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Bombardamentele atomice de la Hiroshima i Nagasaki

Bombardamentele atomice de la Hiroshima i


Nagasaki
Bombardamentele atomice de la Hiroshima i Nagasaki
au constat din dou atacuri nucleare implicnd aruncarea a
dou bombe atomice, produse de Statele Unite ale Americii,
la sfritul celui de-al doilea rzboi mondial, asupra a dou
orae din Japonia, Hiroshima i Nagasaki. La timpul
aruncrii celor dou bombe atomice, dei rzboiul din
Europa se terminase prin capitularea necondiionat a
Germaniei, Imperiul Japoniei i Statele Unite ale Americii se
aflau nc n stare de rzboi. La 6 august 1945 bomba
atomic cunoscut ca "Little Boy" a fost aruncat deasupra
oraului Hiroshima, iar trei zile mai trziu, la 9 august 1945,
cea de-a doua bomb atomic, cunoscut ca "Fat Man", a
fost detonat deasupra oraului Nagasaki.

Motive pentru efectuarea


bombardamentelor
Cele dou arme atomice au fost arme de oc i teroare.
Avantajul enorm al acestor arme nu a fost militar (SUA
dispuneau doar de cteva) ci politic. Din punct de vedere
militar, Statele Unite ar fi ctigat puin prin distrugerea a
dou orae japoneze. Dar din punct de vedere civil, Japonia
avea s piard mult. Noutatea adus de armele nucleare a fost
nu distrugerea la scar larg (care s-ar fi putut realiza i cu
arme convenionale n cantitatea necesar), ci faptul c
armele nucleare comprim distrugerea catastrofic ntr-o
perioad de timp foarte scurt schimb dramatic politica
rzboiului, motivaiile oamenilor cu putere de decizie i
capacitatea de a reflecta n timp ce rzboiul se desfoar.

Norul ciuperc provocat de explozia aruncrii celei de-a doua


bombe atomice, [The] Fat Man, deasupra oraului Nagasaki
s-a ridicat la 18 km (sau 11 mi = 60,000 ft) n atmosfer
deasupra hipocentrului.

Strategie nuclear
Schelling, Thomas C.: Arms and Influence (New Haven
and London: Yale University Press, 1965) ISBN
0-300-14337-0

Vezi i
Ploaia neagr(film japonez)

Norul ciuperc provocat de explozia aruncrii primei bombe


atomice, Little Boy, deasupra oraului Hiroshima.

Bombardamentele atomice de la Hiroshima i Nagasaki

Bibliografie extensiv
Exist o literatur extensiv dedicat subiectului, bombardrii propriu-zise, deciziei de a utiliza bombe atomice i
capitulrii Japoniei. Sursele care sunt menionate mai jos furnizeaz exemple de scrieri de valoare referitoare la acest
subiect. Datorit continuei i intensei dezbateri a justificrii bombardrilor, este posibil ca unele din surse de mai jos
s conin puncte de vedere disputate.
Hein, Laura and Selden, Mark (Editors) (1997). Living with the Bomb: American and Japanese Cultural Conflicts
in the Nuclear Age. M. E. Sharpe. ISBN 1-56324-967-9
Sherwin, Martin J. (2003). A World Destroyed: Hiroshima and its Legacies. Stanford University Press. ISBN
0-8047-3957-9
Newman, Robert (2004). Enola Gay and the Court of History (Frontiers in Political Communication). Peter Lang
Publishing. ISBN 0-8204-7457-6
Eisenhower, Dwight D. (1963). The White House Years; Mandate For Change: 1953-1956. Doubleday &
Company
Craven, Wesley Frank; James Lea Cate (1946). United States Strategic Bombing Survey; Summary Report
(Pacific War) [1]. The Army Air Forces in World War II. U.S. Government Printing Office.
Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum [2], official homepage.
Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Museum [3], official homepage.

Hiroshima National Peace Memorial Hall for the Atomic Bomb Victims [4]
Hiroshima - 64 de ani de la cel mai mare cosmar al omenirii [5].
Tale of Two Cities: The Story of Hiroshima and Nagasaki [6].
Documents on the Decision to Drop the Atomic Bomb [7]. The Harry S. Truman Library.
The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki [8]. Manhattan Project, U.S. Army. 1946.
Burr, William (Editor) (2005). The Atomic Bomb and the End of World War II: A Collection of Primary Sources
[9]
. National Security Archive.

Istorisiri i descrieri
Hoddeson, Lillian, et al (1993). Critical Assembly: A Technical History of Los Alamos During the Oppenheimer
Years. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-44132-3
Sodei, Rinjiro (1998). Were We the Enemy? American Survivors of Hiroshima. Westview Press. ISBN
0-8133-3750-X
Hachiya, Michihiko (1955). Hiroshima Diary. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-4547-7
A daily diary covering the months after the bombing, written by a doctor who was in the city when the bomb
was dropped.
Hersey, John (25 iulie 1985). Hiroshima. Vintage Press. ISBN 0-679-72103-7
An account of the bombing by an American journalist who visited the city shortly after the Occupation began,
and interviewed survivors.
Ogura, Toyofumi (1948). Letters from the End of the World: A Firsthand Account of the Bombing of Hiroshima.
Kodansha International Ltd.. ISBN 4-7700-2776-1
Sekimori, Gaynor (1986). Hibakusha: Survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Kosei Publishing Company. ISBN
4-333-01204-X
Selden, Kyoko, et al (1986). The Atomic Bomb: Voices from Hiroshima and Nagasaki (Japan in the Modern
World). M. E. Sharpe. ISBN 087332773X
Takashi, Nagai (1949). The Bells of Nagasaki. Kodansha International Ltd.. ISBN 4-7700-1845-2
Weller, George and Weller, Anthony (2006). First Into Nagasaki: The Censored Eyewitness Dispatches on
Post-Atomic Japan and Its Prisoners of War. Vintage Press. ISBN 0-307-34201-8

Bombardamentele atomice de la Hiroshima i Nagasaki


Lifton, Robert and Mitchell, Greg (1995). Hiroshima in America: A Half Century of Denial. Quill Publishing.
ISBN 0-380-72764-1
The Committee for the Compilation of Materials on Damage Caused by the Atomic Bombs in Hiroshima and
Nagasaki (1981). Hiroshima and Nagasaki: The Physical, Medical, and Social Effects of the Atomic Bombings.
Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-02985-X
Detailed accounts of the immediate and subsequent casualties over three decades.
Craig, William (1967). The Fall of Japan. Galahad Books. ISBN 0-88365-985-9
A history of the governmental decision making on both sides, the bombings, and the opening of the
Occupation.
Frank, Richard B. (2001). Downfall: The End of the Imperial Japanese Empire. Penguin Books. ISBN
0-14-100146-1
A history of the final months of the war, with emphasis on the preparations and prospects for the invasion of
Japan. The author contends that the Japanese military leaders were preparing to continue the fight, and that
they hoped that a bloody defense of their main islands would lead to something less than unconditional
surrender and a continuation of their existing government.
Hogan, Michael J. (1996). Hiroshima in History and Memory. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-56206-6
Knebel, Fletcher and Bailey, Charles W. (1960). No High Ground. Harper and Row. ISBN 0-313-24221-6 A
history of the bombings, and the decision-making to use them.
Robert Jungk, Brighter Than a Thousand Suns: A Personal History of the Atomic Scientists (New York: Harcourt,
Brace, 1956, 1958)
The Pacific War Research Society (2006). Japan's Longest Day. Oxford University Press. ISBN 4-7700-2887-3
An account of the Japanese surrender and how it was almost thwarted by soldiers who attempted a coup
against the Emperor.
Rhodes, Richard (1986). The Making of the Atomic Bomb. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-44133-7
Sweeney, Charles, et al (1999). War's End: An Eyewitness Account of America's Last Atomic Mission. Quill
Publishing. ISBN 0-380-78874-8
Rhodes, Richard (1977). Enola Gay: The Bombing of Hiroshima. Konecky & Konecky. ISBN 1-56852-597-4
A history of the preparations to drop the bombs, and of the missions.
Walker, J. Samuel (1997). Prompt and Utter Destruction: President Truman and the Use of Atomic Bombs
Against Japan. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-2361-9
Walker, Stephen (2005). Shockwave: Countdown to Hiroshima. Harper Perennial. ISBN 0-06-074285-2
Narrative events in the lives of those involved in or touched by the bombings.
Weintraub, Stanley (1995). The Last, Great Victory: The End of World War II. Truman Talley Books. ISBN
0-525-93687-4
Recounts the events day by day.

Bombardamentele atomice de la Hiroshima i Nagasaki

Referine
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]

http:/ / www. ibiblio. org/ hyperwar/ AAF/ USSBS-PTO-Summary. html


http:/ / www. pcf. city. hiroshima. jp/ top_e. html
http:/ / www1. city. nagasaki. nagasaki. jp/ na-bomb/ museum/ museume01. html
http:/ / www. hiro-tsuitokinenkan. go. jp/ english/ index. php
http:/ / www. ziare. com/ actual/ international/ 08-06-2009/ hiroshima---64-de-ani-de-la-cel-mai-mare-cosmar-al-omenirii-843317
http:/ / www. atomicarchive. com/ History/ twocities/ index. shtml
http:/ / www. trumanlibrary. org/ whistlestop/ study_collections/ bomb/ large/ index. php
http:/ / www. atomicarchive. com/ Docs/ MED/ index. shtml
http:/ / www. gwu. edu/ ~nsarchiv/ NSAEBB/ NSAEBB162/ index. htm

Sursele i contribuitorii articolelor

Sursele i contribuitorii articolelor


Bombardamentele atomice de la Hiroshima i Nagasaki Surs: http://ro.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=8560263 Contribuitori: Adrian ach, Alex:D, Arado, Ark25, Gik, GT,
Ionutzmovie, Jirka62, Kerouac, Macariev, Miehs, Mishuletz, Mycomp, Nife, Rad Urs, Saxonul, Tolea93, Tsuchiya Hikaru, Turbojet, Vali, Wars, 11 modificri anonime

Sursele, licenele i contribuitorii imaginilor


Fiier:nagasakibomb.jpg Surs: http://ro.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fiier:Nagasakibomb.jpg Licen: Public Domain Contribuitori: The picture was taken by Charles Levy from one of
the B-29 Superfortresses used in the attack.
Fiier:Atomic cloud over Hiroshima.jpg Surs: http://ro.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fiier:Atomic_cloud_over_Hiroshima.jpg Licen: Public Domain Contribuitori: Enola Gay Tail
Gunner S/Sgt. George R. (Bob) Caron

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