui. Pronumele reflexiv este uneori folosit E locul celui personal pentru a se evita n ambiguitatea: His father is as tall as himself. = C'himselF' se refer5 la posesorul exprimat prin "his".)

She asked me to look after myself. = Mi-a cerui d am grijll de mine. dar: She asked me to look after me. = Mi-a cerut d aib2 ea grijB de mine. Pronumele reflexiv se folosegte cu roJ de pronume personal in comparatii dup2 like, ' than, gias: He is older than myself. We are as interested as yourselves. Locul pronumelui reflexiv gi at pronumelui de h lie t r: Z pronumele reflexiv se pune dup3 verb: They washed themselves before breakfast pronurnele de intihire s6 pune fie imediat dupll cuvintul pe care il Entilregte, fie la sfitgitul propozifiei atunci cind el se refed la subiectul acesteia: He was helped by the teacher himself. =El a fost ajutat chiar de profesor. John himself repaired i t = El insugi a reparat-o. John repaired it himself. 4) Pronumele demonstrativ: de apropiere sg. this pl. these de depirtare sg. that pl. those Al'lNpE! Spre deosebire de limba romsnll, in limba englezll "this". "these" se folosesc numai pentru a desemna ceva ce se afl2 in irnediata apropiere a vorbitorului. Tot ce este ceva mai indepihtat in timp sau sp@u fap de voibitor este desemnatlprin "that". "those". Aceasr2 regul2 este destul de smct2 9, de foarte multe on. "acestan, "aceasta" se .traduc prin "that", "those". That happend long ago. = Aceasta s-a intimplat cu mult timp h m l i. ,Isthat all you have to tell me ? = Asta e tot ce ai d-mi spui ? What do you mean by that ? = Ce vrei d spui cu asta ? , . That will be all for the moment. = Asta-i tot. Who's that ? = Cine-i acolo ? (la.telefon) Tot pronume demonstrative pot fi considerate the former, the latter. Aceste pronume se folosesc referitor la do113 substantive menfionatehtr-o propozitie anterioaril pentru a nu le mai repeta. Astfel the former = primul, prima, cel dintii, cea dintii 9 the latter =ultirnul, ultima dintre cei doi, cele dous. John and Tom are friends. The former is tall and nice, the latter is rather ugly. The English book and dictionary are on the table. You may take the former but .leave the latter there. D a d aceste d o d pronumi sbt folosite separat unul de altul. sensul a t e diferit fag de cel mengonat mai sus: His former house. = Fosta lui casZL Our former teacher. = Fostul nostru profesor. The latter part of the book. = Ultima parte a cilqi~. The latter half of the century. = A doua jurniltate a secolului. 5 ) Pronumele interogativ: se foloqte cu aw%qiform5 atit la singular c?t 9 la plural gi este v z a t la hceputul propozifiei. - . Who ? = cine ? (Nom.) whose ? = al cui?, a cui?, ai cui?, ale cui? (Gen.) To whom? = cui? @at) who (m) = - which (of)?pe cine?, pe care?, cu cine?, cu care?. ..(Ac) = care dintre? what? = care?

-.25

who?, whose? $whom? se folosesc numai pentru p e r m e . Which? este selectiv $ se foloqte atit pentru flinp cit gi pcntru l u d . What? nu este selectiv gi se refed numai la lucruri, profesii etc. Who are you? I am Tom. What a& you? I am an engineer. What can you say about that problem? Which of the pupils will solve the problem? NOTA h vorbirea modem5 fonna de acuzativ whom? s t e damn i n l a i t 2 pdnYsho? Who did they meet yesterday? Who did they go with? (= With whom did they go? Observb cg in prima si&$e prepozi* rHmine la sflgitul propozit.iei.) Who is this dress made by? (= By whom is this dreu made?) A m ! Atunci cind pmnumele interogativ este subiectul pmpozi$ei NU se folosegte auxiliarul do pentru formarea interogativului. Who told you this story? What comes next? Acmgi re@ a t e valabil5 gi atunci cind wbosc, what, which insopsc substantivul care s t e subiectul propzioei (dcd cind sint adjective intemgative). Whose father helped the boys? Which pupil solves the problem? Ronwnele interogativ se p a t e folosi impreunl cu ever, cu urmStOarele in(e1wUri. Who ever? = oare cine? \ Who ever did that? = Oare cine a mcut asta? Which ever? = oare @e) czqe Which ever shall I take? = Oare pe cared-1 iau? What ever? = oare ce? What ever is the matter? = Oare ce se b b t l (irai subcapitolul: "Alte p Construcfii idiomatice: Who's who? = titlul anuaruluipe~sonalidfilor dintr-o pug What time is it? = Cit e ceasul? . What time will you leave? = C i d b ce'od What's his name? '= Curq a cheaml? What about you? = Dar tu? What's the English for.. .? = Cum se spune in engled la.. .? W a hen? = $i ce-i cu asta'! ht What about a swim? ='Ce-ai zice sa mergem d inot?lm? He told me stories, jokes and what not = Mi-a spus povegti glume gi cite gi mai cite. i m I told h what was what = I-am spus toate amhuntele. este pronumele care introduce o pmpori(ie ambutivg, al Pronumele subiect ate. El are o s i n m forma pentru singular 9p l d $ nu difed dup8 gen. Pronumele relative skt: who (whose, whom), which. what, that, but. Ele se folosesc du@ cum urmeazik a) pentru persoane: who =care(Nom.) The boy who is in the garden is my brother. ai, whose = al. a c h i ; al, a &ei; ai; ale 6 ; ale caei; a. al, ai, ale c&or (Gen.) I can't tell you whose this book is.

whom = pe care (Ac.) to whom= chis, c l e a c h r a @at) 2ri. The girl to whom you gave the book is M r . ay The man whom you see here is a good teacher. which = @f) care, care dintre (selectiv) I wonder which pupil could have done this. b) that = care :delimitate prin virgula.

..

NOTA - That are sens reshictiv,

The boy that came here yesterday tried to help you. deci nu poate fi folosit in propozirii explicative

My father, who has just come, doesn't know anything. El nu poate fi precedat de prepozifie. The man about whom I am talking. gi nu The man about that I am talking. Pronumele that nu este folosit dupg nume pmprii. John who is my friend...g i nu that is q y friend... . b) pentru anirnale gi lucruri: which =*care@om.) The book which you have just bought is my favourite. of which, whose = a, al, ai, ale c e , a, al, ai, &ei; a, al, ai ale c&or (Gen.) I The room the windows of whichlwhose windows are open is . my bedroom. to which = c m , & a i , c h r , c h r a @at) The dog to which you gave a bone is Ben. which, =&)care The table which you see in the corner has only three legs. ' that = care, (pe) care (Nom. gi Ac.) (vai nota de mai sus). = care si4 nu, folosit $ penm funp gi pentru lucruri. . but There was no man but understood the truth. ,what = ce, ceea ce (cu inples nehotiklt). I don't understand what you say. A T ! Pronumele relativ poate fi omis atunci cind nu este subiectul propoziGei sau nu face parte din grupul subiectulului. The pencil which you gave me.. .= The pencil you gave me.. . The boy whom I helped.. .= The boy I helped. De cele mai multe ori prepozi$a nu se pune in fap pronumelui relativ ci dupg verb. $i i~ aceastZI situage, de cele mai multe ori, pronumele a t e ornis: The teacher about whom I told you.. . = The teacher I told you about.. . Which is the painting at which you are looking? = . 'Vhich is the paiting you are looking at? 7) Pronumele nehodrit: each = fiecare (se refer?4la fiecare unitate a unui grup luatSL hparte) Are all the children here? Give each an apple. every = fiecare (se refer2 la unitiipe unui grup luate in general) Every man has the right to be free. everybody = top, toad lumea Everybody should know this.

everyone = to$, fiqare Everyone who was present had something to say. everythmg = tot., tow You should tell me everything. nll = tot. toti, toate, totd --I have told yo; all I had to say. = un, unul, una, cineva, se (impersonal) one face One &not do everything alone. = NUp0g face/* t t l de unul singuf. ou One might think that you are alone. = Cineva ar putea crcde/Sar putea crede cll qti Singur. another = un altul, o alta, hcll unul, i n d o I have eaten the cake but I won't have another. other = alt, ald, altj, alte - This is my idea. I have no other. the other = celaalt, cealal* ceilal$. celelak Please. come in one after the other. o.thers = alyii, altele I don't believe you, but others might think you are teIling the

Is anyone here who can help us? = E cineva aici care ne p a t e ajuta?

I don't want to hear anything.

nobody = numeni , no one = none = nici unul, nici o (no one este folosit nurnai pentru fiinle)
.

m.

the others = cehlfi, celelalte Here I am;the others will come in the afternoon. both = amindoi, am'ndoull You needn't wait for Tom and M r .Both will be late. ay either = oricare dintre doi sau doug Here ate two apples. You may take either. neither = nici unul, nici una (din doi sau doull) Two girls'were sitting at table but neither was e g . several = cipva, citeva There werea lot of people in the street and severat were angry. much = mult, mulG many = multi, multe (a) little = pu*, puting (a) few = pu@i. putine Much wassaid but little was done. some = ceva, nigte, unii, unele, citeva Some think that they are always right. somebody = cineva someone = careva, cineva something = ceva Somebody has just come. Tell me something about.you. .= oricare, once, ceva, nigte, vreun, vreq; _ any (cu verbul la negdiv) nici unul, nici o. He has no money, can you give him any? ' anybody = cineva; oricine; nimeni (cu verbul la negativ) anyone = careva; oricare; nimeni (cu verbul la negativ) . anything = ceva; once; nimic (cu verbul la negativ) Anybody can do that. = Oricine poateface aceasta.

nothing = nimic Nobody wanted to go there. Nothing can be done about it. AlENpEI l.Some, any, no inh3 Qi componenfamItoarelor cuvinte: in =undeva somewhere sometimes = cindva anywhere = undeva; oriunde = oricum - anyhow nowhere = nicilieri never = niciodad (provenind din "no ever") Acestea Empreunll cu compugii prezentari rnai sus se folosesc astfel: some $i compugii lui se folosesc h propoziQi afmative, enunpative, atlt ca pronume cit $ ca adjective: Somebody is coming. compugii lui se folosesc aqt ca pronume cit gi ca adjective dup2 i any $ cm-I u r m d : a) h propozitii interogative ca sinonime ale lui some gi ale compugilor lui: Is anybody coming? b) hpropoi@ i i a t i v e , cind au sensul orice, oricare.. . Anybody knows that c) in propozirii negative cu h{eIes negativ gi cu verbul la negativ: I can't see anybody in the street no $i compqii lui se folosesc in propzip negative cu verbul la afmativ (pentru a se evita dubla negape). La hceputul unei propozigi negative apar Entotdeauna no gi compqii lui gi niciodatll not 'any (No child is here.) 2.any more (pentru cantitate), any longer (pentru timp), any other, any further, any better, se traduc prin mai, mai + adjectiv la gradul pozitiv, (valabil $i chd se folosegte no in loc de any): = Mai vrei cafea? . Would like any more coffe? I can't stay any longer. = Nu mai pot s2 stau. . Shall we go any further? = $2 mergem mai departe? I don't feel any better. = Nu m3 simt mai Fie. 3.Referitor la regula expus2 E cadrul prezentei note la punctul 1, e important a se n observa urm2toarele nuante: Did you tell her to lend me some money? (interogayia nu se refed la some) Have you got at least some of the books I need? = Ai cel puw unele dinm d $ l e de care nevoie? Have you got any of the books I need? = A vreo carte dintre cele de i . care ari nevoie? He never buys any flowers. = El nu cumpw niciodad nici fel de floare. I haven't read some of Shaw's plays. = N-am citit unele din piesele lui Shaw. I haven't read any of Shaw's plays. = N-am citit nici una dintre piesele lui Shaw. Alte pronume nehotHrite compuse: formate din pronumele relative who, which, what, dar-avind un caracter mai general decit acestea:

...

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whoever = oricine, orice persoang care whichever = oricare, once fiinfesau lucru care whatever = orice (lucru care) Declinarea lor wm& regulile aplicate formelor din care provin: Genitiv. whosever D.Ac. who (m) ever Whoever told you that is a great liar. You should him whatever he might give yoc. Pronume folosite in construcfiiimpersonale: it It is dark; it is Sunday; it is two o'clock; what time is it? it is said (se spune); it seems (se pare); it happens (se intimplg); it appears (se pare); it is easy, hard; it is necessary it is supposed-(se presupune); it is thought (a se crede); it is usual (se ~bignuiegte) etc. We are civilized, we can't behave like this. we You never do enough when you want to help people. YOU They think that it will min. they = se One should always think before speaking. one, one's, oneself It is important to do one's duty.
-

AD~ECTIVUL
- (THE ADJECTIVE)
Adjectivul este partea de vorbire care aratg o insugire sau o caracteristica a unui substantiv, Exist2 d u L tipuri de adjective: calificative gi determinative. Adjectivul oZ cal-ificativ este adjectivul propriu-zis, care arat5 o ksugire a unui obiect In lirnba engled adjectivul se pune in fap substantivului gi a s ac-i form2 la toate genurile gi la ambele numere, deci este invariabil. I& citeva dinwe pupnele cazlni in care adjectivul se pune dupg substantiv: 1) 'nunele titulaturi: Attorney General; Lieutenant-General; Poet-Laureate. 2) cind vrem d subliniem adjectivul: i Johnny dear; all things necessary; on Sunday last; from times immemorial; the only remedy possible. 3) 3n expresii: court-martial; first person singular; Asia Minor; "Paradise Losf"; A major (muz.); B minor (rnuz.); C flat (muz.); Ursa Major (sau Minor). 4) cind este vorba de adjectivele: aflame, afraid, agape, aghast, alive, asleep, awake, aglow. 5) cind adjectivul ~ZImuregte substantiv care denumegte o milsurll (spapu, timp. un numik); " five feet long; two centuriesold. 6) c?nd adjectivul urm& du@ verbul to be, fie el exprimat sau nu. . This man is old. aroom large enough for my family = a mom which is large enough for my family He arrived home tired. = He arrived home and he was tired. 1.Comparafia adjectivelor Numai adjectivelecalificative au grade de cornparape; ele se impart In UGI categorii: 1) adjective scurte: monosilabice gi bisilabice. (In aceast5 categorie pot fi incluse gi adjective trisilabice formate cu prefu negativ). 2) adjective lungi 3) adjective wregulate Gradele de cornparape sint: a) gradul pozitiv care reprezina forma de b a d a adjectivdui: big beautiful goOd b) gradul comparativ se folosegte atunci cind insqirea unui substantiv este comparatil cu a w q i insugire a altui substantiv. - comparativ de inferioritate: nu a p de ca... (mai pufin decit...) - comparativ de egalitate: tot q a de...ca... -comparativ de superioritate: .mai.. .deci_t..

...

...

C)gradul superlativ superlativ relativ, folosit chd i n s u f i substantiwlui este exprirnatil la gradul cel rnai balt sau cel rnai s&ut In cornpara@ cu a c q i insu~irea altui substativ: cel mai...cea mai... superlltiv absolut, folosit atunci cind nu se rnai face niciun fel de cornparage: foarte 1) Comparafia adjectivelor scurte a) gradul pozitiv: big clean happy b) gradul comparativ: - de inferioritate: not solas happy as not solas clean as not solas big as -de egalitate: as clean as as happy as as big as - de superioritate: bigger cleaner happier ' ( m a t e de than) c) gradul superlativ -superlativ relativ: the biggest ' the cleanest the happiest - superlativ absolut: I very happy very big very clean NOT^ UrmZLtoarele adjective mono- qi bisilabice formeazg gradele de compara$e dupg ,regula adjectivelor lungi: worth, eager, proper, docile, fertile, fragile, hostile, antique, bizzare, burlesque, content, intact, exact, abrupt, correct, distinct, a f e d , alive, alone, aloof, aware, abject, nervous, prudent, sudden, constant, livid, etc. .I Reguli de ortografie la adilugarea termimtiiloi -er ~i -est: - adiectivele monosilabice terminate intr-o singurZL consoan:! precedat3 de o singurl vocali dubleazg consoana final%: big - bigger - biggest sad - sadder - saddest - adjectivele terminate in e mut il pierd: -nice- nicer - nicest - -1 final precedat de vocal5 neaccentuata se dubleazZL in limba e n g l d dar nu in cea americanik . . cruel - crueller - cruellest - -y finalprecedat de consoan3se transformi431i: lazy - lazier - laziest Excep*: shy - shyer - shyest sly - slyer - slyest dry - dryer - dryest wry - wryer - wryest 2) Comparafia adjectivelor lungi , a) gradul pozitiv:

- de egalitate:
as @tifUl as
. de superioritate: -

more beautiful than c) gradul superlativ - superlativ Glativ: the most beautiful

- superlativ absolur

-very beautiful 3) Cornparatia adjectivelor neregulate Numim adjective neregulate acele adjective care nu respect3 regula de formare a comparagei in cazul comparativului de superioritate gi a1 superlativului relativ; Ia celelalte fonne, regula e s t e - a c q i ca In cazul adjectivelor scurte ~ilungi.

POZITIV
well bad rilu (adj.$i adv) ill bolnav (dupii to be. to look, to feel) little

COMPARATIV
bitter worse less

SUPERLATIV
the best the worst the least the fewest the most the oldest . the eldest (pentru membrii aceleiqi . farnilii) the farthest, farthermost (in spafiu) the furthest, furthermost (in

few

much many old


I

{ 1-r { iEei

more -

{: E
farther further

far

near fore late hind

nearer former

{ latter
hinder

later

I I

the foremost the first the latest (cel rnai recent) the last (ultimul, dupii care nu rnai meazZL nimic) the hindmost, hindmost

beautiful

b) gradul comparativ - de inferioritate:

not solas beautiful as


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- atunci chd primul element i$i p&tr& sensul, 51 este. cel care se pune la graduI de compaqie: well-paid, better-paid, the best-paid beautiful-looking, more beautiful-looking, the most beautiful-looking
-

1 . Comparafia adjectivelor compuse 1

--

- c h d adjectivul compus formeazl un tot unitar se folosesc adverbele more, most:


'

. U Formarca adjectivelor I.
a) Derivare (cu ajutorul sufmelor $i prefixelor). . b) Compunere. c) Schimbarea categonei gramaticale. a) Derivare - &e: ed: 'tired, interested etc. en: golden, wooden, woollen etc; -ful: beautiful, grateful, peaceful etc. -pg: amusing, obliging etc. -1sh: foolish, oldish etc. -like: childlike -1y: daily, weekly etc. -som(e): handsome, tiresome etc. -ward: backward, inward, onward etc. -y: funny, rainy, sunny etc. . -able, -ible: .drinkable.'eatable, terrible etc. -ic: comic, economic, geographic, heroic, historic etc. -ical: comical, econonical, historical etc. -al: autumcal, colossal etc. -an, -ian: American, European, Russiaq etc. -ant: discordant. malignant etc. -ent: dependent, persistent etc. id: celestial, fluvial etc. -he: active, conclusive etc. -ous: courageous, glorious etc. -less: careless, hopeless, penniless etc.
'
a

narrow-minded, more narrow-minded, the most narrow-minded Construcfii formate cu adjective la comparativ; . a) dim ce in ce mai.. se red2 prin consrmcfia comparativ + and + comparativ sau ever + comparativ It is better and better = E din ce ?nce mai bine. It is ever better. . . The book is more and more interes?mg. = Cartea e din ce in ce m a mi interesantii. b) cu cit.. .cu atit. se redl aplichd uxmltoarea formulk The + comparativ + subiect + @cat -cu ck.. The + comparativ + subiect + predicat -cu atit..

..

Cu cit d e l e sint rnai lungi cu atit nopple sint rnai scurte. The longer the days are the shorter the nights are.

Cu cit cartea este rnai interesand cu atit este mai scumpl. The more interesting the book is the more expensive it is, in cele doug situa* de mai sus in care apare verbul la cela~i timp, mod ~i persoan3 in ambele propozip, el poate fi omis. Deci cele doul fraze pptfi redate astfek . The longer the days, the shorter the nights. The more interesting the book, the more expensive it is. Cu cit sintem mai mul$ cu afit va fi mai vesel. Dar: The more we are, the gayer it will become. NOTA Exist2 cazuri in care comparativul este folosit cu inples de s1;perlativ ~i i'n acest ciz este precedat de.artico1 hotiifit: , Which is the faster, my car or yours ? This is the faster of the two cars. (dintre doul) , This is the fastest of all cars. (dintre mai multe) Dar: Aceasa situafie se aplid in cazul a doar doul elemente comparate.

. -

- prefixe:

TABEL RECAPITULATIV

ZITIV

COMPARATIV de inferioritate 1 de egalitate I de superioritate as big as big as as happy as happier than than bigger than

I SUPEKLATIV absolut( relauv


the biggest very big the happiest very happy

beautiful

.-good.
ezi pag.32

not solas
- the worst'

very bad

as

a-: alike, alive, asleep etc. out-: outdoor, outstanding etc. over-: overcast, overconfident, overnight etc. a-; ab-: achromatic, abnormal etc. ante-: antediluvian, antemeridian etc. ? bi-: biannual, bifold etc. circum-: circumpolar, circumsolar etc. col-, com-, cor-: collateral, compassionate, concave etc. contra-: contrapuntal etc. ex-: exchangeable, exclamative etc. extra-: extraordinary, extraterrestrial etc. inter-: interallied, international etc. per-, pel-: perdurable, percatenous, pellucid pre-: premature, pre-war etc. , retro-: retroactive, retrograde etc. sub-: subordinate, subterranean etc. super-, sur-: superabundant, supercivilize$ surrealist etc. m s - : transatlantic, translucer~ttransoceanic etc. ultra-: ultraconventional, ultramdr~ne,ultraplanetary, ultraviolet etc. un-: unhappy, unpleasant, unwise etc. dis-: disagreeable, dishonest, displeased etc. in-- ig-, im-, ir-, indefinite, ignoble, illegal, immovable, irrationaletc. mis-: misapplied, mislaid etc.

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non-: non-British, nonsense, non-stop etc. b) Compunerea eite o metodZL foarte mult folositilin limba englezk practic vorbitorul sau scriitorul au posibilitatea de a construi orice adjectiv compus doresc. Aceasd metoda constll 31 &turarea a dou5 sau mai multe de vorbire legate prin liniup de unire. Iatil c&va posibilit2@ compunere: de subst.+ subst.: the hire-purchase system subst.+ adj.: brand-new, dog-tired etc. peace-making, egg-shaped, airborne etc. subst.+ part.: adj.+ subst: long-distance ad&+part.: hard-boiled, dark-coloured adv.+ adj.: downright, upright adv.+ part.: hard-working, outstanding, newborn make-believe, soldier, would-be verb + verb: put-an dignity, runaway match verb + adv.: prep.+ subst.: afier-dioner wine, outdoor games, uphill road rnai multe cuvinte: a lifeand-death struggle, a day-by-day life, out-ofaate theories construcfii verbale: a give-and-take policy, a do&-touch-me attitude. NOTA Cuvintele componente pot fi scrise impreung atunci cind adjectivul nou creat este folosit de rnai multll vreme sau foarte des. Locul liniupi de unire este foarte important pentru inplesul btregii construcp: a small-inn room = o cameril de han mic , . a small inn-room = o caner2 m i d de han . 0 categorie special5 de adjective compuse este format2 aplicindu-se urm5toare-a formul5: qdi. + subsktiv + ed adv. numeral ' Exemple: - long-legged = cu picioare lungi fair-haired = cu pZLrul blond = cu o sing& m?n& one-handed down-hearted = abstut, deprimat = palid. cu fap alb3 white-faced Acest gen de substantive compuse inlocuie~te propozipe atributivg din care s-au pbtrat o . elementkle de bai% A boy who has bhdshoulders. = A broad-shouldered boy. Regulile de ortogdie la adkgarea terminafiei -ed sint oele valabile pentru terminaGile -

er .$ sst.

IV. Adjective dete'rminative


Spre deosebire de adjectivele calificative despre care am vorbit mai sus, aceste adjective, de re@, provin dintr-un pronume. 1)Adjective demonsaative: this, these = acest, aceasd, a q t i , aceste - 'that, those = acel, ace., acei, acele 2) Kdjktive posesive:-our = nosuu, nostril, nogui, noastre my = meu, mea, mei, mele your = vostru, voastri, vogtri, voastre your = t2u, ta, a, tale their = lor his = lui k=ei its = lui, ei (neum)

A m ! Adjectivele posesive insopsc Entotdeauna substantivele care denurnesc p&fi ale corpului gi articole cle'mbr&&ninte, caz in care nu se mai folosqte articolul hoWt: Put on your coat! = Pune-ti haina! Look at his face'! = yitil-te la fa@lui! I take off my shoes. = Imi scot pantofii. They are not my glasses. =Nu s'mt cchelarii mei. Din exemplele de mai sus se observ5 cll, in unele cazuri, adjectivul posesiv se traduce prin pronume in cazul htiv (imi, mi, ip, 0 etc.), corespunz5tor formelor reflexive din limba romhl. ' 3) Adjective relative: which = care, pe care He told me a story, which story I am going to tell you now. whose = a1 c h i , a cikei, ai c&or, ale cilror etc. Give me the book whose cover is red. The girl whose mother isabsent will be well looked after. what = ce, care, pe care I don't know what to choose. Tell me what a p ~ l e pefer, the red one or the yellow one? you NOTA What gi which $ combina$e cu ever sau soever pot forma cuvinte care sint fie pronume, fie adjective: I Whatever book you take it is all right with me. (adj.) I don'f mind whichever you take.(pron.) . 4) Adjective interogative: which? = care?, care dintre? (selectivj I Which boy can play tennis well? what? = ce?, care?, pecare? (in general) 1 What teacher told you that? whose? = a cui?, al cui?, ai cui?, ale cui? Whose mom is this? how much? = c?t, cia? How much bread do you eat daily? how many? = ci0, cite? How many flowers did she buy? 5) Adjective nehot&ite: several = cfpva, citeva, diferip, diferite I have seen her several times this week. =un,o one One day you shall understand everything. a certain = .In, o oarecare, un anurnit, o anurnid m A certain Mr.Brown came to see you. . ~ther alt, ait2, alt, alte = I don't know what other people may say about that. certain = unii, unele, mumi$, anumite I have certain books that might interest you. the other = celiilalt, cealald, ceilal0, celelalte Take the other apple, this one is not good. another = un altul, o alta; i n d ' I see another man coming along the street. Jl stay another minute, but not more. I

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= isemenea, astfel de You should never ask such questions. -. much = mult, multll: Don't put much sugar in my coffee. many = mull?, multe .Many women like to wear short skirts. - . (a) little = putin, puling He can speak little French. (a) few = cipva, citeva; pupni, puyineFew pkople will do that for you. enough = destul, destulil, destui, destule Do we have enough food for dinner? ATENTIE! Atunci cind enough are func)ie de adjectiv el este plasat in fata substantivului; cind are funcpa de adverb pi\ia lui este dup5 adjectiv sau adverb. He has enough money. (adj.) He doesn't run fast enough. (adv.) each = fiecare in parte Each child will be given an apple. every = fieare; top, toate , Every man should know this. all =tot, toaa, top, toate All the children are playing. either = ambik, ambele; oricare din doi You may have either room, both are vacant. (Oricare dintre cele dod.) People are waiting on either side of the sueet. (ambele.) . neither = nici unul, nici una (din doi sau douil) Neither solution is good. both = amindoi, amindouil Both my friends are coming tonight. some = ciPva, citeva, nipte, ceva Some people are talking in the middle of the street. = nipte, cipva, citeva in propozitii interogative any = orice, oricare in propozipi afirmative enunyiative = nici un, nici o in propozi\ii negative Do you want any cakes? Any man can do that. I can't see any dog in the sueet. la no . = nici un, nici o in propozi\ii negative cu ve~bul a f i i a t i v r . They have written no letters this month.

such

NUMERAL UL
. .

(THE NUMERAL)

1.Numeralul cardinal one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, twelve @ numeralele intre 13 pi 19 se formeazA cu ajutorul terminatiei -teen care se pronun@ [ti:n] pi care este accentuatil. thirteen, fourteen, fifteen, sixteen, seventeen, eighteen, nineteen 0 numeralele din zece in zece de la 20 la 90 de formeadi cu ajutoml terminatiei -ty twenty, thirty, forty, fifty, sixty, seventy, eighty, ninety .@ htre zeci pi unit%pse folosqte liniup de unire twenty-two, forty-five numeralele care exprim8 zecile au form3 de plural in situaiii de genul: tens and tens of people . the seventies = anii '70 @ sutele, miiie pi milioaneb nu se folosesc la plural cind sint numiirate, dar au forme de plural in alte situapione hundred, two hundred, three hundred one thousand, two thousand, three thousand one million, two million, three million dar: hundreds and hundreds of books billion inseamnil miliard e hundred $i thousand sint legate prin and de nurneralele care urmeaz8 one hundred and twenty-five anii se citesc in Wpe de cite douil cifre . 1991 nineteen ninety-one' !-I 0 (zero) se citqte nought [nat] in vorbirea formalil, zero [zlrarau] in ?tiin@. 0 [au] $ hnd spunem numere de telefon, ca pi in vorbirea obipnuitil. If you do not learn, you risk to get a nought in your exam. ten degrees above/ below zero 110473 - one one o-fourseven three
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I1 Numeralul ordinal se formeaz8 din numeralele cardinale cLora li se adauga tenninapa -th, exceplie ficind primele trei pi numeralele compuse cu ele: first, second, thud, fourth, fifth, sixth. ... twenty-first, fifty-second, seventy-third, eigthy-forth, ... numeralul ordinal este de regulil precedat de articolul homt the. Cind numeralele ordinale sint scrise cu cifre, dupil cikil se adaugil ultimele do& litere: . 1 st, 21143 rd, 4th, 21 st, 52nd, 73rd. 34th. loth, 221st Atentie la ortografia specialil a urmiltoarelor numerale: fifth, eigth, ninth, twelfth, twentieth, thirtieth, etc. ' Exprimarea datei: the 5th August 1393, 5 August 1993, August 5th 1993, August 5 1993. (Se cite~te fifth of Augusi nineteen ninety-three, s'au August the fifth nineteen ninety-three.) Situafii speciale: the Second World W? (World War Two) ' . the Second part (dar Pan Two)
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the Ffh Act (dar Act Five) it the Sixth paragaph (dar paragraph six) the thud item (dar item three) Pope Paul the Second Queen Elizabeth the Fist

brace = doi, douil (termen vidtoresc) a brace of dogs dozen = duzinl . three dozen of hidkerchiefs gross = gros = 12 duzini . great gross = 12 grosuri = 144 duzini (termen come.rcial) score = 20 four score years and ten = 90 ani G i r e = coal5mare de hA%tie 4 sau 24 etc. foi de V.Numeralu1 multiplicativ .
.

1.Fractia ordinar5 se citqte : la numMtor prinuun brneral cardinal iar 'a numitor ~ina-unul ordinal care, a w i chd s h t scsni, sint legate intre ele cu liniup 519 five-ninth
i

Cv excepGa primului numeral, toate celelalte se formeazil prin adlugarea sufixului - fold
la numeralele cardinale: single, double (sau twofold), triple lsau treble, threefoid), fourfold, tenfold, a hundredfold-etc. Fonnele de mai sus sint folosite as&i in stilul literar, oficial sau tehnic, fiind ^Mocuite hIibajul curent prin: once, twice, thrice sau three times, four times, ten, times, a hundred times, etc. VINumerilul distributiv araa'repartizarea in grupe egale: one at a time, two at a time, three at a time etc. = unul odaq doi odat21, mi o a etc. da one by one, two by two, three by three etc. = unul cite unul. doi dte doi, trei cite treietc. by twos, by threes, by tens, by thousands etc. = cite doi, cite mi, cite zece, cite , , o mie etc. by the dozen, by the hundred, by the million etc. = (numibat, cumpht, etc.) cu duzina, cu suta, cu milionul etc. two and hvd, three and three, four and four ktc. = doi $i cu doi, trei gi cu trei, pahu qi cu patru etc. every day, every other (sau second) day, every three days (sau every third day) = hfiecare zi, tot la do& (trei) zile. They arrived in twos and threes (sau by twos and threes, in $rs and threes) = au sosit in grupuri de cite doiltrei. .. There were four groups of six men each. NOT& 1.AproximaGa numerid se exprimil prin: about, almost, nearly, something like, somewere about, a few, roughly, approximately, odd, a couple, a dozen, one or 'two, two or three, or so, etc. Z.Depti$lSirea unei cifke (rotunde) se exprimil prin: over, more than, and'more;above, . upwards (of),etc. . The dress costs somewhere about 55$. John has learned a dozen proverbs by heart He has calledme more than ten times* :t

114 one-fourth

1151 one-fifty-first

ln acts of a play

one act and a half sau one and a half acts

Atunci cind nurnitorul este format din mai m u k cifn se ciqte: 61243 six over two-four- three 2.l?rac#ia zecimal5 se scrie folosind punct acolo unde, in romba, re pune virgula. Numeralele plasate h fap punctului re citesc ca un singu num&, iar penhu cele de dupa Dunct fiecare ciM se citqte separat: 1.32 one point three two 23.751 twenty-three point seven five one Expresii matematice curente: - i! cube root + plusland
. r

minusltake away or minm/approximately 6s) multiplied byltimes (sau by

x2 x x3 x x4 1

[eks] squared (eks) cubed (eks) to the Power fourIto the fourth power [en] factorial the integral of angle right angle mangle is parallel to is perpendicular to degree minute (of an arc) minute (of time) second (of an arc) ' second(of time)

(is) divided by (is) equal tolequals ' is not equal toldoes not equal # < is less than > is more than ' x pi bail (a:) radius of circle % per cent . X infinity log. logarithm .0 is an empty set 4 (square) root

+ =

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IV.Nhmeralu1 colectiv exprimgideea de plural in form2 de singular: couple = doi, doug rll call you in a couple of.days. (peste doul zile). pair = doi, dou5, pereche a pair of trousers; a happy pair

c) the Gerund caie nu trebuie sll fie confundat cu gerunziul dim limba rom'ini.

VERBUL
(THE VERB)
Verbul este partea de vorbire care numqte o-acfiune, stare, o atitudine, etc. 'o Faptul cil verbul exprimi, in principal, o actiune ne obligi & discuth despre toti i factorii care contribuie la realizarea acpunii $i anume: persoana sau persoanele care fac acGunea, timpul cind se face acpunea, modul In care se face acpunea gi aspectul ei din punct d vedere al continuitiI$i in tirnp. ' Pentr , a defini tennenii pe care ii vom folosi, nlanyiongm c i V reprezina verbul la infmitiv scurt (fiM particula to, ex.go), S inseamnll subiect. III semnificll verbul neregulat la forma a 111-a, iar modul de formare a timpurilor, modurilor gi construc$ilor verbale este reprezentat prin formule algoritmice care folosesc aceste simboluri. TerminaGile verbelor sint exprimate prin (ex.4) Persoana care face acfiunea exprimatil de verb ate, la fel ca in limpa romhil, subiectul . propoziGei, exprimat printr-o fi p un lucru, o nopune abstractil, etc. Subiectul poate fi la in numW singular sau plural, iar verbul se acord5in consecinp: Tom plays tennis every Sunday. Love makes me happy. Beautiful lamps hang from the cc&ng. Learning is important for everybody. Timpul ne araa momentul in care se des-ad acgunea. Se deosebesc trei timpuri de W prezentul, trecutul gi viitorul, ckd putem spune d acyiuna este bine definith In. . timp, gi trei timpuri al c f or nume confine cuvintul perfect, care arata o actiune desQurat2 intr-un moment anterior unui timp fix $i car6 nu este definit; in timp. ' p e children went home yesterday. (Past Tense) Tom has never seen an elephant. (PresentPerfect Tense) Pentru o mai bun3 inplegere a no?iunii de timp grarnatical, vom folosi numai denumirea timpurilar in lirnba engled. Modul c a . n o w e gramaticala se 'mparte in mbduri personale (predicative), care pot forma singure predicatul unei propoziQi$i moduri impersonale, care-sint invariabile $i nu form& s i n p prdicatul. Modurile personale sinr a) modul indicativ - The Indicative Mood care cuprinde timpurile conjug&ii unei . acouni reale a verbului - b) modul subj~nctiv Subjunctive - care are do115 timpuri: -The prezent gi perfect (descriind o acfiuneM i l ) c) modul conditional - The Conditional care aratiI cll o acpune se face cu o anumitil con$tie gi are do* forme: prezent $iperfect . d) modul imperativ -.the Imberative - care exprimi un ordii, un indemn, o sugestie, o rugainte, o urare, o recomandare, un sfat, o ameninwe etc. Moduri impersonaiesTnt: a) infinitivul - the Infinitive'- care numeSte verbul gi are ca semn distinctiv particula to; cind aceasta lipsegte, forma se numeSte infinitiv scurt. Infinitivul poate fi infinitiv prezent Sau infmitiv perfect. b) participiul - the Participle - se deosebevte de*participiul romibesc $i are trei forme:participiul prezent, participiul trecut g participiul perfect. i

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I, Aspectul se refer5 la durata nehtrerupt2.h timp a unei aciiuni. Dat fiind faptd cil in limba r o m h i nu exist2 o formil gramaticalil special3 pentru a exprima acest lucru, a t e absolut neqesar sll inrelegem bine nopunea de aspect in limba engled. Ne referim deci la dod4 asDecte: a) aspvtul simplu care arat2 CA icpunea se face in mod general sau reptat gi deci nu ne intere.seazll durata ei. The pupils go to school everyday. Tom wrote a letter and posted i t b) aspectul continuu d o acpune care se desQoar3 h mod continuu, neintrerupt, htr-o perioadi de timp bine definit5. Orice verb care exprimll o acoune ce nu se poate kcadra in toate cele trei cerinp de mai sus nu poate fi folosit la aspect continuu. , Mary is gohig to school now. Bob was sleeping when mother arrived home. Aspectul continuu se formeazi astfel:
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i n care verbul auxiliar to be se conjl~gg timpul cerlt de context gi se acordg cu la subiectul. Verbetare nu se folosesc la aspect contintiu (dar, atenfie, multe dintre ele pot fi folosite la aspect continuu cind au alt tnieles): - verbele mddale -tobe=afi Mr is a nice girl. ay dac 1 You are W i g rude. (caracterizare de moment) Qti cam 'goplan. - to have = a avea, a poseda Lucy has blue eyes. dar. Don't come in! I am having a bath. --- to belong to = a apaqine Does this pencil belong to you? - bcontain = a confine What does this box contain? to consist of = a consta din - to cost = a costa This dress costs a lot of money. dar: Things are costing more and inore these days. =Lucnuile se scumpesc din ce in ce rnai mult - to depend on = a depinde de , . Everything depends on you dar: We are depending on you. = Con& pe hne.
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- to deserve = a merita - to hold = a con@e


This box holds five kgs.

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dac
Whqy are you holding the box in your hands? = De ce tii cutia in m%l?

to possess to weigh (intr.) = a cintilri, a avea greutatea How much does it weigh?

d a r .

I am weighing the apples. (verb tranzitiv) - to matter = a conta, a avea importanp Everything matters under the circumstances. to resemble = a semiha cu Richard resembles his grandfather.
Bob resembling his father more and more.

dar

to taste = a avea gustul The st@ tastes of garlic. = Friptura are gust de usturoi. dar: My sister is tasting the cheese. = Sora mea gust5 brinza. to sound = a suna to look = a Mta Cmtr-un anumit fel) She looks well today. dar: I am looking at you. = Mi3 uit la tine (te privesc). to look like = a semiha cu to appear = a @ea She appears to be angry. dar: Who is appearing on the stage? = in; spare pe sceng? . - verbe care arat.5 o acfiune de moment: to stop, to start, to begin, to end - alte verbe: to deserve, to realize, to e G d , to result, to signify, to suffice, to request
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- verbe care arati sentimente: to like, to love, to dislike, to hate, to detest, to loathe (a detests), to please, to prefer, to want, to refuse, to regret, to satisfy, to hope, to wish. - verbe care a r a t i activitHti mentale: to believe, to think (a crede), to agree, to
suppose, to fancy, know, mintend, to mean, to notice, to recognize, to remenlber, to imagine, to forget, to seem, to surprise, to understand, to need, to require, to consider (a considera); to expect (a se qtepta). Unele dintre aceste yerbe pot avea ~i aspect continuu cind au urmgtoarele hplesuri: . to think = a gindi What are you thinking about? to consider = a se gindi d He is considering buying a dictionary. to expect = a qtepta Tom is expecting a letter fkom e n . - verbe care a r a d percepfiisenzoriale: to feel = a simp .- . I feel cold air.. dar: How are you feeling today? . to hear = a auzi . Do you hear me?
.

Acestea sint verbele care ajud la formarea unor construc[ii verbale cbmpuse. Ele au , urmstoarele caracteristici: a) nu au inteles de sine sddtor; sensul constructiei verbale este &it de cstre verbul propriu-zis (V), pe care i1 numim verb de conjugat; b) se pun la timpul, persoana, num&ul qi modul cerute de context, verbul de conjugat rSlminkd neschimbat la- o anumid forms: Verbele auxiliare ~iconstructiile formate cu ajutorul lor: 1)TO BE -.aspect continuu

- diateza pasivs

2 TO HAVE )

- timpuri perfecte
- construcoi cauzative care arata c8 o

dac
You will be hearin'g from me soon. = 0 s2 ai 31 curind vqti deSpre mine. . to see = a vedea We see them. dar: - I am seeing the dentist tomorrow. = Am o d la dentist miine. , John is see*g Mary to the door. =John o conduce pe Mary la q2. to smell = a avea mirosul The flower smells sweet. dar: ghe is smelling the flower. = Ea miroase floarea.

1.
L

to have + V-edl 111

----

d persoans face acyiunea in locul subiectului

> ,

L J I have cleaned my trousers. = Mi-am curgpt pantalonii. I have my tousers cleaned. = Mi-am dat pantalonii la curiIt,at.

to have + complement direct + V-ed/III

do not =don't does not = doesn't (forme contrase) did not =didn't . r)esafolosit pcnhu a Tqlocui once verb, evitindu-se astfel rccetarea acesruia "He speaks English quite fluently," -"So do I." . "Did he finish his work?" "Yes, he did." &t&eSte~sen~ul verbului in fata cCuia s d atunci cind este folosit i n ative, enunfiative: . You did sing heavenly! = Ai $%tat absolut minunat! Do be quiet! = Facefi lini~te,v2 rogl 3 t e htrebuhpt in conseuc@i prin care se accentuead in mos speeial un cuvint, acFsla h d agent h propozitie pe primul loc: 1.
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- forma interogativ2, negativ2 gi intaogativ-negativspenm timpurile prezent gi mfut I - I to do + subiect + V ? subiect + to do + not + V ( to do + subiect + not + V ?

-.modul condiponal perfect

- modul s"bjond; analitic (pcrifrastic), avind forma idknticil condifionalprezent gi perfect. Amhunte P ceea ce privyte referitor la verbele modale.
_
III.Verbele modale - - Verbele modale
I

should would

+ have + V-ed/III

i u forrna rnodului

...+ to do + subiect + V + restul propozifiei

Only then did we notice who was speaking.

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- forme& o construcfieintrebuinptiipenm a exprima udiji"3indinn). un h d m n , o propunere, o concesie, o presupunere, construc(ie considerad de unii autori drept echivalent al subjonctivului ' e dfii ca f ~ n d modul imperativ. Aceastii comhucpe se folosqte pntru pnaanelB$"F% 11 ingular.giplural. 11

can must may shall ought to need dare

could
.

u . to be able to
to have to to be allowed to to De uermitted to to be possible to

a putea a trebui -

might should would

a putea, a avea voie,

let + emplement + V

Let her sing now! = Ss cinte ea acum! 5) SHALL; WDLL " . - formarea timpului viito2

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1

I will

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a se putea atrebui a vrea a eebui, a se cuveni s2 a fi nevoie ainddzni

.needed

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1

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I dared

I -

will

6) SHOULD; WOULD -formarea tirnpului Future in the Past


should would

- mddul condiponal prezent

should would

+v

CAN - COULD = a putea, a fi in stare d,a gti Can este forma de prezent la toate persoanele gi pate fi intfebuinpt $i cu sens de viitor: We can finish our work without any help. Can she speak English? Uneori can exprim2 posibilitate sau presupunere gi atunci estesinonim cu MAY: She c a n 9 be here already. In er.gleza vorbid; can este folosit din ce in ce mai mult cu sensul de permisiune. ^%&mind astfel verbul MAY: Can I come with you? Forma negativ este cannot, can't (ksnt) : You cannot (can't) tellme your secret, can you? Could este forma pentru.timpu1 trecut (Past Tense) gi pentru formarea modului condilional gi a timpului Future in the Past, ca $i a subjonctivului:
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,;,; .:
d) in anumite construtCii:

SHALL SHOULD = % e b a Shall 5 folo-te ca verb auxiliarpentru formarea timpului viitor la persoana 1 singular $i plural. In engleza vorbid este inlocuit p~ WILL, find i n d folosit la toate persoanele cu Sensul lui modal: We shall do that. = Vom face asta. (pentru d trebuie) I shan't (shall not) miss that exhibition. = N-am de gind sil pierd expozitia aceea. He shall go home at once! = Trebuie d plece acas2 imediat! Everybody shall fill in the form. = Toatil lumea trebuie a completeze formularul. He shall catch a cold if he goes out without a pullover. = hecis m d o r2ceasc2 dac2 iese f pulover. in htreb&i, shall este folosit pentru a afla intentia persoanei cilreia ii este adresad lntrebarea: Shall I help you? = S2 te ajut ? (Vrei s te ajut?). H Shall you be at home tonight? = Ai sii fii acas2 diseara? Forma ~egativil coneste SHANT. Should poate fi folosit ca verb auxiliar pentru formarea: a) timpului Future in the Past I knew I should go there. = $tiam c2 voi merge acolo. (Forma would este de preferat.) b) modului condifional prednt $i perfect I I were you I shouldn't do that. = Daci a$ fii'n locul tiu n-a$ face' f .asta. (Forma would este de preferat.) We shouldn't have come if we hadn't received your letter. = N- . am fi venit dac2 n-am fi primit scrisoarea ta. c) unui echiva$nt al subjonctivului: It is important that they should know the truth. = E important ca ei sll $tie adevhl. In engleza vorbiti4 should i.$ menone ^m Koate situapile, inclusiv h cele prezentate rnai sus, sensul lui de verb modal = ar trebui, ar fi cazul, sens care trebuie redat sau avut in considerare atit in traducere cit $i in retroversiune. Should + $fmitiv perfect exprim2 o obligarie care nu a fost indeplinitil: - ' He should have corrected the tests by now. = Ar fi trebuit s2 corecteze deja testele. (dar nu a ficut-o) Should + not + infinitivul perfect exprim2 o dezaprobare rap de ceva ce s-a Bcut in trecut: They shouldn't have behaved like that. = N-ar fi trebuit s2 se comporte in feIul acesta. WILL - WOULD. = a vrea, a voi, a dori, a-i pl2cea. Will este folosit: a) ca verb auxiliar pentru [omarea timpului viitor ktoate persoanele: They will come home as soon as hssible. b) ca verb modal, situafia in care vorbitortll il accentueaz8 atunci cind il rostegte: You 'will never listen to me. = Nu vrei niciodat2 s2 asculji ce-{i spun eu. I 'won't do that! =Nu vreau d fac asta! c) h formulare.unei cereri, inviqii politicoase (accentuead nuanp de politete): "Will you open the window, please?" = Vreri, v2 rog, s2 deschideti fereastra? "Won't you sit down?" = Nu vreti s2 luafi loc?
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That will do! = Ajunge! That will be enough!. =.E suficient! Accidents will happen. = Se intimplg, n-ai ce-i face! Boys will be boys. = Ce s2-i faci, a p - s biliep!

9 '

Forma negativil contra& este WONT. Would se folosegte: a) ca verb auxiliar pentxu formarea timpului Future in the Past $i a modului condiponal prezent $i trecut I was sure I would see him the next day. = Eram siglir c2-1 voi vedea ziua urrn2toare. They would understand if you explained correctly. = Ar inplege d a d le-ai explica corect. * He wouldn't have missed the Erain if he had got up earlier. = Nar fi pierdut trenul dac2 s-ar fi sculat mai devreme. b) la formarea unui echivalent al subjonctivului; urmat de infinitiv prezent exprfm2 prezentul $i viitorul; urmat de infinifv perfect exprim2 trecutul: I wish you would come in. = 4dori d uii in2untxu. He wished he would have bought the book. = Ar fi dorit d fi c u m p h t cartea. c) h conshcfii care exprim2 foarte muld politeye: Would you shut the door, please! ='A$ vrea sll fi$ atit de amabil incit s l Inchide@ p ? i u d) la construirea formei frecventative, Mt7nd d o acpune s-a ficut, se face $i eventual se va face Tn mod repetat He would come here everyday. = Obignuie$ted v i aici GI ~ fiecare zi. A m ! .O ala codstructie frecventativg este USED ~ 0 ' c a r aratiI d o acoune s-a e Bcut in mod frecvent sau o stare a existat in mod obignuit in hecut, dar acum s-a hcheiat He used to work here. = A muncit aici. (in mod permanent, dar acum nu mai muncqte aici) He used to have a dog. = Avea un cline. (dar acum nu-] mai are) e) impreung cu verbele to like, to prefer& be glad, to be inclined, to find it hard etc..Ja persoana I: 1would likehrefer you tomme at five. = Mi-ar placea/q prefera d vii la cinci. ~g;g&?O = ar a b u i , s-ar cuveni s& ar f i cazul s& exprima o obligafie moral3 dar p o concluzie logic2 hd nu c e d . Ought to are o singur2 form2 folosid la prezent. Penm a exprima o idee de trecut este m a t de un infinitiv perfect. He ought to visit his grandmother more often. = S-ar cuveni 4 s2-$i viziteze bunica mai des. They ought to have arrived by now (but they didn't). = Era cazul a f i venit deja Oughtn't VOught I not to have got my money by now? =Nu s-ar fi cuvenit d-mi primesc deja banii? , a inwzni, a avea curajul, a se hcurneta. se folose$tein special in propzitii interogative, negative $i mai rar h cele a f i a t i v e cind, in general, este rapuns la o intrebare: How dare you? = Cum h w n q t i ?
I

- so-

-51-

Dare you tell me such a lie? = h=$ti &-mi spui mie o asemenea minciunii? She daren't open the door. = Nu s-a ^mumetat sil deschidil q a . "You daren't tell him, dare you?" 'Oh, yes, I dare." = N-o s2 ki t a ispui,nu-i ap? Ba da, o sil inddiznesc! A m ! Verbul to dare ae fobsit $iverb ob&nuit, regulat, avind sensul de a t ca ' h ea sfida, a r i m a provoca, a desfide, caz in care se comport2 ca orice verb =@at'\ She dares to getinto that deserted house alone. = Ea h m sll intre singmil Tn casa aceeea p&llsid. They did not dare me to repeat what I had already told them. = Nu m;au pmvoca<a repet ceea ce le mai spusesem o

to allow to do
to get

to charge VBiataa
-

- tr. - intr. tfor - lr. - inp. - tr. - intr. - D. - htr.

= a ing5dui, a permite = a tine cont de

= a face, acorda, a juca un rol etc. = a se comports, a Sbda etc. = a obtine, a dpgta, a ci~tiga, primi etc. a = a ajunge, a sosi etc. = a incllrca = (mil.) a p j a , a ataca

aa a. NEED = a fi nevoie, a t ~ ~ b uintrebuinpt,% mod spe~ial propoziGi terogativ gi i, in

negative. ~ /,lJJd& l .gdr/a % , Need esfe deseori unnaf de gdye$e de gend'often, never, always, hard@ scafcety, -- -

almost etc.

I"

J~G

Forma uegatia conhas5 este need~:tfolositil ca x2spun.s negativ al unei intrebiiri ce

verbul must, atrmci cind r 2 s p d nu implid o interdicoe: He need not fear. - Nu e cazul s Li fie f r i d ZNeed you go now?= E nevoie sZL pleci? You need M y tell me how clever she is. = Nici m& nu e nevoie a-mi spui cite degteapd ''Must I read al the text?" "No, you nkdn't." = Trebuie l citesc tot textui? Nu, nu e nevoie. A verbul to wed este folosit ca verb obipuit, regulat, cu h~elesul avea . a n* e a d t a , a fi necew, caz 'hcare se cornpod ca un verb normal. . Sbe needsyour help. = Are nevoie de ajutorul au. lEecar needed to be repaired immediately. "Do yon need me now?" Taire this coat, you will need i t Fcamaneedn't dhbe neschimbarii 31vorbirea indim%.

can*

Diateza &te forma pe care o iawerbul in funcoe de'ce face subiectul, gi anume: atunci cind subiectul este activ (el face acounea exprirnad de verb) vorbirn despre diateza activi; cind subieitul este paslv acpunea exprimad de verb este f5cutll de altcineva gi se rSsfYinge asupra s u b i e c d o r b i m despre diateza parivg cind s u b i ~ t uface acpunea gi l o 9 sufed vorbirn despre diateza reflexivH. D i i e z a activH: Helen came to see me yersterday. Mother tells the children a story. Diateza pasta se forrneazE I

I
I

N-Verk 6 a n S v e intnrazitive Numh verb b-anzitiv verbni d@ care u r m d in mod obligatoriu un complement
diIect. @e cine? a?)

Tom gives a flowerto Mary. Who saw you coming?


-

Verbnl i n M t i v nu prim- complement direct. El nu are diatezil pasivg. Un verb.mtmzitiv poate deveni tranzitiv I anumite situatii: n a) c h i este unnat de un pronume reflexiv: Do as you please! =l cum poftqti! (intranzitiv) 3 Pleast yourself? = ! ce-$ place fie! (tranzitiv) F b) cind vabul este urmat de o paiticuB adverbial& She ran tokhool as she was late. (intranzitiv) She ran acrossher friend in the street (rranzitiv) = $-a indlnit prietena pe shad2 din intimplare. hfulte verbe pot fi atit tranzitive cit gi intranzitive, dar cu intelesuri complet diferite:

The poem is read by me. A nice house was built in our street. The dress has been bought by my sister. Diateza renexivH np exisd ca atare in lirnba englezll, ea fiind fie inclus2 in jntelesul unor verbe, fie nad& prin Vzarea unui pmnume reflexiv dup2 verb. I wash myself. = M2 sfl. I wash my hands. = Mi4 s p a pe miini. I am glad. = M bucur. A He grows fat = SeSngra$2. fiaten pasivi Cmd se treci o propozioe din diateza activg E diateza paslv5, complementul direct a1 n acesteia devine subiect, iar subiectul poate deveni (dar nu obligatoriu) complement in acuzativ p-ecedat de prepozipa by. Verbul to be piblxaz.2 timpul verbului din propozilia activ& Mather washes the child. (diateza activ2) The child is w ashed by mother. (diateza pasiv5) The pupil is so ving a problem: (diateza activ5) The problem is being solved by the pupil. (diateza activg) We have sent for a doctor. (diateza activg) A doctor has been sent for. (diateza pasivg) You can't speak to him. (diateza activ3) - He can't be spoken to. (diateza pasiv5) Din ultimele dou5 exemple de mai sus se observ5 c3 in propozitia pasiv2 prepozipa este pus3 imediat' dup5 verb. Atunci cind verbul din propozi[ia activ5 are dou3 complemente, unul direct $i unul indirect, ambele complemente pot deveni subiecte ale propozi~ilor pasive:

Mother told the children a story. (diateza activ2) A sfory was told to the children. (diateza pasivi) The children were told a stoq. De foarte multe on, forma impersonal3 din limba romln5 se spune, se crede, etc., se redil in limba englezil printr-un verb la diateza pasivi. Se crede d ei vor cigtiga rneciul =They are believed to win the match. ea Se spune c i el este un mare poet = He is said to b- great poet Mi s-a explicat totul. = I was explained everything. Lui i s-a spus ce s2 faci. = He was told what to do. Verbele to have, to get, pot fi folosite cu inieles cauzativ $i cu nuanfi de pasiv in constructii care ant5 c altcineva gi nu subiectul face acfiunea, iar complementu! direct o B sufed. I had my hair cut. -= M-am tuns. (la coafor) She had her dress cleaned. = $i-a curlpt rochia. (la spaitone) Where do you get your shoes mended? = Unde-firepari pantofii? Verbul to get poate fi folosit in locul auxiliarului to be: The tourists got caught by a storm. (were caught) 'ATEl7lE1 Numai verbele tranzitiveppt avea form2 de diateza pasiv5, dar exisa unele verbe intranzitive care, d q i au formi activll, au valoare de pasiv: This medicine tastes bitter. = Doctoria are gust amar. Cotton wears well. = Bumbacul se compord bine la purtare. That book will sell quickly. = Cattea aceea se va vinde repede. Tomatoes don't peel easily. = Rogiile nu se cur5p ugor de coaji.

The Simple Present Tense este intrebuinlat pentru a exprima o acGune prezenta, o stare permanent& o id* de viitor, in indicarii scenice, cu referire la mersul eenuriIor/ avioanelor/ vapoarelor, programel6r unor instituliilteatre etc. Prezentul istoric este rar folosit, puthd fi intanit in relar5t-i acute de persoane care nu cunosc foarte bine limba, sau in 1ucrik-iliterare pentru a da o anurnid vioiciune stilului: Se formeaz2 afirmativ

la toate persoanele V
'r

'

dar la persoana a III-a singular V-s (-es)


interogativ

negativ

subiect

+ not +V

do not = don't does not = doesn't

VI. M o d ~ rpersonale i ,. (Finite forms) 1 Modul indicativ prezind o acfiune real& siguri, indicind timpul 6nd aceasta este' . efectuatil. Pentru o mai bun5 infelegere a funcfiongrii timpurilor in cadrul modului indicativ, ca gi a relaNlor dintre ele, trebuie precizate de la inceput citeva idei: a) fiecare timp prezind doull forme in funcoe de durata pi des@uiarea in timp a acounii exprimate de verb (aspect simplu, aspect continuu). Pentru aceasta se ia in consideratie faptul c2 aspectul simplu arad o acoune general5 pifsau repetatil, iar aspectul continuu arat2 o ac$une continull, nehtrerupt& desfZpuratil Pntr-o perioad5 de timp bine defmitil. b) in cadrul modului indicativ deosebim trei timpuri de baz5: prezentul, trecutul gi viitorul, pe care le putem numi timpuri fixe, momentul de desQurare a acpunii fiind bine precizat. c) inaintea fiec2iui timp fix se afl5 un ump care arad cll aqiunea s-a desmgurat inaintea celeia exprimad de timpul f c gi este nedefiniti in timp. Aceste timpuri contin in numele u lor cuvintul Perfect, iar ?nfap acestui cuvint este numele timpului fix de care este legat. Astfei, o ac$une.desf&guradinaintea prezentului va fi exprimad prin timpul Present Perfect, cea desf&guratflinaintea unei acouni din trecut este exprimaa prin timpul Past Perfect, iar cea desf+urad'inaintea unei actiuni din viitor este exprimat2 prin Future Perfect. * Trebuie deci retinut faptul c i once idee de anterioritate este exprimat2 printr-un timp perfect f9nnat cu ajutorul verbului auiliar have, , NOTA Timpurile modului indicativ vor fi prezentate cu denumirea lor in limba - engled, intrucit nu exisd o corespondent51perfect2cu cele din limba romk2.

I drink milk everyday. The sun rises in the east. Do they sleep in the afternoon? The plane from London lands in five minutes. v He doesn't like tea. Mother washes the dishes every evening. Reguli de ortografie la adiugarea terminatiei -s: -y final prt de consoani se transofnni'in -ie: try - tries verbele terminate in: -s, -2, -x,, -sh, -ch, primesc terminapa -es pronunpa (iz): pass . passes; box - boxes; watch - watcpes; buzz - buzzes verbele do, go primesc terminapa -es: does, goes

The Present Continuous Tense exprimi o acoune desfZpurat5 acum, in momentul vorbirii; se folosegte $i pentru a arilta o acGune care urmead s5 se facll intr-un viitor apropiat. . Se formeaz5: .afmativ:
-

interogativ:

-.

Iamlislare + subiect + V-ing? 1

negativ:

subiect + am/is/are + not + V-ing


Don't go in! He is sleeping. J am leaving now. What are you doing? - Come in, I am not working now.
-55-

The Simple Past Tense &til o'acyiune care s-a desm~urat intr-un moment bine definit din trecut gi s-a hcheiat. Momentul de desfii~urare acriunii p a t e fi precizat printr-un a adverb de timp definit (yesterday. a day/ week/ month/ year ago, last week/ month/ year/ summer etc., in 1989 etc), printr-un alt verb la un timp trecut, prin context Se form&: afirmativ:

When we met they were coming from school and we were going home. 1 - 'What were doing you when I &ng you up?" "I was not sleeping. I was writing some letters." The Simple Future fense exprim5 o acGune care se va des@wa intr-un moment din viitos. Se forrneazk afiativ

'

verbe regulate: V-ed verbe neregulate: forma a 11-a


interogativ:

negativ:

My,sister arrived last week; They went home a week ago. When did you come? . The ~ u p idid not (didn't) finish his exercise yesterday. l Reguli de ortografie la adilugarea terminafiei-ed: verbele monosilabice gi bisilabice cu accentul pe a doua silabl, terminate htra sin@ consoan& precedati4 de o singuril vocal2 dubleazil consoana finals: stop = stopped; regret regretted verbele compuse terminate in -p precedat de vocall, respecd regula de mai sus:

r r
did + subiect u V ? subiect + did + not + V

interogativ: shalYwill .
' I

+ subiect + V ?
shall + not = shan't will + not = won't

did not = didn't

subiect + shaWwill+ not + V


I

kidnapped - -1 final se dublead in orice situatie: travel - travelled; fulfil - fulelled (excepge: Mparalleled) - -y precedat de consoan2 se transform2 in -i: marry - married -e fmd mut cade: decide - decided -ic devine ick: mimic - mimicked

I shall see them tomorrow. She will recite a poem. Will he come? They will not (won't) accept this. Formulele de mai sus exprim5 modalitate. corect gramaticall de constnure a timpului viitor, dar in vorbirea curenti4 se folose* auxiliarul WILL la toate persoanele. Atunci cind acest auxiliar lgi p2streazi-i sensul sL modal (a voi) acest fapt subliniat printr-o rostire Su rnai accentuaa: . He will speak to you?(viitor) I am sure he 'will speak to you. = Sint sigur d va vrea S t vorbeasca cu tine. Auxiliarul SHALL folosit la toate persoanele aratil, ciatorit5 sensului modal (a trebui) idea de obligaGe, certitudine, ordin, h o f i e . You 'shall come tomorrow. = Trebuie s l vii m6ne. I 'shall go there, come what may. = Am s2 merg acofo, ' fie ce-o fi. ( h o m e ) - in privinp folosirii verbelor shall $i.will in intrebiki. se recornan& a se vedea capitolul

G e Past c ni -a o tna o acfiune care s-a desfqurat in mod contimu gi neintrerupt im-- i p bine definid din trecut, sau i n acekqi tirnp cu una sau mai multe acfiuni tot din trecut. Se-traduceprin imperfect. - . . * Se form&: D,[? i > 7 " i * \ afmativ:

*BE

MODALE.

p;)?

'.

The Future continous Tense arad c l o acgune va fi in curs de d e s f ~ u F m i intr-un moment bine definit din viitor. Se formeai5: afmativ:

interogativ:

wislwere + subiect + V-ing ?


negativ:

I
I

~ers-I persa
intemgativ:
.

shall/ will +be + V-ing

( subiect + waslwere + not + V-ing (


I

"Have you heard the news?" "Yes, they were talking about it in the office all morning yesterday."-

negativ:

subiect

+shall/ will +not +be +V-ing


1

This time tomorrow we shall be flying to Paris. = hhiine pe , mmea asta vom fi In zbor spre Paris. Cele meniionate in l e g 2 t d cu folosirea verbelor SHALL 9i WILL in capitolul The Simple Future Tense sht valabile $ in aceasa situaoe.,
'h I Near Futwefliitorul apropiat) poate fi exprimat prin urmgtoarele construc$i: a) TO BE GOING TO = a avea de gind d,a intentions 1 a fi pe punctul de a: o What are you going t do now? = Ce-ai de gbd s5 faci acum? - He is going t leave fo? London. = E pe punctul de a pleca spre o Londra. b) TO BE TO = a m a &, a avea de gind d spre deosebire de construcyia de rnai sus, , aceata aa c2 actiunea a fost homd dinainte, planificatk ra We are to visit the museum on Sunday. = Urn& s3 v i z i h muzeul duminicg. . c) THE PRESENTCONTINUOUS TENSE: What are you doing tomorrow afternoon? . d) THE SWLE'P~SENT TENSE folosit in special pentru date, orare, ac$uni certe ~i

1\ \ 1

never = niciodata \ I J ~ $ &<-3 &t , often = adesea seldom = m r i always = intotdeauna sometimes = dndva, uneori already = deja rarely = m r i frequently = frecvent occasionally - din cind h cind generally = in general - se pun la sfiqitul pmpozi$ei today = as& -ihi<week/ month1 summer.. . lately nxendv recent, decurind, in ultimavreme

,"

'9

k~; /

programate:

The k n t Perfect Tense este intrebuinpt pentru a d t a o acfiune care s-a desfigurat
intr-un trecut apropiat, este nedefinitll in timp gi a~relegZ4~urll cu prezentul, sau se desf2padi $i In prezent. Se traduce de cele mai multe on prin.perfectu1compus, dar gi prin prezent Se formazik afinnativ:
-

The aain comes in five minutes. We leave for the seaside next week.

interogativ:

have/ has
negativ:

+ subiect + V-ed/m ?

subiect + have/ has + not + V-ed/III


They bave just anived. = Tocmai au sosit. Where have you bep? = Unde ai fost ? How long have you known h i ? = De cit timp il cunogti? Datoritil faptului cll acGunea exprimat2 de acest timp este nedefinia, el poate fi insotit, gi de cele mai mule ori este, de unul din urmlltoarele advexbe (sau locu$uni adverbiale) de timp n e d e M gi firmex@ I

yet = h c l (in prop.negative) , .. The play has just begun. He has never been so angry before. I haven't eaten anything today. She read a lot of novels recently. We have not finished yet SINCE, FOR cer timpul Present Perfect in propozifiile din f a p lor (deci nu in cele introduse de ele) atunci cInd acfiunea exprimatA de propozipa repctivg s e continui4. pina T prezent. n Since = de, din, de la, de cgd (arat2 momentul %ceperii acfiunii) Far = timp de (arad durata ac$unii) , She hhn't visiied this town since ; e was a child. h He has worked in this office since he graduated. We haven't been at the seaside since September. Mary and Tom have been engaged fw a monthla long time.. Este absolut necesar sll se inteleagll faptul c5 aceaste cuvinte (adverbe, locuriuni adverbiale, cqnjucfii sau prepozitii) cer timpul Present Perfect atunci cind aciiynea exprirnatil de verb ate, intr-un fel sau altul, legad de prezent (se mai desEkjoar5 bd sau are urmtlri in prezent). Cornpara$: I have never seen a camel before. -. dar I never s w a camel when I was a child. a I haven't eaten anything this morning. (e incl dimineap) dar I didn't eat anything this morning. (e &)

The Present Perfect Continuous Tense exprimii o aqiune care a hceput de curind gi se desfQod in mod continuu gi nehtrempt pins in prezent Se traduce prin tirnpul prezent Se form&: , . afirmativ:

-sep2llfaFav
just = tocmai, abia ever = weodat2
\

7 . sphky& b h
1

'T'

-, ,

>

*!r,

tu,? 19 I
q

have1 has

+been +V-ing

."
interogativ:

have/ has
ncgativ:

+ +subiect + been+ V-ing ?

The guestsOaspe* aSteptau de dou5 hours when the gazda. arrived. = had been waiting for two ore cind a sosit hostess John told us that he had been wd!dng for an hour till he met Tom. = John ne-a spus c5 se plimba de o or8 pin5 cind I-a intilnit pe Tom.

subixt+ have/ has + not + been + V-ing


We have been listening to music for two hours now. = Asculam muzic5 de douH ore. what have they been d h for the last three hours? = Ce fac ei og de trei ore fncoace? M~~~b l t been h n h g sinceyou left. = Mary nu inv2.P de . >cindai plecat

- viitor. Se traduce prin viitor anteribr, viitor, preze~?t


,

Futlrte Perfect T a m araa o acpune viitoare desfXyrat.2 inaintea altei actiuni tot din Seform& afmativ:

shall/ will
negativ:

The Past PerEtct Tense exprim8 o actiune m u d , antenoar2 altei acriuni tot din uecut. Se traduce prin mai m d t caperfectul, perfectul compus sau uneori prinimperfat Acest timp p a t e fi folosit impreun5 cu aceleagi adverbe (locuiiuni adverbiale) ca ~i timpul Present Perfect. El are acela9 ml de anterioritate fa(g de trecut pe care I1 are Linpul .Present Perfect fa@de prezent Se formeazk afiiativ:
interogativ:

+ sub* + have + V-ed/m?


+ sh.ll/will

subiect

. *T

+ ;oi+havc + V-ed/ITI

.
had

+ subiect +'V-ed/III ?
I

His mother W~II finished caokicg by the time hare arrive & A a / i there. = Mama lui va fi terminat de ggtit cind vom ajunge noi acolo. Will they have retumd from the seaside before school begins? = Se vor intoarce de la mare pin5 incepe $coda? (Se Pntorc ei.. .?)

negativ:

.:

subiect

+had +not + V-d/EII


j.'

.
-

The pupils had not finished their paper when the bell rang. ;, John had already been to Paris when I met him. . How long had they been mamed when her husband died? -

Fum perfect Continuous Tense - arad o actiune c a r e - v m c u r s de desfil~urare inaintea ucui moment din viitor. Se traduce prin viitor sau prezent Se form&: afiiativ:

shall/ will
interogativ:

+ have +

been + V-ing.

The P s Perfat C o n ~ o o T e n s arad o actiune care a inceput htr-unmoment din at s


W u t gi s-a d e s ~ u r ain mod continuu gi neintrerupt pPn5 fntr-un alt moment tot din trecut. t Se traduce prin mai mdt ca pedect sau imperfect Se formeaz5" afiiativ:

shall/ will
negativ:

+ subiect + have + been + V-ing ?

interogativ:

r
had

.
I
I

+ been +V-ing

had +subixt + be en'+^-ing 2


negativ:

sutiect

+had + not + been + V-ing


-60I

I I Don't ring us up till 8 o'clock, we shall have been sleeping till then. = Nu ne sum inainte de ora 8, pin5 atunci vom dormi. In another five minutes he wiU have been waiting for you for two hours.= P a t e cinci minute se fac doua ore de cind te a~teaptil.' By next month our teacher will have been tkching English for ten years. = Luna viitoare vor fi zece ani de cind profesoml nostru pred2 engleza. Trebuie mentionat faptul c2 acesta este un timp foarte rar folosit

subiect

+shall/ will + not + have +been + V-ing

--

-- -

7
The Future in tho Past Tense; the Future Perfect in the' Past Tense sint doull timpuri speciale, inexistente in limba romhji, necesare pentru a se respecta regula concordantei timpurilor care cere ca atunci cind in propoziria principal5 exist5 un timp trecut, in propozitiile secundare d se foloseasc2 tot un timp trecut. Din acest motiv. htr-o propozioe s e c u n w care exprim2 o idee de viitor nu putem folosi tirnpul viitor ci trebuie folosit ambele condifi $i anume ideea timpul Future in the Past (viitorul in trecut) care intrune~te de viitor ~irespectarea regulii concordanpi timpurilor. In concluzie, Future in the Past se traduce prin viitor, iar Future Perfect in the Past se traduce prin viitor anterior: Futme in the Past se form& afiitiv:
summer holidays. . 2) chd virbul din propozifiaprincipal5 este la timpul viitor, verbul din secundari4 poate fi la un timp viitor sau la un timp prezent. Jack will tell us everything when he ma: I will let you know what will happen in case you don't come. ' A 6 I I i n propozitiile subordonate circumstanriale de timp, ca $i in cele ' w I 1 B condi$onale, nu se folosqte niciun fel de timp viitor format cu ajutorul verbelor auxiliare shall, will, should, would. Aceste propozipi pot fi introduse prin: when, before, after, while, till, until as soon as, as long as, by the time (that), if. Trebuie repnut faptul d. d a d propozi@ subordonat2 este introdus5 prin if sau when, dar este propozige complebivil dim%& poate folosi timpul viitor. se I am sure you don't h o w when he will be back He wonders if Mr will come in time. ay 3) ckd k proponpa principals predicatul este la un tirnp trecut, in propoziwe secundare predicateIe trebuie d fie tot la un'timp trecuf (PAST TENSE, PAST PERFET. FUTURE W THE PAST). 1waited in the sitting~room she was sleeping. as They were sure they had never seen her before. You promised me you would be there in time. ExiqqG de la regulile concordanpi timpurilor: a) cind k proponpa subordonat5este prezentat un adevk general valabil: . She knew very well that the Earth is round. The teacher explained to us that water boils at 100' C. b) in propozigle ahibutive timpul folosit este cel cerut de context The man who L hem' was my teacher. C) atunci cind t;mpul de desfgyurare a aciiunii din propoziria subordonat5 este independent de timpul ac$unii din propozi* principal2. ?XI propoziga subordon& se p a t e folosi orice timp cerut de contexr I nfbd to go with you to the cinema because I never go to the . cinemaon Sunday. She enjoyed the concert so much that she w i l l never forget it d) in propoziga comparativg introdus2 prin as, than, as well as, as much as tiralpul predicatului este cel c a t de context I enjoyed spending the holidays at the seaside more than I will ever enjoy a holiday in the mountains. e) fraza condi$onaU are propriiile ei reguli de concordan# f) pnzentul istoric p a t e fi folosit in loc de timpul trecut fie pentru a se da mai multit culoare stilului narativ. fie de cgtre persoane inculte: I went in, turned on the light and what I see: a man is sitting in the middle of the room and is staring at me with only one eye! = Am intrat, am aprins lurnina $i ce v2d: un om st2 in mijlocul carnerei qi se holbeaz3 la mine cu un singur ochi!
\

M r is writing a composition about what shehid during her ay

should/ whould +V
I
I
-

, ,J 4 wi

interogativ:

should/ whould
negativ:
,

+ subiect +V 3

subiect ,

+should/ w h o a + not + V

-.

Fuyre Perfect in the Past se formead: afhnativ:

should/ yhould
interogativ:

+ have + V-ed/Ill

shoWd/ whould
negativ:

+ subiect + have + V - e m ?

subiect

+ should whMd + not + have + V--

Mother told me that she would buy some cakes. = Mama mi-a spus d va cumpi4ra ni$te piljituri. He was sure that he would have finished reading by the time you came home. = El era sigur cil va fi terminat de . citit pin5 ckd voi vep veni ac&. NOTA in vorbirea curentit se folosqte auxiliarul would la toate persoanele. Aceste dou&timpuriau form& identic8 cu fo.ma modului condirional prezent ~iperfect, deosebiuea de inples filcindu-se din context.

Comrdanp timpurilor (The Sequence of Tenses) Concordanp timpurilor se refer5 la un set de reguli care reglementead relaria dintre predicatul,propozifiei principale ~i predicatele propozi~ilor secundare (subordonate). ei Aceste reguli sint 1) cind verbul din propoziiia prindipa~5 este la un timp prezent, in propozitiile subordonate putem folosi orice timp. I h o w that he w l help me. i l -

- 62 -

II. Modul subjonctiv expriml o actiune irealil dar realizabill.


. Se form&: a) foma veche a subjonctivului este identi& cu infinitivul prezent f&l particula to qi este unid pentru toate persoanelc, singulat $i plural It is important that he take part in the discussion. = S-o ianaiba de gralnaticil! Grammar be hanged! Come what may! = Fie ce-o fi! So be it! = A$a&fie! = Depar? de mine ghdul de a.. . Far be it from me to.. . = E suficient s l spun cil.. . . SufEce it to say = S% tr~ascl.. . Long live.. b) sdbj?nctiwl prezent are o singuril form2 la toate perssanele, form&identicti cu Past forma were la toate Tense. Excepiie face verbul to be, in cazul c h i a se folose~te persoanele. I wish he understood me. = 4 don '& mil hteleagil. 9 = E timpul & plech. It's time we left. If I were you I wouldn't do that. = Dac% fi E locul tilu nu aq g n face asta. . Suppose he were here what would you tell him? = Presupunind d ar fi aici, ce i-ai spune? De retinut: - = Dac2 a$ fi in locul tilu IfIwea~you ' _ = Dad ai fi-inlocul meu If you were me = D a d el/ ea ar f i in l ~ uti3u etc. l If helshe were you = A vrea s l fiu h locul lui q I wish I were him c) subjonctivul perfect este identic ca form% timpul Past Perfect El expriml o acljune cu anterioaril celei exprimate de verbul din propozitia principaIl sau o situatie ireall, imposibilZL Se traduk h lirrlba romhk pnn conjuctivulperfect sau condi$onalul perfect David wished he had not been so absent-minded. = David a fi r I dorit & nu fi fost atit-dedistrat (dar a fat) If he had been there he would have helped them. = Dac% fi ar fost acolo i-ar fi ajutat (dar nu a fost) d) subjiinctivul analitic sau W t i c (consmc@echivalente cu subjonctivtil):

Cazurile cle folosire ale subjonctivului analitic format cu ajutorul auxiliarelor: - shall/ should. Aceste auxitiare se folosescla toate persoanelein pmpozi$i care u n n d dup2: - verbele: to demand, to insist, to order, to request, to prop0s.e. to decide, to advise, to expect, to recommend, to suggesf to hurry, qc (+ that) We expect that the new school building shall be finished soon The manager ardered tbat the papers should be delivered in time.

- conshuc$ile:
r

it
it

+mbe+adjectiv...+d?at

'

is necessary, it is advisable, it is essential, it is better, it is vital, it is i m p o F t , it is right, it is fair, it is natural, it is strange, it is odd, it is surprising, it is amazing, it is annoying, it is ridiculous, it is absurd, it is required, it is desirable, it is requestep, it is arranged, it is wonderful, it is impossible, it is possible, itis disappointing etc. It is impartantthat everybody should be present It w s strange tbat they should have lied to us. a It w s better that you should have finished your wodc before a coming here. It is esenti8l for me that he should come in time.

- cuvintele: desire, idea, intention, proposal, wish, suggestion, request, agreement,

shallllshould +
'

,'

could + V
Aceste construcfii au ~i f o h e care expriml o idee de anterioritate, caz in care se foloqte gi auxiliaruI have, caracteristic perfectului. (infinitiv perfect)

demand, arrangement, lest (ca . nu), in case, for fear (de & id nu), it is (high) time (e 4 -d tirnpul &), even though, however, whatever, as if, as though etc. His suggestion is that we shodd go together. The arrangement w s that they should have met before going to a the meeting. We hurried Iest we should m s the bus. is It was so dark that the old woman w s terrified ls she shcmld a et slip and fall. I did not tell him the news far fear he should faint I am telling you the truth so that you should do what-youthink is best for y6e It is high time you shoald decide. I wiU go there even though you sbonidconsider me a foot However dificult it sbonld be, it is worth trying. Whatever your friendsshould have told you, you m s not j$ve up ut NOTA - ConstrucGa

for.+ infinitiv lung ,


p a t e fi ^docuitilde subjonctivul analitic format cu ajutorul auxiliarului sboald It is important fin me to see you today. It is important that I should see you today.
1

shall/ should +have +V-ed/lIt may/ might .+ have'+ V-ed/m + have + V-edllII

+ have + V-ed/m
-64-

may/might slnt folosite: - in expresii care denotii team& spew@, dorinp, u a ~ May you live long! = Sil tr%e$i mulG ani! 1 . He was afraid they may not find him at home. We hope he may be honest
,

-65-

- dupl construc~le cuvintele expuse mai sus in subcapitolul referitor la auxiliarul ~i


should; in aceasd situafie may/ might igi p&tt&
I

Comparafii:
.

I will give you the book so that you should copy the text = Am d-fi cartea ca d copiezi textul. dau I shall give you the book so that you may copy the text. = Am d--ti cartea ca c l pofi copia textul. dau It is important that everybody should present. = E important ca mas lumea d fie prezend It is important that everybody may be present. = E important ca toat5 lumea d p a d fi prezenla. He put the bottle on the top shelf lest the boy should drink the brandy. = El a pus sticla pe raftul de sus ca bsiatul s i nu bea coniacul. He put the bottle on the top shelf lest the boy may drink the brandy. = El a pus sticla pe raftul de sus ca bgiatul d nu poala bea coniacul. The suggestion was that everybody should be given a book. = Sugestia a fost ca tuturur d li se dea cite o carte. . i h e suggestion was that everybody may be given a book. = Sugestia a fost ca tuturor d li se poala da cite o carte. However hard it should be, you must do i t = Oricit de greu ar fi, trebuit s faci. a However hard it may be, you must do i t = Oricit de greu ar putea d fie, trebuie s-o faci. 1 Whatever he should have done, we must help him. = Orice ar fi ficut, trebuie d-1 ajutih. Whatever he might have done, we must help him. = Orice ar fi putut face, trebuie d-1 a j u h .

nuanp modal& a se put& a fi posIbil.

Suppose we could be freetomorrow, what would you like to do? = Presupunind c l am fi liberi miine, ce-ai vrea s l faci? -.If he could sing he would try to become an opera singer. = D a a at putea d cinte ar hcerca sti devinl cintilret de opers. I wish I could have come sooner. = 4dori d fi putut veni rnai devreme,

..
I

NOTE GENERALE: . - 0 alla'forml de subjonctiv~analiticeste consideratl de catre cerceatori a fi cea ,mnsmritil cu a j u t o ~ verbului auxiliar TO LET, al(ii aidtind cil aecasta face pate din l modul imperativ. In orice caz, traducerea este de cele mai multe ori Qcutil printr-un subjonctiv. LRt US go!= S l plech! . , * . 7 - h consmc(ii1e idiomatice had better, had bs. had rather, verbul had este la modul et, subjonctiv. Ele se traduc prin ail ar fac. mai bine sB ar fi mai bine si4 ti indicl un sfat, un avertisme~t.o p&ere asupra a ceea ce ar trebfificut cit de repede. ' You look ill, so you had better stay in bed. .Rehad better not go out tonight, it is too dangerous. "I have lost my identity card." "You had better go to the Police station at once." - In vorbirea colocviall forma de subjonctiv prezent a verbului to be p a t e fi.was in locul f o d e i corecte were. I wish he w s here. a II M a conditional expriml o condi(ie sau o acQune dorid I. Se formemil: a) condifii&ul prezent

b) cundiponalul perfect

should/would +V ______7_
I

should/would
I

+h a v e . * V a

'

0 would $i p&tr& de cele rnai multe 02nuanp de verb modal ( voi), sau arala c i a ceva ar urma d se faci in viitor, este de asemena folosit in construcpile would rather, would bellex, would sooner urmate de V, cu sensul de a prefera, ar fi bine d, exprimind preferinp personal3a vorbitorului. I wish you gvould forget it. = A( vrea s2 uip asta. (s2 vrei s5 o uip) He wishes I would give up smoking. = Ar don d renun! la fumat. (de acum inainte). I would rather read than watch T.V. = Mai degraba q citi decit d mi uit la ~levizor. . Tom would rather have put on his blue-jeans but his mother fi advised him not to. = Tom ~i-ar pus rnai degrabl pantalonii de blue-jeans-darmama lui 1-a sfituit d nu o fac8. Wouldn't you better stay at home than go out? = N-arfi rnai bine (n-ai .prefers) d stai acasl decit s5 plki? 0 could in consmirea subjonctivului analitic i ~p b t r d sensul de verb modal i (a putea). Este folosit in general dupi: if, suppose, i-magine, as though (ca ~i cind, ca ~i cum), to wish, so that, etc.:

I CondiQonalul (prezent, perfect) se traduce prin modul condi(ional (prezent, perfect). Formele de condi(iona1 ale verbelor CAN $i MAY sint COULD $i MIGHT. Verbul OUGHT redl ideea de condi(iona1 al verbului MUST putind fi urmat atit de infmitivul pr5zent cit (i de infmitivul perfect. NOTA - In regula exprimats rnai sus se indica auxiliarul should pentru persoam I singular $i plural iar would pentru persoanele a II-a $i a 111-a singular (i plural. In vorbirea obi@til should igi p&treazA sensul silu modal (a mbui) la toate persoanele, would (cu mici excepfii) find folosit penrm formarea condi(ionalu1uiobipluit la mate persoanele. I would go home. = Ag pleca aca& I should go home. = Ar trebui ssI plec acasti. He would have called you soon. = El te-ar fi sunat 31curind. He shoad have callcalled as soon as possible. = Ar fi trebuit d you te sune cit de curind. What could I do? = Ce q putea face? What could he have done? = Ce ar fi putut el face? You might ask her. = Ai putea s-o Intrebi. Your son ought b learn more. = Fiul lau ar trebui dfnvep rnai . . mult.

-66-

cudi@na]g este format2 din do& propozifi: propozi$a principal5 care exprim5 o acfiune condi$onad sau d o n a qi p p o d $ a suborodonata care arata condila cu care se reaIiz& ac@unea din regent& Ordinca celor dou5 propozi(ii nu este Tu& dar intre @ d e lor exi& c n o d n $ anume: o cr a p

Y u son ought t have lesmt more before the exam. = Fiul d u or o sr fi aebuit silin* mai mult inainte.de examene.

- verbul la moPul condipond apare numai in pmpzipa regentit,

atunci cind condipa

If the pupil had undmtod they could answer your questions now. = D a d elevii ar fi infeles fi-ar putea dspunde acum la intrebixri. Sfiould folosit in propozi$a subordonatil sugereaz5 c5 actiunea este foarte pu$n probabil . d se intimple in viitor. ' If mother should come tell her that I will be back soon: = Dac5 s-ar intimpla cumva d vin2 mama spune-i d m5 intorc curind. Would folosit in p r o p z i t i subordonat2 p a t e avea fie sens de verb modal (a voi), fie de construc$e hliticoad. .. If he would come now I could give him the money. Dac5 ar vrea sll vin5 acurn i - q da banii. - If you would sit down we could talk for a while. = Dac5 a\i vrea s% luati loc am putea sta pufin tle vorb5. NOTA - Oricare dintre cele dou5 propzitii w e formeazi fraza condi(ional5 p a t e avea krind* ei propoziF subordonate; If you had come, as you told me you would, I could have told you everything you wanted to know about the book I am just writing.= Daci ai fi venit, infrucit mi-ai promis c5 vei veni, ti" g fi putut spune tot ceea ce doreai s2 gtii despre cartea pe care . tocmai o scriu.
'

<

.I shall be very glad if you win help me. v-bd will nu form& viitolul ci es& verb modd cu sensul a v&, ded fraza se traduce: Voi fi foarte bucrnos dac3 vd vrea s% mi4 aju$ posibi& condifia nu este realirata in prezent dar este psibil s l se 2) d e z e f n viitor. In pmpod$a secundaid verbul este pus la modul subjonctivp a m t , iar in &@ p s se folosqte modu1 d $ o n a l p w e n t i i ow if he here he would solve your problem. = Dac5 ar fiaici - ..$-ar rezolva problem~ nu este). (dar I wouldn't call you unless I needed you. = Nu te-gchema dac2 n - q avea nevoie de tine. 'Suppose he told you what would YOU do about it? = Dac2 fi-ar spune ce-ai face in privinp asta? If I were you I wouldn't eat that food. = Dacl g f i in locul t5u n~ m i n c mincarea asta. a 3).condiPe ired8 imposlia arat.2 o condifie nerealirals gi nerealizabilg. in propozi\ie principal2 se folose~te modul c m d i f i o d perfect iar in pmpozi\ia subordcnat2 modul rubjonctiv perf- (identic ca form5 cu timpul R u t Perfect). If only he hadbeen here it would have been much easier for me. = Dad ar fi fost aici mi-ar fi fost multmai ugor. They should have anived by now un case they had caught the plane. = Ei ar fi trebuit d 6 sosit deja jn caz c2 au pnns avionul. Everybody could ha;e understood the lesson if you had explained it more clearly. = Toat2 lumea ar fi putut intelege let* dac5 ai fi explicat-o mai clar. 4) cazuri speciale: condi~ionalul prezent in principal5 poate fi folosit alaturi de s u b a n c t i d perfect in subordonat& in special atunci cind este insolit de un adverb de g e n stin. &w. at ptesen~etc. . ~ here you should find a note. = Dac5 ar fi fort aici If ar trebui d gbegti un biletel.
.

fntr-o situa$e de genul:

Omisiunea lui "if"se r e a l i d in modul urmgtor. - dacg in propozitia subordonat24 exist2 un verb auxiliq sau modal, el este plasat in f a p - subiectului: If she could come Tom would let us know. Could she come, Tom would let us know.

If you had known everything, you wouldn't have made such a m&take. Had you known,, you wouldn't have made such a mistake.
Whni would she have done if she had met her former husband? What would she have done had she met her former husband?
If hlary needs this book, give it to her.

(construcpe formal9

Should M r need this book, give it to her. ay Citeva preciz&i referitoare la conjucpile care introduc propozi\ia condi$onal2: IF - daci-; p a t e avea gi nuanp: ori de cite on, ckd, lntntcit, deoarece, in caz CA If I have money I like to buy a good book. = When I have.. . If vou haven't written your hqmework I can't correct it. = Since you haven't.. . UNLESS - dac5 nu (if ...not); are nuan@ emfatici gi introduce in special propozipi in care exist2 gi alte elemente negative (deci if.. .not nu poate fi folosit). They wouldn't have come unless you had invited them.= if you hadn't invited them. Don't ask him to expictin again unless you really don't understand. RoagB-1 a-pexpiice incl odatil do= dac2 intr-adevk nu infelegi.

IN CASE - doc& in cazul in care: introduce o propozitie care exprim2 o precau(ie fa@de ceea ce s-ar putea intimpla in viitor. He is taking a coat in case it is cold later on. He'll 'take a coat if it is cold later on., A m ! IN CASE cu sensul -ca nu cumva sg- introduce propozi(ii circumstm~ale scop $ sens negativ. deci este urmat de un verb la afumativ. are i They go home ealry in case the traffic is heavy. the Eaffic should be heavy. the traffic might be heavy.

~ o d u rimpenoqde i
won-finite moods)
~hfiuitivd modul care denumegte actiunea sau starea exprimati4 de verb. Semnul este distinctiv a1 infinitivului este particula t. El poate fi folosit atit la aspectul simglu cit $ la o aspectul continuu, la diteza activg $i la diteza pasiv2 gi are dou2 forme: infiiitiv prezent gi h.fimitiv perfect
. DIATEZA AC~IVA ASPECT.SIMPLU I ASPECT CONTINUU
4

ON CONDITION = PROVIDED (that) au ambele sensul: cu condiiia {ca). Tom can lend me his bicycle on condition/ provided that I bring it back today.

DIATEZA PASIVA

Modul imperaliv exprim&un ordin, un indemn, o urare, un sfat etc. Se form&: pentru persoanele I gi I11 singular gi plural: 1

infinitiv prezent

to be spe&ng
_________,

to be spoken
________-_________________

let

+compl&t

h acuzativ + V

to have been swken

Infinitid ~
aSezat
I

I arafa cg acfiunea se desBpar?I in acelqi timp cu verbul dup2 care este K

Let me go! Let the boy flay!

. pentru persoana a doua: V

Read louder, please! Be quiet! . Forma negativg se formeaz&cu ajutorul verbului auxiliar DO: Don't do that! Don't let me wait for you! Al3327EI A u x i l i i l 00 se folosegte gi in cazul verbelor TO BE,$ TO HAVE la negativ. ' Don't be rude! Forma negativa format2 cu ajutoml negaoei not pus2 dup2 verbul LET e inlilnifa in & limba literar2 sau formal5 gi mai rar in conversalie. ' Let us not go so far!

I hope to get there in time. = Sper sil ajung la timp acolo. I hoped to get there in time. = Am sperat sg ajung acolo la timp. Ininitiwlpexfect arafa d acPunea exprimati4 de el este antenoar2 celei ar2tate de verbul din fap lui. . I am sony to have talked to you so rudely. = imi pare rilu d Pam vorbit de urft. Alice pretended to have been watching T.V. when I rang her up. = Alice a pretins c2 se uita la televizor cind am sunat eu. , He didn't expect to have been spoken to like that = Nu s-a qteptat sil i se vorbeascg in felul acesta. Infinitid scurt (f&g p&cula to) se intrebuin{eazgdupg : - verbele rnodale (exceppe ought) .

- dup2 verbele to make gi to have cu sens cauzativ

The children can swim quite well.

He makes me laugh. = M3 face 6 rid. I had her clean the room at once. = Am mcut-o s2 cure{e camera irnediat. - dup2 verbele to see, to hear, to feel, to watch, to observe, to perceive, to let, g i uneori to help atunci cind acestea sint la diateza activH Did you see her come last night? (diateza activ2) dar She was seen to come late last night (diateza pasiv2) - dupll construc@ile had better, had rather, would racer, would sooner, would better, rather than, better than, sooner than, more than, can (not) but, nothing but etc. He would rather eat than sleep. . I cannot but wait =Nu pot decit 6 agtept - OInfinitivul poate fi folosit ca substantiv in constfucoi de genul: To swim is a.great pleasure. (subiect) I can't affdrd to spend so much morley. = Nu pot &-mi permit d cheltuiesc a$a de rnulri bani. (cbrnplement direct)

II

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Infi~tivul a t e avea funcpa de complementdirect (direct object) dupii verbe ca: to p learn, to arrange, to manage, to omit, to refuse, to start, to begin, to bear, to continue, to -need, to cease, to afford, to m e , to desire, to like, to dislike, to hate, to mean, to intend, to love, to want, to propose, to plan, to claim, to ask, to conclude, to threawn,..to profess, to forget, to remeber, etc. What do you intend to do ? I didn't mean to say that.= N-am inteniionat sll spun asta. Infuritivul poate fi intrebuinpt ca adjectiv (uneori inlocuind o propoziGe atributiv2). He has a lot of work to do (which he must do). The best time to visit her is at noon. (when you may visit her.) to These are the ~roblems be solved till tomorrow (which are to be solved). infinitivul p a t e fi folosit dup2 adjective cum ar fi: amused, able, anxious, a , d angry, content, certain, careful, concerned, delighted, excited, eager, glad, amazed, astonished, fit, pleased, h e , flattered, gratified, proud, *Y, .prere@, surprised, sorry, willing, welcome, etc. o t He is the only man fii t r e ~us in Parliament. She is proud to be your friend. Iarnsorrytohearthat. ' You are f e to go. re Infiirivul p a t e fi Tntrebuinpt adverbial: We went there to meet them. de in aceasti4 situa$e el reprezind o alternativg pentru propozipi circumstan~ale cauzll, de scop etc. They called us to/ in order to/ so as to tell us the news She opens the door to see better. Atunci c?nd adjectivele sau adv5rbele dnt p r e c e t e de TOO, ele s%t de obicei urmate de un infinitiv. . Hs story is too good to be true. i ENOUGH plasat in fafa substantivului gi dupii adjectiv sau adverb este urmat de un infiitiv. You will not have enough money to buy a bicycle. .I am sure he will run fast enough to catch the hain. hv o r b ~ indirect& infinitivul a t e folosit pentru a reda un ordin, un indemn. un sfat a etc. "Read the poem!", said the teacher. The teacher told me to read the poem. "Don't touch the bulb, it is hot!" Mother warned me not to touch the bulb as it was hot. Infinitivul inlocuiegteo Tntrebare indirecd care incepe cu cuvintele who, what, which, when, where, how much, how Iwg, how often. Tell me what to do now (what I should do now). . She doesn't h o w where to put her glasses (where she could ylt her glasses).

Tom can hear MhypLPy the piano every Sunday. = Tom o n aude pe Mary chtind la pian ? fiecare duminid. I can't let hez leave so late. = Nu pot s-o las sg plece a de . p tirziu. We believe him to be Qe best pupil i ts class. = Noi credem n h i c2 este cel mai bun elev din c W Aceastil construcpe este folosid dup2 urmiltoarele verbe care sint m a t e de infinitiv lung: t believe, to consider. to imagine, to find, to know, to mean, to tfiink, to sllppose, o to assume, to mierstand, to declare, to acknowledge, to pronounce, to state, to +ny, to hate, to like, to prefer, to dislike, to expect, to want, to desire, to allow, to recommend, to command, to order, to depend on, to look for, to rely on, to c a t on, to send for, to wait for, etc. Construcpa este de asemenea cerutii de mgtoarele verbe m a t e de infinitiv scurt: to see, to hear, to feel, to perceive, to observe, to notice, to watch, to let, to make. You make me hug& We rely on you to solve all our problems. Everybody waited for her to sing. Constructia nominativ cu int'initiv Aceasd construcfie este '7ruudit.V cu cea prezentaa mai sus (acuzativ cu infinitiv), diferenp constind in faptul c2 predicatul propozipei ~ cazul de fa@este la dhbza pasivZL Complementul in acuzativ din coristruc5ia precedentil devine subiect (nominativ) in construce de f@ Din punctul de vedere a1 traducerii aceasti4 conmcpe este la fel de a . difcill ca cea'dinaintea ei. Ac. + inf. I invited@ = L-am invirat d vina Noh. + inf. He was inv~ted come = A fost invitat sl! vinZL. to Aceastil construcpe est.cea de verbele enunpte in cazul construcpei acuzativ cu - . b5nitiv. cu menflunea c i de data aceasta, toate verbele sint m a t e de infinitiv lung. He is known to be a great singer. = Se gtie d el este un mare

- Construc(ia acuzativ cu W t i v
Aceasti4 constructie trebuie intelead foarte bine pentru c2 traducerea ei Tn limba rombii de Ia caz la caz, iar necunoaSterea ei face ca retroversiunea sll devin2 stufoas2, greoaie sau chiar imposibilL We want you to wme at five. = Vrem ca tu sll vii la cinci. We exwted them to sgeak English. = Ne agteptam ca ei sll .vorbeasd lim ba englezll.
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cinci. She seemed to be worried. = P&ea a f i ingrijoraa They were accepted to stay. = Li s-a dat voie d &in% He was declared to be the winner. = A fost declarat cQti@tor. NOTA Constructia nominativ cu M t i v p a t e fi folosid $i dupH mr&toarele verbe la diateza activit to happen, to seem, to prove, to appear, to be sure, to be certain, to be likely, to be unlikely. I happen to know French t o = Din ~timplare gi francezL o. gtiu They are sure to wme in time. = Esigur d vor veni la timp. She is likely to lime mavedat home by now. = E posibil & fi i sosit deja acad. Situryii speciale referitoare la particula trx a) atunci cind existil dou2 sau rnai multe infinitve legate prin virgul2 sau conjuc~ie coordonatoare numai primul dintre ele primqte particula to. I want you to learn, write, read and speak English well. b) particula to apare la toate infinitivele atunci cind ele sint q z a t e departe unul de celillalt. - She prefemd to go to the garden gate, to look up and down the street and to lock the door wi* her own hand

We are cintiiretsupposed to come at five. = Se presupune d venim la

c) In r&punsurile la IntrebZLri se pktreazi? particula to penuu a,se evita repetarea infinitivului. . "Do you want to come with me?" "I'd like t. o" 'Does he intend to visit them?" "He ought to."

g) -1 fial se d u b l d -

lI. Pardciinl (the Participle) cuprinde, spre deosebire de limba romhH, trei forme:
1)participiul prezent (Resent Participle) 2) participiul perfect (Perfect Participle) 3) participiul trecut (Past Participle) Participiul p z e n t gi perfect s'nt folosite atit la diateza activH cit gi la diateza pasivH. 1) Rirticipiul p z m t fnainte de a-1 prezenta, atragem atenria asupra faptului c2 forma participiului prezent este identici? cu G r n ambele fiind numite mai simplu in unele eud gramatici "forma'in -ing". Deosebirile dintre cele doui? forme vor fi prezentate intr-un capitol separat. Se formdiateza activk

diateza pasivk

Reguli de ortome la aaugarea terminafiei-ing. a) c final mut cade to make making . to love loving to believe - believing Cazuxi speciale: to age ageing to hoe - hoeing to singe - singeing to dye - dyeing to canoe - canoeing to eye eyeing to toe - toeing to queue - queueing to shoe - shoeing b) -y &he neschimbat to play - playing to try Wing i c) - cfinal se transformi?in -y to lie - lying to die - dying to tie - tying precedatZL de o sing1113 vocal2 d) verbele monosilabice terminate ins-o sin@ con& dublconsoana final% to get : getting to cut -suiting to run - running to stop - stopping e) verbele bisilabice cu accentul pe a doua silabi?, terminate intr-o singur51 consoan5 precedati4 de o sin@ v d , dublea22 consoana final& to forget - forgetting to begin - beginning ' to admit - admitting f ) cuvintele compuse terminate?n-p respect2 regula de mai sus. to sideslip - sideslipping to kidnap - kidnapping to horsewhip - horsewhipping A c e q i re@ o u r m d verbul to worship worshipping.

h) -ic devine -ick to picnic picnicking to mimic - mimicking Participiul prezent este folosit irnpreuna cu auxiliarul TO BE pentru formarea aspectului continuu. We are nading now. When you saw her she was tallring with a friend. Parricipiul p e n t 'nlocuiegte o htreagi?propozifie secundad a1 c&ei predicat este la aspect continuu. While walking we met Tom. (While we were walking...) The man sleeping on the sofa is my father. (The man who is sleeping...) She stopped to talk with the warking man. (with the man who was working...) M i p i u l prczent poate avea functie de adjectiv, caz % care are grade de compaqie. I The news i even more tarifying than I thought. s This is the m s interegiug book I have ever read. ot Aceste adjective pot fi folosite ca adverbe prin adaugarea sufutului -1y. He l ~ k e at me smilingly. They kissed the baby lovingly. d Participial prezent poate fi folosit ca adverb, avind functia de complement circumstanw sau determinind un adjectiv. . She sat down sighing. (mod) While'goinghome he bought a book. (timp) Not wanting to disturb me he went away. (caw@ The coffee is boiling hot. (determinl un adjectiv) 2) m u 1pkrfxt arals o sfiune antexiod celei exprimate de predicatul propifiei h care se afl& Se traduce prink-o intreagH propozitie circumstanfiaU de timp, de c a d etc. Se formdiateza activk

to travel - travelling to control controlling

to fulfil filming to compel - compelling

diatezapasivk

having + been + V-ed/III


Having finished the lecture, the teacher left the cIassroom. = Dup2 ce a terminat prelegerea, profesorul a p&&it 1 sala de c W (timp) Having fQgopn his money at home, John could not buy anything. = Intrucit $-a uitat banii & John nu a , putut cumph nimic. ( c a d ) HaHaving decided to leave, Mary got up and opened the door. = Intrucit s-a hot&% plece, Mary s-a ridicat qi a deschis u p s3 Mother switched off the radio, having heard the news. - Mama a hchis radio dupl ce a ascultat gtirile. Having been told to wait, the man is still at the gate. = Dat fiind d i s-a spus sll agtepte, omul este i n d la poart21. -

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3) W tW ltrecat mrespunde participiului din limba romW gi este folosit ca adjectiv, ri u ' inail In compunerea timpudor-perfecte $i a diatezei pasive. Se form&
I

I I Repulile de ortogdie pentru aaugarea terminafieied au fost prezentate la capitolul

counting from today = incepind de azi generally speaking =in general vorbind beginning with this lesson = incepkd cu aceasa lecpe judging by appearances =judecind dup2 aparenre including tomorrow = inclusiv ziua de miine taking everything into account = luind totul k considerafie barring accidents = dac8 nu interiine nimic - = avlnd in vedere c8.. . seeing that.. . all things considered = {inind cont de toate acestea'
'

PAS? TENSE.

The aged woman could not cross the street (adjectiv) The boy was ciilled in by his mother. (diateza pasiv8) The children have gone to bd. (Present Perfect)

IAcuzativ cu participiu. Aceasd construc$e este cerud cam de aceleagi verb^ ca in cazul wnstrucpei rmmiv cu ioSoitiv, !iferenp d i n e cele dou8 construcfi fiind aceea & 'nconstructia acuzativ cn parricipia ac$unea este 'n cursul dsQ % ef u i ei.
Cornparap:

I can hear hr& e@ the piano now. = 0 aud cintind la pian acum. I can hear hex p a the piano everyday. = 0 aud clnthd la pian b fiecare zi. fy I have often seen him nm to school. = L-am v&ut ads& fugind spre

'

gcoala Looking out of the window I see h& nmning to school. = Uitindu-m8 pe fereashtltl v2d fugind spre $coalg. . . 2.Nomiuativ cu participi~~ aseamiln2 cu construcria d a t i v cu infinitiv prin aceea se d predicatd prop&iei este la diateza pasiv8. Deosebirea dintre cele dou8 construcfii const2In favtul& n&v cu pailicipiu arad o ac~une curs de desQurare. in cornpara$ Hb was seen t law the house and never come back. o He was seen leaving the house Qy two old ladies who were loolung in that direction. = El a fost vkut % timp ce p k w a ca& de cgtre do118 I . femei i v*mt2care se uitau in dm(i a m a . n 3hominativ absolut. Este constructia in care participiul are propriul s8u subiect, independentde subiectul propozi$ei in care se afllL - - Weather permitting, we shall go for a swim. = D a d vremea va fi bung, vom merge sii Inotilm. E~aybody having gone to bed, I can work without being disturbed. = Intruc?ttoat2 lume s-a dus la culwe pot s5 lucrez f&8 s2 $u deranjat The problem being sealed, we can be friends again. = Problema fiind rezolvat2 putem fi prieteni din nou.

4Samcipiu absolut este consmc$a In care subiectul participiului prezent lipse~te.


Considering the circumstances, I can't blame him. Strictly speaking, you are right. Alte construc$i de acelqi gen:
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IU. The Geaund are a c w i form2 ca participiuk prezent (forma in -ing), regulile de ortogafie fiind, evident, acelwi. m d perfect are aceeagi fomg ca participiul perfect ~i exprim8 oacGune sau o stare anterioadl celei exprimate de predicatul propoziPei in care se afl8. Caracteristica principal8 a acestui mod este faptul c8 el este un verb cu valoare de . substantiv, deci este insbtit, de cele mai multe on, de un determinant substantival: articol, atribut (Gljectiv,,pronume posesiv, substantiv in genitiv), numeral. Din acest motiv, aceast2 form2 se numqte substantiv verbal. Gerund a? de asemenea caracteristicile unui verb $i anume: poate avea subiect propriu, p a t e fi bso$t de un adverb, poate fi urmat de complement direct, poate fi folosit la dicteza pasivi4. In acelqi timp Gerund p a t e folosit gi ca dwv. Gerund poate fi tradus in limba romln2 prin: gerunziu, substantiv, timp personal, infdtiv sau subjonctiv, adjectiv.-supin. De foarte multe on, Gerund urm& dup2 o prepozipe, dup3 anumite verbe, dupg anumite construcp. Iat2 citeva dinme ele: - dup2 verbele: to admit, to avoid, to begin, to consider, to deny, to like, to dislike, to discuss, to excuse, to enjay, to doubt, to fancy, to finish, to forget, to forgjve, togo on, to hate, to imagine, to keep on, to love, to mind (neg., inter.), to give up, to miss, to put 'off, to omit, to postpone, to practise, to prefer, to propose, to prevent, to recall, to regret, to remember, to resist, to risc, to start, to stop. to suggest, to try, to understand, etc. - du@ cuvintele $i expresiile: (to be) busy/ worW no good no use/ useless, to feel like, that is, there is, there is little/ mucW no, etc. - dupE ' to be - fond of/ keen on = a fi pasionat de good at1clever at = a fi bun/ priceput la interested in = a fi interesat de experienced in = a avea experienp b successful in = a avea succes in expert at = a fi expert in used to = a fi obignuit cu accustomed to = a fi deprins cu tired of = a fi dtul de fed up with = a fi dtul ping-n git de opposed to = a se opune la (impotriva) . (in)capable of = a fi (in)capabil afraid of = a-i fi teams de scared of = a fi insp8idntat de bored with = a fi plictisit de annoyed with = a fi enervat de sorry about = a-i pgrea r8u de

>

skilled at = a fi indemnatic la surprised at = a fi surprins de ashamed of = a-i f i rugine de content with = a fi mulrumit de famous for = a fi faimos penm concerned about/ preoccupied with = a fi preocupat de Mghtened of = a fi hfricogat de responsible for = a fi rZLspundtor de sure of = a fi sigur de worried about'= a fi ingrijorat deproud of = a fi mindru delighted at = a fi inchtat de
the advantage of = a avea avantajul de a the favour of = a avea favoarea de a the honour of = a avea onoarka de a the pleasure of = a avea plkerea de a the-privilegeof = a avea privilegiul de a the opportunity of = a avea ocazia de a (great) difficulty in = a avea in (a)/o (mare) dificultate ?na satisfaction from = a avea satisfacrie din doubts about = a avea dubii in privinp reason for = a avea motivul penm a experience in = a avea experienpin pleasure in = a avea plkerea d no chance of = a nu avea p& e a de a o
to argue about . to dream about/of

Exemple: Learning foreign languages is not easy. = inv2prea limbilor stdine nu este u p & Their aniving was unexpected. = Sosirea lor a fost nqteptat& Excuse my smoking here. = Scuzap-mBci3 fumez aici. Would you mind opening the window, please? = Vre(i, v2 rog, sll deschideo fereastra? His teaching experience is enormous. = Experienp lui de predare a t e enorm2. I hate speaking with him, he is such a fool. = Detest a vorbesc cu el, e atit de prost Stop laughing! = NUmai n'de! He gave up smoking. = A renunpt la fumat It is no use explaining to him. he can't understand anything. = N-are rost sCi explici, nu %telege +mic. Do you think it is worth trying? = Crezi c2 merit2 sll incerc? I don't feel like drinking tea now. = N-am chef sll beau ceaiacum. They are very foid-of &ing. = Lor le place schiatulfome mult. * A doctor is used to being called up in the middle of thenight. = Un doctor a t e obifnuit sll fie chemat la mijlocol noplji. She has the privilege of seemg the prime-minister every day. = Ea are privilegiul de a-1 vedea pe primul ministru in fiecare zi. The pupils had great difficultyin translaring the text = Elevii au intimpinat mari dificult2G in traducerea textului. Forgive me for being late. = IartiX-ma c2 am intirziat The children are looking forward to going to the mountains. =, Opiii qteaptll cu n e w d plece la munte. I can't help laughing. = NUpot d nu rid. W a about going to the cinema? = Ce-ar fi d mergem la cinema? ht abuie fie reparat The T.V. set needs/ wants repairing. = Televiz0~1 Trebuie d repar televizorul. There is no harm in visiting Tom so often. = Nu e nimic rilu h faptul d 1 vizitez pe Tom a de des. 1 p On getting out of the house he looked anxiously down the street. = Iegind din c&, el s-a uitat hgrijorat in josul s&ii. She couldn't speak for crying. = Nu putea vorbi de pEns. Without saying a word, she got up and left the room. = FW s2 spun2 un cuvint, s-a ridicat qi a plecat din came& Why don't you tell us anything about your having paduated University? = De ce nu ne spui nimic despre faptul c2 ai absolvit universitatea? . - - -Peter started to talk after looking cautiously around = Peter a kceput s2 vorbeasc2 dups te a privit cu precau(ie hjur.

dupP to have

-.

- &pa urmatoatele verbe cu prepozitie:


I

to klieve in to care aboutlfor

to comment on to participate in to see about to succeed a b o i ~ o f to think aboutlof to contribute to to rely on torecover from to worry about to save from to accuse of to threaten with etc.
1 dup2 construc$il~:

to consist idof to complain aboutlof to forget about to concentrate on to talk about to insist on to boast of to hear of to agree to to warn about to look forward to to stop from to assure of to thank for -

to blame for to depend on to forgive for to approve of to cowit on to object to to apologize for to refrain from to protect from to punish for to waste on to rescue from

= (nu) se poate d n u can (not) help = ce-ar fi d what about = trebuie s2 fllo.:. it needs/ w n s at = nu e nimic 1 u in 3 there is no hanu in - dup2prepoziple: on, for, without, of, by, about, after, before.

m m htreparticipid prezent $ Gerund Cel mai simplu mod de a face diferen~ierea dintre aceste-dou2 fome a t e acela de a bcerca sil h c a d r h forrna h -ing intr-o construclje de aspect continuu. Dad acest lucnr este posibil, atunci avem de a face cu un participiu prezenc d a d nu, forma in -hg este un Gerund. The man walking in the street is my grandfather. = The man

--

who is walking in the,street is my grandfather. @art) While walking they talked the matter over. = While they w m walking they talked the matter over. @art.) Walking is good for losing weight. (Gerund - gubs~verbal) Where is my walking-stick? (Gerund - adj.) (the stick fm walking) Who is that walking man? (part. - adj.) (man who is w w g ) De foarte multe ori, participiul prezent gi Gerund folosite ca ambut (adjeetiv) Se deosebesc pdn accent: h cazul prndcipiului slnt accentuate arnbele cuvinte. gi subsmtivul si adjectiwl; in cazul in care adjectivd este un Gerund el este sing& accenmat. = Anul care vine. (part.) The 'coming 'year. = 0 stea cbatoare. (part.) A 'falling 'star. 'Talking 'pictures. = Film vorbit.(part.) = Bibliotec5 ambulanls. (pan) A ' m v e l h g 'library. A 'drawing-room. = salonq (Gerund) A 'frying-pan. = tigaie (Gerund) A 'fishing-rod. . = undip (Gerund) = sal5 de lectu1-5(Gerund) A 'reading-room. = vagon de dormit (Gerund) 4 ' sleepinglcat. A 'swimming-pool. = piscin5 (Gerund) 'Riding-boots. ' = cizme de ciiI5rie (Gerund) deosebire (:onst2 i n faptul c5-participiul prezent este precedat nu conjucpi, iar Gerund de prepozipi. While washing up she dropped a glass. (part.) , He was accused of having r d e n some money. (Gerund) -

sm cw pn fifo~&teadt ininitivulctt @ Gerund i Difekn* 1. F M nici o modificare de fnples. It was nice to work/ working with you. He began to read/ reading loudly. The pupils continued to speak/ e g during the class. They ceased to ask. asking questions. I omitted to teW telling you all the details. . 2. in general, dup5 verbele care exprim5 sentimente, infinitivul este folosit penm a exprima ceva particular, iar Gerund penm a exprima ceva general. Gteva din aceste verbe sht: to love. to l i e , to hate. to loathe, to prefer. to dread. can't bear. He hates telling lies. -. He hates to tell you such a lie. We like listening to good music. I don't like to listen to gossip. 3. Urm5toarele verbe au partikularils$le: sint m a t e de Gerund cind exprim5 o situa$e general5 sint m a t e de W v (su ~ ~ u z a l i v )infinitiv cind exprim5 o situa$e particular%: to + advise, to allow, to permit, to forbid, to recommend. He doesn't allow playing football in front of his house. =El nu permite jocul de fotbal in f a p casei lui. He doesn't allow the children to play football in front of his house this afternoon. = El nu le permite copiilor s5 joace fotbal in f a p casei lui azi dup5 amiad.
I

4. in anumlte cazuri, infdtivul este folosit penrm a s5ta cil acpunea se desQoar5 dupd cea exprimatl d e verbul principal, iar Gerund este folosit atunci cind acriunea se des%o& h ;a celei exprimate de verbul principal. ?' . I regret to tell you that your answer isnot correct. = Regret c2 trebuie sll-@ spun dar rilspunsul tllu nu este corect I regret telling you a lie.'= Regret c2 @-amspus o minciun& Mary stopped in front of her house to taIk with Jane. = Mary s-a oprit in f a p casei ca sll stea de vorb5 cu Jane. Mary stopped talking about that long ago. = Mary a ?netat de mulls vreme d mai vorbeasd despre a s k You forgot to give me the money. = Ai uitat s5-mi dai banii. You forgot giving me the money. Ai uitat d mi-ai dat banii. She will remember t f i g the cake. = Ea Qi va aduce aminte d d u d o priijitura She rememkrs having brought the book. = &i amintegte c2 a adus cartea. 5. Unele verbe care pot fi urnlate atit de infmitiv, clt gi de Gerund pot f i de asemenea m a t e gi de o propozi@eintrodud prin that. Gteva dintre ele sint: to advise, to dread, can't bear, to forbid, to fear, to forget, to intend, to hate, to prefer, to plan, to remember, to regret, to recommend, to require etc. He forgot to have read that book having read that he had read El a uitat c2 citise cartea aceea 6. fn anumite situatii, diferenp de traducere const2 in faptul d W t i v n l se traduce prim-un subjhctiv, iar Geaund print-un substantiv. I taught him to drive. = L-aminv2tat sll conducg m a s h I taught him driving not riding. = L-am inv2pt condusul mqinii nu c ~ ~ t u l . He is-usedt waIk to school. = E obignuit d meyg2 pe jos la o . scsal& ~e is used to walking early in the morning. = E obignuit cu plimbarea dimineap devreme, CONSTRUCJ'II ALTERNATIVE - infmitiv; subjonctiv analitic. a) Intr-o constructie care arat2 scopul se poate folosi fie un verb la infmitiv, fie un subjonctiv analitic; asemenea construc@i fi introduse prin to, so as, in o & (that), so pot ft

that
He left home early, to catch the 9 o'clock train. in order to catch the 9 o'clock a-ain so as not to miss the 9 o'clock train. so that John wouldn't wait for him. in order that Jane might not ask him anything. in order that no one should think he didn't have a steady job. O b s e w h d in ultimeli trei cazuri subiectul propozigei subordonate (circumstanjiaB de scop) nu este acelagi cu cel al propozipei principale. In acest caz infinitivul nu p a t e fi folosit. b) construcpa for + complement + idinitiv este folosita ca altemativg pentru o propozioe circumstan&kd5 de scop cu verbul la afirmativ. Tom bought an English book so that I could read it. Tom bought an ~ n g l i s h book for me to read c) ~onstruc~iafor este alternativa pentru o propozifie circumgtanfialg de scop cu fear verbul la negativ.

_ -80-

Mother didn't let me play with snow for fear I might catch a cold. D a d subiectul celor d o d verbe este acelaqi, far fear p a t e fi m a t de Gerund. John didn't say anything for fear of betraying his friends. d) dup5 anwnite verbe sau expmii cum ar f? to arrange, to plan, to be eager, to bc anxious. to be impatient, to be willing, etc., pot fi folosite trei consmc$i alternative f?M mod$& de sens ~ianume: for + acuzativ + infinitiv V c i t i v &) - mai ales 3n engleza a m e r i d The pupils are impatient for their holidays to come. that their holidays should come. that their bolidays come. Aceleyi m i construc$i pot m a dup5 unul dintre umdtoarele substantive: adv~ce, arrangement, command, decision, demand, desire, order, proposal, request, suggestion ek. specid in engleza formal5) was not accepted. Hs ~ m w s afor the boys to wear caps i * l that boys should wear caps that boys wear caps e) urrn8toarele verbe pot E m a t e fie de o popozi$e completiv5 direct2 (mmdus5 prin that)).fie de un % m d v(adew pmnmele it) + to be sau to have: allow, admit, assume, believe, calculate, confess, eonfirm. consider, declxe, demonsw, disclose, estimate, fecl(=think) guess, hear(=be informed). hold(=maintain the opinion). indicate, h o w . learn(=be informed). maintain, presume, prove. reckon, recognize, report, reveal, see(=realize)ys e m ( = b aware 00, show. state, suppose, suspect, think. The teacher declared that the book was worth reading. The teacher declared the book to be worth reading.

should+V

4.Laufhmi vqbde formate din verb + alts parte de vorbire, locupunea puana fi Amlocuid printr-un singur verb. to have a talk = to talk, to take a bath = to bath, to go for a walk = to walk 5.Schimbarea categoriei pamaticale este o meto& foarte mult folosita, practic orice parte de vorbire -pate fi transfoxmata in. verb dac5 autorul sau vorbitorul doregte acest lucru. It is easier for me t yes or to no. o ' . Don't madam me! = Nu mil mai domni atita! She w s ARning me all the time. = Tot timpul a spunea pe nume. (Ana) I love her because she mothers me. = 0 iubesc Dentru c& se - -. poartll cu mine ca o mam5. 6.Verbe tehcqme formate din p $ luate din dou2 saainai multe cuvinte: & to flurry (flutter + hunv) , 7.Verbe imitative care imitil diverse sunete: to clip-clop, t f z ,to bang, to whunk (Hemingway) o iz 8.V& mi care se supun regulilor verbelor regulate: to Xerox, to OK

VERBE CARE SE CONFUNDA


a) to assure= a asigura pe cineva prin cuvinte &~u&c I assure you that he i an honest man. s b) to eaqe = a (se) asigura, a garanta .\?sUzq They by to ensure peace in this region. c) tp insure = a asigura la o societate de asiPurllri A$G$. . .,Have you insured your lif; a n d , h ~ ; ? i ~ @ , 9 y ~ S ? , a) to nse, rose, risen, i;!6>Aii-SGGseZca; a r?l& The sun rises in the east b) to raise, tranz. = a ridica When he raised his head I could see how beautiful his eyes were. rs, c) to a i e arose, arisen, intr. = a se ivi, a se isca The meeting ended late because so many problems arose and . had to be solved. _ _ _ c - a) to do, did, done = a face ( general) i n How do you do? ' . What are you doing there? . Have you done your homework? etc. b) to make, made, made = a face, a confeqiona (sens concnt) What are y.cu&&n~? g j n a c k .----,_-- --I am & , g . a g a) to borrow = a lua cu imprumut You should never borrow money. b)toLend=adacuAb~rUinut will you lend me your pencil a) to flee, fled, f l e d ~ u ~ ~ e = ~ > & e j d ----------cc--\ i e . The soldiers fled from the battlefield. b) to fly, flew, flown = a zbura (despre paske, avion etc.); fig. a zbura, a se repezi The birds are fl ing high in the sky. C
4 '

'

. b e climbers estimated that the ascent had taken nearly six hours. The climbers estimated the ascent to have taken nearly six hours. I

F~verbelor
1.Verbe derivate formate cu ajutorul: a) prefixelor. ab. ac-,ad-, bb, en-, em-, im-. in-, for-, ex-, re-, out-, up-,.over-. under-, with-:
to abalienate, to accumulate, to aajoin,-to bepaint, to insure. to encrust, to impale, to forget, to exchange. to redress. l o outrun, to overheat, to understand, to upbear, to withdraw. prefixe negative: de-, dis-, un-, mis-: to deform, to dislike, to undo, to mistake. b) sufixelor. -ate, e n , esce, e r , -fy. -ize, -le, -se, -sh: to acquiesce, to'whiten, to sparkle, to wither, to simplify. to v ~ a l i z to , ~ to punish. 2.Verbe c o m p w din dou5 sau mai multe ctivinte scrise impreun5 sau legate prin cratimk to broadcast, to court-martial, to whitewash 3.Verbe complexe formate dintr-un verb plus particula adverbial5 sau prepoziiie: construcpa, degi este scrid separat,'are un hples unitar: . to go on = a continua, to take off = a decola, to make up = a re farda. to depend on = a depinde de, to think about = a se gindi la etc.

~cxpect~~-~e<ta'lata'~s&~'~t)"----

I expect that nothing


-.

may come out of this business:

b) to wait f = a qtepta (sens concret) a Wait for me, please! a) to lie, lied, lied = aminti 7. Don't lie to me! b) to lie, lay, lain, intr. = a se culca, a su?htins; a fi situat Lie down on the bed! c) to hy. ,laid, laid, m. a pune, a q e z a a fi agezat; a oua = Jaafjs along the left bank of the river,. 8. - wd , e, % sewn = a coasEvShe sews her own clothes. b) to sow,sowed, sown = a semha seminp The Deasants sow in spring. c) to saw, sawed, sa$ = a t%acu fie&a%ul Don't saw=yii,t's @eafuz___ a) to learn = a b v 2 p de la clneva I have learned English for three years. b t teach = a h v m @e cineva), a preda (o materie) o
o

_.I r I.F

CZ-,~

-.. ,

'-

a) to 1#11unbcr= a-$ aminti I can't remember anything. b) to muid= a aminti cuiva c Rsem$d mp,t,o,&yItch,offq e ljghts. , 11. A)tosit,sat,sat=asmjos They sat down on two vacant seats. , b) to stand, stood, stood = a stain picioare He preferred to stand rather than to sit. c)tostay=asta, arfIinine Where are you staying during your holidays? d) to scat, tranz. = a spa

I______

., gtea~~qesE~g~+~~~_e&a,:ea~he,rL---d she

12.

a) to W, lost, lost = a pierde Jane is so sad; she has lost all her money. b) to loose = a dezlega, a da drumul, a deznoda etc. Loose your tie, it is too tight c) aloosm = a &a lib?, a depruba, a (se) desface, a (se) dezlega He loosened the sw c 2 tJe~",F~s,g$&, -z d -. 13. a) to e @ j < @k:a=AiTi%i%%cmeva, a se a esa cuva, a articula cuvinte Mary spoke with John y&terday. Who are you speaking about? b) to taIk = a vorbi; a conversa k t ' s talk about your plans for the future. c) to tell = a spune, a povesti Mother tells her childkn a story. Tell me all about it! 6)to say = a zice What does he say? He says that everything is all right 14. 'i to suit = a-i sta cuiva bine l) Short skirts suit young girls. b) to become = a-i veni cuiva bine (culoare, imbddminte) Green becomes you.

,----

Be =- _ -, -A - ,.~

c) to fit = a se potrivi, a-i veni cuiva bine (ca n;2sukl) The dress doesn't fit me; I've put on weight a) to f fled, & ; " - . - +< He f l e a glass with water. ild b) to feel, felt, felt = a (se) simp How are you feeling? Water feels cold.in a winter morning. - ----.... . , --. .. , *. ---. a) to want = a vrea I don't want to see him. b) to wish =a dori We wish you a merry Christmas. C) d (modal) = a voi l will YQ ~_ass,"&q~-dt. "+", , , a) to woiiiler = a se minuna. a se mlra3r: .. Evqbody wondered at his courage. -to wobder, tranz. (Wprepozirie) = a se htreba I wonder who told you such a lie. b) to wander = a $aiItilcci; (from) a se indep2.m (de) He z,andqred_for _hoursa? _h~w,an!ed~to, l n b o& q a) to 4 wounx wound = a (se) rikuci, a ?iQura, a intoarce ceasulThey followed the winding path to the challet. b) to wound,wounded, wounded = a rbi, a jigni H e was wound@$ bagpel;,. , ,,, ..* a) to beat, b & beaten = a bate. a lovi, a lnfnnge e The enemy was beaten in the evening. b) to bite, bit, bitten = a muwa, a pi=, a inwpa .*c&g b i him yes$rdaY. ..,., i ~ - , -*die; died, died = a muri, a pieri Hs brother died in an accident i b) to dye, dyed, dyed = a vopsi, a colora Why d i k y o ~ ~ YOU ehair red? d~ a) live, hv&, lived = a&& alocui"*-"'- '* -. --"/ .. My parents live in Brapv. b) to leave. left, left = a pleca, a pMisi What time did he leave?
2-.LL.ir
--A*-

- u -

~ ? z ~ $ ~

---

--

Advabul este paaea de vorbire care determid un verb, un adjectiv sau un alt adverb. He runs fast Your composition is extremely interesting. nuh She works quickly e o g Locutiunile advabkle sint formate din mai multe cuvinte $i au valoare de adverb: after all, at all, at best, at first, at large, at least, at lenght, at most, at present, at random, by all means, by no means, by the way, by t m s , for long, in fact, in full, in future, in general, in particular, in short, in vain, not at all, of course, of old, on high, to be sure, topsy-turvy, upside down, by and by, here and there, in and out, (every) now and then, off and on, to and f o up and down etc. r, Adverbele au a c e l e . grade de comparaGe ca ~iadjectivele: He comes mom often than I asked him t. = ~1 vine rnai des o decit 1-am iugat. . Please, come d m . = Te rog d vii rnai devreme. Cornpara@ adverbului well este identid cu cea a adjectivului good $i anwne better, the bat. iar a adverbului badly este worse, the wonL I D h@es & adverbele se impart ~IK a\ adverb de mod care arat3 modul in c u e se de$f&$oar& acGunea ~i rgspund la

&?:

above. abroad, away, before, behins, below, betieen, by i=ling5). downslairs. upstairs, far, near, hence, here, there, in, out, inside, outside, over, under, witbin, without, backwards, downwards, upwards, eastward(s), westward(s), northward(s), southward(s), homeward(s), onwad(s), where, wherever, anywhere, elsewhere, everywhere, nowhere, somewhere, townward(s), etc. C) adverbe & timp care a a timpul cind se desfQoa-2 acpunea $i dspund la htrebarq ra

Wh;P?:

after, afterwards, ago, already, before, daily, early, ever, first, formerly, generally, immediately, instantly, late, lately, last, lastly, meanwhile, never, now, occasionally. often, once, presently, rarely, recently, seldom, since, sometimes, soon, still (=inc5), then, today, tomorrow, weekly, yet, yesterday, a month/ week/ year etc. ago, last month/ week, year, etc., today week, tomorrow week, etc. d) adverbe de caw3 sau scop care arat2 cauza sau scopul acGunii $i rkpund la inmebarea whi?: consequently, hdnce, for that, for that reason/ purpose, so, so that, that is why, therefore etc. e) adverbe inmgative: - how?. why?, when?, where? 0 adverbe-inaoductive: accordingly, consequently, in consequence, however. &erefore, a t any rate, in-any case, of course etc. g) advcrbc explicative: as, namely, such as, that is (to say) etc.

h) adverbe de cantitate: about (=cam), almost, any. altogether, as, but (=only), completely, enough, entirely, even, exceedingly, extremely, far (=cu mult), half, hardly, largely, little, less, least, much, more, most, mostly, nearly, only, partly, pretty (=destul de), quite, rather, scarcely, so, somewhat, sufficiently, too (=prd), utterly, very, well, wholly etc. i) alte adyes, indeed, doubtlessOy), undoubtedly, certainly, truly, verily etc.; maybe, perhaps, possibly, probably, etc.; nay (=arhaic), no, not, never etc.; hardly, scarcely etc. De cele rnai multe ori adverbele de mod $ de timp se formeazgprin adhgarea sufixului l la un adjectiv harticipiu), substantiv etc. y NOTX - Nu toate cuvintele terminate 31-1y sht adverbe, unele fund adjective. He comes here daily. (adverb) I like to read a daily paper. (adjectiv) Reguli de artografie la adllugarea sufmului -ly: 1. -e final se p&streaz& exceptia terminatiei -1e precedate de o consoan& cu (exceptie:wholly) sincere - sincerely dar simple sirnp1y;pale = palely 2 -1 final precedat de v& se phheazil. . legal - legally, equal - equally 3. adjectivele terminate h -Il pierd un L full - fully 4.adjectivele terminate in -ue pierd c . m e truly 5 - fial se &ansfom& i .y h gay - gaily prepy - prettily Excepw: coy - coyly wry-wryly dry - drily1dryly shy - shilyl shyly ' Alte modalitgti de formare a adverbelor: a prin derive - din substantive: daily, backwards, away - din adjective: aloud, clearly - din nurnerale: fmt, once, twice^ - din participii: interestingly, undoubtedly - din alte adverbe: inward, lately NOTk Sufixul -ward(s) a a &$a: ra inward = hspre interior foreward = inainte backwards = inapoi eastward(s) = bspre est, etc. b. prin compunere: meantime, meanwhile, midway, outside, offhand, beforehand, everywhere, somewhere, throughout, therefore, within etc.

Locul adverbelor. Atunci cind intr-o propozitie exist3 mai multe tipuri de adverbe.
ordinea lor este: adverb de mod, adverb di: bc, adverb de timp clefinit

1-

PreciZ2l-i: 1.adverbul de mod este plasat du@ verb sau dupH complementele direct ~iindirect atunci cind acestea exist& He works vay wl. el He speaks English very well. ,

atunci cind adverbul.de mod este plasat in fap verbului in\elesul lui este mai pu$n accentuat. He fully agreed. = El a fost cu totd de acord. He agreed fully.*= El a fost de acord cu absolut totul. - -i[toarele adverb de mod: almost, fully. hardly, little; nearly, probably, quite. really, scarcely, strongly, truly, sht plasate i n fap verbului. I can hanily hear you. He almostmissed the train. - penrm a accentua in\elesul adverbelor de mai sus ele pot fi p?asate la inceputul propzitiei, + sau fgrH modifidri fn interioml assteia ti anume: p Truly, I think you are mistaken. Herdly had they arrived when the light went off. - In.cazul h care un adverb p a t e determina mai multe cutlinte existente ktr-o pqozipe este foarte * p m t ca el 4 fie pus in fap cuvintului pe care ' determin21. l Only I can halp you with Mathematics. = Numai eu t pot ajuta e la matematic& I & only help you with Mathematics. = Pot d& FZL te ajut la matematic%. (nu 4-tirezolv problemele) I can help only you with Mathematics. = Te pot ajuta numai pe tine la matematic%.

He has ncva come so late. Newex has he come so late.

We can hardly understand what he means. M y can we understand what he means. He seldom gained so much money. SeIdarm did he gain so much money. Aceastil inversiunexte utilizatil pentru a accentua ideea exprimaa de adverb. S i m p speciaIe: - adverbe care au d o d forme: u?a identid cu cea a adjectivului din care provin ~i una construitil cu ajutorul sufixului -ly.Intre aceste dous forme existil deosebire de hieles ti de haebuinwe. Aceste adverbe s h c hard = din greu; M y = cu greutate, abia, anevoie, pupn probabil last = in ult.@ul rind, uItima daa; lastly = h fine, 31cele din unrd late = h i u ; lately = recent, de curind near = aproape, En&; nearly = in apropiere de, aproape cll close = foarte aproape; closely = hdeaproape deep = adinc; deeply = profund (abstract)' easy = u$or, relaxat; easily = cu u~urinp dear = scump, costisitor, dearly = tandru, mult, din toad inima new = nou, de cmfnd; newly = recent, proaspl plain , = clar, deslu~it,sincer; plainly = E mod clar, pe fa@ n slow = incet; slowly = alene, f&g grab2 thick = gros, dens; thickly = in straturi groase, compact thin = sub*; thinly = de abia, sumar tight = errnetit, ferm; tightly = bine, tare, strins W o g = du, @ rn t , eronat; wrongly = in mod grqit direct = direct; directly = exact, imediat, h&d ce = corect; fairly = echitabil, just, destul de high = sus; highly = foarte jw = chiar, imediat, tocmai; justly = drept, pe drept pretty = foarte, grozav de,prettily = -gut right = drept, direct; rightly = bine, corect short = brusc; shortly = foarte curind, pe scurt, tGos hue =adev&at; truly = cu adevht wide = larg, foarte; widely = intr-o mare m&ur%

)L

e =Nu t pot ajuta I can help you only with Mathematics. dedt larnatematicg. I can help you with Mathematics only. 2.adverbul de timp este de d o d fel&: a) adverb de timp &finit care aratil exact momentul in care se desfZ$oar% acGunea exprimat&-de verb. kaa b) adverb de timp nedefinit (gi fiwvenp) care i ard cll acGunea se face fie ha-un moment neprecizat, fie ?nmod general #sau repetat a) adverbul de timp defmit este +zat la inceputul sau la sfiiitul propozioei. Ytsterday 1met some friends. I met some friends y e s u y . Last year they went to Paris. F e y went to Paris last year. b) urmltoarele adverbe de timp nedefinit se pun in fap verbului propriu-zis (V): always, ever, never, often. rarely, frequently. ju4 generally. A m ! ele sint qezate dPplI verbul. to be. .From now on we shall often visit them. . They have seldom come here. He & never late. adverb&: usually, s~m&es, soon sint plasate fie E fap verbului, fie la inceputul n sau s?iqitul propozifiei, She sometimes helps me.-= M2 ajua uneori. She helps me sometimes. = M2 ajutSL din cind in cind. m. adverbele: lately, recently, of late, yet sint plasate la sflrSitulpropoziGei. We haven't seen him lately. . She hasn't come yet . (vezi capitolul "Probleme speciale") NOTA - h ccaul in care un adverb de mod sau de timp nedefinit, a1 c h i loc este de obicei in fap verbului, sint qezate la inceputul propozi\iei, verbul auxiliar mce in fats subiectului; dac%verbul auxiliar (sau modal) lipse~te, fap subiectului este plasat verbul in do la acelqi timp ~iaceeagi persoan%.

He came late. = El a venit tirziu. We haven't seen him lately. = Nu I-am vkut in~ltima vreme. Sit close to me. = Stai aproape de mine. They are closely concerned in financial matters. = Ei sht interesap hdeaproape de probleme financiare. They waIked deep into the fqrest. = Ei au p2truns adinc 31 .Mdure. The pupils are deeply interested in English. = Elevii skt profund interesao de engleza.

E+y come, easy go. = De haram a venit. de haram a plecat.

. (proverb) John solved the problem easily. = John a rezolvat problema cu


Kites fly high. = Zmeele zboara la in5l(ie. This book is highly interesting. = Aceasd wte este foarte
interesand.

Come near the door. = Vino lingti u$. Mother nearly fainted when she heard the news. = Mama aproape d a leginat cind a auzit vestea. - unek advehe i$i schimbl infelesuldufl l&ul pe care il au in propozi(ie: I simply couldn't believe my eyes. = Pur . simplu nu mi-am $ putut crede ochilor. The old woman answered simply. = B2uina a rlspuns cu

simplitate.
9

NaMaly we love each other. = E i t e c l ne iubim.


She spoke n a t u d y about all her aoubles. = Ea a vorbit ,a natural* despre toate necazurile ei. It is too dark in the room. = E prea fntunenc in camerti. They came late too. = $i ei au venit tirziu. dup5 adjectiv, adverb sau verb ($i in fap substantivului cind este

The book is higly interesting. We felt much worse. NO^ - Adverbele ralhex gi hiriy au acela$ i n ~ l adesml de. ( f m ) , difenop d i n a : ele fiind urmltoarea: rather este folosit intr-o situape cind se exprima o idee negativl, rea, iar fairly chd inplesul este pozitiv, fnunos, optimist. He is rather ill. The cake looks fairly well. Adverbul quite acoperti ambele nuanp. - Still, yet ambele au inplesul hc& still este folosit in propozipi afiiative $i yet in propozipi negative sau cu infeles negativ. He is still working. She hasn't com'e yef Hasn't he finished yet? = N-a terminat ind? Pentru alte situap vezi capitolul 'Robleme speciale". - Not only but also... = nu numai... gi...Aceasta este o conmcpe echilibrad in dar care only $i also sint m a t e de aceaqi parte de vorbire. He is not ody handsome but also clever. (adj) She mt only writes English correctlv but also meakes it - - When gi where pot introducefluently. (ve&j.relative (atributive), cit .$ propozitii gi propozitii completive directe. T i is the room where you can rest for a while. hs , Let me known when Jack will leave for P r s ai.

...

adjectiv).-

ra

We were near enough to see everything. The steak is not cooked enough. Is the dress long enough? ' My coffee has enough sugar in i t (adjectiv) a w n form& un adjectiv compus aHturi de un pdcipiu. a well-known artist . a well-meaning advice a t e a p m t intotdeauna dupl cuvintul p care 5 determinl gi este inlocuit h vorbire 1 :n&a de c k before. We met a year ago. He told me that they had met a year before. . upmte a v a funcpe de adverb cind are h(elesu1: numai, d& d m , a b k ~ t I love nobody but you. = Nu te iubesc decit pe tine. Had you but known it! = 0, dac2 ai fi gtiut! It is but an hour since he left. = Nu e decit o o d de cind a pleca~ - Vezy = foarte (cindksofqteadjective gi adverb). ver~ good very well veay much very interesting 'The way + substantiv = chiar The vay book I wanted = Chiar cartea pe care mi-am dorit-o. . A t e i cind un adjectivl adverb la comparativ sau un pgnicipiu trecut sint inrrebuinp~ predicativ, nry este fie insopt fie inlocuit de much, far, gieatly, highly, quite, nuha etc. She was greatly annoyed. They were rather uninterested. Your answer is far better than 1expected.

-wd

'

-90-

RepziGa este partea de vorbire care se folose$te ca element de legatura cuvina m nu au a c e fbnc(ie sintacticil: intre un subsmtiv $i ambutul sau, lnve un verb .complementul sllu etc. $ i

Fire

ExisE1B o sene de prepozi* c r .apzate dupa un verb, f o r m 4 -mpreuna cu acesta un ae h m c a ~ de cele mai multe on, are un in\eles diferit de cel a1 verbului respctiv. , - -Acest pen de prepzip se numesc p d c u l e adverbiale. cornparap:she put on her coatJShe put her cwdt on. = $i-a imbrkat bin?. (particula adverbiala) She put her coat m the chair. = Ea $i-apus haina pe SCaun. (prepozitie) Un num& fnsemnat de substantive, adjective $i verbe pot fi Urmate numai de 0 a mprepoipe, caz Q care ele trebuiesc re(inute-mpreun&motive for absent to agree wt a person ih interesting m to agree t something o
w $ j l e uzude s b t .

aboard
about above across ' aiter against along(side) amid(st) amondst) around
at;=
I

before

behind
below

beneath
besiWs) between beyond but (=exceprt) bv

concerning despite down during except(ing) for from in, into inside minus . near of off (= from) on opposite . outside . over Past

respecting round since (= de la. din) through(0ut) till to toward(s1 , under underneath until unto U P upon versus via with within without

M e r e do you come h m ? ' What is this book about? Who are you talking t ? o T i is the child to be looked after. hs . . A doctor was sent fbr immediately. intrebuinprea prepoziplor I limba engleza'este deosebit de dificiU $i de cele m a multe n on nu corespunde cu cea din limba romW. Iatil citeva cazuri, f&g a avea preten* de a %uri toate situaple care pot sll apai-5. ABOUT = C jurul, prin, despre, referitor la, aproape de, cam pe la. .. He walked about the room. = A umblat prin camed. What is it all about?= Despre ce este vorba? What about/ How about going for a walk? = Ce-a$ zice de o plimbare? The people abou! me are very nice. = Oamenii din jurul meu . sint d%$ l@. It all happened about one o'clock. - Totul s-a intimplat cam pe la ora unu. -, She was about to burst into laughter. = Era pe punctul de a . izbucni in fis. Tarn quite well; what about you? = Eu sint bine; dar tu? How much mox~ptd~ have about you? = CiG bani ai la tine? '-flu to be angry about to be annoyed about tobeanxiousabout to be sorry about

AT
- = la, ? ,spre, pe; aratit stare pe loc. (Pentru deplasare In timp $i spaQu vezi prepozipa TO). n
I

-.

per
-

regarding

Repzi@aeste agaatil la sQitu1 propziriei relative sau a1 unei Ctrebsri introduse pnn who, w w b Ea este plasati4 la sf*tul propozi{iei sau imediatdupa verb atunci cind w predicatd este la diateza pasivZL The man we are talking about is my brother. Money is something we can't do without

at the door atthebottom at fmt at last at once at one o'clock at dawn at the beginning at the same time one at the time not at all at present at night attimes at anchor at liberty at Pea= at rest at war at best at least at any rate

= la u p =inparteadeps = la ^meput = in cele din d = imediat = la ora unu ' =b zori = la Qceput =in acela$ Limp = unu cite unui . = deloc, penm pu$n = in prezent = noaptea = uneori = la a n c d =in libertate = in pace =laodihrG = in &boi =in cel mai bun caz = cel pu* = in orice caz

-.

Verbe m a t e & p q z i p i l e at: to aim, to arrive, to bark, to be surprised, to gaze, to grumble, to jeer, to knock, to laugh, to look, to rejoice, to shoot, to stay, to throw, to wonder. He knocked at the door. What are' you looking at? ,Thank you! Not at all. - . Thchvo countries are at war. .1' AGAINST = hpotriya, contm, de. Eng3, pe, peste; spre, d i r e He wanted to fight against the enemies cf his country. Put the chair a g a b t the wall. = Pune scaunul la perete. - He hanged the picture against fhe wall. A atimat hbloul pe perete. The tower could be seen clearly against the blue sky. = Turnul se putea vedea clar profilat pe cerul albastru. AMONG = printre (mai mulfi), in mijlocul, dintre; in epoca He was among friends. = Era printre prieteni. Among the ancient Romans = la ( epoca) romani0or) m -BETWEEN = btre (doi) This will remain a secret between you and me. = Aceasta va m i n e un secret intre mine $i tine. (noi doi) - BUT = 'lafara, in ah3 de, pe ling& cu excep$a i He would have died but for you. El ar fi murit dac5 nu ai fi fost tu. He cannot but agree with me. = Nu poate .4nu fie de acord cu mine. BY I = ling& foarte aproape de, prin, pe ling& cu, in timpul, la, in jurul (timp), dup3, de a t r e etc. = ling3 poat2 by the gate by = cu vaporul by land = pe uscat by air = cu avionul EE. cu trenuy autobuzu~ mqina by train/ bus/ to do smth.by oneself = a face ceva de unul singur by night = noaptea to be paid by the hour = a fi platit cu ora . ' to sell by t+ dozen = a vinde cu duzina \ daybyday =zicuzi = pas cu pas step by step = putin cite pupn little little = unul cite unul one by one by my watch = dup3 ceasulmeu , a book written by Dickens = o carte scris3 de Dickens to know by sight = a c u n q t e din vedere = prin nqtere by birth by chance = din intimplare by no means =in nici un caz by the way = apropo

FOR
= pentru.,din cauza, cu, kitre, spre, in loc de. b locul, ca, la verbe m a t e de prepzipa for: to ask, to blame, to care, to pay. to compensate, to leave, to long, to come, to look, to send, to set out, to start, td wait

FROM = de, din, de la - verbe m a t e de prepoziga fmm: to die (from a wound), to differ, to divide, to escape, t fall, to pard, to part, to prevent, t protect, to recover, to suffer. o o Where do you come from? = De unde vii? it This town is ffy miles from London. = Acest era$ este la cincizeci de mile de Londra. from morning till night = de dimheap pins seara from time to time. = din cind in cind I from head to foot = din cap pin5 in picioare, from top to bottom = de sus pin3 jos to speak h memory = a vorbi din memorie to judge Wrn appearances = a judeca dup3 aparente from my/ your. ..own experience = din propria meal ta. ..expenen@ absence from illness = absenp 'din motive de bod3 to suffer fmm cold = a suferi de frig t from now on . = de acum inainte safe firnn = ferit de from outside = la exterior NOTA Prepozipa fiom arata mi;care, deplasare in spatiu sau timp, deci atunci cind prepozitia dm arata stare pe loc, ea se traduce prin: in, of. Cornparap: El vine din Bucuregti. = He comes from Bucharest. (miyare) Muzeul de Istorie din Bucurqti. = The History Museum in (of) Bucharest. (stare pe loc) I .INTO N I = in, la, pe, cu; araa stare pe loc sau mi~care acela~i N in loc. INTO =in, la, cu, din; arata deplasare dintr-un loc in altul sau tranzitia dintr-o stare in alta. . We live in Romania. He comes in time. = El vine la timp. They cried out m terror. = Ei au $pat de spaim3. in the street = pe strad3 in the sky = pe cer in the field = pe cimp in my opinion = dup3 p&erea mea in the morning = dimineap He jumps in the pool. =El ~opllie interiorul bazinului. in He jumps into the pool. = El sare in bazin.

This present is fm you. = Acest cadou este pentru tine. We are going to leave for London. = Urmeazil sil plech la Londra. We haven't seen him for a long time. = Nu 1-am vbut de multa vreme. She can't speak for laughing. = Nu p a t e vorbi de (din cauza) Iis(ului). I took you fasdmebody else. = Te-am !"at drept altcineva. We sent for a doctor. = Am trimis dup3 un doctor.

-95-

dar:

dar:

I saw h i on Monday. Monday k a weekday. The book is on the table. He is on holiday. on board the ship = pe bordul vasului cn the right = la dreapta = la stinga an the left

stare pe loc

= a fi de serviciu to be on duty tobeonfm -afijnflZcSlri = a fi de v3zare to be on sale to go on a trip = a nlerge intr-o excursie on foot = pe jos =in intregime, in total cn the whole , CQ thecontrary = dimpotrivi m the other hand = pe de altll parte Purpose = dinadiis on condition that = cu conditja d the lights are a = luminile sine aprinse (adverb) ! to swich a the light = a aprinde lumina (adverb) ! = a continua s?I (adverb) (Go on reading!) (adverb) to go an = a continua d vorbegti (adverb) , to speak cn The film is cn at Scala. Filmul mleaz3 la Scala. (adverb)OUT '= atit ca prepozipe cit gi ca adverb inseamns a f d , afar3 din, scos din to be out of reach = a f i de neatins (prepozitie) He went out. = El a iegit afar&(adverb) the book is just out = cartea tocmai a a p h t (adverb) = focd s-a stins (adverb) the fire is out = a smga (adverb) to c y out to put out/turn out the lights = a stinge luminile (adverb) I can't make out what he says. = Nu inieleg ce spune. (adverb) = Fii atent! (particul3 adverbials) .Lookout! TO = la, c&e, spre, de, ping la, aratti migcare in spafiugi timp. - verix $i adjective m a t e de p~epziria to adapt, to agree, to attach, to belong, to to: Skd, t cornpi, to consent, to constrasf to caespond; to fasten, to go, to listsn, to o object, to pay attention, to point, to prefer, to reconcile, to reply, to s-cnlence, to t o tie, to turn, to write; adequate, adverse, inferiar, preferable, suitable, suited, superior. They went to school. We have an English lesson from two to four. Give the ball to me. to be invited to dinner = a fi invitat la m& help yourself to some cakes = servegte-tecu nigte pdjituri = in s?ln3tatea ta! here's to you! to my knowledge = dupi cite gtiu eu to my heart's desire = dup3 dorinp inimii mele to her surprise = spre surprinderea ei
I

UP = atit ca adverb cit $i ca prepozilie aratti direcpa sau pozipa in sus; dupi anumite verbe indic3 faptul c4 acGunea este completti. Up este folosit dup3 verbul to go cind aratti directia spre orq, spre Londra, spre un orag universitar, sau indicll faptul c3 incep cursurile universitare. (The students went up to Oxford.) They walked up the hill. time is up = timpul acordat s-a incheiat (adverb) to drink up = a bea totul (din paharJcan3) (adverb) to get up, to stand up = a se scula, a se ridica in picioare (adverb) to give up = a renunp (adverb) up and down =in sus $i in jos (adverb) what's up? = ce se peme? (adv.) WrrH = cu, prin, cu ajutoml, de, din cauza, ca gi, la fel cu. - adjective, substantive gi verbe urmate de prepoziria with: to agree (persoane), to cbmpare, to compete, to cover. to differ, to do. to fill, to put up, to reco?cile, to be satisfied, to supply, to surround, to vote; angry, concerned, content, identical, pleased, er suffocated, synonymous, w a y with, wet with blood, perspiration, tears, sympathy with. Come with me! . She lives with her parents. = a trepura de fric3 . to tremble with feq tcrbe stiff with cold = a fi leapiln de frig to be pale with fright = a fi palid de spaimi to be red with anger = a f i rogu de furie to be wild with joy = a fi nebun de bucurie the decision lies with you = tu hor&-&yi' to pour wt rain ih = a ploua cu gtileata to work with a firm = a lucra la o f m 3 NOTA - Dn exemplele expuse 31intregul capitol reiese clar faptul c3 in limba engled i acelagi cuvint poate fi utilizat fie ca adverb, fie ca prepozirie, in funcpe de criteriile menlionate. Ceea ce interesin primul rind este folosirea lor corectti, $i nu clasificareagramaticalll. S-a constatat cll acesta este poate cel mai dificil aspect a1 gramaticii limbii engleze, motiv pentru care expresiile trebuie invllpte ca atare.
-

Conjuc* este p r e de w r b h care lea@ d o d cu,yintecu aceeqi func* sintactic5 sau qta dou5 propozitii de acelagi fel (conjunctii coordonatoare). sau leaga propozi(ia suborodonati4 de regenm ei (conjunctii subordonatoare).
~ ~ ~ j m q i r d e :

as well as but then for ta reason ht on that account


1.

aslong as or else in order t o that is why

I
t-

8. comparative,care introduc propozitiile cornparativk than, as i , as...=, not so/as...as, etc. f \ 9. completive, care infroduc propozi$ile~compl&ve directe: that (= c@ Tom and John are good friend.. Both Tom and John are pupils. She is beautiful but not very intelligent. ' I came to see you because I wanted to ask you s o m m g . She was looking at me as if she was going to tell me something. I have no money. That is why I can't buy the dress. I waited tin he came.

asif SO as let us say for instance


"

and, besides, M a , hmbermore. as well as, no less than, ;ad. ..as well, both.. .and, neither... nor. nm...either, no. neither (sau m). not...or, not only...but aIso/but too etc. t a- - a else, otheawise, either.. .Or etc. - .else. 3. e l y , consequently, hence, so, so then, therefore, then, for that noson. on that account, t a is why etc. ht 4. advasative: but, but then, whereas, while etc.
2. 8

= $ianume); etc.
t

C o n ~ s a o ~ s u ~ 1.&mod, care inaoduc propozifie modale: a . as if, as though, so far as etc. s 2. L &, caG introdui propozitii temporale: after, (al)though, as, before, directly, (ever)since, till, until, when, whenever, while, the fnst time, all the time, as long as, as soon as, the (very) moment, by ' the time etc. 3. & loc, care inpduc propoziKile circumstan@le de loc: whence, where, wherever, whither, as far as, etc. 4. & swp, care introduc propoziple finale: in order thaet, for fear, lest, so as, so that, etc. 5. & cam& care introduc propozitiile cauzale: so. because, for, now (that), seeing (that), since; etc. . 6. coqce&ve, care i n d u c propoziple concesive: (al)though, even if, however much (sau well), in spite of (the fact that), notwithstanding (that) etc. . 7. conditionale, care introduc propozi~ae condifionale: as long as; if, if only. on condition (that), provided (that), providing, suppose, supposing, unless etc.

'

-100-

V O R B P ~D ~ C T $IWW,PCTA A
(DIRECT AND IkDIRECT SPEECH)
'

Prin vorbire direct4 intelegem redarea spuselor unui vorbitor aya cum au fost ele rostite. fn limba engleza diaiogul este marcat prin ghilimele puse sus atit la Enceputul cit $i la sfkgitul citahllui. Vorbirea indkctil reprezind redarea cuvintelor unui vorbitor. Aceasti5 redare se face in cadrul unei propozitii subordonate ~i se supune miitoarelor reguli: . 1. propozifia regent2 a$ezatSL in f a p propozifiei subordonate despre care am vorbit mai sus trebuie si4 c o n p d unul din urmiitoarele verbe aflate de obicei la timpul B u t to s y , to t l , to speak, to observe, t remark. to argue, to maintain, to sssert, to d e c k , to state, el o t announce, to inform,. to achowledge, to admit, to agree, to command, to order, to o promise, to advise, to instruct, to ask, to demanc?, to inquire, to question, to answer, to think, etc. 2. atunci c h d verbul did propozi$a regent2 este la timpul trecut, predicatul propozitiei subordonate este to! la un timp trecut, conform regulei concordantei timpurilor. Din acest motiv apar urmiitoarele transfonn&i: Vorbimidinxti4 present tense past tense present perfect tense f u m e tense devine devine rSlmine devine devine Vorbirea indirect5 past tense past perfect tense past tense past perfect tense future in the past

'

7. riispunsurile afirinative sau negative din vorbirea direct2 sint redate in vorbirea indirect5 prin construc$ile : to ansyer in the M v e , to answer in the negative sau prin verbele: to accept, to agree, respectiv to deny, to refuse, to reject 8. verbul to say este m a t de in general de that + propozi* secundaril; verbul to ten este m a t de substantiv sau pronume in cazul d&v + that + propozitia secundari. 9. in cazul in care este nevoie s3 repetgm pronumele personal la pers. a 111-a sg. referindu-ne la douii persoane, p e n m evitarea ambiguitii 11, se folosegte fie numele persoanei respective, fie pronumele the formet Qrimul dintr cei doi) respectiv the latter (cel de a1 doilea). 10. pentru a reda o intrebare in vorbirea indirect2 se procedeazii ?n felul miitor: a) in regent2 se folosqte mu1 din verbele: to ask, to inquire, to want to know. b) cuvintul dad este redat prin whetha gi mai pu$n prin if. c) verbul auxiliar to do folosit penhu formarea interogativului se omite. d) dac2 in htrebare exist2 un alt verb auxiliar sau modal, subiectul trece in f a p acestuia e) verbul propriu-zis din intrebare este pus la timpul cerut de regula concordantei timpurilor. Exemple: "Do you know Jim?", Mary asked me 1. Mary asked me whether I knew Jim.

I'

2.

"Yes, I do", I answered. I answered in the affirmative.

3.
4.
.

"Ask Tom if he is going to come to see me-tonightw,John told Mary. John told Mary to ask Tom whether thelatter was going to go to see him that night

3. d a d verbul din propoziria regent2 este la prezent in pro&ziiia secundari se pistreazi timpurile din vorbirea direct& 4. pronumele personale Qi posesive cit $i adjectivele posesive se transform5 in cadrul vorbirii indirecte dupii inyeles. 5. in trecerea din vorbirea d i t 2 in vorbirea indirect2 apar urmitoarele modificlIri in cazul adjectivelor demonstrative gi a1 unor adverbe:

"I will try and ring you up tomorrow", James said. . . James said/ told me that he would try and ring me up the next day.

5. ' "I shall not go with you", she said. S h e refused to go with me.
6.
7.

"Where are you going?", John asked his sistzr. John asked his siter where she was going.
My mother has just left",-said hiary. Mary announced us that her mother had just left.

Vorbire -dl
today yesterday last night tomomw now here tliis, these thus ago next devine devine devine devine devine devine devine devine devine devine

Vorbire indircctg that day the previous day the day before the night before the previous night the next day the following day then there that, those
SO

8.
9.

" ~ go to school five days a week", the boy toid us. s The boy informed us that they went to school five days a week.
'The children will have a fooiball rna~ch today", the teacher told the parents. The teacher informed the parents that the children were going to have a football match that day. "Lie down!", the boy ordered his little dog. The boy ordered his little dog to lie down. "Can they help us now?", asked father. "No, they can't", his son answered. Father asked whether they could help them then. The boy answered in the negative.

10 11.

before the next

6. un ordin, un sfat, etc. se redau in vorbirea indirect2 prinw-un infinitiv.

"Where have you been?", Jane asked John. "I've just visited an old friend of mine who is going to work with me", John answered. "Oh, how nice! Will he come to live here with you?", she asked. "Yes, he will. In fact. I'm looking forward to having him here day and night, , so that I can learn as many things as possible about this business", John said. "How long will it take till you learn al the details?", Jane asked. l 'Well, if all goes well, and I am not as stupid as I once though I am, I might finish learning in two months' time. Anyhow I'll be able to do things I've never dreamt of two years ago. Don't you think that's wonderful?", John went on. "Yes, of course it is. I wish you good luck and God help you!", Jane answered. Jane asked John where he had been. John answered that he had just visited an old Eend of his who was going to work with him. Jane was glad to hear that and asked John whether his friend would come to live with him; John informed her that his -!end intended to come and that he, John, was looking forward to having the latter there with him diy and night, so tlyt he could learn as many things as possible about thk business. Jane was . interested to know how long it would take John to learn all the details. John went on telling her that if all went well and he was not as stupid as he had once thought he was, he might finish learning in two months' time; anyhow he would be able to do things he had never dreamt of two years before. He asked Jane whether she did not think that that was .wonderful. Jane agreed to that and wished him good luck, adding that she hoped God would help him.
,12.

D
1

(TAG QUESTIONS)
Redarea h limba engled a htreb&ii "N& ap?" se face in mod diferit, in funcfie de $ anumite caracteristici ale propozipei stimul (propozifiadupl care este ayezaa) . anume: 1. dacl in propoziGa stimul se afll un verb auxiliar sau modal, acesta se repetil in fntrebarea disjunctivg la semn invers. 2. dacl in propozipa stirnul seaflil un verb obipait, in htrebarea diijunctivil se folosqte verbul auxiliar to do la acehi timp gi la ac-i persoanl. 3. forma negat:va a verbului auxiliar sau modal din intrebarea disjunctivH este intotdeauna contraJp (isn't, didn't, can't, etc.). Forma negativl pentru persoana I-a singular, prezent a verbului to be este fie am I not?, fie, in vorbirea curent5, f a m i l d ain't I? leint ail. 4. subiktul intrebikii disjunctive este fntotdeauna pronumele corespundtor subiectului propozipei stimul. 5. htrebarea disjunctivil este despilqitil de propoziria stimul prin virgull. 6. intonaria intrebikii disjunctive este udtoare- atunoi cind se a~teapd &puns gi un cobofitoareatunci cbd aceasta este o simp18 constatare. 7. in cazul fn care intrebarea disjunctivl este doar o exclama@e(chiar qa", adevht?) exprimind surprindere, nemulpmire, bucurie, etc., verbul auxiliar sau modal a t e folosit la acelqi semn cu predicatul propozifiei stimuL 1 . TO^ is here, int he? s' They aren't ready, are they?
1

1.
1.

Mary has finished her work, hasn't she? You haven't met before, have you?
John can manage alone, can't he? She couldn't come, could she? Your mother baked these cakes, didn'f she? Alice speaks English well, dotslt she? You didn't come home late, did you? (verb auxiliar - did)

.
Dar,
0 .

2.

h-

7..

You wl tell me, wiIl you? (ameninpre) il


-Oh, I am here at last, am I ? (bucurie)

- ,3 *

t
4 . L

i '

F
-f

g .
&

ffi

CoNSTRu-E

(and) s . . o. (and) neither..

Aceste construcpi apar fie ca un r2spuns. a1 unei propozitii stimul, fie in continuarea acesteia In cadnil aceleiqi fraze. Ele se form& du@ urmltoarele reguli: 1. dac2 in propozi$a stimul se afl5 un verb & sau modal el se repea la forma afiiativi4 % ambele construc~. I 2. dad k-~ propozi* stimul se a un verb obignuit, in ambele construe@ se folosqte m verbul a d & to do la afiiativ. 3. timpul verbului auxiliar situ modal din conshuctie este acelagi cu timpul predicatului propozitiei stimul, dar acordulin persozing $ num5r.se face cu subiectul constmc$ei. 4. in construc~ile menponate mai WE subiectul este a$ezat dup2 verbul auxiliar h u modal. 5. In unele cazuri neither este inlocuit prin nor, in\elesul rhinind neschimbat. "I am ready". "SO is Mary". " am ready and so is Mary". I 'They can solve this problem". "So can we." 'They can solve this problem and so can we." "Mother came home late." So did Father." "Mother came home late and so did Father."
/

Avind ?nvedae faptul cB lirnba englezS Ate o li&bS analitic& deci c5 funcuile gamaticale (sintactice) ale cuvintelor skt determinate de poziua lor in pmpozipe, regula referitoare la ordinea cuvintelor din propozi@&te foarte stricd. Acest lucru este deosebit de important de re$nut deoarece limba romiin2, care este o limb2 sintetid (cuvintele prin desinente $i terminapi arati4 clar functia lor sintacticl), nu necesiti4 o asemenea regull sever& , Ca idee general2 trebuie subliniat faptul d: a) nu existi4 propozipe f b 2 i -subiect (cu exceppa propozipilor exclamative sau a celor constmite ca atare de c h autor din motive stilistice): What a day! London. ImplacableNovember weather. (Charles Dickens, Bleak House) b) p w de propozitie strim legate pin %pies nu trebuiesc despqite; My only beautiful sister bought a cake. = Singura mea sod fnunoad a cumpht o.pr2jitud. My beautiful sister bought only a cake. = Sora mea frumoas5 a cumpirat o singua pr)djitu%. ' etc. c) accentuarea unui cuvht se face prh plaslui pe primul Ioc. restul cuvintelor avind urmkarea pozige: -

t
I

I cuvfnt + audliY (modal)+ subiect + V +.; . I


1

"I can't sing." "Neither can Tom." "I can't sing and neither1nor can Tom ."
"John won't come." "Neither will JacX." "John won't come and neither1 nor will Jack.

Never did he say something like that. 0 ald modalitate de accentuare se face prin folosirea consaucpei
I
I

"My friends don't like coffee." "Neither do mine. "My friends don't like coffee and neither/ nor do his.

'It is M r who helped me. ay It was London that he liked best. Ordinea cuvintelor % propmipa mm@tivH este: I
I

I (complement de timp definit) + gupul subiectului+ grupul predicatului I


Complementul circumstanpal de timp definit (yesterday, last year, next week, etc.) este q z a c namai la bceputul sau la sfiiihtl propozipei. Cind este qezat la sfirgit face part.din grupul predicatuiui. Grupnt subiectului este format din substantiv + determinanfi. D e k m h n W substantivali sint: artiwlul, adjectivul, numeralul sau un alt substantiv cu ml de atribut Determinanp substantivali sint qezao ?n fap substantivului. Practic orice parte de vorbire poate avea rol de subiect, caz in care st2 in fata predicatului. To learn is necessary. R& becomes you. * . Y s is my answer. e in situapa in care subiectul logic este qezat dup2 predicat, in fap predicatului trebuie obligatoriu s2 existe un subiect formal care este it sau there.

It is important to know a fmign languages (subiectul logic) There is a book on the table. (a book = subiectul logic) There comes a day when you begin to feel old. (a day = subiect logic) subiecteim& it, they. one, you, people It snows. It is cold. You can never tell. One should eat less and think more. People say that it is wonderful to live in this part of the country. They say that London is a beautiful city. Din grupul de&xminan@orsubstantivului, mbuie menbnat in ~ o special adjecti;ul. d h situa* in care un substantiv este insopt de rnai multe adjective. In acest caz, adjectivul cel mai legat cabples de substantiv este qezat irnediat 'in fap acestuia: He is a funny little man. = El este un omule?nostim. Mary has short brown curly hair. = Mary are p h l scurt, - castaniu ~iondulat She w& wearing a beautiful sophisticated long red dress. = Ea purta o rochie mgie lung% frurnoas2 ~i-msofisticatit. T- A m 1 11 xlimba englez5, adjectivelenu s h t despwte prin virgule. G n q d @katului este format din verbul pmpriu-zis, insop de auxilianle necesare $1 de complemente: direct, indirect, prepozitional, circmstanyial. (Adverbial$ rnmnlementul direct u r m d imediat dupg verbul tranzitiv: -----r---- I am baking a cake; Complementul direct s d in cazul acuzativ $i rgspunde la intrebkile "whom?" sau "what?". t) Complemental blinxt stil in-mu1 dativ ribpunde la intrebSLri1e ( o whom/ what?". A q c i cind complementul indiiect este aSezat in fap complementului direct, d nu este insopt de prepozipa to. Dad-este plasat dupg complementul direct, el este insotit de prepozi* t. o Toni gave me a flower. Tome gave a flower to me. He wrote his sister a letter. - , He wrote a letter to his sister. Caz special: Pronumele it folosit cu rol de complement indirect este ayzat h a i irnediat dupir verb. John have a bone t the'dog. o John gave @ dog a bone. DAR: John gave it a bone. $1 NU: ~ o h n ~ aa bone t~ it ve V d ^ m o $ t e &n& afit de complement direct, cit $i de complement indirect:

I have brought some flowers fm you. He is coming by car. ~omplementul circumstan$al& loc rgspunde la hnebikile "where?", -kom whue?., "how far?" He works at hohe. (where?) These potatoes have been brought from Germany. (from where?) . He went with me as fa;as thebus stop. (how far?) CompIemenml cherrmstan@ & timp rgspunde la innebilrile when?", "since when?< "till when?", "(for) how long?", "how often?" They will come tommw. (when?) We haven't seen them since Wednesday. (since when?) The letter won't arrive till April (till when?) . We talked for an hour. (for how long?) Cornplementulcircumstantialde mod rhpunde la 'intreb&ile"how?", "how much?" She sings beautifully. (how?) She loves her children very much. (how much?) Complementul circumstan(il de cam8 rsspunde la 'intrebi%rile "why?", "for what (cause)?" Th'ey were crying for joy. (why?lfor what (cause)?) Complementul circumstantial de ssop dspunde la intrebebarile "what for?", "for what 1 purpose?" He works fix money. (what for?) I've come to help you.<for whatpurpose?) Complementul cixcumstan~ condifie r?lspundela htrebarea "on what condition?" de I won't sell my car unless compelled. Complementul circumstantial emcepiv rikpunde la innebarea "in spite of what brson/ circumstance?". Though very busy, he went to visit his old grandrnorher. I'll go to the wedding in spite of my sister. A m ! Complementele circumstan$ale (Adverbials) -expure rnai sus s h t apzate in functie de necesitatea contextului, cu excepfia urmgtoarei succesiuni obligatorii: complement circumsmpal de mod, complement circumstan[ial de loc, complement circumsw~al de timp definit (care p a t e fiinseba, dupg cum am rnai spur, q z a t gi la inceputul propmitiei). Penrm pozi* complernentului de timp nedefnit $i frecvenp - vezi Cap. "Present Perfect de Tense", iar penrm anumite complemente circumstan~ale mod - vezi Cap. "Adverbul".
I

to allow

to bring - to deny to fetch to give what?

to grant to h a d to leave . to lend

to owe to Pay to promise to refuse


to sell

tb send
t show o .to tell to wish
to write.

to offer

Camplementul prepozifional rapunde la o innebare formati4 din prepoziiie

+ whom/

- 108 -

Ideile expuse 'n acest capitol sTnt menite d scoad in evidenp anumite particularidti ale limbii engleze we pot crea dificuld$ vorbitorului de limb8=rombn& Unele au mai fost tratate h diverse contextein cuprinsul acestei c w .

l.laaeis/thaeare;itis/theyare
There Ware este o construc$e plasad la inceputul propozitiei, subiectul logic m i n d dupil verbul "to be". Aceastil construcfie%seamnil exisd, se a& asemhiitor idiomului il y a din limba rancez& Construclh se acordh in numa cu subiectul logic.

There is a man at the door. (iterog. Is there a man at the d m ? ) There were few pupils in the classroom yesterday. It &/they are este plasat tot la inceputul propozipei, dar arad o caracteristic8: It is a good book They are nice girls. It was yesterday. They will be. interested in yo$ lecture. 2. Sannificatialui"" cu sau fb apostrof, la sfiiitul unui cuvht. s, i3 a) Substantiv la p l d . boys, books b) Verb la persoana a IJl-a singular prezent he writes, she comes, it barks D meat faptul cil cele douil situap de mai sus nu apar niciodad concomitent (ca subiect e $i predicat) h aceea$i propozifie. The girl plays The girls play. c) '8: cazul genitiv penm situaMin care posesoml este fiinw The man's car is new. The dog's tail is black. =ckens'(s) novels are wonderful. s d) ': forma prescwtd a verbelor respectiv has: He's writing. She's got a dog. It's a beautiful day. e) 's: forma de plural pentru p w de vorbire substantivizate: There were more yes's than no's. 3Redarea h limba englezil a cuvintului romiinesc "main in diverse contexte: Luna mai urmeazil dup8 aprilie. = May comes after April. = How do you do? @&puns: How do Ce mai faci? you do?How are you? @&puns: Very well, thank you./Not so well.) - AstZLzi e mai cald de& ieri. = It's'warmer today'than yesterday. (comparativ) Mary este mai hmoasil decit Elsa. = Mary is more ' beautiful than Elsa. (comparativ). Cartea asta e $ mai interesantil decit cealald. = This book is even more interesting than the other one. Mai vrei o priljitud? = Do you want another/ one more piece of cake? Cum te mai cheamii? = Whahat's your s a n d name? Ce mai vrei? = What else do you want? Unde mai mergem? = Where else are we going? , Ce d-?i dau? = What else should I give you? mai Cine mai vine? = Who else is coming?

--

Ct rnai stai? = How long are you going to stay? i Cit micost2 p k e a &um? = How much is bread now? A9 mai vrea n i ~ t z h In cafea. = I'd like some more sugar ea k . in mv coffee. Mai bine 1?lm?i'dec8dpleci &a thiu. = You had better stay than leave so late. Mai cufid m-q uita la televizor decit sil mii culc. = I would rather watch TV than go to bed. El hcil mrd chtil h 'Traviata*. = He isvistiU singing 'Trmiata". Mai a t e in Bucmgti?!! = Is he yet in Bucharest?!! Ce mai poveste! = What a story! Ce mai cintil! = How she sings! Mai l@-mii b pace! = Leave me alone! Msi bine mai f k i u decit niciodatil.,= 1 better late than never. s ; s Ce se mai aude? = What i the news? Mai rar prieten! =He's quite a &end! Mai-mai cil 1-am crezut = I almost believed him. Mai c-q face-o! = I might as well do it! Mi incape vorbil? = It goes without saying!' a , Cu atit mai mult! = All the more! Vino cit mai cutind. = Come as soon as possible. A p mai zic $i eu! = That's fair enough! That's the way I like it! Ce de mai lume! = What a crowd! El e mai mult sau mai pufin interesat de g e asta. = He is ma more 6r lessinterested in this business. Mai presus de orice ar mbui sil ai grjis de tine. = Above all,. you should take care of yourself. Mi intii sil s t h de vorM. = First of all, let's have a talk. a Let's have a talk first. Ne-am intilnit mai deunhi. We met the other day. Mai cif plingea chd m-a v&ut = She was about to cry/ on the point of crying when she saw me. Cu atit mai mult ar trebui sil vil inblnifi. = All the more you should meet. pe el 3 iniresea3 I&ales engleza; = He is especially interested in English. Ti-am spus h mai multe&duri sil nu te duci acolo. = I told you time and again / more than onwrepatedly that you should not go there. El woia sil ajungil prim-ministru gi mai multe nu! = He wanted to become a prime minister at all costs/ by all means. N m& spune! = You don't say! /Oh really! /What a story! u N mai vreau lapte. = I don't want any more milk. / I want no u --more milk. El nu mai lccuie.ge aici. = He dcesn't live here any longer / more. / He no -longer lives here. N mai sht ponoeale pe farfurie. = There are.no more omgcs u on the plate. -- N tnai este profesorul meu. = He is no longer my reacha: u
--

b mai scrii? = Will you write him again?

Cind ne mai vedem? = When shall we meet again?

-110-

mai (tehnic) = mallet, wooden, hammer, m m e r 4 Sil Y t . tl. e . a) Sil = nem$cS tl Stand still and hold up your hands. Still =& ( in propozi* afiiative) ^ He is still here. still = mtu$, cu mate acestea (la inceput de propozirie)e) . Still, I don't believe he has lied to us. It was late, still they didn't leave. still + comparativ = $ mai...chiar ri g It isStill better this way. ( propozipi negative) i n b) Yt =: e They haven't amved yet Yet = deja, $ (in propozirii intemgative) Have they arrived yet? Yt = totug, cu mate acestea (la inceputul propozitiei) e Yet, I think it's too late. He hasn't come, yet I think he will. as yet = padacum - Nqt yet = nu 5. In limba engled nu exist2 decit citeva diminutive ca atare (booklet, doggy). Pentru diminutivare se f010Se$te a) adjedvul "little" ATENpI a little boy = un biiepl = un Miat mic( de v%!ti sau staturi) a small boy b) s u f ~ u-ie. Ex. girlie = fetip. l 6Hchivalentul englezesc pentru redarea notiunii de recipient cu destinatia, respectiv C u continutul acestuia. = un pahar de (pentru) apg a water glass = un pahar de @lin cu)'ap5 a glass awater a coffee cup = o ce$cupdecafea I . = o ce$cu@cu cafea a cup of coffee a match box - = o cutie pentru chibrituri = o cutie de @lingcu) chibrituri a box of matches = o vazii de (pennu) flon a flower vase = o vazii cu flori a vase with flowers = o fructierg a fruit bowl = un caswon cu fructe a bowl with h i t 7. Exprimarea cantiatii $i calidfu cu sufixul "-fur $i adjectivul "full" = o linguri de zahar (mibud) a 'spoonful of sugar = o lin& piing cu zAh& a spoon 'full of sugar = un pumn de cireqe a 'handful of chemes a hand 'full of cherries = o m i d plini cu cire$e = o c d plid de lume (situaCie gene&) a a 'houseful of people = o c d plid de oameni (situaGe de moment) a a house 'full of people = atent, precaut careful = plin de griji, grijuliu fa@de.. . full of care He's very careful with his money. - He's full of care when he looks after his children. = gustos tasteful = de bun gust full of (good) k t e What a tasteful cake! She is full of taste in the choice'of her clothes.

. Pw'bilia@ '
I

dewere a CUG~W,,~

aiferiilccontu(r

Vin $ ieu!n uI$ n t coming ~ o m u . n d ~ a m n m m a ~i m = aar8= . mahome. Era Si el acol0. = He was there. EB # e n g l o w . = She ~p& n a i ~ h ~

- I , . '

- 112 L

-113-

..

clothe

erne
cost cut

clad cme cost crept cut cost crept cut

=w

deal dig

dared (inv.dwst) dealt dug did

.dad .
dealt ,dug done

vie. a vr?i: 5 r$aFnii?i;- ..ru7:..~, a ueveni; a se ridica; a sepeaece yi. a costa vi. - a se W, a se scurge incet v t - a &a; a ^unpi@i, a reduce. a croi; a cresta; a ignora; a lipsi dela vt. - a fndrilzni; a desfide

flew

flown

forbore forbid forecast forego foreknow foresee foretell forget forgive ' forsake forswear freeze
.

forborne forbidden forecast foregone foreknown foreseen fogtold , forgotten forgot (amer.) forgiven forsaken forsworn frozen

vt - a Tap; a pildisi I vi. - a ~bura; se inqp; a a flutura; a fugi, a se grilbi; a se f ntinde vt. - a se abiine de li;a renunpla, a evita v t - a prezice vt - a stabili dinainte v t - a gti dinainte vt - a prevedea . v t - a prezice vt.-vi. - a uita
v t - a p&&i v t - a nega, a renega

forbade forbad forecast forewent foresaw foretold forget forgave forsook forswore

draw dream
,

drink drive

drew dmmied dreamt drank drove

drawn dream& dreamt


driven

vt-a face come* a avea de-a face cu vt. - a &pa; a dezgropa; a cerceta; a 'inghionti 'vi. - a &pa; a studia v t a face; a sZlvirgi; a pllklli; a strica, etC . v t - a trage; a scdte; a desena v t - a visa; a-gi lnchipui. v i - a visa v t - a bea, a toasta pentru v t - a mina (caii); a conduce; a -2npinge;a determim a bate (un cui). a conduce un vehicul v i - a circula, a se deplasa cu (aura, automobilul)

vt, vi. - a ierta

gainsay
.

gainsaid got

gainsaid got

eat
ate

dwelt eaten fallen vt, vi. a m%xa vi. - a ddea; a xiidea; a se pr2bqi; a pklltui; muri, a deveni; a se smtima; a se impll@.etc v t - a aliments, a aproviziona, a inirefine vi. - minca; a se M i vt. - a simG; a pipP; a atinge; a consihera vi. - a se simii; a fi sensibil, milos; a bijbiu vt. - a combate, a se lupta cu v t a g b i ; a descoperi, a constata; a nimeri v t - a fugi din, a liisa vi. a fugi, a scilpa prin fugg vt, vi. - a (se) aiunca; a (se) vinti

gild gird give


.

vi. - a jura strimb vt. - a inghep vi. - a inghep, a se slei vt. - a contraice; a nega; a se opune la v t - a dpata;. a lua; a procura; a invilw a face; a g&, a c$tiga; a Myi, a kfelege; a cuceri; a p ~ d e , a enema; a omori v i - a deveni; a se face; a ajunge

fall

fell

gilded gilt girded girt ! gave

'

guaed gilt girded girt given


I

fed feel felt felt

went

gone

fiat find

fought found

fought found fled


,

grave grind

. -. graved
grew

ground

graven ground

flee
fling

grown

flung

v t - a da; a acorda; a aansmite; a &pa; a &a (mostenire); j oferi; a hMki; a toasta pentru; i a face; a ceda; a atata vi. - a ceda; a slai; a fi generos vt - a indeplini; a str5bate vi. - a merge; a se duce; a curge; a circula; a tinde; a actiona; a se vinde; a &pa; a deveni; a pleca . vt. - a ciopli, a sculpta v t - a mkina; a zdrobi; a tiraniza; a ascu$; a mdi la; a scr$ni din. vil - a trudi;,a se chinui; a toci . v t - a crepe, a cultiva vi. - a cregte; a'spori, a sedezvolta; a tr%: a deveni
'

hamstring hang have

hamstrung hung hanged had heard heaved hove hewed hid

hamstrung hung hanged had heard . heaved hove hewed hewn hidden hid hit held
I

hear
heave .. hew hide
hit
\

hit held

hold

hurt inlay keep 'kneel lalit know lade !ay lead

inlaid kept knelt kitd nte lulit knew laded laid

inlaid kept
t

'

. knelt
-knitted knit known laden laid led

led

lean leap learn leave

leant leaned .leapt leaped learnt learn& left

leant leaned leapt leaped learnt learned left

vt. - a paraliza vt. a atima vi. a at-ha vt. - a avea; a poseda, , a manifesta; a dovedi; a permite; a suferi; a lua; a obone; a consuma vt. - a auzi; a asculta; a afla de vt. - a ridica, a aburca; a scoate vi. a se ridica; a undui; a fi agitat; a aptkea ' vt. - a ciopli, a t&a (cu securea. 'sabia) . . vt. - a ascunde; a dosi vi. - a se ascunde vt. - a lovi; a jigni; a nimeri vi. - a lovi, a da o loviturll v t - a tine; a susfie; a menfie. a stiipini; a avea; a ocupa, acuprinde vi. - a se tine; a &ui . v t - a r2lni;-a Strica; a jigni vi. a-1 dureA, a suferi vt. - a incrusta - vt. - a p a w a fie; a define; ' a ascunde; a refine; a intrefine; a respects; a apllra; a drbgtori vi. - a ingenunchia vt. a ^mpleti, a tricota; a imbina vi.- a se uni, a se imbina vt*- a $ti; a cunoqte; a recunoqte; a inielege; a trece prin, a suferi . vi. - a fi gtiutor sau priceput vi. - a inc&ca vt. - a aSeza; a pune (la biltaie); a intinde, a oua; a impune; a paria v t - a duce; a conduce; a guvema; a sili; a cQ2uzi; a influenfa. vi. - a duce la; a conduce, a fi in frunte vt. - a apleca, a inclina vt - a se apleca; a tinde, a se rezema vt. - a Sri

lend

lent let

lent let

let

vt. - a da cu impnimut, a (acor)da, a ad!uga vr. a se preta vt. - a l k , a permite; a da cu chirie; a arenda . .

lie
light lase make mean meet melt misdeal misgive mislay mislead mistake lighted lit lost made meant met melted misdealt misgave mislaid misled
.

lain
. lighted lit lost made meant met melted molten misdealt misgiven mislaid misled mistaken

'

'

mistook

misunderstand misunderstood misunderstm mow mowed mown outbit . outbade outbid(den) . outbid outdo outdid outdone outgo outwent outgone outgrow Outgrew outgrown outride outrun outshine outspread outwear outrode outran outshone oqtspread outwore outridden outruntrun outshone outspread outworn

a se afla, a fi vt. - a arde; a (se) lumina, a (i)lumina; a aprinde vi. a s ageza, a nimeri e vt. - a pierde; a &pa; a face s5 se p i a r a vi. - a pierde v t a face; a muri; a dpgta;a sili; a ajunge la; a se ridica la; a se pma ca vi. - a porni; a se hdrepta a vt. - a vrea sii sp~lnil; se referi la; a intenyio?a; a destina vt. a intilni, .a cunoqte; aintimpina; a satisface; a acoperi vi. - a se intilni; a se cunoqte , vt, vi. - a (se) topi; a (se) dizolva; a (se) muia vt. - a da gre$it (cilqde) \. vi. - a stimi presimw sau indoieli vt. - a pierde, a d d c i vt. - a duce pe o cale grqit& a ingela vt. - a grqi, a confunda; a inrelege gre$it v t - a in~elege grqit vt., vi. - a cosi vt. - a supralicita; a intrece

vi. - a sta htins; a Zma se culca; Z, I

.
/

vt., vi. - a invgp; a aha; a auzi vt- a pilrtrgsi, a kcredinla, a inmina vi. - a pleca; a porni

vt. - a intrece vt. - a depilgi vt. - a dep3i; a Usa in urm2, a se dezbgca de; a cregte prea mare pentru vt. - a intrece (cillibind) v t - a intrece vt. - a intrece (in stflucire); a str2luci mai putemic decit vt., vi. - a (se) intinde vt. - a supraviefui(cu dat.); . a depilgi ca duratli; a epuiza; a uza

reset overbear overbore overborne overcast overcome overdone overdrawn overeaten overfed overgrown overhung - overheard overlaid oyerleapt overleaped' overlain ovenidden overrun overseen overset overshot overslept overspread overtaken . overthrown partaken paid vt. a impune (cu dat.); a constringe; a domina vt. - a innora, a htuneca; a tivi v t - a invinge, a co*i vt. - a exagera; a frige prea tiye v t - a exagera, a deplgi (contul la bad) vt, vi.. vr. a minca prea mdt vt, vr. - a(%) ghiftui, a (se) indopa v t - a umple, a acoperi vi. - a cregte exagerat vi. - a acma VL - a (sur)prinde o conversatie v t - a acoperi, a ascunde peste; a dep%i vi. - a .&hi

retell rid
'

retold ridded(rar)

rid
rode

overcome overdo overdraw


'
( .

overcame overdid overdrew overate

ride

reiold . rid ridded(rar) ridden

overeat overfeed ovhgrow ovechang overhear overlay overleap overlie override


'

rung

. overfed
overgrew overhung overheard overlaid overleapt overleaped overlay . overrode
3

rise rive run


'

rose rived

risen riven rived run

ran

ovexlun oversee ovmt overshoot oversleep overspread ov&e overthrow partake Pay
\

overran oversaw overset overshot overslept overspread overtnok .overthrew partook paid put
dead

put read
,
.

v t - a acoperi; a inlbug v t a caca in picioare; a nesocoti; . a istovi vt. - a invada, a cov'qi; a dep%i v t - a supraveghea vt. - a l?lsturna vt. a trage sau a *ti prea departe vi., vrr- a domi prea mult v t - a cuprinde; a acoperi v t - a ajunge din urml. a surprinde; a cov'qi vt. a l?lsturna;a infringe v t - a imp&-$ vt. a (r&)plllti, a achita; a(acor)da: a face (curte, vizite) vi: a.piilti; a renta vt. a pune, a spa; a exprima* a duce; a arunca; v t - a citi; a studia; a ghici; a indica; a interpreta ' vi. - a citi

saw

sawed

sawn said Seen

said
see

Saw

seek sell,
set

- sought
'

sold
Sent

sought sold sent


set

=nY
,sew shed shine shoe
. % .

set

sewed

shook
sheared shed shone shod

-rebuild : . recast
1

rebuilt recast

. .

rebuilt recast

Sewn shaken shorn -

relay rend repay -

relaid rent repaid

relaid rent repaid

v t ; a remodela; a preface vi. - a se retrage, a da inapoi, a sciidea, a se estompa , ' v t ,vi. - a repune vt - a smulge, a sfigia, a despica vt., vi. - a r2lsplilti; a restitui

. v t - a repuna; a reapa; a culege din nou v t - a repovesti; a spune din nou v t - a eliben vr. a s&pa de v t - a cll&-i; mina, a duc'e, a a pluti pe; a alerga; a face; a spHbate; a duce'm spinare vi. - a c i i l ~a &%tori; a pluti , v t - a incercui; a inconjura; a suna din; a suna (la sonerie, telefon) vi. - a suna; a r&una v i a se ridica (la lupu); a se ivi; a se scula; a riXs5ri; a izvo* v t vi. - a se despica; a se desprinde, a se desface . v t - a conduce; a adminisua; a risca; a face; a duce vi. - a alerga; a fa& curse; a se m i v . a se invirti; a (se) petrece; a ajunge;a candida; a suna; a glhui v t - a tilia cu f & a ~ u i vi. - a ferestrui vt - a z - a afirrna i: vi. - a spune vt - a vedea; a a inplege; a cunoqte. a kprin; a primi; a vizita; a consblta; a conduce vi. - a se vedea @ineetc.); a inplege vt. - a cluta; a ce; a incerca vt. - a vindc; a escroca cu vi. - a (se) vinde v t - a trimife; a emite v t - a pune; a a@&a aranja; a siabili; a monta; a transpune v i - a opune; a pomi; a se apuca . v t , vi. - a(se)coase vt - a zgudui a cliltina; a q m m u r a VI. - a tremuia; a se zgudm irt --a tunde; a N d l i

'

shed
shone
shod
VL a lusmi ' v i - a smuci

"

shoot
*ow

sholt7

shot

a impu$c.a; a aage cu(aku1); a trece; a fotografi; a filma vi. - a i m p u ~af$pi; ~ u t a a


vt.
vt

reset retell rid

IPSet

showed
.
.

shrink

shnk

shnmL
shrive shrove shut =g

shrunk. shrunken shriven shut sung sunk sunken

a conduce vi. - a se & t q a se vedea vt. - a face se string2 vi. - a se suinge; a. se miqora;

- a arZLta; a manifests; a dovedi, -

rerold ridded(rar)

ride

rid

rode

'

retold rid ridd&(rar) ridden

v t - a repune; a rea-; a culege din nou VL - a repovesti; a-spune din nou v t - a clibcra vr. - a s d p a de v t - a c515ri; a mina, a duct,

a pluti pe; a Jerga: a face;


,

shut

sank
'

sit

Sat

sat

slew
slept

slain slept . slid dung


slit

Slide
sling

slid
*I3 slit

slit
smell smite
SOW

'

smelt
Snote

melt smitten
SOwn

sowed

@
speed

spoke

spoken

w ff

spelt spelled
spent-

spilt

a intra la ap& a se da inapoi v t - rel. a spovedi; a absolvi prin confesiune VL - a inchide, a prinde v i - a se inchide v t - a cinta (din gu1-2) VL - a scufunda; a &pa; a ascunde; a da u i w i ; a investi vi. - a se scufunda, a cobon^, a se p d b u ~ i a pstrunde , vi. - a vdea, a sta; a cloci; a sepotrivi; a face pane, a fi membru v t - a ucide, a masacra v t - a gbdui vi. a dormi vt - a face d alunece; a strecura vi a aluneca; a se da pe gheag vi. - a'se firnSa VL - a despica v t , vi. - a mirosi; a adulmea v t - a izbi; a afecta; a vdji vt - a insminp; a pl&ta; fig. a dspindi v t - a spune; a enunp vi. - a vorbi; a $ne c u v h w ; a fi expresiv v t - a gdbi vi. - a goni; auto. a depil$ vitezamaximil v t - a v13ji; a citi liter5 cu l i t e a a insemna (fig.). vi - a silabisi VL - a cheltui; a consuma; a p e m (timpu1)vi - a cheltui v t - a v w a dsturna v i - a da pe dinafad

ring

rise
.

m e rived .

risen riven rived


N R

rive run

ran

a swlbate; a duce in spinare vi. - a citliiri; a c2l&ori; a pluti vt. - a incercui; a inconjura; a suna din: a suna @ sonerie, telefon) a vi. - a suna: a rilsuna vi. - a s ridica (la luptil); a se ivi; e a se scula; a ~~; a izvori) v t vi. - a se dcspica; a se desprinde, a se desface VL - a conduce; a administra; a risca; a face; a duce vi. - a alerga; a fiyx curse;

saw

sawed

Sawn

,
see

said Saw

said

seen

seek

. .

sell send set

sought sold sent se4

sought sold sent set

sew

sewed shook
\

Sewn

shaken shorn shed shone


. .

shear shed shine

s h \shed shone.

v t - a taia cu fer2srriIul vi. - a fcrcstrui vL - a zice; a afirma vi. - a spune I v i - a vedea; a z&i; a inielege; a cunoqte, a t m e prin; a primi; . a v i z i q a consuta; a conduce vi. - a se vedea @ineetc.); a inpIege vL - a &UP; cerce& a incerca a VL - a vinde; a cu 'vi. - a (se) vinde v t - a trimite; a m i t e M - a w e ; a ap/a; a aranja; a stabili; a montz; a transpune \ '~ vi. - a opune; a porni; a se apuca . . v t , vi. - a (se) coase ' v t - a zgudui, a cl8dna: a mtremura vi. - a trernura; a se zgudul VL -'a tunde; a Ndli VL-aV&Si;aSCIItUra
t

shoe

shod

shod

VL -alusjrui vi. a mluci v t - a potmvi: a i n c 2 l ~

swell.
s?&m

sve11ed swam swung took

swollen
swelled swum

YL,

vi. - a (se) umfla


.
,

swing .take

- teach
teat

taught tore

tell

. told

think
thrive throw

thought throve thrived threw

thrust tread

thrust
-

trod

underbid undergo undersell undertake underwrite undo

underbid

yderwent undersold undettook


undmte undid

wake

woke

wakd

'

v t - a mversa ?not vi. - a inota; a piuti; a se inceto~a; a arneti vt - a legha; a intoarce vi. - a se clatina, a se da i n leagan vt - a lua; a primi; a accepta; taken a ob\ine; a (con)duce; a face o plimbare, o baie, etc., a apuca, a cuceri, a inchiria, a lua drept... vt-apreda taught v i - a fi profesor VL - a sfqia, a t&a; a smdge; torn a chinui vi. - a se rupe; a se sfi$ia, a se mpe-~i VL - a rela& a spune; a recunoayre, a povesri vi.2 a povesti, a spude. a $tr v t - a gindi; a socoa, a crede; thought a - ~inchipui i vi. - aprospera; a ren$i; thriven a-i merge bine thrived v t - a mnca; a zvirli; a trimite; -thrown a 1 deoparte; a juca (zantri); a pune ui. a se 'ndrepta v~ - a impinge; a infige thrust VL - a d c a ; a zdrobi; nodden a ba13tori; a bate (un drum) trod vt - a dezlega; a dalanpi; unbent a elibera vt - ayinde mai ieftin decit; underbidden a cpncura neloial underbade vi. - a vinde 1aprep-i de concuren\2 v t - a suferi; a @ti; a aece prin undergone v i - a vinde mai icftin d&t undersold vt - a inveprinde; a incerca; undertaken a - VL(pre)lua; a presupune, a a f i m - a subxrie; a garanta underwritten VL - a desfacc; a dedega; a nimici; undone a ruina v l vi. - a fse) &tuma; a (se)tulbka v t - a trezi, a s t h i ; a evoca . waked vr. - a se m ;veghea ia woke(n) .

I-1 i 4

waylay

w"
weave
wed Weep
.win

waylaid wore
wose
wedded

waylaid worn

vt. - a purta; a irnbdca; a m i f & t a ; a wa, a made; a slabi VL-ajese;a m i v i - a 1.~2; se -mpleti a

wept won . wound


wi~hkw

wedded wed wept a


'

won wound withdrawn

wind
withdraw
wilhh6d wirhstand

- a -rsa (lacrirmi ' CkpIinge) vi - a plinge; a se umezi vt- a ci.$liga;a & , a atinge vi. - a cipiga; a fi jnvinggtor VL - a &mi; ah%-ti (ceasul); a bobina; a rid& a prpui vt., vi. - a (se) renage;
VL

a (seYnde@m
withheld
Wifhstood

g
write

g
WT0t.e

w-meld wilhstood wrung -nuen

v t - a rqine, a opi VL - a se irnpoui~i sau a rezista la VL - a rilsuci; a stoarce; a srnulge VL - a scriq a + t h e pe hirtie I - vi. - a suie-

Allen, W, Stannard, Living English Structure, Longmans, London, 1967. Bildescu, L. Alice. Gramatica limbii engleze, Editura Stiiniificil $i Enciclopedicil. Bucure~ti.1984 Chomsky, N.. Syntactic Snctures, The Hague, 1952. Clark, A.M. Spoken English. An Idiomatic Grammar for Foreign Students, London. 1958. Eckersley, C.E.and Eckersley, J M ,A Comprehensive English Grammar for Foreigri .. Students. London, 1966. Fries. C.C., The Structure of English. London. 1961 Ggilteanu- FWnoagH, Georgiana. Sinteze de gramatica englea. Editura Albatros, Bucure~ti.1987 Hornby, A.S.. A Guide t Patterns and Usage. O.U.P., 1977. o Iarovici, E. MihLl2-Cova, R., Lexicul de baz5 a1 limbii engleze, Editura Stiinpficil $i ~nciclo~edic5, Bucure~ti,1979. Jacobson, S., Adverbial Positions in Engiish, Stockhol~-n, 19G. Jespcrsen. 0.. A hlodem E~glish Grarnnlar on Hlst~.ncal Pr~ncipieh.London. 1946. Quirk, R., The U e of English, 1962 s Quirk. R . Greenbaum, S., Leech. G., Svartvik. J., A Gramniar of Contemporany . English, London, 1976. . .

II
.

1
-pag. -pag. -pag. -pag. -pag. -pag. -pag. -pag. -pag. -pag. -pag. -pag. -pag. -pag. -pag. -pag. -pag. -pag. -pag. -pag. -pag. -pag. - -pag. -pag. -pag. -pag. -pag. + -pag. --pag. -pag. , --pag. -pag. -pag.
6 6 7

8 10 10 11 12 12 12 13 13
17 18 18 I9
21

'

rind. 2 rind. 22 r i ~ d6 . rind. 2 rind. 5 rind. 21 rind. 16 ~ i n d .7 i ~ rind. i9 rind. 30 rind. 7 rind. 21,2.2 rind. 7 rind. 4 rind. 25 rind.21 rind. 46 ultimul rind rind. 18, 38 rind. 13 tabel rind 10 rind.34 rind. 26 rind. 35 rind. 11 rind. 24 rind. 32 rind. 9 rind. 5 riAd. 17 =in&. 35 fiXri2i' ch enar

DXTONARE:

*** Dicpoionar eng!ez-mjn, Ed. Academlei. 1974. * ** Dicponar fmzdogic engIez- rom jn. Ed. $tiin;i fid $i enciclopldic2. 1982.
. The concise Webster's New World Dictionary, Cleveland, 1964.
Fowler, H.W.. A Dictiomy of Modem English Usage, Oxford. 1927. Hornby, A.S.. Oxford Advanced ~idtionary Current English. O.O.P.. 1977. of Jones, D., An English Pronouncing 'Dictionary. London (revised, reset and enlarged). . 1967. Levivhi, L., Dicponar romrin- englez, Ed. Stiintifid. Bucure$u. 1965. . Webster's New Inteqmtional Dictionary of the English Langyge, London, 1977.

. .

'

21 22 23 24 27
28

Life Romania Romania folosesc pheasant in loc de pigeon Portuguese epoch[k] - epochs[ks] brethern swine stratum-strata [~ksi:z] narcissuses, narcissi; nucleuses, nuclei practici (peiorativ) fellows Browns [iz], [dikensiz] ' take pe sturt

CONJUNCT11
me-mie, irni, mi,. . . ourselves subiectului Here are two apples Would you like.. . it is thought (se crede) [zi r u] eighty Fractia ordinal; Why are you.. . infinitiv , washed '. acest fapt este subliniat Future Continuous muzeul dumined
1

/'

4 i

: : * .
5
.%

cr

29 30 39 39 40 44 5.1 53 57 58

rind. 20
rind. 32 rind. 15

I
I

-pag. -pag. -pag.

- -pag.
-pag. -pag. -pag. -pag. -pag. -pag. -pag. -pag. -pag. -pag. -pag. ---pag. -pag. -pag. -pag. -pag. -pag. -pag. -pag. -pag. -pag. -pag. -pag. -pag. -pag. -pag.

62 66 66 68 68 72 . 76 77 78 78 84 84 85 86 86 87 88 88 91 91 92 92 93 99 100 100 104 104 111 114

in toate fomele rind. 3 rind. 7 rind. 35 rind. 40 rind.5 . prima fonnulS rind. 21 rind. 20 rind. 33 rind. 7 rind. 8 rind. 18 rind. 6 rind. 20 rind. 24 rind. 15 rind. 47 rind. 18 rind. 23 rind. 16 rind. 36 rind. 38 rind. 1 , rind. 1 rind. 35 rind. 11 rind. 12 rind. 28 rind.

would cornparati ca s5 poti in propozitie ...by now in case.. . to remember V-ed Gerund poate fi iolosit a avea o mare dificultate to succeed in =a punem a qeza, a oua She lays the table for dinner to wander = a rgtgci;. .. at length easily y final only I can help a1 c k o r loc but also speaks Let me know interested in but (except) -one at a time dar Conjunctia in order that things I've never dreamt of two years ago. ... u Y e ~of course ~t is. .. , s2 a grij5 i to be-was/were-been

Tehnoredactarea si tiparul execofate la Tipografia PAC0