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Curs Introductiv
Norme i principii de activitate Noiuni introductive fiziologie, neurofiziologie Stresul, d l duman sau prieten


Curs introductiv

Noiuni introductive fiziologie, neurofiziologie

Fernel (1542)

Physis- principiu dttor de via Logos - tiin


FIZIOLOGIA ? Viaa Logic Studiu



how the individual parts of the body machine perform their functions, how this function is regulated


Repere istorice

-Hipocrate- 460 .c. susintorul observaiei clinice; creierul- cel mai puternic organ al corpului... l l i - Aristotel 384-322 .c.- inima sediul micrii si vieii psihice -T.inexcitabilitii cerebrale 1870 Ti it bilitii b l 7


- Abu Ali Ibn Sina (Aviccena)-980-1037 scrie Canonul Medicinei sau ndreptarul de tiine medicale 1700 - a realizat prima nevroz experimental - Medicul regelui Filip cel frumos dup 1300 scrie: creierul este... rece i umed pt. a diminua extrema cldur i uscciune a inimii, alb pt. a fi ca o t b l i i i ii lb t tabula rasa i a primi orice imagine, lax i moderat de vscos pt. ca lucrurile percepute s-l strbat uor...

- Antony van Leeuwenhoek 1612- microscopul optic

- W. Harvey 1628 De motu cordis et sanguinis in animalibus
- Guy Patin: ...circulaia sngelui

este paradoxal imposibil paradoxal, imposibil, absurd i nociv vieii omului


- Malpighi- 1661- capilar sangvin - Haller-1727-presiune, volum sang. anatomia sang.anatomia face descrierea organelor iar fiziologia explic funciile lor Suport chimic Paracelsus 1493-1541 Lavoisier - 1743-1794

Suport electric- L Galvani 1791 Cl. Cl Bernard 1865: Introducere n studiul medicinei experimentale.
Mendel Experiene asupra Experiene hibridizrii plantelor 1865


W. Waldeyer 1891 neuronul Bayliss, Starling 1902 - secretina C.Golgi, R.Cajal 1906 teoria reticular - neuronal D. Robertson, E. Robertis, G. Palade- 1950 -teoria neuronal

- Walter Sutton, 1902 teoria cromozomial a ereditii - W. Bateson, 1902- genetic - Hans Wincler, 1920- genom C.Waddington,1939- epigenotype J. Watson, Fr. Crick 1953, ADN Genomul uman 2003


Conrad Waddington,1942Epigenetics to refer to the study of the causal mechanisms by which the genes of the genotype bring about p g phenotypic effects. yp


C.Waddington- epigenotype The total developmental system consisting of interrelated developmental pathways through which the adult form of the an organism is realized.

Epigenetic and phenotypic changes result from a continuous pre and post natal dietary exposure to phytoestrogens in an experimental population of mice . Carlos M Guerrero-Bosagna, Pablo g , Sabat, Fernanda S Valdovinos, Luis E Valladares and Susan J Clark BMC Physiology 2008



The effects of laughter on postprandial glucose levels and gene di l l l l d expression in type 2 diabetic patients Takashi Hayashi , Kazuo Murakami. Life Sciences 85

Substance-specific and shared transcription and epigenetic g changes in the human hippocampus chronically exposed to cocaine and alcohol Zhifeng Zhoua, Qiaoping Yuana, Deborah C Mashb, and David C. Mashb Goldmana. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory 2011



Understanding consciousness is by far the most challenging task confronting science. When Crick first entered biology, biology after World War II, two great II questions were thought to be beyond the capacities of science to answer: 1. What distinguishes the living from the nonliving world? 2. What is the biological nature of consciousness?

1. What distinguishes the living from the nonliving world? By 1953, after just two years of , collaboration, he and Jim Watson had helped solve that mystery. As Watson later described in The Double Helix, "at lunch Francis winged into the Eagle [Pub] to tell everyone within hearing distance that WE HAD FOUND THE SECRET OF LIFE" . In the next two decades, Crick helped crack the genetic code: how DNA makes RNA and RNA makes protein.



2. What is the biological nature of consciousness?

In 1976 t I 1976, at age sixty, Crick turned to i t C i kt dt the remaining scientific mystery: the biological nature of consciousness. This he studied for the rest of his life in partnership with Christof Koch, a young computational neuroscientist.

2. What is the biological nature of consciousness? But, despite almost thirty years of continuous effort, Crick was able to budge the problem only a modest distance. Indeed, some scientists and philosophers of mind continue to find consciousness so inscrutable that they f fear it can never be explained in p physical terms. How can a biological system, a biological machine, they ask, feel anything? Even more doubtful, how can it think about itself? Kandel E R. 2002.





Stresul, duman sau prieten

The full cost and burden of disorders of the brain in Europe exposed for the first time.European Neuropsychophar macology 2011, 21, 718-779 718 779 The economic cost of brain disorders in Europe. J. Olesen, A. Gustavsson,M. Svenssond, H.-U. Wittchen and B. Jonsson on behalf of B the CDBE2010 study group and the European Brain Council. European
Journal of Neurology 2012, 19: 155162



-costul total a 19 boli legate de creier pentru anul 2010, n 27 state EU plus Islanda, Norvegia p , g si Elvetia (514 000 000 locuitori) a fost de 798 miliarde -depresia i anxietatea- sunt pe p p primele dou locuri din cele 19 boli analizate

-depresia si bolile bipolare 113.4 -anxietatea:74.4; -bolile psihotice: 93.3; -ACV: 64.1; -boala Parkinson:13.9; -tumorile cerebrale: 5.2. 2



Epigenetic mechanisms, which control chromatin structure and function, mediate changes in gene expression that occur in response to diverse stimuli. Recent research has established that environmental events and behavioral experience induce epigenetic changes at particular gene loci and that these changes help shape neuronal plasticity and function and hence behavior.

Some of these changes can be stable and can even persist for a lifetime. Increasing evidence supports the hypothesis that g aberrations in chromatin remodeling and subsequent effects on gene expression within limbic brain regions contribute to the pathogenesis of depression and other stressrelated disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder and other anxiety syndromes.
Vialou V, Feng J, Robison AJ, Nestler EJ Epigenetic Mechanisms of Depression and Antidepressant Action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2012 Sep 27.



Homo sapiens appears to be evolving into a new kind of species not seen before in organic evolution. This is HOMO HOLISTICUS, systems man, the first species in the earths history with a global reach, entailing global selective forces charting its evolutionary change. g y g
Global change and human change: a prescription for adaptive evolution from ecological network theory.
B.C. Patten, International Journal of Ecodynamics. 2006

Ce-i de fcut?



Omul ar trebui s tie c din creier, i numai din creier, provin plcerile noastre, fericirea, rsul i glumele, ca i starea de bine i suferina, durerea, necazurile i lacrimile. Cu ajutorul lui, gndim, vedem, auzim i distingem rul de bine, plcutul de neplcut. Creierul-cel mai puternic organ al Hipocrate- 460 .c. corpului... Toate religiile, artele i tiinele sunt ramuri ale aceluiai copac

A. Einstein

Societatea uman are nu numai o contiin social ci ea reprezint i contiina lumii materiale, contiina existentei n sens filozofic. Societatea umana reprezint proprietatea materiei, a existenei de a se apleca asupra ei insi de a se recrea.
Profunzimile lumii materiale. M.Draganescu. 1979



Societatea , i mai ales forurile de decizie la nivel naional, teritorial i global cotientizeaz tot mai mult relaia dintre performanele i l l i di f l creierului de a acumula i analiza, responsabil, date din realitatea imediata sau prospective i deciziile legate de aspecte fundamentale a evoluiei societii n raport cu mediul inconjurtor, inconjurtor mai apropiat sau mai indeprtat, indeprtat al crui snatate se rsfrnge tot mai vizibil i mai imperativ asupra sntii societii.

probleme de mare actualitate i urgen a cror rspuns implic colaborarea dintre forurile politice, financiare i tiinifice sunt cele de educaie, de snatate biologic i psihocomportamental a i di id l i i a societii. l individului i i ii Rspunderea la aceste provocri ar fi pe de o parte, povara Contiinei de sine, i pe de alt parte o dovad c organizarea i evoluia materiei pe planeta Pmnt a ajuns la nivelul n care se ntoarce spre sine cu putere de modelare ntru continuitate sau de autodistrugere
Scientific American Mind Romania - Psihologia Azi, nr. 02










Creierul interfa ntre Univers i interfa Omenire