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Civilizaia la rscruce de

secole
,,O nestrmutat credin n puterile raiunii constituie
motorul ntregului secol al XIX-lea.
JEAN CARPENTIER, FRANOIS LEBRUN
- Istoria Europei -

tiina i tehnica

Marile invenii i inventatori

Marile invenii i inventatori

Heinrich Hertz
(1857-1894)

Inventatorii i protejeaz
inventiile obinnd brevete de la
autoritile abilitate, prin care ei
i dezvluie secretele n
schimbul dreptului de a realiza,
utiliza sau vinde inveniile. Cei
mai cunoscui inventatori din
secolul al XIX-lea sunt:
Heinrich Hertz: a demonstrat
natura luminii, propagarea
undelor electromagnetice
Pe baza inveniilor lui a urmat:
Alexander Graham Bell care a
inventat telefonul,

A. Graham Bell
(1847-1922)

Wilhelm Rntgen
A descoperit razele X care au proprietatea de a
traversa diferite corpuri
Pe baza inveniilor lui a urmat:
Aplicaiile din medicin ale radiografiilor X i ale
aplicaiilor razelor X i a razelor gamma din
programele nucleare de azi.
Care fizicieni francezi, polonezi, italieni i-au
urmat?
An exposure of 500 roentgens in five hours
is usually lethal for human beings.
The typical exposure to normal background
radiation for a human being is about 200
milliroentgens per year, or about 23
microroentgens per hour.

Wilhelm Rntgen
(1845-1923)

Descoperirea i studiul

radioactivitii

O nou conceie despre Univers


- teoria relativitii E = mc2

Descoperirile din fizic au


fost urmate de cele din
chimie

Albert Einstein 1879-1955

Thomas Halva Edison


1847-1931

A inventat:
fonograful,
becul electric,
centrala electric,
tramvaiul

A descoperit modul de
producere i conducere a
curentului electric.
gramofon

Joseph Nicphore Nipce francez - 1765


1833
inventatorul aparatului de fotografiat 1825

mpreun cu Niepce, mai lucra o


persoan pe nume Louis Daguerre, care ,
mai trziu, a mbuntit procedeul
inventat de acesta. El a fost un pictor i a
realizat fotografii pe plci, cu iodat de
argint fotosensibil. Din aceast cauz,
primele fotografii au fost denumite
dagherotipii.
Vedere de la fereastr
n Le Gras - 1826

O invenie celebr

Fraii Auguste i Louis


Lumire

Inventarea fotografiei le-a permis frailor Auguste i Louis Lumire s mearg mai
departe i s inventeze filmul cinematografic , fotografia i filmul color:

Algerieni foto: 1917

Chimie i microbiologie
Chimie
Sintetizarea compuilor organici duce la
dezvoltarea industriei chimice:
ngrminte, medicamente, fibre
sintetice
Microbiologia:
descoperirea vaccinului datorit lui Louis
Pasteur (1822-1895)
Care este accinul descoperit de el?
Ce specialitate avea?
Cine i-a urmat?

Biologie
n tiinele biologice s-a remarcat
englezul Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
creatorul teoriei evoluioniste
Ce lucrare a scris?
Ce noi tiine biologice au aprut?

Marile progrese n marile expoziii


Expoziia universal de la Londra 1851: Crystal Palace

Expoziia universal de la Londra 1851: Crystal Palace

Expoziia universal de la Londra 1851: Crystal Palace

Expoziia universal de la Paris 1889

Expoziia universal de la Paris 1889: Galeria mainilor

Mainismul i mainriile

model ul din 1885

Benz "Velo" model (1894) by German inventor


Carl Benz entered into an early
automobile race as a motocycle

Ce aplicaii are?

Rudolf Diesel 1858-1913


german nscut la Paris
A inventat
motorul cu ardere intern n 1893.

Motor original creat de Diesel n 1897

Recunoatei inveniile i
inventatorii?

Recunoatei inveniile?
Dar inventatorul?

Premiul Nobel
In 1888 Alfred's brother Ludvig died while visiting Cannes and a
French newspaper erroneously published Alfred's obituary It
condemned him for his invention of dynamite and is said to have
brought about his decision to leave a better legacy after his
death. The obituary stated, Le marchand de la mort est mort ("The
merchant of death is dead") and went on to say, "Dr. Alfred Nobel,
who became rich by finding ways to kill more people faster than
ever before, died yesterday. Alfred was disappointed with what he
read and concerned with how he would be remembered.
On 27 November 1895, at the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris,
Nobel signed his last will and testament and set aside the bulk of
his estate to establish the Nobel Prizes, to be awarded annually
without distinction of nationality. After taxes and bequests to
individuals, Nobel's will allocated 94% of his total assets,
31,225,000 Swedish kronor, to establish the five Nobel Prizes. This
converted to GBP 1,687,837 at the time. In 2012, the capital was
worth around SEK 3.1 billion (USD 472 million, EUR 337 million),
which is almost twice the amount of the initial capital, taking
inflation into account.
The first three of these prizes are awarded for eminence in
physical science, in chemistry and in medical science or
physiology; the fourth is for literary work "in an ideal direction"
and the fifth prize is to be given to the person or society that
renders the greatest service to the cause of
international fraternity, in the suppression or reduction of
standing armies, or in the establishment or furtherance of
peace congresses.

Alfred Nobel 1833-1896


chimist, inginer i inventator
suedez
A deinut 350 de brevete de
invenie

Cea mai celebr


invenie: dinamita.

realizator: prof. dr. Beatrice Budea recunoatei inventatorii?


1903 fraii Wright
1909 Louis Blriot

1909

1906

Primul avion cu reacie din lume: 1910