Sunteți pe pagina 1din 111

HEPATITE CRONICE

• Definitie : Reactie inflamatorie


cronica evoluand fara ameliorare
timp de minimum 6 luni. Acest
termen asigura cronicitatea
• Nu este o boala, ci un sindrom
caracterizat prin:
• 1. Manifestari clinice
• 2. Anomalii biochimice
• 3. Modificari histologice comune
• Se exclud din start
HEPATITELE GRANULOMATOASE
CLINIC :
1. Febra
2. Manifestari sistemice
3. Hepatomegalie
4. Hipertensiune portala
5. Anomalii ale testelor
hepatice
ETIOLOGIE

• 1. Infectioase : a. Bruceloza
b.Tuberculoza
c. Histoplasmoza
d. Candidioza
e. Schistosomiaza
f. Febra Q
2. Imunologice a. Sarcoidoza
b. Ciroza biliara primitiva

3. Medicamentoase a. Difenilhidantoina
b. allopurinolul

4. Neoplasme a. limfoame
b. carcinoame
Hepatite
medicamentoase

Normal Troglitazone

Biseptol La 2 luni

Didanozona
Acetaminofen
Lobul hepatic normal Sulfasalazina

Estradiol Metildopa
Amiodarona Metotrexat

Toxicitate vit A Ciclofosfamida


CLASIFICAREA
GRANULOAMELOR
CAZEOASE tuberculoza

NONCAZEOASE sarcoidoza, C.B.P.

LIPOGRANULOAME ingestia de uleiuri


minerale

NECROZA arterita cu celule gigante


FIBRINOIDA INELARA
HEPATITE CRONICE DIFUZE

• Istoric
• 1948 Wood Hepatita Cronica Infectioasa
• 1950 Waldenstrom noteaza predispozitia
feminina
• 1951 Kunkel hepatita cu hiperglobulinemie
• 1955 Mackay le denumeste “Lupoida”
• 1957 Rezultatele Corticoterapiei
• 1968 Clasificarea histologica
• 1969 Mistilis si Blackburn introduc
Imunosupresa
• 1974 Modificarea clasificarii histologice
• 1994 Clasificarea etiologica
HEPATITE CRONICE DIFUZE

• Prioritati romanesti :

• Bruckner - Moga 1963 Medicina


interna

• Fodor 1967
Hepatita cronica
HEPATITE CRONICE DIFUZE

Clinica :

1. Astenie fizica
2. Icter
3. Hepatomegalie
Anomalii Biochimice
• 1. Cresterea aminotransferazelor este
anomalia princeps
• 2. Raportul
ASAT/ALAT > 2 - leziune
alcool indusa
ASAT/ALAT < 1 - leziune
viral indusa
Anomalii biochimice
tipice in boli
Hepatobiliare

Aspecte Morfologice

• Scopurile examenului histologic


• 1.Determinarea etiologiei : Stabilirea diagnosticului
• 2. Explicarea anomaliilor biochimice
• 3. Gradarea activitatii necroinflamatorii ( HAI )
• 4. Stadializarea fibrozei
• 5. Evaluarea terapiei
• 6. Detectia / Excluderea altor boli ( Leziuni )
Inflamatia Portala

• 1. Limfocite
• 2. Plasmocite
• 3. Macrofage
Inflamatia Periportala

• 1. Contine acelasi tip de celule


• 2. Produce lezare hepatocitara
• 3. Consecutiv apare colagenul
• 4. Defineste activitatea bolii si poate
fi gradata
Inflamatia lobulara

• 1. Se insoteste de necroza
• 2. Este variabila
• 3. Are anomalii nucleare
• 4. Determina grading - ul
Fibroza

• 1. Incepe in spatiul port


• 2. Se extinde periportal
• 3. Produce septuri portoportale
• 4. In faze severe apar septuri
porto – centrale
• 5. Determina staging-ul
Grading HAI ISHAK

• 1-3 hepatita cronica minima


• 4-8 hepatita cronica blanda
• 9-12 hepatita cronica moderata
• 13-18 hepatita cronica severa
STAGING

• 0 absenta
• 1 blanda periportala
• 2 moderata portoportala
• 3 severa portocentrala
• 4 ciroza
HEPATITE CRONICE
DIFUZE
• Clasificare etiologica
• 1. AUTOIMUNA
• 2. VIRALA B
• 3. VIRALA B cu D
• 4. VIRALA C
• 5. MEDICAMENTOASA
• 6. BOALA WILSON
• 7. DEFICIT A1AT
• 8. CRIPTOGENETICE
Hepatite
cronice
Causes of viral
HepatitisCommon hepatitis
Transmission Infection
virus name routes
A Infectious hepatitis Enteral Acute only

B Serum hepatitis Parenteral, vertical, sexual Acute


Chronic (5 -
10%)

C Non-A Parenteral, vertical, sexual, Acute


Non-B hepatitis other routes undefined Chronic(50 -
70%)

D Delta virus Parenteral; Acute


HBV an essential co-factor Chronic (5 -
10%)

E Enteral Acute only

G Parenteral, other routes undefined Acute and


chronic

TTV Parenteral Acute


Burden of chronic
hepatitis B
• Around 350 million people are
chronically infected with HBV
• >75% of these are of Asian
origin
• 25-40% of chronically infected
individuals will die prematurely
from the disease

Prevalence of chronic HBV
carriers

Percentage chronic HBsAg carriers:


< 2% - Low
2-7% - Intermediate
Margolis et al, 1991
> 8% - High
Transmission of HBV
infection
Transfusion
(unscreened blood, Mother to baby
blood products)

Body fluids Contaminated needles


(blood, semen, HEPATITIS B and syringes
secretions)

Organs and Child to child


tissue transplantation
Structure of HBV

Envelop
e
contain
ing
HBsAg
DNA polymerase
Double-stranded
DNA

Single-stranded
DNA

HBcAg
(HBeAg)
Hepatitis B Antigens
Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)
• First serological marker to appear
• Persistence for >6 months = chronic
infection
Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)
• Marker of viral replication
• Present in acute and chronic infection
• Absence does not necessarily indicate
absence of viral replication
Hepatitis B
Anti-HBs
Antibodies
• Marker of recovery after loss of HBsAg
• Marker of immunity after Hep B
vaccine

• Coupled to loss of HBeAg suggests a


Anti-HBe favourable outcome
• In presence of HBV DNA may indicate
precore mutant infection
Hepatitis B
Anti-HBs
Antibodies
• Marker of recovery after loss of HBsAg
• Marker of immunity after Hep B vaccine

Anti-HBe • Coupled to loss of HBeAg suggests a


favourable outcome
• In presence of HBV DNA may indicate
precore mutant infection

Anti-HBc
• Indicates current or previous infection
• Not associated with recovery or immunity
Hepatitis B
Anti-HBs
Antibodies
• Marker of recovery after loss of HBsAg
• Marker of immunity after Hep B vaccine
• Coupled to loss of HBeAg suggests a
favourable outcome
• In presence of HBV DNA may indicate precore
Anti-HBe mutant infection
• Indicates current or previous infection
• Not associated with recovery or immunity

• Indicates acute infection


Anti-HBc

IgM anti-
HBc
Never Been Exposed
to Hepatitis B
No viral markers
No immune response
– HBsAg - to the virus
– HBeAg -  Anti-HBc -
– HBV DNA -  Anti-HBs -
 Anti-HBe -
Acute Hepatitis B

Full complement of Some immune


viral markers, all response to the
virus
present for
< 6 months – Anti-HBc +
– HBsAg +
– HBeAg +
– Anti-HBs -
– HBV DNA + – Anti-HBe -

• Evidence of acute
infection
• Anti-HBc IgM +
Chronic Hepatitis B
with Evidence of Viral
Replication
Some immune
Full complement of response to the
viral markers, virus
present for > 6
months
– HBsAg +
– Anti-HBc +
– HBeAg + – Anti-HBs -
– HBV DNA + – Anti-HBe -

• No evidence of acute
infection
• Anti-HBc IgM -
Chronic Hepatitis B
with Evidence of Viral
Replication
Some immune
Only one viral response to the
marker
virus
 HBsAg
– Anti-HBc +
+
– Anti-HBs -
for ≥ 6 months
– Anti-HBe +
 HBeAg
-
• No evidence of acute
 HBV DNA -
infection
• Anti-HBc IgM -
Value of serum HBV
DNA assessment
• Prognosis

• Identification of viraemia irrespective


of HBeAg status

• Therapy selection

• Monitoring
– virological response to therapy
– disease progression
– HBV replication after liver transplantation
HBV DNA Assays

• Liquid phase hybridisation - Abbott

• Branched chain DNA assay - Chiron

• RNA-DNA hybrid assay - Digene

• Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)


Progression to Chronic Hepatitis B Virus
Infection
Typical Serologic Course
Acute Chronic
(6 (Years)
months) HBeAg anti-HBe
HBsAg
Total anti-HBc
Titer

IgM anti-
HBc

0 4 8 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 5 Year
2 6 0 4 8 2 6 2 s
Weeks after
IMUNOPATOGENEZA
Boli extrahepatice:

• 1. Poliarterita nodoasa
• 2. GN Membranoasa /
Membranoproliferativa
• 3. Vasculita Leucocitoclazica
• 4. Crioglobulinemie
Possible outcomes of
infection
with hepatitis B virus
Transient
Subclinical 65%
100% Infection
Acute
HBV
Recovery Infection

Adapted from Feitelson, 1994


Possible outcomes of
infection
with hepatitis B virus
Transient
Subclinical 65%
100% Infection
Acute
HBV
Recovery Infection

99% 25%
Acute
Hepatitis

Adapted from Feitelson, 1994


Possible outcomes of
infection
with hepatitis B virus
Transient
Subclinical 65%
100% Infection
Acute
HBV
Recovery Infection

99% 25%
Acute
Hepatitis
1%
Fulminant
Hepatitis

Adapted from Feitelson, 1994


Death
Possible outcomes of
infection
with hepatitis B virus
Transient
Subclinical 65%
100% Infection
Chronic
Acute
10% Infection
HBV
Recovery Infection

99% 25%
Acute
Hepatitis
1%
Fulminant
Hepatitis

Adapted from Feitelson, 1994


Death
atural history of chronic HBV infecti

Resolution

Chronic
Infection
70-90%

Asymptomatic
Chronic Carrier

Adapted from Feitelson, 1994


atural history of chronic HBV infecti

Inactive
Resolution Resolutio Resolution
Cirrhosis
n

10-
Chronic Chronic 30% HCC
Cirrhosis Dysplasia
Infection Hepatitis

70-90%

Asymptomatic Death Deat Death


h
Chronic Carrier

Adapted from Feitelson, 1994


Hepatita B
Stadiile infectiei cu virus B

• Marker Faza replicativa Faza integrativa

STADIUL 1 2 3 4

AgHBs + + + -
Anti HBs - - - +
HBV DNA ++ + - -
Anti HBc + + + +
Ag HBe + + - -
Anti HBe - - + +
ALAT N crescut N N
Hepatitis B - Clinical
Features
• Incubation period: Average 60-90
days
Range 45-180
days

• Clinical illness (jaundice): <5 yrs, <10%


>5 yrs, 30%-50%

• Acute case-fatality rate: 0.5%-1%


Hepatitis B - Clinical
Features
• Incubation period: Average 60-
90 days
Range 45-180
days
• Clinical illness (jaundice): <5 yrs, <10%
>5 yrs, 30%-
50%
• Acute case-fatality rate: 0.5%-1%
• Chronic infection: <5 yrs, 30%-
90%
>5 yrs, 2%-
10%
Clinical Features of
Liver Disease
• Early/mild disease - no
symptoms
• Fatigue, weakness
• Abdominal pain
• Nausea, vomiting, anorexia
• Jaundice
• Hepatomegaly
Jaundice
• Due to excess
bilirubin in tissues

• Yellow
discolouration of:

– Skin
– Mucous
membranes
– Sclera of the eyes
Assessing Severity of
Liver Disease in
Hepatitis B
• Mild
Raised ALT and/or AST only

• More severe
Raised ALT/AST and raised bilirubin

• Severe, impending liver failure


Reduced albumin
Prolonged prothrombin time
Currently Used or Approved Antiviral Therapies for HBeAg-Positive Chronic HBV Infection in
Patients Who Have Not Received Treatment

Dienstag J. N Engl J Med 2008;359:1486-1500


Hepatita D

• 1987 Rizzeto
• Virus ARN
• Necesita HBV care furnizeaza :
1. Nucleocapsida
2. Anvelopa
Survine :
1. Coinfectie
2. Suprainfectie
Important de cautat la:
1. Bolnavii ce se agraveaza
2. Bolnavii AgHBe negativi
Infectare :
1. Parenterala
2. Intrafamiliara
HEPATITA C

1. Virus ARN din familia Flaviridae


- 9400 nucleotide codand
un polipeptid de 3000 aa.
The HCV Genome and Expressed Polyprotein

Lauer G and Walker B. N Engl J Med 2001;345:41-52


GENOTIPURI SIMMONDS

• Clasificarea in 6 tipuri:
 1a
 1b (90% in Romania)
 2a
 2b
 3a
 4a
Produce cvasispecii-impiedicand
realizarea unui vaccin .
Distributia geografica: 1a,b SUA, Euroa
1b,2a,2b Japonia
3 Thailanda,
Australia, Europa de nord
4.Asia
5.Africa de Sud
6. Hong Kong
• Epidemiologie:
• 1,4 % din populatia generala
• 0,1-0,7 %donatori
• 4-6 % Africa, Orientul
Mijlociu
• Creste cu varsta 0,2-3,9 %
• Dializati 20 %
• Hemofilicii 65 %
• Narcomanii 70 %
• Personalul medical 0-10 %
• TRANSMISIE:
• 40-50% droguri intravenoase
• 5-25% transfuzii
• CAI DE TRANSMISIE:
• ace - droguri
• - personal medical
• hemodializa 2-3%
• tatuaje
• transfuzie – sange
• - produse 0,1%
• sexual
• intrafamilial
• 50% cai necunoscute
Manifestari clinice
1. Simptome mai blande
2. Multi asimptomatici
3. 25 % icter
DIAGNOSTIC
I NESPECIFIC 1. Anamneza → factori de risc
2. ALAT

II SPECIFIC 1. IMUNOLOGIC a) ELISA


b) RIBA
c) WESTERN BLOT
2. MOLECULAR a) PCR
b) DNA

III HISTOLOGIC
COINFECTIA B cu C

Se caracterizeaza prin : 1. nivele reduse ale viremiei


2. nivele foarte mari ALAT
3. evolutie grava
4. rezistenta la tratament
5. experienta redusa
ALTE AFECTIUNI PRIN VIRUS C

1. S. Sjögren
2. Crioglobulinemie
3. Porfiria acuta tarda
4. Limfoame non - hodgkiniene
DECIZIA DE TRATAMENT
ESTE DEPENDENTA DE:
I. GRADUL DE ACTIVITATE AL BOLII

DA ! cand I.A.H. ≥ 6 KNODELL


ALAT ≥ 1.5-2 N

NU ! cand I.A.H. ≤ 6 KNODELL


ALAT - N
Diagnosticul de leziune:
HEPATITA
1. Criteriul biologic
- nivele crescute ALAT,
ASAT
2. Criteriul histologic
- infiltrat inflamator
- necroza
Nu sunt eligibili:
a). Alcoolicii - complianta
redusa
- efecte sinergice
- incarcare cu Fier
- replicare virala
mare
- depresie imuna
b). Toxicomanii - risc de
II. VARSTA

- copii, adulti ≤ 65 ani,

Varsta biologica mai importanta decat


cea cronologica

Varstele inaintate asociaza boli ce pot fi


contraindicatii
III. SANSA DE VINDECARE

- absenta cirozei

- fibroza redusa
IV. RISCURI

- legate de terapie
boli autoimune
rezistenta la tratament

- legate de teren
transplantatii
V. CONTRAINDICATII
(in principal pentru IFN)
1. Epilepsie
2. Psihoze
3. Citopenii
4. Ciroze
5. Graviditate
6. Comorbiditati grave - a). Insuficienta cardiaca
b). Insuficienta renala
c). Diabet
d). Poliartrita reumatoida
SCOPUL TRATAMENTELOR

1. Diminuarea necroinflamatiei

2. Reducerea fibrozei

determinanti esentiali ai
prognosticului
RASPUNSUL VIROLOGIC

1. Clearence-ul viral este telul ideal,


irealizabil in prezent
2. Locuri de replicare extrahepatice
mononucleare, SNC (virus C)

3. Seroconversia Ag HBe nu inseamna


neaparat eradicarea virusului

4. Limita de detectie a AND - HVB


depinde de metoda
HEPATITA CRONICA B
INDICATII

1. Varsta ≥ 65 ani
2. ALAT > 2 N, peste 6 luni
3. Semne de replicare virala
4. IAH ≥ 6 KNODELL
FACTORII PREDICTIVI DE
BUN AUGUR

1. ADN viral ≤ 200 pg/mL


2. ALAT > 5 N
3. Sex feminin
4. Varsta < 40 ani
5. Absenta cirozei
FACTORII PREDICTIVI DE
RAU AUGUR

1. ADN viral > 200 pg/mL


2. Ag HBe negativ

3. Coinfectie HIV, HDV


4. ALAT normal
HEPATITA CRONICA C
1. ALAT > 1.5 - 2 N, mai mult de 6
luni
2. ARN VIRAL, ANTI HVC de
generatia a III

NU sunt contraindicatii
1. Prezenta anti LKM1 (5%)

2. Coinfectia cu virus G
FACTORII FAVORABILI DE
EVOLUTIE
1. Durata scurta a bolii
2. Genotipurile 2, 3
3. Viremie redusa < 2x106 copii/mL
4. Complexitate redusa a HVR 1
5. Absenta fibrozei
6. Sex feminin
7. Varsta < 40 ani
8. Sistem imun - T/B crescut
- CD11 -, CD8+ reduse
FACTORII PREDICTIVI CU
INFLUENTA NEGATIVA
1. Genotipul 1
2. Sarcina virala mare
3. Variabilitate mare
4. Sex masculin
5. Varsta > 40 ani
6. Coinfectia HIV, HVB
7. Obezitate
8. Incarcare cu fier (hepatocitara,
HEPATITA CRONICA D
Se supune criteriilor hepatitei
B, la care se adauga:

- anti HVD

- ARN viral
INTERFERONII

Proteine membranare Limfocit B


Limfocit T
 HLA I, II monocit
β 2 microglobulina
Fe fibroblasti
IFN γ IFN α ,β

R R

mesager
Efecte antitumorale

ARN
proteina

Imunomodulatoare
- citokine
- C2
- activare celulara
MOD DE ACTIUNE

I Antiviral 1. Inhiba ARN -ul viral


2. Activeaza enzimele antivirale
a ) 2’, 5’ oligoadenilat sintetaza
b ) proteinkinaza
II Imunomodulator Amelioreaza actiunea TH , NK

EFECTE ADVERSE

1. Constitutionale
2. Hematologice
3. Neuropsihiatrice
4. Autoimune - ANA
- SMA
- Antitiroidieni
ANALOGI NUCLEOZIDICI

1. LAMIVUDINA
2. RIBAVIRINA
3. ACICLOVIR
4. FAMCICLOVIR
5. ADENINARABINOZID
6. GANCICLOVIR
HEPATITE AUTOIMUNE
Hepatita cronica, predominent periportala cu hiper γ globulinemie si autoanticorpi tisulari
care raspunde la tratamentul imunosupresor, cel mai frecvent.

I II III

Anticorpi ANA, SMA Anti LKM1 Anti SLA


Alti anticorpi Antiactina Anti P450 Anti LP
Antitiroida Anti c. parietale SMA
Antihistone Antitiroida AMA
p ANCA Anti I. Langerhans
Antigen posibil Asialoglicoproteina P450 Citokeratina 8 / 18
Alti termeni lupoida 2a criptogenetice
Varsta 16 - 30 2 - 14 20 - 40
Sex F F F
Boli imune tiroidita diabet ?
sinovita vitiligo ?
colita tiroidita ?
Laborator  γ globuline  IgA ?
Tratament corticoizi corticoizi corticoizi
Criterii de diagnostic ( Los Angeles ’ 94 )

SIGUR α 1AT PROBABIL – excludere Wilson


Ceruloplasmina N anti HVC
Cupremie

Absenta markerilor virus B si C


VCM, E - B
Absenta drogurilor hepato-toxice

Ingestie alcool < 35 g/zi M < 50 g/zi M


< 25 g/zi F < 40 g/zi F
γ globuline IgG > 150 % N 1/40 adulti, 1/10 copii
SMA, AMA, anti LKM1 > 1 / 80
Biopsie

Transaminaze mult crescute fata de fosfataza


DIAGNOSTIC DIFERENTIAL

1. B. WILSON - ceruloplasmina
- excretia urinara de cupru
- examen oftalmologic
- cupru hepatic

2. Hemocromatoza - sideremie
- transferina
- depozite de fier hepatic

3. Ciroza fibroasa preliminara - anti M2


- biopsie
- lipsa de raspuns la costicoizi

4. Colangita sclerozanta primitaiva ERCP


PATOGENIE

I predispozitie genetica HCA - B8


- DR3 , DR52

II agent trigger - virusul rujeolic


- virusul Ebstein Barr
- virusurile hepatitice
III autoantigene - nu sunt organ specifice
- cauza sau efect ?
ANOMALII ALE SISTEMULUI IMUN

1. HLA – DR β loci codeaza : - proteine din sistemul complementului


- Ig
- receptori T

2. Deficit functional TS - date in vitro


- efectul corticoizilor
- primar ? secundar ?
PROBLEMA AUTOIMUNITATII IN Hepatita virala C

10 % din pacientii cu Hepatita C au anticorpi

Decizia de tratament trebuie sa se bazeze pe :

1. Titrul anticorpilor

2. PCR HVC
Scorul diagnostic
ITEM PUNCTE
1. Sex F 2
2.F.A./ALT <1,5 = +2; >3 = -2
3.IgG >2N=3 ; <1N = 0
4.Autoanticorpi >1/80 = 3pct
5.AMA - 3 pct
6.Markeri virali +/- 3 pct
7.Medicamente - = 3 / + =4 pct
8.Alcool < 25g/zi = +2 pct
9.Histologie Piece-meal = 3 pct
10.Boli autoimune +2 pcte
11.Raspuns la tratament +2 pcte
SEMNIFICATIE
PRETRATAMENT PUNCTEH

H.A.I. DEFINITA > 15 pct

H.A.I. PROBABILA 10- 15 pct

POSTTRATAMENT

H.A.I. DEFINITA > 17 pct

H.A.I PROBABILA 12 -17 PCT


INDICATII DE TRATAMENT

I ABSOLUTE 1. ALAT > 10 N


2. ALAT > 5 N + γ globuline 2N
3. Bridging necrosis
4. simptome incapacitante
5. boala evolutiva

II RELATIVE 1. ALAT < 10 N


2. ALAT < 5 N + γ globuline < 2N
3. hepatita periportala
4. astenie
TRATAMENT MONOTERAPIE TERAPIE COMBINATA

ATAC PREDNISON 20- 30 mg PREDNISON 20- 30 mg


AZATIOPRINA 50 – 100 mg

MENTINERE PREDNISON 5 – 15 mg PREDNISON 5 - 10 mg


AZATIOPRINA 2 mg / kcorp si
AZATIOPRINA 50 – 150 mg
Alte tratamente
• Ciclosporina 5-6 mg/kgcorp/zi
recaderi la oprire

• Tacrolimus 4 mg x 2/zi

• Budesonid 6-8 mg/zi - 10 sapt.

• Ac. Ursodezoxicolic 250-750 mg/zi - 2 luni

• Imunoglobuline
ALTI AGENTI :

1. CICLOSPORINA 5 mg / kcorp
2. TACROLIMUS 4 mg / zi
3. AC URSODESOXICOLIC 250 – 750 → nesigur
4. TIMOZINA descurajant
5. FOSFATIDILCOLINA + CORTICOIZI