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Graficele functiilor trigonometrice


n trasarea graficelor functiiolr trigonometrice se urmaresc mai multe etape:

I
a) gasirea domeniul maxim de definitie a functiei b) gasirea intersectiei graficului cu axa Ox (f(x)=0) c) gasirea intersectiei graficului cu axa Oy (se calculeaza f(0) ) d) se calculeaza lim f ( x )
x

II
a) b) c) d) se studiaza paritatea sau imparitatea functiei se studiaza periodicitatea functiei se studiaza continuitatea functiei se studiaza semnul functiei pe domeniul de definitie

III
a) se cauta asimptota orizontala b) se cauta asimptota oblica c) se cauta asimptota verticala n punctele de acumulare unde functia nu este definita

IV
a) se calculeaza derivata I b) se gasesc radacinile derivatei I si valoarea functiei n aceste radacini c) se gaseste semnul derivatei I

V
a) se calculeaza derivata II b) se gasesc radacinile derivatei II si valoarea functiei n aceste radacini c) se gaseste semnul derivatei II

VI
a) se construieste tabelul de variatie a functiilor

VII
a) se traseaza graficul functiei

Sa se reprezinte grafic functiile:

i) f(x) = sinx (1 + cos x )

1
f1( x ) = sin x

f2 ( x ) = 1 + cos x f2 ( x + 2k) = f2 ( x ) T = 2k T0 = 2 putem considera restrictia f [0,2] R f ( x ) = 0 sinx (1 + cos x ) = 0 sin x = 0 1 + cos x = 0 x1,2,3 = 0, ,2 cos x = - 1 x 4 =

f1( x + 2k) = f1( x ) T = 2k T0 = 2

2
f ( x ) = sin(-x) (1 + cos( x )) = sinx (1 + cos x ) = f ( x ) f(x) = functie impara graficul simetric fata de origine f(x + 2k) = f(x) f periodica de T0 = 2 functia e continua pe domeniul de definitie ca produs de functii elementare

3
- asimptote orizontale lim f ( x ) = sin x(1 + cos x ) = ( lim sin x )(1 +
x x x

lim cos x ) =

( ) asimptote orizontale / - asimptote oblice y = mx + n f ( x) sin x m = lim = lim (1 + cos x ) = 1 x x x x f ( x) = 0 ( ) asimptote oblice / 2 cos 2 x + cos x 1 = 0 cos x = t t [-1,1] asimptote verticale - ( ( ) pct. de acumulare unde functia nu este definita) / 2t 2 + t 1 = 0 4 = 1+ 8 = 9 f 1(x) = 1 3 + cosx))' = cosx(1 + cosx) - sin2 x = cox + cos 2 x - sin 2 x = (sinx(1 1 t1,2 = 2 t 1 = -1 2 t 2 = = cos x +4 cos x - 1 + cos x = 2cos 2 x + cos x - 1 2 1 (cos x + 1)(cos x - ) = 0 2 1 cos x = -1 cos x = 2 5 f( ) = 3 3 ; f( 5 ) = 3 3 x1 = f( ) = 0 x1,2 = , 3 3 3 4 3 4

x cosx+1 cosx+ f(x)


5

+ + +

+ + +

/3

+ + + + 0 - - - - 0 + + + 0 - - - - 0 - - - 0 + + +

5/3

f 2 ( x ) = ( 2 cos 2 x + cos x 1)' = 4 cos x sin x sin x = sin x( 4 cos x + 1) f 2 (x) = 0 sin x = 0 x1,2,3 = 0, ,2 cos x = 1 4

x 4 = arccos

1 1 3 15 ; f ( arccos ) = 4 4 16 1 1 3 15 x 5 = + arccos ; f ( + arccos ) = 4 4 16

x -sin x 4cosx+1 f(x) VI x f(x) f(x ) f(x)

0 0 - + + 0- -

- arccos + arccos 2 - - - - - - 0 + + + + + 0 + 0 - - - - - - - 0 + + + + + - -0 + + + + 0 - - - - 0 + + + + + 0

0 /3 - arccos + arccos 5/3 2 + + +0- - - - - - - 0 - - - - - 0 + + + 0 - - - - - 0 + + 0 - - - 0 + + + + + + 0

ii) f ( x ) = cos 2x + 2 cos x + 1

1
f1( x ) = cos 2x f2 ( x ) = cos x

f1( x + 2k) = f1( x )

f1( x + 2k) = f1( x )

T = 2k T0 = 2 R

T = 2k T0 = 2

putem considera restrictia f

[0,2] f ( x ) = 0 cos 2x + 2 cos x + 1 = 0 2(cos 2 x + cos x ) = 0 : 2

2 cos 2 x 1 + 2 cos x + 1 = 0 cos x(cos x + 1) = 0 cos x = 0 cos x = 1 x1 = x3 =

x2 =

3 2

2
f ( x ) = cos(2x ) + cos( x ) + 1 = cos 2x + 2 cos x + 1 = f ( x ) f ( x ) functie para grafic simetric fata de Oy f(x + 2k) = f(x) f periodica de perioada principala 2 functia e continua pe domeniul de definitie ca produs de functii continue

3
asimptote orizontale : lim cos 2x + cos x + 1 =
x x

lim cos 2x + 2 xlimcos x + 1 =

nu exista asimptote orizontale asimptote oblice : y = mx + n cos 2x cos x + 2 lim +0= x x x x nu exista asimptote oblice asimptote verticale : nu exista pcte de acumulare unde functia nu e definita nu exista asimptote orizontale m=

lim

4
f 1( x ) = (cos 2x + 2 cos x + 1)' = 2 sin 2x 2 sin x = 4 sin x cos x 2 sin x = = 2 sin x(2 cos x + 1) f(0) = 4; f( ) = 0; f(2) = 4 1 2 4 cosx = x1 = ; x2 = 2 3 3 2 1 4 1 f( ) = - ; f( ) = 3 2 3 2 x 0 2/3 4/3 2 -2sinx 0-0 + + + + + + 2cosx+1 + + +0- 0 + + + + + 1 f (x) 0 - - - - 0 + ++ 0 - - - 0 + + + + + + + f 1( x ) = 0 sin x = 0 x 1 = 0; x 2 = ; x 3 = 2

5
f 2 ( x ) = ( 2 sin 2x 2 sin x )' = 4 cos 2x 2 cos x = 8 cos 2 x + 4 2 cos x = 2( 4 cos 2 x + cos x 2) f 2 ( x) = 0 4 cos 2 x + cos x 2 = 0 = 1 + 32 = 33 33 1 0.93 ; x1 ( , ) 8 4 3 33 1 5 7 x 2 = 2 arccos 5.34; x 2 ( , ) 8 3 4 1 33 33 + 1 33 + 1 5 5 cos x 2 = = x 3 = arccos 2.57; x 3 ( , ) 8 8 8 7 6 33 + 1 9 8 x 4 = + arccos 3.70; x 4 ( , ) 8 7 7 cos x1 = 1 + 33 = 8 33 1 x1 = arccos 8

6
x f1(x) f2(x) f(x) 0 x1 2/3 x3 x4 4/3 x2 2 0 - - - - - - -0+ + + + 0- - - - -- 0 + + + + + 0 - - - - -0 + + + + + 0 - - - - -0 + + + + + + 0 - - - 4 1.88 -0.5 -0.26 0 -0.26 -0.5 1.88 4

iii) f ( x ) = sin x cos 3 x f1( x ) = cos 3 x f2 ( x ) = sin x f2 ( x + 2k) = f2 ( x ) f1( x + 2k) = f1( x ) T = 2k T0 = 2 R T = 2k T0 = 2

putem considera restrictia f f ( x ) = 0 sin x cos 3 x = 0 sin x = 0 x1 = 0 x2 = cos 3 x = 0 x 4 =

[0,2]

x5 =

3 2

x 3 = 2

2
f ( x ) = sin( x ) cos 3 ( x ) = sin x cos 3 x = f ( x ) f ( x ) functie impara grafic simetric fata de origine f(x + 2k) = f(x) f periodica de perioada principala 2 functia e continua pe domeniul de definitie ca produs de functii continue

3
asimptote orizontale :

lim sin x cos x

x=

lim sin x xlimcos x

x=

nu exista asimptote orizontale asimptote oblice : y = mx + n sin x 3 m = 2lim 0 x1 = cos 3 x)= x 2 = cos x = f( x 2 ) = 0 lim2 f(x1 = 0; 2 x x x nux 3 sin 2 x = 0 oblice = 3 sin 2 x : 3cos 2 x cos 2 exista asimptote cos 2 x asimptote verticale : 1 3 tg2 x = nu exista pcte tgx = de acumulare unde functia nu e definita 3 3 nu exista asimptote orizontale 3 27 x 3 = arctg = f( ) = 4 3 6 6 16 1 3 4 f ( x ) = (sin x cos 3x )' = cos x 7 sin x27 2 sin x = cos 2 x(cos 2 x 3 sin2 x ) 3 cos 7 x 4 = + arctg = f( ) = 3 6 6 16 f 1( x ) = 0 3 5 5 27 x 5 = arctg = f( ) = 3 6 6 16 3 11 11 27 x 6 = 2 arctg = f( )= 3 6 6 16

x cosx-3sinx cosx f1(x)

0 /2 5/6 7/6 3/2 11/6 ++ + + 0- - - 0 + + 0 - - - - -- - 0+ + + + + + 0 + + + + + + + + 0 + + + + + 0 + + 0 - - - -0 + + +0 - - - 0 - - - 0 + + +

++ + ++

5
f 2 ( x ) = [cos 2 x(cos 2 x 3 sin 2 x )]' = 2 cos x sin x(cos 2 x 3 sin2 x ) + cos 2 x( 2 cos x sin x 6 sin x cos x ) = 2 cos 3 x sin x + 6 sin3 x cos x 2 cos 3 x sin x 6 sin x cos 3 x = 10 cos 3 x sin x + 6 sin3 x cos x = sin x cos x(10 cos 2 x 6 sin 2 x ) 3 ,2 f 2 ( x ) = 0 sin x cos x = 0 x1,2,3,4,5 = 0, , , 2 2 10 cos 2 x 6 sin 2 x = 0 10 cos 2 x = 6 sin2 x : 6 cos 2 x tg2 x = 5 5 tgx = 3 3 5 3 5 3 5 3 5 3 f(x 6 ) 0.18 f(x 7 ) 0.18

x 6 = arctg x 7 = arctg

x 8 = + arctg x 9 = 2 arctg x sinx cosx -sinxcosx

f(x 8 ) 0.18 f(x 9 ) 0.18

0 /2 3/2 2 0 + + + + + + + +0 - - - - - - - - - 0 + + + + 0 - - - - - 0 + + + + 0 - - - - 0 + + + 0 - - - - 0 + + + 0 0 0.91 /2 2.22 4.05 3/2 5.37 2 0 - - - 0 + + + 0 - - - - 0 + + + 0 + + 0- - - -0 + + + + 0- - - - - 0 + + + 0 - - 0 + +0 - 0 + + 0 - - 0 + + + 0 - - 0 + + 0

x -sinxcosx 10cos-sinx f2(x)

6
x f1(x) f2(x) f(x) /6 0.91 /2 2.22 5/6 7/6 4.05 3/2 5.37 11/6 2 0 +0 - - - 0 - - - - 0 + + + 0- - - - 0 - - - - 0 + + 0 - - - 0 + +0 - - 0 + + + + 0 - - - - - 0 + + 0 - - 0 + + + + 0
0 0 0.32 0.18 0 -0.18 -0.32 0 0.32 0.18 0 -0.18 -0.32 0

Se obseva ca graficul functiei pe intervalul [0, ] este identic cu cel pe intervalul (,2], n consecinta vom reprezenta functia doar pe intervalul [0, ].

1 - cos 2 x iv ) f(x) = (sin x + cos x )(sin x cos x )

1
1 - cos 2 x sin 2 x sin2 x f(x) = = = (sin x + cos x )(sin x cos x ) cos 2 x sin 2 x cos 2x k cos 2x 0 2x + k : 2 x + 2 4 2 sin2 ( x + k) (- sin x )2 sin 2 x f ( x + k ) = = = = f (x) cos( 2x + 2k) cos( 2x ) cos 2x

T = k T0 =

3 putem considera f : [0, ] \ { , } R 4 4 2


sin2 ( x ) sin2 x f(-x) = = = f ( x ) functie para graf. simetric fata de Oy cos( 2x ) cos 2x f(x + k) = f(x) functie periodica de T = k (T0 = ) functia e continua pe domeniul de definitie ca raport de functii continue

3
asimptote orizontale : sin2 x = lim x cos 2 x asimptote oblice : y = mx + n sin 2 x 1 sin2 x 1 m = lim = lim lim = cos 2x x x x x x cos 2 x asimptote verticale : 1 ls = lim f ( x ) = 2 = + 0+ x
4 x< 4

1 ld = lim f ( x ) = 2 = 0 x
x> 4 4

x=

asimptota verticala

4
f 1( x ) = 2 sin x cos x cos 2x + 2 sin 2x sin2 x sin 2x(cos 2x + 2 sin 2 x ) = = cos 2 2x cos 2 2x sin 2x(cos 2 x sin2 x + 2 sin2 x ) sin 2x(cos 2 x + sin 2 x ) sin 2x = = 2 2 cos 2x cos 2x cos 2 2x

f 1( x ) = 0 x1,2,3 = 0,

,
2

3 pt x (0, ) \ { }, f 1( x ) > 0 ; pt x ( , ) \ { }, f 1( x ) < 0 2 4 2 4 5


sin 2x 2 cos 3 2x + 4 cos 2x sin2 2x 2 cos 2 2x + 4 sin2 2x = = = cos 2 2x cos 4 2x cos 3 2x 2 cos 2 2x + 2 sin2 2x + 2 sin 2 2x 1 + 2 sin 2 2x = cos 3 2x cos 3 2x 3 f 2 ( x ) > 0 pt x (0, ) ( , ) 4 4 3 ) f 2 ( x ) < 0 pt x ( , ) ( , 4 2 2 4 f 2 ( x) =

6
x f1(x) f2(x) f(x) 0 /4 0 + + + I + + + 0 + + + +I - - - - + 0 I- /2 3/4 + 0 - - - - - I - - - - - -0 - - - - - - - -I + + + + + + + -1 0 - I

cos x cos 2x f1( x ) = cos x f1( x + 2k) = f1( x ) v ) f ( x) = f2 ( x ) = cos 2x

4 asimptote orizontale : 4 cos x lim cos= sin x cos 2x + 2 cos x sin 2x x x 1( cos 2 x f x) = ( )' = = cos 2x cos 2 2x nu exista asimptote orizontale 2 2 2 sin x(2 cos 2 x asimptote oblice :1) + 4 cos x sin x = sin x(1 2 cos x + 4 cos x ) = 2 cos 2 2x y = mx + n cos 2x sin x(1x 2 cos 2 x ) + 1 1 f (= ) = cos 2 x m lim lim cos 2x = cosx 2x x x 1 f ( x) = 0 1 + 2 cos 2 xoblice sin x = 0 x1,2,3 = 0, ,2 nu exista asimptote > 0 asimptote > 0 1 + 2 cos 2 xverticale : k } f 1( x ) 0; x (,2] \ { + k } f 1( x ) < 0 x [0, ] \ { + 4 2 4 2 cos 2 x > 0 2 2 2 5 lim f ( x ) = 0 = + ; lim f ( x ) = 0 = 4 = asimptota verticala + x sin x(1 + 2 cos 2 x 4 x) 2 4 = f < ( x) = ( )' x cos 2 2x x > 4 4 [cos x(2 cos 2 x + 1) 2 sin x(cos x sin x )] cos 2 2x + 2 sin x(2 cos 2 x + 1) sin 2x cos 2x = cos 4 2x [2 cos 3 x + cos x 2 sin2 x cos x] cos 2 2x + 2 sin x(2 cos 2 x + 1) sin 2x cos 2x = = cos 4 2x

4 3 7 x<

k cos 2x 0 22 + k : 2 x + 2 x 2 4 2 3 2 = + ; ( k lim f ( x ) = 0 lim fx ) = 0 2 = 4 = asimptota verticala 3 ] 3 + } R + x putem considera f : [0,2x \ { 2 4 4 4 3 3 x< x> 3 4 4 f(x) = 0 cos x = 0 x1 = x2 = 2 2 2 2 5 2 f ( x ) = 2 = ; lim cos(0 x ) cos x lim f ( x ) = 0 2 = + 4 = asimptota verticala 5 3 + x x= f ( x ) f ( x) = = 4 4 5 cos( 2x ) cos 2xx > 3 x< 4 4 f ( x ) functie para grafic simetric fata de Oy 2 2 f(x + 2k) = f(x) f periodica de perioada principala 2 7 ) = 2 = pe ; lim f ( ) = 2 = + raport asimptota verticala lim f ( xe continua domeniulxde definitie ca 4 =de functii continue functia 0 0 7 3
x x 4 3 x> 4 +

f2 ( x + 2k) = f2 ( x )

T = 2k T0 = 2

T = 2k T0 = 2

0 3/4 3 1) cos x(2 cos 2 /4+ 1 2 /2 2 x ) cos 2x + 2 sin 52 cos 2 x +/2sin 2x 7/4 x sin x( /4 = = cos 4 2x cos x(2 + cos 2x ) cos 2x + 2 sin x(2 cos 2 x + 1) sin 2x = = cos 4 2x cos x(2 + cos 2x ) cos 2x + 4 sin x(cos 2x + 2) sin x cos x = = cos 4 2x cos x(2 + cos 2x )(cos 2x + 4 sin2 x ) = cos 4 2x f 2 ( x ) = 0; 2 + cos x > 0 () D

cos 2x + 4 sin 2 x = cos 2 x + 3 sin2 x > 0 ()x D 3 cos x = 0 x1,2 = , 2 2 x cosx + + + +0 - - - - - - - - 0 + + + + + + cos2x + + 0 - - - - - - - 0 + + + 0 - - - - - - - - - 0 + + + r + + +I - - - - 0 + + + I - - - - - I + + + +0 - - - - - I + + +

6
x f1(x) f2(x) f(x) /4 /2 3/4 5/4 3/2 7/4 2 0 + +I + + + + ++ I + + 0 - --I - - - - - - - - -I - - - -0 + + + I - - - - 0 + + + I - - - - - - -I + + + +0 - - - - - I + + + + + - 1 I- 0 I- -1 - I+ 0 I+
0

1 sin x 1 cos x cos x 1 f : R \ U 2k R vi) f ( x ) = f1( x ) = cos 2x f2 ( x ) = cos x f1( x + 2k) = f1( x ) 2 f1( x + 2k) = f1( x )
k Z

f ( x ) = 0 sin x = 1 x k =

+ k

T = 2k T0 = 2

T = 2k T0 = 2

2
1 + sin x functie oarecare 1 cos x f(x + 2k) = f(x) f periodica de perioada principala 2 f : (0,2) R functia e continua pe domeniul de definitie ca produs de functii continue f ( x) =

3
asimptote orizontale : 1 + sin x lim1 cos x = x nu exista asimptote orizontale asimptote oblice : y = mx + n 1 sin x 1 m = lim lim = x x x 1 cos x nu exista asimptote oblice asimptote verticale : 1 sin x 1 1 sin x 1 = = + ; lim = = + lim 1 cos x 0 0+ x 0 x 2 1 cos x + x = 0 si x = 2 asimptote verticale
x >0 x < 2

4
cos x(1 cos x ) + sin x(1 sin x ) cos x cos 2 x + sin x sin2 x f ( x) = = = (1 cos x )2 (1 cos x )2
1

1 (sin x + cos x ) = (1 cos x )2

1 2(cos x

2 2 + sin x ) 1 2 (cos x ) 2 2 = 4 2 2 (1 cos x ) (1 cos x )

f 1( x ) = 0 cos( x

) =
4

2 x = x= 2 4 4 2 x4 4

= 2 - x = 2

x = 2 D x =

6
x f1(x) f(x) /4 /2 3/4 5/4 3/2 7/4 2 - - - - -0 + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + I+ 1 0 0.17 1 2 5.82 + I
0

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