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Curs practic de limba englez nivel mediu


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Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Naionale a Romniei Come along: curs practic de limba englez / tefan Rodica, Vasilescu Ruxandra, Marcoci Sanda, Beldea Elena. Bucureti: Editura Fundaiei Romnia de Mine, 2004 228 p.; 23,5 cm. ISBN 973-582-903-7 I. tefan, Rodica II. Vasilescu, Ruxandra III. Marcoci, Sanda IV. Beldea, Elena 811.111

Cursul se adreseaz studenilor de la facultile cu profil economic

Editura Fundaiei Romnia de Mine, 2004

Redactor: Janeta LUPU Tehnoredactor: Jeanina DRGAN Coli tipar: 14,25; Format: 16/70 x 100 Editura i Tipografia Fundaiei Romnia de Mine Splaiul Independenei nr. 313, Bucureti, Sector 6, O.P. 83, Tel./Fax: 410.43.80 e-mail:
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n contextul actual n care procesele economice i culturale tind spre globalizare, cunoaterea unei limbi strine de circulaie internaional, a limbii engleze n special, reprezint nu doar un avantaj, ci o necesitate pentru o bun integrare profesional i social. Ne-am propus n acest scop s oferim studenilor notri (cursuri de zi, cu frecven redus de la facultile economice, dar i de la celelalte specialiti nefilologice) un Curs practic de limba englez, pe care l-am gndit i realizat ca pe un instrument de lucru util innd cont de cerinele i ateptrile lor. Dat fiind aceast larg diversitate tematic, textele i exerciiile au fost special adaptate preocuprilor studenilor, combinnd elemente ale limbii engleze generale cu acelea specifice limbajelor specializate. Ele se adreseaz studenilor care au studiat limba englez n liceu dobndind un bagaj de cunotine gramaticale i lexicale de nivel mediu. Dorim s exprimm mulumiri asist. univ. Despina Chirimbu pentru citirea atent a manuscrisului, pe marginea cruia a fcut observaii pertinente i sugestii preioase, precum i prep. Mihaela Pricope pentru ntocmirea glosarului.


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UNIT 1 ENGLISH, MY LOVE (Rodica tefan) . Grammar: (a) General revision (b) Tag questions, Yes/No questions, Wh-questions UNIT 2 SAYING HELLO! (Ruxandra Vasilescu) .. Grammar: (a) Possessives; Personal and reflexive pronouns (b) The Article; Some/Any UNIT 3 COMPANIES (Sanda Marcoci) . Grammar: (a) Present tenses (b) Conjunction structures UNIT 4 GOING TO COLLEGE (Rodica tefan) Grammar: (a) Past simple and present perfect (b) Comparison of adjectives; Irregular adjectives and adverbs UNIT 5 GETTING IN TOUCH (Ruxandra Vasilescu) ... Grammar: (a) Modal verbs STOP AND CHECK UNIT 6 LOOKING AHEAD (Rodica tefan) . Grammar: (a) Future; Prefixes and suffixes
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UNIT 7 INTERESTS AND HOBBIES (Sanda Marcoci) 116 Grammar: (a) Past perfect; Gerunds (b) Subjunctive UNIT 8 GOING PLACES (Ruxandra Vasilescu) 139 Grammar: (a) Sequence of tenses (b) Direct and indirect speech UNIT 9 LETS GO SHOPPING! (Elena Beldea) 156 Grammar: (a) Expressing quantity (b) Passive voice UNIT 10 MEDIA/COMMUNICATIONS (Sanda Marcoci) . Grammar: (a) Conditional (b) Phrasal verbs; Adjectival phrase STOP AND CHECK




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Here are some words from English which are used in Romanian. Put them in columns under these headings: business, politics, technology, sports, entertainment and various. There are five words in each column. dealer mouse pullover fan leader rating poster VIP second-hand lobby hit software jogging western broker CD player weekend offside summit manager single skateboard meeting penalty rugby job fast-food laser show chip

1. Complete the sentences with a word from the box below: 1. Although she was speaking English, her. was so strong we could hardly understand what she was saying. 2. I went to a lawyer but when he started using all the legal .. I got completely lost. 3. Young people use a lot of... . For instance, they could say copper instead of policeman.
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4. She never studied English but she managed to it by living in America for a couple of years. 5. Even though the language is basically the same, there are several .. . In the south some of the words and structures are different from those in the north. 6. English is Andrews first language. In other words, its his . Andrew is an English native speaker. 7. TURBO PASCAL and JAWA are two computer . 8. A person who speaks two languages fluently is. pick up jargon mother tongue slang dialects bilingual languages accent

2. Read each text quickly and find out who: 1. uses English for work. 2. uses English as an official language. 3. enjoys studying English. 4. studies in English. 5. speaks English as a mother tongue. 6. obviously doesnt like English.

Im Angela Maria Gutierrez from Cartagena in Colombia. I love listening to English pop music which is a great way of learning new words and everyday expressions! It is six years since I started to learn English and still, my biggest problem is pronunciation. My dad is a businessman and he uses English all the time. He speaks it fluently. He managed to pick it up while he was working in the States. He wants me to speak it well enough so that I can join his company. Id rather work in public relations. Im Faryal Ahmed and Im from Pakistan. Ive been studying business administration in Nottingham for the past two years. I felt really homesick to begin with because Id never been away from home. Ive got fairly used to it but I still miss my parents. They brought me up to speak English and I was sent to an English-speaking school. When I got there though, I still had a few problems with peoples accents and the slang that lots of other students used. Some of the lecturers were hard to understand at first and then there were lots of business jargon to pick up too.
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* Im Gerhard Richter from Frankfurt am Main in Germany. Im a consultant in a large software company. I need English because lots of materials are written in it and I travel a lot. Next month Im going to visit Egypt. I hope Ill be able to make myself understood. Ive found it is often easier to speak English to other foreigners than to the native speakers! One American colleague doesnt speak slowly enough for me to understand him. It is useful to know English but one thing I dont like is the way English expressions have been incorporated into other languages. * Im Abedayo Omere from Nigeria and Im a railway engineer. English is the official language because there are so many different languages and dialects spoken in Nigeria. I have to travel all round the country and often English is the only way to communicate. It is a pity because it used to be the colonial language. However, if we had chosen a tribal language, it would have caused political problems. So we will just have to put up with it! * Good day! My names Nick Andreotti. Im sixteen years old and I come from Sydney in Australia. Im second generation Italian. My parents came over about 20 years ago. Im bilingual because we still speak Italian at home. Dad speaks much better English than Mum. Sometimes her mistakes are really embarrassing and her accent is so strong that some people cant understand her. Im still studying but I always spend my spare time out in the tennis court. Ive won a few local tournaments and Id really like to turn professional. * Hi! My name is Yvonne Binoche and I come from Montral, which is the Frenchspeaking part of Canada. Im a sales manager in a big department store. I deal with foreign customers, so most of the time I have to use English. In Canada everything is supposed to be bilingual but I dont like the way English seems to be taking over. We had a real fight here, you know, to keep hold of our French past and identity. (adapted from 3rd Dimension, Longman)
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3. What are the countries where English is spoken as: native language? official language? international language? Which language in the world is spoken by most people? How many people are English native speakers? Which language might become the language of the future? 4. Decide whether the following statements are true ( ) or false (). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Nicks parents were born in Australia. Nicks mother doesnt speak English as well as his father. Faryal still feels homesick. Faryals problems with English werent too serious. Gerhard likes everything about English. Yvonne is ashamed of her French origin. Angela hasnt decided about her future career. Abedayo accepts that English was probably the best choice for his country.

Work in pairs and talk about your answers to the following questions: Have you ever spoken English with a native speaker? Where can you read English journals/ magazines/ books outside the classroom in your town? How often do you listen to English on the radio or watch films on TV? Have you ever written in English (to a pen-friend)? Have you ever been to an English-speaking country?

In pairs ask each other questions to find out the missing information in the following: 1. My partner has been learning English for .years. 2. In English he/ she is the best at
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(grammar/ vocabulary/ speaking/ writing/ reading/ listening/ pronunciation) 3. In English he/ she is not the best at .. because .. . 4. He/ She finds . most difficult to learn. 5. He/ She thinks is most important for him/ her in learning English.

1. Match sentences A-O taken from the text above with the constructions 1-15. A Ive been studying business administration in Nottingham for the past two years. B He managed to pick it up while he was working in the States. C if we had chosen a tribal language, it would have caused political problems. D Im still studying but I E My parents came over about 20 years ago. F he uses English all the time. G I love listening to English pop music H He managed to pick it up I Ive won a few local tournaments. J My biggest problem is pronunciation. K I hope Ill be able to make myself understood. L Dad speaks English much better than Mum. M Id never been away from home before. N I was sent to an English-speaking school. O Next month Im going to visit Egypt. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 present perfect past perfect past verb + gerund future present third conditional passive 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 superlative past continuous verb + infinitive comparative going to future present perfect continuous present continuous

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When do we use the auxiliary verbs be, have, will? Complete the tense charts. Use the verb wait for the active and mend for the passive.
ACTIVE Present Past Future Present perfect Past perfect Future perfect They will have been waiting We will wait He was waiting Simple Continuous

PASSIVE Present Past Future Present perfect Past perfect Future perfect

Simple It is writen

Continuous It was being mended

Use be with verb + ing to make continuous verb forms Use be with the past participle (-ed, V3) to make the passive voice Use have with the past participle to make perfect verb forms Use will with short infinitive to make future forms Youre listening to my explanation. They were admiring the landscape. Ive been studying history for two years. Paper is made of wood. The first books were printed in Germany. The house had been built before 1900. The fax will be sent tomorrow morning. He has worked in several countries. They were upset because they had missed the plane. By the end of the year, hell have moved house. We will know the results tomorrow. At this time next Sunday she will be flying to London.

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Look at these statements about English and decide if you agree with them. Work in pairs and compare your answers. You can learn a language outside the classroom. You should always use the dictionary if you dont understand a word. Dont worry about making mistakes; its more important to make yourself understood. Learning about grammar is very useful. Listening, especially to native speakers, is the most difficult skill to develop.

Q: A: Q: A: Q: A: Alice, how many languages do you speak and which ones are they? Well, I can speak two languages besides English: French and Spanish. Quite interesting! How did you learn them? You see, I had to learn French when I was in school. And Spanish I chose to learn later, I thought it would be, you know, useful to learn it. What was the most difficult aspect of learning it? Well, I was very embarrassed when we had to speak French in front of the rest of the class, you know - the terrible pronunciations and things. Also, I think listening comprehension was very difficult because it was always so fast Oh, yes. A common complaint. Now, what is the most useful thing to do? I think the grammatical system is the most useful. Have you had the opportunity to use it since then? Actually, I work in a software company. As a sales manager, I have to deal with our Canadian suppliers. Thats wonderful! Do you find it difficult to understand them? Certainly! Their accent is quite strong but in the end I manage it. (adapted from Reward, Heinemann)
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Q: A: Q: A: Q: A:

1. Look at the dictionary entry of the word company. Match the sentences a-h with a definition.

company ('kmpni) n,[C] pl.-nies 1. A number of people gathered together;

assembly. 2. The fact of being with smb.; companionship. 3. A guest or guests. 4. A business enterprise. 5. The members of an enterprise not specifically mentioned in the enterprises title. Abbrev: Co., co. 6. A group of actors. 7. A small unit of troops. 8. The officers and crew on a ship. keep company to accompany (smb.), especially for the sake of companionship part company to go different ways after being together; to cease associating. a b c d e f g h The company marched all day long. Robert enjoys his uncles company. Unfortunately, he has got into bad company lately. The company is going to produce childrens toys. A new play is being staged by the company. What a surprise! We were not expecting company. The company had been sailing for weeks before they reached their destination. Warner & Co. are well known among the film distributors.

2. Choose the most suitable word or phrase given: 1 2 3 4 5

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I succeeded in my job through hard . a) work b) labour c) effort Mark works for a/an . engineering company. a) main b) leading c) outgoing Im thinking to change my job because there are few of promotion. a) prospects b) opportunities c) chances Its not a very interesting work, but at least its a .. job. a) continuous b) firm c) steady In our company I am afraid there is very little to work hard. a) advantage b) gain c) motivation

1. Ask questions to the words underlined. Remember that the particle goes to the end of the sentence. Example: I work for a computer company. 1 2 3 4 5 6 I am thinking about my next holiday. He is waiting for his sister. We worked with an important researcher. They were talking to our major customer. I am interested in their new project. She is proud of her children.

Who do you work for?

2. Make questions with you from the sentences: Example: I come from Wales. (Where?) a b c d e f g h i j k l Where do you come from?

I speak two languages (How many?) I live in a house near the centre of the town. (Where?) Im wearing jeans and a T-shirt. (What?) I was born in Edinburgh in 1981. (Where? When?) Im studying English because Id like to travel. (Why?) Ive been to France and Canada. (Which countries?) I have one brother. (How many?) Ive been studying English for seven years. (How long?) Ill be 20 years old in November. (How old?) Ive got 10 in my pocket. (How much?) I went to the seaside last summer. (Where?) Im going to visit my grandparents next holiday. (Whom?)

3. Make questions about the subject, and the object in each, as shown in the example. Example: Ann likes her new colleagues. Who likes her new colleagues? (Ann) Who does Ann like? (her new colleagues)
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1 2 3 4 5

The teacher will bring our papers next week. The inspector interviews the candidate. Stress causes headache and pain. The manager invited his partner to visit the company. The president offers Michael a medal. (pay attention!)

4. Write questions for the answers: Example: How many films did you see on holiday? Four. a b c d e f g h i j What .. your father do? He works in a museum. What . the English teacher .. ? Shes checking this exercise. How long . it ... you to go to college? It takes me about twenty minutes. I go by bus. What . you last weekend? I went backpacking in the mountains. What sort of music .. you listening to? I prefer opera and classical music. .. you ever . to Athens? Yes, I have. I went there last year. I really enjoyed it. What schools .. you attend? The high school in my town. What . you . next holiday? I dont know. I havent got any plans yet. .. you a CD player at home? No, I havent. Just a cassette recorder. Who you about this college? My best friend.

In pairs, answer the questions about you.

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5. Contradict sentences a-j by giving the right information. Example: Water boils at 75 C. a b c d e f g h i j No, it doesnt boil at 75 C! It boils at 100 C.

My father has got ten brothers and sisters. I live in the desert. Were learning Portuguese. I had an elephant when I was young. Its snowing today. We went to New Zealand last year. The Pope comes from Italy. Well get to work by helicopter next year. Tourists visit Antarctica. Fish can fly.

6. Match a question in column A with an answer from column B. A 1 What does your sister look like? 2 Whats your aunt like? 3 Hows your mother? 4 Whereabouts do you live? 5 How do you spell your name? 6 What does handsome mean? 7 What did you do that for? 8 Whose file is this? 9 What sort of literature do you like? 10 What kind of car have you got? 11 What time is it? 12 What is the date? 13 How do you do? 14 How do I get to the station? 15 Theres some coffee and tea. Which do you prefer? B a. To get promoted. b. Shes fine, thanks. c. It means good-looking. d. Its mine. e. Its a quarter past ten. f. Poetry. g. Go down and take the first right. h. Ill have some coffee. i. How do you do? j. Its the third of October. k. A sports one. l. Shes generous and caring. m. M-O-R-R-I-S-O-N n. Near Central Park. o. Shes tall, slim, with dark hair.

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TAG QUESTIONS 1. Underline the tag questions in the text: Peter: Dan: Peter: Dan: Peter: Dan: Peter: Dan: Peter: Dan: Peter: Dan: Peter: You speak French, dont you? Yes, I do. Actually, I speak French and Russian. Russian? You didnt learn Russian at school, did you? Yes, when I was twelve. I did Russian for a couple of years. Then, say something in Russian, will you? No, Ive almost forgotten it. Its easy to forget a language if you dont practise. And what about your French? You havent forgotten that as well, have you? No, I practised it a lot when I did some interpreting for the tourists in our town. Ive got an idea. Lets go to Paris, shall we? To Paris?! Yes, to Paris, why not? It only takes three hours by train now, doesnt it? Does it? I didnt know that. Arent you worried about the cost? No, itll be good fun. And therell be plenty of opportunities to speak French, wont there?

2. Fill in the blanks with the right positive or negative question tag: Example: Its an interesting film, isnt it? You dont live with your parents, do you? a) b) c) d) e) f) g)
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We are having a meeting today, . ? You finished all your tests in time, .? He isnt quite a nice guy, ....? The train arrives at 6.30 p.m., ? She has found a new job, .? Oh, Im so late, ? You will call me as soon as you arrive, ...?

h) Catherine left on a trip to Rome last summer, .? i) Lets have one more look at this plan, ..? j) Im not too intruding, I hope, ..? k) People sometimes overreact in stressing situations, ..? l) You arent too enthusiastic about my idea, .? m) There are lots of students wishing to learn foreign languages, ? Remember! You form questions in the following ways: Yes/No questions With the auxiliary verb be, have, will Are you coming with us to the library? Have you even been to Italy? Will you come back later? With the modal verb can, may, must Can you understand this rule? May I sit down? Must I do this exercise? With the auxiliary do followed by short infinitive when the verb has no auxiliary Do you look up every new word you come across? The answer is generally short, containing just the personal pronoun and the auxiliary verb. Have you got some paper? Do you like going out? Yes, I have./ No, I havent. Yes, I do./ No, I dont. Wh questions With the question words what, who, which, how, when, where, why, how many, how much, how long, to ask about the object of the sentence. They are followed by the auxiliary or the modal verb. What did you study last year? I studied Economics. ( Economics = object) With the question words who, what to ask about the subject of the sentence. They are not followed by the auxiliary do.
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What gives you most information, the papers or the radio? The papers give me most information. (The papers = subject) The word order is:
Question Auxiliary/ word Modal Is Has Will Can Does did are Why have What Subject the seat Robert it we his father you they you Who Verb taken? written be leave run arrive behaving decided wrote Object, adjective, adverbial, etc. the report yet? fine tomorrow? now? a company? in Berlin? like that? to do now? this fax? Short answers No, it isnt No, he hasnt. No, it wont. Sure you can. Yes, he does. Yesterday. I dont know. Ill see. She did.

Tag questions They turn a statement into a question, containing just the auxiliary verb and the personal pronoun, accordingly. If the statement is affirmative, you use a negative tag. Marion lives in Birmingham, doesnt she? Yes, she does. / No, she doesnt. If the statement is negative, you use an affirmative tag. They dont accept credit cards, do they? Yes. (They dont accept)/ No. (They accept) To ask for real information, you use a rising intonation on the tag. To show you expect agreement, you use a falling intonation on the tag. Lets have some fun! Questions and riddles 1 2 3 4 5 Where does August come before July? Who invented the five-day week? What did the big telephone say to the little telephone? Why was the strawberry so sad? What did one wall say to the other?

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Answers: 1) In the dictionary. 2) Robinson Crusoe he had all his work done by Friday! 3) You are too young to be engaged. 4) Because its mother and father were in a jam. 5) Meet you at the corner. CHECKLIST 1.Name: i) 3 countries in which English is spoken as a mother tongue. ii) 3 countries in which English is spoken as a second official language. iii) 3 countries in which English is spoken as a foreign language. 2. Give two synonyms for the noun BUSINESS. 3. DO, BE, HAVE, WILL are auxiliaries placed first in an interrogative sentence. Give examples of such interrogative sentences. 4. What intonation do you use in a TAG QUESTION i) to ask for information ? ii) to show you expect agreement? 5. What is the WORD ORDER in an English i) affirmative sentence? ii) interrogative sentence?

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Meeting someone, when do we say: Its nice to meet you? while we shake hands? before we shake hands? after we have shaken hands? What would you discuss the first thing after introductions: the weather business Mr. Xs trip?

INTRODUCTIONS Robert Black comes to the office of Sigma Computers. Mrs. Albu comes down to the reception area and introduces herself. Albu: Black: Albu: Black:
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Mr. Black? Yes, thats right. Let me introduce myself. Im Sanda Albu. I work for Mr. Pop. Mrs. Albu. How do you do? Ive been looking forward to meeting you. (They shake hands.)


Its nice to meet you, Mr. Black. Youve come a very long way on this trip, so I hope things are going well. Welcome to Bucharest!

NOTE: We use different expressions to greet people. Study the table below:
INTRODUCING SOMEONE Id like to introduce you to Dr. Johnson (formal) May I introduce you to Mrs. Samson (formal) Mr. Brown, this is Ms. Attkinson (formal/ informal) Id like you to meet Stephen Cox. (formal) Have you met Dan? (informal) Sue, this is Mike. (informal) RESPONDING TO AN INTRODUCTION How do you do? (formal) Pleased to meet you. (formal) Nice to meet you. (formal/ informal) INTRODUCING YOURSELF Let me introduce myself. (formal) Allow me to introduce myself. (formal) May I introduce myself? (formal) How do you do? (formal) Hi, Im Christine. (informal)

GREETING SOMEONE Hello! Its good to see you. (formal) Hi! How are you? (formal) Hi, how are things? (informal)

RESPONDING TO GREETING Not bad, thank you. What about you? (formal) Fine, thanks. And you? (informal)

Ms. Rotaru, who is organizing Mr. Tanakas stay at central office, is greeting him and explaining his programme. Read the dialogue and put the verbs in brackets in the correct form: Ms. Rotaru: Hello, Mr. Tanaka. Welcome back to Spiro Chemicals. Its nice to see you again. Mr. Tanaka: Hello, Ms Rotaru. Im delighted to be back. Ms. Rotaru: (have) you a good trip?
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Mr. Tanaka: Yes, it (be) long, but it (be) fine, thanks. Ms. Rotaru: How many hours is it from Tokyo? Mr. Tanaka: I (come not) from Tokyo. I (come) from Singapore. I (leave) Tokyo six days ago. I (have) appointments in Hong Kong and Singapore on the way. Ms. Rotaru: I see. But its still a long flight. You must be exhausted. When (get) you in? Mr. Tanaka: Last night at half past eight. Ms. Rotaru: So (have) you a good nights sleep? Mr. Tanaka: Yes, I (sleep) very well, thanks.

ROLE-PLAY Work in groups of three. Take turns role-playing parts A, B and C below. Part A You are Mr. Blake. You had a good time with B yesterday, and you are looking forward to meeting C. Part B You are Mr. Rosu. Introduce C to A, and act as the host. You have made reservations for lunch. Part C You are Mr. Voicu. Welcome A to Bucharest and ask questions about As trip.

1. Introduce the following people to each other: a. NAME POSITION COMPANY NAME POSITION COMPANY Dr. Malkovitch Human Resources Manager Delta Enterprises Ms. Shields Purchasing Officer TEXACO Mr. Simu Training Manager Caf de Colombia Mrs. Coman Sales Manager PECO


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2. Complete the dialogue, using the phrases from the box:

Im sorry to hear that How are you Pleased to meet you ... nice to meet you Id like you to meet Unfortunately How do you do Id like to keep in touch I really have to go How do you do I certainly will May I introduce you to Im afraid Fine, thanks

Brown: Goldberg:

Oh, hi, Bob! ________________________ today? ________________________________Charles. ______________ our Vice-President, Elisabeth Powers. Elisabeth, ______________ Charles Brown from Sumitomo Company Ltd.

Powers: Brown: Powers:

_________________________________, Mr. Brown. ___________________________, Ms. Powers. Bob tells me that you would like to see our plant while you are in New York, wouldnt you? Thats very kind of you. _____________________, my schedule is booked up all next week. _________________________. Well, _________________ I may be in London next month. I see. Please give me a call then. _________________. It was _________________________. _________________________, too. ___________________. May I have your business phone number? Of course. Here is my business card. Thank you. And here is mine. Now, __________________. Good bye. Good bye.



Brown: Powers: Brown: Powers: Brown: Powers: Brown:


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POSSESSIVES PERSONAL AND REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS You use a possessive pronoun (mine, yours, his, hers, ours, yours, theirs) or a possessive adjective (my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their) to show that something belongs to someone: e.g. I like your suit. It fits better than mine. (mine = my suit) Yours is a nicer colour, though. (yours = your suit) Where did Jane buy hers? (hers = her suit) We usually get ours in Marks & Spencer (ours = our suits) Theirs are very good quality, arent they? (theirs = their suits) You use an object pronoun (me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them) as the direct object of a verb: e.g. Her teacher wants her to study science at university. My cousin has invited us to his place on Sunday.

or as the indirect object of a verb: e.g. The President gave him a medal for bravery. Did John tell you the answer?

or after a preposition: e.g. Can Jane look after it for me this afternoon? He wont lend his car to them any more.

You use a reflexive pronoun (myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves) to talk about the same person or thing as the subject: e.g.
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I told myself not to be so silly. Frank has hurt himself.

and when you want to emphasize that one person, and no other, does something: And did you build the whole house by yourself? Yes, we had to do it by ourselves because we didnt have enough money to pay a builder. e.g. in some special phrases: e.g. Does she live by herself? - No, her sister lives with her. Enjoy yourself at the dance tonight! Help yourself to some more cake! Make sure those children behave themselves and dont make too much noise.

Personal pronoun I you he she it we you they Object pronoun me you him her it us you them Possessive pronoun mine yours his hers ours yours theirs Possessive adjective my your his her its our your their Reflexive pronoun myself yourself himself herself itself ourselves yourselves themselves

1. Use the possessive pronoun instead of the possessive adjective: a. He is one of my friends. b. Is this one of your little schemes? c. She played one of her old records. d. Thats one of our favourite topics. e. Here, John, meet one of your admirers. f. He took a fancy to one of my cousins. g. Some of their computers got out of order. h. I gave him one of my CDs. i. Was it one of her applications? j. Do you have one of my copies?
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2. Choose the right pronoun: a. Were much stronger than (they/them) at football. b. Just between you and (me/I), its (him/he) Im afraid of, not (she/her). c. Let (we/us) all go for a walk except (she/her), since (she/her) is tired. d. I know youre bigger than (I, me), in fact youre bigger than (we/us) both, but were not afraid of you. e. Youre as tall as (I/me), so you can easily ride my bike, but youre much fatter than either (I/me) or my brother, so we cant lend you a sports jacket. f. Do you think (he/him) is stronger than (I/me)? g. How can you talk to a woman such as (she/her)? h. Its only (we/us), (I/me) and my girl-friend Maisie! i. Help (I/me) carry (she/her), (she/her) has fainted. 3. Insert the missing possessives: a. This doesnt look like .......... book; it must be .......... b. Tell him not to forget ......... tickets; she mustnt forget ....... either. c. Tell me, isnt that ... girl-friend Mary over here? Oh, no, she was .... last week, but ... dog doesnt like me!. d. It was very good chocolate, but Ive eaten up .....; can you give me a little piece of ...? e. They have two of ......... houses in this street, and the house on the corner is also ... f. I see that he has lost ... pencil; perhaps you can lend him .... g. My cake ........ is a very bad one, whats ......... like? (all persons). h. You can take ........ and give me ......... i. John has come to see me; ........ father and ...... were school mates. j. Weve taken ......... share, has she taken .......... ? Translate into English: a. Mie i mamei mele nu ne plac foarte tare dulciurile. b. Mai e mult de ateptat pn la cin. c. Spune c e tot att de nalt ca el. d. Ei ne-au convins s trecem de la ZAPP la ORANGE. e. Dac a fi n locul ei, a face cerere s obin acest post. f. I-am explicat cum stau lucrurile cum m-am priceput mai bine. g. Cu ei eti nedrept, nu cu mine. h. Odihnete-te puin; te ateapt o cltorie lung. i. Maina se ndrepta direct spre ei. j. Ia prea multe asupra lui. k. Sper ca tot ce am vorbit s rmn ntre noi. l. Au ceva bani asupra lor? m. Cineva ca tine ar trebui s dicteze moda (to set the fashion). n. Uite-te i tu n jur, toate locurile sunt ocupate!
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What country would you like to live in? Why? Where would you like to live: an apartment in the city center, a house in the suburbs, a house in the country? Do you like to socialize a lot or prefer your intimacy?

HOUSES & FLATS Estate Agents LOCATION PRICE BEDROOMS RECEPTION ROOMS NURSERY BATHROOM KITCHEN PANTRY GARDEN GARAGE SHOPS TIME TO GET TO THE CENTER DESCRIPTION Suburbs $ 55,000 1 large 2 small A living room with space for a table and a dining room Regular With bathtub Large Adequate Small For two cars 5 minutes away 30 minutes Semi-detached house in a leafy suburb. Quiet residential street close to schools and park. Best of both worlds.

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Estate Agent: Mr. Windfield:

Estate Agent: Mr. Windfield:

Estate Agent:

Would this house suit you. Mr. Windfield? Well, Im not sure. You see, I have a big family: besides myself and my wife, we have three kids, and it is also my mother-in-law ... I think my kids would like to have their grand-mother nearby to take care of them, while their Mom and Dad are out, working. Then, I think it is exactly what you need. Oh, I dont know ... Maybe one more bedroom ... But what about guests? My cousins and my wifes sister and brother are usually checking in every Christmas! Ill definitely need more bedrooms! O.K. Dont worry! Well find something else.

THE AVERAGE BRITISH FAMILY The average British family lives in a semi-detached house with a garden in the south of England. They own their house, which is situated in the suburbs of a large town. The house has three bedrooms. On average they have two children and a pet. The family drives a two-year-old Ford Cortina. He works in the office of an engineering company for 40 hours a week and earns 200 per week. He starts at 9:00 in the morning and finishes at 5:30 in the evening. He goes to work by car, which takes him 20 minutes. He doesnt particularly like his job, but there are chances of promotion. She works in a service industry for three days a week and earns 95. She works locally and goes there by bus. She quite likes her job as it gets her out of the house, she meets people, and it is close to the childrens school. The children go to a state school which is a few miles from home. A special bus comes to pick them up every day. They are at school from 9:00 to 3:30. The most popular evening entertainment is watching television or video, which the average person does for two and a half hours a day. After that, the next most popular activity is visiting friends, going to the cinema or a restaurant, or going to the pub. The most popular hobby is gardening and the most popular sports are fishing, football and tennis. (from Headway Intermediate, OUP)

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Compare the British family with the average family from Romania. Think of the following: house/jobs/hours of work/school/transport/entertainment.

ROLE-PLAY: Work in pairs. Prepare a dialogue together, then act it out. Student A is letting his apartment in a central position. He asks for a high rent and yet he has solid arguments and is optimistic about letting. Student B would like to rent an apartment in a central position, but the supply is rather generous, so he is difficult to persuade. What does knowing a new word mean? It is not enough just to know the meaning of a word. You also need to know: a) what words it is usually associated with; b) whether it has any particular grammatical characteristics; c) how it is pronounced. Try to learn new words not in isolation but in phrases. Write down adjectives together with nouns they are often associated with and vice versa (e.g. royal family; rich vocabulary). Write down verbs with the structure and nouns associated with them (e.g. to add to our knowledge of the subject; to express an opinion). Write down nouns in phrases (e.g. in contact with; a train set; shades of opinion). Write down words with their prepositions (e.g. at a high level; thanks to your help). Note any grammatical characteristics of the words you are studying. For example, note when a verb is irregular and when a noun is uncountable or is only used in the plural. Make a note of any special pronunciation problem with the words youre learning.

1. Work in pairs or groups. Put in missing articles and make any other changes necessary to make complete sentences. A note from Helen to Maggie, January 16.
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Mr. Briggs from restaurant supplies shop phoned. Said he cant deliver fridge and cooker until this afternoon. Ive got to go to the butchers. Can you stay in restaurant, let restaurant supplies man in and wait by phone? Have taken booking for Saturday. Its in reservation book.


Usage a before a consonant or a semivowel an before a vowel or mute h The indefinite article is used: with singular nouns when mentioned for the first time with singular nouns which represent a class of things after the verb to be: - with man, woman, child, etc. - to express nationality, profession in expressions of price, speed, ratio (a/an = per) with certain numbers Examples a man a hat a watch a university a European an apple an egg an uncle an island an hour I live in a nice flat. She has a daughter. A fridge is a very useful thing in our homes A child needs love Dont shout at him! Hes only a child. I am a Romanian. He is an architect. (but He is elected director temporary position) 15p a kilo 65 km an hour six times a day 11,000 a month a dozen a hundred a thousand 1 kilo = one and a half kilos or a kilo and a half (but half a kilo) Its a pity. Its a shame. What a nice man! Such a long way!

in some expressions and exclamations

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Usage Examples The definite article is used: before objects that are unique or well-known the earth the stars the sea the wind before a noun defined by a phrase or clause the shop round the corner the place where I met him before a singular noun which represents a The washing machine has made life class of objects easier for housewives. with adjectives to represent a class of people The old have to be respected. collectively The English have many hobbies. before superlatives, ordinal numbers the best results the first place with proper names: - seas, rivers, group of islands the Pacific the Thames the Azores - chains of mountains, deserts the Carpathians the Sahara - certain countries and cities the Netherlands the Hague - newspapers, ships, hotels the Times the Titanic the Ritz - organisations the European Union the BBC (but Kodak IBM names of companies) - plural surnames (= the whole family) The Johnsons will go on holiday. - names consisting of noun + of + noun the Tower of London the Gulf of Mexico or adjective + noun the British Museum the Far East after prepositions Usage There is no article (& article): before plural nouns before uncountable and abstract nouns before names of meals He laid his notebook on the table.

Examples I bought apples and grapes. Money does not bring happiness. (but: The happiness of the young married was great.) He has bacon and eggs for breakfast. (but: The breakfast I had in that hotel was excellent.) History studies past events. (but: The history of that country is fascinating.) He arrived home. She is at work now. He went to university (to study). She goes to church on Sundays (to pray). He was taken to hospital (as patient). He is at sea (as sailor). I went to town to buy clothes. (but: This is the new home for orphans. Ill wait for you outside the university. The church is a very old building. The hospital was renovated. He goes to the sea every summer.)

before names of subjects before home, work, school/ college/ university, church, hospital, sea, town

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with some proper names: names and surnames continents, countries, regions islands, mountains, lakes cities, towns, streets, parks before noun + numbers

Uncle David Mr Norfolk Asia North America Canada Central Europe Madagascar Everest Lake Ontario London Venice Regent Street Hyde Park chapter 5 page 123 room 476 bus 19 gate 5

1. Which is the correct, (a) or (b)? a. Julie goes to (a) church (b) the church every Sunday. b. Go straight ahead to (a) church (b) the church, then turn left. c. Im a bit upset. Lees in (a) hospital, (b) the hospital. Hes quite ill. d. My sister works at (a) hospital, (b) the hospital. Shes a nurse. e. In Britain, children go to (a) school (b) the school from nine oclock until four oclock every day. f. My wife is away on business in (a) Far East (b) the Far East. g. The highest mountain in (a) the Himalayas (b) Himalayas is (a) Mount Everest (b) the Mount Everest. h. Shes travelling in (a) the Europe (b) Europe and (a) Middle East (b) the Middle East. i. (a) Spaghetti (b) The spaghetti you ate yesterday was for todays dinner. j. I like (a) spaghetti (b) the spaghetti. 2. Fill in the blanks with a or an where necessary. a) My neighbour is .. photographer. b) Theyll pay him .. thousand .. week. Its .. enormous salary, but he is .. managing director after all. c) I have .. hour and .. half for lunch. d) .. friend of mine is expecting a baby. If its .. girl shes going to be called Etheldreda. What .. name to give . girl! e) The lamp is broken. Do you have .. screwdriver? 3. In each pair of sentences, fill in one blank with the, and the other blank with & (no article). 1 A I am not motivated by _____ money. B When are you going to pay back _____ money I lent you? 2 A The scientist could not work out _____ age of fossils.
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3 4 5 6


We never refuse to give someone a job on the basis of _____ age. _____ mistakes you have made cost us a great deal of money. Don't worry. Everybody makes _____ mistakes. This book will give you _____ information you need. CD-ROMs can store large quantities of _____ information. _____ visitors must be accompanied at all times. _____ visitors are on a fact-finding mission from Brazil. _____ Japanese imports are currently at very high levels. It is very difficult to sell to _____ Japanese. THE PLURAL OF NOUNS

Regular nouns - you make the plural by adding -s to the singular noun: day days, price - prices - you add -es to a noun ending in -s, -ss, -sh, -z, -x, -ch, -tch: bus buses (or: busses), buzz - buzzes, fox - foxes, wish - wishes, church - churches, match - matches you add -es to nouns ending in o: tomato - tomatoes, potato potatoes (but: radio - radios, photo - photos, piano pianos)

Irregular nouns - you change nouns ending in a consonant + -y to consonant + -ies: party - parties, baby - babies, story stories) (but: you add -s to a noun ending in vowel + -y: boy boys, donkey - donkeys, storey storeys) - the nouns: calf, half, knife, life, loaf, shelf, thief, wife, wolf, scarf, hoof change -f or -fe into -ves in the plural: life - lives, knife - knives, leaf - leaves (but: roof - roofs, cliff cliffs, handkerchief handkerchiefs)

4. Rewrite the sentences, making the words in brackets plural: Example: Television and newspapers are the mass (medium) of advertising. Television and newspapers are the mass media of advertising. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. He wished to place certain (memorandum) before the committee. The (mouse) were caught by the neighbour's cat. Piano (solo) will be played by Ian Smith. He arranged that his books should contain detailed (appendix). Due to heavy snowfall, (bus) are late. University faculties expect to receive completed (thesis) by the beginning of June. The (thief) broke into the shop but were caught by the (passer-by).
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8. The ships were unloading their (cargo) on to the (wharf). 9. He agreed that these were strange (phenomenon). 10. Many people think that (parent-in-law) should not live alongside the young couple. 5. Which of the nouns below are followed by a singular verb and which are followed by a plural verb? police, news, people, politics, clothes, pyjamas, economics, trousers, glasses, scissors, mathematics, goods, savings, premises. 6. There are three countable nouns in this list. Which are they? (The rest are all uncountable): book knowledge bread love cream progress gold weather jam work oil accommodation snow cupboard wind English wood equipment advice furniture football match homework fun luggage help music travel rubbish health traffic information 7. Fill in the blanks with some or any: Note that some is typically used in affirmative sentences, while any is typically used in interrogative sentences, conditional clauses and sentences with a negated verb or containing words of the type: never, neither, nor, hardly, seldom; adjectives like reluctant, hard, difficult or other adjectives with too; verbs like to prevent, to deny, to fail. Some can replace any in interrogative and negative sentences or conditional clauses when the basic meaning is assertive or when one makes an offer or an invitation.

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Any can be used in affirmative sentences, but with a change of meaning: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. m. If he gives ........ trouble, we will call his parents. I have hardly ............ doubt that he did it. If you would lend me .......... money I should buy myself a dictionary. I had ........... pills recommended to me the other day. If you find us ....... chairs, well sit on the terrace. They failed to turn up at ....... meeting. ......... of the sketches are very good. He has scarcely .... friends in this town. Are you sure you dont want me to make ......... coffee? She denied that she had sold ............ CDs to him. Would you like ............ more salmon? If you have ......... doubts, ask for further explanations. May we have ........... entertainment, too?

8. Put in a/an, some, any or a lot of only where necessary. a. Peter and Alison havent got ______ children. b. ______ children would be ____ problem for them at the moment as they have ________ work to do and they dont have _____ money. c. Unfortunately they dont have _______ interesting hobbies either. I think one of them should have _____ hobby. d. Their lives consist entirely of ______ work. _____ people live like that. e. They arent even interested in ______ travel. Sad, isnt it? 9. Supply some, (a) little, (a) few, much, many: Note that much and many are typically used in interrogative and negative sentences, while in affirmative sentences they may form part of the subject come after too or very: a. b. c. d. e. f. As she was still hungry, she asked for ....... more ham and eggs. Last year I spent the New Years Eve at the seaside; there were .......... people on the beach. Are there .......... lions at the Zoo? Have ..... cake! Did you have ........ difficulties in translating the text? The tea is too sour, you have put too .......... lemon in it.
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g. 8. h. i. j. k.

There are ........ letters for you today. ............. Europeans spend their holidays in Brasil. There are ........... fine shops in this street. His lectures provide ........... opportunities for discussion. Theres very .......... accommodation near the colleges. Very ......... ideas get farther than their inventors.

Words of Wisdom Comment on the following: Home is where the heart is. There is no place like home. East, west, home is best. Lets learn a new word! bungalow a bungalow was originally the house of a European in India, which usually had only one storey. It would have a veranda all around it and a thatched roof to protect the people who lived there from the hot sun. Today, many houses in Britain also have only one storey, and these are known as bungalows. My grandmother has moved to a bungalow, because she finds it difficult to get up and down the stairs.

CHECKLIST 1. Introduce: i) your cousin to a friend of yours. ii) your boss to a foreign business partner. iii) yourself to a new teacher. 2. Use in contexts the following: i) How do you do? ii) What do you do? iii) How are you? 3. What do you use in front of a noun: a possessive adjective or a possessive pronoun? 4. Which of these nouns can be accompanied by an indefinite article and why? butter, news, pity, John. 5. Name ten nouns having an irregular plural form.

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What is a company? What do companies deal with? What companies do you know? Are they success companies or bankrupt companies? What does the success of a company consist in?

A SUCCESS LIFE STORY IN BUSINESS A wartime bomb is exploding in front of Guido Borghis electric-appliance shop in Milan. That means that his 40 years of hard work are wiped out. Borghi is telling his three sons, We have to go back to being hired workmen. I am too old to start all over again. Today at Comerio, some 30 miles north of Milan, stand the headquarters of the multi-million-pound Borghi complex, Italys largest refrigerator manufacturer. Giovanni Borghi keeps everything going with his own boundless energy. He works together with his sons. They are making now hot plates, water heaters and electric irons as well as cookers. From now on there is nowhere for the Borghis to go but up. By day Giovanni and his sons run the business and make deliveries, at night they take products apart to find ways of improving them. They now have more than 4,000 employees. They cooperate with their customers. With the Italian standard of living constantly rising, a mass market is developing for their refrigerators and all their other household and industrial
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products. To mass-produce successfully at the right price, to cut costs, Borghis make new investments of most of their fortune. The output rises constantly. Day by day they prove to be more efficient. Despite the success of their business, the Borghis live a simple life. All they earn is put back into the business, either to develop new products and new factories or to improve the employees welfare. Giovannis greatest pride and joy is the six-storeyed ultra-modern home built on the factory premises for 450 apprentices between 16 and 21. A luxury apartment block in appearance, the hostel has dormitories, study and game rooms, an assembly hall where films are shown, and athletics facilities together with many other company facilities for employees. Giovanni Borghi always plays to win, whether in his business or in his other undertakings. His favourite remark to his younger employees is: Every one of you can become like me. The important thing is never to treat success like a comfortable armchair. (based on Indro Montanelli, Italys Biggest Enterprises)

1. 2. 3. 4. Why are the Borghis ruined? Do they really go bankrupt? Where are their companys headquarters? What do they manufacture and what do they expand their products to? Why are their products efficient? What contributes to the efficiency of their products? 5. Which is the key of Giovannis success in business? 1. Fill in the gaps with suitable words from the text: The Borghis have to everything because a bomb is exploding in front of their shop. The companys are at Comerio. They are making refrigerators, cookers, electric irons, washing-machines . They put back into the business all they because they want to new and new and to improve their employees . The companys between 16 and 21 live in beautiful and well-equipped . Giovannis success key is to work ceaselessly and not to treat like a comfortable .

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2. Italian is the adjective from the proper noun of country Italy. Give the adjectives from these nouns: Portugal Romania Hungary Thailand Belgium Holland Switzerland Vietnam Iceland Mexico France Chile Wales Pakistan 3. Fill in the gaps in the following sentences: Example: Juan comes from Spain. He is a Spaniard and he speaks Spanish. a. Birgit comes from Denmark. She is a . and she speaks b. Zafer comes from Turkey. He is a .. and he speaks . c. Michael comes from Greece. He is a .. and he speaks . d. Anita comes from Sweden. She is a ... and she speaks . e. Eleanor comes from Scotland. She is a .. and she speaks f. Shuhei comes from Japan. He is a .. and he speaks . g. Iris comes from Finland. She is a ... and she speaks 4. Mr. Scott, a companys manager, is offering a 15,000 interest-free loan. An interest-free loan is a loan that is free of interest. Use similar compound adjectives to express the following ideas: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. a job that consumes a lot of time .. an event forgotten for a long time a flower that smells sweet a suit made by a tailor .. a plane that flies high ... goods that are free of tax .. a child who is seven years old ..

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5. Look at the words in the box, which have certain similarities in meaning. Put each word into its appropriate sentence: trade job practise 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. business profession vocation living craft industry commerce

He qualified as an economist in 1995, and set up a good ..... in London. After leaving school, he. in a solicitors office. I like my son to take over the . when I retire. Nursing is not just a job; it is a .., calling for much self-sacrifice and devotion. She earns her ... by telling fortunes at the seaside. The ancient . of weaving has been carried on in these islands for centuries. My uncle Joshua has worked in the local Chamber of . since he graduated from Oxford. Our mark is a circle with the letters G L inside it. There are a lot of Scotsmen in the medical .. Its a dirty, smoky city, as there is a lot of heavy .. on the outskirts.

6. Read the following text about BICC and make the company profile: BICC is a large multinational with about forty thousand employees world-wide and a turnover of approximately three billion pound. The groups main activities are construction and manufacture of cables. The group has five different divisions. Balfour Beatty is Britains leading construction company with a turnover of around $ 1,700 m. The company is famous for its work constructing motorways, buildings and of course, the channel tunnel. Another division is BICC Cables. They are the largest manufacturer of fibre optic cables in Europe and they now own the Italian company Ceat Cavil, CelCat in Portugal; part of CGC in Spain and KVC in the former East Germany. BICC Cables is expanding fast in Asia too and it has a turnover of $ 1,103 m. Make also a profile of each division of the multinational company BICC.

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7. Fill in the spaces using the words below: divided into division retail subsidiary manufactures employs

ICL is a . of Fujitsu, which is a an 82% shareholder in the parent company. The company . a total of 12,000 people. ICL group consist of twenty-nine autonomous companies. Each company has its own Managing Director. The group is . three divisions. The first is Industry Systems. This division produces business solutions (software) for ICIs customers. The second is Technology, which computers and components. The third . is Services, which sells computer services, like maintenance and training. ICL operates in six different target markets: . - thats shops, supermarkets and so on; financial services; local and central government; healthcare; manufacturing; travel and transport.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

What is a holding or parent company? What is a subsidiary? What is a division? What does the group consist of? What is a company made up of? Where do the companies of a group operate in? What is a target market?

8. Ask questions about the building and the facilities of a company, using the words below and beginning with: Is the building ? There is a/an There are . Is there a/an .? Are there ..? Are they any .? There isnt a/an. There arent any. There are no modern separate rooms for smokers staff restaurant large car park facilities for disabled staff near a railway station lifts bus stop nearby noisy crche air conditioning system sport or recreational facilities cold in winter nice to work in
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Practice: Make comments in your own words about each of the qualities of a company building and about its facilities. 9. Study the organization of a company: Human resources Training Production Production Marketing Marketing Finance Buying or Purchasing Customer Account Financial Services

Personnel Wages and Salaries

Packaging Distribution or Dispatch Quality

After-Sales Research and Development Advertising


Now read attentively the definitions below and specify which department: 1. puts the products in boxes and crates? 2. places ads in magazines? 3. pays the staff? 4. purchases supplies? 5. sells the products to customers? 6. plans how to sell new products? 7. services the machines and equipment? 8. arranges courses for the staff? 9. recruits new employees? 10. manufactures the products? 11. invoices customers? 12. looks after customers problems and complaints? 13. dispatches the products and sends them to customers? 14. organises control systems to prevent mistakes? 15. deals with taxation, investment and cash management?
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PRESENT TENSES Read the following paragraph about the company Marks & Spencer: Marks & Spencer, the British food and clothes company, is the most famous British shop in the world. At the moment, there are M & S shops in Britain, and other shops in France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Spain, Portugal and Eastern Europe. Currently, they are building a large new store in Paris on the Rue de Rivoli. In North America, the company owns Brooke Brothers and there are about fifty stores in Canada. More and more people, from Hong Kong to Lisbon, are buying their clothes and food from M & S. The clothes vary from country to country. Food departments sell typically British food: tea, cakes, biscuits etc., and shops in Paris are very popular at lunchtime as they sell sandwiches. SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE 1. Use simple present tense in the following sentences, to show permanent activities: Example: M & S sells food and clothes. Does M & S sell food and clothes? It does not/doesnt sell food and clothes.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Steve, an engineer, works for an oil company. Monika, a journalist, writes for an Italian newspaper. Louisa, an airhostess, travels all over the world with an American airline. Juan, a businessman from Madrid, exports Spanish antiques, an unusual job. Mikis, and Yiannis, architects, design houses in Athens.

2. Simple present tense is also used with time adverbials to express frequent, habitual, actions. Example: Steve, to watch television, every day Does Steve watch television every day?

1. They, to drink coffee, every morning; 2. You, to cook Chinese food, on Sundays; 3. We, to visit friends, at the weekend; 4. She, to go to work, daily;
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5. They, to visit a foreign country, every summer; 6. Steve, to run to his office, every day. 3. The adverbs of frequency (always, usually, often ) are often used with simple present tense. Their place is either between subject and predicate or after the verb to be. Example: I, an umbrella, carry, often; I often carry an umbrella. He, late, always, is. He is always late. The English, breakfast, at, speak, seldom; He, never, to be, in, interested, conferences; They, punctual, their, morning, in, the, at, normally, be, offices; Generally, she, own, her, forget, age; We, play, sometimes, Sunday, morning, on, tennis.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

4. Simple present is also used in Time Clauses to express the future after when, before, till, until, as soon as, immediately, by the moment Model: When you come, Ill be ready.

1. These gates will remain shut until the train ....(pass). 2. By the time he .. (get back) from his business trip, his
wife will have cleaned the house. 3. It is said that one Englishman will not speak to another till they .. (be introduced). 4. Ill ring you up whenever I ... (have) time. 5. As soon as she .... (learn) to type, Ill get her a job. PRESENT CONTINOUS TENSE 1. We use present continuous tense to express a temporary action, to indicate a temporary behaviour and an action which annoys the speaker. Example: She is not writing now, she is speaking on the phone.
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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

I usually teach literature, but .. (teach) grammar this year. Why (be) so upset? Whats the matter with you? You .. (be) very unrealistic, life is not such. She .. (always, talk) on the phone when I come to see her. He .. (continually, lose) his glasses and (ask) me to look for them.

2. Use present continuous tense to describe personal fixed plans and appointments in the near future:

1. 2. 3. 4.

I .. (fly) to Paris on Friday. They .. (have dinner) with the sales team tonight. .. you .. (do) anything this evening? No, Im not. We .. (have breakfast) at 7.00 tomorrow because Tom doesnt want to miss the early train. 5. Where .. you (go) at the weekend? Dont you want to pay me a visit? 3. Use simple present or present continuous:

1. I . (hear) music. It .. (sound) fine. 2. I .. (think) he is a good man. 3. You .. (hear) from your daughter? 4. I .. (think) of his parents. How are they now? 5. You .. (be) rude today! 6. You cant see the manager now, he .. (to have) an interview. 7. He .. (usually, speak) so quickly. I .. (not understand) what he .. (say) now. 8. You .. (enjoy) yourself or you .. (like) to leave now? 9. I .. (enjoy) myself very much. I .. (want) to stay to the end. 10. .. (come) with me for a walk? ..(mind) if I bring my dog?
Translate into English: Ce-i determin pe oameni s munceasc? Pare evident c oamenii muncesc numai pentru a se hrni i a se mbrca. Dar exist ci de a-i determina s munceasc pentru mai mult dect att. Dar mai muli bani i mai multe beneficii nu

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duc automat la o productivitate crescut. Primul lor efect este s ncurajeze oamenii s rmn n slujb, nu s produc mai mult sau s fie fericii. Managerii se gndesc s dea oamenilor slujbe potrivite talentelor individuale. n cazul banilor ca stimulent, oamenii muncesc pentru ei pn la un punct - s-i satisfac concepiile personale de via bun. Exist teoreticieni care pretind c banii i beneficiile sunt stimulente negative, absena lor i face pe oameni nefericii, dar prezena lor nu-i face mai productivi. Aceiai teoreticieni spun c banii conteaz doar mpreun cu performana individual. Pentru a stimula angajaii, multe companii i atrag n procesul de luare a deciziilor, aa nct ei s-i poat raporta elurile personale la cele ale companiei. n multe cazuri sugestiile salariailor sunt aplicate de ctre patroni cu succes. Remember! The following verbs cannot be used in the continuous aspect. Some of these verbs can be used in the continuous aspect with different meanings:
VERBS VERBS WITH DIFFERENT MEANINGS IN THE CONTINUOUS ASPECT Verbs of senses: to smell, to taste, to feel, when they express a voluntary action; The verb to see = to visit, the verb to hear = to hear from (to have news from somebody); Verbs of mental activity: to think, to understand, to believe, to expect, to remember, to suppose; Verbs of feeling: to like, to dislike, to love, to hate, to loathe, to mind; 48
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Verbs of senses when they show an involuntary action: to see, to hear, to smell, to taste, to feel, to sound, to look;

Im feeling the material to see if it is real silk.

Im seeing my family on Sunday. Are you hearing from your sister? Im thinking about my summer holidays. Im expecting a present from Santa Claus. Im loving/enjoying this party. Im liking school better now.

The verb to think when it doesnt express ideas but recollections; The verb to expect = to wait for; The verbs to like, to love, to enjoy when they dont express permanent states but a short period of time;

Verbs expressing will: to want, to wish, to refuse, to prefer; Verbs of possession: to have, to belong to, to own, to possess, to contain, to hold, to consist of; Other verbs: to matter, to depend upon, to deserve, to resemble To be

The verb to have in different expressions.

Dont disturb him! Hes having lunch.

The verb to be when it expresses a temporary behaviour.

I cant understand why you are being so rude today!

Lets have fun! Its the first day at university. Lecturer: Whats your nationality? Student: Its difficult to say. Lecturer: What do you mean? Student: Well, you see, my father is Polish, my mother Hungarian, and I was born on a Russian ship, in Romanian waters, under the Turkish flag.

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Do you believe in good luck or in hard work? Which are the qualities of a hard-working person? Do you think that work is always rewarded? Why? Why not? Give examples from your personal experience.

NOTHING TO SELL AND NOTHING TO BUY Patricia: They say that everyone lives by selling something. Im sure this is true. Jeffrey: So am I. In the light of this statement, teachers live by selling knowledge and priests by selling spiritual comfort. Patricia: I think the value of material goods may be measured in terms of money, but its extremely difficult to estimate the true value of the services which people perform for us. Jeffrey: So do I. There are times when we willingly give everything we own to save our lives, but we bear a grudge against doctors as we have to pay them. I dont agree with grudge-bearing persons. Patricia: Neither do I. I neither like that kind of persons, nor want to meet them. The conditions of society are such that skills have to be paid for in the same way that goods are paid for at a shop. Everyone has something to sell. Jeffrey: Yes, youre right! But what about tramps? They seem to be the only exception to this general rule. I dont mean beggars, who almost sell themselves as human beings to arouse the pity of passers-by. Patricia: I dont like them either. But real tramps are not beggars. Jeffrey: Yes, they only seek independence. They deliberately choose to lead the life they lead and are fully aware of the consequences. Patricia: Then why do we often speak with contempt of? I think there are a lot of people who cant honestly admit they feel a little envious of their simple way of life. Jeffrey: So do I, youre right! (based on Alexander, Developing Skills, Longman)
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What do teachers and priests sell? How do we measure the values of material goods? Are skills paid for in the same way as goods are?

1. Speak about ways of earning ones living through hard work and ways of earning ones living through other ways. Explain the difference among these verbs, all of them including the idea to make money: to earn, to gain, to get, to win, to cash, to economize, to invest, to save, to speculate, to transact. 2. Make two columns: employed and unemployed. Which of the following words and phrases have to belong to each column: dismiss, fire, hire, promote, resign, retire, suspend, sack, kick out, strike, employment, industrious, fail, profit, inactive, on the dole, out of work, scrupulous, idle, serious, thorough, indolent, make someone redundant?

1. Read these ads about used cars sale. Then use so is and neither: Audi Quattro 2000, blue, 5-door, radio, excellent condition, taxed until December. 4,725 Renault Megane 2001, automatic, red, 5-door, sunroof, CD player, taxed until September. 6,525 Porsche GT3 1996, red, 4-door, sunroof, excellent condition. 4,875 Hyunday Accent 2000, dark blue, 4-door, CD player, air bag, ABS brakes, excellent condition. 8,125

Example: The Audi is a 2000 model. So is the Hyunday.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The Audi is in excellent condition. The Hyunday is blue. The Porsche isnt taxed. The Renault isnt a 5-door model. The Porsche is red.
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2. Read these ads about Job vacancies. Then write sentences using so do/does or neither do/does A Secretary/PA with good shorthand/PC skills and fluent French required for Sales Manager on international company. The job involves travel and a lot of organization work. Excellent salary, modern offices in Victoria, five weeks holiday. Ring Susan Gill 01-636-0239. B Legal Personal Assistant, 8800 pound. Busy solicitors office in West End. Good shorthand/PC and legal experience essential. Excellent working conditions, 5 weeks holiday. Please contact Mr. J. Banks. Tel. 01-629-9923. C Audio Secretary for overseas Dept. of City Bank. Previous banking experience, spoken and written French essential. Some travel involved. Salary negotiable. Excellent working conditions. 5 weeks holiday. Telephone Michael Hill 01-453-9785. D Secretary (Audio), 8,000 pound, required for Fashion Company with offices in Mayfair. No previous experience in fashion necessary. The job involves travel in UK. Current driving licence essential. If you have good PC and audio skills and an ability to organize, contact Jane Weathers 01-34-7111. We offer 4 weeks holiday and luncheon vouchers.

Example: Job A requires French. So does Job C. Job A doesnt offer flexible working hours. Neither do Jobs B and C

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Job A requires good shorthand. Job C doesnt state the salary. Job A offers 5 weeks holiday. Job B requires previous experience. Job A doesnt offer luncheon vouchers. Job B offers excellent working conditions. Job A doesnt require a driving licence. Job D requires ability to organize.
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3. Translate into English: Jeffrey: Nu merg la petreceri prea des. Patricia: Nici eu. Ursc ncperile aglomerate. Jeffrey: i eu. Nu sunt un amator de petreceri, ntr-adevr. Patricia: Nici eu. Nu m pricep la conversaie. Jeffrey: Nici eu. Sunt un gen de persoan linitit. Patricia: i eu. Locuiesc singur ntr-o garsonier. Jeffrey: i eu. i nu am muli prieteni. Patricia: Nici eu. i vreau foarte mult un prieten bun, ntr-adevr. Jeffrey: Oh, i eu.

Remember! Conjunctions Structures The conjunctions either, neither, nor and so express emphatic alternatives in addition to remarks.
REMEMBER When a negative verb is repeated with a new subject, either may be placed at the end of the sentence. This can be more clearly expressed by using neither/nor + auxiliary verb in the affirmative + subject. The same construction can be expressed in the affirmative with so. EXAMPLE He doesnt go. She doesnt go. He doesnt go and she doesnt go either. He doesnt go. Neither does she. He doesnt go and nor does she.

He goes and so does she.

Lets have fun! Story This is a story about the well-known millionaire, John D. Rockefeller and is told by a friend of his. This friend said that though Rockefeller gave away millions, Rockefeller himself was very mean about small sums of money.
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One day he went to stay at a hotel in New York and asked for the cheapest room they had. Rockefeller said What is the price of the room?. The manager told him. And which floor is it on?. Again the manager told him. Is that the lowest priced room you have? I am staying here by myself and only need a small room. The manager said, That room is the smallest and cheapest we have, and added, But why do you choose a poor room like that? When your son stays here he always has our most expensive room; yours is our cheapest. Yes, said Rockefeller, but his father is a wealthy man; mine isnt.
CHECKLIST 1. Comment on the following statement: Never treat success like a comfortable chair. 2. State the difference between wages and salaries. 3. Choose the correct verb form: i) The Prime Minister meets/is meeting the foreign delegation at 10 a.m. ii) I meet/am meeting my friends every Saturday. 4. What important information should a job vacancy ad contain? 5. What is a holding company?

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In groups discuss the following questions:

Do you think that the number of students should be greater? Do you think education should be free? Are there advantages in a private educational system? Is a diploma necessary to get well-paid jobs? What other ways are there to get qualifications? Complete these sentences with a word or expression to do with education from the box below:

1 2 3 4

Margaret had left school and was anxious to go to to study architecture. The .. are preparing their first exams. Joan attends the business courses regularly, so she is a .. student. When he finished the law studies, Christian was awarded a . to become a lawyer.
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5 6 7

In order to go on to ... or vocational training, pupils usually take two or three A level examinations. Frank is among the best students and he is going to receive a .. In the States the . are quite high, so private colleges and universities are rather expensive.

grant college full-time tuition fees undergraduates higher education qualification READING
Work in pairs. Student A should use the information below and Student B should look at the information in File 1 on page 204.

There are forty-seven universities in Britain and thirty polytechnics, plus 350 colleges and institutes of higher education. Undergraduate courses normally take three years of full-time study, although a number of subjects take longer, including medicine, architecture and foreign languages (where courses include a year abroad). They lead in most cases to a Bachelors degree in Arts or Science (BA or BSc). Students of law, architecture and some other professions can take qualifications that are awarded by their own professional bodies instead of degrees. There are also various postgraduate degrees, including Master of Arts or Philosophy (MA or MPhil) and Doctor of Philosophy (PhD). Universities accept students mainly on the basis of their A levels, although they may interview them as well. At present, students who have been accepted by universities or other institutions of higher education receive a grant from their local authority, which covers the cost of the course, and may cover living expenses, books and travel, although parents with higher incomes are expected to make a contribution. Before1990 the grant was paid back, but since then a system of loans has been introduced. (adapted from Britain Explored, Longman)

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Complete the chart. Then compare the educational system in UK or the USA with the educational system in our country. UK USA Romania Courses Degrees Admission Tuition fees Concerns

Write a paragraph describing some of the main differences .

1. In pairs decide whether the following statements are true () or false ( ). Medicine, architecture and foreign languages are studied for three years. Students are only accepted based on entrance examinations. The grant received by students is being paid back at present. High schools and colleges are not attended by many Americans. Education is considered vital to the American ideal. Not so many people think that the quality of education is a problem that must be addressed. 2. Do you know what the following abbreviations stand for? BSc, PhD, VIP, CD, GMT, MA, Washington, D.C., SOS, IT, p.m., e.g., i.e. Can you add some more? 1 2 3 4 5 6

Clippings are some words normally used in an abbreviated form in informal situations. exam (examination) TV or telly (television) lab (laboratory) board (blackboard)
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fridge (refrigerator) rep (representative)


phone (telephone) ad/advert (advertisement)

fax (facsimile)

memo (memorandum)

You take / do / sit an exam. If you are well prepared, youll pass / do well in your exam. If you skip seminars, youll probably fail / do badly in the exam. Therefore, before an exam its a good idea to revise for it. When you pass all your exams, you graduate from university youre a graduate. 1. Look up the following terms specific to the US education system: sophomore freshman junior senior 2. Here are some words related to education and training. Put them in columns under these headings: degrees, subjects, education institutions, teachers

statistics professor college economics bachelor master university accounting tutor postgraduate lecturer geography high school international business doctor polytechnics reader

3. Correct the following sentences: 1 I cant come out. Im studying. Im passing an examination tomorrow. 2 Congratulations! I hear you succeeded your exam! 3 Shes a professor in a high school. 4 He left university and now hes an economist.

1. Put in the prepositions in, at or on. 1 Nick was so bored, he had nothing to do ____ the weekend. 2 Derek went swimming ____ Sunday morning and _____ the evening he played bridge. 3 I took my annual holiday in August, but I had a few days off ____ Christmas as well. 4 I was born ____ 1954.
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5 6 7

I was born ____26 March 1954. The house was built ____ the eighteenth century. Angela got up very early ____ the morning to set out on her trip and she arrived in Brighton quite late ____ night. I was six years old.

2. Write an appropriate question for these answers. Example: How old were you when you started school? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 . I went to two schools. . The first was a junior school, the second was a high school. No, I didnt. I wasnt quite happy at school. I took A levels when I was 17. Yes, I did. I went to Oxford University Sociology . I studied there for four years. .. I graduated in 1977.

SIMPLE PAST 3. Put the verbs in the correct tense and fill in the spaces. All the verbs are irregular.
write Infinitive letters a mistake care a report an ice-cream wrote Simple past a memo a decision a photograph a magazine a new CD Past participle written your resignation noise a chance through the handbook tickets 59
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a lecture attention out for lunch a car three languages the class someone off your best the bell fast your job

a present the rent on holiday carefully up to rain the point business with someone up a company a bet

your opinion taxes on a trip someone crazy slowly work early someone later homework back later a campaign your temper

4. Put either for or since with these time expressions. a b c d e f g h . a long time . six days . my last birthday . the end of the holidays . ages . I came to England . the last few days . the day I met you

PAST SIMPLE AND PRESENT PERFECT Before 1990 the grant was paid back, but since then a system of loans has been introduced. When was the grant paid back? How long has a system of loans been introduced? Past Simple 1990 Present Perfect now

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Compare the following sentences. a Hes lived in the countryside for seven years. (He still lives there.) He lived in the countryside for seven years. (Now he lives somewhere else.) b The company produced gramophones.(It cant produce any more.) The company has produced software. (It can produce some more.) c Have you seen Tom anywhere this morning? (Its still morning.) Did you see Tom this morning? (Its afternoon or evening.)

SIMPLE PAST OR PRESENT PERFECT 5. Write the questions using present perfect or past simple. Look at the answers first. Example: How long / Sarah / live / in France? How long has Sarah lived in France? Since 1990 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 When / be the last time / you / have / a holiday? .. How long / you / know / Doris? .. How long / Daniel / be / a student? ... What time / you / finish work? How long / you / write / your report last night? When / Chris / leave / for the airport? . When / Norman / take / these photos? ..

Last year. Two years. Since last year. At 6.00 p.m. All evening. Ten minutes ago. Last summer.

6. In the dialogue below, put the verbs into the simple past or the present perfect, as shown in the example. A: Could I have a word about your trip to Warsaw? B: Certainly. Is everything all right?
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A: Yes. Your tickets 1) have arrived (arrive) and theyre with my secretary. And I 2) ...(just/have) a fax from the hotel confirming your reservation. B: Thank you. What about money? A: I 3) ... (already/order) some zloty for you. I 4) ... (ring) the bank yesterday, and theyll have them tomorrow. But theres a problem with your Eurocheque book. I 5) . (ask) them to send one a week ago, but it 6) (not/arrive) yet. B: Thats all right. I 7) . (never/need) a Eurocheque before. I normally use a credit card. A: Really? Are you sure you can do that? B: I think so. Certainly when I 8) . (go) to Austria last September I 9) . (take) my Visa card and my MasterCard, and I 10) (not/have) any problems. But Ill check about Poland. 11) . (you/ever/be) there? A: No, but Ill have a word with Jennifer Cooper in Marketing. She 12) (be) there a couple of times, so I expect she would know. PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE OR PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS? 7. Underline the correct form of the verb. Remember that some verbs cannot be used in the continuous aspect. Example: I didnt realize that you and David were friends. How long have you known/been knowing him?

1. Peter is a natural salesman. He has sold/has been selling eight insurance policies since the beginning of the week. 2. The French visitor has arrived/been arriving at the airport for half an hour! You have to leave immediately to pick him up. 3. We have waited/have been waiting for Helen for one hour. I guess she wont come at all. 4. This report is a nightmare. I have written/have been writing it for two weeks, and it is still not finished.
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5. Ive stayed/been staying in a hotel for a week, but I hope to find an apartment of my own. 6. I wonder how Jim is getting on. I havent heard/been hearing from him for nearly a month. 7. Marion has had/been having this car for eight years, but I think it wont need to be repaired too soon.

8. Complete the questions and answer about George Thomsons life using Past Simple and Present Perfect. p. 56 1949 1960 1965 1967 1971 1972 1975 1976 1980 1987 1989 1992 1994 1995 2002 (now) born in Manchester starts Garibaldi Grammar School, meets his best friend Harry moves to London sales representative for Fancy Clothes Manufacturer marries Sophie, a French librarian moves to France, teaches English his son Thomas born, returns to England gets a job as sales representative for WH Smith bookshops his daughter Clementine born, moves to detached house in Cambridge UK Manager for Cambridge Publishers made redundant meets Harry again, offered a job as Marketing Director with Harrys company St Jeromes Publishers St Jeromes Publishers goes bankrupt starts market stall selling clothes still selling clothes at Portobello market

1. Which school did he go to? Garibaldi Grammar School. 2. How long ... Harry? Since ..... . 3. How .... to Sophie? For thirty-one years. 4. What .. in France? He ... English.
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5. When . to England? After .. born. 6. How many times .... . in his life. as sales representative?

7. Where ... to after Clementine was born? A house in Cambridge. 8. How .. clothes? Since .. . 9. . George a successful career? No, he hasnt, because 9. A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Complete the sentences by matching a line from A with a line from B. B Although these clothes are expensive a) in spite of his age. Though the results are encouraging b) they are bought by a lot of people. Despite the lack of resources c) though he had no qualifications. He would walk for hours d) the company did not go bankrupt. He got the job e) they do not get the best marks. Although they learn more f) they are not enough for real success.

Remember! Past tense vs. present perfect Present perfect indefinite time How long have you prepared it? for a long time. Ive prepared it lately. since yesterday. recently. She has just left. Ive already seen it. I havent seen it yet.
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Past simple definite time When did you prepare it? yesterday. I prepared it two weeks ago. in 1995. at one oclock. when I last saw him. for two years.

Work in pairs. Student A should use the information below and Student B should look at the information in File 2 on page 205. Then answer the following questions:

Which university is the oldest, Cambridge or Harvard? Which college is the oldest? Which college is the most recent? Which college is the most famous? Which institute is best placed in science and technology?

Cambridge must be one of the best-known universities in the world. The renowned English institution started during the 13th century and grew steadily, until today there are more than twenty colleges. Most of them allow visitors to enter the grounds and courtyards. The oldest college, Peterhouse, was founded in 1284, and the most recent, Robinson College, was opened in 1977. The most famous is probably Kings, because of its magnificent chapel. Its choir of undergraduates is also very well known. Every year thousands of students from overseas come to Cambridge to study English in the first place. Each year in May there are the Eight Weeks of various sporting events, among which the most celebrated is the boat-race Oxford v. Cambridge. It was first rowed in 1829 and has became a regular event since 1856. To the North of this ancient city is the modern face of the University the Cambridge Science Park, which has developed in response to the need for universities to increase their contact with high technology industry. It was established in 1970 by Trinity College, which has a long scientific tradition going back to Sir Isaac Newton. Cambridge Science Park is now a centre of more than sixty companies and research institutes.

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American English Cambridge Science Park is now a centre of more than sixty companies and research institutes. (British English) Cambridge remains a center of intellectual life, especially since its become home to MIT. (American English) Here are some of the main difference both in spelling and vocabulary between the two:
Spelling British English metre, theatre colour, humour programme, dialogue analyse, organise defence, licence traveller, jewellry through, plough cheque encyclopaedia skilful, fulfil grey pyjamas American English meter, center color, humor program, dialog analyze, organize defense, license traveler, jewelry thru, plow check encyclopedia skillful, fulfill gray pajamas Vocabulary British English petrol lorry luggage holiday pavement lift term motorway (bank)note underground ground floor autumn American English gas(oline) truck baggage vacation sidewalk elevator semester freeway bill subway first floor fall

1. If you read words spelt in the following way, would the writer be British or American? 1) labor 2) fibre 3) centralized 4) movie theater 5) endeavour 6) thru 2. Turn the following into British English: 1. Weve run out of gas in the freeway. 2. Were leaving by subway. 3. Im looking forward to my vacation. 4. He put his baggage into the truck. 5. When does the fall semester start? 6. She bought a nice apartment on the first floor. 7. Can you change this bill for me?
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Do you know any other examples of American English? Make a list at an appropriate place in your vocabulary notebook or file. 3. What is the comparative/superlative of the following adjectives? simple large fat easy difficult good cheap lucky profitable


4. Choose the correct form of the comparative / superlative: 1. Could you tell me what the nearest/ next underground station is? 2. For any farther/ further information do not hesitate to contact us. 3. There are two answers to this question, but only the later/ latter is convenient. 4. My uncle is the eldest/ oldest son of seven brothers. 5. The last/ latest trends of the market are encouraging. 6. The nearest/ next lecture will be given by a renowned professor. 7. The last / latest people who arrived to the meeting couldnt find any vacant seats. 8. The expedition reached farther/further than all the previous ones. 9. The archaeologist found the oldest/eldest remains of the ancient civilisation. 10. Later/ latter events proved him right. 5. Write the correct question. Then give true answers to some questions about you. Use the superlative + the present perfect. Example: My holiday in Greece last (What / good / holiday / you have?) year. Whats the best holiday youve ever had? 1. (What / exciting / experience / you / have?) .... 2. (Who / remarkable person / you / meet?) . 3. (What / fast car / you / drive?) ..
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4. (What / expensive thing / you / buy?) ... 5. (What / useless present / you / get?) 6. (What / unusual food / you/ eat?) 6. Write sentences comparing the following items. Example: The project I work for / the last project (big) The project I work for is bigger than the last project I worked for. (small) It is not as small as the last project I worked for. 1. My office / my colleagues office (large) (small) 2. The job I do now / my last job (easy to do) (hard to do) 3. The new software programme / the old one (cheap) (expensive) 4. This meal / the one I had last night (bad) (good) .. 5. Our profit this year / their profit (little) .. (much) . 7. Only two of these comparatives sentences are correct. Correct the mistakes where necessary. Example: He left more early than she did. He left earlier than she did. 1. 2. 3.
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His car is moderner than mine. . Its a bit hotter today. . My friend lives much more far away now. ....

4. 5. 6. 7.

Is this more interesting as his latest exhibition? ... My brother is so tall as me. .. I paid less than you for the holiday. ... The chess player was more smart then the computer. ...

8. Study the information contained in the following chart and then complete the passage below, using the comparative or superlative forms of the adjectives: much, little, high, low, near (some of them appear twice).

564 283 148 Belgium 369 202 119 Greece 152 Holland 105 Ireland 164 58 Portugal 70 149






The chart above illustrates the different levels of per capita expenditure on leisure activities for some EU member countries in 1997. As you can see, the (1).. amount spent was by the Portuguese with the Spaniards in (2).. position at 70 EUs. Amongst those nations who spent the (3) .... on this type of product were the Irish who were almost two hundred EUs ahead of their rivals, the Danish. In comparison, the expenditure of the Belgians was only half that of the (4) amount. Both the British and the Dutch were by five ecus (5) ... or (6) ... than the EU national average of 149.

1. Match a line in A with a line in B. A Shall we meet this afternoon at 3 oclock? Sorry Im late. I got held up in the traffic. Did I miss anything? Could I have the bill, please?
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1. 2. 3.



4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Have you heard that they are opening a new mall downtown? How long did it take you to do the homework? Could you fill it up? What a nice coat! Is it expensive? Can you tell me the area code for Stockholm? Would you mind opening the window? Hi, Michael! I havent seen you for ages! How are things going? Who was that came to give us a lecture yesterday? Lets take a break now, shall we? B Certainly, sir. Ill bring it straight away. Ages. What about you? Not at all. Its very hot in here. It cost an absolute fortune! Sorry. I cant make it then. What about a bit later? Really? Ill go there to see it with my own eyes. Nice to see you too. Well, I cant complain. What about you? One moment. Ill just look it up. I have no idea, but she seemed fine to me. Sure. Shall I check the oil as well? Absolutely! Ive grown quite tired with all these exercises. Its all right. Youre here now. Come and sit down.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

2. Choose the best answer, A, B, C or D a) Could you . me some money until tomorrow? A borrow B let C present D lend b) She has a very good job. Im sure she over twenty thousand pounds. A gains B earns C receives D wins c) How long does your . to work take? A travel B journey C trip D voyage
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d) The . of living will only go up. It wont go down. A price B value C cost D expense e) While I was skiing, I .. and broke my wrist. A fell B felt C feel D fallen f) Use your time sensibly. Dont it on trifles. A spend B pass C lose D waste j) Jump in the car. Theres enough . for you. A room B place C seat D space Remember! COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES
Adjective of one syllable Adjectives of two syllables ending in er, le, ow, y Positive Comparative Superlative big, clever, gentle, narrow, happy bigger, cleverer, gentler, narrower, happier biggest, cleverest, gentlest, narrowest, happiest Wales is as interesting as Scotland. All remaining adjectives generous more generous most generous They are not as expensive as hotels. The Andes are the tallest in America. The least expensive holidays are often the most interesting of all.

Structures of comparison

Holiday camps are cheaper than hotels. Yet chalets are less expensive than camps. The more we are, the merrier we shall be. The communications are faster and faster.


good, well bad, ill much, many The statistics are better than last year. The weather was worse this time. More people speak English today than ever. Love story was a best-seller. Their solution is the worst of all. Gold is a most precious metal. 71
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little, few old

We have less time to read than before. My brother is older than I am. He is the elder brother. Saturn is farther than Mars. Further discussion is useless. Kate was nearer the truth than Jane. I arrived later than I expected. I like the latter project.

She likes physics least of all subjects. Oxford is the oldest university in UK. Mark is the eldest son in the family. Pluto is the farthest planet. It was the furthest point debated. Victoria is the nearest station. My cousin lives next door. The latest fashion is very simple. The last time I saw him was in May.

far near late

Lets learn some new expressions! In group A you will find common expression you could hear in conversation, television and film. Can you match each of them with the meaning in group B?
GROUP A Its all in the melting pot. Its like looking for a needle in a haystack. 3. Its an uphill struggle. 4. Its a storm in a teacup. 5. Hes got hold of the wrong end of the stick. 6. Hes over the moon. 7. He cant get a leg to stand on. 8. Hes like a bear with a sore head. 9. Hes got plenty on his plate. 10. He gets under everyones skin. 1. 2. GROUP B a) He cant justify. b) Its very difficult to keep going. c) Hes very unpleasant to be with. d) Hes misunderstood it. e) Hes really happy and excited. f) g) h) i) j) No decisions have yet been taken. He really annoys other people. Its an almost impossible task. Hes got a lot to do. Its a lot of fuss and commotion about nothing.

CHECKLIST 1.a.Does one still feel ill if he/she says: I have caught a cold? b. What tense do we use to talk about: i) the present results of a past action? ii) the time when something happened? 2. Name the educational levels in the UK and Romania comparatively. 3. What are the comparative and superlative degrees of these adjectives: far, big, reliable, bad, funny?. 4. What expressions can you use to ask for information? 6. Give examples of words that differ in American English and British English.
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1. 2. 3. 4. To what extent is correspondence important in business communication? How many types of letters/messages can you think of? What is the contents of a letter? Give as many specimen sentences for the opening lines and complimentary close as you know.

LETTERS: DATES AND SALUTATIONS Note that when expressing date, several variations are possible: January 10th, 2000 10th January, 2000 10 January, 2000 January 10, 2000 The date may also be written in short. In Britain the day precedes the year: 30.12.2000 30/12/2000 In the US, the month often precedes the day: 12.30.2000 12/30/2000 That is why you had better write the month with letters.
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A number of closing salutations are possible at the end of a letter, but they are used in different situations: Yours faithfully is used when the name of the person you are addressing is unknown. Your letter probably began Dear Sir/Sirs/Madam, (or Gentlemen: in US usage). Yours sincerely (or Sincerely yours in US usage) is used when you do know the name of the person to whom you are writing, but wish to remain on fairly formal terms. Your letter probably began Dear Mr. Talbot/Ms Tomlin. Yours truly or Truly yours is used, principally, in the US as an alternative to Yours sincerely. Your letter probably began Gentlemen:. Best/Kind regards is frequent in friendly business letters (faxes). Cordially or Best wishes are used when you know the name of the person to whom you are writing. It is less formal, so your letter probably began Dear John/Laura. Correct any inappropriate elements in the following letter: Hartley-Mason Inc. 618 West and Vine Street, Chicago, Illinois ATTN: Mr. M. Tirnoveanu Motor Systems SRL Str. Toamnei nr. 12 Bucharest ROMANIA 6/5/05

Dear Sir, We are in receipt of your letter of 27 May and are pleased to see that the samples we sent you are to your satisfaction and the workmanship is to your standards. The United States, like Romania, has also experienced an increase in motorbike sales, and like you we think that there is a vast market to be tapped for the touring bike. With regard to your offer, I should tell you straight away that we never use sole agencies anywhere in the world, but rely on merchants buying our products on their
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own account, then retailing them at market prices in their country. We, of course, offer a 30% trade discount off net list prices and a further discount for sales above US$100,000. As far as advertising is concerned, you will be pleased to hear that we have arranged for an extensive campaign which begins next month and features our machines. We are sending dealers throughout Europe with brochures, leaflets and posters to hand to their customers and this will be followed up by television advertising in May. Our terms of payment are L/C open at a Bank of your preference, order shipped CFR a port of your designation. Should any slight flaw be found, we undertake to remedy it as soon as possible. In the hope of signing a long-term contract with you, thank you for writing to us, and we are looking forward to hearing from you. Best wishes, President J. R. Mason Enc. Please find our catalogue.

Remember! Some abbreviations you might see on a letter/fax/envelope: c/o enc. PS asap PTO pc. NB RSVP a/c care of (e.g. T. Smith, c/o J. Brown; the letter goes to J. Browns address) enclosed (e.g. enc. application form) postscript (extra message after the letter has been ended) as soon as possible (e.g. ring me asap) please turn over piece please note (Latin: nota bene) please reply (French: rpondez sil vous plat) account current

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1. Translate this note from the boss to a group of workers in an office, into full words. Memo from: Date: Mr. Braneless (MD) 3/5/91 TO: Ref: All staff 04056/DC

May I remind you that all new lab equipment should be registered with Stores & Supplies, Room 354 (ext 2683). NB: new items must be notified before 17:00 hrs on the last day of the month of purchase, i.e. the current budgeting month. All a/c nos must be recorded. Braneless Sometimes the samples you receive do not comply with your standards and you must give up cooperation with that company. Write a letter of cancellation of the order. 2. Match the Romanian expressions to their corresponding English terms: 1. v rugm s confirmai n scris 2. dac nu ne vei informa contrariul 3. atept cu nerbdare rspunsul dvs. 4. confirmm primirea 5. am luat not de 6. v-a rmne recunosctor dac 7. n termen de 14 zile 8. n viitorul apropiat 9. n plic separat 10. problema rmne n atenia noastr 11. vom lua msurile necesare A. I look forward to hearing from you B. unless we hear from you to the contrary C. within a fortnight D. we are holding the matter pending E. under separate cover F. in the near future G. I have duly noted H. we shall take the necessary action I. I/we acknowledge receipt of J. kindly/please confirm in writing K. I would be grateful if you would kindly

3. Match the abbreviations on the left to the full form on the right: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
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A. B. C. D. E.

with reference to cost and freight payment your bill of lading

6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.


F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P.

required request free on board letter of credit please received container apologies discount dispatch for the attention of

This is a part of a letter you receive from a friend. Write to your friend, giving
practical advice, referring to the points in the letter. As you know, Ill graduate this summer. Im looking forward to starting work and earning some money of my own. I want to open my own shop, so Im going to get a job in the local department store straightaway to gain as much practical experience as possible. Of course my parents want me to go to college and do a business course but I feel Ill learn more on the job. My brother thinks I could spend a year travelling before I make up my mind to Australia or somewhere and improve my English. Please let me know what you think

EXPRESSING ABILITY, PERMISSION, OBLIGATION, ADVICE MODAL VERBS The modals have the following main characteristics: Do not have the infinitive form. Do not get the III-rd person singular -s of the present tense. Do not get the -ing suffix. Make the interrogative and negative without TO DO. The modals are followed by the short infinitive (without TO), except OUGHT Are replaced by modal equivalents for the tenses and moods they do not have.
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1. a. b. c. d. e. f. g.

Use CAN or COULD to express ability and permission (COULD is more polite): ........... you fill in this application form for me? They .............. build better houses. I ............ give a reply to this fax message, because they ............ supply me with all the information I needed. ...................... I go to the customs and take the samples on your behalf? What ..... you see in the hall of the airport? He .... join the yacht club as soon as he is through with his last exam. The CEO says that everybody ...... take part in the discussion.

2. Fill in the blanks with CANT or COULDNT + present or past infinitives to express negative deduction and reproach: a. The customer says that the meat ........ (be) good after so many days. b. It ........... (be) his secretary who answered the phone. She was on lunch break. c. You .................. (pay) the companys debt last month. Now we are in litigation with our suppliers. d. They ......... (pay) this order. Their company is bankrupt. e. All Saints ........ (win) MTV awards last year. They didnt enter the competition. 3. Use MAY or MIGHT to express permission or possibility: a. Let us book our tickets today so that when we go to the station there ..... be no unnecessary hurry and excitement. b. Those who have finished their papers .. leave the lecturehall if they go quietly. c. They spoke in whispers so that the people in the next room .... not know of their presence in the house. 4. Fill in the blanks with MUST or NEED to express obligation: Note. In questions must and need are often similar in meaning, but need cannot be used after question words; when using need the speaker hopes for a negative answer:
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a. b. c. d.

............ I take the exam this semester? No, but next semester you must. Where .......... I put this file? .............. I attend the meeting too? ........... I pay the telephone bill today? Im so busy.

5. Fill in the blanks with OUGHT TO, MUST, HAVE TO, SHOULD to express advice: a. As the others insist on it, you ......... do as they say. b. You ...... go to the mountains. You look very tired. c. You ...... finish your work before going on holiday. I know I ............ d. You ........... take these pills three times a day as the doctor has told you to. e. You .......... (not) smoke cigars, they will ruin your health. f. Robert looks quite ill. He ...... have a rest. g. I want to get as thin as a movie star. What .......... I do? You .......... see a doctor about it. h. You ........ stop drinking, or else you will get drunk. 6. Change the sentences below, using I would rather or I had better followed by a short infinitive to express preference: Note: Would rather + infinitive shows preference (e.g. I would rather drink mineral water than Coca Cola) Had better + infinitive shows desirability or advisability. (e.g. You had better come in now. = You should come in now / You ought to come in now). a. b. c. d. e. f. He prefers to work abroad than get a job in his own country. It will be better if he sees a therapist at once. It is advisable for her to go in for the TOEFL test. I prefer not to sit up late. It will be better for you to apply for a well-paid job. It is advisable that we phone the After-Sales Services ourselves. She prefers to watch passively than actively participate in the discussion.


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Remember! EXPRESSING MODAL VERB CAN(COULD) ability, capability (equivalent: to be able to) permission (informal alternative of may; could is more polite) possibility (could indicates greater doubt) COULD + perfect infinitive negative deduction, impossibility assumptions Its no good waiting for John any longer. - Well, lets wait a few more minutes, he could have missed the bus. You could have told me you were going May we watch the film on TV tonight? Might I call you up again tomorrow? He may/might come tomorrow. Wed better fill the tank up. We may not get to another gas station for the next hours. You might have told me what happened. He must do all his homework before he goes out. ... Must I help in the kitchen today? - No, you dont have to. EXAMPLE Tom can read Arabic. She could play the piano, although she could not read the notes Can I leave you for a moment? Could I leave early today? Do you think this ring could be gold? She couldnt have typed this letter, she hasnt learned to type yet.



permission (equivalent: to be allowed/permitted to) (might is more polite) possibility assumption, guess (might indicates greater doubt)

MIGHT + perfect infinitive MUST


necessity, obligation (equivalent: have to/have got to) (negative: a) mustnt = duty not to do something, prohibition;

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= no duty, absence of obligation) deductions MUST + perfect infinitive conclusions

Im going to open the present now. - No, you mustnt. We havent seen Tom today. He must be ill. Wheres Jack? - I dont know. He must have missed the train. But he cant have missed the train (imposibility).


necessity, requirement a) as an auxiliary: b) as main verb:



necessity, compulsion, obligation (formal style) request for advice, suggestion (NB: first person only!) advice, suggestion duty, moral obligation possibility, probability wonder, surprise

You neednt copy the words. Just try to remember them. Do we need to/Need we to bring our textbooks tomorrow? No. you dont need/neednt. The supplier shall deliver the goods on due date. Shall I leave some coffee for you here? You should return those books to the library. You should work a little harder for that high wages you get. They should be at home by now. How should I know? (also: How am I supposed to know?) You should have left some marks on that path. You shouldnt have left the map at home. You ought to be more careful next time. You ought to be more polite with your parents.

SHOULD + reproach perfect infinitive


advice, suggestion (alternative of should, but more emphatic) duty, obligation

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definite intention, firm decision polite (but firm) request and invitations repeated action refusal (in negative sentences) wish, intention polite invitations and request repeated action refusal (in negative sentences)

Will you marry me? Will you sign the register, please? Will you have another sandwich? He will sit on the bench for hours. She wont say a word about it I would tell you, but you didnt listen. Would you accompany me to the concert? Would you do me a favour? She would wait for me every morning. He wouldnt let me help him.





a) as main verb (to venture, to challenge) b) as a modal (to have the courage/impudence to) expressing indignation (no present form; used for regular activities in the past) repeated action order, instructions (impersonal)

Nobody dared to contradict the teacher. How dare you talk to me like that? I used to smoke when I was younger, but I gave up five years ago. He is to stay at the airport until the President arrives.

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Can you learn just by reading or listening to English? You will certainly help yourself to learn English vocabulary not only by studying with this book but also by reading and listening to English. Give each of the items on the lists below a mark from 0 to 4 describing how important this way of learning vocabulary could be for you personally. Example: newspapers : 3. newspapers TV (cable/subtitled) cinema magazines video radio (e.g. BBC World Service) academic or professional literature fiction simplified readers (with or without cassettes) music or other cassettes talking to native speakers To what extent is the phone conversation important in the business world? Are you careful about your attitude on the phone, or any attitude or tone of voice would do? How can we take the stress out of the telephone? TELEPHONING Mr. Abbott: Secretary: Mr. Abbott: Good morning. Could I speak to Mr. Johnson? Sorry, Im afraid Mr. Johnson is out for a while. Would you leave a message or call back later? Unfortunately, Im in a hurry and I need to talk to someone from the Sales Department. Could you put me through to Mr. Johnsons assistant? Of course, hold on, please, Ill have to check up the extension. Oh ... here it is. Putting you through. Thanks. ...
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Secretary: Mr. Abbott:

Mr. Clark: Mr. Abbott:

Mr. Clark: Mr. Abbott: Mr. Clark: Mr. Abbott: Mr. Clark:

Mr. Abbott:

Mr. Clark:

Edward Clark speaking. Good morning. Can I help you? This is David Abbott from Mistral Ltd., importers of textile products. We have received your pattern book and we are particularly interested in some textiles made of pure cotton and silk. Could you give me some more details on samples 156, 314 and 460? Yes, certainly. I see that you have selected the most attractive ones. We are going to extend our range of products and we are looking for new shades and designs, but only of top quality. Our products comply with all your requirements and at low prices, too. Are these textiles guaranteed unshrinkable, colour-fast and creaseresistant? Absolutely. Moreover, I assure you that sample No. 212 which is made of pure cotton is water-proof. I am sure that your clients will also enjoy its light shade that is in fashion nowadays. Sure, but our Company would like to make sure of all these characteristics before purchasing extensively; may I suggest you send us a first dispatch on trial and the price quotations? Thats a good idea; well do that before signing our contract. Anyway, considering the quality of our goods, your purchase is a real bargain, believe me!

ROLE-PLAY How do you usually start a phone conversation to sound polite and get the information you need? In pairs, prepare a conversation between a travel agent and a customer, then act it out. 1. Define the following terms in English: a. We are going to extend our range of products; b. We are looking forward to new shades and designs; c. unshrinkable;
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d. e. f. g.

colour-fast; crease-resistance; water-proof; before purchasing extensively.

2. Read the telephone dialogue below. Choose the best answer for each blank. Marcu: Anca: Marcu: Anca: Marcu: Anca: Marcu: Anca: Sigma Representative Offices, can I help you? Yes. ________________________ a. This is Anca Barbu b. I am Anca Barbu Hi, Anca. This is Marcu speaking. How are you? ________________________ a. Fine and you? b. How are you? Just fine, thank you. Im calling to see if we can arrange a meeting. There are several matters Id like to discuss with you. Sure, when would it be convenient to you? _________________________________ a. I want to meet with you tomorrow. b. Could we meet tomorrow? Yes, thats possible. What time suits you? ___________________________________ a. How about 2:30? b. Id like to see you at 2:30. Fine. I can make it. Im looking forward to seeing you. Me too. OK, in your office at 2:30 tomorrow, right? Right. See you then. See you tomorrow.

Marcu: Anca: Marcu: Anca: Marcu: Anca:

3. Translate into English: 1. Dac nu tii un numr de telefon, l poi cuta n cartea de telefon sau formeaz 931 i ntreab telefonista. 2. Desigur ai nevoie i de prefixul oraului sau regiunii unde apelezi. 3. Cnd nu eti acas i vrei s dai un telefon, i trebuie o cartel telefonic sau nite monede.
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4. Cine a lsat acest mesaj pe robotul telefonic?. 5. mi putei da interior 114, v rog? Ateptai un moment. V fac legtura. 6. l putei ruga pe asociatul dumneavoastr s m sune mine neaprat ? 4. Complete these sentences with words from the box: sample flaw long-term contract trade discount workmanship


b. c. d. e.

As we have in mind an order of 5,000 pcs. of your product, could you give us a ........................, considering that ours is a highly competitive market. While appreciating the good quality of all your .................., we find the prices of patterns 235 and 236 rather high for our market. Unfortunately, we cannot give you a better price, as ............................. is rather expensive. Pursuant to the quality inspection many ................... were found with your goods. Following our phone conversation two of our representative will travel to Bucharest to enter into a .................... with your company.

5. Translate the following sentences, paying particular attention to modal verbs. You will find the following vocabulary useful. charges customs customs formalities 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
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authorities packing services

free on board stoppages

Ar trebui s evitm creterea tarifelor la transportul naval pn anul viitor; concurena este mare. 60% dintre societi estimeaz c respectarea termenelor de livrare le-ar permite s-i mreasc cifra de afaceri. Pentru produsele destinate exportului, att ambalajul de transport ct i cel de prezentare trebuie s ndeplineasc anumite condiii. Conform autoritilor vamale, acest furnizor ar fi trebuit s ne expedieze mrfurile cu transportul achitat. S.N.C.F.R. se poate ocupa de formalitile vamale, cu condiia s i se pun la dispoziie facturile. Am fost nevoii s amnm sau s anulm unele livrri din cauza unei defeciuni la calculator.

7. 8. 9. 10.

Nu am putut s respectm termenul de livrare din cauza unei serii de greve n cadrul serviciului de ambalare. Probabil c directorul a uitat s-i dea dosarul de prezentare. Ca urmare a faptului c la ultima livrare s-au deteriorat mai multe containere, s-ar putea s ne schimbm agentul de transport. Probabil c furnizorul a confundat ofertele deoarece pentru ultimul an a dat un pre mai mare.

Lets learn some new phrases by and large this is another way of saying usually, on the whole, or more or less. Joseph makes mistakes from time to time of course, but by and large he is a good student. off the cuff spontaneous. At dinner parties in England, people used to make speeches and sometimes, so they wouldnt forget what to say, the men wrote a few notes on their stiff, white shirt cuffs. These days, it means something said without any preparation. I stood up and said a few words, right off the cuff. off the top of ones head without any preparation. This came into use in the late 1930s in the world of radio and later, TV programmes. The controller of the broadcast would tap the top of his head as a sign to the people on air or on camera that the programme was running ahead of schedule, and that they would have to think of something more to say to fill in the rest of the time. For example, if the gap was three minutes, the controller would tap his head and hold up three fingers. I dont know exactly how old Mr Ford is. Off the top of my head, I would say about 40. CHECKLIST 1. Name the component parts of a business letter. 2. What modal verbs can you use to make recommendations? 3. What is the difference between: i) I didnt need to do my homework. ii) I neednt have done my homework. 4. What do you say i) when you phone a company and ask to speak to someone? ii) when somebody phones your company and asks to speak to your boss? 5. What are the negative contracted forms of WILL and SHALL?
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1. Fill in the blanks with one word (you are given either the beginning or the end of it): In Shakespeares time, there were only about six million speakers of English altogether. (1) Now it has become the most (2) spread, as one of the major languages in the world, second only to Chinese in the number of people who speak it. However, recent research (3) est that there are now over 400 million who use it as their mother tongue. Globally, native speakers are in the (4) min as perhaps as many as a billion more people use it as a foreign language. This is, of course, largely due to its use in the USA. In some countries such as Ghana and Nigeria it has the status of an (5) cial language. In India, English is an official language alongside Hindi and no fewer than 3,000 English newspapers are (6) pub throughout the country. All round the world people are trying to learn English. In 1983 more than 100 million people watched a course on Chinese TV made by the BBC to teach the language at (7) tary level. People are motivated to learn because it has become the main language of communication in (8) macy, business, sport and sea-faring. It is also the official language of air-traffic control, and airports. Three quarters of the worlds mail is (9) wri in it as well as 80% of all information stored in (10) ers. A Japanese company wishing to (11) ate with an Italian client would conduct its (12) nego in English. Two thirds of all scientists write in English. A Brazilian doctor reports that he spends as much time improving his English as he does (13) ing medicine. Due to telecommunications, and (14) esp to the Internet, English is thought by some to become the language of the future, although the prediction that all other languages will die out is absurd. 2. Complete these sentences with a positive or negative question tag from the box. isnt it were they werent you do you didnt you shall we have you havent you
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Example: You are a student, arent you? They didnt study physics, did they? A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: Now, you were born in Hawaii, (1) . ? Yes, thats right. And then you all moved to Los Angeles, (2) . ? Well, no. We moved to San Francisco first, then to LA. Sorry. But you dont live in LA now, (3) . ? No, my family do. I live in Washington. I see. Now, youve got two brothers, (4) . ? And you are all actors. Thats very unusual, (5) ? I think it is, but my parents were both actors, so They werent very happy at first about your becoming an actor, (6) ? No, not at first. They didnt want me to follow in their footsteps. But now theyre really pleased about my success. I know youve acted with your brothers in a film but you havent made a film with your parents yet, (7) . ? No, but were hoping to do one together next year. Thats very interesting. Lets continue our interview after a small break, (8)... ? Certainly.

3. Put in the right prepositions from the box. at by from in in front of near next to of on opposite to until

Gerry is a teacher in a language school. He lives (1) a small flat (2) . the fourth floor of a building (3) a small street (4) Dresden. The school is not very (5) . his home; he goes (6) work (7) bus and leaves home at eight oclock to arrive (8) .. work at nine. He usually does some work on the bus (9) his way (10) . work. Gerrys school is (11) .. a railway station. It is very big and it has a lot (12) students. Gerry likes his office; it is (13) the reception desk, but it is big and quiet; there are some pretty trees (14) .. his window. He works (15) nine oclock (16) .. a quarter to one and then goes to have lunch. Then he starts work again (17) two and stops (18)
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five. On his way back (19) work he does some shopping and has supper (20) .. home. He likes living (21) Germany; he doesnt go home to England (22) holiday, but visits the sights (23) . Germany. It is Saturday morning now, and Gerry is (24) home (25) . bed. (26) .. Saturdays he gets up at ten oclock and then sits (27) the living room to have breakfast. (28) .. Saturday afternoons he plays tennis or goes swimming. (29) . Saturday evenings he usually goes out. He enjoys the sort (30) life he lives. 4. Fill in the blanks with a, an or (no article): 1. I like to go abroad about three times _____ year. 2. Have you met my brother? Hes _____ engineer too. 3. Im thinking about buying _____ new car. What would you recommend? 4. _____ computer software is not as expensive as you think. 5. The government has urged businesses not to give _____ pay rises above inflation. 6. How long have you been in _____ engineering? 7. I think I should do _____ course in Business Administration. 8. I have _____ idea: what about doing _____ evening course in _____ accounting? It only takes up _____ hour a week. 5. Complete the blanks in the following passages with the or (no article): Hi, my names Todd Sawyer. Im a financial analyst, and I work for a company called (1) _____ Pacific Investment which is based in (2) _____ Channel Islands. Our offices are in (3) _____ St. Helier, (4) ____ capital of the main island, (5) _____ Jersey. Jersey is very popular with financial institutions from (6) _____ England because it is not part of (7) _____ UK for tax purposes, and it is also popular with investors from (8) _____ Europe. I work for a tour operator called (9) _____ Lakeland Travel, and we specialize in bringing people to (10) _____ Lake District which is in (11) _____ north of (12) _____ England. We run a hotel, (13) _____ Capitol, which is in (14) _____ Ambleside, a small town on shores of (15) _____ Lake Windermere. Many of our visitors come from Scotland, which is very close, but others come from as far away as (16) _____ New York or (17) _____ Far East.
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6. Match the department with its duties:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Marketing Personnel Accounts Research and Development Sales Dispatch Purchasing Production After-Sales

a. develops new products b. helps customers with problems c. advertises and markets products d. organises payment e. sends goods to customers f. buys goods for the company g. sells the companys products h. makes goods in the factory i. deals with employees

7. In each of the following sentences, put one of the verbs into the present simple and the other into the present continuous: Example: We are interviewing (interview) people from outside the company for the new post in the export department, but I think (think) we ought to give the job to Mr Jackson. 1. At the moment, we ____________ (carry) out an experiment to find out what sort of after-sales service our customers ___________ (want). 2. Weve got a competition on at work about our new range of cosmetics. The marketing people ___________ (try) to find a brand name that __________ (sound) natural and sophisticated. 3. ___________ (you/ know) what Mrs. Ericson ___________ (do) ? Shes not in her office and she hasnt left for lunch either. 4. Could you help me? I ___________ (try) to translate this letter from a Spanish client and I dont know what this word ____________ (mean). 5. I ___________ (apply) for a transfer to our London office, but I dont know if Ill be successful. It all ____________ (depend) on whether or not they have any vacancies. 6. Their new instant coffee ___________ (taste) very good, so its not surprising that it ______________ (become) more and more popular.

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8. Look at the time line and complete the article about Liber, an Italian shoe company, using present continuous, past tense and present perfect. Date 1928 1944-48 1963 1968 1977 1980 1991 1992 1994 1997 1998 Event Giovanni Liberti born in Milan Learns to make shoes Sets up Liber in north of Italy Liber is the main shoe manufacturer in Italy Sales rise to over $1 million Liber inaugurates its first foreign factory in Portugal Liber opens a factory in Malaysia Sales go up to over $1,000 million Production starts in China under licence Production begins in Libers factory in Thailand Liber opens a subsidiary in

Giovanni Liberti (1) . Liber in 1963. Five years later, it (2) .. the main shoe manufacturer in Italy and in 1977 sales (3 ) . to over $1 million. The companys first foreign factory (4) . in Portugal in 1980. In the 1990s, the company continued to expand. Liber (5) .. another factory in Malaysia in 1991. The companys sales (6) to over $1,000 million the following year. In 1994 they (7) to produce shoes under licence in China and the year after that production (8) .. in a new Liber factory in Thailand. At present the company (9) more than seven million pairs of shoes per year all over the world. The main markets are Germany, Japan and Italy. Today Liber is a big international company, but it is still a family business now his son-in-law (11) as Marketing Manager.

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9. Complete the following letter. Use present perfect or past tense. High Trees, Hills Road, Cambridge July 3rd

Dear Brigitte, I (1) (be) in Cambridge for almost a year now, and I (2) .. (have) a wonderful time. Perhaps the most exciting thing that (3) (happen) to me was going to a May Ball. Let me explain every year in June (although they re called May Balls!) the colleges organize big dances with lovely food and champagne served from marquees in the college ground. The dance goes on all night, and then, at dawn, people take a boat and have breakfast on the river. For a May Ball the students wear dinner jackets and bow ties, and long dresses, although they usually wear jeans and T - shirts! Before the ball, I (4) (meet) my friends in a typical Cambridge student pub called The Bath. Apparently theres an old student joke: If my mother calls, tell her I m in The Bath . One Saturday I (5) .(go) down to the river to watch the bumps -a rowing competition between colleges where each boat tries to overtake or bump another boat. Lots of people (6).(get) very wet! I (7) (find) out that you can learn a lot just by being in England! Yesterday, I (8) . (learn) a new expression Hobsons choice. Apparently a man called Thomas Hobson (9) .. (live) in Cambridge about 200 years ago. He (10) ... (have) about forty horses, and whenever a customer (11) .. (want) to hire one, he always (12) .. (give) them the one that had rested longest. The only choice was Hobson s choice, that is no choice at all, and that s what it means today! Please write soon and tell me what you (13) (do) lately. 14) (see) you Grete recently? When you meet her, send her my best wishes. Lots of love, Frieda.

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10. Fill in the blank with the correct tense of the verb or auxiliary -- past simple or present perfect. Lisa: Hi, Philip, how are things? Philip: Hi, Lisa. Im fine, thanks. Im on my way to the Training Centre for the Spanish class. Lisa: The Spanish class?! Philip: (1) .. (not / hear) about it? Lisa: Not a bit. Who organised them? Philip: The HR manager. He (2) (set up) the in-service programme a few months ago, but the word (3) (not go round) yet. Lisa: When (4) .. you (start) it? Philip: In October. We (5) . already (finish) the first module. Lisa: (6) ..... (take) any tests for that ? Philip: Certainly. We (7) . (take) a placement test at the end of September for the teacher to decide which class is best for us. Lisa: I see you (8) . (buy) a lot of course books! Philip: I (9) . ( not have to). We (10) . (receive) all teaching material right at the beginning. Lisa: This course sounds interesting. Such classes will do me good, either. I (11) .... (not practise) Spanish for ages. Philip: Thats right. I (12) .. (have) some Spanish lessons two years ago, but since then I (13) ....(use) it quite seldom. Lisa: So (14) . I. Philip: Then it might be a good idea to join the class. Lisa: Yes, Ill think about that. 11. Here are two scrambled letters. Identify the opening and the closing paragraphs. Write the two letters separately. (1) Via de Santiago, 131-6B 36002 Pontevedra Spain (2) You can collect them from 9 a.m. 5.30 p.m., Monday to Saturday, at our shop in Wimbledon, or we can post them to you. (3) 12 June 2004 (4) Naveed Chandra
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(5) I am writing to thank you for the lovely gift that you sent me for my birthday. How did you know that my favourite colour was red? It was very kind of you to think of me. (6) Velvet Vibes
117 High Street Wimbledon London SW12 Tel: (0181) 967 2456 (7) Dear Monique, (8) My exams finish next week. We've got Maths on Wednesday and English on Friday. After that, it's the holidays! (9) I am writing to inform you that the CDs you ordered on 24 February arrived this morning (10) I am enclosing a photo that Celia took of me wearing my new red T-shirt. (11) Yours sincerely, (12) Take care. (13) 1 March 2004 (14) Aurora (15) Let me know your plans for the holidays maybe we could arrange something. (16) Ms Annette Jacks 53 Old Coach Rd Tooting London SW13 6YT (17) Now you can see how it looks on me! (18) Love, (19) Dear Ms Jacks, (20) I would love to see you. Maybe I could visit you in France, or would you like to come to Spain? (21) I would be grateful if you would contact me as soon as possible with your instructions. A ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ B ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ 12. Fill in the blanks with WONT (present) or WOULDNT (past) to express refusal or failure: a) I expected him to be reasonable, but he .... listen to me. b) I want to give him a chance, but he ....... take it.
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c) d) e) f)

I expected her to come too. She wanted to, but I ...... let her. I wanted to leave, but she .......... hear of it. No matter how hard I try, this engine ....... start. Can you lend me your car? Mine ..... start.

13. Replace the italicized words by used to or to be used to as required by the sense. Make any other necessary changes: Note: Used to + infinitive = a past discontinued habit. (e.g. I used to skate when I was young) To be used to + noun/-ing form = be accustomed to. (e.g. She was used to the noise in the workshop). a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. At their age they are not accustomed to working so late. John was in the habit of getting whatever he wanted. Usually they went to the university by tube. He always had a cup of coffee after lunch. Students usually turned in rather late. Before I joined the army I was in the habit of having my own way. I am not accustomed to being spoken to in this way. He had the habit of asking why to whatever question you asked him.

14. Match the sentences (1-20) with their appropriate translations (A-T): 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.
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She can write it. She could write it. She was able to write it. She could have written it. She will be able to write it. She must write it. She will have to write it. She had to write it. She must have written it. She should write it. She should have written it. She would have written it. She may write it. She might write it.

A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N.

Se poate s-l scrie ea. Ea va trebui s-l scrie. S-ar putea s-l scrie ea. Ar fi trebuit s-l scrie. Nu era nevoie s-l scrie. Nu i s-a permis s-l scrie. Nu trebuia neaprat s-l scrie. Ar fi putut s-l scrie. Dac l-ar scrie S-ar putea s-l fi scris. Ar trebui s-l scrie. Trebuie s-l scrie. A putut s-l scrie. Se poate s-l fi scris.

15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

She may have written it. She might have written it. She didnt need to write it. She needent have written it. She wasnt allowed to write it. If she should write it ...

O. P. Q. R. S. T.

Probabil c l-a scris. A trebuit s-l scrie. Poate s-l scrie. L-ar fi scris. Va putea s-l scrie. Ar putea s-l scrie

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SECTION A LEAD-IN Answer these questions about the future. Imagine you put the answers in a safe place and you dont look at them again until the year 2010!
PERSONAL How old will you be in the year 2010? Where do you think your home will be? Will you be married or single? Will you have any children? How often will you speak English? (a)every sometimes (c) sometimes (d) not very often (e) never TECHNOLOGY WORK What kind of job do you think you will have in the year 2010?
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Which of these things will you have in your house? (a) video telephone (b) satellite TV (c) a robot (d) solar heating Which of these stars will still be famous? (a) Madonna (b) Michael Jackson (c) Tom Cruise (d) the Beatles (e) Brad Pitt What kind of clothes will be in fashion in 2010? (c)




Will humans be on Mars by the year 2010? YES NO

On a scale of 5 (1=not important; 5=very important), how important (a) (b) will these things be for you? (a) a computer (b) the opportunity to work at home (c) the opportunity to share your job with another person (d) the opportunity to work abroad How many hours a week do you think you will work? LEISURE What will your hobbies be? Will you be a vegetarian? YES NO

Will pollution be a more serious problem than now? a less serious problem than now? What will be the most important source of energy? Will there be a cure for (a) AIDS? YES NO (b) cancer? YES NO How many nuclear weapons will there be? (a) more than today (b) the same number as now (c) fewer than today (d) none

1. Complete these sentences below with words from the box:

environmentally-friendly teleworker on-line greenhouse flexitime life expectancy illiterate job security fuel man-made elderly household appliances 1 2 3 4 People grow vegetables and flowers in a ... . When people cannot read or write, they are .. . Refrigerators, vacuum cleaners, TV sets are . . A(n) .. is someone who uses personal computers, telephones, etc., to work from home. 5 .. is the statistically determined average number of years of life. 6 An object that cannot be found in nature is . . 7 . is a system in which the beginning or the end of working hours is not fixed. 8 The are people past middle age. 9 is any substance burnt as a source of heat or power, such as coal or petrol. 10 .means that someone is protected against poverty or want as a result of unemployment.
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11 A(n) .. device is directly connected to and controlled by a central processing unit of a computer. 12 Any product or process that does not harm the ecological system is .

Between 1991 and 1999 the number of children in Britain between the ages of 10 and 15 dropped from over four million to just over three million. The picture is similar all over Europe. By the year 2005, there will have been a 37% drop in the youth population of Germany, a 22% drop in the United Kingdom and a 12% drop in France. There will be fewer adolescents in the late 1990s in Britain, but the number of people between 30 and 44 will grow by 8%. Economists say that because of this, High Street will change. Fewer shops will sell clothes, food and drink for young people. There will be less loud music in restaurants and pubs and the whole atmosphere will be quieter. What kind of people will todays adolescents be by the year 2010? Certainly more people will be vegetarian. The number of vegetarians may grow from 2% of the population to almost 4% in the next ten years. 10% of all students are vegetarians. They will also be more conscious of healthy foods and the environmentally-friendly things in shops. Young people will have more international life-styles, and many will go abroad to work in the next decade. Over 50% of 1821-year olds in Britain think of themselves as European citizens. Read the text and decide whether the following statements are true () or false ( ) 1. 2. 3. 4. ___ There is a dramatic decrease in the number of youth in Europe. ___ There will be more adolescents in Britain at the end of the decade. ___ Not many shops will sell articles for young people. ___ The adolescents will ignore healthy foods and environmentally-friendly goods. 5. ___ Less than half of the young people in Britain think of themselves as European citizens. Have the predictions made than years ago become true?
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2. Work in pairs. Youre going to read an article called Growing trends which is about life in the future. Here are the topic sentences taken from four of the paragraphs. Discuss what you think each paragraph will say. 1 2 3 4 In the 21st century we will almost certainly be living in a warmer world. In the 21st century most families will be using computers in the home to do a variety of tasks. By the 21st century a population explosion will have taken place in the developing world. Statistics show that society is becoming more violent.

The environment In the 21st century we will almost certainly be living in a warmer world. The world will continue to use fossil fuels which release carbon dioxide, the main cause of global warming, the greenhouse effect as it is also called. Damage done to the ozone layer by man-made chemicals will mean that our children will have an increased risk of developing skin cancer. We will be living in a world with less energy available and we will be forced to reduce our energy consumption. Technology In the 21st century most families will be using computers in the home to do a wide variety of tasks. A great part of the technology we will be using a generation from now already exists in some form. Over 3 million British households have personal computers today and a further 650,000 will probably purchase them in the next year. In 25 years time computers will be a million times faster than they are today. They will have become easier to use, but anyone who has not learnt how to use them will be seriously disadvantaged, particularly in the field of employment. They will be considered computer illiterate. Population By the 21st century a population explosion will have taken place in the developing world. In developed countries, the size of the population will have stabilised but the proportion of older people will have increased dramatically and there will be problems associated with care of the elderly and medical services. It may no longer be possible for the government to provide pensions for everybody.
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Society Statistics show that society is becoming more violent. 95% of Britons think that it is unsafe to walk the streets at night; 85% believe that it used to be safer 30 years ago. The average persons risk of becoming a victim of violent crime has increased three times since 1979. This trend will almost certainly continue. Rising criminality will be one of the most serious problems that people in the 21st century will be facing. (adapted from Reward, Heinemann) Match the following suggestions with one of the predictions in the text. 1 Dont fear technology or become a slave to it. Its more important to learn what technology can do for you than to understand how it is done. 2 Do your best to conserve energy. 3 Buy sun-hats and sun-cream and teach your children to keep out of the sun. 4 Start talks with your neighbours about hiring private security guards. 5 Take out a private pension plan so that you are not dependent on the government when you are older. 6 Travel as much as you can now. With decreasing fuel supplies it may not be possible when you are older. Work in pairs. Do you agree with these suggestions? Can you imagine other solutions?

1. Fill in the gaps with the suitable prepositions: by, of, over, to, under 1. Example: Productivity will rise from 4% to 10%. 1. The profits of telecommunications companies will grow ____ approximately 25% in the next decade. 2. The sales of our beauty soap have dropped ____ the lowest level in the last years. 3. ____ 2 million people left their homes running away from the huge hurricane. 4. The promotion campaign had a poor echo. ____ 15% of the target consumers bought the new brand of oil.
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5. The price of gold has fallen ____ almost a quarter since the beginning of the year. 6. A decrease ____ 40% in white-collar criminality was considered a success. 2. Arrange the expressions in the box in the appropriate columns: Im quite confident that Im positive that The chances are that I expect that Im quite sure + (wont) I doubt if Perhaps I shouldnt think that I doubt very much that Maybe PROBABLE (LIKELY) IMPROBABLE IMPOSSIBLE (UNLIKELY)

CERTAIN Im positive that


3. Match the sentences in column A with sentences in column B that have a similar meaning as given in the italicised example. A 1 Im quite confident they will sign the deal. 2 I doubt very much if they will sign the deal. 3 I shouldnt think they will sign the deal. 4 Perhaps well win the contract. 5 Im quite sure we wont win the contract. 6 I doubt if well win the contract. 7 I expect well win the contract. B a They are not certain to sign the deal. b We definitely wont win the contract. c We probably wont win the contract. d Were likely to win the contract. e We may win the contract. f g They are unlikely to sign the deal. They are certain to sign the deal.

4. Rewrite the sentences, using the word in brackets in your answer. Example: He says we are certain to expand next year. (confident) He is confident that we will expand next year. 1. Theyll probably give us better terms. (imagine)
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2. Ill probably have a lot to do early tomorrow. (likely) 3. I shouldnt think that their new store will attract many customers. (unlikely) .. 4. I expect that theyll take control of the company. (probably) 5. The chances are that theyll give us the answer immediately. (likely) .. 5. Make predictions about the following economic and business-related aspects: Example: People will spend more money in the next decade than they do now. I think people will probably spend more money in the next decade than they do now.

or I dont think people will spend more money in the next decade than they do now. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. More people will be teleworkers. China will become the worlds most powerful economy. Flexitime and job insecurity mean that people will work much longer. Virtually everyone will be on-line in his or her own home. More people will be working in tourism than in any other industry. Korea will come to dominate the automobile and household appliance industries. The gap between the rich and the poor will enlarge. Life expectancy will increase by two years. Everyone will have a mobile telephone. The European Union will break up.

1. Future continuous and future perfect Answer these questions and try and guess the meaning of the words and phrases in italic. a) will be living -- Does this mean will be alive at that time or after it?
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b) will have stabilised -- Does this mean will have continued to change or will have stopped changing? 2. Future continuous or future perfect? Write complete sentences about what Georgia thinks she will have done by the time shes forty or will be doing at that time. Example work in a multinational company Ill be working in a multinational. get a MBA Ill have got a MBA. a. become a multi-millionaire b. run my own insurance business . c. move to Boston . d. live in a mansion . e. marry a renowned politician . f. have one child . g. give up smoking .. Prefixes and suffixes 95% of Britons think that it is unsafe to walk the streets at night. Can you find in the text above other examples of words formed with negative prefixes? 1. Do the following words mean a thing, a person, or both? Look them up in a dictionary. cooker computer cleaner smoker drinker pencil-sharpener projector shopper layer
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2. Use the suffixes er /-or and ee to give the names of the following: Example: An employer is the persons who hires staff. An addressee is the person to whom a letter is addressed. a b c d e f g ______________________ is the person who sends a letter. ______________________ takes professional photographs. ______________________ is the person who trains athletes. ______________________ is someone who is hired and given payment for his or her work. ______________________ is a person who makes a donation. ______________________ is the person to whom a letter is addressed. ______________________ is someone who is taken an interview.

3. Contradict the following statements using negative prefixes: dis-, il-, im-, in-, ir, un-. Example: He is a very efficient man. I dont agree. I think hes inefficient. 1 2 3 4 5 6 I find this procedure quite logical. Our customers will be satisfied with the new look of the company. The speaker presented a very relevant point. This issue is extremely important for our business. The arrangement was rather convenient. It is still possible to find the solution to this problem.

Remember! Prefixes and suffixes unbearable unprefix to form the opposite

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bear root word

-able suffix to form the adjective

Prefixes Meaning anti-, dis-, il-, im-, in-, opposite ir-, mis-, unmultiover-, super-, hyperunder-, subSuffixes -ful -less -able, -al, -ible, -ic, -ing, -ive, -ous -dom, -ence, - ent, -hood, -ian, -ion, -ist, -ity, -ness, -or, -ship -ly many too much too little Meaning with without forms adjectives

Example antinuclear, dissatisfaction, illogical, improbable, incorrect, irrational, misunderstand, unimportant multinational overtime, superman, hypermarket Underestimated, submarine Example careful careless readable, national, flexible, economic interesting, productive, humorous kingdom, patience, achievement, childhood, politician, explanation, ecologist, activity, fitness, actor, dealership slowly

forms nouns

forms adverbs

Did you know that ... ... in an average life you will walk 240,000 km, sleep for 25 years, eat 7,800 loaves of bread, lose 127 kg of dead skin and spend 12 years watching television?

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What are you doing at the weekend? Where are you going to spend your summer holiday? Are you going to get a job next year? Are you going to learn Spanish?

A B A Hello, Barbara. How are you? Fine, Alice. And you? Not so bad, thanks. Listen, Im ringing to arrange a meeting with you. Im coming to Edinburgh next Wednesday to see my parents. (1) Will you go shopping with me any time in the afternoon? (2) I wont be in Edinburgh, Im afraid. Im going abroad for a few days on business. Oh, where are you going? To Germany. Im attending a conference on environment in Hamburg. Mmm. Sounds nice. When are you going? On Monday evening, and Im coming back on Thursday morning. Oh, well. I could stay overnight and see you then. Right. (3) Ill give you the address of a good B&B. That seems fine. (4) Will you book a room for me then? Certainly. Say, Alice, what are you going to buy? Wallpapers and paintings for our new flat. (5) Will you help me choose some? It goes without saying. Im sure (6) well have a great time together. Thanks for ringing. Bye. Cheerio. Ill see you on Thursday then. Have a good trip.


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(a) Read the dialogue. Find out which of the will phrases in italics is used to: make an instant decision make an invitation . make a prediction .... make a request ....

(b) Match the sentences on the left with the replies on the right: 1. Ill buy you another drink. 2. Ill arrive as soon as I can. 3. Will you get me something to eat? A. Yes, they all say itll be fine. B. Okay, what would you like? C. Thank you. Thats very kind of you. 4. Will you sit down with us? D. Im sorry. Ill bring you another plate. 5. Im sure youll have a wonderful E. Thanks. Ill have an orange juice. evening. 6. I wont have this soup. Its cold. F. Okay, make sure youre not late.

A. Read the following sentences: a. Wait a minute, will you? Im speaking on the phone. b. Im speaking with my partner on Friday. We have to sort out things. a. Im sorry I cant join you, but Im very busy at the moment. Im preparing my exams. b. Im presenting the annual report next week. What tense was used in each of them? Which sentences refer to actions happening at the moment of speaking? Which sentences refer to actions that will happen in the future? What future time phrases are used? Present simple or present continuous? 1. Complete the conversation using the present continuous for arrangements (e.g. hes coming) or the present simple for official schedules (e.g. he comes). The first one has been done for you.

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Sue: Dan:

Sue: Dan: Sue: Dan: Sue:

Dan: Sue: Dan:



Hello, Sue Cox is speaking. Oh Sue, this is Dan Cullen. How are you? I (1) m coming (come) Birmingham on Sunday and Id like to meet you next week. Can we arrange a time? Id love to. When are you free? Well how about having lunch on Monday? Im afraid I cant. I (2) .. (have) lunch with the new Chairman. What about Tuesday at 10.30? No, no way. Matthew, my agent, (3) .. (come) to the office. Wednesday afternoon might be a possibility. Not for me. My secretary, Betty, (4) .. (get married) and all of us (5) .. (go) to the wedding. And on Thursday morning I (6) (drive) up to York for a board meeting with Dr. Tolley. What time (7) . the meeting .. (start)? 11.30 a.m. Ive got an idea! Why dont you come with me? We can talk on the way. That sounds good. Oh, but wait a sec, I cant. I (8) . (talk) to a group of business people about Australian opportunities over lunch. So Friday, then. Yes. Thats the only possibility because my return flight to Sydney (9) .. (leave) at 9.00 a.m. on Saturday. So, 11.30 a.m. on Friday morning at your office? Yes, thats perfect. Im really looking forward to seeing you then.

MAKING ARRANGEMENTS Proposing a meeting Suggesting a time Accepting Refusing Can we meet ? Will March 26th be convenient? (formal) What about.? (informal) Yes, March 26th suits me. (formal) Yes, I think Ill make it. (informal) Im afraid I cant. Im having.(formal) Sorry. Im quite tied up. (informal)

In pairs work out one dialogue to arrange a business lunch (formal) and one dialogue to arrange a meeting with your friend (informal).
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B. Read the following sentences paying attention to the words in italics: 1) The AS Group is going to open a new Renault dealership next summer. 2) Based on these figures, we are going to make a profit of $1,5 m this year. 3) The meeting is going to end any minute now. Which sentence expresses: a a prediction based on present evidence? b a decision? c an event to happen soon? will or going to? 2. Complete the sentences using will for predictions or instant decisions or going to for intentions. Add any other necessary words.The first one has been done for you. 1. Ive got to fax a Berlin number. Do you know the area code? No, Ill look it up in the directory for you. 2. 3. What are you doing over the Easter holidays? Absolutely nothing. We .. some rest. Did you hear the weather forecast? Yes. . cold at first, then .. some light showers this afternoon and then . a little warmer in the evening. Why didnt you come to the fair in Manchester? I had to learn. I . sit for entrance exams at the International Business School. If you are elected, what your party about unemployment? We have fully considered this issue. When we win the election, we create half a million new jobs. What are you doing here? The boss is expecting you for the meeting. I completely forgot! I .. finish my report in a minute. Thanks for reminding me. How will the proposed VAT increase affect your business? Frankly speaking, we havent thought about it yet. We devise a strategy when we get to it.
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Christopher 64 years old in November and he . retire next year.

3. Add comments to the sentences. Use present continuous, going to, or will. Example: Im afraid I cant meet you for the lunch on the 30th. Im seeing Mr. Mullin in Lisbon. 1. The management have announced how they intend to reduce costs. 2. Im sorry, I didnt realize you were busy. .... 3. The company is in serious financial difficulty. ... 4. I need some time to think about this proposal. 5. Sorry. Im in a hurry right now. ... 6. My boss is looking for another job. .... 7. Im not sure whether the flight to Rome is due tomorrow. ... 8. Our Export Manager is in Romania at the moment looking at new offices. . Colours People grow vegetables and flowers in a greenhouse. Here are some more words and phrases with colours. When you are 50 in the red, it means that you spent more than you have in your account and you owe money to the bank. If your finances are in the black you do not owe anybody any money. Black-and-white may refer to photographs, films, TV sets, anything written or printed, or situations that seem simple and easy to make decisions about. White goods mean fridges, washing machines and other large pieces of household appliances, as opposed to brown goods - TV sets, (video)cassette recorders, CD players, stereo systems, and other electronic equipment.

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Here are some words and phrases formed with colours: red, blue, black, white, grey, yellow. Read the definitions and complete the sentences below. white-collar workers that work in offices rather than doing manual work in industry black economy the trading or producing of goods or services that people are engaged in to avoid paying taxes Yellow Pages telephone directory in which companies and people are listed and grouped according to the kind of business they are involved in red tape complicated rules and regulations, when considered unnecessary, bureaucratic grey area an area of a subject or situation that does not fit into a particular category blueprint a plan or set of proposals that shows how it is expected to work 1. Growing is beginning to worry the Government. 2. It takes weeks to go through all the .. involved in getting a visa. 3. .. professionals work now longer hours than they used to ten years ago. 4. The prime minister will offer delegates his . for the countrys future. 5. If you need the phone number of a plumber, look it up in the . 6. The new rules for police procedure cleared up a lot of .. ARGUMENTS FOR AND AGAINST Look at these discourse markers often used in a debate to express pros and cons (for and against). Use them to complete the sentences below. To introduce a point: firstly, secondly, one advantage is that, on the plus/ minus side, for one thing, finally, last of all To give an example: for instance, for example, e.g., such as To add extra information: moreover, furthermore, in addition, besides, another point is that To express a contrast: however, on the other hand, yet, in spite of this, despite To express an opinion: in my opinion, personally, I think To draw a conclusion: to sum up, in conclusion, in short, briefly
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1. He doesnt accept he can make mistakes. .., he is totally incapable! 2. Some fruits and vegetables, apricots, peaches, or carrots, are rich in beta-carotene. 3. , we may say that all the proofs I presented have shown she was wrong. 4. , I think the next century will be very interesting. 5. The train was an hour late. ., I managed to get to the meeting in time. 6. I dont think theyll come to the party. ... they are very busy. Then, they dont socialise too much.

Choose on of the following topics and write a composition of

Testing drugs and cosmetics on animals The nuclear energy Package holidays Career women TV - an educational medium Marrying young

250 words.

Model: Working abroad. Start by stating the topic issue. Working abroad may have both advantages and disadvantages. Continue the paragraph with for reasons. On the plus side, it is often easier to find work there. Secondly, you will learn new things. Begin a new paragraph with a topic sentence presenting the against reasons. However, many people cannot adapt themselves to the new environment. Continue the paragraph adding further information. What is more, they feel homesick more often than not. Finish the composition with a new paragraph, starting with a topic sentence which states your conclusion. In conclusion, I think that living abroad can be appealing especially to young people. State your reasons. They like the excitement of adventure and find it easier to learn new customs and rules.
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FORM will + short infinitive be going + infinitive USAGE - predictions (simple future) instant decisions - future events based on present evidence (near future) - intentions or decisions already made (future of intention) simple present - future events in when and if clauses - fixed times (official timetable or calendar) present continuous will + perfect infinitive will + present participle be about + infinitive, be on the point of + ing definite arrangements (personal agenda) a future event completed before a future point (future perfect) an event in progress at a future point (future continuous) immediate future EXAMPLES Im sure our economy will recover soon. The phone is ringing. ~Ill answer it. The sky is cloudy, it is going to rain. Im going to start my own business next month. When / if you see the results, youll be very happy. The plane for Vienna takes off at 7.30 am. I m taking the plane for Vienna tomorrow morning In ones year time I will have finished studying this course book. When you arrive at the airport, he will be waiting for you. I think the meeting is about to start now. Mary is on the point of resigning.

CHECKLIST 1. What future verb forms can you use to make arrangements? 2. Think of two pairs of prefixes and/or suffixes having a positive and a negative meaning. 3. Think of two contexts for the adjectives older and elder. 4. What expressions can you use to inform a customer that it is probable/ improbable to find your boss that day? 5. Is the following sentence correct: If you will kindly wait a moment, Ill ask him to speak to you.

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What are hobbies? What are they good for? Which is the difference between an interest and a hobby? Do you think an interest supposes going deeper, both theoretically and practically into the matter? What do you think of being more scientific: an interest in doing something or a hobby? Dont you think that people who pass all bounds in a hobby go into the field of a profession? What is the difference among these words: hobby, pleasure, entertainment, passion, science, profession and recreation?

AUTOGRAPHS THAT SPELL MONEY While leafing through an old handwritten book of poetry, Peter Croft of Sothebys, the London auctioneers, noticed that certain pages were in a different hand from the rest. The moment he saw the handwriting on those dozen pages he realized that he had uncovered a rare seventeenth century literary treasure.
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Crofts expert eye had recognized the handwriting of Robert Herrick, one of Englands finest lyric poets. He knew the book had been bought in 1848 for 58 shillings. At auction, the book fetched 34,000 pound. Today, collectors are prepared to pay ever-increasing prices for coveted autographs-hand-written and signed letters or manuscripts, not just scrawled signatures on photographs or slips of paper. A letter written by Charles Dickens could be bought for 1 pound in 1903; today it is worth 600 pound. So great is the demand by collectors and scholars for autographs that Sothebys now hold a special monthly sale in their New Bond Street auction rooms. Last May, a United States buyer gave 17,000 pound for Samuel Taylor Coleridges manuscript of the poems he wrote in 1796, which he had copied out for his publisher. What gives an autograph such appeal? One letter now available in the British Museum for all to read, helps to explain the fascination that collectors find in autographs. The letter is by Lord Nelson who, on board H.M.S. Victory on October 19, 1805, wrote to Lady Hamilton. Two days later Nelson fell mortally wounded at Trafalgar. After the battle Captain Hardy delivered the letter to Lady Hamilton. To read it now, in the bold, left-handed writing, which Nelson adopted after he had lost his right hand, is to become personally involved in history. When signatures are so rare that they never come on the market, even forgeries can be of interest. Only six authenticated examples of Shakespeares signature, all on official documents, have ever been found. No one has discovered a letter written by him, nor a single page of any original manuscript of his plays. But a forged Shakespeares signature sells for 20 pounds today. British collectors have always valued the autographs of creative minds. (Ann Huxley, Letters Written by Famous People, Ed. Laurel, 1984)

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1. Fill in the gaps in the following sentences with suitable words you find in the text: 1. Peter Croft of Sothebys recognized Robert Herricks hand-writing while . through an old handwritten book of poetry. 2. Coveted autographs hand-written and signed letters or manuscripts . much money at . from passionate collectors. 3. Collectors pay .prices for . and . letters or manuscripts not only . signatures on photographs . of paper. 4. Two days after Nelson had written his last letter addressed to Lady Hamilton, the great admiral fell mortally .at Trafalgar. 5. As only six authenticated examples of Shakespeares signature were found, even . can be of interest for the . 2. Match the words with their explanation: 1. auction 2. handwriting 3. autograph 4. manuscript a. a persons signature b. something written by hand, not typed or printed c. a persons style of something written by hand or with a pen or pencil d. a person who makes careful study and investigation, in order to discover new facts or information e. a person who collects things f. a fraudulent imitation or copy in order to pass it off as real g. a public sale in which articles are sold to the highest bidder.

5. collector 6. researcher 7. forgery


Except autographs and letters, we have just spoken about, what are the most common things people collect? What do children, students collect and what do some grown-ups collect? What is the reason? Is money important in gathering things in order to form collections?

In the following list of objects establish which ones are collected especially by children and students and which ones grown-ups afford collecting, investment being involved?
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posters coins furniture stickers cars

postcards stamps furniture key-holders paintings

portrait sketches watches napkins mahogany objects rare books

old cameras perfumes porcelain objects sculptures jewelry

Do you collect anything? What? Speak about the way you started collecting and if it was difficult to start a collection of your own! 4. Read the following text about a fine art collector of antiques: A Chinese jade figure of a rhinoceros, claimed to be worth about 1 million pound, has been stolen with other valuable antiques, from the Mayfair home of Mr. David Edge, 65, a fine art collector, was revealed yesterday. (Daily Telegraph, June 16, 1993) The news announcing the theft is a compound sentence that contains nine pieces of information: 1. a figure has been stolen 6. Mr. Edge lives in Mayfair 2. the figure was made of jade 7. Mr. Edge is 65 years old 3. the figure was Chinese 8. Mr. Edge is a fine art collector 4. it was a figure of a rhinoceros 9. This news was revealed yesterday 5. it was in the home of Mr. Edge Write similar compound sentences to combine the following sets of information: a. Mrs. Martha Edwars is the mother of Paula Edwars. Paula Edwars is a famous actress. She acts in films. She won an award at the Cannes Film Festival. The Cannes Film Festival took place last month. Paula Edwars has given her mother a necklace from her own jewelry collection. The necklace is made of diamonds. The necklace was a birthday present. b. Patricia Austin is a famous soprano. She has been singing with the Cosmopolitan Opera for the last sixteen years. She announced yesterday that she is going to retire. She is going to retire next October. She wants to spend more time in painting expositions and at auctions. She is a passionate paintings collector.

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5. Hobbies are a great British and American tradition. A hobby is a special interest or activity that people do in their time off. Some people have animals as hobbies. Others are crazy about plants. 6. Sports represent other worldwide hobbies. English play football, cricket and polo but they play other sports too. We must consider the many advantages which education derives from games, when practised as they ought to be. Games are the handmaid of lessons a means of making you fit and fresh for work and a means where the game itself is only of secondary importance, compared with the spirit in which it is played. People will generally play games in the right .spirit, if those who control them show in their own methods and conduct what that spirit is the educational writer Max ORell from Daily Mail says. 7. Brainstorming activity. Role-play expressing your opinions: - Have you ever practised any sport? - What are the chief open-air sports practised in England? What about your country? - What sport do you prefer? Why? Speak about it! - Give a short account, if you can, of the way in which football is played, or describe a football match. Did you know that British invented it? - Give your opinion on the advantages and inconveniences of games and sports. - Doesnt football teach discipline? Whats your opinion? 8. Work in pairs and name as many sports as possible. Together with your partner try to classify them in outdoor and indoor sports. Use words like: team, competition, stadium, fan, player, international tournament, to enjoy sailing, enthusiastic, own boat, sailing races (regattas), baseball, summer sport, winter sport, bowler, ball, bat, batsman, pitcher, batter at cricket, a bowler throws the ball and the batter hits it with his bat league, top player, big star. 9. Work in pairs and with your partners help, describe cricket (the typical British sport) and baseball (the American typical sport). - Give an account of the American football and the football played in the rest of the world. - In what sports do you have to wear a helmet? Choose among boating, boxing, American football, cricket, bowling, ice hockey, surfing, Canadian hockey, surfing, climbing, soccer.
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What do you know about soccer? Do you know that it is known as Association football and every year, the football teams of most cities and towns in Britain play in the Cup Final at Wembley Stadium in London?

10. In the following sentences fill the gaps with play when they refer to sports played with a ball and where teams are involved, go when they refer to individual and leisure activities and do when they refer to sports or activities where body movements are implied: Model: My brother likes doing judo, going skiing in winter and playing bowls with his friends. She looks forward to swimming when summer comes. Why do all little girls are fond of .. ballet? I dont go in for sport now, but I felt like. football daily when I was a little boy. Her mother was against .. badminton as she found it too childish. What about .. diving, the weather is very fine. Dont you prefer.. gymnastics to.. snooker in that club? He took to .. jogging as he was getting fat. They put off .. fitness classes as they were very busy. Well, I like . skating when the ice is thick enough. Why dont you leave off .. hockey with your broken arm?

Practice: Use in sentences of your own: to go gliding, fishing/horse-riding/cycling; to do aerobics/ballet/judo/squash; to play golf/cricket/darts/table tennis/lawn tennis. 11. Read this text about music: Music Silences most eloquent contradiction is music not because music breaks silence with its sounds but also because it interrupts its motion. All the arts do this: books freeze events between two covers, pictures pin them against a wall. But music goes viscerally to the source of our mortality. It stops time in its tracks and reinvents it. What a supernatural act it is to command a tempo and a rhythm, to set time in motion and bring it to a halt. In a life of temporal endlessness, the musician

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who makes time starts and stops plays at being God. This is musics comfort and its triumph: that somewhere there exists an antidote for decay. The technologies of the ear (the radio, the record player and the compact disc) both give and take away. Fishing in my collection of records the other day, I did find a recording of Brahms' Fourth. I put it back on the shelf, Im not quite sure where. I am not worried. I know how it goes. This is how I relive (and therefore live) this music - in my imagination. The imagination is our great healer. (Bernard Holland, A New and Awful Silence) What does Bernard Holland mean when he says that the musician who makes time start and stop plays at being God? Do you agree with Holland who asserts that the sheer availability of music has somehow cheapened it, taken away its special pleasures, music being all around us today on the radio, in the office, in the market and the shopping mall? Has musics accessibility ruined your enjoying it? Why? Why not? What is electronic music? How do synthesizers replace traditional instruments? What kind of music might be synthesized? What do you like more: listening to real music (bands on stage or recorded) or digital sounds music (someone capable of playing a keyboard instrument can be a one-man band)?

12. In the following sentences, use either play + instrument and instrument + player or person + sing and type of music + singer: 1. Elvis Presley was a rocknroll .. He came from Memphis, Tennessee, USA and was called the king of rocknroll. 2. Which of these instruments do amateurs usually. : the piano, oboe, violin, harp, banjo, drum, saxophone, guitar, trumpet, organ, accordeon, flute? 3. Can you any of them? Which? 4. That great guitar.. couldnt read the score, he only could by ear. 5. If somebody ... a song, can you accompany him or her andthe piano or guitar? 6. The great opera ....was so much clamored that she gave an encore. 7. The Beatles from Liverpool, were the most famous pop . in the 1960s. 8. Arthur Rubinstein, the great piano ... , died at 90 years old.
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PAST PERFECT 1. Look at this sentence: A writer friend, who visits my apartment when I am away, phoned me in Tangier and told me there had been a robbery. Use past perfect tense of the verbs in brackets in the following sentences: 1. As soon as I ... (finish) my breakfast, I went to the stadium 2. By the time the coach ... (give) us all the training instructions, the last member of the team arrived. 3. The referee didnt whistled the beginning of the game until all football players .. (gather). 4. When we reached the stadium, the goal-keeper (already, arrive). 5. After a player .. (kick) the ball, it was taken by the forward player. 6. After we ... (play) hard, we won. 2. Decide the order in which these things happened. Then write two sentences using after and the past perfect: Example: The symphony orchestra came on the stage. The conductor arrived on the stage. The symphony orchestra members stood up. After the symphony orchestra had come on the stage, the conductor arrived on the stage too. After the conductor had arrived on the stage, the symphony orchestra members stood up. 1. The tourists got out of the coach. They took photos. They got back in the coach. 2. The reporter wrote a report on the accident. She interviewed the people there. She went to the scene of the accident. 3. The mechanic put a new tyre on. He put the wheel back on. He took the wheel off the car. Activity: Write sentences of your own using the same patterns.
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GERUND 1. Have you noticed this structure: he saw the handwriting on , Finding such as Crofts Herrick discovery . They are gerunds. In the following sentences use verb + ing as a subject: Example: . (to swim) is something I dont do very often. Swimming is something I dont do very often. 1. (to fish) is a profession and (to angle) is a hobby. 2. (to box) is a rather dangerous sport. 3. (to take exercise) is only one part of keeping fit. Practice: Use the verbs: to read, to ski, to work, to write, to drive, to travel, to run in sentences of your own. 2. Either verb + ing as a subject or long infinitive as a subject may be used in the following sentences: e.g. . (to read) French is easier that . (to speak) it. Reading French is easier than speaking it. To read French is easier than to speak it. 1. . (to shake hands) is not a habit English people use. 2. . (to study) the local customs is necessary for a traveller. 3. . (to have) good manners is appreciated everywhere. Make five similar sentences of your own. 3. Use gerund after propositions: e.g. After (to swim) I felt cold. After swimming I felt cold. 1. Can you touch your toes without (bend) your knees? 2. His wife raised the money by (to sell) her jewelry. 3. He insisted on (to see) her. 4. I have no objection to (to hear) your story again. 5. He is good at (to tell) lies. 6. We had a lot of difficulty in (to find) the club.

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4. Phrasal verbs (verb + preposition/adverbial particle) to be for/against to care for to give up to keep on to leave off to look forward to to put off to see about to take to to go on Use the gerund in the following sentences: 1. I have read the book, now I am looking forward to (see) the film. 2. I dont care for (stand) and (watch) the match. 3. He took to (garden) when he retired. 4. They gave up (ski) and took to (farm). Make sentences of your own with all the other phrasal verbs. 5. Make sentences, according to the model: Model: Alice is studying medicine and they approve of it. They approve of Alices studying medicine. He wants to study law but his mother is against it. She is against his studying law. 1. 2. 3. 4. He rang us up in the middle of the night. He apologized for it. Shell attend classes in French. Her brother insists on it. Mary got the scholarship and we were proud of it. Jane will marry Gerald. Her mother is for it.

6. Make sentences according to the model: Model: Youll have to share with somebody, Im afraid. Thats quite all right. I dont mind sharing with somebody. 1. . do your own washing . 2. . pay in advance .
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3. . give me a deposit 4. . cook your own breakfast Model: Youll have to move your car. Im afraid. Would you mind moving your car? Would you mind my moving your car? Do you mind if I move your car? 1. to carry her luggage, I 2. to see her home . 3. .to open the window . 7. Use the expression to be worth + gerund, according to the model: Model: Why dont you listen to the radio? Theres nothing worth listening to. 1. watch TV? 2. read the paper? 3. look at a magazine? 4. . see a film? 5. . buy something? 8. Use either gerund or infinitive. Make sentences with love, hate, like, dislike drawing the distinction between general and particular situations: Example: I like swimming. (as a general case) I would like to swim in this river. (as particular case) Likes Dislikes ride drive cook knit ski skate dive paint Make sentences with the verb to stop drawing the distinction between ceasing a previous action and purpose: Example: He stopped listening to him. (ceased the action) He stopped to listen to him. (in order to listen to him)
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Make sentences with the verbs regret, remember and forget drawing the distinction between a past action and a future action: e.g. I forgot giving him the money. (in the past) I wont forget to give him the money. (in the future) Make sentences with to be afraid of + gerund used for involuntary actions and to be afraid + infinitive to show a strong awareness of the feeling: e.g. He was afraid of falling. (involuntary action) He was afraid to jump so he stayed where he was. (to be aware to perform the action) Translate into English: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. Adam nvase engleza nainte s vin n Anglia. Cnd am ajuns pe teren, jocul ncepuse. Dup ce Liz a terminat partida de ah, a deschis televizorul. i place s citeti? mi place s citesc, dar nu-mi place s citesc aceast carte. Schiatul este fantastic. Ador s shiez. Ursc s atept la cozi. mi place s conduc cu vitez. El a fost acuzat de contraband. Ea are mult experien in ingrijirea copiilor. El era ocupat cu cultivarea florilor. Atept cu nerbdare s plec n strintate n timpul concediului. ncercai s evitai s cltorii n orele de vrf. El a negat c a fost acolo i c a vzut accidentul. Iart-m c te ntrerup. Ei nu se pot abine s nu rd de glumele lui. Nu ne putem permite s mergem n Frana iarna aceasta. Expoziia lui merit s fie vzut. Avei ceva mpotriv s nu fumai n aceast camer? Ei au ncetat s se mai uite la televizor pentru c programul era neinteresant. Ei s-au oprit ca s cumpere bilete pentru festival. Lui i era team s nu piard trenul.
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24. Regret c i-am spus cuvinte att de neplcute. 25. El va regreta s o vad plecnd. Remember! THE PAST PERFECT TENSE
1. USAGE The Past Perfect Tense is used to show that the action took place before another action in the past. It is usually used after: when, as soon as, after, by, by the time, not until. The Past Perfect often stands together with already and just. EXAMPLE As soon as I had finished the letters, I made coffee. By the time I had made the calls, the coffee was cold. I didnt drink my coffee until I had made four phone calls. At noon I phoned you, but you had already left. When I came to your place, you had just left. If you had come, I should/would have given you the book. Had you come, I should/would have given you the book. He said, Im a student and I have learned English for three years. He said that he was a student and he had learned English for three years.



The Past Perfect Tense is used in Conditional sentences Type 3.


The Past Perfect Tense is also used in Indirect Speech, where The Sequence of Tenses requires to be observed, to express anteriority.

USAGE 1. As subject of a sentence EXAMPLE Skiing is enjoyable - in a general sense. It is enjoyable to ski. No smoking. No trespassing short prohibitions I had no experience in modelling Im looking forward to going to London next month. I cant risk catching a cold. He enjoys listening to jazz. I can't understand his retiring so young.


Gerund after prepositions Noun/Adjective/Verb+ preposition/adverbial particle + gerund As an object the gerund is compulsory after the following verbs: like, dislike, enjoy, finish, hate, practice, prefer, risk, stop, suggest, dread, detest, prevent, avoid, admit, deny, postpone,


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delay, resent, recollect, defer, anticipate, pardon, forgive, imagine, fancy, understand, mind, keep. After certain expressions: to be worth, cant stand, cant afford. 4. Sentences abridged by using the gerund: Complex structures with gerund (gerund preceded by possessive adjectives or accusative personal pronouns): I cant afford doing that. On hearing the bell, she went to open the door = When she heard the bell, she went to open the door. His being a champion made the family very happy - more formal with possessive adjectives. She doesnt mind me coming late. - less formal with the accusative personal pronoun.


Either gerund or infinitive can be used after the following verbs: stop, begin, start, advise, recommend, allow, permit, need, require, want, propose, try, means, go on, used to, be afraid (of). They show:
a. distinction general/particular b. distinction ceased activity/ purpose c. d. distinction past action/ future action need/want/require can be followed either by the gerund or by the passive infinitive but the gerund is more usual try/be afraid (of), go on, propose, mean used to, have different meanings according to whether they are used with gerund or infinitive

I like writing letters (general) I like to write letters to my best friend (particular) He stopped looking at her (he didnt look at her any more) He stopped to look at her (in order to look at her) I remember having given him the book Ill remember to give him the book. The grass needs cutting/needs to be cut The engine wants fixing/wants to be fixed.


try + infinitive = attempt He tried to repair the TV set. try + gerund = make the experiments He tried repairing the engine. used to + infinitive = habit in the past He used to smoke (he doesnt smoke now). used to + gerund = to be accustomed to Im used to waiting for buses. 129

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be afraid +infinitive = strong awareness of the fear I was afraid to move so I sat quiet. be afraid + gerund = involuntary fear I was afraid of being caught. propose + infinitive = intention I propose to leave now. propose + gerund = suggestion I propose waiting till dawn. go on + infinitive = continue but with the introduction of a new aspect of the topic He was speaking about France and went on to tell about its climate. go on + gerund = continue He went on speaking (about the same topic).

flavour of the month a phrase which refers to the current fashion. Similar phrases are flavour of the week and flavour of the year. Such terms were first used when advertising ice-cream parlours in the US in the 1940s, when a special flavour of ice-cream would be promoted. Today, they are used to ironically describe a passing trend that will soon be replaced by another. The Spice Girls are the flavour of the month right now, but where will they be in a years time? to keep ones year to the ground to keep oneself informed. It has been said that the phrase was first used when talking about Indian scouts in the Wild West of America. A scout would press one ear to the earth before announcing how many horsemen were approaching, and from how far away. I dont know of any jobs in my company at the moment, but Ill keep my ear to the ground and let you know. old hat very old-fashioned. By the mid-1500s, the Italian city of Milan had established itself as the fashion centre of Europe, especially for hats. The styles changed almost every week, so that people who wanted to stay in fashion had to buy new hats all the time. To be old hat means behind the times. Hes very old hat he uses a typewriter instead of a computer.

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What do you know about the Olympic Games? In what country did they begin and why? When do they take place? What do the Olympic Games mean for the mankind? What can you say about wars and any other conflicts among nations during the Olympic Games?

GOING TO THE OLYMPICS Heres to the new Olympics! OK! Cheers! Did you know Marks actually thinking of going to see the Olympics? Wow! Is he really? Apparently its a life-long ambition. Hes been saving up for ages and hes going to do it in style. You know, four-star hotels, front-row seats, the whole works. Hes even bought a camcorder to take with him, so he can keep a record of the whole trip. Jeffrey: Sounds great! God help him meet his dream! Trevor: Oh, I dont know, it will cost him a bomb and I think you get a much better idea from the telly. But he wishes hed seen them live. Jeffrey: Yes, as from the telly you dont get the atmosphere. Oh, no, I think it would be great. Id go myself if I had half a chance. Patricia: But if I were him, I wouldnt go alone. I dont think it would be much fun going on your own, which is what hes planning to do. Its the sort of thing you need to do with someone else to get the most out of it, so you can talk about it and compare notes. Patricia: Jeffrey: Patricia: Jeffrey: Patricia:

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Oh, no, if hes on his own he can do exactly what he wants to do, without having to fit in with anybody else, hang about waiting for people and all that sort of hassle. Patricia: The only thing thats putting him off is the thought of the journey itself. He d have to go by plane and hes not too keen on flying. If only he could go by train or by coach. Trevor: Well, I think hes crazy to even consider it - I bet you anything that Ill be able to tell you more about it from the telly and it wont have cost me a penny! Id rather he stayed at home and watched them on the telly with us. Jeffrey: Comprehension What are the three friends talking about? What is Patricia saying about Marks intention of spending his time during the games? What s Trevors opinion about watching the Olympic Games?

1. Study these nouns/verbs/phrase: journey/to journey; travel/to travel; voyage/to voyage; trip/to take a trip to a place; excursion/to make a short journey/a pleasuretrip: to travel to journey to voyage trip excursion They all mean covering a distance (a cltori). To travel is the neutral term: we may travel both by land and by sea or air; to travel is usually indefinite and implies covering long distances; to journey, generally, by land and having an appointed destination; to voyage is to travel by sea/water or by plane/air; to take a trip means to journey especially for pleasure; excursion means to make a short journey/to take a pleasure-trip.

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2. Fill the gaps with the adequate forms of the verbs to travel, to journey, to voyage or of the nouns travel, journey, voyage, trip, excursion: .. broadens mind. Our . to London was very interesting. Most people like . He for three days, it was a long They took a two-days to Sinaia. 6. The board of directors decided an . for the whole staff. 7. His over the Pacific in a small boat must have been very difficult. 3. Speak about a journey you made during your last holidays. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

SUBJUNCTIVE 1. What can you say about the way of saying God help him meet his dream! Where is the s at the end of help? It doesnt exist, does it? It is the Subjunctive Mood, used to express a wish, or a prayer that something may be. Very often the Subjunctive is expressed by using one of the modals may, might. Long live he! Though the heart be still (Byron) May I live to see it! If need be Be that as it may! Far be it from me to Come what may! Suffice it to say Be it so!/So be it!

2. Use the following verbs into subjunctive (the same form as the infinitive), to complete the following exclamations expressing a wish or hope: damn, bless, forgive, help, be praised, be, forbid: God you! Heaven . us! .! God ... . this fog! God .with you!
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3. The Present Subjunctive is also used in conditional clauses implying a negative. In this case were is used instead of was for the first and the third persons. Change the sentences according to the model: Model: If it were not for the seats, Id have enjoyed the performance. But for the seats, Id have enjoyed the performance.

1. If it were not for you, Id never go to see this play for the second time. 2. If it were not for the cast, the play would have been a success. 3. If it were not for the acting, the play wouldnt be worth seeing.
4. After verbs: suggest, propose, insist, recommend, advise, order, the construction that.. should + subjunctive is used. Change the sentences according to the model: Model: Roger recommended that we (should) distribute the tickets.

1. Richard told her to check the list. 2. George told me to read something about the universities in England. 3. The teacher told us to read the book in the original.
5. After the impersonal sentences it is/was important, necessary, advisable, better, vital, surprising, amazing etc., either the structure for + object or that .. should + subjunctive may be used. Change the sentences according to the model, using for + object: Model: It is better that you should ask him for permission to use the car. It is better for you to ask for permission to use the car.

1. It is vital that you should avoid the subject. 2. It is necessary that they should discuss the problem raised. 3. It is essential that she should study the local habits.
6. After wish present subjunctive or perfect subjunctive are used to express regret. Change the sentences according to the model: Model: I regret/Im sorry/Its a pity/What a pity I don/t have a bicycle. I wish I had a bicycle. Father didnt buy me a bicycle. I wish father had bought me a bicycle.
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1. Its a pity he doesnt/didnt practise more often. 2. I regret they dont/didnt play chess. 3. Im sorry she doesnt/didnt attend a music school.
7. Transform the following sentences according to the model: Model: The match has already begun and no goal has been scored yet. The coach tells the players: Its time for you to score a goal. Its high time you scored a goal (high makes the expression more emphatic)

1. Many people are worried because the conflict in the Middle East doesnt stop.
They think:.

2. Holidays are coming and Helen hasnt bought yet a new bathing-suit. Her
husband says to her: 3. Ill leave to the festival in a fortnight and I havent got the plane ticket yet. My mother tells me:..

8. Change the following sentences according to the model: Model: Dont believe her/him! She isnt from Paris./He hasnt visited Rome. But she behaves as if she were from Paris. But he talks as though he had visited Rome. 1. It doesnt rain in summer here but it looks 2. Nothing has happened but they talk . 3. They dont know the subject but they speak Translate into English: Jocurile Olimpice au o istorie foarte lung. Ele au nceput n anul 776 .e.n. i au avut loc la fiecare patru ani timp de aproape 1200 de ani la Olympia, n Grecia. Ele includeau multe si diferite feluri de sport: alergri, box, lupte, pentatlon (cinci sporturi diferite) i curse de care de lupt. n 394 e.n., jocurile au ncetat i templul
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din Olympia a fost distrus. 1500 de ani mai trziu, n 1894, un francez, Baronul Pierre de Coubertin, a convins lumea din cincisprezece ri s reia Jocurile Olimpice. Primul din seria modern a jocurilor a avut loc la Atena doi ani mai trziu, n 1896. La a patra ediie a Jocurilor Olimpice, n 1908, au fost peste dou mii de concureni din douzeci i dou de ri. De atunci, numrul de atlei care concureaz a crescut de fiecare dat. Comitetul Olimpic Internaional din Lausanne, Elveia, decide unde se va desfura fiecare ediie a Jocurilor Olimpice. Se cere ca un ora (nu o ar) s fie gazd - un ora pentru Jocurile Olimpice de Iarn i unul pentru Jocurile Olimpice de var. Remember! THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD
FORM a. The archaic Present Subjunctive has exactly the same form as the infinitive. To be = be (for all persons) To take = take (for all persons) EXAMPLE He asked that the request be accepted. It is decided that he take part in the conference. Suppose he came! I wish I were you.

b. The modern Present Subjunctive has the same form as the simple past tense in all the verbs except to be, whose present subjunctive is were for all persons. c. The Past Subjunctive has the same form as the past perfect indicative:

I wish I had been there.

THE SUBJUNCTIVE EXPRESSES: 1. an unreal comparison or a preference:

EXAMPLE Mother treats me as if I were a little girl. If you had met them, you would have liked them. I wish I were a student again! They wished they had not come so late. Oh! that it were possible! Oh! that he had come yesterday.

2. a regret for the present and the past and a desire for the future. 3. an exclamation 136

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4. an unreality or doubt: 5. an unconditioned preference

He talks to me, as if I were his wife. He looks/looked as if he had seen a ghost. I would rather he went by train (different subjects) I would sooner you came with me.

EXCEPT THESE MEANINGS THE SUBJUNCTIVE MAY ALSO BE USED: a. after the impersonal constructions introduced by it: it is necessary/ important/ required /essential/probable/likely/unlikely /wrong/proper/reasonable/just/fair/vital/ strange/odd/surprising/amazing/ absurd/ridiculousgenerally with the constructions thatshould + subjunctive b. after verbs like these ones: suggest, propose, command, order, advise, recommend generally with the colloquial construction that should.

EXAMPLE It is right that Mary be accepted. (American) It is right that Mary should be accepted.

He suggested that Mary be accepted.(American) He suggested that Mary should be accepted. He suggested that Mary was/were accepted. (modern Present Subjunctive)

Lets have fun Limericks, Sayings, Humour Sympathy without relief Is like mustard without beef. (Traditional) Limerick There was a composer named Liszt Whose music no one could resiszt. When he swept the keyboard Nobody could be bored And now that hes gone he is miszt. (Harry Graham) Fools make feasts and wise men eat them; Wise men make jests and fools repeat them.

English humour Theres been an accident, they said, Your servants cut in half: hes dead! Indeed! said Mr. Jones, and please Send me that half thats got my keys.

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CHECKLIST 1. Think of two contexts for: auction, bid. 2. State the difference between: i) I stopped talking to her. ii) I stopped to talk to her. 3. Which of the two sentences is correct: i) I went out after I finished my homework. ii) I went out after I had finished my homework. 4. Use two subjunctive sentences to make recommendations to your employees. 5. Use the word means in two different contexts with different morphological values.

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Is travelling one of your hobbies? What is your favourite transportation? Why? Is a winter break as tempting as a summer vacation?

HIGH-SPEED TRAVEL A transport revolution is taking place in Europe that could give the common market as big a boost as two dozen EEC directives. High-speed trains could soon halve ground-travel times, putting London two, not five hours from Brussels; Paris five, not nine hours from Barcelona. That is the idea of railway bosses from the 12 EEC countries plus Switzerland and Austria (...). They want to knit Europe together with 19,000 miles of special track, twothirds of it new, for trains running at more than 150 miles per hour. The cost is estimated at around $100 billion. It could all be built during the next 25 years, if other Europeans show as much zeal as France, which has a lead of 5-10 years. The hope is that trains will do for post-1992 Europe what deregulated airlines have done for America: help tie a vast market together. That may seem odd: trains share of the passenger market has been falling. In 1975 rail accounted for as much passenger travel
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between European countries as did air; in 1986 for about half as much. Nevertheless, enthusiasts think that high-speed trains are different: they hope people who would now rather fly than take an ordinary train would choose a high-speed train above either. (from Business English - Michael Brookes, David Horner)

1. Read the text and say if it is probably from (a) an instruction booklet (b) a newspaper article (c) a leisure magazine. Swipe-cards and the air-traveller Queues will be shorter and they will move quicker. Business passengers with hand luggage will walk onto planes, only stopping for security clearance. Staff will deal with passengers with baggage for they hold more quickly. It may sound like a dream. But the introduction of the swipe-card with its magnetic strip which allows all this may be with us in a few months, or it may already be operating at an airport near you. How does it work? All the travel information is put on an ATB (Advanced Ticket and Boarding Pass) which has a magnetic strip. The passenger simply swipes the ticket at the departure gate, confirming the reservation, seat allocation and onward connection, if there is one. The technology for swipe-cards is simple - it is the same as credit cards. Airlines first discussed the possibility of using them ten years ago. If this is so, you may ask why we are still using the old-fashioned carbon-copy tickets. The answer is the anti-fraud measures imposed by the International Air Transport Association. Computer fraud is, in general, a new area of crime. But soon, when the safety measures are satisfactory, we may be moving in a world of ticketless travel, where telephones and computer reservations replace paper completely. (from Going Places, Heinemann)
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Read the text again. Are the following statements true or false? Airline personnels jobs will be easier with swipe-cards. With a swipe-card a passenger will walk straight onto the aeroplane. The technology of the swipe-card is not yet perfect. A swipe-card is nothing like a credit card. The International Air Transport Association is worried about dishonest use of swipe-cards.

AT THE HOTEL Desk Clerk: Good morning, sir! What can I do for you? James Grant: Good morning. Im James Grant. My secretary must have sent you a fax the other day for reservation, but Ive had no confirmation. Desk Clerk: Oh, yes, weve received it. But she mentioned only the length of your stay so I didnt know what kind of room you would like to have. James Grant: Id like a single with a bathtub, if possible. Desk Clerk: Sorry, sir, Im afraid our singles only have showers. Would that be O.K.? James Grant: Oh, well, I guess so. Does the room happen to be in the back? Its much quieter there, you know. Desk Clerk: Oh, youll find the room perfectly quiet. It looks on a quiet little square. Now, would you fill in this registration card, please? How do you prefer to pay? Cash or credit card. James Grant: Ill pay cash. Oh, what about breakfast? Desk Clerk: Breakfast is included, of course. Here is your key. Your room number is 114. It is on the first floor. Front. On the first floor you also have a bar and a restaurant. The porter will take your luggage for you. Have a nice stay in our hotel.

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1. ROLE-PLAY Work in pairs. Take turns role-playing parts A and B below. Part A You are checking into the Ritz Hotel. It is July 16th. Use your own name. Your reservation number is 14689, and you want to stay an extra night until Saturday, July 28th. Part B You are the hotel clerk at the Ritz Hotel. Please help A, who has reserved a room through Thursday night. The hotel is fully booked on Friday.

Send a fax to the Ritz Hotels Reservation Manager, confirming reservations four your next business trip. 2. Work in pairs. Imagine a conversation between yourself as a tourist and the desk clerk using the following words: accommodation, information desk, hotel bar or lounge, booking desk, rent-a-car service, sports facility, beauty parlor or barber, business centre. You have a house in the mountains and you want to turn it into a chalet or what is sometimes called a Bed and Breakfast. What tourist services will you provide? Work with two other students to make a list. Make up a dialogue: Student A: You have just been offered a job as a tourist guide in your town. Ask your employer about your duties, hours of work, breaks etc. Student B: You have employed Student A to be a tourist guide. Tell her/him about the duties of the job. Guests staying in hotels must fill out a registration card with all their personal information. Fill in this registration card for your stay in a New York hotel.



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The Sunflower Hotel REGISTRATION CARD Last ____________________Mr/Mrs/Ms First name _____________________________ Q number Post ______________________________ Code Arrival date name Room Number

Reservation Number

Nationality __________ Passport No. _______ Issued at __________________ Company Name and Address ________________________________________ Payment Type ____________________________ Credit Card No. __________ Signature ____________________ Departure Date _______________________ 5. Match the words and phrases in Column A to the phrases in Column B: B 1. Unfortunately, we dont share the some opinion. 2. Yes, thats fine. 3. If you could do that, Id really appreciate it. 4. Can I use my American Express card? 5. Can I help you? 6. Im afraid were all booked up

A a. agreeing b. disagreeing c. refusing d. making a request e. making a very polite request f. offering

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6. You are travelling alone on a business trip to the United States. You want to check in a hotel. How do you usually solve each of the following problems? (Rank the choices from 1-4 to indicate the order of your preferences.) 1. You book your hotel room a. with a confirmed reservation by a travel agency b. by personal letter c. by calling from the airport. d. when you arrive at the hotel 2. The kind of room you usually stay in is a a. single b. twin c. double d. suite 3. When you check in, the first thing you want to confirm is a. the check-out time b. the room rate c. how you will pay d. if you have any messages. 4. You usually pay by a. cash b. personal check c. travelers check d. major credit card 5. What is the most popular international credit cards in our country? a. VISA b. American Express c. Master Card d. another kind of credit card.

1. What kind of train would you choose among the hereby listed: train with sitting facilities; train with sleeping accommodation; express train; fast train; through train; slow train; night train; morning train; goods/freight train; incoming train; outgoing train; north-bound train, commuting train. 2. What are the services in a railway station you need to resort to: information bureau; inquiry office; booking office for first, business and economy class
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accommodation; left-luggage office; waiting room; post-office; telephone booth; catering facilities (restaurant, snack bar, day bars, coffee rooms, tea rooms, lunch rooms); shops. What about a big airport: information desk; the currency exchange office; the public address system, phone box. 3. Under what circumstances do you book: a single, one way ticket; a return, round trip ticket; a platform ticket; a season ticket; a direct (ticket), point-to-point flight; open-dated return ticket; a dated ticket. 4. Which are the airport formalities: flying ticket checking; luggage weighing; customs control; passport control; security check. NOTE: When is the OK or RQ code used? OK - means confirmed seat RQ (requested seat) - the confirmation of the requested seat was not yet possible. Some words connected with travel Last week he flew to New York. It was an early-morning flight. The plane was to take off at 6 a.m. and land at 7 a.m. local time. He was stranded at the airport overnight. The plane was delayed by fog. Air passengers often suffer such delays. Trains always run on time here. You have to change trains at Crewe. We are sailing on the QE2. It sets sail at noon. It will dock in New York at 6 p.m. and shall disembark as soon as we can. The ship was wrecked. The passengers were marooned on a desert island. Our car does 10 km to the litre. It goes quite fast. We can usually overtake other cars. The car swerved into the middle of the road to avoid the cyclist. He backed the car into the drive and parked in front of the house.

SEQUENCE OF TENSES Set of rules expressing the relation between the tense of the predicate of a subordinate clause and the tense of the predicate of the main clause. Here are the main rules:
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Main Clause 1. Present, Present Perfect, Future e.g. He thinks (that)

Subordinate Clause Any tense a. she is applying for a job. b. she applies for a job. c. she applied for a job. d. she has already applied for a job. e. she will apply for a job. f. she will have applied for a job by March 5.

2. Past Tense, Past Perfect etc. a) simultaneous actions e.g. : He thought (that) b) the action of the subordinate clause is prior to that of the main clause e.g.: I thought (that) c) the action of the subordinate clause is subsequent to that in the main clause e.g. I thought (that) Future-in-the-Past she would apply for a job. Future Perfect in the Past she would have applied for a job by March 5. Past Perfect she had applied for a job, but she didnt. Past Tense she applied for a job. she was applying for a job.

EXCEPTION when the subordinate clause contains an assertion of general character: e.g.: We all knew that mathematics is a science, you neednt repeat that. in attributive clause, the verb in the subordinate can be at any tense required by the sense: e.g.: He told me things which I shall never forget.

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when the tense of the action in the subordinate is independent from the tense of the action in the main clause, the verb in the subordinate is as required by the context: e.g. I liked those textile samples so much that I shall certainly place an order. in comparative clauses introduced by: as, more than, as well as, as much as, the tense of the verb is as required by the context: e.g. They asked for the apartment more than I ask or will ever ask for it. 1. Use the right tense-form of the verbs in the following sentences: a. At their astronomy class they were told that the Moon (to be) 24,000 miles away from Earth. b. Last year he worked more than he (to do) this year. c. Last night I had the opportunity of meeting the person who (to live) next door to you. d. Last night I completed the report which my boss (to read) now. e. The former secretary spoke English more fluently than the secretary we (hire) this year (to speak) at present. f. I suddenly remembered the saying that boys (to be) boys. g. The traveller asked the station-master when his train for Paris (to leave). 2. Use the verbs in brackets in appropriate tenses: a. The businessman faxed that he (to arrive) on the following day. b. Harris said he (to know) what kind of job I (to mean). c. The question was what he (to do) next. d. He did not know what he (to talk) about. e. We were afraid that she (not to able to) complete her work in time and so we (to offer) to help her. f. The customer wanted to know if that equipment (to be used) in electrical outfits. g. I knew that if it (to rain), they (not to go) to the fair. Translate into English: a. Nu i-am spus c de cteva zile nu am mai rspuns la telefon. b. Ai avut vreo idee de ce coninea fia postului? c. Angajaii au constatat c efii lor nu le mriser salariile dei le promiseser. d. nainte de a pleca n cltoria de afaceri, ne-am asigurat c s-au primit faxurile care anunau sosirea noastr. e. Faptul c a trebuit s m opresc la Ploieti m-a fcut s-mi schimb toate planurile. f. Nu tia ct de mult i va folosi ghidul de conversaie. g. Nu tiam cnd v-ai ntors. De ce nu ne-ai anunat n prealabil? h. Care este titlul articolului pe care l-ai scris? i. Iat-l! L-am publicat ntr-o revist de specialitate care va aprea la sfritul lunii viitoare. E o revist trimestrial. j. Toat lumea atepta s afle ce hotrsc cenzorii.
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Think of two advantages and two disadvantages for each of the four forms of travel: road, rail, sea, air.

ON THE BOAT This way for the Dover Boat! Have your passport ready! Pass up the gangway! First class on the right, second class on the left! Here we are! Would you like to stay up on deck or go down below? Im sorry, I couldnt quite catch what the officer said. Have you? Yes. He asked whether we would like to stay up on deck or below. Oh, I see. Well, I dont know ... Im not much of a sailor. You wont be sea-sick today, the sea is perfectly calm, we are sure to have a good crossing. Ill get a couple of deck-chairs up here in the sun. Oh, well, Ill risk it, but if the worse comes to the worst, dont blame me! Do you travel much? Not more than I can help by sea. Ive crossed the Channel once before, but frankly I did not enjoy it. Can you see the English coasts already? What did the lady say? I can hardly hear because of the waves. She asked: Can you see the English coasts already? Yes, just. Well, I suppose wed better get ready for landing. The gangway was lowered and we went down to the pier.

1. Read the text quickly. Is it from (a) a professional tourist industry magazine (b) a business magazine (c) the travel section of a general-interest magazine?
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Finding your way in the ticket maze There are also a number of special It is very difficult for the customer who cases. If you buy a Round-the-World walks off the street into the travel ticket, the section Los Angeles to agent to understand the complex fare London costs only 558 single, and structures that are used by the industry you can get this even cheaper if you today. For example, the full-fare buy a standby ticket. In that case you economy class ticket from London to have to travel when the airline says Los Angeles is 1,256 return, and the there is a seat available. A lot of retifull-fare first class ticket is 2,910. If red people use this type of ticket, as you are in a hurry, or if you buy your they have lots of time, and it doesnt ticket at the last minute, you will matter when they leave. Standby probably have to pay these kinds of first-class from Los Angeles to prices. However, there are lots of London costs only 444 single, when special prices that the customer may it is part of a round-the-world deal. be able to benefit from on specific It is cheaper than standard economy. occasions. If you can plan ahead Another type of special cheap ticket carefully, you can usually get an APEX is a two-destination ticket. If you ticket, which costs 516. APEX means need to travel to two different Advanced Purchase Excursion Fare. destinations, even if the journey is You must plan your journey two to not at the same time, the ticket may three weeks ahead of time and you be very cheap. For example, you must pay the full cost of the ticket on may be going to Los Angeles now booking. You cant change the booking and Rome in a few weeks time. The - and you cant get a refund if you ticket London - Los Angeles change your mind, or if you cant London - Rome - London costs 818. travel because you are sick, or for any In other words, you pay less than the other reason. full fare and you get to see Rome as There are also special deals with travel well. The very best kind of ticket is agents. Some customers may not have a the freebie. If you are a travel fixed destination in mind, and may come journalist or something like that, you in looking for special offers. In that case, might be lucky and get scheduled consolidated fares are a good complimentary tickets. For example, deal. This means that the agent buys, for if you are doing an article on a example, ten tickets for each of several particular country the airline may flights and then tries to sell them. They give you a free ticket. At least, you may be very cheap probably about can always ask! 420 return for Los Angeles. (from Going Places, Heinemann)
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2. Read the text again. Are the following statements true or false? You can travel first class for less than the price of a standard economy ticket. If you buy an APEX ticket, you must pay when you book, but you can change your booking any time before the flight. You can have a scheduled consolidated fare to any destination. A round-the-world ticket is very good value for money. You book a standby ticket two weeks ahead. A two-destination ticket is cheaper than a single-destination ticket. Airlines never give away complimentary tickets.

3. Look at the table of some basic travel vocabulary:

transport type road different kinds of vehicle sports car, estate car, bus, coach, tram, lorry passenger train, freight train, local train, express yacht, rowingboat, fishing-boat, liner, ferry, trawler aeroplane, jet, helicopter, supersonic aircraft parts of vehicle people working with it driver, mechanic, chauffeur, bus-conductor engine-driver, ticket collector, guard, porter captain, skipper, purser, docker, steward(ess) pilot, ground staff, steward, air traffic, controller associated facilities petrol station, garage, service station waiting-room, ticket office, signal-box port, buoy, quay, customs shed, light-house, docks duty-free ship, departure lounge, hangar, runway

boot, engine, gears, steeringwheel, brakes, tyres sleeping car, buffet, restaurant-car, compartment engine-room, deck, bridge, gangplank, companion-way cockpit, nose, tail, wings, fuselage, joystick




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4. Here are some more words which could have been included in the above table. Where would they fit into the table? bonnet balloon deck-chair guards van mast petrol pump bus driver anchor glider oar rudder left luggage lockers check-in desk control tower canoe dual carriageway 5. Fill in the blanks. Most of the words you need can be found above: Yesterday John was supposed to take a ................................ (1) from London to Paris. He got up very early, put his luggage in the .................................. (2) of his car and tried to start the engine. It wouldnt start. John lifted the .............................(3) but he couldnt see what the matter could be. He immediately called his local ............................................ (4) to ask them to send a ..................................... (5) at once. Fortunately, the garage had a man free and he was with John within ten minutes. He quickly saw what the matter was. Youve ................................. (6) of petrol, he said. John felt very foolish. Why didnt I ........................................... (7) everything last night? he wondered. Despite all this, he got to the airport, checked in quite early and then went straight through to the ............................ (8) to read a newspaper while he waited. Soon he heard an announcement. Passengers on flight BA 282 to Paris are informed that all flights to and from Paris are ..................................... (9) because of a heavy snowfall last night. If only I had decided to go by ..................................................... (10), John thought. It would probably have been quicker in the end and even if I sometimes feel sick on the ................................. (11) across the Channel, it can be quite pleasant sitting in a .................................... (12) on the deck, watching the seagulls and the other ....................................... (13). The ......................... (14) on a ship seem to produce much better food than those on an aircraft too.

DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH In Direct Speech we quote the actual words a speaker said. The words are marked off at either end with quotation marks. (Note that in English, quotation marks are like this: _________ or this: _________ ) In Indirect Speech one speakers words are reported by someone else. This is happening by using in the main clause a verb such as reply, say, tell, ask, answer etc. The indirect speech is contained in a subordinate (dependent) clause. In
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Indirect Speech the main clause may precede the subordinate clause or follow it. The conjunction that is used in Indirect Speech, but can be left out in Direct Speech (e.g.: He says, I dont travel much. He says (that) he doesnt travel so much.) REPORTED STATEMENTS
DIRECT SPEECH Present Simple (e.g. I want to play) Present Continuous (e.g. I am writing) Present Perfect Simple (e.g. I have just eaten) Present Perfect Continuous (e.g. I have been learning for many hours) Past Simple (e.g. I lost my dog) Past Perfect Continuous (e.g. I had been working a lot) Future (e.g. I will not have a large meal) INDIRECT SPEECH Past Simple (e.g. He said that he wanted to play) Past Continuous (e.g. He said he was writing) Past Perfect (e.g. He said he had just eaten) Past Perfect Continuous (e.g. He said he had been learning for many hours) Past Perfect (e.g. He said he had lost his dog) Past Perfect Continuous (e.g. He said he had been working a lot) Future in the Past (e.g. He said he would not have a large meal)

today yesterday last night tomorrow now here this, these thus ago next becomes becomes becomes becomes becomes becomes becomes becomes becomes becomes

that day the previous day; the day before the night before; the previous night the next day; the following day then there that, those so before the next

DIRECT SPEECH Imperative (e.g. Turn off that radio! she said) INDIRECT SPEECH Infinitive (e.g. She told me to turn off that radio)

Reporting verbs: Also:


to tell, to ask, to urge, to advise, to persuade. to shout, to complain, to observe, to say scornfully.
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Reported Questions NOTE: The tense rule and word order is the same as with reported statements (e.g. When are you leaving? he asked. He asked me when I was leaving.) Reported Exclamations
DIRECT SPEECH Happy New Year! she said. How pretty you look! she said. INDIRECT SPEECH She wished me a happy new year. She said admiringly (exclaimed) that I looked pretty.

1. Put the following sentences into Indirect Speech with the introducing verb in the Past Tense. a) He said, told us, stated, declared: 1. He has never been on board ship before. 2. She is sorry he didnt come boat. 3. He will answer our fax when he gets the information. 4. He expects to see some new ships dropping anchor today. b) He told me, ordered me, asked me, advised me: 1. Hurry up if you want to see the eclipse. 2. Switch off the lights in the compartment, please. 3. Cheer up! 4. Dont let your broker cheat you. c) She told, said, asked, wondered 1. Give me another cup of coffee, please. 2. Who will see you home? 3. Are you travelling by this plane? 4. Dont forget to shut the window. 5. You must follow his example. d) You asked, wanted to know, wondered: 1. Do you know when he will arrive in Haifa? 2. Must we be on board ship by six or can we come later? 3. Shall we have our meal now? 4. Who must follow these instructions? 2. Change the following from Direct to Indirect Speech. a. The US economy is set to maintain its strong rates of growth and job creation and there is no risk of a resurgence of inflation in the foreseeable future, President Clinton said yesterday in his annual economic report to Congress. Our economy is stronger than it has been in decades, Mr. Clinton said in the report prepared by his council of economic advisers. b. The billionaire said to us, When I came to New York I had only one dollar in my pocket. With that small amount I made my start. c. The expert said, In a typical year, The Small Business Administration (SBA), an independent federal agency, guarantees about $ 3.5 thousand-million of bank loans made to all businesses. d. At the job interview, the employer said, Do you
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have solid training to match the requirements of this position? e. Our President said yesterday, In all societies people want more than they are capable of producing. 3. Replace the verb said in the sentences by one of the words in the box. Use each word only once. Then, rewrite the sentences in Indirect (Reported) Speech: suggested insisted shouted 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. agreed whispered claimed muttered boasted objected exclaimed admitted protested

He can speak five languages fluently, he said. Lets go to the Mall this evening, she said. Stop that noise, said the teacher. That car we are driving is my property, the man said. Yes, I broke the windows with my catapult, the boy said. You cant take me to prison. I know my rights, the man said. I shall always remember your vows, said his fiance. We dont have enough money to carry out the plan, said the treasurers. This teacher doesnt know what hes talking about, said the student. Well, it is a surprise to meet you here today, he said. Well, yes; if the weather is bad, we cant go, he said. If you cant come today you simply must come tomorrow, she said kindly.

Translate into English: a. L-am ntrebat: Ai mai fost vreodat la un trg de bunuri de larg consum. b. Mi-a spus suprat: Am ncercat timp de o or s deschid cutia nainte s o arunc. c. M voi antrena mai mult ca s obin rezultate mai bune la anul, nea spus sportivul. d. Preedintele Consiliului de Administraie ne-a spus: La ultima edin de consiliu s-a hotrt schimbarea echipei manageriale. e. Funcionarul de la primrie a declarat ieri: Cetenii ar trebui informai referitor la avantajele noilor metode de plat. f. Expertul contabil l ntreab pe contabil: Ai inut toate registrele la zi? g. Azi-diminea secretara m-a anunat: edina s-a amnat cu o zi.
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Lets learn a proverb! Dont put the cart before the horse Imagine a horse pulling a cart. Nothing unusual. Now try to imagine a cart placed in front of a horse. It would really look strange, even if the horse were able to push it! This saying means that people should do things in a specific order. When solving a problem, you have to think of things one step at a time. If you do things too soon, you put the cart before the horse.
CHECKLIST 1. What do you say when you phone a hotel to make a reservation for your boss? 2. Change this direct question into an indirect question: Do you have a reservation, sir? 3. In what contexts can you use the verbs TELL and respectively SAY? 4. Translate into English: Mi-a spus c are 20 de ani. 5. What is a swipe card?

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Have you ever heard the story of Frankenstein? What happened in the story? Can you explain what genetic engineering is? What do you think that genetically engineered food is? Do you think its healthy or not? Read the text to find out.

READING You are going to read a text about genetically engineered food. Five sentences have been removed from it. Choose from the sentences A-E the one which fits each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0). These days much of our food is quick and easy to prepare but is often not as fresh and natural as it used to be. Cheese, for example is no longer made in the old-fashioned way because it takes too long. The process is speeded up with chemicals and then flavour and colour are added. In the case of genetically engineered food not only colour or flavour are added. Perfectly round tomatoes all exactly the same size, long straight cucumbers and big fat chickens are now a normal part of our diets. They are made that way by genetic engineering not by nature. Their genes have been changed.
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Every living thing has genes. (0 -- B.) They are passed on from generation to generation. They make sure that humans give birth to humans and cows give birth to cows. They also make sure that a dog cannot give birth to a frog, or an elephant to a horse. Genetic engineers take genes from one species for example, a scorpion, and transfer them to another for example, corn. In this way a new life form is created. (1 --) Genetic engineers put duck genes into chickens to make the chickens bigger. They put hormones into cows to make them produce more milk. They put genes from flowers into soya beans and from scorpions into corn. This does not make them cheaper, tastier or healthier. It makes them easier and faster for the farmer to grow. The effects of genetic engineering on our health are not known. Many of the genes which are used such as those of scorpions, rats, mice and moths are not part of our diet so we do not know how dangerous they may be. The effects of genetic engineering on the natural world may be disastrous. The engineers may create life forms monsters that we cannot control. The new life forms have no natural habitat or home. They will have to find one, fight for one or kill for one. (2 -- ) Moreover, the effects of these experiments can often be cruel. In America, pigs were given human genes to make them bigger and less fatty. (3 --) The pigs became very ill and began to lose their eyesight. Greenpeace is trying to prevent all such food experiments. Some - but not all food companies are refusing to use genetically engineered foods. (4 --) We must all be aware of what is happening. Some people believe, though, that genetic engineering could be the solution to the problem of famine. Plants which grow faster, or cows which produce more milk, can save the lives of starving people. We would all like a better, healthier and longer life, and genetic engineering might give us this. On the other hand, it may be a dangerous experiment with nature. In the story, Frankenstein created such a terrible monster that he had to destroy it. We must make sure that it remains a story and no more than that. A. The experiment failed. B. Genes carry information.
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C. Some but not all supermarkets are telling their customers which foods are genetically engineered. D. It may be your land they fight for or that they kill. E. These new life forms have been described as a real-life Frankenstein.

Look at the words and expressions in bold in the text and try to explain them, then choose any three and make sentences. What are the arguments for and against genetically engineered food? What do you think about it? 1. Look at the words below and list them under these headings: FRUIT SEAFOOD DAIRY PRODUCTS MEAT VEGETABLES SWEETS DRINKS cabbage, champagne, pepper, lettuce, strawberries, aubergine, lobster, carrots, prawns, mushrooms, cake, pumpkin, chicken, turkey, sausages, steak, cheese, grapes, onion, milk, beans, ham, yoghurt, plaice, pineapple, garlic, mussels, pear, cauliflower, doughnut, quince, cherry-brandy, leek. 2. Below are some notes about vitamins. Try to put things in order: VITAMIN A VITAMIN B VITAMIN C VITAMIN D VITAMIN E Fights colds, respiratory infections. For healthy heart and circulation. To help digestive process, circulation, nerves. Important for bones. For healthy skin and good eyesight. Found in eggs, fish, liver, rays of sun. Found in apricots, carrots and dairy products. Stored in the body and released when necessary. Found in wheat germ.
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Found in citrus fruits. Richest source: brewers yeast.

3. Look at the menu. Which of these foods are : spicy, sweet, salty, healthy, fattening, creamy, juicy?

DARTFORD LODGE HOTEL & RESTAURANT * Soup of the Day Galia Melon Chilled and served on crushed ice with a blackcurrant sorbet Savoury Pancakes With spinach and stilton Avocado Pear On a nest of lettuce leaves, garnished with prawns * Fillet of Sole Dusted with oatmeal and served with a parsley sauce Lamb Cutlets Grilled and served with mustard and tomatoes Beef Wellington Scottish beef with mushroom pure in a crisp pastry case Breast of Chicken Stir-fried and served with beanshoots and ginger * A choice of Desserts from the Sweet Menu British and Continental Cheeses * Coffee with Hand-Made Chocolates

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4. You are going to read a dialogue between two people discussing what to eat at a business lunch at Dartford Lodge Restaurant. Complete the dialogue with information from the menu in exercise 3. A: Are we having a starter as well or just a main course? B: Its up to you. I think I can manage a starter though. A: I might have the ______ then. ______ are a type of shellfish, arent they? B: Thats right. A: What about _______ ? B: Theyre like crpes. And ________ is a dark green leafy vegetable. Have you ever tried ________ ? A: I dont think so. What is it? B: Its a traditional English blue cheese. A: Sounds nice. I think Ill have that instead? What are you having? B: Ill find out what the ________ of the day is, then Ill have _______ . I like sorbet If you want something thats very English, you could try the ________. A: Wheres that? B: Down in the main courses. A: Ah, yes. Scottish beef. Could you explain the word __________? B: Yes, its a kind of flat fish. And its covered with __________, thats flour made from oats. A: OK. I think Ill have the _________, anyway. B: Well, Im going to have the ________. A: Stir-fried with _________ and __________ . It sounds Chinese. B: Yes, I like Chinese food. 5. Study the different prepositions in these sentences: The sauce is made of butter and parsley. Oatmeal is made from oats. Porridge is made in Scotland. The chocolates are made by hand. The menu is made up of starters, main courses, and desserts. Take an object from your pockets, or choose an object in the room and make up sentences about it, using the expressions in bold print.

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1. Read the following conversation. Find and correct eight grammatical mistakes; A: Hi. Im home. Can you help me unpack the shopping? B: Yeah. Oh good, you got some chips for lunch. But why did you get so few bread? And youve bought so little biscuits. A: Theyre fattening and there werent some chocolates ones, which are the only ones I really like. Ive bought much milk you said we needed some. B: Good. But why have you bought so much razors? A: We didnt have some left and we havent got many washing powder either, so I decided to get some more. B: I hate when you go shopping. You never get some chocolate. A: Listen, you go next time. WAYS OF EXPRESSING QUANTITY You can use the following expressions of quantity: - with countable nouns: a(n), few, a few, many, both (of), several, neither (of) (e.g. a few dollars, several pounds) - with uncountable nouns: very little, not much, a little, less, much, a great deal of (e.g. very little money, less tax) - with both countable and uncountable nouns: some, any, no, none, hardly any, half, all, a lot of, lots of, (not) enough, more, most (e.g. some money, hardly any cash) 2. Complete the sentences with suitable expressions of quantity from the list below. A few some some more a couple hardly any a lot any at least three A: Can you lend me ______ money? I forgot to go to the bank. B: Well, Ive only got _______ pound left. A: Oh, dear. I need quite _______ . Dont worry, Ill go to the bank when I go shopping.
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B: If youre going shopping, can you get me ______ of bottles of water? You can get bottled water at _______ shop on the high street. A: Yes, and we need _____ tins of tomatoes. Im making spaghetti bolognese tonight. Weve got ______ beans. Shall I get _____ beans as well? B: All right. 3. Work in pairs. Imagine that you are planning to invite some friends to a barbecue. Make a list of the things that you will need. Then, prepare a conversation about the thing you already have and the things that you need to buy, using dialogue in 1 to help you. Act out your dialogue for the class.

4. Play a memory game, saying why you went to the supermarket. Each person rembers what went before and adds to the list alphabetically, like this: A: I went to the supermarket to get an apple. B: I went to the supermarket to get an apple and some beef. C: I went to the supermarket to get an apple, some beef and a few Close your eyes and imagine a house just before a party. Write a list of things you can hear, see and smell. Write a poem called Before the party. Use your list and patterns like these: A lot of people running Some baked potatoes A few packets of crisps Not much time

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1. Match the parts of these sentences to form sayings connected with money. 1) A fool and his money 2) Money is like 3) I wouldnt do it 4) Money doesnt 5) If you look after the pennies a) grow on trees. b) for love nor money. c) the pounds will look after themselves. d) are soon parted. e) root of all evil.

2. Which of the expressions from Exercise 1 would you use to comment on these situations? 1) Youre watching a TV programme about a man who fights crocodiles for fun. 2) You hear that someone you think is stupid paid 200 for some jeans. 3) Youre reading a newspaper article about two brothers who killed each other over 50. 4) A child you know is saving up for a bicycle, but complains that it is a slow process. 5) Paul wants his parents to buy him a very expensive pair of trainers. They want him to realise that you have to work to earn money.

SHOPPING Customer: Excuse me, I bought this colour TV here last week and Im not satisfied with the picture. Id like to have my money back, please. Shop assistant: Im sorry, sir, but Im afraid we dont give refunds. May I see your receipt? Customer: Here you are. Shop assistant: We can give you a credit note for this amount, sir, or you can exchange it for something of equal value.
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Customer: All right, Ill take the exchange. Shop assistant: Actually, sir, you are very lucky. Weve got a sale this week. We have some really great bargains. Now, this Zandy 3000 is a great deal. Its 40 per cent off the normal retail price. In fact, were selling it for just over the wholesale price that we pay. It has remote control and it has a one year guarantee, so that if anything goes wrong you can bring it back and have it repaired. Customer: It still seems expensive to me. Shop assistant: No, no, sir, thats a fantastic price. Its cheap, believe me. Weve sold hundreds of them and this, I believe, is the last one. Customer: The last one, eh? OK. Ill take it. How much extra do I owe? Shop assistant: Just 125. Customer: And can I pay by credit card or would you prefer a cheque? Shop assistant: Credit card will be fine, thank you. Customer: Good-bye! Shop assistant: Good-bye, sir. Shop assistant (two minutes later): Bring out another Zandy 3000, will you?

1. Decide if the following statements are true (T) or false (F) according to the story. 1. ___ The man returned the television because it was broken. 2. ___ The man wanted a refund. 3. ___ The Zandy 3000 was being sold at half price. 4. ___ If the Zandy 3000 breaks in the next year, the man will get his money back. 5. ___ The Zandy 3000 cost more than the television that the man had returned. 6. ___ The man paid by cheque. 7. ___The man bought the last Zandy 3000 in the shop. 2. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
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Decide if the following sentences are similar (S) or different (D) in meaning. Its fifty per cent off. ___ Its half price. Its a bargain. ___ Its a good deal. Its reduced. ___ Its at the normal price. Its at the retail price. ___ Its at the wholesale price. Its a big discount. ___ Its a great reduction. Its in a sale. ___Its at the normal retail price.

3. a) b) c) d) e) f) g)

Match the words with their definitions: refund credit note exchange guarantee receipt cheque credit card

1 _______ a piece of paper that says that you bought something in a store 2 _______ money that you get back after you return goods in a store 3 _______ a piece of paper promising you money, a replacement or repair if something goes wrong with what you have bought 4 _______ a piece of plastic that you can use like money to pay for goods 5 _______ a piece of paper that says you can spend money in that store 6 _______ goods in return for goods that you bought in a store 7 _______ a piece of paper that says that you will pay with money in your bank. 4. All the following words have to do with making payments salary wages charge fees fare commission tip

Which one describes the money you pay 1. to thank someone for their services (for example, a waiter or waitress)? 2. to an agent or salesperson? 3. for a professional service (for example, to a lawyer)? 4. for a service (for example, electricity, postage)? 5. for travelling? 6. to your staff every week? 7. to your staff every month? 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Now use the same seven words to complete these sentences: The taxi _____ was $18 and I gave the driver a $4 ______ . On orders of over 2,000 pieces delivery is free of ____ . The builders receive their weekly _____ in cash. In addition to your basic ____ you will receive a 25% _____ on all goods sold. Shes a good accountant but her ______ are high.
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6. In which shops would you buy the following items? 1. apricots, radishes at the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _s 2. aspirin, vitamins _ _ _ _ _ _ _s 3. bread and cakes _ _ _ _ _s 4. dogs, cats, hamsters _ _ _ shop 5. hammer, nails _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _s 6. newspapers, magazines _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _s 7. pens, writing paper _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _s 8. roses, daffodils _ _ _ _ _ _ _s shop 9. salmon, herring _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _s 10. tea, sugar, coffee _ _ _ _ _ _s shop

1. Look at these sentences about the achievements of some famous people. Unfortunately, the achievements have been attributed to the wrong people. Rewrite the sentences using the correct information. The telephone was invented by William Shakespeare. Mount Everest was first climbed by James Watt. Imagine was sung by Sir Edmund Hilary and Sherpa Tensing. The Pastoral Symphony was composed by Alexander Graham Bell. The Earth was first orbited in space by Joern Utzon. Hamlet was written by Leonardo da Vinci. The steam engine was invented by John Lennon. The Sydney Opera House was designed by Yuri Gagarin. The Mona Lisa was painted by Ludwig van Beethoven.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

USAGE To describe actions without saying who does them To describe processes EXAMPLES In this way a new life form is created. The sauce is made of butter and parsley. Their genes have been changed. The process is speeded up with chemicals and then flavour and colour are added. They are made that way by genetic engineering not by nature.

NOTE: You can use the passive voice and still say who performed an action by using by 166

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FORM Use the verb BE as a help verb + the third form (past participle) of the main verb To change the tense, change the form of the verb BE: Present Simple Present Continuous Past Simple Past Continuous Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Simple Going to structures Modal structures

EXAMPLES The sauce is The sauces are

made of garlic.

English is spoken here. Excuse the mess: the house is being painted. Paper was invented by the Chinese. I felt as I was being watched. All the money in the safe has been stolen. I knew why I had been chosen. Youll be told in advance. Whos going to be invited? The company should be taken to court and punished.

2. Put the following sentences into the passive: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. People leave 60 umbrellas a day on London buses. They asked the boy many questions. We will give you another chance. We must not throw away empty bottles. Someone left the light on all night. Something has disturbed me. The police will ask you a lot of questions. The wind has blown off the roof. People who drink and drive cause many road accidents. Teenagers design some of the best computer games.

3. Answer the following questions using the passive voice: 1. What happened to your dog? It 2. Havent you got a car? Yes, but.
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3. Does he still work in that bank? No, 4. Are these shoes brand-new? Yes,. 5. Are you going to the Longmans party? No,. 6. Does the TV set work now? Yes, 7. Is it a Swiss watch? No,.. 4. Write sentences from the prompts using one of the verbs from the box: build discover elect found invent open

1. The Berlin Wall/1989 The Berlin Wall was destroyed in 1989. 2. The Channel Tunnel/1994 . 3. Radium/Marie and Pierre Curie .. 4. The wireless/ Marconi .. 5. Fiat SPA/1899 .. 6. President Bush/2003 ... 5. Add a comment to each of the following questions: Have you heard what . 1 has happened to their Spanish subsidiary? It has been sold. 2 is happening to the department? . 3 happened to the chairman at the meeting? .. 4 has happened to the strikers? .. 5 is happening to the price of petrol?
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6 happened to our office in Singapore? 7 has happened to the EURO exchange rate? 6. Many of the following sentences sound unnatural because they are in the active. Rewrite them in the passive, but do not mention the agent (e.g. by workers, by people). 1. Workers in China make these telephones. These telephones are made in China. 2. Employers pay many manual workers weekly. Many manual workers 3. They keep a large amount of gold at Fort Knox. A large amount of gold 4. Farmers grow a third of the worlds cocoa in the Ivory Coast. A third of the worlds cocoa 5. Countries store most nuclear waste underground. Most nuclear waste 6. Scientist test most new drugs extensively before they go on sale. Before they go on sale, most new drugs 7. Workers print a lot of books in Hong Kong. A lot of books Lets learn some new expressions! to sell like hot cakes to be sold very quickly The tickets sold like hot cakes. Everyone wanted to go to the concert of the famous pop star. to have ones cake and eat it to enjoy both of two desirable but incompatible alternatives. You definitely have to make up your mind: if you get promoted, you wont be able to find time for your hobbies any longer. You cant have your cake and eat it. piece of cake something that is easily achieved or obtained Why are you worrying so much about the next exam? Its really piece of cake! Lets learn some proverbs! Dont cry over spilt milk.
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Imagine that you have just spilled some milk on the floor you were going to have a nice glass of milk when an accident happened. Should you cry? Of course not, that would be silly! There are more serious problems in the world than spilt milk. Moreover, you cant get the milk back into your glass. Therefore, to cry over spilt milk is to be upset about something that is not worth your tears, when there is nothing you can do about it. CHECKLIST 1. Whats is the difference between i) I have few friends. ii) I have a few friends? 2. Turn into the Passive: i) Nobody has drunk from that glass. ii) Nobody has slept in this bed. 3. Think of two contexts for: cow/beef and pig/pork. 4. What are the features of genetically engineered food? 5. What is the difference between change and exchange?

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What are media? What ways of conveying information to the general public do you know? Which one of the communication means is today more broadly defined as mass media? What do you know about and which is the difference between print media and electronic media? What and which are media professionals?

UNDERSTANDING MEDIA More more than 550 years ago, a German craftsman invented a machine which introduced to the then civilized world what is now known as mass media. Johannes Gutenberg and his colleagues little realized that moveable type and the printing press would initiate what ultimately became the communications revolution - a revolution which has affected virtually everyone throughout the world. Revolution it has been. It is impossible to tell how many millions of words and pictures have been disseminated in just the past 100 years, let alone since the
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invention of the printing press. But in that 100 years, we have shifted from the primitive, hand-operated printing presses, which changed little from those of the fifteenth century, to sophisticated, technologically superior systems and devices which permit almost instantaneous transmission of media messages to any locale in the world. Only the most nave among us would say we are not affected by those messages. From the moment people get out of bed in the morning until they crawl under covers at night, they are in some way subjected to the influences of mass media. We would like to examine here the extent and the effects of that media influence. Consider this: just today some millions of copies of daily newspapers are being circulated. Just this week, millions of copies of weekly newspapers will be distributed. Just this month thousands of magazine titles will reach the media marketplace. And just this year, some thousands of new book titles will compete for readers. The extent of influence of the electronic media is even more difficult to assess. Thousands of television stations send signals to an estimated of 98 percent of world-wide households. Additionally, cable television signals reach millions of homes. Radio - who honestly knows the extent of its listenership? Thousands of stations are picked up by millions of radio receivers. No one really knows how many radio sets are operative, given the millions of inexpensive personal receivers that the public uses while jogging, working or relaxing. It is also true that no one really knows the extent of the distribution of films. An estimated 4,000 to 5,000 feature films are released annually. They are viewed on the big screen in some thousands of movie theatres across the countries by millions of movie-goers (mostly teenagers and young adults). How many millions more watch the same films in the privacy of their residences? How many students watch films in their classrooms? How many organizations and corporations use films of various types for training? Media influence is pervasive and persuasive. It surrounds us, engulfs us. Mass media are such an integral part of our educational, social, political, and economic system today that if they disappeared, our society would suffer serious consequences.
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Comprehension 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Who invented the printing press? What consequence has this invention entailed and how do people call it? How have media developed for 100 years? How much of our life are we under the influence of media? How would you define daily newspapers, weekly newspapers and magazines? Explain the influence of electronic media on the general public. Why do students watch films in classrooms? What would happen if mass media disappeared? Why?

1. Fill in the blanks with suitable words from the text: 1. Johannes Gutenberg invented about 550 years ago the ..... 2. The invention of the printing press brought about a ... in the world of communications. 3. Superior systems and devices permit today an almost... transmission of media .anywhere in the world. 4. From the moment they wake up until they go to bed people are ... to the ..of mass media. 5. Every day .... newspapers, every week .. newspapers and every month ... reach the media ...... 6. While jogging, working or relaxing, the public uses . personal .. 7. Millions of ...., mainly teenagers and young grown-ups, watch . films on the big screen in thousands of movie theatres all over the country. 8. Lots of organizations and corporations use .. of various .. for ... their staff. 2. Do you think the following statements are true or false? Write T or F: 1. 2. Benjamin Franklin invented the printing press. Media suppose channels or means of mass communication as the press, television etc.
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5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Electronic media mean newspapers and magazines. Media professionals are writers, editors, reporters, correspondents, broadcasters, newsreaders, news gatherers, anchormen, or anchorwomen, DJs. Message means spoken communication. To broadcast means to speak or appear in a radio or TV programme. Movie-goers are those people who do not like to go to the cinema. Mass media are an integral part of our educational, social, political and economic systems today. If media disappeared, our society would not suffer any consequence.

3. Match the words in the left column with the suitable definition you find in the right column: 1. media 2. message 3. craftsman 4. locale 5. news gatherer 6. anchorman 7. feature film a. a workman who is skilled in an occupation b. scene, as of a play or story, or locality of operations or events c. a long film forming the main item in a cinema programme d. spoken or written communication e. newspapers and broadcasting by which information is conveyed to the general public f. key broadcaster who participates in and coordinates the work of other broadcasters g. reporters, correspondents, television journalists and the camera operators who go with them

4. Combine the word media with the words in the box below and complete the newspaper extracts: attention magnate circus analyst empire guru campaign correspondent

1. The trial of Bruno Hauptmann for the 1932 kidnapping of aviators Charles
Lindberghs baby attracted media ... unlike any seen before. 2. The government has been particularly annoyed at the involvement of the French state in what they are calling a hostile media--.....
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3. Black had set his heart on the News , which he saw as a key part of his plan to
build a world-wide media.. 4. The thought of a quiet ceremony and a small dinner party to follow is becoming more attractive to stars as they watch publicised marriages like Elizabeth Taylors being transformed into a media.. 5. Estimates by Browen Maddox, media.. at Kleinwort Benson Securities are that the company will lose more than 330 million pound this year. 6. Another satellite network came into being, Sky Television, owned by media .... Mr. Rupert Murdoch. 7. The Palace had claimed that Fergie had hired top media .. Sir Tim Bell to handle publicity on her behalf. 5. Use the words documentary and entertainment and the new-made words docudrama (documentary and drama) and infotainment (information and entertainment) with their proper meaning, in sentences about TV shows: 1. What we need is , variety shows with comedians, singers, pianists, jugglers and acrobats. 2. That thin line between fact and fantasy has never looked thinner than in this ABC movie, provisionally titled Charles and Diana. 3. An interview with Ron Brown, the Democratic Party Chairman, was edited to 40 seconds. Slotted between special video-effects and soundtrack, it is part of an revolution. 4. We have a ..on the social issues, like the housing problem and the public policies on education, health, and the social policies of the government. 6. Look at these newspaper extracts and match the types of TV programmes to their definitions: His fiction was derived from Dallas and other glossy SOAP OPERAS which are consumed abroad. By combining the PHONE-IN with the TALK-SHOW, he was able to convey his reaction to the concerns of the average American more immediately than by any other form.
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Being a good GAME-SHOW host means getting to know your contestants. On my first appearance, interviewing a priest in the GOD SLOT, I tripped headlong over some wires and the programme was live. The whole point of QUIZ SHOWS is that, sitting at home you can shout out the answers. Good SITCOM comes out of painful situations, and there doesnt have to be a happy ending every time.

Non match the words in the first column with the suitable definition you find in the second column: 1. chat-show or talk-show 2. game show 3. phone-in 4. quiz-show 5. sitcom 6. soap opera or soap a. contest of skill, intelligence or knowledge. b. series about the lives of a group of people c. short for situation comedy. Comedy series based around a character or group of characters, often an ordinary family d. a well-known host invites guests to talk, often about something they are trying to sell or to promote, like their latest book. e. a host invites people to phone in and put questions to a studio guest or just give their opinions about something f. contest involving answering questions. Give examples of these kinds of TV programmes from your own experience and comment them. 7. Here are some useful words you may need in discussing newspapers. Decide which definition belongs to each of them: 1. human interest story 2. edition
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3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

column classified ads lead story editorial headline story or article

A. Technically, a vertical section of words on the page; but in a colloquial sense the terms can mean a regular feature in the paper (e.g. the editorial). B. A story containing something about the personal life of one or more individuals. These stories can be about ordinary people and have no political significance. C. The title of an article. D. A column which expresses the papers own point of view. E. Very short advertisements which are arranged under different headings. F. A newspaper in the form that it appears on a particular day. G. Any item written by a journalist. H. The main front-page story. Write articles of your own, about happenings you know, trying to observe the logical order of the events.

CONDITIONAL Notice this sentence from the main text Understanding Media: if they were to disappear, our society would suffer serious consequences. 1. Charlotte works for an advertising company. She has made some notes about different products. Write sentences with if + the simple present + will to advertise the products: Example: Wash your hair with Head and Shoulders it looks super. If you wash your hair with Head and Shoulders, it will look super. Feel better take Panadol Youll feel better if you take Panadol.
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a. b. c. d.

choose a Sunspot holiday have a great time sleep a lot better sleep in a Dreamway bed people notice you wear Rodeo jeans shop at Kwikbuy save money

Write a few sentences advertising some other products. Use if-clauses of type 1. 1. You can choose real products. 2. Read the following interview: Jeffrey: Hi! My names Jeffrey. Our subject is going abroad. (Patricias family has arranged for her to spend two months with a family in France). Patricia, when are you going to France? Patricia: Next week. Jeffrey: What will you do if you dont understand the language? Patricia: Ive learnt a little French in school and Ill have a phrase book, so Ill try to speak French if people cant speak English! Jeffrey: And what will you do if youre lonely? Patricia: Well, Im sure to be homesick, but Ill try to make new friends and Ill write to my boy-friend every week. I wont be sad and miserable!

Imagine you are Jeffrey. Prepare for the interview by writing some questions using if + simple present + will. Use these expressions: feel lonely, get lost, dont like the food, meet an English person, feel homesick, cant speak to people. Example: Dont understand the language. What will you do if you dont understand the language? 3. Use tentative possible conditions: if + should + infinitive: Example: If you happen to see her, ask her to dinner sometime. If you should see her, ask her to dinner sometime. Should you see her, ask her to dinner sometime. a. If by any chance Alice comes to see us, well have a party. b. If you happen to get two tickets for that show, will you spare one for me?
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c. If you happen to come on Sunday, youll meet your favourite actress. d. If you happen to meet him, tell him to ring me up. 4. Use unless + a positive verb instead of if not: Example: Patricia will come to our meeting if she is not ill Patricia will come to our meeting unless she is ill.

a. If you dont apply to the chief editor, you wont get a rise. b. The correspondents wont enter the palace, if they dont have the presidents permission. c. She wont say anything, if you dont speak about the article. d. If you dont take out a permit, you wont be allowed there. 5. Patricia is a secretary. Shes grumbling about her new job and her boss. Match each sentence in the first column with one in the second. Rewrite the sentences using if-clauses type 2 (if + simple past): Example: If my boss didnt play golf, he wouldnt be out of the office so much. If he told me where he was, I could contact him. 1. The pay isnt good. 2. He gives me so much work. 3. His writing is so awful. 4. He doesnt listen to me. A .I cant afford a nicer flat. B. I cant contact him. C. I cant read it. D. I have to tell him everything twice.

6. If I were you, I wouldnt (go by bus). Id (go by underground) This pattern is commonly used to make tentative suggestions. It is a more polite and considerate way of advising . Practice this dialogue with a partner using the clues below. Instead of buy, you may use get, purchase, invest in: Patricia: Jeffrey: Im thinking of buying a Whizzy washing machine. I wouldnt if I were you. Id buy Whirly. Its cheaper than a Whizzy.
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Patricia: Jeffrey: Patricia:

Mm, its not so reliable though. Ah, but reliability isnt everything. I dont agree. Cars: ZXK Fast Economical JGY

Washing machines: Whizzy Whirly Reliable Cheap Motorbikes: Safe Powerful Vroom Zap

Watches: Electric Zeus Accurate Flashy Computers: HPX Long-lasting Fast, reliable HPY

Coats: Chic Hard-wearing Smart


7. Below is the story of what happened when four people went on a long walk last week. Read the story and rewrite the underlined parts using if-clauses of type 3 (if + past perfect): Example: If it hadnt rained most of the morning, it would have been a pleasant walk. They wouldnt have decided to go if the forecast had been bad. Last Saturday Jeffrey, Patricia, Trevor and Emma went on a twenty-mile walk over the Norland Hills. Jeffrey likes walking, and it was his idea. They walked from Oscroft at the eastern end of the hills to Raveley in the west. The day didnt go at all as planned. It rained most of the morning, so it wasnt a very pleasant walk. The weather is often wet in the Norland Hills, in fact. But they decided to go because the forecast wasnt bad. Jeffrey and Patricia wore their anoraks, but Trevor and Emma got wet because they didnt have their anoraks. The four friends had other problems too. They forgot to bring a map, and they lost the way. They wanted to stop for lunch in the village of Rydale. They finally got there at two oclock. They were late because they didnt go the right way. They had planned to eat at the caf in Rydale, but they werent able to eat there because the caf was closed for the day. It was very annoying. They didnt have any food with them, so they were hungry. But the weather was better by this time, and they decided to go
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on to Raveley. Five miles further on Patricia had an accident. She fell and hurt her leg. So they had to go more slowly after that. They lost even more time. They missed their bus home because they got to Raveley so late. There wasnt any other transport, so they rang their friend Adam. Luckily he was at home, so he was able to come and fetch them in his car. They were glad to get home. Translate into English: Mass media sunt mijloacele prin care informaiile sunt transmise publicului larg. Exist mijloace de informare tiprite, cum ar fi ziare, reviste, cri i mijloace de informare electronice, cum ar fi televiziunea i radioul. Cine ar fi crezut vreodat c, dac Gutenberg n-ar fi inventat tiparul, care a nsemnat revoluia comunicaiilor, am fi ajuns astzi la aparatura sofisticat din punct de vedere tehnologic, care permite transmiterea imediat a oricrui gen de mesaj n orice col al lumii. Zi de zi suntem ntr-un fel sau altul sub influena mass mediei. Nu putem s nu fim afectai de informaiile transmise prin ziare, televiziune, radio etc. Influena copleitoare a mass mediei se poate vedea n nsui modul nostru de a gndi. Consecinele i rolurile majore ale mass mediei joac un rol covritor n viaa noastr. Dac n-ar fi formele mass media, n-am afla niciodat evenimentele majore din ar i din ntreaga lume. Remember!
TYPE 1. A) Possible, probable/real condition referring to something which may or equally may not happen. B)Tentative possible condition, referring to something, which is rather unlikely to happen, but still could do so IF CLAUSE Present Tense MAIN CLAUSE Future Tense EXAMPLE If it rains, we wont go to buy the newspaper.


If you should meet Philip, tell Future/imperative him the news.

Should you meet Philip, tell him the news. (more formal) 181
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2. Improbable condition referring to something which the speaker can imagine happening in theory 3. Impossible condition referring to something in the past which, because it is in the past, cannot by definition happen.

Simple Past Tense

Present Conditional Tense

If she became a reporter, she would work very hard. Unless (if not) we invited her, she would not come. If I were you, I wouldnt change my job. If he had known English, he would have translated the report. Had he known English, he would have translated the report. (more formal) With modal verbs If she had been able to answer the questions, she might have passed the examination.

Past Perfect Tense

Perfect Conditional

Lets learn a new proverb! Dont put off tomorrow what you can do today Its easy to put things off. Just say, Ill do that tomorrow. We call that procrastination (quite a big word, isnt it?). What about you? Do you often put things off? What type of things? Homework, certainly. What else? We usually put off things that we do not enjoy. Sometimes, we may not have a good reason for why we procrastinate. However, our work wont go anywhere, no matter how long we wait to do it. Therefore, if we dont have a good reason, we should just do it.

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What do you know about advertisement? What is the difference between advertisement and publicity? What does advertising deal with? What do you know about the language of advertisements?

T. V. ADVERTS Patricia: Jeffrey: Patricia: Jeffrey: Patricia: Jeffrey: Patricia: Jeffrey: Patricia: The adverts will be on in a minute. You want a cup of tea, dont you? Yes, please. Do you want a hand? It was kind of you to have invited me. No, thanks, Ive just got time. I dont know what the advertisers would do if everyone was like mum. She always makes a cuppa during the adverts. Yes, loads of people do, thats why they put the sound up, so you can still hear the ad, even if you cant see it. Is that true? Youre kidding, arent you? Its stupid of them not to watch the images too. No, Im not. You havent noticed, have you? Well, no, I cant say that I have. Isnt that awful! Why is it awful? Adverts arent that bad. In fact, some of them are pretty good. The ones they did for shampoo, a while back, were really great, and the ones with the monkeys were hilarious. It was very clever of the advertiser to have chosen such a subject for an advert. Well, I think theyre a pain in the neck. Three stupid adverts for washing powder in the middle of a film, it just ruins it, doesnt it? Its wrong of the broadcasters to slot the film in this way. Mmm! youre right about that. Washing powder ads are worse than everything. I cant believe they help to sell the product. I mean, theyre all the same, arent they? What, the adverts you mean, or the products?
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Patricia: Well, both actually. But I meant the adverts. Jeffrey: Yeah, they just copy each other. First it was changing two packets for one, then the biological powders and now the latest thing is those liquid ones. Patricia: Heres the tea, come on, stop chatting now. Jeffrey: Television - the great conversation killer! Comprehension

1. What do the two friends speak about? 2. What do they think about advertisements? 3. Does Jeffrey like advertisements in the middle of a film? Whats his opinion
about that? 4. What kind of language do they use? Is their talk formal or informal? 5. What characteristic features do you notice in their speaking an everyday language?

1. What do you know about advertisements in newspapers? Do you know what classified ads are? All people want to know about business, job changes, personal information and others, is dealt with through the classified columns of local, regional and national papers. Indeed, many people in British and American communities buy newspapers for the sole purpose of checking the small ads. The classifieds contain important expressions and abbreviations which you, as a language learner, need to know. 2. Read the following text about Internet and try to understand it with a dictionary: What is the Internet and why do I need it? Now you should have a film grasp of the World Wide Web and what it has to offer. The Web can link together information from anywhere in the world and make it available to anyone. Any student can jump from Dun & Bradstreet financial information to a tour of Croatias capital, Zagreb, to Southern Africa - without ever leaving his desk.
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Although the Web has existed for only a short time, it is already being used in numerous areas by both public and private institutions. Business have discovered how beneficial advertising and performing transactions on the Web can be. Educational institutions also are making more information available on the Web, and students are discovering that they can get increasingly more research done by searching Web pages rather than library books. You can make travel plans, buy houses, read about your favourite hobby, and make new friends via the Web.

ROLE - PLAY Plan your holidays through the Internet by e-mailing a travel agency. Speak about it. You are the customer and another student is the agencys employee. You are a refreshments company employer. Your company is not very successful and you have to put down your prices. Use World Wide Web. Write a summary about it. You are being bored. To get out of it you need somebody. You have the brilliant idea of accessing the Internet to make friends. Write about your bad mood and speak about how you have succeeded in making a friend and how your relations have evolved. Have you ever met?

PHRASAL VERBS 1. Here are six examples with get. Read the examples carefully. The new manager is easy to get on with. Fred is healthy again. He got over his illness pretty well. The files are locked up and I cant get at them. Dont let this rainy weather get you down. Hows Jack getting on at school? Susan got through her exams successfully.
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Complete these sentences using a phrasal verb with get. a. I must put this vase in a place where the children cant ... . b. How are you .. in your new job? c. Jims only beginning to . his disappointment. d. She finally .. driving licence test. e. She couldnt her room mate she was a heavy smoker. f. I know I shouldnt let his comments me but I cant help it. 2. Here are some phrasal verbs with the particle up. Read the examples carefully. Its parents responsibility to bring up their children. You have to make up your mind whether you want to leave now. I can hardly get up in the morning. You should never give up hope. Look up the price in the catalogue. She picked up a little German when she visited her friend there. The landlord put the rent up by 50p a week. I cant put up with his manners. Since he retired, he has taken up gardening. No sooner had he left that his fellows turned up. Now complete the following sentences using one of the phrasal verbs above. 1. Why didnt you buy your car now? Theyre going to the price soon. 2. He was .. to be a respectable man. 3. The citizens dont . pollution any longer. 4. It was late so she . in a hurry. 5. He had been waiting for an hour when she finally . 6. I have no idea what income means. Why dont you .... .? 7. Ill have to . driving, I got a company car and I cant use it. 8. Where shall I go on holiday? I havent .. yet..
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9. He didnt attend any training, but he managed to . some computing skills. 10. They had to .. travelling by car because of the flood. 3. Complete the sentences using one of these verbs + one of the pronouns it /them/ her/ him/ you: make up fill in see off wake up 1 2 3 4 5 6 give back show round turn down throw away break down cross out

They gave me a form to fill it in. The boy told his friends a story that wasnt true. He .. Would you like to see our company? I could .. Denis was offered a job as receptionist but she .... Martin is very tired. Please dont .. When you finish reading the journals, dont forget to .. to the librarian. 7 She had a lot of useless things, so she wanted to .. 8 The door was locked so the police had to .. 9 Her sister is leaving to New Zealand and she is going to the airport to 10 If you make a mistake on the form, just .

PHRASAL VERBS Phrasal verbs are verbs with particle, the meaning of which may be different from those of the individual parts. There are four types of phrasal verbs: EXAMPLES His fellows turned up later.

1 They do not take an object. 2 They take an object. The noun object goes after or before the particle.

He put up the rent. / He put the rent up.


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The pronoun object always goes before the particle. 3 They take an object. The noun/ pronoun object goes after the particle. 4 They have two particles and the noun/pronoun object goes after these.

He put it up. I cant get at the files. I cant get at them. I get on with my manager. I cant put up with his manners.

ADJECTIVAL PHRASE Have you noticed in the dialogue between Patricia and Jeffrey about TV adverts, the phrases of this kind: It was kind of you to , Its stupid of them not to , It was clever of the advertiser to , Its wrong of the broadcasters to ? 1. Patricia and Jeffrey were school mates long ago. All the pupils who left Parkside School twenty years ago, are having a reunion. Theyre meeting to talk about the old days when they were younger. Fill in the gaps with phrases above mentioned, namely adjectival phrases: it + to be + adjective + of + noun + long infinitive. Jeffrey: Hello. Youre Wendy, arent you? It was nice of you to accept the invitation. Wendy: Yes, I remember you, too. Youre Jeffrey Cowley, arent you? . (splendid) (have organized) this reunion. Jeffrey: Thats right, it was Patricias idea. We were in the same class, werent we? But its easy to forget people. Wendy: I think I remember most of the people here. Patricia Squires is over there, isnt she? Ive heard she reads the news on Television Northwest. . (gorgeous) . (have) this job. Jeffrey: Yes, shes on television quite often. Shes done well. Wendy: We had a lot of fun at school, hadnt we? Jeffrey: Er, yes. Dont turn round, but Melones looking awfully. Wendy: Mike Melone? Jeffrey: Yes, can you remember him? Wendy: Oh, yes. Jeffrey: I hated him. Oh, no! hes coming over here. Wendy: Well, it is a reunion. We ought to be friendly! Mike: Hello, Jeffrey! Nice to see you again.
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Jeffrey: Mike: Jeffrey: Mike: Jeffrey:

Nice to see you too, Mike. . of you (recognize) me. This reunion was a good idea. Yes, Im enjoying it. Mike, do you remember Wendy? Yes, shes my wife. Oh!

Activity: Imagine that in twenty years time you are at a reunion with the other members of your class. Think of four or five sentences with adjectival phrases that you might say to your partner. Use these adjectives with to be + of + object + long infinitive: pleasant, expensive, reasonable, good, kind. Translate into English: Redactarea unui exemplar publicitar este ca i redactarea unei tiri. Accentul n scrierea unei reclame se pune pe concizie i claritate. Fii exact i cinstit - aceasta este o responsabilitate de baz n publicitate. Studiai reclamele. Uitai-v prin reviste i ziare. Observai simplitatea reclamelor. Ai remarca de ndat c exist apeluri pentru diversele interese ale cititorilor att prin ilustraii, ct i prin text. Multe cri despre publicitate discut psihologia vnzrii. Unele v vor da liste lungi cu trebuinelor oamenilor. Psihologii au publicat liste ale dorinelor umane i au pus cele mai puternice dorine la nceputul acestora. Este foarte bine s v uitai la lista de apeluri pentru a gsi unul bun pentru produsul dvs. Selectai-l pe cel mai bun i care este, de asemenea, logic i credibil. Alegei un apel care va face cu adevrat vnzri. Nu ncercai s vindei tuturor pentru a sfri s nu vindei nimic nimnui. Fii selectivi n ceea ce scriei. Hotri ceea ce va vinde cel mai bine produsul cititorului dvs. Fii creatori. Cea mai bun reclam n-a fost nc pregtit. Nici unul dintre experi nu are toate rspunsurile.

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Lets have fun Alls Well that Ends Well The scene was in a drawing-room, and a strange idea came into her mind. She was romantic, and all kinds of strange ideas flitted in and out of her pretty, little head. Stamping as hard as she could on the carpet, throwing back her shoulders and pointing to the cabinet in the corner of the room with a commanding gesture, she said: Open one of those three drawers. The young man rushed toward the cabinet. Dont be in such a hurry. First listen to what I have to say. He stopped suddenly, as if she had told him the drawers might explode if he touched them. Open one of those drawers, and be careful how you choose, for in each one I have placed an answer to the favour you have asked of me. If you put your hand on the paper on which Yes in written, then I am yours. But if the paper in the drawer says No, then understand that is my final decision. You are too cruel, said he; I am sure it will be No . You must take your chance she replied. He paused to look into her face for guidance, but he found none there; so, closing his eyes and trusting to Providence, he opened the middle drawer, and took out a tiny roll of scented pink paper and handed it to her. Well, what is my sentence he inquired. Read it yourself, she said, as she held out the leaf of paper, upon which was written the world Yes. Now she was his; she had given her word and she must keep it. After a few minutes the young man became suddenly cool. Whats the matter, darling? she asked, noting the change. Are you not happy now? Not quite. Not quite! she repeated, am I not yours for ever? That is so, but I won you by chance. You did not come to me of your own free will, did you? Dont be so silly, she said, as she put her arms round his neck. If you want to know the truth, I put the same answer in each of the three drawers. (Anonymous)

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Lets learn a proverb! Dont put all of your eggs in one basket
What would happen if someone put all off their eggs in one basket, and then dropped the basket? They would lose everything. But what if they put some in another basket? In that case, if they dropped one basket, they would still have eggs from the other one. That is why bankers usually advise people to place their money in several different investments or banks. If one investment fails or one bank goes bankrupt, people will save the money deposited in the others. CHECKLIST 1. Is media a singular or a plural noun? 2. When can you use the verb would in an IF-clause? 3. What verbs can you use to make suggestions? 4. What is a phrasal verb? 5. Give one exemple for each type of conditional sentence.

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1. Underline the correct option from the words in italics. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Id like a/some advice about the governments latest tax proposals. Ive just received a/some very nice gift from one of my friends. Did you meet an/any interesting people at the party? Bill wants you to phone him. He says he has a/some good news for you. Shall we carry on working, or would you like to go out for a/some meal? I just have to go to the bank to get a/some money. The engineers are having a/some problems with the new engine.

2. Write complete sentences: Example: he / the day after tomorrow / manager / see / He is seeing the manager the day after tomorrow. A. present continuous or will? Jack: Pam: Jack: Pam: Jack: everybody / come / to the presentation on Friday afternoon? ........................................................................ Most people. you think / it / be a long one? ........................................................................... I'm not sure. It / probably / be about 3 hours. Why? ........................................................................... I / go to the dentist at 5.30. I made an appointment two weeks ago. ............................................................................

B. present simple or going to? Tom: Great! Thats the end of school for a few weeks. Lucy: When / the next term / begin? .......................................................................... Tom: On 15th February. Lucy: What / you / do / during the holidays? ..........................................................................
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Tom: I dont know yet. What about you? Lucy: I / not finish / until next week. Then, I / look / for a job for the summer. 3. Choose the best answer, A, B or C 1. The suitcase looks heavy. you with it. A. Im helping B. I help C. Ill help. 2. The trade fair is interesting. Yes, I know. .. it tomorrow. A. I visit B. Im going to visit C. Ill visit 3. Were late. The train by the time we get to the railway station. A. will already start B. will already be started C. will already have started 4. tomorrow, so we can go somewhere. A. Im not working B. I dont work C. I wont work 5. I think the inflation .. decrease next term. A. will B. shall C. is going to 6. Dont worry late tonight. A. if I am B. when I am C. when Ill be 4. Answer the following questions, according to the model: Model: Will you go shopping at Harrods in Knightsbridge? Im looking forward to going shopping at Harrods in Knightsbridge, its the best department store in London. 1. Will you take a walk down the Kings Road in Chelsea? . a walk down the Kings Road in Chelsea, where there are dozens of small restaurants. 2. Will you see a ballet? . a ballet at the Metropolitan Opera House in New York. 5. Change the following sentences according to the model: Model: Tom would prefer to go. I would prefer Tom to go. I would rather/sooner Tom went.
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1. Bill would rather play tennis than football. 2. My brother would rather go skiing than skating.
3. They would rather listen to concerts than operas. 6. Translate into English: 1. La sfritul anilor optzeci un mare numr de firme au dat faliment din cauza crizei petrolului. 2. n urmtorul deceniu probabil jumtate din populaia globului va locui n orae. 3. Pn n anul 2010 se vor fi inventat roboi care s preia multe din activitile omului. 4. ntre 1989 i 1999 s-au produs transformri majore n economia rilor din Europa Central i de Est. 5. Mai puin de o treime dintre angajaii firmei vor deveni omeri pn la nceputul anului. 6. Clima se va nclzi din ce n ce mai mult la nceputul mileniului urmtor. 7. Cu ct se dezvolt producia mai repede, cu att ne vom extinde mai mult pieele. 8. Calitatea nu este la fel de important ca preul, n ce i privete pe clienii notri. 9. n prezent exist cu 20 la sut mai puine surse de ap nepoluat. 10. Produsul nostru va fi mult mai apreciat dect majoritatea mrcilor concurente. 7. Complete the following sentences with the words business, economy and the words related (economic, economical, economics, economist , economize). 1. If we want a holiday this year well have to .. . Were spending too much. 2. The newspapers advertise many small ... for sale. 3. Every country has its own problems. 4. Shes an .. lecturer at Leeds University. 5. Peters thinking of setting up in the construction . when he leaves university. 6. The most . way of heating your house is by using solar energy. 7. The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the minister responsible for the domestic .. . 8. I have to go abroad on .. for at least two months a year. 9. Naturally he has many professional ... to advise him.
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10. They are studying marketing, .. geography, political .. and management at the school. 11. The world .. get more and more integrated. 12. It is usually more to shop in a supermarket than in a small shop. 13. He presented himself very well at the interview. He was very professional and ..-like. 14. Would you like a cup of coffee or shall we get down to straight away? 15. He always travels by .-class and by such small . he manages to save a lot. 16. In a hotel its the receptionists . to welcome tourists. 17. Dont bother me so much. This is none of your . . 18. The government .. policy is to reduce taxation in the next years. 19. Hed better mind his own . and not interfere at all. 20. She has a good . as a hairstylist. 8. Use your dictionary to fill in the chart. Some words do not have all forms. Verb Person produce pro'ducer Noun Activity pro'duction produc'tivity

Result pro'duce 'product

Adjective pro'ductive photo'graphic

create 'marketer management con'sumption super'visory ad'vertisment em'ployer

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9. Put the verb in the right form: -ing or infinitive (with or without to): 1. She doesn't allow smoking in the house. (smoke) 2. I've never been to Barbados but I'd like __________ there. (go) 3. I'm in a difficult position. What do you advise me _________ ? (do) 4. She said the letter was personal and wouldn't let me _________ it. (read) 5. They were kept at the police station for two hours and then they were allowed _________ . (go) 6. Where would you recommend me _________ for my holiday? (go) 7. I wouldn't recommend _________ in that restaurant. The food is awful. (eat) 8. The film was very sad. It made me _________ . (cry) 9. Carol's parents always encouraged her _________ hard at college. (study) 10. Fill in the blanks with the verbs in brackets, using the -ing form or to + infinitive: 1. There's nothing wrong with the photocopier. It just needs servicing. (service) 2. We need _________ (look) at this proposal very carefully before we make a decision. 3. I'll make a note in my diary so that I will remember ___________ (send) you the information you need. 4. I'm not sure if I have met Mr Gonzalez, but I remember ________ (hear) his name. 5. I will never forget __________ (walk) into the class on my first day at school. 6. Could you take this file to Ms Armstrong? I meant to let her have it this morning, but I forgot __________ (give) it to her. 7. He found it very difficult to get work because he was unemployed, and soon regretted _________ (resign) from his previous job. 8. We have appointed another candidate to the post, so I regret _________ (say) that we will not be able to offer you the job. 9. If their Accounts Department is slow at paying bills, try _________ (send) a fax to the chairman. That usually works well. 10. As a company, we always try ________ provide our customers with the best service possible.

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11. Write sentences beginning with I wish ... .. Example: I don't know many people (and I'm lonely). I wish I knew more people. I've eaten too much and now I feel sick. I wish I hadn't eaten so much. 1. I live in a big city (and I don't like it). ................................................................ 2. It's cold (and I hate cold weather). ................................................................... 3. I didn't applied for the job advertised in the newspaper. .......................................... 4. I can't go to the party (and I'd like to). ............................................................... 5. I forgot to take my camera. ............................................................................. 6. I'm not lying on a sunny beautiful beach ( and that's a pity). ..................................... 7. I have to study tomorrow (but I'd like to stay in bed). .............................................. 8. I didn't study English hard when I was at school. ................................................... 9. Ann isn't here (and I need to see her). ............................................................... 10. I don't know anything about cars (and my car has just broken down). ............ .......... 12. Somebody says something to you which is the opposite of what they said before. Write a suitable answer beginning I thought you said... . Example: That restaurant is expensive. Is it? I thought you said it was cheap.

1. Ann is coming to the party tonight. Is she? I thought you said she ................................................................ 2. I know lots of people. Do you? I thought ............................................................................. 3. Ann likes music. Does she? ...................................................................................... 4. I'll be here next week. Will you? ....................................................................................... 5. I'm going out this evening. Are you? ........................................................................................
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6. I can speak a little Portuguese. Can you? ....................................................................................... 7. I haven't been to the theatre for ages. Haven't you? .................................................................................. 13. Read the report about what a candidate said at an interview. Change the words in italics into Direct Speech. Miss Baker said that (1) she was very interested in working for us, and she explained that (2) she had been working in the City for three years. When I asked her about her reasons for leaving, she said that (3) she liked what she did, but she wanted more responsibility. She seems well-qualified for the post, as she said that (4) she had a degree in Economics and an MBA. As far as her terms of notice are concerned, she made it clear that (5) she couldn't leave her job for another month. I decided to offer her the job, and she said (6) she would consider our offer, and would let us have her decision the next week. 1. She said: "I am very interested in working for you". 2. She said: ............................................................................................ 3. She said: ............................................................................................ 4. She said: ............................................................................................ 5. She said: ............................................................................................ 6. She said: ............................................................................................ 14. A speaker was asked these questions after a presentation. Report the questions. 1. "When will the new product be ready?" 2. "How much are you planning to spend on advertising?" 3. "Where do you intend to advertise?" 4. "What discount will you give to your distributors?" 5. "Why has it taken so long to develop?" 6. "How much market interest has there been in the new product?" 7. "Who is the product aimed at?" 8. "What sort of problems have you had in developing the product?"

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15. High Street shops. Why do you go to these places? What do they sell or do? Example: a laundry You go to a laundry to have your clothes cleaned. a florist A florist sells flowers. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. a chemist .. a building society .. a garden centre .. an insurance company . an estate agent .. a travel agent . a hardware shop . a software shop . a greengrocers shop . a DIY shop ..

16. A person who works in the Personnel Department is explaining how they select candidates in her company: If there's a vacancy, I usually advertise it in-house first of all, and if I don't find any suitable candidates, then we advertise the job in the papers. We ask applicants to send in their CVs, and we invite some of the candidates to an interview. After that, we draw up a shortlist and ask some of the applicants back for a second interview. We choose the best candidate, and then I check his or her references, and if everything's OK, we offer the applicant the job.
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Complete the sentences below to give a general description of the recruitment process. Use the passive in your answers. 1. The vacancy is advertised in-house. 2. If there is not a suitable in-house candidate .................................................... 3. The vacancy ......................................................................................... 4. Applicants ........................................................................................... 5. Some candidates .................................................................................... 6. A shortlist ............................................................................................ 7. Selected candidates ................................................................................. 8. The best candidate ................................................................................... 9. The references ....................................................................................... 10. The successful candidate .......................................................................... 17. Complete the following sentences with the first conditional: 1. I'll probably stay in my present job unless ... ............................................................................................................... 2. The economic situation will continue to improve as long as ... ............................................................................................................... 3. I won't be able to go to the interview on Thursday unless ... ............................................................................................................... 4. Provided (that) the Boeing gets the safety certificate for their new aeroplane, ... ............................................................................................................... 5. Unless I have to change the time of the meeting for some reasons, ... ............................................................................................................... 6. We will allow you to become the sole distributor of our product providing ... ............................................................................................................... 18. Put the verb into the correct form: 1. They would be rather offended if I didn't go to see them. (not/go) 2. If you took more exercise, you would feel better. (feel) 3. If I were offered the job, I think I ________________ it. (take) 4. I'm sure Amy will lend you the money. I'd be very surprised if she ____________ . (refuse) 5. If I sold my car now, I _____________ much money for it. (not/ get)
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6. A lot of people would be out of work if the factory _____________ . (close down) 7. What would happen if I _______________ that red button? (press) 8. Liz gave me this ring. She ______________ very upset if I lost it. (be) 9. Mark and Carol are expecting us. They would be very disappointed if we _______________ (not/ come) 10. Would George mind if ______________ his bicycle without asking him? (borrow) 11. If somebody _______________ in here with a gun, I'd be very frightened. (walk) 12. I'm sure Sue _______________ if you explained the situation to her. (understand) 19. Put the verb into the correct form: 1. I didn't know you were in hospital. If I had known (know), I would have gone (go) to visit you. 2. Ken got to the station in time to catch his train. If he ________________ (miss) it, he _______________ (be) late for his interview. 3. It's good that you reminded me about Ann's birthday. I __________________ (forget) if you __________________ (not remind) me. 4. Unfortunately, I didn't have my address book with me when I was in New York. If I ________________ (have) your address, I _________________ (send) you a postcard. 5. I took a taxi to the hotel, but the traffic was very bad. It ________________ (be) quicker if I _________________ (walk). 6. I'm not tired. If __________________ (be) tired, I'd go home now. 7. I wasn't tired last night. If I __________________ (be) tired, I would have gone home earlier. 20. You have applied for these jobs. Say why you think you should get the job. Example: Accountant Ive always been good at figures. I worked as an accountant from 1990 to 1995. Ive read a lot of books about accounting. I like working in an office.
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a. Tourist guide for your town or country. b. Hotel manager c. Journalist Write the letter of application for one of these jobs. Include any information you think relevant. Think particularly about your education and qualifications any experience relevant to the job why you are interested in the job. when you are available for interview

... Dear I would like to apply for the position of .., which I saw advertised in .. .. .. .. .

21. Choose the correct word: Im off on a travel/trip to Paris tomorrow by car as Im looking for work/job. I saw an advertisement/publicity for a job in a company there, which does scientific research/experiment. Im only taking one bag/baggage and a briefcase because Im only staying for two nights. I hope there isnt too much traffic/cars on the motorway as I dont like traffic jams. I believe that place to stay/accommodation for me has been booked in a hotel close to the centre. I hope to get a view/scenery of the Eiffel Tower.

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22. Look at the following deconstructed article adapted from the newspaper The Guardian. Rearrange the paragraphs in their logical order to get to the original text: Towns New Swimming Pool : A. Mrs. Mae Rose Owens was the first person to see it, last Friday. As she looked out of her window she saw a tree getting shorter and shorter. B. They recently built a new swimming Pool in the small town of Winter Park, Florida. It is one metre deep at one end and 55 metres deep at the other. That was not the original plan: half the pool has been eaten by an enormous hole. C. Suddenly the earth just opened up and down this tree went. I couldnt believe it. D. By Sunday, the hole had eaten one side of Denning Avenue, and was approaching three more houses. Yesterday it measured 400 metres across and 55 metres deep. According to Mr. Jim Smoot, of the US Hydrological Survey, it will probably go on growing for several weeks. There is about 15 metres of water in the bottom. E. The hole has also eaten two businesses, a house, five cars, several trees, and a largepiece of road. It was still growing yesterday. F. The hole seems to be a result of the drought. Underground streams have dried out, making the subsoil contract. G. By 4 a.m. on Sunday, Mrs. Owens had seen her home disappear, together with the buildings of a Porsche agent and a printing firm. 23. Jeffrey, Trevor and Bob are football fans. Theyre talking about the World Cup. Complete their conversation by using adjectival phrases. Use the adjectives and the verbs between brackets: Jeffrey: Did you see Holland and Mexico on television last night? Trevor: Yes, . (great, to play). Holland were marvellous.
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Bob: Trevor: Jeffrey: Trevor: Bob: Trevor: Jeffrey: Bob: Trevor: Jeffrey: Trevor:

They wont find it so easy against Poland. . (difficult, to win). Yes, youre right. Poland have a good team. Lobak looks, doesnt he . (hard, the Austrian, to stop)? It will be an interesting game, wont it? England havent been very good .(wrong, not to have the luck on ones side). But why is Bodger playing? He isnt very good . (silly, the team, to select). Well, we should beat Nigeria, shouldnt we? I dont know. Anything could happen, couldnt it? The German are good. They dont take any risks, do they? Theyre playing Hungary tonight..(advisable, you, to watch). Yes, of course.

24. Fill the gaps with the following words: business, affair(s), matter: 1. The meeting was a long . 2. Dont interfere in your relatives . 3. This is your own . 4. He never discusses his . with anybody. 5. The spy interferes in the home . of other countries. 6. The picnic was a very pleasant . 7. Mr. Parker is having a . talk with a visitor. 8. He has just returned from a . trip. 9. It is a . of time. 10. Whats the .? Why is everybody shouting? 11. He hates it when people interfere in his . 12. I cant help him with this, its his own . 13. I dont want to argue. Its a . of opinion. 14. The Minister of Foreign . attended an international conference. FILE 1 Advanced schooling in the U.S. Many students, upon finishing high school, choose to continue their education. Community colleges, also known as junior colleges, offer two-year programs leading to a bachelors degree (as well as, in many cases, further
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programs leading to higher degrees). These schools may be public or private; private schools cost a lot more. U.S. colleges and universities have many students from around the world, especially from Asia. Many more Americans than ever before are finishing high school and college. More than 20 percent of all adults have finished college and more than 75 percent have finished high school. Although the number of years of schooling is going up, there are signs that the quality of education may be going down. This is of great concern, especially since education is considered crucial to the American ideal that each person should achieve all that he or she can. There are many theories about where the problems lie. Some think that students have too many electives, or courses they choose, and too few courses in basic subjects. Others think students watch too much TV and do too little homework. Everyone agrees that the problems must be addressed. (From Spotlight on the USA, OUP) FILE 2 Cambridge is sometimes called the birthplace of American intellectual life. It has the nations oldest university, Harvard University, founded in 1636. Cambridge remains a center of intellectual life, especially since its become home to MIT, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Harvard has an excellent reputation in many fields; MIT is the best placed in science and technology. Students attending Harvard and MIT come from around the world; Harvard alone has students from 90 countries. Since one-fourth of the people in Cambridge are students, its not surprising that Cambridge has many bookstores, shops, restaurants, coffee houses and clubs. A common sight in Cambridge is Harvard oarsmen rowing on the Charles River. The Harvard rowing team spends all year preparing for races in the spring, especially for the Harvard-Yale Regatta. Yale University is Harvards big rival.

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1. Fill in the blanks with the correct forms of the verbs given in brackets. Make all
the necessary changes in the word order of the sentence. Make sure you read the whole text first, to get some ideas of what it is about. Women in Adventure The last hundred of years 1) (to see) .. many exceptional woman travellers. The Victorian ladies with their long skirts and umbrellas may sometimes 2) (to seem) .. amusing to us now, but after the laughter 3) (to disappear) .. what remains must surely 4) (to be) respect. Some woman travellers 5) (to drive) .. by scientific reason, others by religious faith or simply curiosity. Most 6) (to be) . middleaged and independently wealthy, but all 7) (have) . incredible bravery and they all 8) (to determine) ... . There 9) (to be) , for example, May French Sheldon, who 10) (to make) an expedition to Africas Mount Kilimanjaro in 1891. She 11) (to know) to the Africans as Bebe Bwana or Lady Boss. Once she 12) (to astonish) a group of tribal chiefs by 13) (to arrive) at a ceremony in a blond wig and a ball dress complete with a ceremonial sword. Mrs. French Sheldon 14) (to experience) . her share of danger, too. One night she 15) (to wake up) and saw something that 16) (to terrify) . any traveller. It 17) (to be) . an enormous python about fifteen feet long. If the python hadnt been caught and killed by an African the life of Mrs. Sheldon 18) (to end) .. tragically. I came very near to collapsing, Mrs. Sheldon said. But there was not time for weakness; there 19) (to be) .. other sequences 20) (to consider) .. .

2. Read the text below. Use the appropriate word made of the word given in
brackets to complete the text. Make sure you read the whole text first, to get some ideas of what it is about. Welcome to Socorro, New Mexico Located in Central Mexico, Socorro is a unique 1) (to mix) of the 2) (tradition) ways and advanced technology. Socorro, also the name of the County, means help or aid in 3) (Spain) .. . One 4) (history) source tells us that in 1598 members of the Juan de Onate Expedition gave this name to the 5) (to exist) .. Pueblo village. There, they received very 6) (to help) .. assistance from the Piro people who had been the areas first 7) (to inhabit) .. .
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The 8) (to settle) .. remained small until the 9) (to arrive) .. of the Santa Fe railroad in 1880. Newcomers arrived 10) (day) .. as followers of the boom in copper, solver, gold 11) (to mine) . After the boom period closed, the area became 12) (agriculture) .. . Socorro is 13) (pride) to host the New Mexico Fire-fighters Training Academy. The Academy provides 14) (to train) in fire-fighting and lifesaving techniques. The innovative and 15) (beauty) . Campus is located in the 16) (west) edge of the City. The mineral Museum is 17) (to house) on the campus, and is open to the public. The Museum 18) (to collect) .. contains over 10,000 specimens. The Laboratory for Atmospheric Research is an hours drive west of Socorro high in the Magdalena Mountains. The Laboratory is an 19) (international) .. known centre for the study of thunderstorms and atmospheric 20) (electric) .. . The Navajo Indians Reservation is 21 (to locate) . in Socorro County as well. The Reservation invites 22 (to visit) .. on special occasions. For 23) (far) information concerning these events, contact us at 505-854-2686.

3. Read the passage. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verb given in
brackets and use the appropriate word made of the word given in brackets. Mind the word order. Make sure you read the whole text first, to get some ideas of what it is about. A Love Story I love your verse with all my heart, dear Miss Barrett. The letter 1) (to send) in January 1845. It 2) (to begin) . like other letters Elizabeth Barrett 3) (to receive) . from many 4) (to admire) .. of her poems. Poetry and the letters 5) (to be) the only 6) (bright) . in her quiet life. But she 7) (to surprise) ... at the letter of this particular man, himself a 8) (to know well) poet in his own right. Forced by strong 9) (to feel) . he impulsively added to his letter And I love you, too. Elizabeth 10) (not to expect) .. romance by that time she 11) (to be ill) .. for many years. Her 12) (ill) made her isolated in her London home, which 13) (to rule tightly) .. by her father for 40 years of her life. Now Robert Browning, her 14) (late) admirer, 15) (to declare) his love, written 16) (bold) across the page. It was clear he 17) (to fall) .. in love with this 18) (sense) ., gentle woman. Their 19) (to correspond) continued. Browning s enthusiasm gave Elizabeth a new desire to enjoy 20) (to live) . as he did. She returned his love in many letters even before they 21) (to meet) . Her fathers 22) (to oppose) . was very strong but Elizabeth left her home in September 1846 and settled in Italy.
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They flourished as poets together. Elizabeth regained her health in the 23) (warm) . of the 24) (Italy) .. sun and in Roberts love. Their relationship became a 25) (fame) love story of the 26) (nineteen) .. century. Elizabeth died in Brownings arms in 1861, perhaps 27) (to remember) . the words of her poem: and, if God choose, I shall but love thee better after death. 4. Read the passage. Fill in the blanks with the correct derived from the one given in brackets. Make sure you read the whole text first, to get some ideas of what it is about. The Riddle of the Sphinx The city of Thebes in ancient Greece was once afflicted with a monster called the Sphinx, which had the body of a lion and the head of a woman, and made the 1) (neighbour) . 2) (safe) for all who came near it. It lay on the top of a rock and stopped every 3) (to travel) who came its way. Those who could not answer its riddle 4) (correct) . were immediately devoured by the monster. No one had yet 5) (success) . solved the riddle, and many travellers had been 6) (cruel) . murdered. Then Oedipus came and, in spite of all 7) (to warn) , boldly approached the 8) (fear) . rock. This was the question put to him by the Sphinx: What animal is it that in the morning goes on four legs, at noon on two, and in the evening goes on three? Oedipus replied: Man, who in 9) (child) crawls on all fours (on his hands and knees), in manhood walks 10) (right) .., and in old age with the aid of a stick. The Sphinx was so 11) (stress) . that its riddle had been guessed that it threw 12) (it) .. down from the rock and perished. Answers (Women in Adventure) 1) have seen; 2) seem; 3) has disappeared; 4) be; 5) were driven; 6) were; 7) had; 8) were determined; 9) was; 10) made; 11) was known; 12) astonished; 13) arriving; 14) experienced; 15) woke up; 16) would terrify; 17) was; 18) would have ended; 19) were; 20) to be considered.
(New Mexico) 1) mixture; 2) traditional; 3) Spanish; 4) historical; 5) existing; 6)

helpful; 7) inhabitants; 8) settlement; 9) arrival; 10) daily; 11) mining; 12) agricultural; 13) proud; 14) training; 15) beautiful; 16) western; 17) housed; 18) collection; 19) internationally; 20) electricity; 21) located; 22) visitors; 23) further (A Love story) 1) was sent; 2) began; 3) had received; 4) admirers; 5) were; 6) brightness; 7) was surprised; 8) well-known; 9) feelings; 10) was not expecting/ didnt expect; 11) had been ill; 12) illness; 13) had been tightly ruled; 14) last;
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15) was declaring; 16) boldly; 17) had fallen; 18) sensitive; 19) correspondence; 20) life; 21) met; 22) opposition; 23) warmth; 24) Italian; 25) famous; 26) nineteenth; 27) remembering. (The Riddle of the Sphinx) 1) neighbourhood; 2) unsafe; 3) traveller; 4) correctly; 5) successfully; 6) cruelly; 7) warnings; 8) fearful; 9) childhood; 10) upright; 11) distressed; 12) itself KEY CHECKLIST FOR UNIT 1 1. i) the UK, the USA, Australia ii) India, Canada, Pakistan iii) Romania, France, Spain. 2. firm, corporation (in American English) 3. Do your friends like vanilla ice cream? Are you joking ? Have you already met your new teachers? Will the students have to translate this text? 4. i) A rising intonation. ii) A falling intonation. 5. i) (Time adverbial) + Subject + Verb + Direct Object + Indirect Object + Manner Adverbial + Place Adverbial + (Time adverbial). ii) Question word + auxiliary/modal + Subject + verb + objects + adverbials.

CHECKLIST FOR UNIT 2 1. i) You: Hi, Paul! Paul: Hi, George! You: This is John, my cousin. John, this is Paul, my best friend. Paul: Hi, John, nice to meet you! John: Hi, Nice to meet you too! ii) You: Hello, madam. Id like you to meet my boss, Mr Ionescu, the General Manager. Mr. Ionescu, this is Mrs. Perrault, the LOreal representative in Romania. Mr. Ionescu: How do you do, Madam! Mrs. Perrault: How do you do, sir! Ive been looking forward to meeting you! iii) you: Hello, Mrs Popescu! The teacher: Hello, Miss! You: Let me introduce myself to you! Im Maria Preda and Ill be your student this year. The teacher: Nice to meet you, Miss Preda!
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2. i) Hello, sir! Im Mihai Vasilescu, head of the Marketing Department. How do you do! ii) What do you usually do in the morning? iii) How are you today? Fine, thanks! 3. a possessive adjective 4. Normally none of these nouns can be accompanied by an indefinite article, because they are uncountable. 5. man men woman women child children foot feet tooth teeth ox oxen mouse mice louse lice die dice brother brethren CHECKLIST FOR UNIT 3 1. Success is not supposed to make you stop fighting; on the contrary, you should work even harder in order to keep yourself successful 2. wages money earned usually by blue collar workers, paid per hour/day/ salary - money earned usually by white collar workers, paid monthly. 3. i) meets (planned and official future action). ii) am meeting (planned future action). 4. A job vacancy should announce the vacant position (secretary, engineer, etc) state the qualities required from the applicant (age, qualifications, experience etc. contain information about the way the applicant can contact the employer (send acv, make an appointment by phone, send a fax etc.) 5. A holding company is a group of more companies. The holding owns shares in the existing companies, called subsidiaries. The subsidiaries are sister companies to each other. CHECKLIST FOR UNIT 4 1. a) yes, one still feels ill. b) i) The Present perfect ii) The Past Tense 2. The UK: kindergarten, grammar school, college, university Romania: kindergarten, general school, highschool, university 3. far farther the farthest further the furthest big- bigger the biggest reliable more reliable the most reliable bad worse the worst funny funnier the funniest 4. Sir/Madam, could you tell me please? Sir/Madam, would you mind telling me ..please? (more formal)
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Can you tell me ..please ? Tell me .. please? (less formal) 5. British English: cheque, metre, holiday. American English: check, meter, vacation. CHECKLIST FOR UNIT 5 1. heading, date, inside address, references, salutation, subject of the letter, body of the letter, complimentary close, signature, enclosures. 2. Should, ought to, must, might. 3. i) I didnt do my homework because it was not necessary ii) I did my homework though it was not necessary. 4. i) Hello Sir/Madam! Im Mary Smith from Jonson & Co. Ltd May I speak to Mr Green, please? ii) Hello Sir/Madam! I ll put you through immediately! OR: Hello Sir/Madam! Im sorry, Mr Black is not in his office right now. Would you like to leave a message for him? 5. Wont, shant. CHECKLIST FOR UNIT 6 1. the will- future; present continuous 2. positive meaning: - ful, super - ; negative meaning - less; under 3. Only older pupils can participate to the contest. His elder brother is a musician 4. Hes likely to come any minute. OR: He must return soon. Hes unlikely to get back before 10' clock. OR: Im not sure you can find him this morning. 5. Yes the sentence is correct. (It means: If you want to wait for him) CHECKLIST FOR UNIT 7 1. The auction will start in an hour. He bid 1, 000, 000 for that painting 2. i) I ceased speaking to her. ii) I ceased doing something else in order to talk to her. 3. Both sentences are correct. 4. It is necessary that you should arrive to the office on time. It is important that you should communicate your projects to your boss. 5. Trams, planes, trains are means of transport. (noun) Do you happen to know what this word means in English? (verb)
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CHECKLIST FOR UNIT 8 1. Hello Sir/Madam! Im Jane Brown, secretary at Jonson & Co. Ltd. Id like to make a reservation for the General Manager, Mr Edward Jonson, please! 2. Sir, Id like to know if you have a reservation. 3. Tell is more likely to occur in Indirect Speech. Say is more likely to introduce Direct Speech. 4. He told me he was twenty. 5. A swipe card is a special magnetic card containing all the travel information necessary to a passenger. CHECKLIST FOR UNIT 9 1. i) the sentence has a negative meaning. ii) the sentence has a positive meaning 2. That glass has not been drunk from. This bed has not been slept in. 3. Cows and pigs are domestic animals. This restaurant offers a varied range of both pook and beef menus. 4. Genetically engineered food contains changed genes; it tries to attain perfection (in terms of flavour, colour, size) 5. Change implies only one agent (e.g: I changed my clothes). Exchange implies more agents (e.g. They exchanged business cards among themselves). CHECKLIST FOR UNIT 10 1. Media is a plural noun. 2. The verb WOULD can be used in an IF-clause when it keeps its meaning of volition. e.g. If you wouldnt mind, could you help me please? (~ If you want) 3. You might; you could; youd better. 4. A phrasal verb is a verb followed by a particle; the meaning of the new construction is different from the meaning of the original verb. e.g.: to make to manufacture to make out to manage to see to make up to become friends again 5. I go on trip if it doesnt rain. Id go on a trip if it didnt rain. Id have gone on a trip if it hadnt rained.

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abrv. adj. adv. amer. auto dat. d. expr. fam. fr. interj. jur. mar. mil. pl. prep. s. sl. vb. zool. = abreviere = adjectiv = adverb = termen american = automobilism = dativ = despre = expresie = familiar = termen francez = interjecie = juridic = marin = termen militar = plural = prepoziie = substantiv = slang = verb = zoologie

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accommodation s. cazare, cas i mas account-book s. registru contabil account s. cont accountant s. contabil addendum (pl. addenda) s. adenda, adaos addressee s. destinatar advertisement (advert, ad) s. reclam, anun, afi affordable adj. care se poate acorda, acordabil agreement s. acord, nelegere (mutual); consimire allocation (vb. to allocate) s. alocare, repartizare alongside adv. alturi; prep. lng amid fears (expr.) de team analyst (media analyst) s. analist / expert mass-media angle vb. a pescui cu undia anthem s. imn appeal s. (aici) atracie appointment s. ntlnire; numire (ntr-o funcie) apprentice s. novice, ucenic arouse vb. a strni, a detepta assert vb. a afirma assess vb. a evalua (o sum) at once adv. imediat attend vb. a frecventa
average s. medie; on average adv. n medie

B & B abrv. bed and breakfast cazare i mic dejun (la hotel, pensiune) bachelor s. 1.burlac; 2. liceniat ball bat s. baston bankrupt adj. falimentar bargain s. afacere, trg bathtub s. cad de baie batsman s. juctor la btaie (la cricket, baseball) batterbat s. baston de cricket, baseball be a pain in the neck vb. a fi foarte enervant i plictisitor
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be awarded vb. a fi premiat oficial be aware of vb. a fi contient de / c be sea-sick vb. a avea ru de mare bear a grudge vb. a purta pic behave oneself vb. a prezenta bune maniere bend vb. a ndoi, a apleca bilingual adj. bilingv bill of lading s. conosament boast vb. a se luda bold adj. (despre scris) reliefat, proeminent bonnet s. bonet, beret, capot boom vb. a produce senzaie, a prospera, a fi nfloritor boost vb. a mri valoarea; a crete reputaia, a promova booth s. cabin bother vb. a necji, a sci boundless adj. fr limit bow tie s. papion bowl vb. a rostogoli bowler s. juctor care servete mingea la cricket; juctor care intete mingea la baseball bravery s. curaj, brbie break smth. down vb. a sparge, a dobor breeze s. briz brewers yeast s. drojdie de bere bring up vb. a educa broaden vb. a lrgi, a li, a extinde broker s. agent, misit budgeting month s. luna n care venitul sau cheltuielile sunt planificate sau repartizate n buget bump s. cucui; vb. a (se) ciocni bundle s. legtur, snop buoy s. geamandur

camcorder s. (camera + recorder) camer de luat vederi campaign (media campaign) s. campanie mass media cancellation s. anulare, revocare catapult vb. a catapulta cater vb. a furniza CEO abvr. chief executive officer director executiv, manager, administrator
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challenge s. provocare chap s. (fam.) biat, tip cheat vb. a tria check-in desk s. biroul in spatele cruia st casierul sau recepionerul, ghieu cheers! interj. vivat! noroc! chilled adj. conservat la o temperatur joas fr a nghea circulate vb. a rspndi, a difuza clue s. indiciu, cheie cockpit s. 1. aren pentru lupte de cocoi; 2. teatru de rzboi; 3. carling collocation s. alturare; (lingv.) colocaie, mbinare de cuvinte colonial language s. limb vorbit n colonie come over vb. a fi copleit commission s. comision commuting-train s. tren pentru navetiti companionship s. societate, tovrie, companie complaint s. plngere comply with vb. a se conforma comprehend vb. a nelege, a pricepe computer-fraud s. furt cu ajutorul calculatorului consultant s. consultant cooker s. aragaz cost a bomb vb. a costa foarte mult cost and freight s. cost i navlu coterie s. coterie, salon (literar, artistic, etc.) courtyard s. curte covet vb. a rvni, a dori cu nfocare crash s. 1.cdere sau coliziune violent; 2. faliment; 3.(fam.) a intra ntr-un loc fr permisiune (bilet, invitaie) crate s. lad crease-resistant adj. neifonabil creased adj. ifonat, ncreit crew s. echip, echipaj crisis (pl. crises) s. criz cross smth. out vb. a tia, a bara (pe un formular) cuppa s. (colocvial) o ceac de ceai currently adv. curent customer s. client; n prezent cut costs vb. a reduce cheltuielile
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darts s. joc de interior n care sunt trase sgei nspre o int data s. pl. date, informaii (sg. datum) deal with vb. a se ocupa de (ca afacere) dealer s. negustor; retail dealer s. negustor cu amnuntul, whole-sale dealer s. angrosist deck-chair s. ezlong decrease vb. a scdea, a reduce deny vb. a nega department store s. magazin universal descendant s. descendent, urma devise vb. a inventa, a imagina, a plnui die out vb. a se stinge, a pieri, a muri disabled staff s. persoane invalide discount s. reducere dispatch vb. a expedia displayed adj. expus diving s. scufundare docker s. docher; hamal n port double-decker s. tramvai, autobuz sau troleibuz cu etaj doughnut s. gogoa drum s. tob dual carriage way s. drum n dublu sens duly adv. 1. just, binemeritat; 2. n timp util, la timp dwarfed adj. micorat, aparent mai mic

earn vb. a ctiga, a agonisi editor s. editor embarrass vb. a stnjeni, a umili, a jena endow vb. a nzestra, a dota (material i spiritual) engulf vb. a scufunda; a nghii enterprise s. 1. ntreprindere, iniiativ; 2. antrepriz, companie entertainment s. distracie, amuzament entrepreneur s. ntreprinztor, antreprenor, conductor al unei activiti de afaceri ever-increasing adj. n continu dezvoltare exhausted adj. epuizat, terminat expectancy s. 1.expectativ; 2. speran; 3. anticipare, probabilitate expenditure s. cheltuieli
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extension s. prelungire eye-opening adj. Senzaional

facsimile s. facsimil, copie exact faded adj. ofilit, decolorat, fr vigoare fail to vb. a eua failure; s. eec faint vb. 1. a leina 2. adj. slab, vag: (a faint hope) fare s. costul unui bilet de cltorie, tarif fee s. tax; onorariu feel homesick vb. a simi dor de cas ferry vb. a transporta oameni sau lucruri cu vaporul; ferry-boat: bac fetch vb. a aduce file s. dosar fill out vb. a ntregi, a completa fit adj. potrivit fit vb. a se potrivi fitness s. exerciii pentru forme corporale atletice i ntreinerea sntii flashy adj. iptor, superficial flaw s. cusur, defect, pat, viciu de form flexitime s. program de lucru flexibil flip-chart s. map cu foi detaabile, de obicei aezat vertical pe un suport forecast vb. a prevedea; s. previziune forefront s. frunte foreman s. maistru foreseeable adj. previzibil forgery s. falsificare, imitaie frauduloas forward- player s. nainta (fotbal) fossil fuel s. combustibil fosil fraud s. fraud free on board adv. scutit de taxe (pentru livrarea mrfurilor pe vapor) freebie s. bilet de cltorie gratuit (pentru persoane n interesul serviciului) freight-train s. tren de marf freshman s.novice, boboc (n primul an de liceu sau facultate) front page s. (ziare) pagin de titlu (unde gsim pe scurt articolele detailate n ziar)
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full-fare economy class ticket s. bilet fr reducere la cls. a IIa full-fare first class ticket s. bilet fr reducere la cls. I

gain vb. a ctiga gangplank s. pasarel (pentru urcare sau coborre n sau din vapor, barc, etc.) gangway s. pasarel (pe vapor) garments s. haine gather vb. a aduna gem s. o piatr preioas genuine adj. real, autentic get a raise (expr.) a primi salariul mrit get down to vb. a ncepe s lucreze la, a se apuca de get hold up vb. a face rost de, a pune mna pe get on with vb. a se mpca, a se nelege cu ginger s. ghimber give an encore vb. a da un bis give away vb. 1.a da cadou, a da gratis; 2. a da de gol, a trda glassed-in adj. montat n sticl glider s. planor glimpse s. privire fugar, trectoare glossy (glossy soap opera) adj. siropos; glossy magazine adj. lucios (cu coperte lucioase) gnarled adj. rsucit, nodoros go down vb. a scdea (preuri), a se scufunda (o nav, etc.) go in for vb. 1. a lua parte la (o competiie, etc.); 2. a se ocupa cu go round to vb. a face o vizit go up vb. a crete (preul, etc.) go without vb. bineneles, se nelege de la sine goal-keeper s. portar grant vb. 1.a acorda; 2.a aproba (o cerere, etc.); 3. (d. sume de bani) a aloca grant s. subvenie, alocaie, burs greatness s. for, putere greenhouse s. ser grimly adj. cumplit grounds s. teren grove s. crng, pdurice grudge-bearing person s. persoan ranchiunoas
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grumble vb. a mormi, a bodogni guru (media guru) s. expert n mass media guy s. (sl.) tip, individ

habitat s. loc de batin hairstylist s. coafor de lux halve ground travel vb. a njumti timpul de cltorie terestr handling s. manevrare, mnuire handmade adj. manual, de mn hang about vb. a hoinri hassle s. ceart, har, agitaie heading s. titlu helmet s. casc hold on vb. (fam.) a atepta hostel s. cmin (studenesc, etc.) household appliance s. aparatur casnic housing policy s. plan general adoptat de guvern sau un partid pentru acordare de locuine hundred fold increase s. majorare nsutit hurricane s. uragan; hurricane-lamp s. felinar de vnt

idle adj. lene impudence s.obrznicie, arogan in-house adj. n cadrul instituiei; intern in-service adj. n slujb, n funcie; cu norm ntreag incoming-train s. tren care vine inconvenience s. inconvenien, neplcere industrious adj. silitor initiate vb. a iniia interest s. dobnd; interes interfere vb. a se amesteca intrude vb. a veni nepoftit invoice s. factur involved adj. implicat

item s. articol, o singur pies, subiect

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jam s. 1. gem; 2. ambuteiaj jargon s. jargon jest s. glum, fest joystick s. man juggler s. scamator, jongler juniper s. ienupr

keen (on) adj. (fam.) pasionat keep hold vb. a apuca keep out vb. a mpiedica, a feri keyboard s. claviatur kick out vb. (fam.) a da afar kid vb. a tachina

labour s. munc fizic sau intelectual; for de munc lack s. lips lawn tennis s. tenis de cmp layer s. strat leaf vb. a frunzri (o carte); s. frunz; pagin a unei cri leafy adj. acoperit de frunze leaflet s. foaie volant; brour leave off vb. a lsa haina leek s. praz left luggage locker s. depozit de bagaje leisure s. timp liber letter of credit s. scrisoare de credit, acreditiv listenership s. public litigation s. (jur.) litigiu; discuie, ceart livelihood s. mijloace de trai lobby s. marele vestibul din camera comunelor; sal de ateptare; grup de influen lobster s. (zool.) homar long-lasting adj. rezistent look forward to vb. a atepta cu nerbdare look up vb. 1. a cuta informaii, a controla, a verifica; 2. (fam.) a se mbunti lounge s. hol

luncheon voucher s. tichet de mas

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magazine s. revist magnate (media magnate) s. magnat (syn. mogul, tycoon) mahogany s. mahon maintenance s. ntreinere make up vb. a inventa, a nscoci, a fabula make up ones mind vb. a se hotr mall s. alee; complex comercial maple s. arar march vb. (mil.) a mrlui, a defila marquee s. cort mare, umbrar (folosit pentru expoziii) mast s. (mar.) catarg maze s. labirint, complicaie, confuzie mean adj. meschin memorandum (-a) s. memorandum, raport moth s. molie mother tongue s. limba matern motorway s. autostrad mussel s. (zool.) midie (un tip de molusc bivalv) mutter vb. a bombni, mormi

native speaker s. vorbitor de limb matern necklace s. colier network s. reea newscaster s. vezi newsreader newsreader s. prezentator de tiri nod assent vb. a consimi north-bound train s. tren n direcia nord nursery s. camer pentru copii; (fig.) pepinier

oarsman s. vsla oatmeal s. fin de ovz, terci de ovz obviously adv. evident offside adj. / adv. n afara terenului on the dole (expr.) alocaie de omaj
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outfit s. echipament outgoing adj. sociabil i prietenos outgoing train s. tren care pleac (antonim: incoming train) output s. producie outskirts s. periferie overreact vb. a reaciona exagerat overseas adv. extern, n strintate overtake vb. a depi overturn vb. a rsturna own vb. a deine, a poseda

palm tree s. palmier pantry s. cmar parsley s. ptrunjel pay off vb. a achita pen-friend s. prieten prin coresponden pencil-sharpener s. ascuitoare pending adj. care ateapt o rezolvare, neterminat persuasive adj. convingtor pervasive adj. ptrunztor, care se rspndete pretutindeni pet adj. favorit, iubit (d. animale) phrase book s. dicionar de expresii pick up vb. a ridica, a culege pin s. ac de gmlie pine s. pin pine-needled adj. cu frunze ascuite de pin pitcher s. juctor care arunc mingea plaice s. (iht.) pltic plenty s. belug, bogie; ~ of o mulime de plumber s. instalator postgraduate degree s. diplom de studii postuniversitare praise s. a luda prawn s. crevete precis s. (fr.) expunere scurt, rezumat premises s. locuin cu anexe i dependine print media s. mijloace media tiprite (ziare, reviste, etc.) printing press s. pres de imprimat, tiprit prompt vb. a ndemna la aciune; s. replic
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prospects s. perspective pub s. (short for public house) local, bar, braserie purchasing officer s.funcionar al departamentului achiziii pursue s. a urmri put off vb. a amna put up with vb. a suporta, a tolera

quay s. (mar.) chei, dig portuar

rank s. rnd, ir rate s. ritm, vitez rating s. evaluare razor s. brici referee s. arbitru regatta s. ntrecere nautic refund s. restituire rely on vb. a se bizui remains s. resturi resurgence s. renatere, renviere retail s. (vnzare n) detaliu reveal vb. a dezvlui reward s. recompens riddle n. ghicitoare rowing s. canotaj rudder s. crm ruin vb. ruin, distrugere run a business vb. a conduce o afacere runway s. albie de ru; potec; pist de decolare; parcurs

sack vb. a concedia sales manager s. director de vnzri salmon s.(iht.) somon sample s. mostr savings s. economii scheme s. proiect, plan, stratagem
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scholar s. savant, discipol scholarship s. burs scissors s. pl. foarfece score s. (aici) partitur scrawl s. scriere neglijent, mzglitur seafaring adj./ s. care cltorete pe mare; navigator see smb. off a conduce pe cineva la gar, aeroport, etc. selfish adj. egoist semi-detached adj. (d. case) lipit de alt cas printr-unul din ziduri senior s. 1. senior, mai mare n vrst sau rang; 2. (amer.) student n anul IV set ones heart on vb. a-i canaliza eforturile asupra obinerii unui lucru set out vb. a prezenta, a arta (motive, etc.) set to work vb. a ncepe lucrul; a se apuca de lucru set up in vb. a stabili, a fixa set up to vb. a hotr set up vb. 1.a aranja; 2. a stabili; 3. a nfiina, a organiza; 4. a provoca; 5. a pretinde shades of opinion s.( people of all shades of opinions) nuane (politice, etc.) shake hands vb. a da mna n semn de salut, felicitare, acord shareholder s. acionar sheer adj. simplu, clar, curat shellfish s. scoici; crustaceu shift vb. a schimba, a transfera de la o persoan la alta, dintr-un loc n altul shipper s. persoan sau firm care se ocup de transportul maritim al mrfurilor, expeditor shopping mall s. o strad cu magazine pe unde nu circul automobile shorthand 1. s. stenografie; 2. adj. care duce lips de mn de lucru, cu personal insuficient show smb. round vb. a-i prezenta cuiva birourile, instalaiile etc. ynei companii sit up vb. a se ridica; a sta n picioare; a trezi interesul skill s. abilitate, aptitudine skip-skipped-skipping vb. 1. a slta, a zburda; 2. a atinge n treact o chestiune; 3. a rsfoi o carte skipper s. cpitan slang s. jargon; argou slim adj. subire, zvelt; 2. (d. ocazii, anse, scuze) slab, redus, nesemnificativ; 3. (d. venit) mic slip of paper s. o fie de hrtie slot a film vb. a ntrerupe un film pentru a difuza reclame

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slot s. 1.or de vrf pentru vizionarea programelor TV; 2. spaiu rezervat publicitii n timpul unei emisiuni TV smart adj. detept, inteligent, ingenios snooker s. un fel de biliard soccer s. (fam.) fotbal socialize vb. a socializa, a face sociabil solicitor s. avocat consultant; consilier juridic sophomore s. student n anul II sorbet s. erbet sound-track (soundtrack) s. band sonor, fundal sonor sour adj. acru spark s. scnteie; licrire speak up vb. a vorbi deschis, desluit, tare spy s. spion squash s. joc asemntor cu tenisul staff s. personal stand-by ticket s. bilet care se va obine n urma eliberrii unui loc, bilet n ateptare stand for vb. a reprezenta, a simboliza starter s. primul fel de mncare stay vb. a sta, a rmne steady adj. uniform, constant, regular stilton s. varietate superioar de brnz din Stilton stir vb. a mica; a amesteca; a agita stoppage s. piedic; ntrziere; ntrerupere a lucrului stranded adj. mpotmolit strip s. fie, band subject to vb. a supune (cu dat.) subsidiary s. reprezentan suburb s. periferie suite s. 1. apartament; 2. suit, cortegiu summit s. 1. conferin la nivel nalt; 2. vrf sunroof s. (auto.) parasolar supplier s. furnizor sweep vb. a mtura swipe vb. 1. (fam.) a plezni ; 2. a fura

tag vb. a aduga, a anexa take a fancy vb. a se simi atras de; a ndrgi
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take booking vb. a se retrage din (club, etc.) take off vb. a dezbrca, a scoate take over vb. a prelua take the stress out of the telephone vb. a relaxa conversaia tedious adj. plictisitor, obositor tennis court s. teren de tenis thached adj. acoperit cu paie theft s. furt, hoie therapist s. terapeut thriller s. roman sau film poliist, de suspans tidy adj. curat, ngrijit, ordonat tie-up s. impas time off s. timp liber tip s. baci to be driven to fury vb. a fi scos din srite, a deveni furios to take to vb. a se apuca de topic s. subiect, tem tour vb. a vizita, a cltori touring bike s. biciclet de curse tournament s. competiie sportiv, concurs tramp s. vagabond transact vb. a trata o afacere trespass v. a nclca proprietatea cuiva trifle s. fleac, lucru de nimic tuition s. colarizare turn back vb. a abandona turn smth. down vb. a refuza turn out vb. a produce, a fabrica turn professional vb. a deveni profesional turnover s. cifr de afaceri tutor s. 1.profesor particular, meditator 2. preparator (universitile engleze); 3. asistent (universitile americane)

undergraduate s. student undertaking s. 1. ntreprindere, aciune; 2. garanie, promisiune unemployed s. omer unshrinkable adj. care nu intr la splat
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vacuum cleaner s. aspirator veined adj. cu nervuri venture s. aciune riscant, speculaie comercial vocational adj. profesional, vocaional voucher s. 1. dovad, act justificativ; 2. chitan; 3. act de garanie vow s. jurmnt

wallpaper s. tapet weave vb. a ese welfare s. bunstare, prosperitate; asisten social whisper vb. a opti whistle vb. a fluiera, a uiera winding s. cotitur, sinuozitate wipe out vb. a ndeprta, a terge, a suprima workmanship s. ndemnare, miestrie, oper de art workshop s. atelier, secie wounded adj. rnit wrist s. ncheietura minii

yeast s. drojdie de bere

zeal s. zel

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