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Timpurile verbelor in engleza

Pentru verbul in engleza timpurile difera fundamental fata de cele ale limbii romane.
De aceea nu trebuie cautate in permanenta echivalente exacte intre cele doua limbi.

Asa cum ne asteptam exista 3 timpuri de desfasurare a unei actiuni: prezent(present), trecut(past) si viitor(future).
Verbul la aceste timpuri il voi numi deocamdata simplu. Mai jos se observa ca la randul lor aceste timpuri ale verbului in engleza
(tenses) pot fi: simple, continue, perfecte sau continuu perfecte.

Explicatii generale pentru timpurile verbului in engleza

 Timp simplu - verbul reprezinta o actiune prezenta, trecuta sau viitoare nelimitata in timp.
 Timp continuu - verbul reprezinta o actiune in derulare la un moment dat prezent, trecut sau viitor care in momentul acela
se petrece simultan cu o alta actiune.
 Timp perfect - verbul reprezinta o actiune inceputa anterioara unui moment dat prezent, trecut sau viitor
 Timp continuu perfect - verbul reprezinta o actiune in curs pana la un moment dat prezent, trecut sau viitor si continuind sau
nu in acel moment

In limba engleza nu exista conjugari ca in limbile latine (romana, franceza etc)

Verbul in engleza este fie regulat fie neregulat.


Pentru ilustrarea timpurilor in engleza vom folosi un verb regulat

Ca si in romana, verbul in engleza are 2 diateze: activa si pasiva


Verbul in Engleza la Diateza Activa

Actiunea e facuta de subiect

De exemplu luam verbul to work (a munci). In engleza verbul to work e regulat:work - worked - worked
Iar verbul to fall (a cadea) e neregulat: fall - fell - fallen
Desi doar Alice in tara minunilor poate cadea cu verbul la un timp continuu (pentru ca dureaza in timp), chiar si acest verb are
timpuri continui pentru ca apare in diferite expresii:

I am falling in love = Ma indragostesc My life is falling apart = Mi se duce viata de rapa

Diferente intre timpurile verbelor regulate si timpurile verbelor neregulate nu exista. Ceea ce se poate observa la verbul neregulat
este ca cele trei cuvinte ex: fall, fell si fallen sunt diferite una fata de alta. Verbele neregulate nu au o regula de formare a celor
trei, acestea trebuie memorate. Verbele regulate adauga ed la forma de baza (prima forma) in cazul formei numarul doi si trei.

To work = A munci (verb


Present Continuous Present Perfect Present Perfect Continuous
regulat)
I am working I have worked I have been working
Present Tense
You are working You have worked You have been working
I work
He is working He has worked He has been working
You work
She is working She has worked She has been working
He works
We are working We have worked We have been working
She works
You are working You have worked You have been working
We work
They are working They have worked They have been working
You work

They work
Past Tense Past Perfect Future Tense Future Perfect

I worked I had worked I will work I will have worked

You worked You had worked You will work You will have worked

He worked He had worked He will work He will have worked

She worked She had worked She will work She will have worked

We worked We had worked We will work We will have worked

You worked You had worked You will work You will have worked

They worked They had worked They will work They will have worked

Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Future Continuous Future Perfect Continuous

I was working I had been working I will be working I will have been working

You were working You had been working You will be working You will have been working

He was working He had been working He will be working He will have been working

She was working She had been working She will be working She will have been working

We were working We had been working We will be working We will have been working

You were working You had been working You will be working You will have been working

They were working They had been working They will be working They will have been working
1.1. I work - Present Tense - Timpul Prezent
Verbul exprima o actiune prezenta nelimitata in timp.

1.Situatii in care prezentul limbii romane este echivalent cu Present Tense din engleza

 O actiune prezenta in derulare (mereu, cateodata sau niciodata)

What do you do? I work in a bank. Cu ce te ocupi? Lucrez la o banca

She never works so late Ea niciodata nu lucreaza atat de tarziu

 Un adevar absolut, chiar daca se desfasoara si in clipa asta

The earth spins around the sun. Pamantul se invarteste in jurul soarelui.

 Se poate folosi pe post de viitor

The store closes at 9:00pm Magazinul se inchide la 9:00pm.

2.Situatii in care prezentul limbii romane NU este echivalent cu Present Tense din engleza

 Atunci cand verbul descrie o actiune care se desfasoara acum (in clipa dialogului) - atunci se foloseste Prezentul Contin

I am working in the garden Lucrez in gradina


Folosind verbul in engleza la prezentul continuu indica faptul ca te referi la clipa asta.
I work in the garden (work e prezentul simplu) - inseamna ca asta e ocupatia ta. De exemplu ca esti gradinar.

 Atentie!: viitorul din limba romana se traduce cu Present Tense in limba engleza dupa: after, before, when, as soon as, while e
exprima o actiune viitoare:

Someday when I am big and strong. Candva, cand voi fi mare si puternic

1.2. I am working - Present Continuous - Prezent Continuu


Verbul exprima o actiune in derulare in prezent care se petrece simultan cu o alta actiune. Este legat de actiuni
concrete.

1. Situatii in care timpul prezent din romana este echivalent cu Present Continuous din engleza

 Verbul reprezinta o actiune ce se petrece in clipa asta (simultana cu momentul in care se vorbeste)

I am working on my new book. Lucrez la noua mea carte.

 Verbul descrie o actiune generala dar simultana cu o alta actiune

By the time the alarm goes off I am already working. Cand suna ceasul eu deja lucrez (am inceput lucrul)
1.3. I have worked - Present Perfect - Prezent Perfect
Verbul reprezinta o actiune inceputa anterioara unui moment dat prezent

1. Situatii in care Perfectul Compus (am muncit) din limba romana este echivalent cu Present Perfect al limbii engleze

 Daca actiunea a inceput inaintea momentului prezent si e inca in desfasurare sau daca efectul ei se vede in prezent

I have worked all my adult life. Am muncit toata viata mea adulta (si inca mai muncesc).

 Daca verbul e insotit de un adverb (mereu, cateodata, niciodata etc):

I have never worked so late before. Niciodata nu am mai lucrat atat de tarziu (pana acum).

Atentie: Fata de 1.1. exista urmatoarea diferenta:

I never work so late. inseamna: Nu lucrez atat de tarziu (ca si in romana) adica refuzi ideea pentru ca nu lucrezi niciodata atat de tarziu,
never have worked so late before inseamna ca desi nu ai mai lucrat atat de tarziu, acum lucrezi (atat de tarziu).

2. Situatii in care Perfectul Compus al limbii romana NU este echivalent cu Present Perfect din limba engleza

 1. Cand se foloseste Present Perfect Continuous 1.4 I have been working


 2. Cand se foloseste Past Tense 1.5 I worked

Sus
1.4. I have been working - Present Perfect Continuous - Prezent Perfect
Continuu
O actiune care s-a desfasurat pana acum, si va continua probabil si in viitor.

1. Situatii in care Perfectul Compus (am muncit) din limba romana este echivalent cu Present Perfect Continuous din limba engleza

 Verbul reprezinta o actiune inceputa in trecut, continuata in prezent, si care poate continua si in viitor

I have been working on the railroad Am muncit la calea ferata


All live long day Cat e ziua de lunga
I've been working on the railroad Am muncit la calea ferata
Just to while my time away. Ca sa mai treaca timpul.

E un binecunoscut cantec englezesc. Am muncit la calea ferata toata ziua si o voi face probabil si in viitor.

2. Situatii in care Perfectul Compus (am muncit) din limba romana NU este echivalent cu Present Perfect Continuous din engleza

 Vezi cazurile timpului Present Perfect 1.3. I have worked


 Vezi cazurile timpului Past Tense 1.5. I worked

Sus

1.5. I worked - Past Tense - Timpul Trecut


Past Tense reprezinta actiunea care s-a desfasurat in trecut si s-a terminat.
1. Situatii in care Perfectul Compus (am muncit) din limba romana este echivalent cu Past Tense din engleza

 Verbul reprezinta o actiune trecuta ce nu a fost intrerupta, nu e concomitenta cu alta actiune, nu se continua in prezent.

I worked till my hands hurt Am muncit pana ma dureau palmele.

Adica, am muncit dar acum m-am oprit.

 Deasemeni acest timp se foloseste foarte mult in povestiri (de exemplu vezi poeziile de la Literatura)

2. Situatii in care Perfectul Compus (am muncit) din limba romana NU este echivalent cu Past Tense din engleza

 Vezi cazurile timpului Present Perfect 1.3. I have worked


 Vezi cazurile timpului Present Perfect Continuous 1.5. I have been working

Atentie! Exista situatii in care Past Tense din limba engleza nu se traduce prin Perfectul Compus (am muncit) din limba romana. Ca exemplu vedeti p
mai sus sau binecunoscutul cantec pentru copii de mai jos.

All around the cobbler's bench In jurul mesei cizmarului


The monkey chased the weasel Maimuta fugarea nevastuica
The monkey thought it was all in fun Maimuta credea ca se joaca
Pop! goes the weasel Bum! face nevastuica

Dupa cum vedeti verbul to chase cu Past Tense chased (e verb regulat la fel ca to work) se traduce prin fugarea (Imperfect) sau fugari (c
timpul folosit in povestiri in romaneste) iar thought(Past Tense de la to think) se traduce tot prin Imperfect.
Atentie: Daca aveti indoieli ce timp trecut al verbului sa folositi in propozitii alegeti acest timp - Past Tense. Va fi mai putin deranjanta gr

Sus

1.6. I was working - Past Continuous - Trecut Continuu


Past Continuous se refera la un eveniment in derulare la un moment in trecut care se petrece simultan cu un alt
eveniment.

1. Situatii in care Imperfectul (munceam) din limba romana este echivalent cu Past Continuous din limba engleza

 Verbul exprima o actiune in trecut care a fost intrerupta de alta actiune (ca si "munceam" pe romaneste)

I was working when the meteorite fell/the phone rang/you showed up. Munceam cand meteoritul a cazut/a sunat telefonul/ai aparut

I was walking in the park one day Ma plimbam in parc intr-o zi


In the merry, merry month of May In vesela, vesela luna Mai
I was taken by surprise Am fost luat prin surprindere
By a pair of pearly eyes De niste ochi perlati
In the merry, merry month of May In vesela, vesela luna Mai.

Atentie: In cantecul de mai sus was walking este Past Continuous dar was taken nu este Past Continuous. I was taken inseamna am fost luat (este la D
Pasiva). Daca vrei sa exprimi verbul la Past Continuous zici I was taking.

2. Situatii in care Imperfectul (munceam) din limba romana NU este echivalent cu Past Continuous din engleza
 Verbul folosit nu are forma continua - atunci se foloseste deobicei Past Tense.

He wanted to come with us. El vroia sa vina cu noi. (was wanting e gresit)

 Actiunea e de durata, e o rutina pe care nu o mai practicam - atunci se foloseste used to - obisnuiam sa/obisnuiai sa etc.

As a boy, I used to wander through the woods Fiind baiet, paduri cutreieram

 Verbul arata o actiune inceputa inaintea unui moment dat sau inaintea altei actiuni din trecut - atunci se foloseste Past P

I had worked as a goldminer for a long time when I finally struck it rich. Lucram de mult timp ca miner de aur cand in sfarsit am dat de

Sus

1.7. I had worked - Past Perfect - Trecut Perfect


Verbul reprezinta o actiune inceputa anterioara unui moment trecut sau anterioara unei actiuni trecute.

1. Situatii in care mai mult ca perfectul (muncisem, lucrasem) din limba romana este echivalent cu Past Perfect din engleza

 Verbul este o actiune ce s-a terminat in trecut fata de momentul/actiunea tot trecuta la care se raporteaza

Emily a spus (trecut) ca lucrase in gradina (si mai vechi) in dimineata aceea
Emily said she had worked in her garden that morning.
Sus

1.8. I had been working - Past Perfect Continuous - Trecut Perfect Continuu
Verbul reprezinta o actiune in curs pana la un moment dat trecut cand a fost oprit de o alta actiune a carui urmari
continua si azi.

1. Situatii in care imperfectul (munceam, lucram) limbii romane este echivalent cu Past Perfect Continuous din engleza

 Verbul exprima o actiune trecuta, ce se afla inca in desfasurare, in momentul cand s-a produs o alta actiune tot din trecut.

They had been working on the new house before the fire destroyed it (Ei)lucrau la casa cea noua inainte sa fie distrusa de foc

He had been working slowly before hearing of the new deadline. (El)muncea incet inainte sa afle de noul termen limita.

Situatii in care mai mult ca perfectul (muncisem, lucrasem) limbii romane este echivalent cu Past Perfect Continuous din engleza

They had been working on the new house for many months before the fire destroyed it (Ei) lucrasera luni de zile la casa cea noua inainte sa fie distr

Situatii in care mai mult ca perfectul si/sau imperfectul din limba romana NU este echivalent cu Past Perfect Continuous din engleza

 Vezi cazurile timpului Present Perfect 1.6. I was working


 Vezi cazurile timpului Past Continuous 1.7. I had worked

Sus
1.9. I will work - Future Tense (I am going to work) - Timpul Viitor
Verbul reprezinta o actiune viitoare nelimitata in timp.

1. Situatii in care verbul la viitor (voi munci) din limba romana este echivalent cu Future Tense din engleza

 Daca verbul reprezinta o actiune in viitor si nu va fi intrerupta, nu e concomitenta cu alta actiune folositi Future Tense.

I will work OK? Am sa muncesc, BINE?

Someday when I am big and strong Intr-o zi cand voi fi mare si puternic
I will walk that road and sing a song Voi merge pe acel drum si voi canta un cantec
I will sing of roads so green and wide Voi canta despre drumuri verzi si late
That turn and bend from side to side Care se indoaie si serpuiesc dintr-o parte in alta
I will sing of roads that turn and bend Voi canta despre drumuri serpuitoare
That go from town to rainbow's end Care merg din oras pana la capatul curcubeului

Atentie: vezi (1.1 I work) pentru primul vers din poezia de mai sus

2.Situatii in care verbul la viitor (voi munci) din limba romana NU este echivalent cu Future Tense din engleza

Cand verbul reprezinta o actiune in derulare la un moment dat in viitor - atunci se foloseste Future Continuous 1.10. I will be working

I will be working in Paris next year Voi lucra la Paris la anul

Un alt mod de a exprima viitorul e folosind to be going to - intentionez sa, am de gand sa

I am going to wait for him at the station Il voi astepta la gara.

Sus
1.10. I will be working - Future Conntinuous - Viitor Continuu
Verbul reprezinta o actiune in derulare la un moment dat in viitor

She will be coming round the mountain when she comes Cand vine, (ea) va veni in jurul muntelui

Sus

1.11. I will have worked - Future Perfect - Viitor Perfect

Echivalentul lui voi fi lucrat

I will have worked for 20 years next month. Luna viitoare eu o sa fi lucrat de 20 de ani.

Sus

1.12. I will have been working - Future Perfect Continuous - Viitor Perfect
Continuu
Acest timp nu prea se foloseste, pune mai mult accentul pe perioada lunga de timp decat 1.11 Future Continuous

Se traduce tot prin voi fi lucrat, si ca toate formele de timpuri continue implica o actiune in derulare

By 2020 he will have been working for 40 years In 2020 el va fi lucrat de 40 de ani
Sus

Verbul in Engleza la Diateza Pasiva

Actiunea e suportata de subiect. Diateza pasiva exista si in limba romana

De exemplu verbul to wash - a spala (verb regulat: wash - washed - washed)

Eu spal rufele saptamanal (Diateza Activa) devine Rufele sunt spalate saptamanal (de mine)

2.1 I wash the laundry weekly - The laundry is washed weekly (by me).
2.2 I am washing laundry now - The laundry is being washed now (by me).
2.3 I have washed the laundry - The laundry has been washed (by me).
2.4 I have been washing the laundry - The laundry has been washed (by me).
2.5 I washed the laundry yesterday - The laundry was washed yesterday (by me).
2.6 I was washing the laundry - The laundry was being washed (by me).
2.7 I had washed the laundry- The laundry had been washed (by me).
2.8 I had been washing the laundry - The laundry had been washed (by me).
2.9 I will wash the laundry- The laundry will be washed (by me).
2.10 I will be washing the laundry - The laundry will be washed (by me).
2.11 I will have washed the laundry - The laundry will have been washed (by me).
2.12 I will have been washing the laundry - The laundry will have been washed (by me).