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MECANICA AVANSAT N ROBOTIC

Ce faci pentru tine, dispare odat cu tine,


ce faci pentru alii, rmne pentru eternitate.
(Albert Einstein)

PREFA
Robotica, ca tiin i domeniu de cercetare multidisciplinar, se ocup cu studiul
teoretic i experimental al proceselor fizice i informaionale, care stau la baza funcionrii
roboilor. Pe baza acestora se stabilesc principiile fundamentale necesare modelrii,
proiectrii, implementrii i utilizrii roboilor industriali n cadrul proceselor tehnologice,
consacrate realizrii de produse performante, ntr-un timp ct mai scurt si cu costuri ct mai
reduse. Ca urmare, se impune dezvoltarea unor modele si algoritmi matematici, n ceea ce
privete comanda cinematic i dinamic a roboilor. Aceast lucrare se constituie ca o
monografie cu privire la mecanica avansat n robotic. n cuprinsul celor zece capitole ale
lucrrii, se dezvolt noiuni fundamentale privind funciile de comand geometric i cinematic,
aspecte legate de traiectoriile optime de micare, optimizarea parametrilor de distribuie a
maselor, precum i studiul dinamic al forelor generalizate motoare i ecuaiilor difereniale ce
exprim micarea mecanic a robotului. Pentru atingerea acestor deziderate, n lucrare sunt
apelate elemente de noutate tiinific, cum sunt matricele difereniale, funciile exponeniale de
matrice, funciile polinomiale de interpolare i energia acceleraiilor. Prin toate acestea, lucrarea
se constituie i ca un element de plecare pentru dezvoltarea de noi metode i algoritmi de calcul.
Primul capitol, intitulat sugestiv Structura mecanic a robotului prezint ntr-o form
lapidar noiuni legate de structura mecanic a unui robot industrial. Aceste noiuni sunt eseniale
pentru nelegerea corect a modelelor matematice i algoritmilor dezvoltai n capitolele urmtoare.
n cadrul capitolului doi intitulat Transformri matriceale n mecanica avansat, se
dezvolt conceptul de situare, iar pe baza acestuia se stabilesc expresiile de definiie pentru
matricele de rotaie (orientare). Un aspect esenial l constituie abordarea conceptului de orientare,
prin modelare direct i de comand, utiliznd rotaiile n jurul axelor fixe i mobile, precum i
rotaia generalizat. n cadrul aceluiai capitol sunt dezvoltate formulri i reformulri asupra
transformrilor omogene, care sunt eseniale n studiul matematic al structurilor mecanice de roboi.
Capitolul trei intitulat Modelarea geometric include principalii algoritmi clasici, bazai pe
matricele de situare, operatorii compui tip PG i tip DH. Algoritmii sunt consacrai ecuaiilor
geometriei directe i de comand a structurilor mecanice de roboi, fiind nsoii de cteva aplicaii.
Urmtorul capitol al lucrrii este intitulat Modelarea cinematic. Pentru nceput se
prezint expresiile de definiie ale parametrilor cinematici, dup care este dezvoltat o proprietate
esenial privind derivata matricei de rotaie. Aceast proprietate se utilizeaz pentru dezvoltarea
matricelor de transfer liniare i unghiulare. Un aspect fundamental al capitolului l constituie
matricele difereniale ale transformrilor omogene, precum i matricea Jacobian. Acestea
sunt consacrate att studiului cinematic, ct i stabilirii matricelor incluse n ecuaiile dinamicii.

MECANICA AVANSAT N ROBOTIC

Capitolul cinci intitulat Funcii exponeniale de matrice abordeaz elemente de noutate


privind aplicarea funciilor exponeniale n cinematica structurilor mecanice complexe. n cadrul
acestui capitol sunt dezvoltate formulri i algoritmi, avnd anumite avantaje n studiul
geometriei, cinematicii i dinamicii roboilor industriali. Capitolul se finalizeaz prin dezvoltarea de
aplicaii, care vin n consonan cu utilitatea acestor modele i algoritmi n mecanica avansat.
Capitolul ase Modelarea traiectoriilor de micare trateaz, prin prisma funciilor
polinomiale de interpolare, problema optimizrii traiectoriilor de micare n spaiul configuraiilor.
De asemenea, n lucrare este dezvoltat un algoritm al funciilor de comand cinematic, cu
implicaii profunde n studiul comportamentului cinematic, dar i dinamic al structurilor mecanice.
Dac primele ase capitole ale lucrrii sunt consacrate geometriei i cinematicii,
urmtoarele patru dezvolt aspecte matematice cu privire la distribuia maselor, forele statice,
principiile difereniale ale mecanicii analitice i forele generalizate n robotic. Astfel, capitolul
apte intitulat Distribuia maselor trateaz modelele matematice, dar i algoritmul generalizat,
consacrat proprietilor masice ale structurii mecanice de robot. Dintre proprietile masice
relevant este tensorul inerial i tensorul pseudoinerial, precum i variaia generalizat a acestora.
innd seama de aspectele mai sus reliefate, capitolul opt intitulat Noiuni i teoreme
fundamentale este consacrat generalizrii teoremelor fundamentale aplicate n studiul dinamic.
Trebuie remarcat formularea cu privire la energia acceleraiilor sub form explicit i matriceal.
n cadrul capitolului nou Principii ale mecanicii analitice se prezint mai nti cteva
aspecte n conexiune cu rolul matematic al legturilor i deplasrilor n dinamica sistemelor
mecanice. n continuare, se dezvolt, sub form explicit i matriceal, principiul lucrului mecanic
virtual, principiul lui DAlembert i ecuaiile lui Lagrange-Euler pentru sisteme olonome,
neolonome i pentru micri impulsive. Tabloul este completat de ecuaiile lui Hamilton, de
asemenea, ntr-o form explicit i matriceal. Un aspect important al capitolului se refer la
generalizarea ecuaiilor lui Appell, bazate pe energia acceleraiilor, precum i la dezvoltarea
principiului variaional Hamilton - Ostrogradski. Capitolul se finalizeaz prin cteva aplicaii.
Ultimul capitol se intituleaz Forele generalizate n Robotic. Pentru nceput se prezint
un model matematic privind calculul forelor generalizate, avnd ca punct plecare principiul
lucrului mecanic virtual. n continuare se dezvolt formulri noi privind calculul forelor
generalizate statice i dinamice, avnd o form matematic unitar, fapt ce constituie un avantaj
esenial n studiul comportamentului dinamic. Capitolul se finalizeaz prin dezvoltarea algoritmului
generalizat al funciilor de comand dinamic, care se aplic oricrei structuri mecanice de robot.
n concluzie, lucrarea se constituie ntr-o cercetare fundamental n domeniul mecanicii
avansate n robotic. Modelele matematice i algoritmii dezvoltai n lucrare pot constitui o baz
de studiu teoretic i aplicativ, esenial pe de o parte pentru specialitii n robotic, doctoranzi i
masteranzi, iar pe de alt parte pentru studenii facultilor cu profil mecanic, mecatronic i electric.
Autorii

MECANIC AVANSAT N ROBOTIC 9

LISTA DE SIMBOLURI
Simbolul utilizat

Semnificaia

(SMR)
(MGD)
(MGI)
(MCD)
(MCI)

Abreviere (abr.)structura mecanic a robotului.


Modelul geometric direct (abr.)
Modelul geometric invers (abr.)
Modelul cinematic direct (abr)
Modelul cinematic invers (abr.)
Algoritmul Exponenialelor de Matrice in
geometria directa (abr.)
Algoritmul exponenialelor de matrice in
cinematica directa (abr.)
Distribuia maselor (abr.)
Parametrii generalizai (abr.)
Parametrii compui Denavit-Hartenberg
coordonata linear [mm] sau coordonata
unghiular [rad ] din cupla motoare

(MEG)
(MEK)
(DM)
(PG)
(DH)

{q i ; i = 1 n}

{ = [q , i = 1 n] }

{
{

}
= [q , i = 1 n] }

poz

or

= [q i , i = 1 n]T
i

{ ( ) = [q = 0, i =1 n] }
0

O 0 x 0 y 0 z 0 {0 }

O i x i y i z i {}
i

{0} {}i

{T }
{G}

vectorul
coloan
al
coordonatelor
generalizate, de dimensiune (n 1) , din
fiecare cupl motoare a robotului;
vectorul
coloan
al
coordonatelor
generalizate pentru poziie;
vectorul
coloan
al
coordonatelor
generalizate pentru orientare;
vectorul
coloan
al
coordonatelor
generalizate n configuraia iniial a
robotului, unde {i = 1 n , n N }
sistemul de referin fix, ataat centrului
geometric al bazei fixe a structurii mecanice;
sistemul de referin mobil, ataat n centrul
cuplei fiecrui element cinetic
poziia i orientarea sistemului {}
i n raport
cu sistemul fix {0}; unde i = 1 (n +1)
sistemul de referin ataat sculei

sistemul de referin ataat piesei


LISTA DE SIMBOLURI

Capitolul

Cap. 1-10
Cap. 2,3
Cap. 2,3
Cap. 4,8,9
Cap.4, 8,9

Cap.5
Cap.5

Cap.8,9
Cap.3

Cap. 1-10
Cap. 1-10
Cap.1-10

Cap. 1-10

Cap.1-10
Cap. 1-10

Cap.1-10

Cap. 1-10
Cap.1

Cap.1

MECANIC AVANSAT N ROBOTIC

10

sistemul de referin ataat piesei de


Cap.1
prelucrat, ntr-un col al acesteia;
poziia i orientarea sistemului mobil {}
i n
Cap. 1-10
raport cu un alt sistem mobil, {j } ;
sistemul mobil ataat n punctul caracteristic
P, ce coincide cu centrul geometric al
efectorului final; cele trei axe ale sistemului Cap. 1-10
sunt simbolizate dup cum urmeaz:

{S}
{j } {}
i

{n + 1}

{x n +1 n;

matricea antisimetric asociat oricrui


Cap. 2-10
T
vector u = u x u y u z = vect {u }

{u }

{ [R], i = 1 (n +1)}

matricea de rotaie (orientare) (3 3 ) , ce


exprim orientarea unui sistem mobil {}
i n Cap. 2-10
raport cu un alt sistem mobil {j } ;

{ [R], {i; j} = 1 n}
j
i

0
urma matricei de orientare i [R ] (sau a unei
matrice oarecare) se calculeaz ca fiind suma Cap. 2-10
elementelor de pe diagonala principal
vectorul de poziie al originii sistemului {}
i n
Cap. 2-10
raport cu sistemul fix {0};

{ [R ] }
0
i

pi = [x i y i z i ]T

i =1 n

{ p , {i ; j} = 1 n }
j

ij

pxi pyi pzi

i = 1 n

i 1

ri = i 1pii1

i 1

vectorul de poziie dintre originile sistemelor


Cap. 2-10
{}
i i {j } proiectat pe sistemul {j } ;

)T

componentele carteziene, n

vectorului p i , pxij

= [ai 1 bi 1 ci 1 ]T

i 1 ie d (i0) i(0)

i 1 (0)
pii 1

{a

matricea de rotaie (orientare), care exprim


orientarea sistemului {}
i n raport cu Cap. 2-10
sistemul fix {0} ataat bazei robotului;

0
i

Trace

y n + 1 s ; z n + 1 a}

pyij

pzij

[mm]

ale

Cap. 2-10

vectorul coloan care exprim poziia


Cap. 2-4
i n raport cu sistemul {i 1}
sistemului {}
setul de parametri generalizai sau operatorii
compui de tip PG ce caracterizeaz poziia
sau vectorul de poziie al sistemului mobil Cap. 3
{}
i n raport cu sistemul anterior {i 1} .
grupul operatorilor compui de tip DH
corespunztoare variantei doi a algoritmului Cap. 3
operatorilor compui de tip DH.
LISTA DE SIMBOLURI

MECANIC AVANSAT N ROBOTIC 11

{a

i ie d i(01) i(01)

a i (i 1 )
i (i 1 )

i(01)(i )

ie

{k ( ) = ( p ( ) / p ( ) ) }
0

0
Ai

0
Ai

{k ( ) , v ( ) }
i

{Ai ,

{e {

i = 1 (n +1)}

k i(0 ) q i i

i 1
i

{b , i = 1 n}
{e }
i

Ai q i

{M ( ) ,
0
vn

[R ]

0
i

i =1 n

j {T ; G ; S}

i = 1 (n + 1)

{ [T], i =1 (n +1)}
j
i [T ],

grupul operatorilor compui de tip DH ce


corespunde primei variante a algoritmului Cap. 3
operatorilor compui de tip DH.
lungimea normalei comune msurata ntre dou
Cap. 3
axe motoare nvecinate k i (i 1) - k i +1 (i ) ;
unghiul de ncruciare msurat n planul
normal pe perpendiculara dintre dou axe Cap. 3
motoare nvecinate k i (i 1) i k i +1(i ) ;

d i((0i )1 )

distana dintre dou elemente nvecinate,


msurat n lungul axei motoare notat k i ;
unghiul dintre dou elemente cinetice
nvecinate, msurat n jurul axei motoare,
ntre cele dou normale comune i orientate
corespunztoare acestei axe;
reprezint unghiul msurat n jurul axei y i ;
parametrul exist numai n cazul erorilor
geometrice din domeniul mrimilor difereniale.
versorul corespunztor fiecrei axe motoare
i = 1 n , in raport cu sistemul fix {0}.
parametri de urub (coordonatele omogene
ale fiecrei axe motoare), utilizai n cadrul
algoritmului exponenialelor de matrice.
matricea parametrilor de urub, cu aceeai
(0 )
expresie n ambele configuraii i .
forma exponenial a matricei de rotaie
vectorul coloan al funciilor exponeniale

exponeniala matricei de rotaie

Cap. 3
Cap. 3
Cap. 3
Cap. 2-10
Cap. 5
Cap. 5
Cap. 5

Cap. 5

Cap. 5

matricea geometriei nominale


Cap.1- 8
matricea de situare (transformare omogen),
de dimensiune (4 4) , exprim poziia i
orientarea sistemului {}
i n raport cu sistemul Cap. 1-10
fix , {0} , ataat bazei robotului considerat;
matricea de situare (transformare omogen),
de dimensiuni (4 4 ) , exprim poziia i Cap. 1-10
orientarea sistemului {}
i n raport cu {j } ;
LISTA DE SIMBOLURI

MECANIC AVANSAT N ROBOTIC

12

{Tii 1G ,

i = 1 n}

{Tii 1D ,

i = 1 n}

{TG ,

{TD ,

{
{

i = 1 n +1}
i = 1 n +1}

[] []

i 1G
0
iG T , iG T ,

[] []

i 1D
0
iD T , iD T ,

0
n+1

[T],

{T

{sin q i
q

i = n +1

Txo1 , i = n + 1

x0 ,

{cos

}
i =1 n+1}
i =1 n+1

sq
cq

i
i

};

)T

j yi j xi j zi

{i ; j} = {T;G;S}

{ i ,

{
j

i = {T ; G; S}}

unghiurile de orientare exprimate n [rad ] ,

i 1 0
i

i 1

componente ale vectorului i ;

unghiurile de orientare exprimate n [rad ] ,

, {i ; j } = {T ;G;S}

{ ( ) =[

Cap. 3
Cap. 3
Cap. 3
Cap. 3
Cap.3
Cap.3
Cap.3-10

Cap.5

funciile trigonometrice sinus si cosinus


Cap.2-10
scrise ntr-o form simplificat;

yi xi zi

i = {T ;G; S}

matricea de situare rezultant dintre


sistemele {}
i i {i 1} , n configuraia
iniial a robotului (parametrii de tip PG).
matricea de situare rezultant dintre
sistemele mobile {}
i i {i 1} , n configuraia
iniial (modelare cu parametrii compui DH).
matricea sistemelor de tip PG conine poziia
relativ i orientarea sistemelor de tip PG
matricele generalizate ale sistemelor i ale
operatorilor compui de tip DH
matricele de situare de tip PG a sistemelor
{iG} fa de sistemele {i 1G} respectiv {0}
matricele de situare de tip DH a sistemelor
{iD} fa de sistemele {i 1D} respectiv {0}
matricea de situare dintre sistemele
{n + 1} {0} exprima situarea sistemului
ataat n punctul caracteristic al efectorului
final n raport cu sistemul de referin fix {0} .
expresiile exponeniale ce caracterizeaz
matricele de situare respectiv inversele
acestora i care exprim situarea sistemelor
{n} i {n+1} fa de sistemul {0}

i1 i 1]T

componente ale vectorului j i ;

vectorul ce exprim orientarea sistemului {}


i n

Cap.2-10
Cap.2-10

Cap.2-10
raport cu sistemul fix {0}ataat bazei robotului;
vectorul ce exprim orientarea sistemului
Cap.2-10
i n raport cu un alt sistem, {j } ;
mobil {}
setul de parametri generalizai sau operatorii
compui de tip PG ce caracterizeaz orientarea Cap. 3
fiecrui sistem ataat n centrul cuplei motoare.
LISTA DE SIMBOLURI

MECANIC AVANSAT N ROBOTIC 13

{( ) X = f ( ), i = {T ;G;S}}
n0

{ X , {i ; j} = {T ;G;S}}
j

ij

{q i

= A tan 2 ( sq i ; cq i

{M , [ X
0

Xv

T
Vk ;

)}

k =1 m

]}

vectorul coloan (61) al coordonatelor


operaionale, care exprim poziia i
i n raport cu Cap.2-10
orientarea sistemului {}
sistemul fix {0} respectiv sistemul mobil {n} ;

vectorul coloan (6 1) al coordonatelor


operaionale, care exprim poziia i Cap.2-10
orientarea sistemului {}
i n raport cu {j } ;
funcia invers A tan2 (sq i ; cq i ) [ ; + ] ,
care tine cont de semnul ambelor Cap.2, 3, 5
argumente, adic sq i i cq i ;
matricea generalizat
cinematici operaionali

parametrilor

vectorul vitezei lineare a originii sistemului {}


i

fa de sistemul de referin fix {0} respectiv


i ;
proiecia lui pe sistemul mobil {}
(i )0 a (i )0 v& , i = {T ; G; S} vectorul acceleraiei lineare a originii
i
i
i fa de sistemul fix {0}
sistemului {}
respectiv proiecia lui pe sistemul mobil {}
i ;
[m s ] ale
componentele carteziene
T
&p = p&
&
&
vectorului vitezei lineare a originii sistemului
i
xi p yi p zi
{}
i n raport cu sistemul fix {0};
vectorul vitezei unghiulare a sistemului
(i )0 , i = {T ; G; S}
asociat cuplei {}
i fa de sistemul de
(i )0 v , i = {T ;G;S}
i

{(
0

ix

iy

iz

)}

{ p& , {i; j} = {T ;G;S}}


j

ij

j&
j p&
pyij j p& zij
xij

{i ; j} = {T ;G;S}

)
T

referin {0}i proiecia pe sistemul mobil {}


i ;

Cap. 4

Cap. 4, 5,
6, 8, 9, 10
Cap. 4, 5,
6, 8, 9, 10
Cap. 4, 5,
6, 8, 9, 10
Cap. 4, 5,
6, 8, 9, 10

componentele carteziene [rad s ] ale


Cap. 4, 5,
vectorului vitezei unghiulare a sistemului {}
i
6, 8, 9, 10
n raport cu sistemul fix {0}ataat bazei;
vectorul vitezei lineare a originii sistemului
{}
i , n micarea acestuia n raport cu Cap. 4, 5,
6, 8, 9, 10
sistemul {j } , vector proiectat pe sistemul {j } ;
componentele carteziene [m s ] ale
vectorului vitezei lineare a originii sistemului Cap. 4, 5,
{}
i , n micarea acestuia n raport cu 6, 8, 9, 10
sistemul mobil {j } , proiectat pe sistemul {j } ;
LISTA DE SIMBOLURI

MECANIC AVANSAT N ROBOTIC

14

{ , {i; j} = {T ;G;S}}
j

ij

j
j
ijy j ijz
ijx

{i ; j} = {T ;G;S}

)
T

{q& i unde i = 1 n}

{q& i unde i = 1 n}

{& = {q& , i = 1 n}}


i

{ & , {i; j} = {T ;G;S}}


j

ij

[rad s] corespunztoare cuplei motoare (i )


vectorul coloan (n 1) al vitezelor

Cap. 4, 5,
6, 8, 9, 10
Cap. 4, 5,
6, 8, 9, 10

Cap. 4, 5,
6, 8, 9, 10

Cap. 4, 5,
6, 8, 9, 10
generalizate din fiecare cupl a robotului.
vectorul coloan (n 1) al vitezelor
generalizate din fiecare cupl motoare a Cap. 4, 5,
robotului n micarea sistemului {}
i n raport 6, 8, 9, 10
cu sistemul de referin {j } ;

vectorul coloan (6 1) al acceleraiilor


operaionale, care exprim micarea sistemului Cap. 4, 8
{}
i n raport cu sistemul fix {0} .

&&
X i , i = {T ;G;S}

vectorul coloan (6 1) al vitezelor


operaionale, care exprim micarea Cap. 4, 5,
i n raport cu sistemul {j } , 6, 8, 9, 10
sistemului {}
vector proiectat pe sistemul {j } ;

{ X&& }
ij

{J ( );J&( );J ( )( ) }
T 1

{V[(t )] = [V i ,

componentele carteziene [rad s ] ale


vectorului vitezei unghiulare a sistemului
{}
i ,n raport cu sistemul de referin {j } ,
proiectat pe sistemul {j } ;
viteza generalizat corespunztoare fiecrei
cuple motoare, i = 1 n ;
viteza liniar [m s ] sau viteza unghiular

vectorul
coloan
(6 1) al vitezelor
Cap. 4, 5,
operaionale, care exprim micarea sistemului
6, 8, 9, 10
{}
i n raport cu sistemul fix {0}

&
Xi , i = {T ;G;S}

&
X ij

i ,
vectorul vitezei unghiulare a sistemului {}
Cap. 4, 5,
n micarea acestuia n raport cu sistemul
{j } , vector proiectat pe sistemul mobil {j } ; 6, 8, 9, 10

i =1 n]}

vectorul coloan (6 1) al acceleraiilor


operaionale, care exprim micarea
sistemului mobil {}
i n raport cu sistemul
{j } , vector proiectat pe sistemul {j } ;
matricea Jacobian, derivata n raport cu
timpul, inversa transpusei respectiv inversa
matricei Jacobiene;
matricea transfer a vitezelor liniare
LISTA DE SIMBOLURI

Cap. 4, 5,
6, 8, 9, 10
Cap. 4, 5,
8, 9, 10
Cap. 4,5,8

MECANIC AVANSAT N ROBOTIC 15

{[ (t )] = [i , i =1 n]}
{A[(t ); &(t )], i =1 n}
{Aij [ (t )], i = 1 n}

{Aijk [ (t )], i = 1 n}
{ R, n N}
{ T ( ) , i = 1 n}
n

i i 1

{ME (Vi );

i = 1 n}

{ME (J i );

i = 1 n}

{M XVQ }

{M C }
{MM }
{M }

{ i , i = 1 n}
{h i (t ), i = 1 n}
{h i ( ),

i = 1 n}

{f

{ i = hi hi 1 , i =1 n}
i

i *
Ii
i *
I pi
i

I psi

; i ni

matricea transfer a vitezelor unghiulare

Cap. 4,5,8

matricea diferenial de ordinul nti a


transformrilor de situare
matricea diferenial de ordinul doi a
transformrilor de situare
operatorul matriceal de transfer ntre
sistemul fix {0} i sistemul mobil {n}
operatorul matriceal de difereniere pentru
fiecare ax motoare i = 1 n
componentele matricei de transfer a vitezelor
liniare scris n form exponenial
componentele coloanei (i ) coninute de
matricea Jacobian, n form exponenial
matricea generalizat a parametrilor
cinematici ce caracterizeaz micarea
absolut a efectorului final n spaiul cartezian.
matricea funciilor de comand cinematic
matricea valorilor maxime admise pentru
funciile de comand cinematic
matricea real ce conine funciile de comand
cinematic corespunztoare structurii analizate
timpul real n [s ] corespunztor poziiei h i
funcia normalizat de interpolare a
traiectoriei de micare a robotului analizat
funcia polinomial real de interpolare a
traiectoriei de micare a robotului analizat
spaiul parcurs de robot n timpul t i
fora i momentul forelor de legtur din
fiecare cupl motoare (i ) a robotului;
reprezint tensorul inerial axial-centrifugal al
elementului cinetic (i ) n raport cu i * ;
reprezint tensorul inerial planar-centrifugal al
elementului cinetic (i ) n raport cu i * ;
reprezint tensorul pseudoinerial al
elementului cinetic (i ) n raport cu {}
i ;

Cap. 4, 5,
6, 8, 9, 10
Cap. 4, 5,
6, 8, 9, 10

matricea de transfer a acceleraiilor liniare

{}

{}

LISTA DE SIMBOLURI

Cap. 4,5,8

Cap. 4,5,8

Cap. 4,5,8
Cap. 4,5,8
Cap. 4,5,8
Cap. 4, 5,8
Cap. 6

Cap. 6

Cap. 6

Cap. 6

Cap. 6

Cap. 6

Cap. 6

Cap. 9, 10
Cap. 8, 9
Cap. 8, 9
Cap. 8, 9

MECANIC AVANSAT N ROBOTIC

16

{r,
0

{H ,
0

rC i , i = 1 n
i

vectorul de poziie al elementului de mas


dm , respectiv vectorul de poziie al centrului Cap. 8, 9
maselor C i n raport cu sistemul fix {0} .
vectorul impuls al elementului cinetic (i ) ,
Cap. 8, 9
proiectat pe sistemul fix {0} respectiv pe {}
i .
vectorul diferenial al deplasrilor reale
respectiv vectorul diferenial al deplasrilor Cap. 8, 9
virtuale ce caracterizeaz fiecare cupl (i )

Hi , i =1 n

{dri , rC , i = 1 n}
i

{ L ; L}

{F ; N }
i

{Q

i
i

{Q }
{Q }

i
; Qgi ; QSU
; Qfdi

i
s

i
m

{M ( )}

{M X ( )}

V ;&


C ;&


D ;&


&
E C ;

( )

& &&
EA ; ;

( )

; &

( )

&
H ;

Q pj

{ Pj }

lucrul mecanic elementar virtual;


fora i respectiv momentul forelor aplicate
asupra unui element cinetic (i ) ;
fore generalizate de inerie, fore
generalizate gravitaionale i de manipulare,
respectiv fore generalizate de frecare;
fora generalizat de echilibrare static din
fiecare cupl motoare (i ) ;
fora generalizat motoare din cupla (i )

matricea (maselor) de inerie a energiei cinetice;

matricea de inerie a energiei cinetice

Cap. 9, 10

Cap. 9, 10

Cap. 9, 10
Cap. 9, 10

Cap. 9, 10

Cap. 9, 10

Cap. 9, 10

vector ce conine matricea termenilor Coriolis


Cap. 9, 10
i matricea forelor de inerie centrifugale

()

matricea termenilor centrifugali C ;


matricea pseudoinerial
acceleraiilor;

energiei

energia cinetic a unui sistem mecanic

Cap. 9, 10

Cap. 9, 10

Cap. 9, 10

energia acceleraiilor pentru un sistem


Cap. 9, 10
mecanic caracterizat prin n g .d .l . ;

funcia Lagrange asociat unui sistem mecanic;

Cap. 9, 10

fora percutant generalizat;

Cap. 9, 10

funcia lui Hamilton pentru un sistem mecanic

Percuia generalizat.

LISTA DE SIMBOLURI

Cap. 9, 10

Cap. 9, 10

MECANIC AVANSAT N ROBOTIC 17

Capitolul 1 STRUCTURA MECANIC A ROBOTULUI


1.1 Introducere
Cu toate c nu exist o definiie consacrat pentru un robot, n general acesta este
considerat a fi un sistem sau echipament cu funcionare automat, adaptabil prin
programare computerizat unui mediu complex i variabil n care acioneaz i care poate
nlocui total sau parial una sau mai multe funcii umane. n cazul roboilor industriali, definiia
se restrnge, acesta fiind privit ca un echipament flexibil, reprogramabil, cu funcionare
automat, capabil s efectueze diverse operaii orientate n special spre manipularea i
transportul pieselor, sculelor sau altor mijloace de producie pentru ndeplinirea unor sarcini
specifice de fabricaie. Roboii cu structur serial au toate gradele de libertate active (g.d.l),
fiind capabili s efectueze operaii de manipulare complexe. n acest scop, el se deplaseaz
pe traiectorii bine definite i cu un control permanent asupra parametrilor de poziieorientare i de viteze-acceleraii, respectiv asupra forelor generalizate din cuplele motoare
ale robotului. Scopul acestui capitol este de a prezenta structura mecanic a robotului,
modelarea fizic a structurii, modaliti de trasare a schemei cinematice ataate unui robot.

1.2. Modelarea structurii mecanice


Arhitectura general [C03], [F01] i [N07] a unui robot industrial cuprinde: structura mecanic,
sistemul de acionare i sistemul de comand, cum se observ din schema bloc de mai jos, Fig.1.1.

Fig. 1.1

Din punct de vedere matematic, legturile dintre componentele de baz ale robotului se
realizeaz prin intermediul diferiilor algoritmi sau a funciilor de control. Interaciunea cu mediul
se realizeaz prin intermediul structurii mecanice a robotului (SMR). Aceasta se caracterizeaz
prin dou funcii fundamentale: poziia i orientarea obiectului manipulat n spaiul cartezian.
Capitolul 1 STRUCTURA MECANIC A ROBOTULUI

18

MECANIC AVANSAT N ROBOTIC

Geometria structurii mecanice a robotului este privit ca un sistem mecanic alctuit din
(n + 1) elemente cinetice. Dintre acestea, primul element, simbolizat cu (0 ) , reprezint baza
fix a robotului, n timp ce (i = 1 n ) reprezint numrul de elemente cinetice (elementele
mobile ale robotului). Studiul geometriei, cinematicii i dinamicii unui robot se realizeaz prin
intermediul sistemului mobil O i x i y i z i {}
i , ataat originii fiecrui element. Legtura fizic
dintre dou elemente nvecinate n cazul lanurilor cinematice nchise sau deschise este
asigurat prin intermediul cuplelor motoare de clasa a cincea, simbolizate, dup cum
urmeaz: {R rotatie (revolutie ) ;T translatie (prismatica)}. Cu ajutorul acestora pot fi
definite diferite structuri de roboi paraleli sau seriali. n studiul geometric, cinematic i dinamic
aceste cuple sunt privite ca legturi scleronome i olonome adic perfecte sub aspect mecanic.

( i + 1)

z i 1 z i

( i + 1)

(i ) y
i

zi

qi

O i 1 O i
x i 1
qi
xi

y i 1

a.

( i 1)

(i )

xi

Oi

( i 1)

x i 1

Fig. 1.2

yi
qi
y i 1

z i 1
O i 1

b.

n vederea generrii funciilor de comand cinematic, structura mecanic a robotului va fi


modelat geometric, iar n acest sens se vor utiliza o serie de ipoteze simplificatoare. Pentru
trasarea schemei cinematice n form simplificat, cuplele motoare vor fi simbolizate
conform Fig.1.2. Astfel, pentru reprezentarea cuplei de rotaie (R) se va utiliza Fig. 1.2.a, iar
pentru cupla prismatic (T), Fig.1.2.b. Cele dou tipuri de cuple sunt caracterizate de o
singur variabil, notat cu q i . Aceast variabil este denumit coordonata generalizat a
robotului (coordonata robotului). Acest parametru al robotului poate lua valori liniare sau
unghiulare, n funcie de tipul cuplei motoare. Din punct de vedere geometric, gradele de
libertate (g.d.l.) ale robotului pot fi exprimate prin intermediul vectorului coloan, astfel:

= [q 1 q 2 K q i K q n 1 q n ] = [q i ; i = 1 n ]

(n1)

(1.1)

Expresia (1.1) reprezint vectorul coloan al coordonatelor generalizate, avnd rolul de a descrie
o anumit configuraie a robotului n spaiul configuraiilor, n conformitate cu principiile din
mecanica analitic. Expresia matriceal anterioar poate fi exprimat ntr-o form particular:
(0 ) = [q1 = 0 q 2 = 0 K q i = 0 K q n 1 = 0 q n = 0 ]T = [q i = 0 ; i = 1 n ]T . (1.2)
(n1 )
Capitolul 1 STRUCTURA MECANIC A ROBOTULUI

MECANIC AVANSAT N ROBOTIC 19


n acest caz, vectorul coloan (0 ) va caracteriza robotul n configuraia iniial. Aceasta
nseamn c toate motoarele sunt blocate, iar coordonatele generalizate au valoarea zero.
Spre deosebire de primul vector coloan, urmtorul este implementat n form matriceal:
0

X =

(m1)

Vectorul

[X
0

X 2 K0 X j K 0 X m

] =[ X
T

; j = 1 m ;m n .
T

(1.3)

X poart denumirea de vectorul coloan al coordonatelor operaionale. Acesta

(m1)

caracterizeaz poziia i orientarea obiectului manipulat n spaiul cartezian al coordonatelor.


Astfel, condiia m n devine obligatorie pentru comanda oricrui robot, cunoscnd c
parametrul m este variabil, n timp ce numrul gradelor de libertate ( n g .d .l . ) este o constant.

Braul robotului
Efectorul final

Mecanismul de orientare
Baza fix

Fig. 1.3

Conform Fig.1.3, structura mecanic a robotului este alctuit din trei componente de
baz: mecanismul de poziionare (braul robotului sau mecanismul de generare a traiectoriei),
mecanismul de orientare (articulaia robotului), efectorul final (gripper al robotului sau mna).
 Mecanismul de poziionare este numit i braul robotului sau mecanismul de
generare a traiectoriei. Acesta conine maximum trei grade de libertate. Acestea pot fi rotaii R
sau translaii T, sau o combinaie ntre acestea dou, n numr de 2 C 43 , cum ar fi de
exemplu: {3R ; 3T ; 2RT ; RTR ; 2TR ; T 2R ; TRT ; R2T } .Funcia principal a acestui mecanism
const n asigurarea unei poziii n spaiul cartezian (sistemul fix {0} ataat bazei fixe a
robotului), pentru un punct al obiectului manipulat denumit punct caracteristic, notat cu P.

Capitolul 1 STRUCTURA MECANIC A ROBOTULUI

! " #! #! $!
'

!%

'&

!(!)

(*

%
*

"

- * ,*

." /

* ' -*

0 ' ,*

!0 ! *1 $ % *# (! !* #!
$
!0 )!0
0!
$ *
!0 ! * 1 * 2
* % #! !)! !) 3 ! "! ! ! % ) *!
) 4 # * ) )! 5
) ) ! ,! ,6 1 ( )! ! 4 % *# (! !* #! #!
!
)
) 5* #! ! * !

*7

'

'

'

!*# !((!)

*
&

."

MECANIC AVANSAT N ROBOTIC 21


Orientarea efectorului final Variante posibile

k n(0+1)T = (1 0 0 )

k n(0+1)T = (0 1 0 )

// x 0

k n(0+1)T = (0 0 1 )
// z 0

// y 0

(Tabelul 1.1)

a
n

s
n

s
// z 0

n
a

// y 0

// x 0

Schema cinematic. Conform lucrrilor [N01] i [N07], primul pas, pentru aplicarea
algoritmilor matematici de modelare geometric a unei structuri mecanice, const n
reprezentarea acesteia sub forma unei scheme cinematice. Aceasta pune n eviden
comportamentul geometric i cinematic al robotului. n acest sens vor fi utilizate matricele
(1.4) i (1.5) care conin datele de intrare i corespund configuraiei iniiale a robotului.

(0 )
(0)
(0 ) T
Mvn(0) = (pi ) p Ai p Ai
(n+1)6
i = 1 n +1


T
T
; = (pi(0) ) k i(0)


i = 1 n +1

)]
T

( )]

(1.4)

M C(0 ) = [{ Jo int Type C i = {R ; T }} {Jo int Axis u = {x 0 ; y 0 ; z 0 }} i = 1 n ]T ;

(1.5)

(0 ) i (0) reprezint matricea geometriei nominale respectiv matricea cuplelor. n


unde M vn
MC
(
0)
Fig.1.4, p reprezint vectorul de poziie al centrului geometric al fiecrei cuple motoare, iar
(0 )

ki

(0 )

= p Ai

p Ai(0 )

) este versorul corespunztor fiecrei axe motoare

i =1 n . Cei doi

vectori din (1.4) pot fi exprimai n raport cu sistemul fix {0} . Pentru i = n +1 , n expresia
(1.4), versorul k (0 ) poate lua o serie de valori, dup cum reiese i din Tabelul 1.1, unde sunt
n +1

prezentate toate variantele posibile de orientare ale efectorului final, ce corespund


configuraiei iniiale a robotului. Aceste variante depind ntr-o msur important de vectorul
de poziie p n(0+)1 al punctului caracteristic P , care este considerat originea sistemului mobil.
Capitolul 1 STRUCTURA MECANIC A ROBOTULUI

22

MECANIC AVANSAT N ROBOTIC

1.3 Aplicaii

Se supun analizei trei tipuri de roboi i anume: RTT3R, 6R i 5R. Structura mecanic a
robotului RTT3R este reprezentata n Fig. 1.3, iar schema sa cinematic n Fig. 1.5. Pentru
robotul de tip 6R, structura mecanic i schema cinematic sunt reprezentate n Fig. 1.6
respectiv Fig. 1.7. Pentru robotul de tip 5R, structura mecanic i schema cinematic sunt
reprezentate cu figurile Fig. 1.8 i Fig. 1.9. Sunt definite matricele geometriei nominale i
matricele cuplelor, pentru toate cele trei structuri (a se vedea tabelele 1.2 - 1.9 de mai jos).
Element
i =1 7
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Tipul cuplei
{R ; T }
R
T
T
R
R
R

(Tabelul 1.2)
k (0 )

M (0)
vn RTT3R
p (0 )T
i

0
0
55
55
55
55
55

<mm>
0
0
0
250
370
370
440

(0)
M C RTT3R

i =1 6

C i = {R ; T }

u = {x 0 ; y 0 ; z 0 }

85
270
270
270
230
270
310
3

0
0
1
1
0
0
1

0
0
0
0
0
1
0

(Tabelul 1.3)

z0

z0

y0

y0

z0

x0

z0

O0
y0
x0

1
1
0
0
1
0
0

Fig. 1.5

Capitolul 1 STRUCTURA MECANIC A ROBOTULUI

MECANIC AVANSAT N ROBOTIC 23

Element
i =1 7
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

(0 ) 6R
M vn
p (0 )T

Tipul
cuplei
{R ; T }

k i(0 )

<mm>

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

R
R
R
R
R
R

0
0
0
605
880
880
1100

520
900
1870
1870
1870
1870
1870

(Tabelul 1.4)

0
1
1
0
1
0
1

0
0
0
1
0
1
0

1
0
0
0
0
0
0

n
P

z0
O0

y0

x0

Fig. 1.6

i =1 6

C i = {R ; T }

u = {x 0 ; y 0 ; z 0 }

M C(0 ) 6R

(Tabelul 1.5)
5

z0

x0

x0

y0

x0

y0

Capitolul 1 STRUCTURA MECANIC A ROBOTULUI

24

MECANIC AVANSAT N ROBOTIC

Fig. 1.7

Matricea configuraiilor limit M L 6R este impus de construcia structurii mecanice a


robotului i joac un rol esenial n procesul tehnologic, precum i n generarea funciilor de
comand cinematic i dinamic ale structurii mecanice ale robotului luat n studiu.
Limite

{min ; max}
min.
max.

M L 6R

q1

-17
93

Tabelul 1.6)

q2

q3

q4

q5

q6

-50
30

-50
40

-180
180

-120
120

0
360

Matricele ce conin datele de intrare, pentru structura de tip 5R supus analizei sunt
prezentate n tabelele care urmeaz. Ele vor fi utilizate n determinarea ecuaiilor geometriei,
cinematicii i dinamicii, ce caracterizeaz structura de tip 5R prezentat n cadrul Fig. 1.8.
Capitolul 1 STRUCTURA MECANIC A ROBOTULUI

MECANIC AVANSAT N ROBOTIC 25


Element

i =1 6
1
2
3
4
5
6

Tipul cuplei
{R ; T }
R
R
R
R
R

(Tabelul 1.7)

M (0)
vn 5 R

0
0
55
55
55
55

p i(0 )T [mm]

0
0
0
250
370
440

k i(0 )

85
270
270
270
230
310

0
1
1
1
0
1

0
0
0
0
1
0

1
0
0
0
0
0

Structura mecanic a robotului de tip 5R, spaiul de lucru corespunztor, precum i


volumul acoperit de robot sunt evideniate n cadrul setului de trei figuri prezentate mai jos:

Fig. 1.8.
Capitolul 1 STRUCTURA MECANIC A ROBOTULUI

26

MECANIC AVANSAT N ROBOTIC


1

i =1 5

C i = {R ; T }

u = {x 0 ; y 0 ; z 0 }

M C(0) 5 R

l0

k2
k1
q1

x0

z0

x0

x0

x0

y0

l2

l1

(Tabelul 1.8)

l3

l4

l5

q2
k3

z0

{O}

q3

q4

k4

q5 k5

y0
Fig. 1.9.

Limite

{min ; max}
min.

max.

ML 5 R
q1
q2

-180
180

-30

135

(Tabelul 1.9)
q3
< >

-150
0

q4

q5

-90

-180

90

180

n figura 1.8, n partea superioar este prezentat structura mecanic a robotului de tip 5R, n
stnga jos, spaiul de lucru, iar alturat forma volumului acoperit de robot n timpul funcionrii. n
figura 1.9. este reprezentat schema cinematic (ntr-o form simplificat) a robotului de tip 5R
supus analizei. Aceast schem cinematic, precum i valorile introduse prin tabelele 1.8 i 1.9
vor fi utilizate ca date de intrare n vederea stabilirii ecuaiilor geometriei i cinematicii directe.
Capitolul 1 STRUCTURA MECANIC A ROBOTULUI

MECANIC AVANSAT N ROBOTIC 27


M (0)
vn 5 R
p (0 )T

Tipul
cuplei
{R ; T }

Element
i =1 6
1
2
3
4
5
6

k i(0 )

<mm>

0
0
0
0
0
0

R
R
R
R
R
-

0
150
150
370
450
150

350
350
600
600
600
600

(Tabelul 1.10)

0
1
1
1
0
1

0
0
0
0
1
0

1
0
0
0
0
0

Structura mecanic a robotului de tip 5R, model FANUC LR Mate 100iB, spaiul de lucru
corespunztor i volumul acoperit de robot este reprezentat n cadrul figurilor de mai jos:
l3

l4

z3

z 4 z5

y3
l1

x3

z1

l0

z0

y4 y5

l2

z2

y1
x1

x4 x5
y2

x2
y0

x0

Fig. 1.10

i =1 5

C i = {R ; T }
u = {x 0 ; y 0 ; z 0 }

R
z0

ML 5 R

R
x0

Limite

q1

ML 5 R
q2

min.

-160

-92,5

{min ; max}
max.

160

92,5

(Tabelul 1.11)
4

R
x0

R
x0

R
y0

q3
< >
-182,5

q4

q5

-120

-200

182,5

(Tabelul 1.12)

120

200

Capitolul 1 STRUCTURA MECANIC A ROBOTULUI

28

MECANIC AVANSAT N ROBOTIC


Centrul de rotaie
al cuplei J4

Spaiul descris de
centrul de rotaie
al cuplei J4

Fig. 1.11
n Fig. 1.10, este prezentat structura mecanic (n form simplificat) a robotului FANUC cu 5
grade de libertate, model LR Mate 100Ib, iar n tabelele 1.11 i 1.12 sunt descrise axele dup
care are loc micarea, respectiv rotaiile maxime din cuplele robotului. n Fig. 1.11, este
reprezentat spaiul de lucru al robotului, precum i volumul acoperit de acesta n timpul funcionrii.
Schema cinematic, precum i valorile din tabelele 1.10 i 1.11 vor fi utilizate ca date de intrare
pentru stabilirea ecuaiilor geometriei i cinematicii directe, precum i a ecuaiilor dinamicii robotului.
Capitolul 1 STRUCTURA MECANIC A ROBOTULUI

MECANIC AVANSAT N ROBOTIC 29

Capitolul 2 TRANSFORMRI MATRICEALE N


MECANICA AVANSAT
2.1 Conceptul de situare n mecanica aplicat

n cadrul modelrii matematice a sistemelor mecanice, care includ i structurile de


roboi (SMR), vor fi analizai parametrii geometrici, reprezentnd poziia i orientarea
cuplelor luate n studiu. n
P acest sens, a fost introdus
zi
(i )
termenul de situare conform cu
p Pi = ( i )0 rP
[N07] - [N39]. Acesta are rolul
de a nlocui cei doi termeni
Oi
referitori la poziie i orientare.
yi
n cadrul acestei seciuni, va fi
analizat conceptul de situare
( i )0
( J )0
(i )
(j)
{}
i
din
punctul de vedere al
p = [P ]
p i = [O i ]ORG
xi
mecanicii roboilor. Se ia n
studiu un sistem de (n+1)
z0
elemente cinetice, iar n Fig.
2.1 este reprezentat, ntr-o
form simbolic, un element
O0
y0
{
0}
cinetic Modelarea geometric
x0
se realizeaz n raport cu un
sistem de referin O i x i y i z i
Fig. 2.1
ataat cuplei, notat cu {}
i ,
unde {}
i = {1} {n} . n acelai scop sunt utilizate i celelalte dou sisteme: {0} , care se
presupune fix i { j } {}
i mobil, unde {j } = {1} {n} . Se consider un punct P luat
arbitrar, invariabil legat de un sistem mobil {}
i i reprezentat n Fig. 2.1. Pentru
evidenierea poziiei punctelor P i O se introduc urmtoarele notaii si expresii:
( j ) p i = ( j )0 r i
(i )0 rP (i )0
(i ) p ( j )0
(i )0
O0 O i = (J )0
;
;
Oi P =
O0P =
(2.1)
;
(i )0 [ P ]
(i ) p
[
]
O

i
Pi

ORG

i
(i )0 rP (i )
p

T
p i
T
(i )
(i ) T
i
i
(2.2)
(i ) = xP yP zP ; i = px py pz ; 0 = p x p y p z ;

[ P ]

pPi

[ P]

j p i = j ri j x i
j
=
j
[
O
]

i ORG

p xi

j
j

yi

p yi

p =0 r 0
i i xi
;
=
T 0
j
[
]
O

p zi i ORG

pxi

zi

yi

pyi

zi

pzi

]
T

]T

Capitolul 2 TRANSFORMRI MATRICEALE N MECANICA AVANSAT

(2.3)

30 MECANIC AVANSAT N ROBOTIC


Dup cum s-a precizat, sistemul mobil {j } penduleaz n intervalul {j } = {1} {n} iar
indicele dreapta sus {(i ) 0 or ( j )0} arat sistemul n care este exprimat vectorul de poziie.
Conceptul de situare. Se consider sistemele {}
i i {0} , ultimul fiind ataat bazei
robotului. n starea iniial, cele dou sisteme au aceeai origine i orientare. Pentru aducerea
sistemului {}
i ntr-o stare final fa de sistemul fix {0} , se aplic dou transformri compuse:
o translaie rezultant pentru poziie, urmat de o rotaie rezultant pentru orientare, vezi [N12].
 Pentru nceput, se aplic o translaie rezultant a sistemului {}
i din starea iniial ntr-o
stare final, meninnd orientarea fa de sistemul {0} . Din punct de vedere mecanic, aceast

transformare se realizeaz prin intermediul vectorului de poziie p i = 0 [O i ]ORG , definit cu


expresiile (2.1) i (2.3) care conine cei trei parametri independeni. Aceti parametri sunt trei
deplasri liniare, simple, n lungul axelor sistemului {0} , dar n acelai timp acetia exprim i
poziia sistemului {}
i n raport cu sistemul {0} , adic gradele de libertate ale poziiei sistemului.
i se aplic cea de a doua transformare
 Pentru a determina orientarea final a sistemului {}
compus i anume, rotaia rezultant. Aceast rotaie poate fi efectuat att n jurul axelor fixe
ct i n jurul axelor mobile sau n jurul unei axe arbitrare (rotaie generalizat, conform
teoremei deplasrilor finite a lui Euler). Se tie c versorii axelor mpreun cu componentele
lor, numite cosinusuri directoare, dau orientarea fiecrei axe a sistemului {}
i n raport cu
sistemul {0} . Astfel, se vor utiliza urmtoarele notaii pentru versorii axelor i componentele lor:
x iT x 0
y Ti x 0
z iT x 0




T

x i = = x i y 0 ; y i = = y Ti y 0 ; z i = = z iT y 0 .
(2.4)
T
T

x T z



y z
z z
ix i 0
iy
iz
i 0
i 0
ntruct sistemul {}
i este triortogonal i drept orientat, (2.4) poate fi exprimat sub forma:
x Ti x 0
0


T

x i = = x i y 0 = y i z i = iy

T
iy
ix x i z 0

iy
0
iy

iy
iy iz iy iz

iy = iz iy iy iz
0 iz iy iz iz iy

T
0 iz iz iz ix iz ix
y i x0
T

y i = = y i y 0 = zi x i = iz
0 iz = ix iz iz ix

y T z
0 ix iz ix ix iz
iy i 0
iz iz

T
zi x0
0 ix ix ix iy ix iy
T

zi = = zi y0 = xi yi = ix
0 ix = iy ix ix iy ;

zT z
0 iy ix iy iy ix
iz i 0
ix ix

(2.5)

unde u i = {x i ; y i ; z i } sunt versorii axelor, iar ( iu iu iu )T cosinusurile directoare.


Capitolul 2 TRANSFORMRI MATRICEALE N MECANICA AVANSAT

MECANIC AVANSAT N ROBOTIC 31


Pentru a evidenia rotaia sistemului {}
i fa de {0} , se presupune c sistemele luate n studiu
au origine comun: O 0 = O i i p i = 0 [O i ]ORG = 0 . Astfel, poziia punctului P n raport cu

sistemul mobil {}
i , din relaia (2.2), este exprimat prin: i pPi = i x P

yP

z P . Poziia
T

punctului P n raport cu sistemul {0} este: pPi = [x P y P z P ]T . Vectorul i pPi , proiectat


pe axele sistemului fix {0} , este exprimat cu relaia (2.6) dup cum urmeaz:

(
(
(

)
)
)

(
(
(

)
)
)

(
(
(

)
)
)

x p i p PiT x 0 i x p x iT x 0 + i y p y Ti x 0 + i z p z iT x 0



p pi = y p = i p PiT y 0 = i x p x Ti y 0 + i y p y Ti y 0 + i z p z iT y 0 ;
z p i p PiT z 0 i x x T z + i y y T z + i z z T z
p
i
0
p
i
0

p i 0

(2.6)

n (2.6), sunt incluse i cosinusurile directoare definite cu relaiile (2.4) i (2.5). Prin
introducerea lor ntr-o matrice ptrat, (2.6) se obine urmtoarea identitate matriceal:
i
i xp
x p

x p

i

i
p pi = y p =
(2.7)

y p = [x i y i z i ] y p ;

i z
iz
z p
iy iz p

ix
p

Matricea (3 3 ) din (2.7), ale crei componente sunt nou cosinusuri directoare, ce
caracterizeaz orientarea fiecrei axe a lui {}
i fa de {0} , se numete matrice de orientare:

0i [R ]
[x i y i z i ]

=
=
R i 0 [y i z i z i x i x i y i ]

ix


iy



.

iz

(2.8)

Produsul scalar dintre versorii u = {x ; y ; z } este: u 0T u i = u iT u 0 . Matricea de orientare este:


x T
0
0
[i R ] = y 0T [x i
z T
0

yi

x T x y T x z T x
i 0 i 0 i 0
z i ] = x iT y 0 y Ti y 0 z iT y 0 .

x iT z 0 y Ti z 0 z iT z 0

(2.9)

Matricea de rotaie sau matricea cosinusurilor directoare, descrie orientarea fiecrei axe a
sistemului mobil {}
i n raport cu sistemul {0} . Conform [N17], ntre cele nou cosinusuri
directoare exist ase relaii matematice, de legtur, dup cum se poate observa mai jos:
ij ik + ij ik + ij ik = jk ; jk = {{1; j = k}

{0 ; j k}};

j = {x ; y ; z}

.
k = {x ; y ; z}

(2.10)

Cele ase relaii dintre cosinusurile directoare pot fi exprimate i n form matriceal, astfel:
Capitolul 2 TRANSFORMRI MATRICEALE N MECANICA AVANSAT

32 MECANIC AVANSAT N ROBOTIC


x iT
x Ti x i x Ti y i x Ti z i 1 0 0
T
T

T
T
(2.11)
y i [x i y i z i ] = y i x i y i y i y i z i = 0 1 0 .
T
T
z T
z T x

0 0 1
zi y i zi zi
i
i
i

Din relaiile (2.10) sau (2.11), rezult c orientarea sistemului {}
i n raport cu {0} este
caracterizat prin maximum trei parametri independeni, reprezentnd setul de unghiuri de
orientare. Aceste unghiuri sunt componentele vectorului de orientare, definit prin expresia:

(2.12)
A = {x ; y ; z}; B = {y ; z ; x}; C = {z ; x ; y } .
Aadar, orientarea oricrui sistem n raport cu un altul presupus fix sau relativ fix se poate
determina pe baza setului de unghiuri de orientare, ale cror valori i axe de rotaie nu se aleg
n mod aleatoriu, dup cum va rezulta i din urmtoarele paragrafe referitoare la acest subiect.
n concluzie, conform conceptului de situare, cunoscut i sub numele de conceptul de
poziie-orientare, numrul maxim de parametri geometrici ce caracterizeaz poziia i
orientarea unui sistem {}
i n raport cu {0} sau { j } {}
i , este egal cu ase. Conform cu
(2.1), (2.3) sau (2.12), aceti parametri pot fi inclui ntr-o matrice coloan (6 1) , rezultnd:

( j ) = ( j )
A

( j )

( j )

[
[

]
]

(j ) (j )
(j)p
(j)p T
p(i ) px (i )
y (i )
z (i )

........... = .....................................................
( j )0 X = ( j )0 X ; ( j )0 X =

;
(2.13)
(i )
(i ) ( j ) ( j )
( j )
( j ) T
(61) (61) (61) (i ) A (i )

B (i )
C (i )

A = {x ; y ; z}; B = {y ; z; x}; C = {z; x; y}

(j)
unde X (i ) este vectorul coloan al coordonatelor operaionale. Dintre acestea, primele
trei reprezint poziia, iar ultimele trei exprim orientarea sistemului {}
i n raport cu un alt
sistem: fix {0} sau mobil { j } {}
i , ataate structurii mecanice a robotului (SMR) analizat.

Observaii: Se cunosc: poziia vectorului

pPi ale crui componente sunt descrise de

[R ] , definit de (2.8) i vectorul coloan al coordonatelor


conform cu (2.13). Se presupune c O 0 O i iar p i = 0 [O i ]ORG 0 se

(2.2), matricea de orientare

0
i

operaionale 0 X i
exprim cu relaiile (2.1) sau (2.3). Se cere, s se determine poziia punctului P n raport cu
sistemul {0} . Din Fig. 2.1, pe baza relaiei (2.7), se pot determina expresiile ce
caracterizeaz vectorul de poziie p = 0 [P ] , precum i matricele de transfer, sub forma:

(2.14)
p Pi = 0i [R ] i p Pi ; 0 [ P ]= 0 [O i ]ORG + 0i [R ] i p Pi .
Matricea de transfer (2.14) include cele dou transformri rezultante ce caracterizeaz
poziia i orientarea: translaia rezultant a vectorului de poziie p i = 0 [O i ]ORG i rotaia

p = p i + p Pi ;

rezultant exprimat cu ajutorul matricei

0
i

[R ] cunoscut sub numele de matrice de orientare.

Capitolul 2 TRANSFORMRI MATRICEALE N MECANICA AVANSAT

MECANIC AVANSAT N ROBOTIC 33

2.2 Matricele de rotaie n mecanica aplicat

Pe baza conceptului de situare, prezentat in paragraful anterior, au fost demonstrate i


determinate expresiile pentru matricele de rotaie dup cum se poate observa n (2.8) i
(2.9). innd cont de orientarea sistemului {}
i n raport cu sistemul fix {0} sau cu sistemul
mobil { j } {}
i , expresia (2.8) mai poate fi scris i sub forma prezentat mai jos:
( j ) ( j ) ( j )
( j) x ( j) y ( j)z




i
i
i
( j )0 [ ]
=
=
R

(2.15)

i
( j) ( j)
( j ) z ( j ) x ( j ) x ( j ) y



i
i
i
i
y i zi
iy
iz
ix
n Fig. 2.1 se observ c sistemele: {0} i {}
i sau { j } {}
i i {}
i , luate n studiu, au

originea comun: O 0 = O i , p i = 0 [O i ]ORG = 0 3 ; sau O j = O i ,

p i = j [O i ]ORG = 0 3 . Ca

urmare, expresia matriceal de transfer (2.14) se modific dup cum se arat n continuare:
(j)
( j)
i
( j) ( j)

px
( j )0 [P ] ( j )0i [R ] i [P ] px

i
(j)
( j ) = ( j )0
; py =
(2.16)

py .
i

p

i p


i [R ] p
( j ) pz
iy
iz z
ix

Observaie: Aceast expresie are o semnificaie remarcabil n cadrul geometriei i

cinematicii roboilor. Ea reprezint, pe de o parte, transferul vectorului de poziie p din


sistemul {}
i n alt sistem {0} or { j } {}
i . Pe de alt parte, (2.16) exprim rotaia rezultant
a sistemului {}
i fa de {0} sau { j } {}
i . Ori de cte ori rotaia rezultant este n jurul unei
axe a sistemului fix sau mobil, expresia (2.15) se transform ntr-o matrice de rotaie simpl.
i

2.2.1 Matricele de rotaie simpl


n continuare, vor fi demonstrate expresiile de definiie ale matricelor de rotaie simpl
n jurul axelor u = {x ; y ; z } . Se consider elementul (i ) cu o cupl de rotaie (R), ce
caracterizeaz structura mecanic a unui robot cu n g.d.l, reprezentat n Fig. 2.2. n studiul
i , avnd aceeai origine: O 0 = O i . La
geometric se consider dou sisteme {0} i {}
momentul iniial, cele dou sisteme sunt perfect suprapuse, avnd aadar aceeai orientare.
Pentru a explica transformrile de rotaie, exemplificate n Fig.2.2, se fac urmtoarele notaii:

u i = {x i

z i } = [ (u i ; x 0 ) (u i ; y 0 ) (u i ; z0 ) ] T ;

u i = {x i y i z i }

ui ={xi ; yi ; zi } = ; u i = {x i y i z i } =
;
u i = {x i ; y i ; z i }

iu
y i

Capitolul 2 TRANSFORMRI MATRICEALE N MECANICA AVANSAT

(2.17)

(2.18)

34 MECANIC AVANSAT N ROBOTIC


unde u i reprezint unghiul dintre axele u i i axele aparinnd sistemului fix {0} .

zi

qi

z0

O0 = O i
qi

zi

z0

qi

qi

qi
x0

x0

yi

xi

xi

z0

w0 = x0
y
0

y0

Fig. 2.2

y i

v i = zi
x
i

qi

yi

O0 = O i
x0

b.

a.

zi

xi = wi
y
i

qi

y0

O0 = Oi

zi

yi

z0

y0
qi

qi

xi
c.

n (2.18), cu u i a fost notat


versorul axelor n raport cu

sistemul {0}, expresia lui u i


incluznd att unghiurile ct i
cosinusurile directoare. Se introduc
qi
urmtoarele notaii pentru funciile
y 0 trigonometrice sinus i cosinus:

qi
O0 Oi
v 0 = z0 cos = c , i sin = s .
x
0
x i
x  Pentru nceput, se determin

0 rotaia n jurul axei x . n acest

ui = y i
y 0 = u0
scop, conform Fig. 2.2.a, asupra
z
z
0
i
elementului cinetic (i ) se aplic o
rotaie simpl n jurul axei
Fig. 2.3
x i = x 0 , sub unghiul = q i ,
unde q i este coordonata unghiular a cuplei de rotaie. n urma acestei transformri, axa
x i i menine orientarea fa de axa x 0 , n timp ce axele y i i z i se rotesc cu unghiul q i
n planul fix x 0 = 0 . Ca urmare, noua stare a sistemului mobil {}
i , n raport cu {0} , va fi
descris prin intermediul urmtoarelor unghiuri, cosinusuri directoare i versori ai axelor:
0
x i = 2 ;
2

qi


1

x i = = 0 ;

ix 0

[0 / 2 / 2 ]T
xi =
;
T

[1 0 0 ]

Capitolul 2 TRANSFORMRI MATRICEALE N MECANICA AVANSAT

(2.19)

MECANIC AVANSAT N ROBOTIC 35


2

y i = qi ;
2 q i


0
[ / 2 q i / 2 q i ]T


y i = = cq i ; y i =
;
T

[
0
cq
sq
]

i
i

iy sq i

(2.20)

2

0
T

sq ; = [ / 2 / 2 + q i q i ] .
=
+
;
.
z
=

2
q
zi

(2.21)

i
i
i zi

[
0

sq
cq
]

i
i

q i
iz cq i
Versorii u i = {x i ; y i ; z i } cu componentele lor, reprezentate de cosinusurile directoare i
exprimate prin (2.19), (2.20) i (2.21), se nlocuiesc n expresia (2.15) rezultnd urmtoarele:

0

1 0
0i [R ] R( x ; q i )

(2.22)

=
=

= 0 cq i sq i .

0 sq
R i 0 [x i y i z i ]
cq i
i
ix iy iz
Noua expresie obinut mai sus definete matricea de rotaie simpl n jurul axei x cu
unghiul = q i . Dac axa motoare este definit prin x , orientarea dintre cele dou sisteme
cu origine comun: {0} i {}
i va fi dat de matricea de rotaie prezentata mai sus prin (2.22).
 n continuare, lund n considerare aspectele prezentate n Fig.2.2.b. va fi definit
matricea de rotaie n jurul axei y . n acest caz axa motoare a cuplei de rotaie este
y i = y 0 . Aplicnd o rotaie simpl asupra elementului (i ) , cu unghiul = q i , se observ
c axa y i menine orientarea axei fixe y 0 , celelalte dou axe: x i i z i fiind rotite n planul
fix y 0 = 0 cu = q i . Noua stare a axelor sistemului {}
i , n raport cu sistemul fix {0} este:

qi

cq i
[q i / 2 / 2 + q i ]T

x i = 2 ; xi = = 0 ; x i =
;
T

[
cq
0
sq
]

i
i

2 + q i
ix sq i
2

0
[ / 2 0 / 2 ]T

yi = = 1 ;
yi =
yi = 0 ;
;
T

[
]
sq
0
cq

i
i

iy 0
2

(2.23)
(2.24)

2 q i

sq i
[ / 2 q i / 2 q i ]T

(2.25)
z i = 2 ;.. z i = = 0 ; z i =
.
T

[
sq
0
cq
]

i
i

q i
iz cq i
Versorii i cosinusurile directoare din (2.23), (2.24) i (2.25), sunt nlocuite n (2.15), astfel:


cq i 0 sq i
0 [R ] R (y ; q i )

i
1 0 .

= 0
(2.26)

=
=


sq 0 cq
[x i y i z i ]

Ri0

i
i
ix iy iz

Capitolul 2 TRANSFORMRI MATRICEALE N MECANICA AVANSAT

36 MECANIC AVANSAT N ROBOTIC


Aadar, dac axa motoare a unei cuple de rotaie este y , orientarea dintre sistemele: {0}
i avnd origine comun va fi exprimat cu relaia (2..26). Aceast relaie caracterizeaz
i {}
matricea de rotaie simpl n jurul axei y cu unghiul = q i , singurul parametru independent.
 Pentru a demonstra expresia matricei de orientare n jurul axei z se va porni din nou de
la cele dou sisteme: {}
i ataat elementului (i ) i {0} fix, reprezentate n Fig. 2.2.c. Spre
deosebire de primele dou cazuri, axa motoare a cuplei de rotaie este z i = z 0 . Prin
aplicarea unei rotaii n jurul axei motoare cu unghiul = q i elementul (i ) va fi adus ntr-o
nou stare. Axa z i are aceeai orientare ca i axa fix z 0 , dar axele x i i y i vor fi rotite
i , n raport cu sistemul {0} este:
in planul fix: z 0 = 0 . Noua orientare a axelor sistemului {}

cq i
qi
T

[q i / 2 q i / 2 ]

x i = 2 q i ; x i = = sq i ; x i =
;
T

[
cq
sq
0
]
i
i

2
ix 0

sq i
2 + q i
[ / 2 + q i q i / 2 ]T

y i = q i ; y i = = cq i ; y i =
;
T

[
sq
cq
0
]

i
i

2
iy 0

(2.27)
(2.28)


0
[ / 2 / 2 0 ]T


z i = = 0 ;
zi =
.
(2.29)
T

[
]
0
0
1

1
iz
n expresia general (2.15) vor fi nlocuite expresiile (2.27), (2.28) i (2.29), rezultnd astfel:


cq i sq i 0
0i [R ] R (z ; q i )

(2.30)

= sq i cq i 0 .

=
=
[
]
x
y
z
i
i

R i 0 i

0
1
ix iy iz 0
Expresia de definiie mai sus scris este expresia matricei de rotaie simpl n jurul axei z .
Ca i n primele dou cazuri, = q i este singurul parametru independent ce caracterizeaz rotaia.
Observaii: Proprietile matricelor de rotaie i ale vectorilor coloan sunt prezentate mai jos.
 Determinantul asociat oricrei matrice de rotaie (2.15) este ntotdeauna identic cu:
Det ( j )0 [R ] = ( j ) 2 + ( j ) 2 + ( j ) 2 = ( j ) 2 + ( j ) 2 + ( j ) 2 = ( j ) 2 + ( j ) 2+ ( j ) 2= 1 . (2.31)

z i = 2 ;
0

ix

iy

iz

ix

iy

iz

ix

iy

iz

Astfel, toate matricele de orientare, definite n acest paragraf, sunt ortogonale i unitare.
 Din (2.31) rezult c inversa matricei de rotaie este ntotdeauna egala cu transpusa ei:
T
( j ) ( j ) ( j ) ( j ) ( j ) ( j )
(
j
)
0

1
[R]

ix ix ix ix ix ix
i

= iy iy iy = iy iy iy . (2.32)
( j )0 T =
[
]
R

iz iz iz iz iz iz iz
ix iy

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Pentru a ilustra proprietatea (2.32), vor fi prezentate n cele ce urmeaz, expresiile pentru
inversele matricelor de rotaie n jurul axelor u = {x ; y ; z } , definite cu (2.22), (2.26) i (2.30):

0i [R ]1 {R (x ; q i )}1 ix
1
=
= iy
T
T

R
=
R
[
]
x
y
z
i0 i
i
i
i0

iz

ix
iy

iz

ix
iy

iz

1
0

= 0 cq i

0 sq i


0i [R ]1 {R (y ; q i )}1 ix
1
=
= iy
T
T

R i 0 = R i 0

[x i y i z i ]

iz

ix
iy

iz

ix
iy

iz

cq i

= 0

sq i

0
sq i ; (2.33)
cq i

0 sq i
1
0 ; (2.34)
0 cq i


cq
sq i 0
0i [R ]1 {R (z ; q i )}1 ix ix ix i

1
=
= iy iy iy = sq i cq i 0 . (2.35)
T
T

Ri0 = Ri0

[x i y i z i ]
0
0 1
iz iz iz
Inversele matricelor de rotaie descriu orientarea fiecrui sistem {0} sau { j } {}
i , fa de {}
i .
 Pe baza relaiilor (2.10) i (2.11) rezult c produsul matriceal dintre matricea de rotaie
i transpusa ei este ntotdeauna matricea unitate, prezentat mai jos sub form dezvoltat:

1 0 0

( j )0
( j )0
T ( j )0
T ( j )0

1 0 .
(2.36)
i [R ]
i [R ]
i [R ]
i [R ] I 3 = 0

0 0 1

 Urma oricrei matrice ptratice este definit ca suma elementelor de pe diagonala principal.
Pentru a evidenia aceast proprietate important, se va lua drept exemplu matricea de mai jos:
(j)
(j)
( j )


Trace ( j )0 [R]


(j)

i
(j)
(j)
= Trace

= ix + iy + iz . (2.37)

( j )0




Tr i [R]

iy
iz

ix

 Matricea antisimetric asociat oricrui vector u = u x


0
{u } = u z
u y

uz
0
ux

uy

0
uy

T
u x , transpusa ei fiind: {u } = u z
uy
0

uz

]T poate fi scris astfel:


uz
0

ux

uy

ux .
0

(2.38)

Observaii: Expresiile matricelor de rotaie prezentate n acest paragraf vor fi utilizate cu


precdere n cadrul modelelor matematice i a algoritmilor de calcul consacrai modelrii
geometrice, cinematice, i dinamice sub form generalizat a structurilor mecanice roboilor.
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38 MECANIC AVANSAT N ROBOTIC

2.2.2 Matricea de rotaie rezultant

Studiul poate fi extins asupra unei structuri mecanice de robot cu (n g .d .l .) Cuplele de


rotaie (R ) realizeaz conexiunea fizic ntre cele (n ) elemente ale robotului. Se cere
matricea de rotaie rezultant a elementului cinetic (n ) faa de sistemul {0} , ataat bazei fixe.
q i link i

link i 1
q i 1
Oi
Oi 1

{i 1}

Oi +1

{i}

q i +1

{i + 1}

qn

{n}

pn

{0}

Fig. 2.4

Pentru nceput, se vor considera dou elemente cinetice (i 1 ) i (i ) , aparinnd structurii


mecanice a robotului. Conform Fig. 2.4, poziia unui punct oarecare P invariabil legat de
sistemul mobil {}
i fa de sistemul {i 1} este dat de relaia (2.16), modificat astfel:

(2.39)
p = i 1i [R ] i p . Expresia poate fi scris i sub forma: i 1 [P ]= i 1i [R ] i [P ] .
n continuare, expresia de mai sus poate fi extins pentru ntreaga structur a robotului.
Astfel, expresia (2.39) va fi aplicat pentru i = 1 n , dup cum este prezentat mai jos:
i 1

p = 01 [R ]1 p ; 1 p = 21 [R ] 2 p ;
0
[P ]= 01 [R ]1 [P ]; 1 [P ]= 21 [R ]2 [P ];

i 1

p = i 1i [R ] i p ;

i 1

[P ]= i 1i [R ] i [P ];

.
n 1
[P ]= nn1 [R ] n [P ]

n 1

p = n n1 [R ] n p

(2.40)

n expresiile (2.40), vectorul n p = n [P ] exprim poziia unui punct oarecare P (punctul


caracteristic sau centrul geometric al efectorului final) fa de sistemul mobil {n} ataat
cuplei corespunztoare ultimului element cinetic al robotului supus analizei.
n expresia (2.40), vectorul de poziie 1 p =1 [P ] va fi nlocuit n mod succesiv de expresia
general (2.39) pentru orice i = 2 n . Se vor obine urmtoarele expresii matriceale:

p 01 [R ] 21 [R ] i 1i [R ] n n1 [R ] n p
p 0n [R ] n p
=
;
(2.41)
0 0

0 = 0
;
n
[P ] 1 [R ] 21 [R ] i 1i [R ] n n1 [R ] n [P ]

[
R
]

[
P
]

[P ]

n

Cele dou expresii prezentate mai sus sunt identice. Se observ c produsul matriceal
dintre cele n matrice de rotaie simpl este nlocuit de o matrice rezultant, definit astfel:
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n i 1

i [R ] (q i )

i =1

0
= [x n
n [R ] = n
R (u ; q )
i
i

i =1

yn



z n ] =

nx


ny



.

nz

(2.42)

Expresia (2.41) exprim pe de o parte transferul vectorului de poziie n p = n [P ] din {n} n


sistemul fix {0} . Pe de alt parte, ea exprim rotaia rezultant ntre cele dou sisteme.
Aadar, expresia (2.42) reprezint matricea de rotaie rezultant ntre sistemele {0} {n} .
n modelarea matematic a roboilor, este apelat inversa matricei de rotaie
rezultant. Ea poate fi obinut prin aplicarea direct a proprietii (2.32) asupra matricei
(2.42). Expresia de definiie se poate stabili, utiliznd (2.39) ca relaie de plecare. nmulind
expresia (2.39) n partea dreapt cu i 1i [R ] i lund n considerare relaia (2.36), se obine:
(2.43)
p = i 1i [R ] i 1 p . Expresia poate fi scris i sub forma: i [P ]= i 1i [R ] i 1 [P ] .
Pentru fiecare i = 1 n , ambele variante din ecuaia de transfer (2.43) pot fi scrise astfel:
i
n
1 p = 01 [R ] p ; 2 p = 21 [R ]1 p ;
p = i 1i [R ] i 1 p ;
p = nn1 [R ] n1 p
(2.44)
1

1
0
2
2
1
i
i
i 1
n
n
n1
[
P
]
=
[
R
]

[
P
]
;
[
P
]
=
[
R
]

[
P
]
;
[
P
]
=
[
R
]

[
P
]
;
[
P
]
=
[
R
]

[
P
]

0
1
i 1
n 1

Vectorul de poziie n 1 p = n 1 [P ] este substituit, prin expresia general (2.43), n ultima variant
(2.44), pentru orice i = n 2 . Expresiile matriceale pentru vectorul de poziie sunt:
n p n n1 [R ]L i 1i [R ]L 21 [R ]01 [R ] p n p 0n [R ] p
(2.45)
n = n
;
=
;
[P ] n 1 [R ]L i 1i [R ]L 21 [R ]01 [R ]0 [P ] n [P ] 0n [R ] 0 [P ]

Expresia (2.44) arat transferul vectorului de poziie p = 0 [P ] din {0} n sistemul mobil {n} .
Produsul dintre cele n matrice de rotaie poate fi nlocuit de matricea rezultant, astfel:
1 i

[
R ](q i ) x nT nx nx nx

1
n

i =n

T
0 [R ]
(2.46)
0 1 0 T = 1
= y n = ny ny ny .

n [R ] = n [R ]
{R (u ; q )}1 z nT
i
i

nz nz nz
i =n

Expresia (2.46) reprezint inversa matricei de rotaie rezultant dintre sistemele {n} {0} .

Observaii: Orientarea final a oricrui sistem de referin n raport cu un sistem fix este
caracterizat de maximum trei parametri independeni. Aplicnd algoritmii geometrici inclui
n modelul geometric direct, poate fi determinat matricea de rotaie rezultant, a crei
expresie general este (2.15). Pe baza modelului invers pentru orientare se poate
determina fiecare set de parametri independeni ai orientrii. n acest scop, n cadrul
urmtoarelor paragrafe se vor prezenta cteva metode geometrice consacrate orientrii,
cum sunt: rotaii n jurul axelor fixe, rotaii n jurul axelor mobile sau rotaia generalizat.
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40 MECANIC AVANSAT N ROBOTIC

2.3 Rotaii n jurul axelor fixe i axelor mobile

Conform conceptului de orientare analizat n primele dou paragrafe, orientarea final


a oricrui sistem mobil {}
i fa de un altul {0} sau { j } {}
i este dat de matricea de rotaie
rezultant exprimat de (2.8) sau (2.15). Lund n considerare observaiile fcute n primul
paragraf, aceeai stare ntre cele dou sisteme poate fi obinut prin intermediul a trei rotaii
independente. Aceste rotaii pot fi aplicate n jurul axelor fixe sau n jurul axelor mobile. Prin
combinarea celor trei transformri simple, se obin 3 C 43 = 12 tipuri de matrice ale
orientrii. Tipul rotaiei, precum i tipul matricei de orientare pentru ambele variante, att n
jurul axelor fixe ct i n jurul axelor mobile sunt prezentate n tabelul de mai jos:
Prima ax
(A)
x

Ordinul de rotaie
A doua ax
A treia ax
(B)
(C)
y
z
z
x
x
y

(Tabelul 2.1)
Tipul matricei de orientare
Axe mobile
Axe fixe
R ( A B C )
R ( A B C )

(
)
R ( x y x )

R x y z

R ( x z x )

R ( x z x )

(
)
R ( y z x )
R ( y z y )
R ( y x y )
R ( y x z )
R ( z x y )

R z y z

(
)
R ( x y x )

R x y z

R x z y

R ( z x z )

(
)
R ( z y x )

(
)
R ( y z x )
R ( y z y )
R ( y x y )
R ( y x z )
R ( z x y )
R x z y

R ( z x z )

(
)
R ( z y x )
R z y z

n tabelul de mai sus s-au fcut cteva notaii. Astfel, simbolurile R ( A B C ) i


R ( A B C ) sunt corespunztoare rotaiei n jurul axelor fixe i respectiv mobile. Cele
dousprezece matrice de rotaie exprim aceeai orientare a sistemului {}
i fa de {0} . Ele
sunt identice cu matricea rezultant (2.15). Fiecare matrice este o funcie de trei parametri
independeni, aparinnd vectorului de orientare (2.12). Cele dousprezece seturi de unghiuri
trebuie, de asemenea, determinate. Valorile lor difer de la un set la altul n funcie de tipul
axelor i a ordinii rotaiilor. Este evident totodat c fiecare set de unghiuri exprim aceeai
orientare a sistemului {}
i fa de un sistem oarecare, de exemplu fa de sistemul fix {0} .
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Modelul direct. Lund n considerare aspectele geometrice prezentate n [N07] i
[N13], n modelul direct se presupun cunoscute cele trei rotaii independente n jurul axelor
fixe sau mobile i uneori att n jurul axelor fixe ct i mobile. Ele sunt incluse n vectorul de
orientare exprimat cu ajutorul expresiei (2.12) care poate fi scris n cele dou variante, astfel:
T
(2.47)
= [ A B C ]
A = {x ; y ; z }; B = {y ; z ; x }; C = {z ; x ; y } .
Se cere expresia de definiie a matricei de rotaie rezultant. Ea exprim orientarea final a
i fa de un alt sistem, de exemplu {0} . Pe baza ordinii efecturii rotaiilor i a
fiecrei axe {}
matricelor din Tabelul 2.1, n continuare se analizeaz rotaiile n jurul axelor fixe i mobile.
 Rotaii n jurul axelor fixe. Pentru stabilirea matricelor de rotaie rezultant din (2.47),
va fi analizat, matricea de tipul R ( z y x ) . Astfel, se consider dou sisteme {0}
i avnd aceeai origine i aceeai orientare: {0} {i 0 } . Poziia punctului P , invariabil
i {}
legat de un sistem mobil {}
i este definit conform expresiei de mai jos:
0

[P0 ] = [ p x 0

p y 0 p z0

]T ;

[ P ] = [i p x

n conformitate cu Fig. 2.4.a, prima rotaie a


sistemului {i 0 } se realizeaz n jurul axei z 0 cu
unghiul z . n urma acestei rotaii, sistemul {i 0 }
i poziia punctului P0 se modific astfel:

py i pz

O0 O i
i

px

x0

[P 0 ]= i [ P ] .

{i 0 } R( z ; z )

P0 LLL
0
0 [P ]
0
i1 [R ]

z0
i

(2.49)

{i1 }

P1 . (2.50)
0 [ P ]
1

z0
z

pz

{i 0 }

pz

p0
i

py

y0

{0}

x0

a.

O0 O i

px

py

b.

Fig. 2.4

Fig. 2.4.b arat c noua stare a componentelor vectorului

y0

[P0 ] poate fi descris de (2.51):

py0 +z z pz0 0
z
px0 z

=
2
2 ; =2
2 ; = 2 2 .
p
p
T
x0 [ c s 0 ] y0
T pz0
T

z
z
[0 0 1]
[ sz cz 0 ]

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42 MECANIC AVANSAT N ROBOTIC


Expresiile prezentate anterior in cont de notaiile din (2.17). Se evideniaz, astfel, att
unghiurile ct i cosinusurile directoare ale versorilor corespunztori componentelor
vectorului 0 [P0 ] rotit cu unghiul z . innd seama de expresia (2.16), prin proiectarea
vectorului de mai sus i a componentelor sale pe axele sistemului fix {0} , conform
Fig.2.4.b, noua poziie a punctului P1 se va determina cu expresia (2.52), astfel::
s z 0 i px
R ( z ; ) i [P ]

0
[P1 ] = 0 z i
c z 0 i py ;
(2.52)
.
[R ] [P ]

i
i

1
0
1 pz

Mai sus, expresia matricei de rotaie (2.30) a fost, de asemenea, luat n considerare.
px c z
1
0
[P1 ] = py1 = s z
p 0
z1

Observaie: Rezult c aplicarea unei rotaii simple ntre sistemele: {0} {i 0 } i {i1 } este

matematic, reprezentat de matricea de rotaie simbolizat prin: R (z ; z )= i10 [R ] . n acelai


timp, relaia (2.52) exprim transferul vectorului de poziie i [P ] i1 [P ] din sistemul {i1 } n {0} .
{i 1 } R (y ; y ) {i 2 }
Cea de-a doua rotaie are loc n jurul axei

y 0 cu unghiul y . n conformitate cu Fig.


P1 L L L P2 .(2.53)
0
0 [P ]
0 [P ]
2.5.a att starea sistemului {i1 } ct i
2
i 2 [R ]
1

poziia punctului P1 se modific astfel:


z0

z i1
pz1

{i1}

O0 O i

px1

z0

y i1

P1

p1

p y1

y0

x i1

p y1

O0 O i

x0

a.

Fig. 2.5

y
y

b.

innd cont de (2.17) i Fig. 2.5.b, noua stare a componentelor vectorului de poziie

px y + y p y1
;
1 =
2 2

px
1 c 0 s T p y1
y
y

y0

px1

{0}

x0

pz1

0 pz1
y
y
= 2
2
2 ; =2


[0 1 0 ] T pz1 s 0 c T
y

[P1 ] este:

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MECANIC AVANSAT N ROBOTIC 43


Conform Fig. 2.5 b, vectorul de poziie, precum i componentele sale vor fi proiectate pe
axele sistemului fix. Drept urmare, noua poziie a punctului P2 va fi descris de expresiile:
0

p x c y
2
[P2 ] = p y2 = 0
p s
y
z2

0 s y p x1

1 0 p y1 ;
0 c y p z1

R y ; y 0 [P1 ]
[P2 ] = 0 0
.

i2 [R ] [P1 ]

(2.55)

innd seama de (2.26) i de expresiile anterioare, se va determina expresia matricei de


rotaie n jurul axei y .nlocuind vectorul de poziie 0 [P1 ] din expresia (2.52) n (2.56), rezult:

cy 0 sy c z s z 0
R y ; R(z ; ) i [P]
[P2 ] = 0 1 0 s z c z 00 [P1 ] ; 0[P2 ] = 0 y 0 iz
(2.56)
.
[
]
[
]
[
]
R

i
i
1
2

sy 0 cy 0
0
1
Observaie: Aplicnd sistemului {i1 } o rotaie simpl n jurul unei axe fixe, acesta va trece
ntr-o nou stare {i 2 } . Din punct de vedere matematic, aceasta este reprezentat de

matricea de rotaie, simbolizat prin R y ; y = i20 [R ] . Transformarea dintre cele dou

sisteme: {0} {i 0 } i {i 2 } este reprezentat matematic de matricea de rotaie rezultant

sub forma: R y ; y R (z ; z )= i20 [R ]

i1
i

[R ] .

n acelai timp, expresia matriceal (2.56)

exprim transferul vectorului de poziie [P ] i1 [P ] i2 [P ] din sistemul {i 2 } n sistemul {0} .

Cea de-a treia rotaie (i ultima conform


conceptului de situare) se realizeaz n jurul axei
x 0 sub unghiul x , conform Fig. 2.6.a i Fig.
2.6.b. Sistemul {}
i i punctul P sunt aduse n
starea final, n consonan cu expresia (2.57):
z0

p z2

{i 2 }

O0 Oi

x0

p2

P2

{0}

pz2

y i2
py 2

x i2

{i 3 }

P3 .(2.57)
0 [P ]
3

z0
x

z i2

px 2

{i 2 } R( x ; x )

P2 LLL
0
0 [P ]
2
i3 [R ]

y0

py 2

O0 Oi

px 2
a.

x0

Fig. 2.6

b.

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y0

44 MECANIC AVANSAT N ROBOTIC


Noua stare a componentelor vectorului de poziie

[ ] , conform Fig. 2.6.b, este definit prin:

P2
T

px2 0 py2 x x pz2 +x x

= 2 2 ; = 2

;
(2.58)
2
.
= 2 2

p
x2 [ 1 0 0 ]T py2 [ 0 c s ]T pz2 [ 0 s c ]T

x
x
x
x
Conform Fig. 2.6.b vectorul de poziie i componentele sale vor fi proiectate pe axele
sistemului fix. Poziia final a punctului P3 , exprimat n Fig. 2.7, este determinat astfel:
T

p x3 1 0
0 p x2
R ( x ; x )0 [P2 ]


0

[P3 ] = 0 0
[P3 ] = p y 3 = 0 c x s x p y 2 ;
(2.59)
.

i3 [R ] [P2 ]

p z 0 s x c x p z
2
3
Expresia (2.59) evideniaz matricea de rotaie simpl n jurul axei x , n mod identic cu (2.22).
0

[P2 ] din (2.56) n (2.59), se obine poziia final a lui 0 [P3 ]= 0 [P ] :


i 0 [R ] i 0 [R ] i0 [R ] i [P ] R (x ; x ) R (y ; y ) R (z ; z ) i [P ]
0
[P3 ] = 3 0 2 0 1 i
(2.60)
=
.

[P ]= i [R ] [P ]
R ( z y x ) i [P ]

nlocuind expresia lui

z0

zi3

y i3

pz3

P3

{i3 }

py 3

O0 Oi
px3

x0

{0}
x i3

Fig. 2.7

y0

Observaii: n consecin, aplicnd


sistemului {i 2 } o rotaie simpl n jurul
axei fixe x 0 , va rezulta {i 3 } , vezi Fig.
2.7. Noua stare a sistemului, va fi
caracterizat de matricea de rotaie:
R (x ; x )= i30 [R ] . De asemenea, {i 3 }
reprezint orientarea final a sistemului
i i totodat i a elementului
mobil {}
cinetic (i ) . Expresia (2.60) exprim
transferul final al vectorului de poziie
i
[P ] i1 [P ] i2 [P ] i3 [P ] corespunztor
punctului P , din sistemul mobil {i 3 } n

sistemul fix {0} definit de 0 [P3 ]= 0 [P ] .


Transformarea fizic dintre cele dou sisteme: {0} {i 0 } i {i 3 } {}
i este reprezentat
matematic prin matricea de rotaie rezultant exprimat cu ajutorul relaiei de mai jos:
R z y x = 0 [R ] i 20 [R ] 0 [R ] = R (x ; x ) R y ; y R (z ; z ) .
(2.61)

i3

i1

 Pe baza expresiei (2.61), se poate evidenia urmtoarea proprietate fundamental:


ntotdeauna cnd transformrile (rotaiile) simple se realizeaz n jurul axelor sistemului fix,
matricele de rotaie simpl se vor nmuli n sens invers ordinii n care se efectueaz
transformrile fizice din starea iniial n starea final a fiecrui sistem de referin mobil.
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MECANIC AVANSAT N ROBOTIC 45


nlocuind expresiile de definiie (2.22), (2.26) i (2.30), ale matricelor de rotaie
simpl, n (2.61), i apoi efectund produsul matriceal, se va obine expresia final pentru
matricea de rotaie rezultant - considerat n acest exemplu R ( z y x ) - i anume:

R z y x

0 c y

s x 0
c x s y

1 0
= 0 c x
0 s x

0 s y c z

1 0 s z
0 c y 0

s z
c z
0

0
0 ; (2.62)
1

cy s z
cy c z
sy

R z y x = sx sy c z + cx s z sx sy s z + cx c z sx cy . (2.63)
cx sy c z + sx s z cx sy s z + sx c z cx cy

 Rotaii in jurul axelor mobile. Aceeai orientare a sistemului {}


i n raport cu sistemul
{0} poate fi determinat cu ajutorul a trei rotaii. Aceste rotaii au loc n jurul axelor mobile.
z0
i

z0
x

pz

P0

p0

O0 O i
i

x0

z i2

y i2
y i1

x0

O0 O i

x i1

x i2

x0

P2
x

z i2

P3

y i3

Fig. 2.8

y i2

y i1 x

z i3

y0
x0

c.

b.

z0

z i1

y0

O0 O i

x i1

P1

y i1

y0

a.

z0

z i1

py

{i }

{0}

px

z i1

O0 O i

x i1

y
x i2

y0

x i3

d.

Unghiurile de rotaie i axele sunt identice cu cele prezentate anterior, numai c rotaia se
efectueaz n jurul axelor mobile. n continuare, va fi analizat matricea de rotaie de tipul:
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R ( x y z ) , presupunnd cunoscut orientarea vectorului = x

)T .

Astfel, din Fig. 2.8.a, se poate observa c sistemele {0} i {}


i au originea comun i n stare
iniial au aceeai orientare: {0} {i 0 } . Poziia punctului arbitrar ales P , invariabil legat de
sistemul mobil {}
i , va fi definit prin intermediul vectorului de poziie, exprimat prin (2.49).

n conformitate cu Fig. 2.8.b, prima rotaie


simpl aplicat sistemului {i 0 } se realizeaz n
jurul axei x 0 cu unghiul x . n urma rotaiei, noua
stare a sistemului {i 0 } i poziia punctului P0 vor fi
modificate, dup cum se poate observa din (2.64):
innd seama de Fig.2.8.b, noua poziie a punctului

{i 0 } R(x ; x )

P0
L
0
0 [P ]i [P]
0
i1 [R]

{i1 }

P1 (2.64)
0 [P ]
1

P1 este determinat cu ajutorul relaiei:

px 1 0
0 i px
1

0
[P1 ] = py1 = 0 cx sx i py .
p 0 s
cx i pz
x
z1

R (x ; x ) i [P ]
0
[P1 ] = 0 i
;

i1 [R ] [P ]

Cea de a doua rotaie are loc n jurul axei


mobile y i1 y i2 cu unghiul y .Conform Fig.

2.8.c starea fizic a sistemului {i1 } i poziia


punctului P1 se modific n felul urmtor:

{i1 } R y ; y

P1 L
i1
0 [P ]
[R ]
1
i2

(2.65)

{i 2 }

(2.66)
P2

i1 [P ]0 [P ]
2
2

Transformarea simpl are loc ntre sistemele {i1 } i {i 2 } . n final, se va determina poziia
punctului P2 fa de {i1 } , i apoi fa de sistemul {0} . n acest sens, se vor utiliza matricele:
i1 px c
y
R y ; y i [P]
2
i1
[P2 ] = i1 i ; i1 [P2 ] = i1 py2 = 0
[R] [P]
i1 s

i2
p
z2 y
nlocuind prima expresie din (2.67) n a treia,

R(x ; ) R y ; i [P]
[P2 ] = 0 x i1 i y ;
i1 [R] i2 [R] [P]

0 sy i px
0
0
i
1 0 i py ; [P2 ]= i1 [R ] 1 [P2 ] . (2.67)
0 cy i pz

poziia punctului P2 n raport cu {0} este:

0 cy 0 sy
1 0

[P2 ] = 0 cx sx 0 1 0 i [P] .
0 sx cx sy 0 cy

(2.68)

Cea de a treia rotaie simpl se aplic n jurul axei mobile z i2 z i3 sub unghiul z .

Astfel, punctul P2 i sistemul mobil {i 2 }


{i 2 }

R (z ; z )

P2

LL
i2
i1 [P ] 0 [P ]
[R ]
2
2

i
3

sunt aduse n starea final P3 P i {i 3 } {}


i :
{i 3 } {}
i

.
P3 P

(2.69)
i 2 [P ] i1 [P ] 0 [P ]
3
3
3

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Transformarea simpl are loc ntre cele dou sisteme {i 2 } i {i 3 } . Se va determina, poziia
punctului P3 fa de sistemul {i 2 } , apoi fa de {i1 } i n final fa de {0} . Astfel, se vor obine
urmtoarele expresii pentru matricele ce realizeaz transferul poziiei de la un sistem la altul:
i2 px c s 0 i p
i0 [R] i1 [R]i2 [P3 ]
z
z
x
i
3

R
(
z
;

[
P
]
i i1

i2
i1
0
i2
z
i2

[P3] = i2 i = py3 =sz cz 0 py ; [P3 ]=i2 [R] [P3 ] ; [P3 ] = 1 0 i2 i


;
[
]
[
]
R
P

[
R
]

[
P
]
i

i
i
2p
3
3
0
0 1 pz
i1

z3

0 [R ] i1 [R ] i 2 [R ] i [P ] R (x ; x ) R y ; y R (z ; z ) i [P ]
[P3 ] = i1 0 i2 0 i3 i
(2.70)
=
.
i

[
]
[
]
[
]

P
=
R
P
[
]
R

i
x
y
z

Expresia (2.70) a matricei de rotaie rezultant R ( x y z ) este identic cu (2.61)-(2.62).


0

 Pe baza aceleiai expresii (2.70), este evideniat proprietatea fundamental: n cazul


transformrilor simple n jurul axelor mobile, ordinea de nmulire a matricelor de rotaie simpl
este identic cu ordinea n care au loc aceste transformri (din starea iniial n starea final).

Modelul invers al orientrii. Orientarea final a fiecrei axe a sistemului {}


i n raport
cu un alt sistem, de exemplu {0} este definit nc de la nceput. n general, matricea de
rotaie rezultant (2.8) i (2.15), adic matricea de orientare, este dat prin valori numerice.
Necunoscutele sunt unghiurile de orientare din (2.48) rescrise dup cum urmeaz:
= z y x T rotatii fixe x y z T rotatii mobile .

{(

Pentru determinarea unghiurilor de orientare, se va aplica urmtoarea funcie trigonometric:


{ ; [s 0 ; c > 0 ] }; { / 2 + ; [s > 0 ; c < 0 ] }
x = A tan 2 (s ; c ) =
. (2.71)
{ + ; [s < 0 ; c < 0 ] }; { / 2 + ; [s < 0 ; c 0 ] }

Funcia A tan 2 este mai stabil n raport cu celelalte dou i anume: Arc sin i Arc cos .
Intervalul de definire a funciei este: [ ; ] . Aceast funcie invers ine cont de semnul
s i c . n final, funcia A tan 2 stabilete valoarea unghiurilor n funcie de semnul
argumentelor n cadranul corespunztor, prin aceste unghiuri realizndu-se comanda
orientrii. Cele trei unghiuri independente de rotaie se determin pe baza condiiei de a aduce
elementul cinetic din orientarea iniial n starea final. Se scrie urmtoarea identitate matriceal:




R z y x 0



(2.72)

;

i [R ] = [x i y i z i ] =
R x y z



ix iy iz

(
(

)
)

cy c z
cy s z
sy


sx sy c z + cx s z sx sy s z + cx c z sx cy
cx sy c z + sx s z cx sy s z + sx c z cx cy


ix





iy

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48 MECANIC AVANSAT N ROBOTIC


n identitatea matriceal de mai sus, membrul stng este matricea necunoscut, iar
membrul drept este matricea de orientare, definit prin valori numerice. n orice identitate
matriceal termenii din membrul stng (linia j ; coloana k ) membrul s tan g sunt identici cu
termenii corespunztori matricei din membrul drept (linia j ; coloana k ) membrul drept . n
membrul stng, se caut cea mai simpl funcie trigonometric. Prin egalare, se ajunge la:

(linia 1 ; coloana 3 )stg (linia 1 ; coloana 3 )dr ;

s y = iz = { ( 1 ; + 1 ) ; 1 } ;

(2.73)

unde iz reprezint cosinusul director, definit prin valori numerice. Necunoscuta y este unghiul

de orientare. Pentru determinarea celor trei necunoscute, se consider dou cazuri posibile.


n primul caz se presupune c iz ( 1 ; + 1 ) , adic iz 1 , i y 2 .

Prin urmare, expresia de definiie a unghiului de orientare y se bazeaz pe relaia (2.73):

y = Arc sin e ( iz ) 2 ; unde iz = z iT x 0 ( 1 ; + 1 )

(2.74)

Celelalte dou unghiuri de orientare, x i z , se determin cu ajutorul termenilor din


ultima coloan (2 ; 3 ) i (3 ;3 ) , respectiv prima linie (1 ;2 ) i (1 ;1) a matricei (2.72), astfel:
s x =
s z =

1
1
1
iz ;
iz ;
iz ; x = A tan 2
iz ; c x =
c y

c y
c y
c y

1
iy ;
c y

c z =

1
1
iy ;
ix .
ix ; z = A tan 2
c y

c y
c y

(2.75)
(2.76)

Al doilea caz este caracterizat de relaia iz = 1 i y = 2 . Soluiile prezentate

prin (2.75) i (2.76) sunt degenerate, matematic, prin mprirea lor cu zero i n acest fel
comanda orientrii este blocat. Aceast stare, poarta numele de singularitate geometric,
iar o soluie posibil este z = 0 . Valoarea este nlocuit n identitatea matriceal (2.72).
Utiliznd (2 ; 2 ) i (3 ; 2 ) , se obine n acest caz, valoarea unghiului de orientare x , adic:

( s x sy s z + c x c z ) z =0 = iy ; (c x sy s z + s x c z ) z =0 = iy ;

= A tan 2

iy

iy

).

(2.77)

(2.78)

Observaii: n anumite cazuri, varianta de mai sus nu poate fi aplicat. Cnd apare o
asemenea situaie, cazul general propune alegerea altei matrice de rotaie rezultant din
tabelul (2.1). Generaliznd modelul geometric direct i invers, pentru cele dousprezece
matrice de orientare, se obin rezultate importante ce privesc att expresiile de definiie a
matricelor de rotaie rezultant ct i expresiile pentru unghiurile de orientare, n cele dou
cazuri prezentate mai sus. Aceste expresii sunt incluse n tabelul prezentat mai jos:
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Tipul matricei

(
(

R x ; y ;z

R z ; y ; x

)
)

Se cunoate
0
i

[R ]

Restricii
ix ( 1;1)

c z cy

s z cy
sy

c z sy c x + s z s x

s z sy c x c z s x

cy s x
cy c x

Identitatea matriceal



R ( x ; y ; z )



=
R ( z ; y ; x )


ix iy iz
Expresiile unghiurilor de orientare
y
z
x
c z sy s x s z c x
s z sy s x + c z c x

A tan 2 ix ; ix
c y c y

(
(

)
)

Se cunoate
0
i

[R ]

Restricii
ix ( 1;1 )
ix = 1

Arc sin e ( ix )

iy iz
A tan 2
;
c y c y

A tan 2 iz ; iz

s
y

m / 2

Tipul matricei

R x ; y ;x

R x ; y ; x

ix = 1

(Tabelul 2.2)

Expresia de definiie
R (z ; z ) R (y ; y ) R ( x ; x )

(Tabelul 2.3)

Expresia de definiie
R ( x ; x ) R (y ; y ) R ( x ; x )

cy

sy s x
sy c x

sx sy s x cy s x + c x c x s x cy c x c x s x
c x sy c x cy s x + s x c x
c x cy c x s x s x

Identitatea matriceal

(
(

R x ; y ; x

R x ; y ; x

)
) =

ix





iy





iz

Expresiile pentru unghiurile de orientare


y
x
x

A tan 2 ix ; ix
s y
s y

A tan 2 iy ; iy

Arc cos ine ( ix )

iy iz
A tan 2
;
s y s y

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Tipul matricei

R( x ; z ;x )

R(x ; z ; x )
Se cunoate
0
i

[R ]

Restricii
ix ( 1;1 )

Tipul matricei

(
(

)
)

R x ; z ;y

R y ; z ; x
Se cunoate
0
i

[R ]

Restricii
ix ( 1;1)
ix = 1

sz c x
cz
c s c c c s s
z
x
z
x
x
x
x
s x sz s x cz c x+c x s x

sz s x

c x cz s x s x c x
s x cz s x + c x c x

Identitatea matriceal






R ( x ; z ; x )

=
R ( x ; z ; x )


ix iy iz
Expresiile pentru unghiurile de orientare
x
z
x

A tan 2 ix ; ix
s z s z

Arc cos ine ( ix )

A tan 2( iz ; iz )

ix = 1

(Tabelul 2.4)

Expresia de definiie
R ( x ; x ) R (z ; z ) R ( x ; x )

iy

A tan 2 iz ;
s z s z

Expresia de definiie
R (y ; y ) R (z ; z ) R ( x ; x )

(Tabelul 2.5)

c y cz c y sz c x + s y s x c y sz s x + s y c x

cz s x
cz c x
sz

s y cz s y sz c x + c y s x s y sz s x + c y c x

Identitatea matriceal



R ( x ; z ; y )



=
R ( y ; z ; x )

ix iy iz
Expresiile pentru unghiurile de orientare
y
z
x

A tan 2 ix ; ix
c z c z

A tan 2( iz ; iz )

Arc sin e ( ix )
/ 2

iy

A tan 2 iz ;
c z c z
0

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Tipul matricei

(
(

)
)

R y ; z ;x

R x ; z ; y
Se cunoate
0
i

[R ]

c z c y

c x s z c y + s x s y
s x s z c y c x s y

iy ( 1;1 )

(
(

R y ; z ; x

R x ; z ; y

iy iy
A tan 2
;
c z c z

Tipul matricei

)
)

R y ; z ;y

R y ; z ; y
Se cunoate

[R ]

Restricii
iy ( 1;1)
iy = 1

c z s y

c x s z s y s x c y

s x s z s y

Identitatea matriceal

)
) =

ix





iy

Arc sin e iy


A tan 2 ix ; ix
s z s z

iy = 1

0
i

s z
c x c z
s x c z





iz

Expresiile pentru unghiurile de orientare


y
x
z

Restricii

(
(

(Tabelul 2.6)

Expresia de definiie
R ( x ; x ) R ( z ; z ) R (y ; y )

A tan 2 iz ; ix
c z c z

m / 2

(Tabelul 2.7)

Expresia de definiie
R (y ; y ) R (z ; z ) R (y ; y )

cy cz c y sy s y cy sz cy cz s y + sy c y

sz c y
cz
sz s y

sy cz c y cy s y sy sz sy cz s y + cy cz

Identitatea matriceal

(
(

R y ; z ;

R y ; z ;

)
=
y )

y

ix

iy

iz

Expresiile pentru unghiurile de orientare


y
z

iy
iy
A tan 2
;
s z s z

A tan 2( iz ; iz / c z )

( )

Arc cos ine iy

A tan 2 iz ; ix
s z s z

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Tipul matricei

(
(

R y ; x ;y

R y ; x ; y

)
)

Se cunoate
0
i

[R ]

Restricii
iy ( 1;1)
iy = 1

Expresia de definiie
R (y ; y ) R ( x ; x ) R (y ; y )

sy cx s y + cy c y sy sx sy cx c y + cy s y

sx c y
sx s y
cx

cy cx s y sy c y cy sx cy cx c y sy s y

(
(

)
)

Se cunoate
0
i

[R ]

Restricii
iy ( 1;1 )
iy = 1

Identitatea matriceal





iz
ix
Expresiile pentru unghiurile de orientare
y
y
x

(
(

R y ; x ; y

R y ; x ; y

iy iy
A tan 2
;
s x s x

)
) =





iy

( )

Arc cos ine iy

A tan 2( ix ; ix )

Tipul matricei

R y ; x ;z

R z ; x ; y

(Tabelul 2.8)

A tan 2 ix ; iz
s x s x

Expresia de definiie
R (z ; z ) R ( x ; x ) R (y ; y )

(Tabelul 2.9)

sz sx s y + cz c y sz cx sz sx c y + cz s y

cz cx cz sx c y + sz s y
cz sx s y + sz c y

cx s y
sx
cx c y

Identitatea matriceal




iz
ix
Expresiile pentru unghiurile de orientare
y
z
x

(
(

R y ; x ; z

R z ; x ; y

iy iy
A tan 2
;
c x c x

A tan 2( ix ; ix )

)
) =


iy

( )

Arc sin e iy
/ 2

A tan 2 ix ; iz
c x c x

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Tipul matricei

(
(

R z ; x ; y

R y ; x ; z

)
)

Se cunoate
0
i

[R ]

Restricii
iz ( 1;1)
iz = 1

Tipul matricei

R( z ; x ; z )

R(z ; x ; z )
Se cunoate
0
i

[R ]

Restricii
iz ( 1;1 )
iz = 1

(Tabelul 2.10)

Expresia de definiie
R (y ; y ) R ( x ; x ) R (z ; z )

s y s x s z + c y c z

c x s z

c y s x s z s y c z

s y s x c z c y s z
c x c z
c y s x c z + s y s z

Identitatea matriceal





iz
ix
Expresiile pentru unghiurile de orientare
y
x
z

(
(

R z ; x ; y

R y ; x ; z

A tan 2 iz ; iz
c x c x

A tan 2( ix ; ix )

s y c x

s x
c y c x

)
) =


iy

Arc sin e ( iz )
m / 2

iy

A tan 2 ix ;

x
x

0
(Tabelul 2.11)

Expresia de definiie
R (z ; z ) R ( x ; x ) R (z ; z )

sz cx s z + cz c z sz cx c z c z s z sz sx
c c s + s c
cz cx c z s z s z cz sx
z
z
z x z

sx s z
sx c z
cx

Identitatea matriceal


R ( z ; x ; z )

R ( z ; x ; z )

ix

iy
iz

Expresiile pentru unghiurile de orientare


z
x
z

A tan 2 iz ; iz
s x s x

A tan 2( ix ; ix )

Arc cos ine ( iz )

iy

A tan 2 ix ;
s x s x
0

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Tipul matricei

(
(

R z ; y ;z

R z ; y ; z

)
)

Se cunoate
0
i

[R ]

Restricii

Expresia de definiie
R (z ; z ) R (y ; y ) R ( z ; z )

c z cy c z s z s z

s z cy c z + c z s z

sy c z





iz
ix
Expresiile pentru unghiurile de orientare
y
z
z

(
(

A tan 2 iy ; iy

iz = 1

Tipul matricei

(
(

R z ; y ; x

R x ; y ; z

)
)

Se cunoate
0
i

[R ]

Restricii
iz ( 1;1 )
iz = 1

c z cy s z s z c z c z sy

s z cy s z + c z c z s z sy
sy s z
cy
Identitatea matriceal

R z ; y ; z

R z ; y ; z

A tan 2 iz ; iz
s y s y

iz ( 1;1 )

(Tabelul 2.12)

)
) =


iy

Arc cos ine ( iz )

iy

A tan 2
; ix
s y
s y

Expresia de definiie
R ( x ; x ) R (y ; y ) R (z ; z )

(Tabelul 2.13)

cy s z
cy c z
sy

s x sy c z + c x s z s x sy s z + cx c z s x cy
c x sy c z + s x s z c x sy s z + s x c z c x cy

Identitatea matriceal





iz
ix
Expresiile pentru unghiurile de orientare
y
x
z

(
(

R z ; y ; x

R x ; y ; z

A tan 2 iz ; iz
c y c y

A tan 2 iy ; iy

)
) =


iy

Arc sin e ( iz )
/ 2

iy ix
A tan 2
;
c y c y

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2.4. Matricea de rotaie generalizat

Conform teoremei deplasrilor finite a lui Euler [F01], [N07] i [V01], orientarea oricrui
sistem {i} fa de un altul, de exemplu {0} , poate fi definit prin rotaia cu un unghi n jurul
unei axe ( ) , care trebuie s treac printr-un punct considerat fix. Matricea de rotaie obinut,
devine funcie de unghiul i de cosinusurile directoare care definesc orientarea axei de rotaie
( ) . Aceast matrice este cunoscut ca matricea de rotaie generalizat, notat cu R(u ; ) .
y0 yi
y0 yi

uy

O0 O i u
0

ux

uz
z0

a.

y0 yi

uy
0

O0 Oi

z0

u
ux

c.

zi

Fig. 2.9
0

z0

zi

uz

O0 O i

x0
xi

u = (u x u y u z ) T = (s

x0
xi

zi

b.
Aceast seciune este consacrat
dezvoltrii unei metode [F01], care
permite, determinarea matricei de
rotaie generalizat R(u ; ) . Se
va determina unghiul de rotaie
i orientarea axei de rotaie ( ) ,
i
x 0 care asigur rotaia sistemului {}
fa de {0} , similar matricei (2.8),
xi
ale crei componente sunt
cunoscute. n Fig.2.9 se observ
c sistemele {}
i i {0} au
aceeai origine O 0 O i . Axa de
rotaie ( ) trece prin acest punct
fix (originea celor dou sisteme).
Orientarea axei fa de {0} se
exprim prin versorul scris astfel:
s c c c ) T ;
(2.79)

unde i sunt cele dou unghiuri independente de orientare ale axei de rotaie ( ) .
Capitolul 2 TRANSFORMRI MATRICEALE N MECANICA AVANSAT

56 MECANIC AVANSAT N ROBOTIC



Modelul direct de orientare. Pe baza aspectelor geometrice prezentate n [F01] i
[N07], modelul direct de orientare consider c unghiul de rotaie i unghiurile de
orientare i corespunztoare axei de rotaie ( ) sunt cunoscute, dup cum rezult din

expresia vectorului de orientare: = ( )T . Necunoscuta modelului este expresia


matricei de rotaie generalizat R(u ; ) . Metoda se bazeaz pe patru artificii geometrice:
i nu i schimb orientarea, deci sistemul {}
i nu este rotit;
Se presupune c sistemul {}
Rotaia n jurul axei ( ) i (u ) cu ( ) va fi redus la o simpl rotaie n jurul axei z0 ;
Pentru a realiza cel de-al doilea artificiu, axa ( ) i versorul acesteia (u ) vor fi
scoase din starea iniial i apoi suprapuse peste z0 , prin aplicarea unei rotaii n jurul

(y 0 ; ) , a se vedea Fig. 2.9.a;


Dup efectuarea unei rotaii cu unghiul n jurul axei z 0 0 u ( ) , sistemul va putea
fi readus n starea iniial, efectund alte dou rotaii: (y 0 ; ) i (x 0 ; ) , vezi Fig. 2.9.c.

axei x 0 i a unei rotaii n jurul axei y0 cu unghiul

n jurul axelor sistemului fix se efectueaz cinci rotaii simple. Ele definesc, mpreun, expresia
matricei de rotaie generalizat. Dac rotaiile sunt efectuate n jurul axelor fixe, conform cu
(2.61), ordinea de nmulire este invers ordinii n care se realizeaz transformrile fizice, adic:
R (u ; ) = R (x ; ) R (y ; ) R (z ; ) R (y ; ) R (x ; ) .

(2.80)

nlocuind matricele de rotaie simpl din (2.22), (2.26) i (2.30) n (2.80), se obine expresia:
c
0
s

R (u ; ) = s s c s c

c c
c s s

c s 0 c s s c s

c 0 0
c
s .(2.81)
s

s c
c c
0 1 s
0

Funciile trigonometrice de argumente i sunt substituite n (2.81) prin componentele


versorului dat de (2.79). Matricea (2.81) poate fi rescris n alt form, dup cum rezult:
0
uz
uy
u x
1 0 0

R (u ; ) = u y [u x u y u z ] (1 - c ) + 0 1 0 c + u z
0
u x s ;(2.82)
u y
u z
0 0 1
ux
0

2
0
uz uy
1 0 0 u x 1 u x u y u x u z

2
R (u ; ) = 0 1 0 + u x u y u y 1 u y u z (1 c ) + u z
0
u x s .
u y u x
0 0 1 u x u z u y u z u z2 1
0

Expresiile matricei de rotaie generalizat pot fi scrise ntr-o form prescurtat astfel:
0 u 0 u T (1 - c ) + I 3 c + 0 u s

R (u ; ) =
(2.83)
.
2
0
0
I 3 + u (1 - c ) + u s

Pentru o formulare mai condensat, se implementeaz funcia: 1 c = versine = v .

{
}

Capitolul 2 TRANSFORMRI MATRICEALE N MECANICA AVANSAT

MECANIC AVANSAT N ROBOTIC 57

n expresia (2.83),

{ u } reprezint matricea antisimetric asociat versorului


0

u , de forma:

0
uz
uy
ux

0
u = uz
0
u x ; i vect u = u y .
(2.84)
u
u y

u
0
x
z

Dup efectuarea unor transformri n relaiile (2.82) sau (2.83), se va obine expresia de
definiie a matricei de rotaie generalizat care este o funcie de versorul u al axei i de :

{ }

{ }

{ }

{ }

0 u 0 u T v + I c + 0 u s I + 0 u 2 (1 - c ) + 0 u s
3
3

2

u x v + c
u x u y v u z s u x u z v + u y s .(2.85)
R (u ; ) =

u 2y v + c
u y u z v u x s
u y u x v + u z s
u u v u s u u v + u s

u z2 v + c
y
z
y
x

z x
Dac axa de rotaie ( ) coincide cu una din axele sistemului fix {0} , expresia matricei de
rotaie generalizat se simplific i ia una din formele prezentate la (2.22) (2.30), adic:
0
(2.86)
u = {x 0 ; y 0 ; z 0 }
R (u ; ) = {R (x ; ); R (y; ); R (z ; )}.

 Modelul invers de orientare. Orientarea final a sistemului {}


i n raport cu un alt
sistem, {0} , este bine definit cu ajutorul valorilor numerice incluse n matricea de rotaie
rezultant (2.8) sau (2.15). Necunoscutele sunt acum unghiurile de orientare, care intr n
componena vectorului: = ( )T . Acesta descrie unghiul de rotaie i versorul
0

u al axei de rotaie ( ) . n acest sens, poate fi scris urmtoarea identitate matriceal:


R (u ; )= 0i [R ] ;

Trace {R (u ; )} = Trace

{ [R ]};
0
i

Tr {R (u ; )} = Tr

{ [R ]}.
0
i

(2.87)

Pe baza proprietii referitoare la urma matricei, identitatea matriceal de mai sus, devine:
ix + iy + iz = 1 + 2 c .
(2.88)
Conform cu (2.88), determinarea unghiului de rotaie se bazeaz pe trei cazuri distincte:

Primul caz ia n considerare condiia: ix + iy + iz = 3 .

(2.89)

Al doilea caz este caracterizat de condiia : ix + iy + iz = 1 .

(2.90)

Condiia este adevrat dac 0i [R ] = I 3 , adic n cazul n care {}


i i {0} au aceeai orientare.
n acest caz particular este un nonsens determinarea unghiului de rotaie i orientarea axei.

nlocuind expresia (2.90) n (2.88), se obine unghiul de rotaie = (2 k + 1) , unde

k = 0 n . Componentele versorului 0 u se determin prin identificarea elementelor de pe


diagonala principal cu elementele matricei, caracterizat prin intermediul expresiei (2.87):

Capitolul 2 TRANSFORMRI MATRICEALE N MECANICA AVANSAT

58 MECANIC AVANSAT N ROBOTIC

1
(1 + ix ); u y = 1 1 + iy ; u z = 1 (1 + iz ) .
2
2
2

ux =

(2.91)

Al treilea caz este definit de condiia 1 < ix + iy + iz < 3 .

(2.92)

Unghiul de rotaie se stabilete, pe baza expresiei (2.88), cu ajutorul funciilor trigonometrice:


1
1
c = ix + iy + iz 1 ; s =
4 ix + iy + iz 1 2 ;
(2.93)
2
2
= A tan{s ; c} = Atan 2 4 ix + iy + iz 1 2 ; ix + iy + iz 1 .
(2.94)

Pentru determinarea versorului u = u x u y u z

) (

]T se vor efectua urmtoarele transformri:

R (u ; ) R T (u ; ) = 0i [R ] 0i [R ] T .
(2.95)
Pasul urmtor const n rezolvarea identitii matriceale, prezentat n expresia anterioar:

0
2 s u z 2 s u y

T
R (u ; ) R (u ; ) = 2 s u z
0
2 s u x ;
2 s u y 2 s u x

0
uz uy

R (u ; ) R (u ; ) = 2 s u z
0
u x = 2 s {u } ;
u y u x
0

0
ix iy
iz ix

0
0
T
= ix iy
0
iy iz .
i [R ] i [R ]
( iz ix ) iy iz

(2.96)

(2.97)

nlocuind (2.96) i (2.97) n (2.95), se vor obine componentele versorului notat cu 0 u :


iy iz
u x
1
1

0
0
T

{u } =
iz ix .
; u = u y =
(2.98)
i [R ] i [R ]
2 s
2 s

u z
ix iy

1
1
1
iy iz ; u y =
( iz ix ) ; u z =
iy .
(2.99)
2 s
2 s
2 s ix
Unghiurile independente i vor fi determinate pe baza expresiei (2.79), dup cum urmeaz:
ux =

uy

= A tan 2
;
u y2 + u z2

s = u x ; c =

u 2y + u z2 ;

uz

u y2 + u z2

= A tan 2 u x ;

u y2 + u z2 .

Capitolul 2 TRANSFORMRI MATRICEALE N MECANICA AVANSAT

(2.100)
(2.101)

MECANIC AVANSAT N ROBOTIC 59


Utiliznd dou din cele trei componente ale versorului, orientarea sistemului mobil devine:
= (

[ {(u x , u y ); (u y ; u z ); (u z ; u x ) }]T .

)T

(2.102)

Observaii: Deoarece poziia punctului P fa de sistemul {}


i este invariabil, din (2.49)

[P ] i3 [P ] }L 0 [P0 ] = p 0 . Ea reprezint poziia iniial, definit prin


valori numerice. Poziia final fa de sistemul fix {0} , 0 [P ] = p , se determin pe baza matricei

rezult: i [P ]

{ [P ]
i1

i2

de rotaie generalizat. Matricea de transfer, (2.14) sau (2.16) poate fi rescris sub forma :
0
[P ] = R (u ; )0 [P0 ] = R (u ; ) i [P ] ; p = R (u ; ) p0
(2.103)
Dac matricea de rotaie generalizat R (u ; ) este nlocuit cu (2.85), ecuaia (2.103) devine:

{ }

{ }

{ }

0 u 0 u T v + I c + 0 u s I + 0 u 2 (1 - c ) + 0 u s
3
3

+
c

+
u

0
x
y
z
x
z
y
[P ] = x
[P ] ;(2.104)

u y2 v + c
u y u z v u x s
u y u x v + u z s

u u v u y s u z u y v + u x s
u z2 v + c

z x

0 u 0 u T (1 c ) + I 3 c + 0 u s
p =
(2.105)
p0 ;
2
I 3 + 0 u (1 c ) + 0 u s

0 u 0 u T p 0 (1 c ) + p 0 c + 0 u p 0 s
p =
(2.106)
.
2
0
0

(
)
p
+
u

+
u

0
0
0

Ecuaia vectorial (2.106) n prima variant, este cunoscut ca i formula lui Rodrigues.

{ }

}
{

Dac 0 u T p 0 = 0 , i unghiul dintre 0 u i p0 este 2 , atunci (2.106) se simplific:

(2.107)
p = R (u ; ) p0 = p0 c + 0 u p0 s .
Formula lui Rodrigues este utilizat i n determinarea parametrilor de orientare. Astfel, ecuaia
(2.106) devine o ecuaie transcendent, fiind necesar s se efectueze urmtoarea substituie:

1 tan 2
2 tan 2
1 2

2
2 = 2 .
tan = ; c =
=
; s =
(2.108)
2

1 + 2
2
1 +
1 + tan 2
1 + tan 2
2
2
nlocuind (2.108) n ecuaia vectorial (2.106) i avnd n vedere c 0 u T 0 u = 1 , se va obine:

) (

0 u 0 u T p 0 2 2 + p 0 1 2 + 0 u p 0 2 = p 1 + 2 ;
(2.109)

0 T 0
u u = u x2 + u y2 + u z2 = 1 .

Sistemul (2.109) devine un sistem algebric de gradul doi cu patru ecuaii. Prin rezolvarea lui se
obin parametrii de orientare. Formula lui Rodrigues este utilizat pentru definirea parametrilor
de poziie i de orientare, care caracterizeaz un sistem mobil n raport cu un alt sistem fix.

Capitolul 2 TRANSFORMRI MATRICEALE N MECANICA AVANSAT

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[N13] Negrean, I., Kinematics and Dynamics of Robots-Modelling-Experiment-Accuracy,
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[N14] Negrean, I., Matrix Exponentials in Robot Mechanics, Simpozionul Naional cu
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[N16] Negrean, I., Negrean, D. C., The Matrix Exponentials Formalism to Robotics, The Eight
IFToMM International Symposium on Theory of Machines and Mechanisms, SYROM
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[N17] Negrean, I., Negrean, D. C., The Locating Matrix Algorithm in Robot Kinematics, ClujNapoca, October 2001, Acta Technica Napocensis, Series: Applied Mathematics and
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[N18] Negrean, I., Negrean, D. C., The Matrix-Differentiating Operators in Robot Kinematics,
Cluj-Napoca, October 2001, Acta Technica Napocensis, Series: Applied Mathematics
and Mechanics, 2001, Vol. 2, pp. 15-22.
[N19] Negrean, I., Negrean, D. C., Matrix Exponentials to Robot Dynamics, International
Conference on Automation, Quality and Testing, Robotics, AQTR 2002, Cluj-Napoca.
[N20] Negrean, I., Negrean, D. C., The Acceleration Energy to Robot Dynamics, International
Conference on Automation, Quality and Testing, Robotics, AQTR 2002, Cluj-Napoca.
[N21] Negrean, I., Negrean, D. C., Albeel, D. G., A New Formulation of Dynamics Equations
to Robotics, The 8th International Conference of Applied Mathematics, Computer
Science and Mechanics, May 30- June 2, 2002 Cluj-Napoca, Acta Technica
Napocensis, Series: Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, 2002, Vol. 1, pp.7-12.
[N22] Negrean, I., Negrean, D. C., Albeel, D. G., The Generalized Dynamics Forces to
Robotics, The 8th International Conference of Applied Mathematics, Computer Science
and Mechanics, May 30- June 2, 2002 Cluj-Napoca, Acta Technica Napocensis, Series:
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, 2002, Vol.1, pp.13-18.
[N23] Negrean, I., Negrean, D. C., Matrix Exponentials in the Robot Control, Conferina
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[N24] Negrean, I., Albeel, D.G., The Generalized Matrices in the Robot Accuracy, Conferina
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[N25] Negrean, I., Negrean, D. C., Albeel, D.G., An approach of the Generalized forces in
the robot control, Proceedings, CSCS-14, 14th International Conference on control
Systems and Computer Science, 2003, Politehnica University of Bucharest.
[N26] Negrean, I., Psl, D., Negrean, D. C., New Modeling with Matrix Exponentials in the
Robot Accuracy, Proceedings, CSCS-14, 14th International Conference on control
Systems and Computer Science, 2003, Bucharest, ISBN 973-8449-17-0, pp. 143-148.
[N27] Negrean, D. C., Albeel, D.., The Kinematic Control of the Mobile Robots, Proceedings,
of the 7th International Conference MTeM, 2005, Cluj-Napoca, ISBN 973-9087-83-3.
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[N28] Negrean, I., Vucan, I., Negrean, D. C., Albeel, D.G., The Dynamics Control of the
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[N29] Negrean, I., Albeel, D. G., New Formulations With Matrix Exponentials In Robotics,
The 2nd International Symposium of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics Dimitrie I.
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[N30] Negrean, I., The Time Derivative of the Rotation Matrix in Robotics, Acta Technica
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[N31] Negrean, I., The Forward Kinematics Equations in Robotics, Acta Technica Napocensis,
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[N32] Negrean, I., Vucan, I., New Formulation in the Applied Mechanics to Robotics,
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[N33] Negrean, I., New Modeling in the Robot Kinematics and Dynamics, The 8th International
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[N34] Negrean, I., Formulations about the Newtons and Eulers Equations in Robotics,
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[N35] Negrean, I., Formulations about the Kinetic Energy Theorem in Robotics, Published in
the Acta Technica Napocensis, Series: Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, Vol. I,
2006, pp. 21-26, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.
[N36] Negrean, I., Negrean, D.C., New Formulations about the Differential Matrices in
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Systems ADEMS07 Published in the Acta Technica Napocensis, Series: Applied
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[N37] Negrean, I., Negrean, D.C., Formulations about the Mass Distribution in the Robot
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[N38] Negrean, I., Negrean, D.C., Formulation of the Fundamental Theorems in Robotics,
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[N39] Negrean, I., Negrean, D.C., Duca, A.V., The Geometry Equations in the Robot
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[N40] Negrean, I., Negrean, D.C., Duca, A.V., The Kinematics Equations in the Robot
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