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CLASIFICAREA CONSTRUCTIILOR DIN LEMN

Dupa durata de exploatare:


-

permanente (durata de exploatare mai mare de 4 ani, sub forma de


constructii civile, industriale, agricole, poduri, baraje etc);
provizorii (durata de exploatare mai mica de 4 ani, sub forma de
baracamente, tribune, poduri pentru restabilirea circulatiei etc);
auxiliare (schele, esafodaje etc);

Dupa conditiile de exploatare:


-

adapostite, ferite de intemperii (acoperisuri, plansee etc);


neadapostite, sunt supuse umezirii alternative (suprastructuri de poduri,
pereti exteriori, turle pentru foraj etc);
sub apa, stau permanent sau timp indelungat sub apa (piloti sub etiaj,
deversoare);

Dupa destinatie:
-

constructii civile, industriale, agricole, cuprinzand cladiri, baraci, hale,


ateliere;
poduri si podete de serviciu, pasarele etc;
hidrotehnice, cuprinzand baraje, deversoare etc;
speciale, cuprinzand silozuri, buncare, turnuri de racire, turle de foraj, stalpi
si piloni pentru liniile electrice si de telecomunicatii etc;

Dupa sistemul constructiv:


-

grinzi cu sectiune simpla sau compusa, armate sau de tip macaz, cu


contrafisa, cu inima plina din scanduri sau placaj, cu zabrele si din lemn
incleiat;
cadre cu inima plina, cu zabrele si din lemn incleiat;
arce cu inima plina, cu zabrele si din lemn incleiat;
bolti lamelare sau membrane;
cupole lamelare, membrane sau din arce incleiate;

Dupa modul de imbinare:


-

imbinari dulgheresti (prag, scoabe etc);


imbinari cu pene;
imbinari cu cuie;
imbinari incleiate;
imbinari mixte;

Dupa modul de executie:


-

constructii executate in atelier sau in fabrica;


constructii executate pe santier;

CLASSIFICATION OF WOOD CONSTRUCTION


After lifespan:
- Permanent (life of more than 4 years in terms of civil, industrial, agricultural,
bridges, dams, etc.);
- Provisional (life of less than 4 years in terms of hutments, platforms, bridges to
restore movement etc);
- Auxiliary (scaffolding, scaffolding etc);
After operating conditions:
- Housed, sheltered (roofs, floors etc);
- Neadapostite are subject alternate wetting (superstructures of bridges, exterior walls,
towers drill etc.);
- Underwater, staying permanently or for a long time under water (riders under Etiage
discharged);
By destination:
- Civil, industrial, agricultural, including buildings, barracks, warehouses, workshops;
- Service bridges and culverts, bridges, etc;
- Hydro, including dams, spillways etc;
- Species, including silos, bunkers, cooling towers, drilling towers, poles and pillars
for electrical and telecommunication lines etc;
After construction system:
- Section beams with simple or compound, armed or switch type, truss, with heart full
of boards or plywood and wood lattice-lining;
- Heart full frames, wooden lattice and bonding;
- Full heart arches, lattice and wood lining;
- Lamellar or membrane vaults;
- Domes lamellar membranes or glued arches;
After joining mode:
- Dulgheresti joints (shoulder, staples etc.);
- Feathered joints;
- Joints with nails;
- Glued joints;
- Joints ventures;
After execution mode:
- Construction performed in the workshop or factory;
- Construction carried out on site;

AVANTAJELE SI DEZAVANTAJELE
CONSTRUCTIILOR DIN LEMN
AVANTAJE:
-

rezistenta relativ mare (raportul dintre rezistenta admisibila sau de calcul si


densitatea materialului, comportare buna si la compresiune si la intindere);

prelucrare usoara;

asamblare, demontare, mutare, refacere si consolidare facila;

coeficientul de dilatare termica liniara in lungul fibrelor este redus (4x106/C), de 2-3 ori mai mic decat al betonului si al otelului, la constructiile din
lemn nu este necesara prevederea rosturilor de dilatatie;

coeficientul de conductibilitate termica al lemnului (=0.2) este redus fata de


otel, beton sau zidaria de caramida material termoizolant;

Denumirea
materialelor
Lemn
Otel
Beton simplu
Zidarie
caramida

Densitatea
aparenta
(daN/cm3)
500-600
7850
2400
1800

Rezistenta admisibila
Intindere
Compresiune
at
ac (daN/cm2)
(daN/cm2)
100
70
21003000
21003000
45150
11
1015

0.5

Rezistenta relativa
ac

at

200x103
179x103
18.8x103

140x103
179x103
4.5x103

5.6x103

0.3x103

DEZAVANTAJE:
-

anizotropia si neomogenitatea structurii lemnului (rezistentele mecanice


variaza cu unghiul pe care il formeaza directia fortei cu directia fibrelor;
rezistenta materialului din apropierea radacinii este cu 15-20% mai mare
decat cea a materialului din apropierea coroanei);

influenta negativa a umiditatii asupra proprietatilor fizico-mecanice;

sortiment limitat de material lemnos;

prezenta defectelor (naturale-noduri, contractie-umflare, putrezire);

durabilitate limitata;

Advantages and disadvantages WOOD CONSTRUCTION


ADVANTAGES:
- Relatively high strength (ratio of strength and density computing admitted or
material, good behavior and compressive and tensile);
- Easy processing;
- Assembly, dismantling, removal, recovery and consolidation easy;
- Coefficient of linear thermal expansion along the fibers is low (4x10-6 / C), 2-3
times lower than concrete and steel to wood construction is not necessary to provide
expansion joints;
- Coefficient of thermal conductivity of wood ( = 0.2) is low compared to steel,
concrete or masonry insulating material;

Denumirea
materialelor
Lemn
Otel
Beton simplu
Zidarie
caramida

Densitatea
aparenta
(daN/cm3)
500-600
7850
2400
1800

Rezistenta admisibila
Intindere
Compresiune
at
ac (daN/cm2)
(daN/cm2)
100
70
21003000
21003000
45150
11
1015

0.5

Rezistenta relativa
ac

at

200x103
179x103
18.8x103

140x103
179x103
4.5x103

5.6x103

0.3x103

DISADVANTAGES:
- Wood structure anisotropy and inhomogeneity (mechanical resistances varies with
the angle which they form with the direction of the force direction of the fibers,
resistant material near the root is 15-20% higher than that of the material near the
crown);
- The negative impact of humidity on physical and mechanical properties;
- Limited assortment of wood;
- The presence of defects (natural-node shrinkage-swelling, rot);
- Limited durability;