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INFECTII CU TRANSMITERE

SEXUALA

According to
Freud, along with
aggression, sex
is what drives
every action.
Humanity, like
every other
being on the
planet has an
ever present
urge to
reproduce.

SEX

IUBIRE

INSTINCT

COMITTMENT
UMAN VERSUS ANIMAL

UMAN VERSUS ANIMAL


FIZIOLOGIC VERSUS
PATOLOGIC

MALADII??
INFECTII??
FIZIC??
PSIHIC??
COMPORTAMENTAL??

FIZIOLOGIC
PATOLOGIC
CONDITIONAT/NECOND
ITIONAT
DOVADA IUBIRII
MAXIME ESTE
CAPACITATEA DE A
RENUNTA LA
PERSOANA IUBITA

I believe that sex is one of the most


beautiful, natural, wholesome things
that money can buy. Tom Clancy
Having sex is like playing bridge. If
you dont have a good partner,
youd better have a good hand.
Woody Allen
Women might be able to fake
orgasms. But men can fake whole
relationships. Sharon Stone
Women need a reason to have sex.
Men just need a place. Billy Cristal
The sexual life of adult women is a
dark continent for psychology
Sigmund Freud
Civilized people cannot fully satisfy
their sexual instinct without love.
Bertrand Russell

Dac i iei nevast, nu


te cstori doar cu
sexul ei. Pitagora
Sexul fr dragoste
este doar mperechere.
Dragostea fr sex
este doar filosofie.
Mark Amend
Singura pornografie n
art e lipsa de talent.
Eugen Lovinescu

Sexualitatea nu este ceva pur instinctual; este


fr ndoial o putere creatoare ea este att
cauza principal ce st la baza vieii noastre
individuale, ct un important factor n cadrul
vieii psihice. Carl Gustav Jung
Dragul meu Jung, promite-mi c nu vei
abandona niciodat teoria sexual. Este cea mai
esenial! Vezi tu, noi trebuie s facem din ea o
dogm, un bastion de neclintit mpotriva
talazului de ml al ocultismului. Sigmund Freud

VIATA ESTE BTS??


VIATA ESTE MALADIE?
VIATA ESTE SEX?
SEXUL ESTE O MALADIE?
SEXUL ESTE PACAT?
CE ESTE PACATUL?

SEXUL SI RELIGIILE

Intr-o lume in
care
sexualitatea
tinde
sa
devina
unul
dintre cele mai
importante
sisteme
de
referinta,
devine
aproape
un
stereotip
sa
analizezi acest
concept
din
punct
de
vedere moral.

Baptism

Sex intre/cu minori Aspru condamnat


Sex premarital Aspru condamnat
Sex extraconjungal Aspru condamnat
Divort Inacceptabil din punct de vedere moral
Masturbare Pozitie neclara sau neutra
Avort Aspru condamnat
Contraceptie Pozitie neclara sau neutra
Orientare homosexuala Inacceptabil din punct de vedere moral
Sex homosexual Aspru condamnat
Budism

Sex intre/cu minori Inacceptabil din punct de vedere moral


Sex premarital Acceptabil din punct de vedere moral
Sex extraconjungal Inacceptabil din punct de vedere moral
Divort Acceptabil din punct de vedere moral
Masturbare da
Avor t- Pozitie neclara sau neutra
Contraceptie da
Orientare homosexuala da
Sex homosexual- Acceptabil din punct de vedere moral

Catolicism
Sex intre/cu minori Aspru
condamnat
Sex premarital Aspru condamnat
Sex extraconjungal Aspru
condamnat
Divort Aspru condamnat
Masturbare Inacceptabil din
punct de vedere moral
Avort Aspru condamnat
Contraceptie Aspru condamnat
Orientare homosexuala Pozitie
neclara sau neutra
Sex homosexual Aspru
condamnat

Metodism
Sex intre/cu minori Inacceptabil din punct de vedere
moral
Sex premarital Inacceptabil din punct de vedere moral
Sex extraconjungal Inacceptabil din punct de vedere
moral
Divort Acceptabil din punct de vedere moral
Masturbare Pozitie neclara sau neutra
Avort Pozitie neclara sau neutra
Contraceptie da
Orientare homosexuala Acceptabil din punct de vedere
moral
Sex homosexual Aspru condamnat
Ortodoxie

Sex intre/cu minori Aspru condamnat


Sex premarital Aspru condamnat
Sex extraconjungal Aspru condamnat
Divort Inacceptabil din punct de vedere moral
Masturbare Aspru condamnat
Avort Aspru condamnat
Contraceptie Aspru condamnat
Orientare homosexuala Aspru condamnat
Sex homosexual Aspru condamnat

Islamism

Iudaism

Sex intre/cu minori Inacceptabil


din punct de vedere moral
Sex premarital Aspru condamnat
Sex extraconjungal Aspru
condamnat
Divort Pozitie neclara sau neutra
Masturbare Inacceptabil din
punct de vedere moral
Avort Pozitie neclara sau neutra
Contraceptie da
Orientare homosexuala Aspru
condamnat
Sex homosexual Aspru
condamnat

Sex intre/cu minori Inacceptabil din


punct de vedere moral
Sex premarital Acceptabil din punct
de vedere moral
Sex extraconjungal- Aspru condamnat
Divort Acceptabil din punct de vedere
moral
Masturbare Pozitie neclara sau
neutra
Avort Inacceptabil din punct de
vedere moral
Contraceptie Acceptabil din punct de
vedere moral
Orientare homosexuala Acceptabil
din punct de vedere moral
Sex homosexual Aspru condamnat

CE CONSIDERAM
BOALA/INFECTIE/AFECTIUNE SEXUAL
TRANSMISA?
FIZIC
PSIHIC
EMOTIONAL
COMPORTAMENTAL
MINTEA/IMAGINATIA UMANA SA FIE DE
VINA?

Human sexual activity, or human sexual


practice or human sexual behavior, is
the manner in which humans experience
and express their sexuality.
People engage in a variety of sexual acts
from time to time, and for a wide variety of
reasons.
Sexual activity normally results in
sexual arousal and physiological changes in
the aroused person, some of which are
pronounced while others are more subtle.
Sexual activity also includes conduct and
activities which are intended to arouse the
sexual interest of another, such as
strategies to find or attract partners (mating
and display behavior), and personal
interactions between individuals, such as
flirting and foreplay.

Human sexual activity has sociological, cognitive, emotional, behavioral and


biological aspects; this includes personal bonding, shared emotions during
sexual activity, and physiological processes such as the reproductive system,
the sex drive and sexual intercourse and sexual behavior in all its forms.
In some cultures, sexual activity is considered acceptable only within
marriage, although premarital and extramarital sex are also common.
Some sexual activities are illegal either universally or in some countries, and
some are considered against the norms of a society.
For example, sexual assault, as well as sexual activity with a person below
some locally determined age of consent, are criminal offenses in most
jurisdictions.

Sexual activity can be classified in a number of ways.


It can be divided into acts which involve one person, such as
masturbation, or two or more people such as vaginal sex, anal sex,
oral sex or mutual masturbation.
If there are more than two participants in the sex act, it may be referred
to as group sex.
Autoerotic sexual activity can involve use of dildos, vibrators,
anal beads, and other sex toys, though these devices can also be used
with a partner.
Sexual activity can be classified into the gender and sexual orientation
of the participants, as well as by the relationship of the participants. For
example, the relationships can be ones of marriage, intimate partners,
casual sex partners or anonymous. Sexual activity can be regarded as
conventional or as alternative, involving, for example, fetishism,
urolagnia, and/or BDSM activities.[

Fetishism can take many forms ranging from


the desire for certain body parts, for example
large breasts, armpits or foot worship.
The object of desire can often be shoes, boots,
lingerie, clothing, leather or rubber items.
Sexual activity can also be consensual or under
force or duress, or lawful/illegal or otherwise
contrary to social norms or generally accepted
sexual morals.
Some non-conventional autoerotic practices
can be dangerous. These include
erotic asphyxiation and self-bondage.
The potential for injury or even death that
exists while engaging in the partnered versions
of these fetishes (choking and bondage,
respectively) becomes drastically increased in
the autoerotic case due to the isolation and
lack of assistance in the event of a problem.

Symptoms of Sexual Disorders


Dyspareunia
Erectile Dysfunction (ED)
Exhibitionism
Female and Male Orgasmic Disorders
Female Sexual Arousal Disorder
Fetishism
Frotteurism
Gender Identity Disorder
Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder
Male Erectile Disorder
Premature Ejaculation
Sex Addiction (not a recognized diagnostic category at this time)
Sexual Masochism and Sadism
Transvestic Fetishism
Vaginismus
Voyeurism

Sexually transmitted diseases


(STD), also referred to as sexually
transmitted infections (STI) and
venereal diseases (VD), are
illnesses that have a significant
probability of transmission between
humans
by
means
of
sexual behavior,
including
vaginal intercourse, anal sex and
oral sex. Some STIs can also be
contracted by using IV drug needles
after their use by an infected
person, as well as through any
incident involving the contact of a
wound with contaminated blood or
through childbirth or breastfeeding.

Sexually transmitted infections


have been well known for
hundreds of years, and
venereology is the branch of
medicine that studies these
diseases. While in the past,
these illnesses have mostly
been referred to as STDs or VD,
in recent years the term
sexually transmitted infections
(STIs) has been preferred, as it
has a broader range of
meaning; a person may be
infected, and may potentially
infect others, without having a
disease.

Until the 1990s, STIs were commonly known


as venereal diseases, the word venereal being
derived from the Latin word venereus, and
meaning relating to sexual intercourse or
desire, ultimately derived from Venus, the
Roman goddess of love.[Social disease was a
phrase used as a euphemism.
Sexually transmitted infection is a broader
term than sexually transmitted disease.[An
infection is a colonization by a parasitic
species, which may not cause any adverse
effects. In a disease, the infection leads to
impaired or abnormal function. In either case,
the condition may not exhibit signs or
symptoms.
Increased understanding of infections like HPV,
which infects a significant portion of sexually
active individuals but cause disease in only a
few has led to increased use of the term STI.
Public health officials originally introduced the
term sexually transmitted infection, which
clinicians are increasingly using alongside the
term sexually transmitted disease in order to
distinguish it from the former.

STD may refer only to infections that are causing diseases,


or it may be used more loosely as a synonym for STI.
Most of the time, people do not know that they are infected
with an STI until they are tested or start showing symptoms
of disease.
Moreover, the term sexually transmissible disease is
sometimes used since it is less restrictive in consideration
of other factors or means of transmission.
For instance, meningitis is transmissible by means of
sexual contact but is not labeled an STI because sexual
contact is not the primary vector for the pathogens that
cause meningitis.

This discrepancy is addressed by


the probability of infection by
means other than sexual contact.
In general, an STI is an infection
that has a negligible probability of
transmission by means other than
sexual contact, but has a realistic
means of transmission by sexual
contact (more sophisticated means
blood transfusion, sharing of
hypodermic needlesare not taken
into account).
Thus, one may presume that, if a
person is infected with an STI, e.g.,
chlamydia, gonorrhea,
genital herpes, it was transmitted to
him/her by means of sexual contact.

The diseases on this list are


most commonly transmitted
solely by sexual activity.
Many infectious diseases,
including the common cold,
influenza, pneumonia, and most
others that are transmitted
person-to-person can also be
transmitted during sexual
contact, if one person is
infected, due to the close
contact involved.
However, even though these
diseases may be transmitted
during sex, they are not
considered STIs.

History
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)
have been known since antiquity:
gonorrhoea was certainly described by
the ancient Egyptians, and was
recognized by Greek and Roman
medical writers.
The prevalence and spread of these
diseases was exacerbated by war or
other travel, and the rise of city
dwelling, with the concomitant
increase of people living in close
proximity to each other.
By the Middle Ages both gonorrhoea
and syphilis were widespread.
One view, by no means unchallenged,
was that syphilis was brought to
Europe by Christopher Columbus'
sailors on their return from the New
World.

The differentiation of the 2 diseases from each other was often a


matter of medical debate, from the sixteenth up until the nineteenth
century, many authors believing that the symptoms of gonorrhoea
(clap or gleet) were the early stages of syphilis (the pox).
This view was substantiated by the British surgeon John Hunter
(1728-93), who undertook heroic self-experimentation by injecting his
own penis with material taken from a patient with gonorrhoea.
On developing the signs of syphilis he concluded the two infections
were the same little realizing that his patient, like many others,
actually suffered from both infections at the same time.

The main orthodox treatment for syphilis from the Middle Ages until the early years of the
twentieth century consisted of the application of a mercury ointment, a favourite treatment
for skin lesions.
But sufferers from the disease were particularly susceptible to the blandishments of quacks
and charlatans, and many successful businesses profited during the seventeenth through
to the twentieth centuries from selling useless remedies.
In the middle of the nineteenth century a French physician, Philippe Ricord (1799-1889),
convincingly demonstrated the differentiation of the two main STDs and determined the
three stages primary, secondary, and tertiary of syphilis.
Shortly afterwards Rudolph Virchow (1821-1902) established that syphilis was spread
through the body by the blood, explaining the known cardiovascular, muscular, and
psychiatric complications.
At the turn of the twentieth century up to a third of inmates in mental asylums were
reckoned to be suffering form tertiary syphilis.

During the nineteenth century an increasing number of public health


measures, usually aimed at prostitutes, were taken to prevent or control
the spread of STDs.
The Contagious Disease Acts of Great Britain clearly tolerated prostitution,
as they permitted, amongst other regulations, the compulsory
examination and incarceration of infected women, often in the so-called
Lock hospitals.
A vociferous campaign was mounted by women's groups, civil rights
activists, and members of the medical profession, and the Acts were
repealed in 1886.
Advances against the diseases were notably improved by the discovery of
their causative microorganisms. That of gonorrhoea was found in 1879
and that of syphilis in 1905.

Shortly after this the German bacteriologist Paul


Ehrlich (1854-1915) announced the efficacy of
Salvarsan, an arsenic-based treatment for syphilis.
Also a diagnostic test was devised, which was
enormously important as it allowed the disease to
be detected in sufferers not yet displaying the
symptoms; they could then be advised on how to
prevent or minimize passing on the infection.
The development of the sulpha drugs and more
potent antibiotics provided a wider range of
effective drugs against these diseases.
However, it rapidly became apparent that the
provision of appropriate treatments did not
eradicate these diseases, and that public health
advice and personal hygiene education were also
necessary.
The appearance and world-wide spread of AIDS
(Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome), for which
an effective treatment is still unavailable, during
the 1980s, has emphasized the complex nature of
these diseases.

Risk per unprotected sexual act with an infected person

Known risks

Possible

Performing oral sex on a man

Throat chlamydia [6]


Throat gonorrhea [6] (2530%)
Herpes (rare)
HPV[7]
Syphilis[6] (1%)[8]

Hepatitis B (low risk)[9]


HIV (0.01%)[10]
Hepatitis C (unknown)

Performing oral sex on a woman

Herpes
HPV[7]

Throat gonorrhea[6]
Throat chlamydia [6]

Receiving oral sexman

Chlamydia
Gonorrhea[6]
Herpes
Syphilis[6] (1%)[8]

HPV

Receiving oral sexwoman

Herpes

HPV
Bacterial Vaginosis[6]
Gonorrhea[6]

Vaginal sexman

Chlamydia (3050%)[9]
Crabs
Scabies
Gonorrhea (22%)[11]
Hepatitis B
Herpes (0.07% for HSV-2)[12]
HIV (0.05%)[10][12]
HPV (high: around 40-50%)[13]
Syphilis
Trichomoniasis

Hepatitis C

Vaginal sexwoman

Chlamydia (3050%)[9]
Crabs
Scabies
Gonorrhea (47%)[14]
Hepatitis B (5070%)
Herpes
HIV (0.1%)[10]
HPV (high;[9] around 40-50%)[13]
Syphilis
Trichomoniasis

Hepatitis C

Anal sexinsertive

Anal sexreceptive

Anilingus

Chlamydia
Crabs
Scabies (40%)
Gonorrhea
Hepatitis B
Herpes
HIV (0.62%)[16]
HPV
Syphilis (14%)[8]
Chlamydia
Crabs
Scabies
Gonorrhea
Hepatitis B
Herpes
HIV (1.7%)[16]
HPV
Syphilis (1.4%)[8]

Amebiasis
Cryptosporidiosis (1%)
Giardiasis
Hepatitis A (1%)
Shigellosis (1%)

Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C

HPV (1%)

Bacterial
Chancroid (Haemophilus ducreyi)
Chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis)
Gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae), colloquially known as "the
clap"
Granuloma inguinale or (Klebsiella granulomatis)
Syphilis (Treponema pallidum)
Fungal
Candidiasis (yeast infection)
Viral
Micrograph showing the viral cytopathic effect of herpes (ground
glass nuclear inclusions, multi-nucleation). Pap test. Pap stain.
Viral hepatitis (Hepatitis B virus)saliva, venereal fluids.
(Note: Hepatitis A and Hepatitis E are transmitted via the
fecal-oral route; Hepatitis C is rarely sexually transmittable, and the
route of transmission of Hepatitis D (only if infected with B) is
uncertain, but may include sexual transmission
Herpes simplex (Herpes simplex virus 1, 2) skin and mucosal,
transmissible with or without visible blisters
HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)venereal fluids, semen,
breast milk, blood
HPV (Human Papillomavirus)skin and mucosal contact. 'High risk'
types of HPV cause almost all cervical cancers, as well as some
anal, penile, and vulvar cancer. Some other types of HPV cause
genital warts.
Molluscum contagiosum (molluscum contagiosum virus MCV)
close contact
Parasites
Crab louse, colloquially known as "crabs" or "pubic lice" (Pthirus
pubis)
Scabies (Sarcoptes scabiei)
Protozoal
Trichomoniasis (Trichomonas vaginalis), colloquially known as
"trich"

ATITUTIDINI VIS--VIS DE ITS


NONJUDGEMENTAL
WE ARE DOCTORS AND NOT PRIESTS
EVEN IF PATIENTS DO CONFESS
SOMETIMES MORE TO DOCTORS
THEN THEY DO TO THE PRIEST

BE PREPARED FOR
EVERYTHING
YOU MAY ENCOUNTER:
NUNS, PRIESTS, SEXUAL
WORKERS, ACTORS,
POLITICIANS, BANKERS
ETC
PAY ATTENTION TO YOUR
MIMIC/VERBAL/NONVERBA
L COMMUNICATION
CONFIDENTIALITY: FAMILY,
PRESS, COLLEAGUES,
FRIENDS, ENEMIES ETC.

ANAMNESIS
THOROUGHFULL
DETAILLED
UNPERSONAL
APPROACH: LIFE
PARTNER
PROTECTED/UNPROTE
CTED SEXUAL
INTERCOURSE
PAY ATTENTION TO
DIFFERENT MEANING
OF TIME: LONG TIME
VERSUS SHORT TIME

ANAMNESIS
ANAMNESIS IN ITS
MEANS ASKING
ABOUT ALL
INVOLVED
PERSONS
YOU CANT TAKE
AN ITS THROUGH
THE TOILET LID
MORE THEN 2

PHYSICAL EXAINATION
SEPARETELY FOR
ALL INVOLVED
PARTIES
HUSBAND/
WIFE/LOVERS/CON
CUBIN(E)
ALL NATURAL
CAVITIES
CUTANEOUS AREAS
SCALP
CUTANEOUS

WHAT ARE WE LOOKING


FOR
SIGNS:
LOCAL:
ERITHEMATHOUS PLAQUES
AND MACULES
PAPULAR LESION
HYPERTROFIC LESIONS
WARTS
EROSIVE LESIONS/ULCERS
URETRAL/VAGINAL
DISCHARGE

GENERAL:
EXANTHEMATOUS RASH
MACULO-PAPULAR LESIONS
LYMPHADENOPATHY

SYMPTOMS:
ASYMPTOMATIC
VAGINAL/URETRAL
PAIN, PRURITUS,
SENSATION OF
BURNING
DISCHARGE
FEVER
MALAISE

The first well-recorded European outbreak of what is now


known as syphilis occurred in 1494 when it broke out
among French troops besieging Naples.
The disease may have originated from the
Columbian Exchange .
From Naples, the disease swept across Europe, killing more
than five million people.
As Jared Diamond describes it, "[W]hen syphilis was first
definitely recorded in Europe in 1495, its pustules often
covered the body from the head to the knees, caused flesh
to fall from people's faces, and led to death within a few
months," rendering it far more fatal than it is today.
Diamond concludes,"[B]y 1546, the disease had evolved
into the disease with the symptoms so well known to us
today."[
Prior to the invention of modern medicines, sexually
transmitted diseases were generally incurable, and
treatment was limited to treating the symptoms of the
disease.
The first voluntary hospital for venereal diseases was
founded in 1746 at London Lock Hospital.
Treatment was not always voluntary: in the second half of
the 19th century, the Contagious Diseases Act was used to
arrest suspected prostitutes. In 1924, a number of states
concluded the Brussels Agreement , whereby states agreed
to provide free or low-cost medical treatment at ports for
merchant seamen with venereal diseases.

The first effective treatment for a


sexually transmitted disease was
salvarsan, a treatment for syphilis.
With the discovery of antibiotics, a
large number of sexually transmitted
diseases became easily curable, and
this, combined with effective public
health campaigns against STDs, led to
a public perception during the 1960s
and 1970s that they have ceased to
be a serious medical threat.
During this period, the importance of
contact tracing in treating STIs was
recognized.
By tracing the sexual partners of
infected individuals, testing them for
infection, treating the infected and
tracing their contacts in turn, STI
clinics could effectively suppress
infections in the general population.

In the 1980s, first genital herpes and then AIDS emerged into the public
consciousness as sexually transmitted diseases that could not be cured by
modern medicine.
AIDS in particular has a long asymptomatic periodduring which time HIV
(the human immunodeficiency virus, which causes AIDS) can replicate and
the disease can be transmitted to othersfollowed by a symptomatic
period, which leads rapidly to death unless treated. HIV/AIDS entered the
United States in about 1969 likely through a single infected immigrant from
Haiti.
Recognition that AIDS threatened a global pandemic led to public
information campaigns and the development of treatments that allow AIDS
to be managed by suppressing the replication of HIV for as long as possible.
Contact tracing continues to be an important measure, even when diseases
are incurable, as it helps to contain infection.

ARE ITS AN ISSUE IN THE 21ST


CENTURY??
SWOT is an acronym for Strengths,
Weaknesses, Opportunities, and
Threats .
It was originally designed by the
Boston Consulting Group (BCG) in
Massachusetts, USA, where Strategic
Managers devised the strategy to
undermine their competitors and
achieved competitive advantage.
SWOT analysis can be adapted to
scientific research to helps us as
Scientists in formulating strategies that
augment our research and enable us to
understand and devise holistic
strategies to combat emerging and
recalcitrant infectious pathogens.
When the characteristic capacities and
the gaps have been identified, we can
then devise means of achieving our
goals

STRENGTS IN ITS
MANAGEMENT
KNOWN (IDENTIFIED)
DISEASES
KNOWN TREATMENT
HIGH VALUE
EPIDEMIOLOGICAL DATA
HIGH LEVEL OF
AWARENESS
GOOD EDUCATIONAL
CAMPAIGN
GOOD PREVENTIVE
MEASURES
VACCINATION?

WEAKNESS IN ITS
MANAGEMENT
ECONOMICAL CRISIS: LACK OF

MONEY FOR THE PUBLIC HEALTH


SYSTEM
HIGH INCIDENCE IN POOR AND
DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
LACK OF DATA IN POOR COUNTRIES
ITS TRANSMITTED THROUGH
CONDOMS: HPV, HEP. C, CHLAMIDIA,
MYCOPLASMA
RELAXING TENDENCY FOR CONDOM
USE: DECREASE IN HIV MORTALITY;
HAART THERAPY
HIGH RISK FOR CERVICAL AND
EOSOPAGHEAL/PHARYNX CANCER

OPPORTUNITIES IN ITS
MANAGEMENT
RISING AWARENESS
EDUCATIONAL
CAMPAIGNS: ITS CAN BE
TRANSMITTED BY ORAL
CONTACT
DEVELOPING NEW
ANTIBIOTICS
MONEY FUNDING
STRATEGIES
PUBLIC HEALTH POLICIES
FOR UNDERDEVELOPED
COUNTRIES

THREADS IN ITS
MANAGEMENT
THE POWER OF LOVE
AND THE WEAKNESS OF
THE HUMAN MIND: THE
NEW RESTLESS AGE
(SEVERAL PARTNERS,
CONCUBIN/E, THE WEAK
MODEL OF THE CLASICAL
FAMILY, THE WEAK
CHURCH)
DEVELOPING RESISTANCE
TO ANTIBIOTICS
THE AGING CONCEPT

In February 2013, CDC published two analyses that provide an in-depth look at
the severe human and economic burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs)
in the United States.
CDCs new estimates show that there are about 20 million new infections in the
United States each year, costing the American healthcare system nearly $16
billion in direct medical costs alone.
Americas youth shoulder a substantial burden of these infections. CDC estimates
that half of all new STIs in the country occur among young men and women.
In addition, CDC published an overall estimate of the number of prevalent STIs in
the nation. Prevalence is the total number of new and existing infections at a
given time.
CDCs new data suggest that there are more than 110 million total STIs among
men and women across the nation. CDCs analyses included eight common STIs:
chlamydia, gonorrhea, hepatitis B virus (HBV), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human papillomavirus (HPV), syphilis,
and trichomoniasis.

CDC estimates that there are more than 19.7


million new STIs in the United States each
year. While most of these STIs will not cause
harm, some have the potential to cause
serious health problems, especially if not
diagnosed and treated early. Young people
(ages 15-24) are particularly affected,
accounting for half (50 percent) of all new
STIs, although they represent just 25 percent
of the sexually experienced population.

While the consequences of untreated STIs are often worse for


young women, the new analysis reveals that the annual number of
new infections is roughly equal among young women and young
men (49 percent of incident STIs occurs among young men, vs. 51
percent among young women).
Four of the STIs included in the analysis are easily treated and
cured if diagnosed early: chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and
trichomoniasis. However, too many of these infections go
undetected because they often have no symptoms. But even STIs
that dont have symptoms can have serious health consequences.
Undiagnosed and untreated chlamydia or gonorrhea, for example,
can put a woman at increased risk of chronic pelvic pain and lifethreatening ectopic pregnancy, and can also increase a womans
chance of infertility.
CDC estimates that HPV accounts for the majority of newly acquired
STIs. While the vast majority (90 percent) of HPV infections will go
away on their own within two years and cause no harm, some of
these infections will take hold and potentially lead to serious
disease, including cervical cancer

CDCs analysis suggests


that there are more than
110 million STIs overall
among men and women
nationwide. This
estimate includes both
new and existing
infections. Some
prevalent infections
such as HSV-2 and HIV
are treatable but
lifelong infections.

HPV accounts for the


majority of prevalent
STIs in the United
States. While there is
no treatment for the
virus itself, there are
treatments for the
serious diseases that
HPV can cause, and
vaccines are available
to prevent some types
of HPV infection

Human papillomavirus (HPV) The most


common STI
Human papillomavirus (HPV) The most common STI: The
bodys immune system clears most HPV naturally within two years
(about 90 percent), though some infections persist.
While there is no treatment for the virus itself, there are treatments
for the serious diseases that HPV can cause, including genital warts,
cervical, and other cancers.
Most sexually active men and women will get HPV at some point in
their lives. This means that everyone is at risk for the potential
outcomes of HPV and many may benefit from the prevention that the
HPV vaccine provides.
HPV vaccines are routinely recommended for 11 or 12 year old boys
and girls, and protect against some of the most common types of HPV
that can lead to disease and cancer, including most cervical cancers.
CDC recommends that all teen girls and women through age 26 get
vaccinated, as well as all teen boys and men through age 21 (and
through age 26 for gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with
men). HPV vaccines are most effective if they are provided before an
individual ever has sex.

HSV-2, HBV, and HIV are lifelong


infections that together account
for nearly one-quarter of all
prevalent infections.
These infections have potentially
severe health consequences. For
example, HSV-2 can lead to
painful
chronic
infection,
miscarriage or premature birth,
and fatal infection in newborns.
HBV can lead to cirrhosis, a lifethreatening liver disease.
And HIV damages a persons
immune
system
over
time,
increasing an infected persons
susceptibility to a number of
diseases.
Additionally,
nearly
18,000
people in the United States die
with AIDS each year.

STIs Result in Significant Costs


to the U.S. Healthcare System
STIs place a significant economic
strain on the U.S. healthcare
system.
CDC conservatively estimates
that the lifetime cost of treating
eight of the most common STIs
contracted in just one year is
$15.6 billion.
Because some STIs especially
HIV require lifelong treatment
and care, they are by far the
costliest. In addition, HPV is
particularly costly due to the
expense of treating HPV-related
cancers.
However, the annual cost of
curable STIs is also significant
($742 million). Among these,
chlamydia is most common and
therefore the most costly.

Fighting STIs: Prevention,


Diagnosis, and Prompt Treatment
Treatment Because STIs are preventable, significant
reductions in new infections are not only possible,
they are urgently needed.
Prevention can minimize the negative, long-term
consequences of STIs and also reduce healthcare
costs.
The high incidence and overall prevalence of STIs in
the general population suggests that many Americans
are at substantial risk of exposure to STIs,
underscoring the need for STI prevention.
Abstaining from sex, reducing the number of sexual
partners, and consistently and correctly using
condoms are all effective STI prevention strategies.
Safe, effective vaccines are also available to prevent
HBV and some types of HPV that cause disease and
cancer.
And for all individuals who are sexually active
particularly young people STI screening and prompt
treatment (if infected) are critical to protect a persons
health and prevent transmission to others.

CDCs STI Screening


Recommendations:
If you are sexually active, be sure to talk to your healthcare provider about STI
testing and which tests may be right for you.
All adults and adolescents should be tested at least once for HIV.
Annual chlamydia screening for all sexually active women age 25 and under, as
well as older women with risk factors such as new or multiple sex partners.
Yearly gonorrhea screening for at-risk sexually active women (e.g., those with
new or multiple sex partners, and women who live in communities with a high
burden of disease).
Syphilis, HIV, chlamydia, and hepatitis B screening for all pregnant women, and
gonorrhea screening for at-risk pregnant women at the first prenatal visit, to
protect the health of mothers and their infants.
Trichomoniasis screening should be conducted at least annually for all HIVinfected women.
Screening at least once a year for syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and HIV for all
sexually active gay men, bisexual men, and other men who have sex with men
(MSM).
MSM who have multiple or anonymous partners should be screened more
frequently for STIs (e.g., at 3 to 6 month intervals).
In addition, MSM who have sex in conjunction with illicit drug use (particularly
methamphetamine use) or whose sex partners participate in these activities
should be screened more frequently.

APARENTELE POT INSELA