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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

CUPRINS ½ TABLE OF CONTENTS ¾

Z001 1. Y. NYS, F. GUILLOU, J.B. COULON AND P. CHEMINEAU - Research


Activities in Animal Physiology and Livestock Systems at INRA (French
National Institute for Agronomic Research) ½ Activităţile de cercetare ale
INRA (Institutul Naţional Francez de Cercetări Agronomice) în domeniul
fiziologiei şi sistemelor de creştere a animalelor .....................................................5

Z002 2. J. AUMANN - Breeding programs and progeny testing in the times of genomic
selection ½ Programe de ameliorare şi testarea după descendenţă în epoca
selecţiei genomice...................................................................................................10

Z003 3. B. GEORGESCU, CARMEN GEORGESCU, S. DĂRĂBAN - Pesticides


with endocrine disrupting function – Biomarkers of exposure ½ Biomarkeri
de evaluare a expunerii cu pesticide cu funcţie de disruptori endocrini ................13

Z004 4. Roxana LAZĂR, P.C. BOIŞTEANU, Ancuţa ELENA COŞULEANU, Alina


Narcisa POSTOLACHE - Determination of the main haematological
indicators in the hare compared to the rabbit ½ Determinări ale
principalilor indicatori hematologici la iepurele de câmp comparativ cu
iepurele de casă......................................................................................................19

Z005 5. Alexandra MATEI, G. CHIOVEANU, M. ANDRONE, D. DEZMIREAN,


M. DOLIS, I. PASCA, M. BENTEA - The presentation of silkmoth
Bombyx mori L. sp. genetic resources in Romania as source of initial
material in amelioration works ½ Prezentarea resurselor genetice ale
fluturelui de mătase sp. Bombyx mori L. în Romania ca sursă de material
iniţial în lucrările de ameliorare ............................................................................23

Z006 6. V. TODERICI, Valentina CEBOTARI - Study on the behavior of artificially


inseminated queens of Apis m. Carpatica race during passive period ½
Studiu asupra comportamentului reginelor însămânţate artificial de rasa
Apis m. Carpatica în perioada pasivă ....................................................................28

Z0077. V. MICLEA, M. ZĂHAN, Ileana MICLEA - Characterization of the


reproductive activity of sows belonging to a Mangalita swine population ½
Caracterizarea activităţii de reproducţie a scroafelor aparţinând unei
populaţii de suine din rasa Mangaliţa....................................................................31

Z008 8. Ileana MICLEA, M. ZĂHAN, A. RUSU, F. GHIURU, V. MICLEA - The


effect of several ascorbic acid concentrations on swine oocyte maturation
and embryo culture ½ Efectul unor concentraţii de acid ascorbic asupra
maturării ovocitare şi culturii embrionilor suini....................................................35

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Z0099. GH. NACU, C. PASCAL, Cecilia POP - Hormone-therapy – management


solution for the reproduction enhancement at sow ½ Hormonoterapia –
soluţie de management pentru intensivizarea reproducţiei la scroafă ...................41

Z01010. B. PĂSĂRIN, G. HOHA, Elena COSTĂCHESCU, I. BĂNĂŢEAN


DUNEA - Researches concerning breeding perfomances recorded to PIC
1050 and Camborough sows exploited in SC SUINPROD SA ROMAN ½
Cercetări privind performanţele reproductive înregistrate la scroafele PIC
1050 şi Camborough exploatate în cadrul S.C. SUINPROD S.A. ROMAN ...........44

Z011
11. I. BUZU, Silvia EVTODIENCO, O. MAŞNER, P. LIUŢKANOV -
Intrarasial type of big Moldavian Karakul Sheep ½ Tip Intrarasial de ovine
Karakul Moldovenesc corpolent.............................................................................49

Z012
12. I. BUZU, O. MAŞNER, P. LIUŢKANOV - Elite type of Sheep Moldavian
Tsigaie of Alexanderfeld ½ Tip de elită de ovine Ţigaie Moldovenească de
Alexanderfeld .........................................................................................................57

Z01313. Tatiana LUPOLOV, Valentina PETCU - Study of the genetic structure of


the populations of sheep and poultry on the basis of immunogenetic markers
½ Studiu privind structura genetică ale unor populaţii de ovine şi păsări pe
baza markerilor imunogenetici...............................................................................62

Z014
14. Gh. HRINCĂ - Description of the haemolytic system for testing the blood
groups in small ruminants ½ Descrierea sistemului hemolitic în testul de
grupă sanguină la rumegătoarele mici ..................................................................66

Z01515. S. CHILIMAR, V. FOCŞA - New type bovine of Black and White breed ½
Tipul nou de bovine al rasei Bălţată cu Negru.......................................................74

Z01616. V. UJICĂ, V. MACIUC, Rodica DĂNĂILĂ, ŞT. CREANGĂ, I. NISTOR -


Quantitative genetics researches on the B.N.R. population reared in the
private farms from the North-Eastern area of Romania ½ Cercetări de
genetică cantitativă la populaţia de rasă B.N.R. exploatată în fermele
private din zona de N-E a României.......................................................................77

Z017
17. Elena MARANDICI, G. DARIE, P. CHINTEA - Researches concerning the
influence of the bioactive substances on the boar sperm preservation ½
Cercetări privind influenţa substanţelor bioactive asupra conservării
materialului seminal de vier...................................................................................82

Z018
18. Stela ZAMFIRESCU, Irina TOPOLEANU, Dorina NADOLU -
Observations concerning haematological profile in goat ½ Unele observaţii
privind profilul hematologic la caprine..................................................................86

Z01919. Stela ZAMFIRESCU, Dorina NADOLU - Results concerning the freezing


pretability of buck semen and fecundity after artificial insemination of goat
½ Rezultate privind pretabilitatea la congelare a spermei de ţap si rata
conceptiei dupa inseminarea artificiala a caprelor locale.....................................92

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Z02020. Roxana PARASCHIV, G. MURSA - The competitiveness of the Romanian


economy in the context of European Union Accession. Special
considerations regarding agriculture and rural development ½
Competitivitatea economiei româneşti în contextul aderării la Uniunea
Europeană. Consideraţii privind agricultura şi dezvoltarea rurală.......................97

Z02121. Roxana PARASCHIV, G. MURSA - Challenges of the common agricultural


policy in the enlarged Europe ½ Probleme ale politicii agricole comune în
Europa extinsă..................................................................................................... 103

Z02222. V.-L. ICHIM - Is the European Union an optimum currency area? ½ Este
Uniunea Europeană o zonă monetară optimă?................................................... 108

Z02323. Cecilia POP, Roxana CALISTRU - Choices in interest rate risk management
process ½ Opţiuni în procesul de management al riscului de rată a dobânzii.... 113

Z02424. Roxana CALISTRU, Cecilia POP - Estimation of interest rate risk attending
the bonds loan ½ Estimarea riscului de rată a dobânzii care însoţeşte
împrumutul obligator .......................................................................................... 120

Z02525. C. BULGARIU - Reflections about the role of civil society in the rural
development ½ Reflecţii asupra rolului societăţii civile în dezvoltarea
durabilă ............................................................................................................... 127

Z02626. C. BULGARIU - The procedures to balance a local budget in Romania ½


Proceduri de echilibrare a bugetelor locale în România .................................... 130

Z02727. G. MURSA, Roxana PARASCHIV - State and agriculture. Some


recommendations on agricultural policy ½ Statul şi agricultura. Câteva
recomandări privind politica agricolă ................................................................ 135

Z02828. G. MURSA, Roxana PARASCHIV - Rural development in Romania.


Opportunities and difficulties ½ Dezvoltarea rurală în România.
Oportunităţi şi dificultăţi..................................................................................... 141

Z02929. Benedicta DROBOTĂ, Elena GÎNDU, A. CHIRAN, A.-F. JITĂREANU


Informatics model regarding the analysis of some technical and economic
indicators in animal husbandry ½ Model informatic privind analiza unor
indicatori tehnico-economici în creşterea animalelor......................................... 146

Z03030. Anca DUDAŞ, Alina MOŞOIU - Some aspects regarding the development of
touristic and agrotouristic services in Arieşeni Area from Apuseni
mountains ½ Unele aspecte privind evoluţia serviciilor turistice şi
agroturistice în zona Arieşeni din munţii Apuseni .............................................. 153

Z03131. Liliana BIŢIC, A. CHIRAN, Elena GÎNDU - Study of natural conditions and
social resources from Ţibăneşti Microzone, Iaşi County ½ Studiul
condiţiilor naturale şi a resurselor sociale din microzona Ţibăneşti, judeţul
Iaşi....................................................................................................................... 159

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Z03232. Marcela ŞTEFAN, Mariana BRAN - The analysis of crop structure


according to social-economical requirements in Vrancea District ½ Analiza
structurii culturilor în concordanţă cu cerinţele economico-sociale din
judeţul Vrancea ................................................................................................... 164
Z03333. D. M. ANDREI, Laurenţia DIACONU - Mathematics, the instrument we use
in teaching ecology ½ Matematica, instrument de lucru în predarea
disciplinei ecologie.............................................................................................. 169

Z03434. Lenuţa FOTEA, Elena COSTĂCHESCU, G. HOHA - The effect of


essential oil of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) on to the broilers growing
performance ½ Efectul utilizării uleiului esenţial de rozmarin (Rosmarinus
officinalis) asupra performanţelor de creştere a puilor de carne ....................... 172

Z03535. Daniela ALEXANDRESCU, Monica MARIN, D. DRĂGOTOIU, Elena


POGURSCHI - The effect of energo – proteic level and energy –
aminoacids relations about evolution of body weight at Arbor Acres hybrid
½ Influenţa nivelului energo-proteic şi a rapoartelor energie – aminoacizi
asupra evoluţiei greutăţii corporale la hibridul Arbor Acres ............................. 175
Z03636. Nicoleta BORTĂ, Aida ALBU, Cecilia POP, I. M. POP - Researches
regarding highlight of some pollutants in feeds ½ Cercetări cu privire la
evidenţierea unor poluanţi în nutreţuri ............................................................... 180

Z03737. Al. USTUROI, I.M. POP - Researches concerning the usage of a feed additive
in chicken broilers feeding ½ Cercetări privind utilizarea unui aditiv
furajer în alimentaţia puilor broiler de găină ..................................................... 186
Z03838. B.A. VLAIC, L.AL. MĂRGHITAŞ, A. VLAIC, Alexandra MATEI -
Research concerning the influence of treatment, harvesting moment and
mulberry level from where the leaves were harvested in the IIIrd age
silkworm performances ½ Cercetări privind influenţa tratamentului,
momentului recoltării şi etajului din care provine frunza de dud asupra
greutăţii larvelor viermelui de mătase la vârsta a III-a ...................................... 191

Z03939. B.V. AVARVAREI, Elena-Liliana CHELARIU, R. ROŞCA - Fertilization


influence on nutritive and energetic value of the fodder obtained on an
Agrostis capillaris L. – Festuca rubra L. meadow ½ Influenţa fertlizării
asupra valorii nutritive şi energetice a furajului obţinut pe o pajişte de
Agrostis capillaris L. – Festuca rubra L. ............................................................ 196

Z04040. Roxana MIRON (ZAHARIA), I.M. POP, N. ZAHARIA, A.C. SAVA -


Researches regarding the action of some influential factors on the nutritive
composition of the corn silage ½ Cercetări privind acţiunea unor factori de
influenţă asupra conţinutului nutritiv al silozului de porumb ............................. 200
Z04141. Carmen Ana PIVODA, I. PĂDEANU, H.F.G. SARANDAN, Dana
JITARIU, Camelia ZOIA ZAMFIR, ANA ENCIU - The nutritional
effects of vegetal lecithin over the milk production, apparent digestibility
and sheep ruminant parameters ½ Efectele nutriţionale ale lecitinei vegetale
asupra producţiei de lapte, digestibilităţii aparente şi a parametrilor
ruminali la oaie ................................................................................................... 205

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Z04242. M. ALDA, D. DRINCEANU, C. JULEAN - The influence of prestarter


forage quality on performances and economical eficiency of growing piglets
½ Influenţa calităţii furajului prestarter asupra performanţelor şi eficienţei
economice în creşterea purceilor ........................................................................ 210

Z04343. Cristina Gabriela RADU-RUSU, I.M. POP - Improvement of laying hen


performances by dietary mannanoligosaccharides supplementation ½
Îmbunătăţirea performanţei găinilor ouătoare prin suplimentarea
alimentaţiei cu mananoligozaharide ................................................................... 215

Z04444. Aida ALBU, Cecilia POP, Felicia ŢÂRCĂ, I.M. POP - Evaluation of copper
concentration in some dairy cow feeding raw materials ½ Evaluarea
concentraţiei de cupru din unele materii prime folosite în alimentaţia
vacilor de lapte.................................................................................................... 220

Z04545. Constanţa NICODIM, C. MILICĂ - Studies on the influence of some


regulating growing substances upon the quantity and quality of Mentha
Piperita production ½ Studii privind influenţa unor substanţe regulatoare
de creştere asupra cantităţii şi calităţii producţiei de Mentha Piperita.............. 224

Z04646. Constanţa NICODIM - Researches on the influence of pedoclimatic


conditions from Tecuci area on the biometric and phenological parameters
of Cynara scolymus ½ Cercetări privind influena condiţiilor pedoclimatice
din zona Tecuci, asupra parametrilor biometrici şi fenologici la Cynara
Scolymus.............................................................................................................. 230

Z04747. C-tin. ARUŞTEI - Research on the world state of technique through patents
which refers to mouldboard that equip the ploughs with corps and my
contribution to the modernization of the mouldboards ½ Studii referitoare
la particularităţile cormanelor care echipează plugurile cu trupiţe şi
contribuţii proprii la imbunătăţirea acestora...................................................... 236

Z04848. C-tin. ARUŞTEI - Research on improving the plowing quality and reducing
the fuel consumption in the work of plowing and subsequent agricultural
work by editing the shape by moldboard ½ Cercetări privind creşterea
calităţii arăturii şi reducerea consumului de combustibil la lucrările de arat
şi cele ulterioare prin modificarea formei cormanei........................................... 243

Z04949. Y. NYS - Factors contributing to improvement in egg quality ½ Factori care


contribuie la îmbunătăţirea calităţii oului .......................................................... 247

50. Elena POPESCU-MICLOŞANU, L. IONIŢĂ - Study of the productive


Z050
characteristics of youth and laying quails in the “Baloteşti” eggs-meat
population ½ Studiu privind caracteristicile productive ale tineretului şi
prepeliţelor ouătoare din populaţia mixtă de ouă-carne “De Baloteşti” ........... 254

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Z05151. M.G. USTUROI, I. VACARU-OPRIŞ, I. CIOCAN, R.M. RADU-RUSU,


A. USTUROI - Improvement of the morpho-productive indexes at the
Ross-308 broiler breeders, through increased photostimulation ½
Îmbunătăţirea indicilor morfo-productivi la părinţii hibridului de găină
Ross-308 prin fotostimulare alertă...................................................................... 260

Z05252. R.M. RADU-RUSU, V. TEUŞAN, I. VACARU-OPRIŞ - Aspects concerning


the histological structure of the Biceps brachialis muscles in chicken
broilers ½ Aspecte privind structura histologică a muşchilor Biceps
brachialis la puii broiler de găină....................................................................... 266

Z05353. C. LEONTE, Doina LEONTE - Influence of elements for closing of the halls
poultry performance productive ½ Influenţa elementelor de închidere ale
unor hale avicole asupra performanţelor productive.......................................... 271

Z05454. D. SIMEANU, M.G. USTUROI, Angela GAVRILAŞ, M. DOLIŞ -


Researches regarding the breeding of broiler poultry in different
technological conditions ½ Cercetări privind creşterea puilor broiler de
găină în diferite condiţii tehnologice................................................................... 278

Z05555. Valentina CEBOTARI - Active behavior assessment at Apis mellifera


Carpatica bee ½ Aprecierea comportamentului activ la albina Apis
mellifera Carpatica ............................................................................................. 285

Z05656. Tatiana DABIJA, Angela MACARI - The study reflecting the body weight of
different breeds of rabbits ½ Studiul privind dinamica masei corporale la
iepuri de diferite rase .......................................................................................... 290

Z05757. Camelia ZOIA ZAMFIR, Daniela JITARIU, Ana ENCIU, N. CUTOVA,


Carmen Ana PIVODA - Optimizing the technology of reconditioning the
reformed sheep ½ Optimizarea tehnologiei de recondiţionare a ovinelor
reformate ............................................................................................................. 294

Z05858. C. PASCAL, N. ZAHARIA, Mihaela IVANCIA, I. PĂDEANU - Research


regarding productive potential specific to goats bred in N-E part of Romania
½ Cercetări privind potenţialul productiv specific caprinelor crescute în N-
E României .......................................................................................................... 299

Z05959. V. CIGHI, T. OROIAN, S. DĂRĂBAN, D. DRONCA, V.A. BÂLTEANU,


Teodora Crina CARŞAI - Conformation phenotypic values in Tzigaie
breed from S.C.D.P. Jucu ½ Valori fenotipice de conformaţie la rasa Ţigaie
de la S.C.D.P. Jucu.............................................................................................. 308

Z06060. Cristina LAZĂR, Rodica PELMUŞ, Elena GHIŢĂ - Research on body


development dynamic of Carabash lambs in suckling period ½ Cercetări
privind dinamica dezvoltării corporale la mieii Carabaşă în perioada de
alăptare ............................................................................................................... 311

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Z06161. I. LADOŞI, M.G. BEREŞ, Ileana BEREŞ, Daniela LADOŞI, Paula


MUNTEAN, C. LĂPUŞTE, M. BOC - Comparative production
performances of certain PIC genotypes in swine commercial farming ½
Performanţe de producţie comparative ale unor genotipuri PIC în condiţii
de exploatare intensiv industrială a suinelor ...................................................... 317

Z062
62. Marcela SÂRBU, Ioana TĂNĂSESCU, R. OLAR - The reduction of the
thermical energy in the swines shelters ½ Reducerea consumului de energie
în adăposturile pentru suine................................................................................ 322

Z06363. Şt. CREANGĂ, E.C. POPESCU, V. MACIUC - The studys of Grey Steppe
breed until now ½ Contribuţii privind studiul rasei Sură de Stepă până în
prezent ................................................................................................................. 326

Z06464. V. UJICĂ, Rodica DĂNĂILĂ, V. MACIUC, I. NISTOR, Şt. CREANGĂ -


Intrapopulational structure of the B.N.R. cattle reared in the private farms
from the North-Eastern area of Romania ½ Structura intrapopulaţională la
taurinele de rasă B.N.R. exploatate în fermele private din zona de N-E a
României.............................................................................................................. 332

Z06565. I. GÎLCĂ, Valerica MACOVEI, M. DOLIŞ, Luminiţa DOLIŞ, D. ROBU -


Researches concerning the comparison of milk yield between cattle of
Schwyz breed imported from Switzerland and Bruna of Maramures breed ½
Cercetări comparative privitoare la producţia de lapte realizată de vacile
din rasa Schwyz importate din Elveţia şi vacile din rasa Brună de
Maramureş .......................................................................................................... 337

Z06666. V. MACIUC - Influence of the calving season on the milk yield given by a
Friesian population, imported from the Netherlands ½ Influenţa sezonului
de fătare asupra producţiei de lapte la o populaţie de tip Friză importată
din Olanda........................................................................................................... 340

Z06767. V. MACIUC, Şt. CREANGĂ, V. UJICĂ - Contributions on the study of the


cattle husbandry within the conditions provided by the mountainous area in
Northern Romania ½ Contribuţii la studiul creşterii taurinelor în condiţiile
zonei montane din nordul României.................................................................... 345

Z06868. Ioana TĂNĂSESCU, Marcela SÎRBU - Researches regarding the


thermographic evaluation in cattle breeding farms by integration of
environment factors ½ Cercetări de evaluare termografică în ferme de
creştere a taurinelor prin integrarea factorilor de mediu................................... 351

Z06969. G. HOHA, B. PĂSĂRIN, Lenuţa FOTEA, Elena COSTĂCHESCU -


Researches concerning the growing and feed conversion parameters at those
PIC hybrids exclusively designed for slaughtering ½ Cercetări privind
parametrii de creştere şi de valorificare a hranei la hibrizii PIC destinaţi
exclusiv abatorizării ............................................................................................ 355

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Z07070. E. POPESCU, Mariana SOFRONIE, L. DASCĂLU, Elena RUGINOSU,


Anca PLĂVĂNESCU, Şt. CREANGĂ, M. PÎNTEA - Study regarding
morphological and productive features in high milk production Black and
White Romanian cows from S.C.D.C.B. Dancu, Iasi ½ Studiu privind
caracterele morfoproductive la vacile cu producţii ridicate, de rasă Bălţată
cu Negru Românească din S.C.D.C.B. Dancu, Iaşi............................................. 359

Z07171. E.C. JURCO, G. ONACIU - Comparative researches concerning the milk


production traits on Black and White cattle herd of first calving, breeded in
private farms from Transylvania ½ Cercetări comparative privind indicii
producţiei de lapte la taurinele de rasă Bălţată cu Negru aflate la prima
fătare crescute în câteva ferme private din Transilvania .................................... 365

Z07272. G. ONACIU, E.C. JURCO - Contributions to the knowledge of the main


productive indices in primiparous Roumanian Spotted breed ½ Contribuţii
la cunoaşterea unor indici productivi la vacile primipare din rasa Bălţată
Românească ........................................................................................................ 369

Z07373. Augusta LUJERDEAN, Andrea BUNEA, Vioara MIREŞAN - Seasonal


related changes in the major nutrients of bovine milk (total protein, lactose,
casein, total fat and dry matter) ½ Modificările sezoniere ale nutrienţilor
majori din laptele de vacă (proteina totală, lactoza, cazeina, grăsimea şi
substanţa uscată)................................................................................................. 372

Z07474. M. DOLIŞ - Contributions to the study of growth and development of youth


equine breed male Shagya in the conditions offered by Rădăuţi troop ½
Contribuţii la studiul creşterii şi dezvoltării tineretului cabalin mascul din
rasa Shagya în condiţiile hergheliei Rădăuţi ...................................................... 375

Z07575. M. DOLIŞ, Luminiţa DOLIŞ, D. SIMEANU, M. BURLICĂ - Contributions


to the study of growth and development of youth equine breed female
Shagya in the conditions offered by Rădăuţi troop ½ Contribuţii la studiul
creşterii şi dezvoltării tineretului cabalin femel din rasa Shagya în
condiţiile hergheliei Rădăuţi ............................................................................... 380

Z07676. M. ROMAN - The production of calves for fattening an alternative for milk
quota! ½ Producerea de viţei destinaţi îngrăşării o alternativă la cota de
lapte! ................................................................................................................... 385

Z07777. P.C. BOIŞTEANU, Roxana LAZĂR, Ancuţa Elena COŞULEANU,


ALINA Narcisa POSTOLACHE – Research on the chemical composition
of the deer meat preserved by freezing ½ Cercetări privind determinarea
compoziţiei chimice a cărnii de cervide conservate prin congelare.................... 389

Z07878. G. MOVILEANU – Procedure for assessment of the lean meat percentage as a


consequence of the new EU reference dissection method in pig carcass
classification ½ Metode şi aparate moderne de evaluare a procentului de
ţesut muscular la carcasele de porcine conform normelor U.E. ......................... 394

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Z07979. Aurelia PECE, Vioara MIREŞAN, Camelia RĂDUCU, C. COROIAN,


D. COCAN, R. CONSTANTINESCU - Highlight of buffalo milk cholesterol
through thin-layer chromatography ½ Evidenţierea colesterolului din
laptele de bivoliţă prin cromatografie în strat subţire ........................................ 400

Z08080. S. DĂRĂBAN, C. COROIAN, A. POP, Vioara MIREŞAN, V. MICLEA,


V. CIGHI, S. VOIA, I. PĂDEANU - Study concerning the chemical
composition of meat in young Tsigai sheep, rusty variety ½ Studiu privind
compoziţia chimică a cărnii la tineretul ovin de rasă Ţigaie, varietatea
ruginie ................................................................................................................. 404

Z08181. Lenuţa FOTEA, Doina LEONTE, Iuliana ŢUGUI - The effect of essential
oil of thyme (Thimus vulgaris) on to the quality of meat and carcases of
meat chicken broilers ½ Efectul utilizării uleiului esenţial de cimbru
(Thimus vulgaris) asupra calităţii cărnii şi carcaselor puilor broiler ................ 408

Z08282. R.M. RADU-RUSU, I. VACARU-OPRIŞ, M.G. USTUROI - Researches


concerning the slaughtering efficiency and the cut parts proportion in the
carcasses of the chicken broilers reared within intensive system ½ Cercetări
privind randamentul la sacrificare şi proporţia porţiunilor tranşate în
carcasele puilor broiler de găină crescuţi în sistem intensiv .............................. 411

Z08383. A.A. PRELIPCEAN, Anca TEUŞAN - Melisopalinological aspects regarding


the commercial Robinia pseudoacacia natural honey ½ Aspecte
melisopalinologice asupra mierii de salcâm comercializate............................... 416

Z08484. Micsuna RUSU - Global food trends – functional foods ½ Tendinţe în


alimentaţia globală – alimente funcţionale ......................................................... 421

Z08585. LALA I.P. RAY, P.K. PANIGRAHI, B. C. MAL - Temporal variation of


water quality parameters in intensively IMC cultured lined pond ½ Variaţia
temporală a calităţii apei la crapul indian crescut în cultura intensivă, în
bazine artificiale.................................................................................................. 429

Z08686. Valerica MACOVEI, I. GÎLCĂ, D. ROBU - Estimation of the quality of the


waste water evacuated from Iasi at the level of Dancu purifying station ½
Aprecierea calităţii apelor uzate evacuate la nivelul municipiului Iaşi de la
staţia de epurare Dancu-Iaşi............................................................................... 438

Z08787. Doina LEONTE, C. LEONTE - Study about suppementary feeding of carp


with granulated mixed feeds ½ Studiu cu privire la hrănirea suplimentară a
crapului cu nutreţuri combinate .......................................................................... 442

Z08888. R.G. OROIAN, T.E. OROIAN, Crina Teodora CARSAI, Viorica


COSIER, L. SASCA - RAPD technique used in analyzing the genetic
structure of Cyprinus carpio species – Galitian and Lausitz varieties ½
Tehnica RAPD utilizată în evidenţierea structurii genetice la specia
Cyprinus carpio -varietăţile Galiţiană şi Lausitz ................................................ 444

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Z089
89. Anca TEUŞAN, V. TEUŞAN, A.A. PRELIPCEAN - Research on the
fluctuating asymmetry of some morphological characters of the fins of
Perca fluviatilis sp. ½ Cercetări privind asimetria fluctuantă a unor
caractere morfologice, la nivelul înotătoarelor, la specia Perca fluviatilis........ 450

Z09090. T.E. OROIAN, R.G. OROIAN, Cristina HEGEDUS, V. CIGHI, D.


DRONCA - The monitoring of phytoplankton evolution by biological year
within Arinis-Maramures fishery complex ½ Monitorizarea evoluţiei
fitoplanctonului pe an biologic în complexul piscicol Ariniş- Maramureş.......... 456

Z09191. D. COCAN, Vioara MIREŞAN, R. CONSTANTINESCU, I. BUD, Viorica


COŞIER, Camelia RĂDUCU, Aurelia PECE - Research concerning
some factors influencing the growth physiology in a rainbow trout
population (Oncorhynchus mykiss), reared within controlled environment ½
Cercetări asupra unor factori care influenţează fiziologia creşterii la o
populaţie de păstrăv curcubeu (Oncorhynchus mykiss), exploatată în
condiţii de mediu controlate................................................................................ 462

Z092
92. C. PASCAL, Mihaela IVANCIA, I. GÎLCĂ, G. NACU, L. STANCESCU,
Gh. HRINCĂ, N. IFTIMIE – Study about some factors which have
influence about reproduction function in sheep ½ Studiul unor factori care
pot influenţa funcţia de reproducţie la ovine ...................................................... 467

Z093
93. V. UJICĂ, I. DULUGEAC, Mita ENACHE, M. DOLIŞ, Rodica
DĂNĂILĂ, M. BURLICĂ - Studies of quantitative genetics at the
populations of horses used in the equestrian sports from Romania ½ Studii
de genetică cantitativă la populaţiile de cabaline folosite în sporturile
hipice din România.............................................................................................. 475

94. N. PĂCALĂ, I. BENCSIK, D. DRONCA, Ada CEAN, V. CARABĂ,


Z094
Alexandra BOLEMAN - Possibilities to induce twin calving in cows by
embryo-transfer ½ Posibilităţi de inducere a gemelarităţii la vaci prin
embriotransfer ..................................................................................................... 479

Z09595. I. BENCSIK, N. PACALĂ, D. DRONCA, Rodica CAPRITA, Lavinia


STEF - Establishing the embryo viability from fertilized eggs and
determination of genetic sex to Danio Rerio juvenile ½ Aprecierea
viabilităţii embrionilor din icre fecundate şi determinarea sexului genetic la
pui de Danio Rerio .............................................................................................. 482

Z096
96. D. DRONCA, N. PĂCALĂ, I. BENCSIK, T. OROIAN, Mihaela
IVANCIA, Gabi DUMITRESCU, S. VOIA, Liliana BOCA – Researches
on early embryogenesis from Transylvanian naked neck and Plymouth
Rock hen breeds ½ Cercetări privind embriogeneza timpurie la rasele de
găini Gât Golaş de Transilvania şi Plymouth Rock ............................................ 486

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

Z09797. D. DRONCA, N. PĂCALĂ, I. BENCSIK, T. OROIAN, V. CIGHI, Mihaela


IVANCIA, Gabi DUMITRESCU, Liliana BOCA – Study on the heterozis
effect in early embryogenesis of the commercial chicken broiler hybrids ½
Studiul efectului heterozis în embriogeneza timpurie a hibrizilor comerciali
de găină pentru producţia de carne .................................................................... 489

Z09898. Gabi DUMITRESCU, Lavinia STEF, D. DRINCEANU, Liliana


PETCULESCU CIOCHINA, D. STEF, D. DRONCA, Rodica CRISTE,
Liliana BOCA, C. JULEAN – Changes induced by some nutritional
factors on femur histological structure in pig ½ Modificări induse de unii
factori nutriţionali asupra structurii histologice a femurului la porc ................. 492

Z09999. Doina LEONTE, C. LEONTE - The appreciation of water hygienic qualities


in a farm of chiken broilers growing ½ Aprecierea însuşirilor igienice ale
apei într-o unitate de creştere a broilerilor de găină.......................................... 498

Z100
100. Alexandra MATEI, M. ANDRONE, A. POPESCU, D. DEZMIREAN, B.
VLAIC – Research concerning the establishment of the best size of races
populations from the gene stock sp. Bombyx mori L. ½ Cercetări privind
stabilirea mărimii optime a populaţiilor la rasele din rezerva de gene sp.
Bombyx mori L. .................................................................................................. 500

101. M. CONDREA – Observations regarding some environment factors on


Z101
hemoleucograma in lactation ovines ½ Observaţii privind influenţa unor
factori de mediu asupra hemoleucogramei la ovine în lactaţie........................... 503

Z102
102. R. BLAJ, Mirela STANCIU – The management of the hunting ground nr. 40
Agnita, Sibiu county ½ Managementul fondului de vânătoare nr. 40 Agnita,
judeţul Sibiu......................................................................................................... 506

Z103
103. R. BLAJ, Mirela STANCIU – Concerns on the contribution of the
ecotourism to a sustainable rural development ½ Consideraţii privind
contribuţia ecoturismului la dezvoltarea rurală durabilă................................... 511

Z104
104. Ramona-Vasilica BACTER, D. COITA, Alina MOŞOIU – Laws
concerning food industry ½ Legislaţia în domeniul alimentelor......................... 516

Z105
105. Agatha POPESCU – Analysis of the economic efficiency in fodder
producing ½ Analiza eficienţei economice în producerea furajelor .................. 520

Z106
106. Agatha POPESCU – A comparative study concerning economic efficiency
for various levels of milk yield ½ Studiu comparativ privind eficienţa
economică pentru diferite niveluri ale producţiei medii de lapte...................... 525

Z107
107. E. VAMANU, A. VAMANU, Diana PELINESCU, O. POPA, Sultana
NIŢĂ, Despina A. IONESCU, Narcisa BĂBEANU – Studies concerning
the obtaining of biomass from Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei using
corn extract as nitrogen source ½ Studii privind obţinerea biomasei din
Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei utilizând extractul de porumb ca
sursă de azot........................................................................................................ 531

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 52 seria Zootehnie

108. Corina Elena GHEORGHE, Daniela RADU, Mioara COSTACHE,


Z108
Cecilia BUCUR – Testing some protein fodder used for the intensive carp
raising (Cyprinus carpio, L.1758), during summer II ½ Testarea unor
furaje proteice utilizate în creşterea intensivă a crapului (Cyprinus carpio,
L.1758) , în vara a II-a ........................................................................................ 537

Z109
109. Denisa RACHIERU, R. DUCA, Margareta OLTEANU – Validation of a
method to determine vitamin E (alpha tocopherol) from feed ingredients by
HPLC using reversed phase chromatography ½ Validarea unei metode
pentru determinare a vitaminei E (alfa tocoferol) din materii prime furajere
prin HPLC utilizând cromatografia cu faza inversă ........................................... 543

Z110
110. Marinela ENCULESCU – Research regarding green mass consumability of
natural grass lands and productive effect in fattening young cattle ½
Cercetări privind consumabilitatea masei verzi de pe pajiştile naturale şi
efectul productiv al acesteia la tineretul taurin la îngrăşat ................................ 548

Z111
111. Andreea VASILACHI, C. DRAGOMIR, Aurelia SOARE – The effect of a
microbial product on production performances of fattening steers:
preliminary results ½ Efectul unui produs microbian asupra performanţelor
productive ale tineretului taurin la îngrăşat: date preliminare........................... 553

Z112
112. M. CONDREA – Some aspects regarding phosphocalcic dismetabolia at the
dog ½ Unele aspecte privind dismetaboliile fosfocalcice la câine ...................... 559

Z113
113. Rodica CĂPRIŢĂ, A. CĂPRIŢĂ – Research on some chemical analysis
methods for evaluating the soybean meal quality ½ Cercetări asupra unor
metode de analize chimice pentru evaluarea calităţii făinii de soia ................... 562

Z114
114. Lucica NISTOR, Camelia HODOŞAN, Andra SULER, Daniela
IANIŢCHI, Victoria Gratziela BAHACIU – Research regarding the
influence of lead in fodder plants ½ Cercetări privind influenţa acumulării
plumbului în plantele furajere ............................................................................. 566

Z115
115. Fl. CĂLIN - The improvement of the degraded grasslands through radical
recovery ½ Ameliorarea pajiştilor degradate prin refacere radicală................. 569

Z116
116. Elena COSTĂCHESCU, G. HOHA, Angela GAVRILAŞ – Researches
regarding the age influence on Chinchila female rabbits breeding
performances ½ Cercetări privind influenţa vârstei asupra performanţelor
de reproducţie a iepuroaicelor din rasa Chinchila ............................................. 573

Z117
117. I. DULUGEAC - The study of the evolution regarding the Romanian Sports
Horse and the management of equine sports from Romania in the European
area ½ Studiul evoluţiei la Calul de Sport Românesc şi managementul
sporturilor hipice din România în arealul european........................................... 576

Z118
118. I. DULUGEAC, V. UJICĂ, M. DOLIŞ, Rodica DĂNĂILĂ, M. BURLICĂ
– The phenotypic parameters at the population of Sports Horses from
Romania ½ Parametrii fenotipici la populaţia Calului de Sport din
România .............................................................................................................. 582

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

Z119
119. Camelia HODOŞAN, Lucica NISTOR, Andra SULER, Daniela
IANIŢCHI, S. BARBUICA – Research concerning the possibility of
spectrophotometric methods for determining the uric acid levels in bird
fecal discharge ½ Cercetări privind posibilitatea utilizării metodei
spectrofotometrice în determinarea acidului uric din dejecţiile de pasăre ......... 586

Z120
120. L.C. STAFIE – Alternatives to broiler chickens breeding in peasant
households ½ Soluţii alternative pentru creşterea puilor de carne în
gospodăriile ţărăneşti.......................................................................................... 588

Z121
121. L.C. STAFIE – Alternatives to laying hens breeding in peasant households ½
Soluţii alternative pentru creşterea găinilor ouătoare în gospodăriile
ţărăneşti............................................................................................................... 596

Z122
122. Eva CSUTAK - Influence of raw milk quality on Lactobacillus acidophilus
multiplication and probiotic yoghurt production ½ Influenţa calităţii
laptelui materie primă asupra înmulţirii bacteriei Lactobacillus acidophilus
şi a producţiei de iaurt probiotic......................................................................... 604

Z123
123. Daniela IANIŢCHI, Cristiana DIACONESCU, Lucica NISTOR, Camelia
HODOŞAN, L. URDEŞ – Influence of starch adding on the meat
compositions viscosity ½ Influenţa adăugării amidonului asupra
vâscozităţii compoziţiilor de carne...................................................................... 610

Z124
124. Vioara MIREŞAN, Camelia RĂDUCU, Aurelia PECE, C. COROIAN –
Determination of vitamin A in cow milk through HPLC ½ Determinarea
vitaminei A din laptele de vacă prin HPLC......................................................... 615

Z125
125. P. SAVESCU, A. DUNOIU, L. GIURGIULESCU – Researches regarding
the decrease of the oxidative level of cow milk after the action of different
antioxidant agents ½ Cercetări cu privire la reducerea nivelului oxidativ al
laptelui de vacă după intrarea în acţiune a unor agenţi antioxidanţi ................ 616

Z126
126. P. SAVESCU, A. DUNOIU, I. STAN – Study regarding the changes of cow
milk redox potential and pH follow the addition of specific microrganisms
½ Studiu cu privire la variaţia potenţialului redox şi a pH-ului laptelui de
vacă în urma însămânţării cu unele microorganisme specifice .......................... 621

Z127
127. Şt. LAZĂR, O.C. VORNICU – Biological honey and its attainment
principles ½ Mierea biologică şi principiile care stau la baza obţinerii
acesteia................................................................................................................ 628

Z128
128. Lucica NISTOR, Camelia HODOŞAN, Andra SULER, Daniela
IANIŢCHI, Victoria Gratziela BAHACIU – Research concerning the
effects of oxidizing agents used in the miller's and baking industry ½
Cercetări privind efectele agenţilor oxidanţi utilizaţi în industria de
morărit şi panificaţie ........................................................................................... 632

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Z129
129. Rodica CĂPRIŢĂ, A. CĂPRIŢĂ – Monitoring the milk acidification by the
conductometric method ½ Monitorizarea acidifierii laptelui prin metoda
conductometrică .................................................................................................. 635
Z130
130. Valerica MACOVEI, I. GÎLCĂ – The hydro and biological characteristic of
water from an ornamental lake ½ Caracteristicile hidrobiologice ale apei
dintr-un bazin piscicol......................................................................................... 639

131. Nicoleta DOBROTA, Mioara COSTACHE, Soare STANCIOIU, Gh.


Z131
DOBROTA – Technologic performances of carp breeding (Cyprinus
carpio) in ground basins of small dimensions ½ Performanţe tehnologice
ale creşterii crapului (Cyprinus carpio) în bazine de pământ de mici
dimensiuni ........................................................................................................... 643

Z132
132. Luiza FLOREA – The comparative analysis of fish resources in the Danube
near Brăila, within the periods 1972-1986 and 2006-2008 ½ Analiza
comparativă a resursei de peşte din Dunăre, zona Brăila, în perioadele
1972-1986 şi 2006-2008...................................................................................... 649

Z133
133. D. OPREA, L. OPREA – The effect of density on bester (H. huso × A.
ruthenus) larvae reared in a superintensive system ½ Influenţa densităţii
asupra larvelor de bester (H. huso × A. ruthenus) crescute în sistem
superintensiv........................................................................................................ 655

Z134
134. Adina POPESCU (SÎRBU), Maria FETECĂU, Isabelle METAXA,
Angelica DOCAN – Preliminary aspects concerning structure zooplankton
in the Balta Mare – Carja 1 fish farm ½ Aspecte preliminare privind
structura zooplanctonului in Balta Mare – Ferma piscicola Carja 1 ................. 661

Z135
135. I. VASILEAN, V. CRISTEA, Lorena SFETCU - Influence of stocking
density and water parameters on growth of juvenile Beluga sturgeon (Huso
huso, Linnaeus, 1758) ½ Influenta densitatii si a parametrilor apei asupra
cresterii puietului de morun (Huso huso, Linnaeus, 1758) ................................. 666

Z136
136. Elena COSTĂHESCU, G. HOHA, Lenuţa FOTEA – Researches regarding
the carp breeding in policulture with Polyodon spathula ½ Cercetări
privind creşterea crapului în policultură cu Polyodon spathula......................... 672

Z137
137. Marioara NICULA, P. NEGREA, I. GERGEN, M. HĂRMĂNESCU, I.
GOGOAŞĂ, M. LUNCA – Mercury bioaccumulation in tissues of fresh
water fish Carassius auratus gibelio (Silver crucian carp) after chronic
mercury intoxication ½ Bioacumularea tisulară a mercurului la specia de
apă dulce Carassius auratus gibelio (carasul argintiu) în intoxicaţia
cronică cu mercur ............................................................................................... 676

Z138
138. Gabi DUMITRESCU, S. VOIA, Liliana PETCULESCU CIOCHINĂ, A.
GROZEA, D. DRONCA, T. POLEN, Liliana BOCA, Iuliana
CREŢESCU, I. BĂNĂŢEAN-DUNEA – Aspects regarding the
assessment of octylphenol effect on growth and development in common
carp (Cyprinus carpio) ½ Aspecte privind evaluarea efectului octilfenolului
asupra creşterii şi dezvoltării la crapul comun (Cyprinus carpio) .................... 680

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BACK

Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 52 seria Zootehnie

RESEARCH ACTIVITIES IN ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY AND


LIVESTOCK SYSTEMS AT INRA (FRENCH NATIONAL
INSTITUTE FOR AGRONOMIC RESEARCH)

Y. Nys, F. Guillou, J.B. Coulon and P. Chemineau

INRA, Tours 37380, France


e-mail: nys@tours.inra.fr

Abstract
INRA Animal Physiology and Livestock Systems Division (PHASE) forms a large scientific
community (>500 scientists, >1200 workers) concerned by biology, physiology and animal sciences
having animal production and food qualities as endpoints. PHASE should propose ecologically
intensive systems of animal production maintaining farmer income. In 2007, French animal
productions represented 17% of the total European (UE25) animal production, being leader for
bovine and poultry. During the last 30 years, there was specialization, concentration and
intensification of the animal production system. In parallel, consumers gave more importance to
safety, quality, and specificity of products, to ethical and environmental considerations resulting in
new European regulations. Sequencing of genomes, wide transcriptomic, proteomic and
metabolomic approaches has opened the way to integrative biology. The PHASE priorities are
therefore functional genomics, sustainable development of agriculture, knowledge and acceptability
of biotechnologies, animal welfare, meat, milk and egg qualities for human feed. The objectives are
to maintain France and Europe among the leaders of animal productions and to increase our
scientific knowledge on the biology and breeding of fish, birds and mammals within their farming
systems. PHASE aims to develop techniques for sustainable livestock systems and to understand the
fundamental mechanisms of physiological functions which shape the phenotype and qualities of
animal products. For information see http://www.international.inra.fr/ and
http://www.inra.fr/compact/nav/externe/en/departements/ecrans/17.
Keywords: animal physiology, product, sustainability, food

INTRODUCTION AND SOCIO production systems, in order to maintain


ECONOMICAL CONTEXT farms and farmers with a sufficient degree of
INRA Animal Physiology and Livestock income and autonomy. In 2007, French
Systems Division (PHASE) division forms a animal productions represented 17% of the
large scientific community which includes total European (UE25) animal production. In
biology, physiology and animal sciences and particular, France is the leader for bovine and
has animal production and food qualities as poultry meat and eggs. During the last 30
endpoints. years, there was specialization, concentration
The first element of context is the and intensification of the animal production
expected explosion of human population (9 system. In parallel, consumer demand
billions) which will need to be fed and the changed greatly, giving importance to quality,
recognition that we are using a limited ethical and environmental considerations
natural system. Animal products should come stressed in Europe through new regulations.
from environmentally friendly systems The third element is the need to ensure that
preserving the environment. We should animal products are safe and appropriate for
propose ecologically intensive systems and human nutrition and demand. In addition,
take into account the consequences of global French consumers considers the linkage of
change on livestock systems. The second product qualities to the « terroir » (combined
element is the competitively of animal notions of a geographical location, its

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

agricultural potential and cultural elements) systems, in order to better understand the
and consequent knowledge of the conditions fundamental mechanisms of physiological
of production and their influence on the functions which shape the phenotype and
product, are new, major events to be taken qualities of animal products, (2) to developing
into account in our research programs. The techniques for sustainable livestock systems to
fourth element is the world-wide scientific increase competitiveness of farms and
competition within animal biology and, producer organizations, and control quality of
animal production. Sequencing of genomes, the products while respecting animal welfare
wide transcriptomic, proteomic and and the environment.
metabolomic approaches have been able to To reach the objectives, the activity of
provide a high flow of information. They PHASE staff (1250 workers including 510
require an extremely high analytic power for scientists, 16 research units, 16 experimental
their outputs which allow us to explore the units) is spread over five operational
links and networks between genes and « Thematic fields »:
phenotype(s). The interest in resolving the (1) Neurobiology, behaviour and adaptation:
complexity of biology has led to an increased olfaction, cognitive process, relational behaviour,
alliance between mathematicians and feeding behaviour and feed intake,
biologists, using modelling as the meeting environmental adaptation mechanisms
point, and has opened the way to integrative (2) Reproduction, embryonic and larval
approaches (integrative biology) development, biotechnology of reproduction:
male and female gametes, central and
PRIORITIES AND OBJECTIVES OF peripheral control of sexual activity, biology
THE PHASE DIVISION of embryonic development, biotechnology of
They belong to four domains: reproduction, transgenesis (fish, mammals,
- Integrative biology: functional genomics chicken, goat, rabbit)
and bioinformatics, cell differentiation (3) Digestion, feeding and nutritional
and modelisation value of feed: regulation of ingestion and
- Sustainable development of agriculture digestion, interaction between nutrition and
and global change animal health, new nutritional values of feeds,
- Knowledge and acceptability of feed evaluation
biotechnologies, animal welfare (4) Dynamics of elaboration of animal
- Meat, milk and egg qualities for human feed tissues and related products: multiplication and
The first objective is to propose to French differentiation of animal cells, mechanism of
and European political and socio-economic tissue development, metabolism, relation
stakeholders, tools to maintain France and between protein structure and function, study
Europe among the leaders of animal of lactation, ovogenesis.
productions, in terms of quantitative and (5) Conception of biotechnical livestock
qualitative animal production, but also in systems and evaluation of their sustainability:
terms of genetic improvement of most animal design, evaluation and modeling of livestock
species and interaction with the livestock systems, technical, economical and social
systems. The second objective is to increase acceptability of innovations.
our scientific knowledge of farm animal Studies (about 700/year) are carried out
physiology by producing original knowledge on domestic animals (beef, pig, poultry, fish)
with a more integrated vision of animal and animal models (mice, zebra fish…) and
biology with constitution of scientific issued in numerous publication
« poles » which might associate scientific and (1000/year,45% being journal articles).
industrial partners who share our scientific More information is available on the
aims and models. PHASE aims (1) to INRA website:
increasing knowledge, from genes to their http://www.international.inra.fr/
functions, on the biology and breeding of fish, and for detail information of activities in
birds and mammals within their farming animal production :

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 52 seria Zootehnie

http://www.inra.fr/compact/nav/externe/e - Patents to use chicken embryonic stem


n/departements/ecrans/17. cells for germ line transmission of transgenes.
MAJOR INNOVATIONS RECENTLY - Use of in vitro biotechnologies for
TRANSFERRED TO FARMS AND TO endangered species: birth of a fawn of an
THE INDUSTRY endangered species of deer (Japanese Sikka)
To illustrate the activities of the PHASE from a common bred mother (Elaph deer)
division, we proposed to present major (collaboration with MNHN, National
innovations in the recent years of interest for museum for nature).
users in the 5 areas of animal production division. - The Atlas: ‘Ultrasonography and
reproduction in swine’ (in French, English,
Animal behaviour and Welfare Spanish and Italian) sold almost 2 500 copies.
- Producing and using welfare criteria - Use, in farms, of a combination of
related to animal in cattle and horses: in lighting treatments and the male-effect to
bovine Limousine breeds, genetic selection induce out-of-season breeding in small
on docility is practised; in horses, behaviour ruminant females, horses and poultry: half of
marks have been given to some stallions for the French goat farms use them. Use of
the first time in France in 2007, and mares lighting treatments in AI centres in small
will receive behaviour marks for future ruminant males: all AI centres used lighting
selection in one breed. Welfare criteria are treatments developed in PHASE labs.
used for calves, poultry and pigs (criteria - Tool for electronic detection of oestrus
used for development of European policy). in ruminants: patent deposited, licensing in
- Elaborating a multifactorial approach of discussion with industrial partners.
welfare in farms in pigs, bovine and poultry - Use of melatonin to control out-of-
(Welfare quality European program) in order season breeding in sheep: more than 300 000
to define a special grid to be applied in implants are sold yearly all over the world.
European farms. - Use of cloning for rare and endangered
- Development of management tools or individuals or breeds: one exceptional AI bull
facilities able to increase welfare in farms: was cloned and a breed was « saved » from
housing in dairy cattle (carpets) and poultry extinction (Aurore the last survivor of Bleu
(laying hen coops); fitness in pigs (tooth du Bazougeais bovine breed).
cutting, castration), which were used during
the development of legislative rules. Engineering of animal feeding
- Development of tables of composition
Techniques for controlled breeding and and nutritive value of raw materials for major
biotechnologies farm animals (200 concentrates and by-
- Use of semen (liquid and/or deep-frozen products, 50 to 100 criteria per feed). These
semen) and embryo preservation techniques tables were translated in English, Spanish
in fish, poultry and mammals: a large and Chinese and 12 000 copies were sold.
majority of processes used in artificial - Publication of a book on Ruminant
insemination and embryo transfer centres, Feeding (including 1250 forages) sold at
and/or in farms come from developments in 9 000 copies in 2007 (translation to Spanish
INRA units. A patent for semen preservation and English in preparation).
in horses is used by IMV (world leader of - Recommendations on restricted feeding
artificial insemination technologies ). in ruminants, pigs, poultry, rabbits, horse and
- Use of in vitro biotechnologies (in vitro fishes, based on studies on ingestion,
maturation of oocytes and in vitro fertilization) digestion and nutrient utilization was used to
for genetic improvement in dairy and beef develop softwares such as: INRAtion for
cattle: most of the technologies used were ruminants, translated into English, Spanish
developed by INRA units. and Romanian (3 500 licences sold); Patur’in,
- Development of a specific machine Herb’evol and Herb’avenir for help on
(« PulseIons ») for piloting Calcium waves pasture management (several hundred users
around the time of fertilization in individual in France and Europe); INRAPorc for
oocytes and embryos: patents and licensing rationing in pigs (300 licences sold in 16
to a start-up company (Bracer Biotech). countries, 451 teaching licences); INAVI and

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

AviSim in poultry (more than 100 licences - Involvement since 2006 of 10 division
sold to industrial partners). In fishes scientists to the AFSSA, French food safety
optimization of feed formula to reduce authority group working on « Impacts of
incorporation of fish products in fish feeding husbandry and breeding techniques on fatty
and dumping estimates are used by feed acid composition of animal products and
companies. In rabbits, recommendations of human feeding ».
fibre content and level of feeding for young - Tools for traceability of animal
rabbit health are used by rabbit producers. products: 2 patents were registered.
- Specific husbandry schemes (use of - Tools for predicting meat tenderness: 1
specific AA) and additives (probiotics) to patent with breeder organization was
replace antibiotics in ruminants, monogastric registered, licensing under discussion.
animals and fishes were developed with
private companies and used by them. New livestock systems
- Use of vegetable sources of nutrients - Development of innovative livestock
(proteins and oil) for fish production was systems that respect the environment: (a)
increased from 15-20% to more than 50% in ‘Green Piggery’ to reduce environmental
the last five years. effects (wastes, odours), (b) feeding systems
to reduce mineral wastes, (c) management
Development of animal products designed for systems to retain soluble contaminants in the
human feeding litter. These elements were used in
- Modulation of fatty acid contents of developing new regulatory policies.
milk and meat by specific feeds: our research - Study of the consequences of innovative
has determined feeding strategies (use of practices (once-a-day milking in ruminants,
Lineseed) to modulate the methane emission sequential feeding in poultry, etc), or changes
and FA content in ruminant and pork meat in regulations (poultry cages, dates of weaning).
and milk. These results are used by specific - Development of integrated systems of
producers in particular to enrich animal ovine production under organic farming: a
products in omega 3 FA (Bleu Blanc Coeur, research-development platform allows us to
Danone, ...). A part of these programs were compare different management systems of
funded by these companies. animals under organic farming conditions
- Production of « Pilot animal products » and to test husbandry practices (antiparasitic
with innovative compositions for studies in treatments, use of concentrate feeding,
human nutrition (performed by AlimH management of reproduction), compatible
division) and/or in food process (performed with the specifications of organic farming.
by CEPIA division, feed technology). - Evaluation of wastes from different fish
- Use of natural antioxidants in ruminant rearing systems: data used by CIPA (Inter-
nutrition to prevent oxidation of beneficial industrial committee for aquaculture and
fatty acids in meat: work with a start-up fisheries) and ITAVI (Inter-industrial institute
(Phytosynthèse) in the field, which uses the in charge of poultry, rabbit and fish production)
results of our laboratories and who grant a for the negotiation with the Ministry of
licence for use of the patent. Agriculture and Sustainable Development on
- Specific engineering of fish feeding to the French water framework directive.
achieve adequate fatty acid contents of flesh.
- Participation in the drafting of CONCLUSION AND PROSPECTS
recommendations for inclusion in the To conclude, we would like to emphasize
specifications of meat produced under quality the main evolutions of the division since
schemes: work and expertise of PHASE recent years. Scientifically, a large number of
scientists allow us to define typical animal scientists have continued to move towards a
products, and are used by industry to develop better investment in integrative biology by
the specifications (i.e. the accepted rules for using transcriptomic and proteomic
production) of their products under quality approaches on the agronomic species, in spite
schemes (PDO, Protected Designation of of difficulties in the development of specific
Origin, Labels, Organic farming, etc). tools at the beginning of the period. These
approaches, combined with classical methods

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 52 seria Zootehnie

for the characterization of phenotypes, have - Maintain a minimum direct and


allowed PHASE to keep his place in the non-scientifically orientated budget for units
worldwide competition for physiological to allow them to develop their own policy
explanations of the variability of adult traits. - Reserve an increasing part of the
The implication in functional genomics budget for incitation funds dedicated to the
was also improved, but this was more an objectives proposed in the strategic agenda,
increase in the use of model animals (mice and allowing recently-recruited scientists
and fish) than the development of new and (especially young ones) to develop new and
specific genetically-modified agricultural innovative programs
models. For the latter, we still need to - Specific activities open to outside
develop efficient tools for easy genetic partners to build the initial elements of new
engineering, a domain in which we are active programs to be submitted later to ANR
and in which our teams are competent, but (national research agency which is founding
where the scientific challenges to be research programmes).
overcome are numerous and difficult. The In the next strategic agenda, PHASE
production of these tools for our domestic division priorities will firstly to continue the
species will open the door to easily investment in integrative biology and to
obtainable genetically modified animals. develop, in close association with GA division
A continuous investment was also made in (Animal Genetics), a large program of high-
modelling approaches, from gene networks to output phenotyping. This would be done under
livestock systems, passing from cells to tissues, GA responsibility for phenotype
organs and animals. This allowed the characterization of agricultural animals, with a
development of fruitful cooperation with strong implication of the PHASE division for
scientists of a completely different culture definition of traits and use of experimental units.
(mathematicians) than that existing in PHASE The second priority is the proposition of a
division. The scientific development towards very large program regarding the ecological-
the exploration of sustainable systems of nutritional imprinting of animal products, and
production was more difficult because it its consequences on innovative and sustainable
needed a more profound change in mentalities systems of production. Everyone now
and, for a part of the PHASE scientists, a recognizes that we should adapt our
move far from their immediate scientific fields. production livestock systems to better
Scientific investments were made with integration in their natural environment, thus
the idea that PHASE should propose developing ecologically intensive farming
innovations, know-how and explanations systems, but only a few scientists have reached
linked to livestock productions, not only to the objective of proposing systems which can
farmers but now to all of society. PHASE produce under such constraints. One way to
division should continue to support the change the systems is to provide consumers
‘reversible continuum’ between basic science with an exact and exhaustive indication of the
which provides original and competitive origin, conditions of production and qualities
results and explanations, and applied science of the products they are consuming.
which provides innovations and know-how. Finally, PHASE division will also
Regarding experimental facilities and continue to support essential programs such as
units,. The objectives were to modernize modelling approaches. PHASE will also re-
them ready for a future European organize research and experimental units and
accreditation. Units were merged in various raise facilities to a high standard which will
sites in order to rationalize and increase the enable them to be used by European partners.
efficiency of the systems and to constitute
new units under a renewed management. REFERENCES
The budgetary management of the *** http://www.international.inra.fr/
division was oriented in three main directions ***
in order to stabilize the units but stimulate http://www.inra.fr/compact/nav/externe/en/departe
some area of research: ments/ecrans/17

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

BREEDING PROGRAMS AND PROGENY TESTING


IN THE TIMES OF GENOMIC SELECTION

J. Aumann

Besamungsverein Neustadt a. d. Aisch e. V.


Web: www.bvn-online.de, e-mail: aumann@bvn-online.de

Genomic selection will be the next big milestone for the development of breeding programs for
dairy and dual purpose cattle. The theoretical work was done during the last 8 years since
MEUWISSEN (2001) made the first proposal to use genomic information in Genetic Gain
cattle breeding programs. During the last years the technology for genotyping Genomic Selection
our animals were developed rapidly. Now it is possible to get the genome-
0,467 σA
wide information of our breeding animals for 40000 to 60000 Single
nucleotide proteins (SNP) for a price of about 250,00 EURO. Therefore it is important for a
breeding association or an A.I. Company to plan how this information can be sampled in an optimal
way for a utilization in our breeding programs to increase the genetic standard of our breeds.
Key words: genomic, genetic markers, progeny, selection

1. Advantages of genomic selection The advantages of genomic selection are


Genomic selection means, that breeding that at the age of 12 months a breeding value
values of animals are derived by the derived by genomic selection has a reliability
information of 20000 to 60000 loci, which of 0,55 to 0,75 for dairy traits. Without
were evaluated by new techniques of genomic selection only a pedigree breeding
detection of genetic markers. Many scientific value with a reliability of about 40% can be
projects are in progress to estimate breeding derived out of the animal model. If the
values out of this information. In USA, New reliability out of the genomic selection is
Zealand and Netherlands systems of genomic high enough to use these sires as proofed
selection are in practice since several months. sires in artificial insemination the generation
France has announced to start in April 2009 interval in cattle breeding programs can be
and in Germany July 2009 should be the start reduced drastically. This results then in a
of this new technique. All these countries are much higher genetic progress. L. Shaffer
in strong competition with their Holsteins (200 ) pointed out that the genetic progress
and therefore the pressure is very high to will be more than twice in comparative to a
introduce such a system. progeny testing system, if the reliability of
the genomic breeding values is 0,75.

Table 1
Four pathways of selection, progeny testing

Accuracy Generation
Pathway Selection %
i fn Interval, L i x fn
Sire of bulls 5 2.06 0.99 6.5 2.04
Sire of cows 20 1.40 0.75 6 1.05
Dams of bulls 2 2.42 0.60 5 1.45
Dams of cows 85 0.27 0.50 4.25 0.14
Total 21.75 4.68

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 52 seria Zootehnie

Table 2
Four pathways of selection, genome-wide strategy

Accuracy Generation
Pathway Selection %
i fn Interval, L i x fn
Sire of bulls 5 2.06 0.75 6.5 2.04
Sire of cows 20 1.40 0.75 6 1.05
Dams of bulls 2 2.42 0.60 5 1.45
Dams of 85 0.27 0.50 4.25 0.14
cows
Total 21.75 4.68

2. Demands for breeding programs These farmers try to make sure that the sires,
National breeding programs have to take which are used in their herd will lead to high
into account the international competition. quality progenies. The best known strategy
For traits, which are evaluated and used for this is a progeny testing program with at
international by organizations like least 100 daughters. This may result in lower
INTERBULL, this breeding programs have selection differentials as if only genomic
to take into account that the genetic progress breeding values are used.
in those traits should be on the same level as
in the other countries. For national breeding 3. Impacts on breeding programs
programs dairy traits like milk yield and e.g. Nearly all specialists in breeding programs
somatic cell score are much more important want to use genomic information in their
than functional traits like longevity, fertility breeding programs. Breeds with a high
and calving ease. competition between breeding programs in
different countries have a much higher
In contrast for breeders these functional pressure to utilize this information. But at this
traits seem to be more important, since the time we do not know about the realized
profit of a breeding herd results mostly from reliability of genomic information and we
the value of the sold products like milk and don’t know about the intervals in which the
breeding animals. Breeding animals can only formula for calculating the breeding values out
be sold from the farm if more animals are the genomic information should be adapted.
produced than the farmer needs to replace his
herd. Therefore longevity and fertility have a In the dual purpose breed Fleckvieh
very high importance for single breeders. (Baltata Romaneasca) have not such a high
pressure from international competition.
Since national breeding programs are in Therefore we are thinking on a more
international competition and are carried out evolutionary way to introduce genomic
by breeders which own between 20 and 500 selection in our breeding program.
Herd book cows, both parts have to be − Preselection of young test bulls by
included in an optimal strategy. From the genomic selection
theoretical approach of quantitative selection − More intensive progeny testing of those
a reliability of 60 to 65 % may be enough to sires with 500 instead of 100 daughters
select A.I.-bulls and use them to produce − Sampling the information on production
20000 or 30000 progenies in the population. traits and functional traits out of this test
For breeders, especially those with smaller bulls
herds below 100 cows, the value of the single − Deriving economic weights under the
animal is to high to believe in a higher new situation to optimize the breeding
increase of the genetic value only on average. goal

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

Working with this steps has the big producers are not satisfied with the longevity,
advantage, that the breeders may follow the fertility, calving ease and somatic cell count
elements of the new breeding program. If of their cows.
they learn to work with this genomic
information they are much more active in 4. Consequences for cattle breeding in
using such techniques in their herds. Since Romania
our breeding programs are based on an active For cattle breeding in Romania the
work of the farmers, this seems to very introduction of genomic selection may be a
important to get a suitable solution for the good chance to take part in a cooperation of
whole population. This can also be proofed national breeding programs. In Baltata
by the inseminations done in our A.I. Station Romaneasca as well as in Holstein you are
in Germany. About 15 to 20% of our cows working strongly together with the
are inseminated with sires, which have populations in Germany, France and Austria.
already many daughters from the second crop Since this is done for a longer period the
and therefore a reliability of 99%. This shows Romanian population has many links to
that some milk producers do not trust in our western European populations. Therefore the
bulls with a reliability of about 80%. It seems genomic breeding values for Germany and
to be not reasonable to convince these France can also derived for Romanian
farmers to use genomic selected bulls. animals. This gives Romanian breeders the
Perhaps it is possible to convince them to use chance to take part in the German testing
bulls, which were tested with a group of 500 program and sell animals as test bulls in these
female (dairy) and 500 male (beef) populations. For the foreign populations the
progenies. After introduction of genomic population from which the test bulls are
selection some specialized breeding farms selected increases and may then be
may accept genomic breeding values to responsible for a higher genetic gain in
produce the next generation of test bulls. If Romania and Germany or France
both pathways are possible there is a real respectively. This formulated goal may be a
reduction of the generation interval for our little bit optimistic, but long cooperations
dual purpose breed. This slow strategy gives between Romanian and German partners in
us the chance to make more evaluations on the last 10 years - as we carried out in Targu
the development of functional traits with Mures - give me the motivation to continue
genomic selection. This seems to be very this in the future.
important, because the decision for good and In this context, genomic selection is not
less good breeds will be done in future more only a good chance to improve animal
on functional traits than on production traits. breeding but also the cooperations between
The discussion about crossbreeding in the the German and the Romanian breeding
Holstein population coming from the USA is associations and their breeding programs.
mainly based on the fact, that American milk

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 52 seria Zootehnie

PESTICIDES WITH ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING FUNCTION


– BIOMARKERS OF EXPOSURE

B. Georgescu1, Carmen Georgescu2, S. Dărăban1


1
Faculty of Animal Husbandry and Biotechnologies, University of Agricultural Sciences and
Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca
2
Faculty of Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Cluj-Napoca

Abstract
The enyzme complex P-450 cytocrom is responsible of pollutant biotransformation and
neutralization in animal organism. Practically, these enzymes are present in most tissues, being
peculiarly good represented in liver. They play a major role in the metabolic pathways of Ist phase
reactions. P-450-dependent cytochrom enzymes catalyze oxidation, reduction and hydrolysis
reactions, supposing introduction of some reactive groups with high polarity into the pollutant
molecule: -OH; -SH; -COOH and –NH2. Pollutant biotransformation processes are differently
carried on, function of the hidrosoluble or liposoluble nature of the xenobiotic. Liposoluble
pollutants are metabolized in the endoplasmatic reticle, while hidrosoluble pollutants are
metabolized in other cell organelles. Identification and quantification of enzymes specific activity
from this overfamily indicates organism exposure to contaminants, being widely used as biomarkers
of environment quality and agro-feeding products.
Key words: pollutant, animal bioacumulation, detoxification, cytocrom CYP 1A1

Action assessment of pollutants in cytochrom enzymes (CYP) practically are


environment on animal organisms but also found in all tissues, the best being
on humans, can be realized as early as represented in liver. CYP different
initial phase by biomarkers. Pollutant representatives can be identified in
action on animal organism determines intestine, lung, kidney, brain, gonads, hart,
modifications in cell and molecules level, suprarenal glands, nasal and tracheal
including genetic material modifications mucosa and in skin (Pelkonen, et al.,
(DNA), but also the presence of some 2008).
responsive enzymes (proteins) to pollutant Xenobiotic conversion into metabolites
action. Such a family of enzymes is supposes some enzymatic reactions,
represented by P450 cytochrom (CYP). To classified by Williams (1959) into I-st
the level of February month, 2008, the phase reactions and II-nd phase reactions.
cytochrom P450 (CYP) enzyme super- From the category of I-st phase reactions ,
family was constituted of above 7000 oxidation, reduction and hydrolysis are
representatives with known nucleotides belonging to, while in the category of II-nd
sequence, identified in animals, plants, phase reactions , conjugation and synthesis
bacteria and fungus (Pelkonen , et al., reactions are appointed. Logically, one or
2008). Human genome has as components more reactions of I-st phase precede
57 genes of CYP type. CYP fifteen reactions of II-nd phase.
enzymes from 1, 2 and 3 families Metabolic path ways of I-st phase
metabolize xenobiotics. Other CYP-s reactions, catalyzed by enzymes of
present a more “narrow” specificity for the oxidase, reductase and hydrolase category,
substratum and principally metabolize supposes introduction into pollutant
endogen substances, as: sterols, fat acids, molecule of some reactive groups with
eicosanoides and vitamins. P450 high polarity: -OH, -SH, -COOH and –

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

NH2. Displaying headquarters of specific answer to enzymatic inductors


biodegradation processes are different such as Phenobarbital or 3-metylcolantren.
function of hydrosoluble or lyposoluble In animals there are described two kind
nature of pollutant. Lyposoluble pollutants of P-450 cytochrome-dependant mono-
are metabolized in endoplasmatic reticle, oxigenasic systems. The most important,
and those hydrosoluble in other cell major implicated in xenobiotic
organelle. biotransformation is expressed in
Oxidation is catalysed by oxidases microsomal fraction of endoplasmatic
which transform a series of exogenous reticle from hepatocytes and extra-hepatic
substances such as nitrites, sulphides and cells (lung, kidney, placenta, tegument
sulphites in nitrates and sulphides less intestines, suprarenal, testicular, ocular,
nocives. pancreatic, mammary, aorta wall, brain,
Reduction contents couple reactions of nasal epithelium, colon, salivary glands,
nitro- and amino-derivates reduction with prostate, cardiac, lympha ganglions,
methemoglobinisant products forming and splenic, thymus and tiroida).
those of pentavalent arsenic reduction into The second mono-oxigenasic system is
a trivalent compound. recovered to the mitochondria level, in
Hydrolise supposes desesterification, steroidic cells (suprarenal, ovarian, testicular)
desamination and hydrolytic scission and contains a flavoprotein-FAD and a
reactions of some amides and glycosides. sulphide-iron-protein which make easier the
Cytochrom P-450 – dependant electron transfer from NADP to P-450. The
oxidation reactions, represent the first step mitochondrial P-450 system is implicated in
in most xenobiotic and a lot of endogenous steroid structure endogenous compounds
compounds metabolization, including fat metabolization, such as cholesterol
acids, prostaglandins, steroids and colecalciferol (D3 25-hydrovitamin),
vitamins. The system P-450 (cytochrom P- deoxycorticosteron (suprarenal hormone with
450 or CYP or CYP-450) represents the mineralocorticoide activity) and it is
generic term for a large number of characterized by significant high specificity
oxidative enzymes implicated into comparatively to microsome mono-oxygenatic
bacterial, vegetal and animal physiology. system (Estabrook, 1984).
The P-450 system is connected to the cell In low concentrations, P-450
membrane level and it is characterized by cytochrome system also is expressed to
two major components: nuclear membrane, Golgi apparatus and
- cytochrome c P-450, an hemoprotein, plasma membrane level .
and Also, there is a P-450 independent
- P-450 cytochrome reductase, a mono-oxygenatic system, placed to the
flavoprotein which contains FMN and endoplasmatic reticle level from liver and
FAD prosthetic groups. This enzyme extrahepatic tissues virtually present in all
reduces the cytochrome c and it is known nucleate cells. Flavin-dependent mono-
as NADPH-cytochrome c reductase. oxygenase initially was isolated from pig
Another protein cofactor implicated in liver (Ziegler and Mitchell, 1972), later on
electron transfer, nearly P-450 cytochrome also in other species being identified (rat,
reductase, is b5 cytochrome. P-450 system mouse, rabbit). The system contains
uses molecular oxygen in view of dinucleotid-adenin-flavine co-enzyme
oxidation reactions. (FAD), needs NADPH as co-factor and as
There are a lot of P-450 izo enzymes, physiologic substratum cysteamine which
that explain the capacity of this system to is oxydated to cystamine.
oxidize numerous substratum. P-450 izo- Many organic chemical substances are
enzymes present substratum specificity and oxidated during arahydonic acid H-

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 52 seria Zootehnie

prostaglandine-syntase conversion into halothantrichlorinefluormethan,


prostaglandine. Xenobiotic oxidation is hexachlorinethan and pentachlorinethan.
catalysed by hydroperoxidase of H- Other classes of xenobiotics metabolized
prostaglandin-syntase, reaction being by the same pathway are insaturated
defined as co-oxidation. G2 prostaglandine hydrocarbons (epoxides), primary amines
reduction by H-prostaglandine-syntase (hydroxylamines, hydrazo-derivated) and
needs electron donation, usually derived tertiary amines .
from co-oxidated substratum. Co-oxidation Hydrolyse reactions are mostly
is implicated in biotransformation of some implicated in esther and amide
xenobiotics such as benzopyren, metabolization, but also of compounds
diethylstilbestrol or acethaminofen. Some converted in epoxides by P-450 system.
of them, such as benzopyren are converted Hydrolise reactions are integrated in I-st
in strong mutagens as a result of this phase reactions because they generate
reaction (Krauss and Eling, 1984). RCOOH, RNH2 and ROH groups,
H-prostaglandine syntase activity is representing sites to whom level
strong expressed in extrahepatic tissues conjugation reactions take place (II-nd
with reduced P-450 mono-oxigenasic phase reactions). These catalyse epoxydes
activity. These tissues include tegument, hydratation to dihydrodiols and represent
renal medullary, lung and endothelium important enzymes in toxifying-
cells from vascular walls. detoxifying processes. Aliphatic and
Xenobiotic metabolization by aromatic insatured hydrocarbons are
peroxidation leads to metabolic compounds converted into epoxydes by P-450 mono-
which can mediate toxic effects. oxygenases . To their turn, some epoxydes
One of main metabolic pathway for are tied covalent to proteins and DNA,
alcohols and aldehydes biotransformation inducing nocives effects such as cell
is oxidation by aldehydes and ketones, necrosis, acute and chronic toxicity,
respectively to carboxylic acids. Aldehyde mutagenesis, carcinogenesis and
dehydrogenase is wide distributed in teratogenesis. Diols resulted following
mammal tissues, but being most epoxyde hydrolase action are less toxic
represented to hepatic level. Aldehyde- than substratum, although in the case of
dehydrogenase uses NAD(P)+ as co-factor, some aromatic polycycling hydrocarbons,
and aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes are diols are forerunners of some carcinogenic
quickly oxidated to carboxylic acids. and mutagenic compounds. There are
Mono-oxidases are disposed at the described two distinct epoxyde hydrolase
mitochondria external membrane level, with their place at the level of
being wide distributed in mammal tissues, endoplasmatic reticle, respectively in
excepting erythrocytes and plasma. This cytosol with substratum specificity.
enzymatic system catalyses oxidative As a result of different enzyme groups
deamination of many exogen or endogen and intimate mechanisms of P-450
origin monoamines (ex, amines resulted complex enzymes action identification, it
following intestinal microflora action, appears the possibility of extension studies
amines with neuro-transmission role, etc). on a lot of species. Last years researches
P-450 cytochrome dependent reduction put in evidence significant data on
reactions take place in aerobic or anaerobic different organism reactivity from varied
conditions, having as co-factor NADH or terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, as a
NADPH. They intervene in polyhalogenate result of exposure to pollutants, from the
alcans catalysation. By P-450 cytochrome perspective of CYP stress responsive
dependent reduction reactions, are enzymes, which are validated as significant
converted pollutants such as DDT, biomarkers for environment quality

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

assessment. So ,series of researches done Anarhichas minor) and following EROD


on different fish species (Jonsson et al, activity to gills level as a result of dioxin
2008; Jaksic et al, 2008; Marhon et al, action exposure, make conclusions that this
2008; Ahmad et al, 2004; Corsi et al, 2003; biomarker can be used as useful instrument
Marrottini et al, 2003) put in evidence the in water pollution monitoring processes.
presence and an increasing activity of P- Studies and researches were also
450 cytochrome to the level of different realized on bird species to determine the
organs (liver, kidney, hart, gills, brain, eye presence of P-450 cytochrome in different
etc) as a result of exposure to different organs level as a consequence of pollutant
pollutants (organochlorineted) and make action. Dubois et al., (1996) use quail
conclusions that these enzymes can be (Conturnix conturnix) in studies that have
used as biomarkers of aquatic environment in view exposure assessment in different
pollution. So, Jonsson et al., (2007) pollutants and identify the presence of
identify in zebra fish (Danio rerio) CYP CYP 2B increase activity as a result of
1A1; CYP 1B1 and CYP 1C1 enzyme exposure to lyndan and
induction, to the level of many organs pentachlorinephenol.
(gills, hart, kidney, brain, eyes, intestines, Head et al.(2007), as a consequence of
gonads) as a result of exposure to PCB-126 embryohepatocyte culture exposure
(polychorine biphenyl 126). In an other obtained from hen (Gallus gallus) and
fish species, respectively in anguilla silver sea-gull (Larus argentatus) to TCDD
(Anghilla anghilla), Marhon et al (2008) (dioxin) observe CYP 1A5 induction
identify CYP 1A1 expression (by RT-PCR which can be used as biomarker of
method) in gills, as a result of exposure to exposure to dioxin.
PCB-77. Also in anghilla, Mariottini et al, Also it were used aquatic mammals
(2003) propose use of EROD activity (in (otter and seal) to determine P-450
muscles) as exposure biomarker to cytochrome to the cell level of different
different PCB combinations (polychlorine types. Thus, Hook et al. (2008) use sea
biphenils). In trout, EROD activity (in otter (Enhydra lutris) and identify CYP
gills) can be used as biomarker of water 1A1 and CYP 1B1 as a result of exposure
pollution with PCB – 126. to PCB and PAH.
Corsi et al (2003) use 2 fish species , Tilley et al (2002) determine in two
Zosterisessor ophicephalus and Mugil seal species (Phoca groenlandica and
cephalus to determine PCB and PAH Halichoerus grypus) CYP 1A induction as
action to liver level by following somatic biomarker of exposure to different
index of liver (SLI); EROD activity and contaminants in environment.
acetyl-colin-esterase (AChE) activity, Induction of CYP 1A increased activity
these one could be also used as biomarkers (in epidermal tissue) as a result of PCB,
of water pollution. dioxin and furans exposure in seal species
Organochlorined pollutants (lyndan) (Phoca vitulina) has permitted validation
can be monitored by biologic indicator of this one as exposure biomarker to these
species Gambusia affinis through EROD pollutants.
activity quantification to liver level (Jaksic Dubois et al. (1996) identify CYP 1A1
et al., 2008). The presence of atrazin can in rat, in the hepatocytes culture as a
induce P-450 1A1 cytochrome activation consequence to lyndan and
to liver and carp blood level (Cyprinus pentachlorinephenol exposure. Also in rat,
carpio), (Chang et al., 2005). Nims et al. (1998) and Ngui et al. (1999)
Jonsson et al (2003) use many fish identify induction of a high CYP 2B
species (Salmo salar, Salvelinus alpinus, activity to the hepatic cell level as a result
Gadus mohua, Pollachius vireus and

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of DDT, DDE and DDD exposure, methods for the active monitoring process
respectively to PCB and Arochlorine. of environment quality and of agro-
Nearly effected studies on wild animal alimentary products by these biomarkers.
species, also were realized studies Species which express most pregnant the
concerning P-450 cytochrome induction, as exposure to a specific pollutant are
a result of exposure to different pollutants considered biologic indicator species, early
in environment, to human species. signaling the presence of pollutant in
Researches principally were realized on environment or in agro-system. These
hepatic cells (Hep G2 line) and somatic techniques can be extended also in general
cells (epithelial) obtained from maternal assessment process of animal origin
milk. So, Dehn et al. (2005) expose human alimentary products quality, establishing
hepatic cells (Hep G2) to different possible exposure and consequently the
organochlorined pollutants (o, p’-DDT, presence of pollutant in specific
dieldrin, endosulphan, kepone, bioaccumulation medium of these products.
metoxychlorine and toxaphen), obtaining
induction of CYP 1A and CYP 1B REFERENCES
activation. Journal articles
It was obtained CYP 1A1 expression [1] Ahmad et al., 2004, Available from : Journal of
by human hepatic cells exposure (HepG2) Investigative Dermatology, Cytochrome P-450,
may 2004.
to PCB-77. [2] Assuncao, M.G.L., et al., 2007, Cytocrome
Some organophosphorous pollutant P450 1 A exposion and organochlorine
action (azynphos-metylchlorinepyriphos, contaminants in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina):
diazynon, parathion) on hepatic cells evaluating a biopsy approach. Comparative
determine induction of CYP 1A2 and CYP Biochemistry and Physiology, Port C 145 (2007)
46 – 264.
2B6, and these can be used as biomarkers
[3] Celander, Forlin, 1995, Studies of the
of exposure . inducibility of P450 1 A in perch from PCB-
In human, it was succeed to determine contaminated lake Jamsjon in Sweden,
P-450 cytochrome expression (CYP 1A1) Mar.Environ.Res.39 (1995), pp.85 - 88.
from hepatic cells (epithelial)isolated from [4] Chang, L.W, et al., 2005, Responses of
maternal milk and establishment of a molecuar indicators of expossure in mesocosms:
common carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to the
positive correlation between CYP 1A1 herbicides alachlor and atrazine., Environ.
high activity and exposure to dioxin Toxicol. Chem. 24, 190 – 197.
(Diehl-Jones et al., 2000; Yonemoto et al., [5] Corsi et al., 2001, PCB levels in european eel
2004). Yonemoto et al., (2004) collect (Anghuilla anguilla) from two costal lagoon of the
human milk (1 week after birth) and Mediteranean, Chemosphere 39, pp. 2507 – 2518.
establish positive correlations between [6] Dehn et al., 2005, Altered gene expression in
human hepatoma HepG2 cells exposed to low level
presence of dioxin in maternal organism 2,4 dichlorophenoxy acetic acid and potasium
and the quantity of CYP 1A1 from somatic nitrate, Toxicology in vitro, vol. 19, 5, aug.2005.,
cell level in maternal milk (epithelial), pp. 603 – 619.
doing conclusion that CYP 1A1 expression [7] Dubois, M., et al., 1996, Hierarchical Cluster
in somatic cell level from milk can be used analysis of environmental pollutants through P-
450 induction in cultured hepatic cells, Copyright
as biomarker of maternal organism
1996, Academic Press Inc, Ecotoxicology and
exposure to dioxin. Environmental Safety vol.34, 3 pp. 205 – 215.
Identification and quantification of P- [8] Estabrook, R, 1984, Cytochrome P-450 system
450 cytochrome (CYP) enzymatic complex primary and secondary metabolism, Biochemistry
activity as stress-responsive reaction of vol.24 : 6591 – 6597.
organisms exposure to different [9] Head, J.A. et al., 2008, Dioxin activation of
CYP 1A5 promoter/enhancer regions from two
environmental pollutants make a avian species common cormorant (Phalacrocorax
circumscription of an important series of

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

carbo) and chichen (Gallus gallus): association current status, Archives of Toxicology, Springer
with aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 and 2 isoforms, Berlin, vol.82,10, pp. 667 – 715.
Available from: Elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/. [16] Nims et al., 1999, Xenobiotica, vol.29, no.4,
[10] Jacsic,Z.,2008, Western mosquitofish as a pp.361 – 393.
bioindicator of exposure to organochlorine [17] Nishimura N., Yonemoto, et al., 2004,
compounds., Copyright 2007, Elsevier Inc. Chemosphere, 54, pp. 1459 – 1473.
[11] Jonsson et al., 2007, Marine pollution [18] Tilley et al., 2002, Isolation of two
bulletin, vol.57, 6-12, pp. 433 – 440. cytochrome P-450 CYP 1A1 and CYP 1A2 ,
[12] Krauss, Elling et al., 1984, Arachidonic acid- Comp.Biochem Physiol.C. Toxicol. Pharmacol,
dependent co oxidation, a potential pathway for 132(2): 181 – 91.
the activation of chemical carcinogens in vivo, RS [19] Yonemoto, 2000, The effects of dioxin on
Krauss, Biochemical Pharmacology, 33, 2121, reproduction and development, Ind. Health, 38, pp.
3319-3324, Elsevier Science, 1984. 259 – 268.
[13] Marohn I., et al., 2008, The suitability of [20] Williams, R.T., 1959, The effects
cytochrome P 450 1A1 as a biomarker for PCB polychlorinated biphenyls plasma steroid levels
contamination in European eel (Anguilla anguilla), and hepatic microsomal enzymes in fish, Journ.of
Elsevier B.V. Fish Biology vol.13., pp. 401 - 409, Detoxication
[14] Mariottini et al., 2005, Environmental Mechanism, pp. 717 – 740.
Monitoring and Assessment, Springer Netherlands, [21] Ziegler, Mitchell, 1972, Toxicology and
vol.117, pp. 519 – 528. Applied Pharmacology, Available from:
[15] Pelkonen, O. et al., 2008, Inhibition and Elsevier.com./retrieve/pii.
induction of human cytochrome P-450 enzymes:

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 52 seria Zootehnie

DETERMINATION OF THE MAIN HAEMATOLOGICAL


INDICATORS IN THE HARE COMPARED TO THE RABBIT

Roxana Lazăr, P.C. Boişteanu, Ancuţa Elena Coşuleanu,


Alina Narcisa Postolache

Faculty of Animal Sciences, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine


„Ion Ionescu de la Brad” Iasi, Romania,
e-mail: lazarrxn@yahoo.com

Abstract
Estimation of haematological parameters represents arguments regarding the establishment of
physiological status and the health state of the two studied species, taking in consideration the
interpretations of the benefits represented by growing conditions.
There have been realized comparisons between the values obtained at hare and rabbit to
facilitate faultless result interpretation.
Blood gathered from hare and rabbit was analyzed and determinations were made with Abx
Micros vet ABC haematological analyzer.
The interpretation of the obtained results shows a difference between the two species regarding
the studied haematological values.
In conclusion the studied individuals don’t show modifications which could reflect damages of
health state.
Key words: haematological profile, hare, rabbit

INTRODUCTION reactions from certain organs, both in


Intrinsic blood link with the internal physiological and pathological conditions [2].
organs causes answers and starts specific Because of its varied functions and the direct
physiological mechanisms, sensitive to the link that it has with all the organs, the blood
changes of the internal and external stimuli. reacts sensitively to the changes produced in
The organism homeostasis expression can the body by the internal and external factors.
be interpreted and the hematologic status of
the animals examined, fact that led this study. MATERIAL AND METHOD
The measurement values of The biological material used was a 100
haematological parameters are a part of a live hare extracted from the hunting fund to
broader research program that dignifies the supply for export. Harvesting was done at 24
correlations between physiological indices hours after catching and lots formation,
and growth and behavior performance of the which excludes the existence of stress.
hare and rabbit [1]. Values recorded were compared with the
The interpretations parallelism between haematological data obtained from rabbits
the two species derives from the increased reared at the Biobase USAMV Iaşi.
interest of the consumer market for an aliment The exam of cellular blood components
with a nutritive food value and considered a has been conducted on biological material
delicacy in culinary preparing [3]. collected in vacuum test tubes on substrate of
The figurative items of blood fulfill an anticoagulant (EDTA). The blood harvesting
important role in maintaining the functional from the both populations of rabbits was
unit of the animal organism. In the made from the auricular vein and the
interrelationships with the external saphenous vein.
environment, the changes in the state of Determinations were made with the
balance of the composition of internal hematologic analyzer - ABX Micros VET ABC
environment, necessary to maintain life, tends and the biochemical analyzer - Accent 200.
to be quickly corrected by appropriate

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

Hematologic Analyzer ABX Micros VET ABC Biochemical Analyzer - Accent 200

The studies regarding blood cells morph smear highlights anisocytosis, polychromatic
structure were made through May-Grunwald cells, schizocytes, stomatocytes, nucleus red
Giemsa smear processing and colorations. cells (1 or 2 reported 100 white cells) and
Howel – Jolly corpuscle.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The morphology of white blood cells may
The erythrocytes have particular importance serve to establish a differential diagnosis and
in physiology; their representation is about 5% the physiological status of the individual.
of body weight. The examinations of blood

Rabbit neutrophils

In rabbit the neutrophils are rounded cells The analyzed smears from the two types of
with a diameter of 10-15µm, at which the rabbits, revealed two distinct populations of
nucleus is normally different segmented and lymphocytes: small (7-10 µm) and large (10-
colored in dark blue, the segments being 15 µm). Lymphocytes cells are round or
linked together by fine filaments of slightly oval, with oval nuclei, deep violet, the
chromatin. The cytoplasm appears clear, cytoplasm is little or absent in the small
having two types of granulations: small lymphocytes and abundant and basophiles in
granulations, fines that are colored in pink the large ones. A part of the large lymphocytes
and large granulations colored in dark red. may present a clear halo around the nucleus
and even have a few granules azurophyles.

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 52 seria Zootehnie

Rabbit lymphocytes

The studied eozinophyles from rabbit had importance of eozinophyles expression is the
a diameter of 10-16 µm, red nucleus, bilobate histamine removal, which suggests that they
or horseshoe shaped. The cytoplasm presents play an important role in controlling allergic
numerous granules, which causes the pink reactions.
color and the appearance of a foamy cell. The

Rabbit eozinophyles

The suppression of various biological of antibodies and lymphocytes specific


agents intervention, determines the activation sensitized.
of a complex and efficient defense system The leukocytes, the mobile and
composed of leucocytes, macrophages and circulating elements of this complex system
lymphoid tissue. The cells of this system of defense have the ability to discover the
prevent and intervene in the combat, through invade agents and destroy them through
a concomitant and successive phagocyte specific mechanisms to each leukocyte type.
action of the invade and development agents

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

Table 1
The haematogical values determined at the studied populations
Specification Rabbit Hare
3 3
WBC (10 /mm ) 4,5 5,7
6 3
RBC (10 /mm ) 5,20 8,60
HGB (g/dl) 10,4 17,9
HCT (%) 38,6 52,0
3 3
PLT (10 /mm ) 460 800
3
MCV (µm ) 74 61
MCH (pg) 19,9 20,6
MVHC (g/dl) 27,0 33,7

800
700 WBC (103/mm3)
600 RBC (106/mm3)
500 HGB (g/dl)
400 HCT (%)
300 PLT (103/mm3)
200 MCV (µm3)
MCH (pg)
100
MVHC (g/dl)
0
Rabbit Hare

By continuous adaptation of the morphology of the figurative items pursued,


erythropoiesis and erythrolysis the between the two species.
physiological variations in the number of 3. The Values located at the upper limits
erythrocytes are minimal. of the total number of erythrocytes, quantity
The concentration of hemoglobin, as an of hemoglobin, haematocryt and hemoglobin
indicator of pigmentation respiratory, reflects concentration reflects changes in the sense of
increased value for those identified at the enhancing the anabolic metabolism in
hare as a result of sustained muscle work. response to food ingestion and recovery.

CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES
1. From the comparison of the Books
haematological values between the analyzed [1] Kathleen P. Freeman, Veterinary cytology,
species shows no major differences regarding Manson Publishing, 2007
[2] Scholem, O.W., Jain, N.C., Carroll, E.J.,
the quantitative variations of the main studied
Veterinary Hematology – Lea and Febiger,
indicators haematological. Philadelphia, 1975.
2. From the morphological point of view [3] Whithers Philip, C., Comparative animal
there are no variations on the structure and physiology, Thamson Learning, USA, 1992.

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 52 seria Zootehnie

THE PRESENTATION OF SILKMOTH BOMBYX MORI L.


SP. GENETIC RESOURCES IN ROMANIA AS SOURCE OF
INITIAL MATERIAL IN AMELIORATION WORKS

Alexandra Matei1, G. Chioveanu2 , M. Androne1,


D. Dezmirean3, M. Dolis4, I. Pasca3 , M. Bentea3
1
CS SERICAROM SA-Research Department, Bucharest,
e-mail: monicamatei47@yahoo.com
2
Institute for Diagnosis and Animal Health, Bucharest
3
University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca
4
“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Iasi, Romania

Abstract
The importance of gene bank existence as an essential condition for amelioration programs
elaboration is unanimously known for every plant and animal species, from which the permanent
preoccupation for its diversification and maintaining by appropriate proceedings of preservation
“in situ” or “ex situ”. This way, there is being avoided the loss of biological material, especially of
the local races resistant to diseases and adapted to environmental conditions. This study aims the
analysis of phenotypic characters variability within the genetic stock of Bombyx mori sp., according
to its biological development stages (egg, larva and pupa). Native genetic stock of silkmoth Bombyx
mori L. sp. resulted by: identification of local populations gene sources, bilateral exchange of
biological material with similar foreign institutes, creation of new genotypes using specific breeding
methods. Within its structure, the genetical stock of silkmoth include 72 races. The silkworm specific
experimental technique has been applied, differentiated by technological and biological
development stages. The sample size that were the base for phenotypic parameters determination as
well as the working methods correspond to sericulture technical standards. The main phenotypical
and quantitative parameters of the races that represent the gene stock of Bombyx mori sp., have the
following values: prolificacy (230-710 eggs/laying), hatchability (80.6-100%), larval stage duration
(26-32 days), larvae weight (4.2-5.7 g), larvae pupation rate (80.8-96.6%), raw cocoon weight
(1.445-2.361 g), cocoon shell weight (0.240-0.520 g), fiber length (746-1356 m), filament size
(2917-3764 m/g). Depending on the quantitative parameters value, the silkworm races are being
used differently, entire genetic stock being destined for various technological levels, as follows: 4
active races (parents of hybrids), 3 candidate races for parents of hybrids, 65 races in preservation.
Key words: Bombyx mori, genetic stock, raw cocoon weight, cocoon shell weight, fiber length

INTRODUCTION consideration by many authors [3], [1], [8], [9],


The heredity, variability and selection [6], [4], [5], existing two reasons for which the
represents the main factors of the animal and animal populations need to be preserved:
vegetable organisms evolution. If heredity a) the statute of being in menace of
provides the resemblance of the individuals disappearance;
from successive generations, the variability b) their genetic value.
represent the inconsistent side of heredity, Taking into consideration the structure and
determining the differences between individuals functions of the organisms to whom the
that exists more or less to all the living beings variability operates to, there are being
groups. The presence of variability makes the dinstinguished: morphological variations
application of selection possible, action that including shape and size changes of the body
leads to improving animal populations. regions or organs; physiological variations
The necessity of studying the conservation which refers to physiological processes,
of genetic stock, has been taken into especially to the ones with implications upon

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

some economical characters like production, 1.1. The variability of egg morphological
food conversion, fecundity; structural variations characters
regarding the structure of organs and tissues. Egg size. The egg size at Bombyx mori
The variability of individuals which form a L. sp. races is presented as follows: length
population, it refers both on quantitative and 1.4 mm (native races), 1.3 mm (chinese
qualitative features, on this aspect being races), 1.5 mm (japanese races) and 1.1 mm
distinguished: quantitative variations that can be (tropical races), and the egg width varies
measured, which refers to differences between between 0.89 and 1.02 mm.
metric characters and mostly with economical The egg weight is 0.50 mg (native races),
implications; qualitative variations that can’t be 0.49 mg (chinese races), 0.54 mg (japanese
measured, they only can be described.
races) and 0.39 mg (tropical races).
Prolificacy (number of eggs/laying)
MATERIALS AND METHODS (Table 1). Concerning Bombyx mori sp., the
The biological material has been number of eggs/laying ratio varies between
represented by 72 races consisting of the 200 and 800.
gene stock of Bombyx mori sp., grouped by
This character is being influenced by
their origin.
race, food quality provided to larvae,
The silkworm specific experimental
technique has been applied, differentiated by temperature and humidity conditions during
technological and biological development laying depose.
stages [2]. The sample size that were the base In case of the races existing within the
for phenotypic parameters determination as genetic sericultural stock, the prolificacy by
well as the working methods correspond to race group registered values between 490 and
sericulture technical standards. 710 eggs/laying (native races), 276-562
eggs/laying (japanese races), 276-616
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS eggs/laying (chinese races) and 230-450
1. The variability of egg phenotypic eggs/laying (tropical races).
characters
Table 1
Egg biological parameters
Prolificacy
Hatching (%)
Race groups (number of eggs/laying)
Min Max Min Max
Native races 490±10 710±12 90.0±0.47 99.0±0.47
Japanese races 276±11 562±6 81.3±1.70 99.6±0.47
Chinese races 276±2 616±15 80.6±1.89 100.0±0.21
Tropical races 230±16 450±29 83.6±2.49 97.6±1.25
Races average 318±9 584±15 83.9±1.64 99.1±0.60

Egg colour. During laying depose the The races existing in sericultural native
egg colour is gradually yellow and in the next genetic stock present the egg colour in
3-4 days its colour becomes violet-pink and different shades: dark grey (japanese races),
in the end the final colour is grey with greenish-grey (chinese races), meanwhile the
different shades: dark grey, light grey, chorion is white at the first races group and
greenish grey but also orange, pink etc. All of yellow at the second one.
these refers to embryonated egg colour. 1.2. The variability of egg physiological
The chorion colour, visible after larvae characters
hatching, presents a serie of mutants: white, The voltinism (generations/year)
light yellow or dark yellow, green, grey. represent a physiological character
Being a race character, both the embryonated determined by environmental and genetical
egg colour and chorion colour represent a factors. Between environmental factors, the
silkworm selection character. temperature and light plays an essential part.

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 52 seria Zootehnie

Incubating eggs from bivoltine races at the 99.6% (japanese races), 80.6-100.0% (chinese
temperature 15-18oC and short photoperiod races) and 83.6-97.6% (tropical races).
(less than 12 hours), silkmoth appear and
2. The variability of larva phenotypic
depose non-hibernated eggs, that is 2
characters
generations/year, in case of incubating eggs
2.1. The variability of larva morphological
at high temperature (25-26oC) for a longer
characters
photoperiod (more than 12-14 hours),
The larvae length is influenced by
silkmoth appear and depose hibernated eggs
external factors, such as the rearing
(one generation/year).
conditions, feeding but it also represents a
The genetical determinism of voltinism is
race character specific to breeding races. By
being attributed to a number of 3 multiple sex
race group, the larvae average length is
alleles (Hs, Hs2, hS) modified by a number of
presented in Table 2.
autosomal genes (H1, h1, H2, h2, H3, h3).
Larvae weight is influenced by the
The structure of sericultural native
factors that determined the previous character
genetic stock includes bivoltine races
and their variability by race group is
(tropical type).
presented in Table 2.
The hatching rate, by race group, varies
between 90.0 and 99.0% (native races), 81.3-

Table 2
The variability of adult larvae length and weight by races groups
Larvae length (cm) Larvae weight (g)
Race groups
X±Sx X±Sx
Native races 7.6±0.02 5.7±0.12
Japanese races 7.0±0.03 5.6±0.08
Chinese races 6.2±0.06 5.1±0.10
Tropical races 5.8±0.06 4.2±0.11
Races average 6.7±0.04 5.2±0.10

Larvae colour represents a complex and transmition of the moults number are 3
variable character and refers to the tegument multiple alleles: M3 and M5, the dominant
cephalic capsule and eyes. relationships being tri>tetra>penta [7].
In the breeding works, tegument colour At the same time, the moulting is
and larval marks are selection criteria taken controlled by the combined action of the
into consideration, as being race characters. juvenile hormone secreted by corpora allata
Body colour is normally white with a and the moulting hormone-ecdysone-secreted
shade of light blue in chinese races and pink by the prothoracic gland, both being under
in japanese races, visible to the union place the control of activator hormone secreted by
of the larva body segments. neuro-secrethoris cells of the cerebroid
ganglions.
2.2. The variability of larva physiological
The races existing within the sericultural
characters
native genetic stock, are characterized by the
The moulting, respectively the moults
presence of 4 moults, excepting “Three
number, represent one of the most important
Molter” race with 3 moults.
physiological character of the larva. The
The duration of larval stage
primitive races are characterized by 3 moults,
characterizes every race group, being shorter
while developed races have 4 moults.
in tropical races (26-28 days), followed by
The geneticists appreciate that the
native races (28-29 days) and longer in
presence of 3 moults represent the dominant
japanese ones (30-32 days) (Table 3).
character and the responsibles for hereditary

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

Table 3
The variability of larval stage duration and pupation rate
Larval stage (days) Pupation rate (%)
Race groups
Min Max Average Min Max Average
Native races 28 29 28.5 90.2 96.6 92.50
Japanese races 30 32 30.0 85.6 96.4 92.30
Chinese races 28 30 28.6 80.8 93.8 89.14
Tropical races 26 28 27.0 90.0 92.6 91.3

Chrysalis transformation percentage - elongated with constriction that characterize


(pupation rate) - character which reflects the the japanese races;
viability state and their capacity of - oval elongated with rounded extremities
metamorphosis, have been high at the native specific to chinese races;
race group (90.2-96.6%) and inferior at the - spherical, elongated without constriction,
other groups, as follows: 85.6-96.4% at the characterizing also some chinese races;
japanese races, 80.8-93.8% at the chinese - spindle, elongated without constriction and
races and 90.0-92.6% at the tropical races. with sharp extremities is the specific cocoon
shape to the tropical races.
3. The variability of cocoon phenotypic
The cocoon size, expressed by the
characters
longitudinal and transversal axle length,
3.1. The variability of cocoon morphological
presents a high variability within the
characters
sericultural genetic stock.
The cocoon shape, depending on the race
By races group, the cocoon size varies
group which belongs to, can be:
between the limits presented in Table 4.

Table 4
The variability of cocoon size
Longitudinal axle (cm) Transversal axle (cm) Cocoons/l
Races group
Max Min Max Min Max Min
Native races 4.20±0.131 3.20±0.171 2.26±0.105 1.95±0.031 69±3 65±1
Japanese races 4.25±0.152 3.77±0.125 2.49±0.135 1.83±0.104 59±5 67±3
Chinese races 3.60±0.134 3.50±0.135 2.50±0.116 2.08±0.078 42±2 48±2
Tropical races 3.30±0.141 2.98±0.111 1.90±0.113 1.66±0.107 100±7 85±6
Races average 3.84±0.140 3.36±0.136 2.29±0.117 1.88±0.080 67±4 66±3

3.2. The variability of cocoon technological Cocoon shell weight, corresponding to


characters Table 5, has minimum values at tropical
Cocoon weight (Table 5) present, by race races (0.240 g) and maximum value at
group, the following average values: the japanese races (0.520 g).
minimum value is between 1.445 (chinese Silk content (Table 5) represent one of
races) and 1.632 g (japanese races), the most important selection’s objective.
maximum value being between 1.709 Generally, the japanese races have maximum
(tropical races) and 2.361 g (chinese races). values (25.06%) on this parameter.

Table 5
The technological parameters of raw cocoon (g)
Raw cocoon weight (g) Cocoon shell weight (g) Silk content (%)
Races group
Min Max Min Max Min Max
Native races 1.604±0.045 2.273±0.066 0.315±0.011 0.504±0.008 18.05±0.71 22.37±0.58
Japanese races 1.632±0.042 2.233±0.092 0.328±0.013 0.520±0.005 19.04±0.52 25.06±0.30
Chinese races 1.445±0.019 2.361±0.092 0.340±0.003 0.482±0.011 16.53±0.60 24.15±0.64
Tropical races 1.469±0.060 1.709±0.050 0.240±0.007 0.369±0.013 16.79±0.62 22.76±0.55
Races average 1.538±0.042 2.144±0.075 0.306±0.009 0.469±0.009 17.60±0.61 23.59±0.52

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The dry cocoon weight (Table 6) registers maximum values at japanese races (1.250 g)
and minimum values at tropical races (0.676 g). The fiber length (Table 6), same as dry
cocoon weight, has the maximum value at the japanese races (1356 m).

Table 6
The technological parameters of dry cocoon and silk fiber
Dry cocoon weight (g) Fiber length (m)
Races group X±Sx X±Sx
Min Max Min Max
Native races 0.843±0.028 1.163±0.033 1119±22 1324±38
Japanese races 0.870±0.036 1.250±0.035 1037±16 1356±33
Chinese races 0.724±0.028 1.184±0.031 908±15 1236±24
Tropical races 0.676±0.018 0.823±0.026 746±10 950±27
Races average 0.778±0.028 1.105±0.031 952±15 1216±30

Reeling silk registers also maximum [4] Matei A. and coll.: The diversification and
values at native races (44.8%) and minimum utilization of genetical stock as source of initial
values at tropical races (32.0%). material in breeding works of Bombyx mori L. –
Romanian Animal Science in the EU integration
Filament size, expressed by metres/g,
perspective – Session of scientific
has maximum values at native races (3241- communications, Iasi, Romania, 2004, p. 218-222.
3764 m/g). Lower performances, but still [5] Matei A.: The structure, origin and
notables, have the japanese races (3041-3460 performances of races sp. Bombyx mori L.
m/g). existing in sericultural genetic stock in Romania –
Notable performances of filament size The XXIIIth National Symposium of history and
have the chinese races (3016-3762 m/g). At agrarian retrology, 23-24 august, Bacau, 2007.
the tropical races, the filament size is [6] Petkov N., Matei A., Natcheva Y., Vasileva Y.,
between 2917 and 3090 m/g, being lower to Petkov Z., Ciulu M.: The phenotipical characters
of some Romanian silkworm Bombyx mori races
the previous groups. in relationship to the use of selection programmes-
AGRAL Scientifical Symposium “Research upon
CONCLUSIONS chain from Romania in a European Context,
Depending on the quantitative parameters Romania, 2004, p. 280-286.
value, the silkworm races are being used [8] Thangavelu K.: Role of germplasm bank in
differently, entire genetic stock being sericulture – Indian Silk, 1997, 36/3, p.5-11.
[9] Tzenov P., Vasileva Y.: Silkworm genetic
destined for various technological levels, as
resources in Bulgaria – XIXth Congress of
follows: International Sericultural Commission
- 4 active races (parents of hybrids); Proceedings, Bangkok, Thailand, 2002, p.243.
- 3 candidate races for parents of hybrids; Books
- 65 races in preservation. [2] Grekov D., Kipriotis E., Tzenov P.: Sericulture
training manual, Komotini-Greece, 2005.
REFERENCES [3] Hebean V.: Study upon phenotipical and
Journal articles genotipical characters in the imposted Phylosamia
[1] Brasla A., Matei A.: Study on the variability of ricii race and possibilities to create native
the main quantitative traits in some silkworm biological material – Ph.D. thesis, Romania, 1986.
races, Archiva Zootechnica, 1989, vol. 1, p. 63-70. [7] Tazima Y.: The genetics of the silkworm,
Logos Press, 1964.

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

STUDY ON THE BEHAVIOR OF ARTIFICIALLY


INSEMINATED QUEENS
OF APIS M. CARPATICA RACE DURING PASSIVE PERIOD

V. Toderici, Valentina Cebotari

Institute of Zoology of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova

Abstract
In beekeeping, at present time, mating can be controlled only by applying instrumental
insemination techniques of queens or providing special isolated areas (islands, mountain regions).
This study aimed to compare the behavior of instrumental inseminated queens to the naturally
mated, during passive period (september to april). The lot of queens, artificially inseminated in late
summer, were introduced in queen less colonies. Behavior aspects were compared to their sisters,
naturally mated queens, which were introduced under appropriate conditions. For each batch
where rated most important behavioral indices: acceptance of queens, laying start-up, wintering
cluster, early build-up, etc.
Acceptance of instrumental inseminated queens was 75% , wintering of colonies was 90%,
with a minimum consumption of food and was observed a intensive cleaning flight.
Keywords: artificial insemination, queens of A. m. Carpatica race, queens behavior, natural mating

INTRODUCTION collected from over 200 drones with the help


It is known that the queens are mating in of drone collectors. Semen was collected
the air with many drones regardless of race or using special syringe(3). For instrumental
origin(1). For selection purpose, control on insemination process were used 8 queens at
the origin of genetic material is vital. age of 10 days, obtained by artificial queen
Keeping control of queen mating can be done rearing methods. Insemination was made by
using instrumental insemination techniques classic methodology technique using the
or creation of special isolated areas (islands, Latshaw’s device(4). Queens were prepared
isolated areas). In Moldova creation of such for instrumental insemination process, so that
special areas of mating is difficult, and to they could make a cleaning flight and later
have control on queen mating will be used being anesthetized with CO2. Queens were
instrumental insemination techniques. inseminated with 4µl of semen.
After insemination, queens were marked
MATERIAL AND METHOD and placed in individual queen cages, giving
The research was conducted in the them candy, without accompanying bees,
attested breeding apiary in Hîrtopul Mic, after were placed in queen bank. After 48
Republic of Moldova. The material used in hours instrumentally inseminated queens
our research it belong to Apis mellifera have been subjected to the second treatment
carpatica race, which comes from the same with CO2 and were again placed in the queen
apiary. Formed in specific conditions of bank. For a period of three days, artificially
climate, relief and flora of our country. inseminated queens, were examined
Taking into account that the purpose of regarding their behavior, also were fed with
experiments was aimed to compare the honey in small quantities.
instrumentally inseminated queens To introduce the batch of queens,
behavior(2) to those mated naturally in instrumentally inseminated and the naturally
passive period, the insemination was done in mated, who served as witness batch, were
the first week of September. The semen were prepared nucs, in which were formed 16 new
colonies, 8 nucs for instrumentally

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 52 seria Zootehnie

inseminated queens and 8 for naturally mated - Laying star-up of queens;


queens. Nucs were created equally on 6 - Resistance of bees at wintering process(7);
frames of standard horizontal hives, - Early build-up of colonies.
including three frames of the hatching brood Interpretation of result was made
with a dominant number of young bees(5), according to husbandry rule regarding
and a feeder. Such nuc prepared for queen evaluation of bee colonies and certification of
introduction were left for 3 days to become bee breeding material(8).
queen less, and before to introduce the queen,
nucs were inspected if there are natural queen RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
cells. To do instrumental insemination during
Instrumentally inseminated queens and passive period of the year is difficult,
naturally mated queens were introduced into primarily because of lack of drones. From
the nuc prepared earlier using the indirect nearly 200 drones harvested to collect semen
method of introduction. In the moment of 50% were immature, 20% too mature, while
queen introduction each nucs was feed with the remaining 30% had very small quantity
0,5 l, 1:1 sugar syrup(6). During a week the of semen. Thus queens were inseminated
nucs were feed with syrup and given them only with half of the normal quantity,
frames with young brood, to make them all recommended quantity is 8 µl / queen.
equally. There were not being observed abnormal
All nucs were treated against varroa mite deviations of queen behavior right after
twice (in mid-September and late September) insemination and by the time being in the
and were ready for wintering. queen banks. None of the inseminated queens
Throughout the experiment was studied died as a result of insemination process. After
the behavior of both, queens and the bees insemination process queens were active and
from the nest of colonies, considering the the bees from the bank were not being
following indices: aggressive against these queens.
- Acceptance of queens, by bees from the
nucs;

Tabel 1
Comparative evaluation of the behavior of colonies in new created nucs
Queens
Nr. Queens
Indeces instrumental
Crt. naturally mated
insemianted
Acceptance of queens, by bees
1 87,5 75
from the nucs %
2 Laying star-up of queens % 28 0
Resistance of bees at wintering
3 100 83
process %
4 Early build-up of colonies, % 66 60
5 Honey consumption Relative-low Relative-low

When the nucs were checked for natural inseminated did not began to lay. This can be
cells, in 7 of them was found natural cells. explained that after a day of placing the
From 8 queens artificially inseminated, 2 queens in the nucs, air temperature dropped
queens were killed, and from the naturally suddenly and followed a period of 10 days
mated- one. It is believed that in both cases, with high variation of temperature during day
queens were killed because of the high and low night temperatures. During this
aggression of bees in these nucs. period in some colonies was observed
From 13 queen accepted only 2 queens formation of bee nest, even during the days.
start to laying after four days, after the During the observation time in
introduction. None of the artificial November, December and January was found

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

out that colonies are wintering well, instrumentally inseminated queens and those
including those 2 families whose queens had naturally mated. But it was found that
started to lay and those 11 colonies who introduction of instrumentally inseminated
entered in the wintering season with queens queens is more difficult and can record high
which didn’t have a chance to start laying. losses if it is not taken into account this
During a quick review in early February specific.
was identified that one of the 6 families with
instrumental inseminated queen died, cause REFERENCES
being mice invasion. Frome 7 families with Journal articles
queens naturally mated none died. [1] Page R.E., Laidlaw H.H. (1985) Closed
After last data collected at the end of Population Honeybee Breeding, Bee World 66,
February from 13 families who have 63–72, SUA.
prepared for winter only one was lost, the [3] Laidlaw H.H. (1987) Instrumental
Insemination of honey bee queens: Its origin and
other one wintered well. There was a low
development, Bee World 68, 17–38, 71–88, SUA.
consumption of honey, in both cases, in the Books
colonies with instrumentally inseminated [2] Joseph S. Latshaw (2003), Evaluating queen
queens as well as in those with queens stock, Bee Culture March, SUA
naturally mated. At that time, 3 queens from [4] Joseph S. Latshaw, (2006) Flexible II
those instrumentally inseminated and 4 technique,
naturally mated began to lay. http://www.latshawapiaries.com/care_of_ii_queen
s.htm
[5] Friedrich Ruttner Breeding (1988) Techniques
CONCLUSIONS and Selection for the Honeybee - Germany.
As the result of the research was found Translated by Ashleigh & Eric Milner. UK.
out that doing artificial insemination in [6] Root A..I. (2007) ABC&XYZ of Bee Culture,
September is risky because of lack of drones A.I. Root Company, Ohio, USA
in hives and their inadequate quality, and also [7] Stu Jacobson (2002), Genetics for disease
that the queens have no sufficient time to resistance, Bee Culture November, SUA
start to lay before entering in winter. Also [8] Norma zootehnica cu privire la bonitarea
familiilor de albine si certificarea materialului
were detected no variation regarding honey
genitoriu apicol, 2008, IZ ASM, Chisinau
consumption in the colonies with

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 52 seria Zootehnie

CHARACTERIZATION OF THE REPRODUCTIVE


ACTIVITY OF SOWS BELONGING TO A MANGALITA
SWINE POPULATION

V. Miclea, M. Zăhan, Ileana Miclea

University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine,


Faculty of Animal Husbandry and Biotechnologies,Cluj-Napoca, Romania
e-mail: vasilemiclea21@yahoo.com

Abstract
The number of pigs belonging to the Mangaliţa breed is currently under rapid decline. As a
consequence is the need for a conservation program presents itself. It should include the breed’s
characterization from a morphological and productive point of view. Therefore, our aim has been to
establish reproductive indexes for 25 sows belonging to a population kept at SUINPROD Roman.
Research on these animals will continue, the final goal being to preserve it ex situ. Following
bibliographical investigations we have concluded that an intensive rearing system reduces the age
of the first mating to 9.2 months, the sows having 106.52 kg and the number of piglets is above
breed average. The mean number of piglets increases from the first birth (7.96 piglets) to the third
(8.46 piglets) without any negative influence on their weight which is between 1.0 – 1.04 kg.
Mortality rates are the highest for young sows (13.56%) decreasing steadily as the animals get
older. With optimum rearing and feeding piglets are weaned at 30-32 days. The total weight of the
piglets at weaning rises, due to improvement in sow ability to feed them.
Key words: sows, reproductive indexes, Mangaliţa

INTRODUCTION MATERIALS AND METHODS


Mangaliţa is one of the oldest swine The sows used in this research came from
breeds that have been replaced, in Romania the genetic stock kept at SCDA Turda. Some
as well as in other eastern European countries of the animals were transferred to
by more economically efficient hybrids that SUINPROD Roman where Mangaliţa boars
suited consumer demands better. The danger from Hungary and Austria had been brought,
of extinction has lead to the establishment of to avoid inbreeding. All the animals belong
in situ conservation programs. Preserving to the red Mangaliţa variety.
genetic resources is widely supported by The sows were kept in groups of 15-20
government and non-governmental animals in a perimeter of 1-1.2 m2/animal.
organizations, which are involved in over Pregnant sows were kept in individual stands
360 such programs all aver Europe [7]. The for the first month and then transferred to
importance of conserving biodiversity stems group stands. They were fed so as to ensure
from its scientific and economic significance the necessary amount of protein and energy
coupled with the social and historical for physiological processes and production.
importance [6]. Reproductive characteristics were
The preservation of certain breeds entails measured for 25 animals selected according
keeping and rearing a certain number of to the following criteria: the accuracy of
animals but also organising reproductive and phenotypic traits and genetic purity
selection activities. Considering this our goal established with the help of fingerprinting
has been to characterize the reproductive using microsatellites technique.
activity of Mangaliţa sows during 2008, even The fact that most sows had already given
if this has already been attempted by other birth three times enabled us to easily follow
authors [4]. their reproductive characteristic. These were

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

represented by age, weight at the first mating, make up of each animal has a great influence
number and weight of piglets at every birth, on these results.
number of live and dead born piglets and Mean piglet weight on the first birth was
weight at weaning. Piglets were weaned at 1.04 kg, the limits being 0.8-1.46 kg. For the
30-32 days much faster than in the extensive sows that give birth to a number of piglets
rearing system. close to breed average, their number and
Data was analyzed using ANOVA by weight are not proportional. Piglet weight for
computing mean, standard error of the mean, females with a high number of offspring per
standard deviation and variation coefficient. litter is low while for sows with a low
number the weight is high.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION On the second birth the average number
The age of the first birth was considered of piglets is 8 animals, the limits being
to be very important as it is the end of a long between 6 and 10. At 1.01 kg mean piglet
interval of investment in the animal without weight is close to that registered on the first
any production. Feeding and keeping young birth.
sows in our experimental conditions reduced This is in accordance with the research of
the growth time so that the animals can be Ratky et al. (2005) [5] who have shown that
used for reproductive purposes at 276.16 in Mangaliţa sown during the first month of
days (9.2 months approximately) when their gestation the increase in length of the uterus
weight is 106.52 kg. When compared with and horns is minimal although the increase in
the data presented by Istvan Egerszegi et al. weight is significant. The lack of growth in
(2003) for the Hungarian Mangaliţa, this length is probably the reason for the reduced
advances growth by 1-3 months. Not all the number of piglets but it may also favour an
animals have identical responses to the increase in their weight.
improved feed and keeping. There are At the third birth the average number of
animals that were used in reproduction at 248 piglets per female is 8.46. The lower limit for
days but also animals that achieved the same this characteristic is close to the values
stage only at 318 days. All mated animals registered font hr first two births. Therefore,
were between 97-115 kg, thus proving the we can recommend the removal of sows that
importance of weight for reproductive give birth to a small number of piglets after
maturity. Improved rearing conditions for the first birth. Piglet average weight is around
Mangaliţa sows help the animals reach the 1000 g, the differences being due to a
correct weight or reproduction faster. decrease of the higher limit.
However, the use of such technology The early weaning of the piglets was
depends on the possibility to recuperate the possible because they had switched from
invested resources by an increase in the milk to feed and were eating enough to
number of piglets. sustain physiological processes and growth.
The number of piglets per female is 86.34% of the piglets from the first birth
higher than the breed average even for the were weaned and 13.57% died. The lack of
first birth. Other authors [4] mention that the experience and a reduced maternal instinct, a
average for Romanian Mangaliţa is 5 to 6 characteristic of the breed were the main
piglets, the Hungarian Mangaliţa being causes for this occurrence. The piglets have a
similar with 4-7 piglets, the sows in our study mean weight of 6.11 kg indicating a low
have a mean of 7,96 animals. There are sows growth rate. There are animals with a weight
that have given birth to 5 piglets and others of 3.57 kg together with others that have 8.57
for which the number is up to 10. Better kg. Considering growth rate and weight,
feeding and keeping are considered to be the piglets were weaned at 32 days. 90% of the
main reason for the improvement on breed piglets born after the second mating were
average, but we haven’t noticed any direct weaned. The decrease in mortality despite an
correlation between female weight at mating increase in the number of piglets and a
and the number of piglets. Also, the genetic reduction of their weight is a consequence of

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 52 seria Zootehnie

the females acquiring experience. The being between 4.5 kg and 7.57 kg, the
average weight of the piglets is similar to the animals being more similar to one another.
one registered for the first birth, the limits

Table 1
Mean values and the variation of reproductive characteristics
Characteristics MU n Statistical parameters Limits
X ± sx s V% Minimal Maximal
Sows mated for the
first time: days 25 276,16 ± 7,51 37,54 13,59 148,00 318,00
- age kg 25
- weight 106,52 ± 1,07 5,35 5,02 97,00 115,00
Piglets at first birth:
- number animals 25 7,96 ± 0,3 1,49 18,66 5,00 10,00
- litter weight kg 25 8,14 ± 0,20 1,01 12,42 6,00 9,80
- average weight kg 25 1,04 ± 0,03 0,16 15,50 0,80 1,46
Piglets at second
birth:
- number animals 25 8 ± 0,2 1,00 12,50 6,00 10,00
- litter weight kg 25 8,05 ± 0,09 0,49 6,09 7,20 8,90
- average weight kg 25 1,01 ± 0,02 0,12 11,53 0,76 1,31
Piglets at third birth:
- number animals 13 8,46 ± 0,29 1,05 12,41 7,00 10,00
- litter weight kg 13 8,36 ± 0,19 0,69 8,25 6,90 9,30
- average weight kg 13 1 ± 0,03 0,10 9,62 0,80 1,16
Piglets weaned after
the first birth:
- number animals 25 6,88 ± 0,32 1,59 23,10 4,00 10,00
- litter weight kg 25 41,57 ± 2,02 10,10 24,31 30,00 60,00
- average weight kg 25 6,106 ± 0,2 1,01 16,55 3,57 8,57
- mortalities animals 25 1,08 ± 0,2 1,00 92,28 0,00 3,00
Piglets weaned after
the second birth:
- number animals 25 7,2 ± 0,16 0,82 11,34 5,00 8,00
- litter weight kg 25 44,24 ± 1,21 6,06 13,70 36,00 55,00
- average weight kg 25 6,17 ± 0,15 0,76 12,26 4,50 7,57
- mortalities animals 25 0,8 ± 0,17 0,87 108,25 0,00 3,00
Piglets weaned after
the third birth:
- number animals 13 7,46 ± 0,14 0,52 6,95 7,00 8,00
- litter weight kg 13 48,23 ± 1,75 6,32 13,11 34,00 57,00
- average weight kg 13 6,47 ± 0,21 0,77 11,88 4,85 7,85
- mortalities animals 13 1 ± 0,28 1,00 100,00 0,00 3,00

The piglets produced by sows on the third analysis of piglet number, weight and
birth have 6.46 kg at weaning, the average mortality as follows.
number of deaths being 1 per sow. They too 1. Intensive rearing decreases the age of
are more similar to one another, the reproductive maturity to 276.16 days, the
difference between the lower and the higher sows having 106.52 kg and increases the
limits being of only 3 kg (4.85 – 7.85 kg). number of piglets from the first birth above
breed average.
CONCLUSIONS 2. The number of piglets increases from
Reproductive activity of Mangaliţa sows 7.96 animals (first birth) to 8.46 animals
can be characterized following the dynamic (second birth)

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

3. Piglet average weight at birth is not system and animal genetic resources preservation
influenced by sow prolificacy and it is and utilisation, Acta Agriculturae Serbica, 2003,
between 1.00 and 1.04 kg. VIII(16): 37-47.
[3] Hollo G., Seregi J., Euder K., Nuernberg K.,
4. The percentage of dead piglets is
Wegner J., Segner J., Hollo I., Repa I.,:
highest for the first birth (13.56 %), Examination of meat quality and fatty acid
decreasing by 10.00% (second birth) because composition of Mangalitsa, Acta Agraria
of improved maternal behaviour. Koposvariensis, 2003, 7(2): 19-32.
5. When intensively reared Mangaliţa can [4] Pop T.M., Vlaic A., Spădaru F., Moldovan I.,
be weaned at 30-32 days, their weight being Bidian Altina,: Cercetări privind structura genetică
between 6.01 – 6.47 kg/animal. a unei populaţii de suine din rasa Mangaliţa pentru
6. Total piglet weight at weaning fundamentarea elaborării planului de ameliorare,
increases steadily because of sow ability to Simpozion USAMV, Cluj-Napoca, 1993, vol.
XIX: 186-192.
produce better milk for more piglets. [5] Ratky J., Brussow K.P., Solti L., Torner H.,
Sarbos P.,: Ovarian response, embryo recovery
REFERENCES and results of embryo transfer in a Hungarian
Journal articles native pig breed, Theriogenology, 2001, 56: 969-
[1] Egerszegi I., Schneider F., Ratky J., Soos F., 978.
Solti F., Manabe N., Brussow K.P.,: Comparison [6] Ruane J.,: A critical review of the value of
of luteinizing hormone and steroid hormone genetic distance studies in conservation of animal
secretion during the peri- and post ovulatory genetics resources, J. Anim. Breed. Genet., 1999,
periods in Mangaliţa and Landrace gilts, J. of 116: 317-323.
Reproduction and Development, 2003, 49(4): 291- [7] Simon D.L.,: European approaches to
296. conservation of farm animal genetic resources,
[2] Gajic Z., Bogosavlievic-Boskovic Snezana, Anim.Genet. Resources Inform., 1999, 25: 79-99.
Pusic M., ,Mitrovic S.,: Livestock production

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 52 seria Zootehnie

THE EFFECT OF SEVERAL ASCORBIC ACID


CONCENTRATIONS ON SWINE OOCYTE MATURATION
AND EMBRYO CULTURE

Ileana Miclea, M. Zăhan, A. Rusu, F. Ghiuru, V. Miclea

University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine,


Faculty of Animal Husbandry and Biotechnologies, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
e-mail: ileanamiclea@yahoo.com

Abstract
Considering that free radicals are easily formed both in vivo and in vitro and that swine oocytes
and embryos have a high content of unsaturated and therefore highly oxidizable fatty acids
antioxidants must be added to the culture media. Ascorbic acid has been shown to improve swine
oocyte maturation and the development of bovine and swine embryos. The goal of this study was to
establish the influence of several ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol concentrations on swine oocyte
maturation in order to improve oocyte maturation media. Pig oocytes were cultured for 44 hours at
37°C in 5% CO2 atmosphere, in M199 containing several ascorbic acid (50, 150, 250, 500 and 750
µM) concentrations. Oocytes were fertilized and the embryos were cultured for another 94 hours in
TALP medium containing the same antioxidant concentrations. The addition of 50, 150, 500 and
750 mM ascorbic acid to the maturation medium lead to an increase in the number of oocytes
assessed as 3 and 4 and a decrease in the number assessed with 0. The number of embryos that
developed in medium supplemented with 50 µM ascorbic acid was significantly higher than the
contro, thus proving the beneficial influence of ascorbic acid on embryo development.
Key words: antioxidant, swine oocytes, embryos, ascorbic acid

INTRODUCTION acid and oleic acid Triacylglycerol, free fatty


In the cell, free radicals function as signal acids and most of the phospholipids,
molecules by activating transcription factors particularly phosphatidylethanolamine, are
and enzymatic reactions [2]. They are also considerably enriched in n-6 polyunsaturated
involved in regulating embryo development fatty acids, specifically linoleic, arachidonic
and implantation [4]. Their endogenous and adrenic acids [5]. All these unsaturated
overproduction and the exogenous sources and therefore easy oxidizable lipids increase
lead to an imbalance in redox metabolism their sensitivity to oxidative stress induced by
and therefore to oxidative stress. culture conditions. That is why we believe that
In the oocyte and embryo free radical oocyte maturation and embryo culture can be
levels are controlled by metabolic pathways improved by adding antioxidants to the culture
mediated by enzymes such as glutathione. medium in order to reduce the stress [11].
However the oocyte contains a large quantity Oocyte maturation encompasses nuclear
of lipid droplets. This is particularly evident in maturation and maturation of the cytoplasm.
the oocytes of the domestic pig, where very While the first refers to the resumption of
high levels of lipid have been reported, 161 µg meiosis and progression to the metaphase II
(McEvoy et al., 2000). Triacylglycerol was the (MII) stage and can be assessed by the
major lipid component followed by cholesterol presence or absence of the first polar body, the
and phosphatidylcholine. Analysis of fatty second comprises poorly understood processes
acids esterified to the individual phospholipids [7]. These processes are believed to progress
and neutral lipids has shown that in all the in parallel to one another, and synchronization
classes examined, particularly in the neutral of nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation is
lipid fractions, there are high levels of palmitic essential for establishing optimal oocyte

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

developmental potential [8]. The efficiency of sterile saline solution (NaCl 0.9%) at 37°C
this process is indicated by the ability of the supplemented with penicillin (100 µg /ml)
oocyte to block polispermic fertilization and and streptomycin (100 IU/ml). The contents
allow the formation of the male pronucleus. of follicles of 2–6 mm in diameter on the
Whereas nuclear maturation can be evaluated ovarian surface were aspired with a 10 ml
by nuclear staining methods that reveal the syringe equipped with an 21-gauge needle
first polar body, cytoplasmic maturation can and collected a Petri dishes containing
only be determined by indirect means such as harvest medium. Oocytes with a uniform
cumulus oophorus expansion, the ooplasm and compact cumulus cell mass
measurement of glutathione content and were washed 2 times with harvest medium
fluorescent viability coloration. Out of these and then placed in 30 µl droplets of
only the first leaves the oocyte intact and has maturation medium containing the various
the least effect on its viability and ability to vitamin concentrations. All the droplets were
sustain fertilization. Therefore it becomes the covered in paraffin oil and incubated for 48
most important mean of assessing maturation. hours at 38°C in an atmosphere with 5%
Ascorbic acid is the most important CO2. Then they were evaluated using an
antioxidant outside the cell [12]. It functions Olympus inverted phase contrast microscope,
as a reducing agent of oxygen and cytocromes in order to assess cumulus oophorus
c and a, but can also protect membranes expansion and/or the presence of the first
against peroxidation. It can prevent apoptosis polar body. Cumulus expansion was assessed
in cultured mouse follicles and improve swine 44 h after incubation by a subjective scoring
oocyte maturation [10] and embryo method [1]. Briefly, no response was scored
development of swine embryos [6]. as 0, minimum observable response as 1,
The goal of this research was to expansion of outer cumulus-enclosed oocyte
establish whether supplementation with layers as 2, expansion of all cumulus-
ascorbic acid could improve viability and enclosed oocyte layers except the corona
meiotic maturation of porcine oocytes, radiata as 3, and expansion of all cumulus-
cumulus cell function and embryo ability to enclosed oocyte layers as 4. Each group was
develop in vitro. compared to the control in order to establish
whether any differences existed between the
MATERIAL AND METHOD degrees of cumulus expansion and if they
Oocyte collection and maturation were significant. The differences between
Oocytes were harvested in M 199 treatments were analyzed by ANOVA and
supplemented with L-glutamine (3.4 g/l), interpreted using the Student test. For all
NaHCO3 (2.2 g/l), Hepes (25 mM), penicillin comparisons, the values were considered
(100 µg /ml) and streptomycin (100 IU/ml) statistically significant when p < 0.05.
and with the pH adjusted to 7. For oocyte Oocyte viability was certified by using
maturation M 199 was supplemented with L- 3’6’ fluorescein diacetate (FDA) fluorescent
glutamine (3.4 g/l), Chorulon (10 IU/ml), coloration. After morphological evaluation the
Folligon (10 IU/ml), fetal calf serum 10%, cumulus-oocyte complexes were transferred to
penicillin (100 µg /ml) and streptomycin (100 PBS and mechanically denuded. The oocytes
IU/ml). Ascorbic acid dissolved in ultrapure were then transferred to PBS supplemented
water was added to the maturation medium in with bovine serum albumin and FDA and
order to arrive at concentrations of 50, 150, incubated at 38°C for 10 minutes. At the end
250, 500 and 750 µM active substance. For of this time they were examined under ultra-
viability assessment bovine serum albumin violet light at 495 nm wavelength.
(5 mg/ml) and 3’6’ flourescein diacetate
(1 µg/ml) were added to PBS. In vitro fertilization and embryo culture
Porcine ovaries were collected from pre- The fertilization medium was TALP-Fert,
pubertal gilts and transported to the which is based on Tyrode’s saline solution
laboratory in a thermal container containing supplemented with bovine serum albumin

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 52 seria Zootehnie

(0.004 g/l), glucose (1.00 g/l), sodium lactate and incubated at 38°C and 5 % CO2 in air.
(10 µl/ml), sodium pyruvate (0.288 µg/ml) and After 16 hours the spermatozoa were removed
antibiotics (100 µg /ml penicillin and 100 IU/ml mechanically using a micropipette and the
streptomycin). The embryo culture medium had presumed zygotes were cultured in TALP
the same composition and ascorbic acid was droplets supplemented with ascorbic acid (50,
added in order to make up concentrations of 50, 150, 250, 500 and 750 µM) and covered with
150, 250, 500 and 750 µM. mineral oil for 92 hours in the same conditions
Spermatozoa were capacitated in Tyrode as described before. During this time the
using the swim-up technique and a number of embryos that had developed was
haemocytometer was employed to establish counted and compared to the control, and the
concentration. After cumulus expansion differences analyzed using ANOVA and
assessment the oocytes were transferred to interpreted using the Student test.
TALP-Fert and mechanically denuded using a
micropipette. Afterwards they were placed in RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
30 µl droplets and the sperm cells were added. The goal of this study was to establish the
The concentration for fertilization was 1 x 106 influence of several ascorbic acid
spermatozoa/ml and it was computed concentrations (50, 150, 250, 500 and 750
according to the following formula: mM) on swine oocyte maturation. At the end
volume(µl) = 30 x 1 x 106 /the concentration of 44 hours, the oocytes were assessed for
of capacitated spermatozoa. After the sperm cumulus expansion (figure 1) and sometimes
cells were added the droplets were covered the presence of the first polar body (figure 1).
with paraffin oil to prevent media evaporation

Fig. 1. Oocyte assessed as 4 due to complete Fig. 2 Oocyte showing the first polar body as a
cumulus expansion (100x magnification) sign of nuclear maturation (100x magnification)

None of the 5 ascorbic acid concentrations follicular or culture environment, their


led to significant differences in oocyte cumulus expansion is considered to be reliable sign of
expansion when compared to the control. this elusive process having taken place. It is
However, the percentage of oocytes to be also worth noting that fewer oocytes were
scored as 3 was higher than the control in scored as 0 for all the ascorbic acid
several cases amounting to 22.62% for C50, concentrations than the control. Therefore,
30.51% for C150, 23.28% for C500 and ascorbic acid addition did not interfere with
30.84% for C750 as compared to 21.91% (table cumulus expansion and oocyte maturation
1). More oocytes reached the 4th grade of and in view of the results presented above
cumulus expansion for C50, C150 and C 750 seems to indicate that adding ascorbic acid to
than had done so in the case of control cells. the maturation medium diminishes the
Because cumulus cells act as a ‘go- number of oocytes that show no signs of
between’ between the oocyte and the nmaturation.

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

Table 1
The differences for ascorbic acid and their significance

Treatment Total Stage of The percentage of oocytes to have Significance


number of cumulus reached a certain stage of cumulus of
oocytes expansion expansion differences
M 210
0 12,38% -
1 10,95% -
2 20,48% -
3 21,91% -
4 34,28% -
C 50 252
0 3,57% ns
1 13,49% ns
2 25,40% ns
3 22,62% ns
4 34,92% ns
C 150 236
0 5,93% ns
1 10,59% ns
2 22,88% ns
3 30,51% ns
4 30,10% ns
C 250 215 ns
0 8,37% ns
1 20,47% ns
2 15,81% ns
3 19,17% ns
4 36,28% ns
C 500 232
0 3,02% ns
1 25,26% ns
2 28,02% ns
3 23,28% ns
4 25,43% ns
C 750 227
0 3,52% ns
1 14,57% ns
2 15,86% ns
3 30,84% ns
4 38,33% ns
ns - not significant (p>0,05); * - significant

\
The fact that oocytes that had undergone images in figure 3: one taken in visible light
culture were alive was confirmed by (figure 3a) and the other one in ultraviolet
fluorescent staining with FDA. Living cells light at 495 nm (figure 3b).
were highly fluorescent when compared with
dead ones, as can be inferred from the two

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 52 seria Zootehnie

a b
Fig. 3. Flourescent-living and non-fluorescent-dead oocytes: a – visible ligh;
b – ultraviolet light at 495 nm (100x magnification)

Oocytes were then incubated with embryos that had resulted for each treatment
spermatozoa in order for fertilization to occur was counted, all the stages such as 2 cells
and the embryos were cultured in medium (figure 4), 4 cells (figure 4)and morula
supplemented with the same ascorbic acid (figure 5) being taken into account. 233
concentrations for 92 hours. The numbers of embryos resulted, the rate being 18.1%.

Fig. 4. Embryos at 2 and 4-8 cells stage (100x Fig. 5. Embryos at the morula stage (200x
magnification) magnification)

The number was compared with the control and the differences analyzed using ANOVA
and interpreted using the Student test. The results can be seen in table 2.
Table 2
The percentage of embryos that developed during culture with ascorbic acid and the significance of
differences
Treatment Number of fertilized Percentage of developed Significance of
oocytes embryos differences
M 183 9,83% -
C 50 243 20,57% *
C 150 232 19,4% ns
C 250 195 17,44% ns
C 500 194 23,08% ns
C 750 242 16,94% ns
ns - not significant (p>0,05); * - significant (p<0,05)

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

The percentage of embryos that [3] Ducibella T.,: Biochemical and cellular
developed in medium supplemented with insights into the temporal window of normal
ascorbic acid was higher than the control fertilization, Theriogenology, 1998, 49: 53-65.
[4] Guerin P., Mouatassim S.E., Menezo Y.,:
(9.83%) for all the treatments. The highest
Oxidative stres and protection against reactive
values were registered for 500 µM (23.08%) oxygen species in the preimplantation embryo and
and 50 µM (20.57%) and the lowest for C750 its surroundings, Human Reproduction Update,
(16.94%) and C250 (17.44%). The number of 2001, 7(2):175-189.
embryos for 50 µM was statistically [5] Homa S., Racow C., McGaughey R.,: Lipid
significant. The results are similar to the analysis of immature pig oocytes, Journal of
research conducted by Tatemoto et al. Reproduction and Fertility, 1986, 77: 425–434.
[6] Hossein, M.S., Hashem M.A., Jeong Y.W., Lee
(2001), where the addition of ascorbic acid to
M.S., Kim Sue, Kim J.H., Koo. O.J., Park S.M.,
the maturation and embryo culture media Lee E.G., Park S.W., Kang S.K., Lee B.C., Hwang
resulted in a significant increase in the W.S.,: Temporal effect of α-tocoferol and L-
number of embryos. ascorbic on in vitro fertilized porcine embryo
development, Animal Reproduction Science,
2007,100: 107-117.
CONCLUSIONS
[8] Kidson Anadie, In vitro embryo development
The results, as they have been presented in the pig-impact of oocyte maturation milieu on
above lead to the following conclusions. blastocyst morphology and viability, Faculty of
Fluorescein diacetate can be used to Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, 2004,
easily differentiate between living that are ISBN 90-393-3730-6.
fluorescent and dead oocytes, which are dark. [9] McEvoy T., Coull G., Broadbent P.,
Adding 50, 150, 500 and 750 mM Hutchinson J., Speake B.,: Fatty acid composition
ascorbic acid to oocyte maturation medium of lipids in immature cattle pig and sheep oocytes
had a beneficial effect on cumulus oophorus with intact zona pellucida, Journal of
Reproduction and Fertility, 2000,118: 163–170.
expansion and resulted in an increase in the
[10] Tao Y., Zhou B., Xia G., Wang F., Wu Z., Fu
number of oocytes that were scored as 3 and M.,: Exposure to L-ascorbic acid or α-tocopherol
4, therefore being considered mature and in a facilitates the development of porcine denuded
decrease in the number scored at 0. However oocytes from metaphase I to metaphase II and
this number was not statistically significant. prevents cumulus cells from fragmentation,
After fertilization the number of embryos Reprod. Dom. Anim, 2004,39 52–57.
that developed in medium supplemented with [11] Tatemoto H., Ootaki K., Shigeta K., Muto
50 µM ascorbic acid was statistically N.,: Enhancement of developmental competence
after in vitro fertilization of porcine oocytes by
significant and higher than the control, treatment with ascorbic acid 2-O-alpha-glucoside
indicating a beneficial effect. during in vitro maturation, Biology of
Reproduction, 2001, 65: 1800-1806.
REFERENCES [12] Warren S., Patel S., Kapron C.M.,: The effect
Journal articles of vitamin E exposure on cadmium toxicity in
[1] Downs S.M.,: Specificity of epidermal growth mouse embryo cells in vitro, Toxicology,
factor action on maturation of the murine oocyte 2000,142, 119–126.
and cumulus oophorus in vitro, Biol. Reprod., Book
1989, 41: 371–379. [7] Ladoşi I., Embriologie animală, Editura Victor
[2] Droge W.,: Free radicals in the physiological Melenti, Cluj-Napoca, 1999.
control of cell function, Physiology Reviews 2002,
82: 47–95.

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 52 seria Zootehnie

HORMONE-THERAPY – MANAGEMENT SOLUTION


FOR THE REPRODUCTION ENHANCEMENT AT SOW

Gh. Nacu, C. Pascal, Cecilia Pop

Faculty of Animal Sciences, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine


„Ion Ionescu de la Brad” Iasi, Romania
e-mail: nacu_gherasim@yahoo.com

Abstract
Researches were made in 1138 by Camborough sows, grouped into 3 groups as follows: WB
(witness batch ) - 462 sows of untreated hormone; EB 1 (experimental batch 1) - 436 sows
stimulated hormone in the weaning day; EB 2 (experimental batch 2 ) - 240 sows stimulate the
hormone at 10 days after weaning. Hormonal stimulating has been given intramuscularly to the
basis of the ear, with a dose of 5 ml PG 600. In all the batches was chased fecundity and dynamic
heat coming into a period of 30 days after weaning. Application of the treatment in the weaning day
resulted grouping heat in day 3 and day 4 after treatment (65.8% of sows in estrus at EB 1, and only
13.9% registered at the witness batch). Application of treatment to 10 days after weaning led to the
emergence of estrus following 5 days at 69.5% of sows. In the first 16 days after weaning have heat
66.6% of sows in WB, 82.1% of sows in EB 1 and 88.2% of sows in EB 2. Administration PG 600 in
weaning day led to reduced weaning-estru interval from 6.3 days to 3.9 days. For stimulate sows
hormonal in weaning day, fecundity was insignificant lower (74%) than the untreated sows(76.9%)
or stimulated sows at 10 days after weaning (78.1%). The hormone-therapy is an effective way
to improve results obtained in the reproduction sector because corrects some
reproduction indices (fecundity and prolificity) and contribute to more intensive use by
reducing the unproductive period at sows (weaning-estru interval).
Key words: sows, estrus, hormone therapy, management

INTRODUCTION purpose in research, we used the preparation


An efficient management in reproduction PG 600.
sows to include measures for shortening the
unproductive periods (seasonal anestru, MATERIAL AND METHODS OF
weaning-estru period), to improve the WORK
fecundity and prolificity. The function of The biological material was represented
reproduction is directly influenced by the work by 1138 of sows Camborough who had
of neuro-endocrine sistem. To sow, between 2 and 5 birth, grouped into 3 groups
physiologic lactation anestrus is due to reduced as follows: WB (witness batch) - 462 of
secretion of FSH and LH through negative untreated hormonal sows; EB 1
feedback exerted by Prolactin (produced in (experimental batch 1) - 436 sows hormonal
large amount under the stimuli influence stimulated in weaning day; BE 2
represented by suckling) on the release of these (experimental batch 2) - 240 sows hormonal
hormones. After weaning, folicular growth is stimulate at 10 days after weaning.
unlocked and most sows (60% -90%) [5] enter Observations were made in the summer
in heat. There are situations where heat season. Hormonal treatment consisted of
occurring in large intervals of time after intramuscular inoculation, at the ear, a dose
weaning, the phenomenon is often caused by of 5 ml PG 600. PG 600 contains 400 UI
high temperatures in summer season. For FSH and 200 UI LH. In all batches, starting
routing reproduction function commonly used the second day after weaning, has been the
hormonal preparations [1,2,3,4]. With this discovery of sows in heat with boars. The

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

action took place over a period of 30 days. significantly more than in WB (13.9%).
Sows detected in heat were artificially Unlike the EB 1, sows on the WB entered
insemination twice within 12 hours, with staggered in estru, registering the maximum
dose characterized by 80 ml volume and 3 on day 5th of the weaning (13.6%).
billion mobile sperm. After insemination, the The sows in to the EB 2 which do not
following 2 intervals of 21 days ± 3 days, I showed heat within 10 days after weaning were
checked the heat returns, and based on the inoculated with PG 600. The treatment
results we calculated the fecundity. At birth response to consisted, as in the batch EB 1,
we held the prolificity. grouping heat following 5 days when they
were discovered in estru 69.5% of treated sows
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS (26.6% of the herd wean). During the same
In the first 10 days after weaning entered period, showed estru only 2.6% of the lot WB
into heat 81.4% of hormone-treated sows on and 0.7% of the lot EB 1. Between 17 and 30
weaning day (EB 1) and only 64.0% of the days after weaning, the effect of hormonal
unstimulated sows (WB) (table 1), differences therapy has disappeared and the lot EB 2.
between groups were significant (p < 0.01). Thus, the proportion of sows that have entered
The administration preparation based on the heat was closer to the 3 lots (table 1).
gonadotrop hormones resulted folicular Under the conditions mentioned in the 3-
development and entry of grouped sows in 30 days after weaning, the proportion of sows
heat. Thus, if EB 1, on days 3 and 4 after that came into heat was 73.3% in the WB
treatment, which correspond to days 3 and 4 group, 83.7% in the group EB 1 and 92.5%
after weaning entered the heat of sows 65.8%, in group EB 2.

Table 1
The dinamic of the estrus appearance
Days after The batch
1 2 3
weaning WB (No.= 462) EB1 (No. = 436) EB2 (No. = 240)
no. % no. % no. %
3 29 6,8 164 37,6 12 5,0
4 33 7,1 123 28,2 8 3,3
5 63 13,6 37 8,5 30 12,5
6 61 13,2 20 4,6 32 13,3
7 49 10,6 5 1,1 24 10,0
8 32 6,9 5 1,1 20 7,2
9 20 4,3 1 0,2 8 3,3
10 9 1,9 - - 14 5,8
3-10 269 64,0 355 81,4 148 61,6
11-16 12 2,6 3 0,7 64 26,6
17-30 31 6,7 7 1,6 10 4,2
3-30 339 73,3 365 83,7 222 92,5
1
sows of untreated hormone
2
sows hormonal stimulated in the weaning day
3
sows hormonal stimulated at 10 days after weaning

The fecundity at stimulated hormonal The average number of pigs produced /


sows in weaning day was slightly less calving was slightly higher in stimulated
(74.0%) than that of untreatedd sows (76.9%) hormone sows (12.24 ± 0.11 piglets at EB 2,
or stimulated at 10 days after weaning 12.01 ± 0.10 at EB lot, 11.94 ± 0.09 pigs at
(78.1%) (Table 2) (p <0.5). The fecundity lot WB).The sows to stimulate hormone was
slightly lower in sows lot of EB 1 may be due obtained a slightly higher number of piglets
to the short period between weaning and than in WB group, because hormonal
insemination. preparation used contains PMSG with
poliovulator effect.

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 52 seria Zootehnie

Table 2
The sow´s fecundity
Batch Sows artificial Pregnancy sows (No.) Fecundity (%)
insemination (No.)
4
WB 308 237 76,9
5
EB1 358 265 74,0
6
EB2 64 50 78,1
4
sows of untreated hormone
5
sows hormonal stimulated in the weaning day
6
sows hormonal stimulated at 10 days after weaning

CONCLUSSIONS REFERENCES
Using the hormone therapy at sows is an Journal articles
effective way to improve the results in [1] Dial G.D., Bevier G. W.,: Pharmacologic
reproduction compartment because: control of estrus in the pig, Theriogenology, 1989,
2: 912-914.
- PG 600 resulted grouped entry of sows
[2] Estiene M.J.,: Effects of PG 600 on the onset
into heat and shortening the interval weaning of ovulation rate into gilts treated With Regumate,
estru with 61.9%; Anim. Breed. Abstr., 2001, 70: 589
- hormone treatment resulted in [3] Knox R.V., Althouse G.K.,: Administration of
improvement the fecundity with 1.2% when PG 600 to sows at weaning and the time of
applied at 10 days after weaning and did not ovulation as determined ultrasound, J of Anim.
diminished considerably when applied in Sci., 2001, 79: 796-802.
weaning day; [4] Rensis F., Benedetti S., Silva P., Kirkwood
- stimulating hormone caused increased R.N.,: Fertility of sows following artificial
insemination at a gonadotropin-induced estrus
the prolificity until to 0.3 piglets / farrowing. coincident with weaning, Anim. Repr. Sci., 2003,
The cumulative benefits mentioned are 76: 245-250
arguments for using hormone-therapy as a Book:
modern management measure applied in [5] Tănase D.,: Cercetări asupra influenţei unor
reproduction farms. factori stresanţi din combinatele de porci asupra
fertilităţii scroafelor, Teză doctorat IAI,1981.

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

RESEARCHES CONCERNING BREEDING PERFOMANCES


RECORDED TO PIC 1050 AND CAMBOROUGH SOWS
EXPLOITED IN SC SUINPROD SA ROMAN

B. Păsărin1, G. Hoha1, Elena Costăchescu1, I. Bănăţean Dunea2


1
Faculty of Animal Sciences, University of Agricultural Sciences
and Veterinary Medicine „Ion Ionescu de la Brad” Iasi, Romania
e-mail: pbeno@univagro-iasi.ro
2
U.S.A.M.V. a Banatului Timişoara

Through this paper, we proposed to establish the reproduction performances of sows PIC lines
exploited within a top unit in Moldova in swine husbandry - S.C.SUINPROD S.A. ROMAN. There
have been studied individuals resulted from GP 1050 and Camborough sows, following the
standard working protocol in the unit. Comparing the fecundity values, they passed over 81 % in
both groups (PIC 1050 – 81.72 %; Camborough – 81.90 %), suggesting thus that both groups
present special maternal features. Average prolificacy of the sows, expressed as the amount of
farrowed pigs, was higher in Camborough sows (12.11 piglets / parturition) as compared to PIC
1050 sows (11.33 piglets / parturition), meaning + 6.8%. Both achieved values were in accordance
with the data specified by the scientific references. Piglets casualties, in both groups, were less than
10%, compared to the references, which indicate 15 % casualties till weaning. The reduced casualty
percentage could be explained by both better sows quality and provided technological conditions
during gestation, parturition and weaning. From the analysis of the achieved performances at GP
1050 and Camborough sows, it revealed that these females present remarkable maternal qualities:
very good fecundity, high prolificacy, docile temperament and long lasting exploitation period.
Key words: sows, PIC, performance, reproduction

INTRODUCTION The biological material comprised PIC


Swine husbandry the main meat 1050 and Camborough sows, usually used
producing industry in the world and in within the previously mentioned company.
Romania, meaning 50% of the total meat PIC 1050 females are used in the
yield (live weight). Almost the same hybridization farm, to produce Camborough
proportion could be observed in human sows. These are used within the complex to
consumption for this product. cross with terminal boars, in order to produce
Quality and efficiency of this production industrial hybrids for slaughter. The sows
branch depends to the greatest extent of the have been studied since the beginning of
genetic value of the pigs used for their reproductive life, till their culling.
reproduction, of feeding and accommodation The working method included the groups
technologies, being also able to highlight the of animals, meaning 50 individuals from
existing genetic potential. each bloodline. The experimental conditions
were those commonly applied by the
MATERIAL AND METHODS production technology in the unit, the
Through this work, we proposed to technological flow being undisturbed.
establish the reproduction performances The animals received identical conditions
(fecundity, prolificacy, amount of piglets of accommodation and feeding throughout
brought forth alive, amount of weaned piglets the experimental period.
etc.) achieved by the PIC sows used under
intensive system at S.C. SUINPROD S.A.
ROMAN.

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS hours prior to ovulation. This period mainly


1. PIC sows fecundity comprises the time required by
Speaking about fecundity, specifically for spermatozoids ascension and capacitating
females, it is analyzed the real situation of through the uterine horns (between 15-20
the females that become pregnant after minute) and through the oviduct (2-4 hours)
mating or artificial insemination. [1, 6].
Concerning the optimal insemination The data concerning the PIC 1050 and
moment of sows, it was found that the best Camborough sows fecundity are given in
fertility was achieved when females were tab.1 and fig. 1.
inseminated with 10, respectively with 6

Table 1
Fecundity of the PIC sows, depending on the parturitions chronology

o Fecundity (%)
Parturition n PIC 1050 sows Camborough sows
I 82.2 80.6
II 83.8 83.1
III 82.9 83.4
IV 81.7 82.1
V 80.0 80.3
Average ( X ) 81.75 81.90
Fisher test n.s. n.s.

PIC 1050 Cam borough

85
83,8 83,4
83,1 82,9
83 82,2
81,7 82,1 81,75 81,9
80,6
81 80 80,3
%

79

77

75
I II III IV V Media
Fătarea

Fig. 1 Fecundity of the PIC sows, depending on parturitions chronology

Comparing the values recorded in the 2 the 2nd parturition (PIC line 1050) or until the
analyzed sows lines, it could be observed that 3rd one (Camborough), which decreased
the average fecundity is very good, over 81% towards the end of the reliable exploitation
in both groups (PIC 1050 - 81.72%; period, registering a fecundity of about 80.0%,
Camborough - 81.90%), which indicates that during the 5th parturition, in both liner.
the two groups of sows have very well Consequently, sows aged, while the fecundity
maternal features. There were also found decreased. There were not found statistical
differences between parturitions. Therefore, it differences between the two groups of sows.
was found an ascendant fecundity curve till The achieved results were comprised within

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

the limits set by the literature on fertility a year of production. Higher the weaned
(between 80 - 92.5%) [4, 5, 7, 8]. piglets amount and better their quality, better
The descending slope of the fecundity is considered the fertility. Therefore, it is not
curve, observed during ageing, is normal, sufficient to have sows with high fecundity
knowing that the parturition succession lead and prolificacy, because these qualities need
to lower resistance of the organism and to be accompanied by high milking capacity,
increase the occurrence possibility of some by sows care for piglets and by the human
common gynecological disorders. removal of any events causing descendants
mortality during pre-and postnatal periods,
2. Prolificacy of the PIC sows, until weaning.
depending on season Prolificacy is conditioned by ovulation
Reproductive capacity of swine is rate, fecundity, nidation of zygotes, as well as
evaluated through prolificacy, which by embryonic and fetal mortality.
supposes the appliance and compliance with Prolificacy is a very important
a complex of activities and measures, some reproductive index, assessed by the amount
dependent of animal, others related to the of farrowed piglets. Data on the PIC sows
environmental conditions, finalizing with the prolificacy, related to season, are presented in
amount and quality of weaned piglets, during tab. 2.

Table 2
Prolificacy of the PIC sows, depending on season

Piglets Piglets Total Weaned


Weaned
farrowed farrowed farrowed piglets from
Season piglets
alive dead piglets farrowed
(capitis)
(capitis) (capitis)) (capitis) ones (%)
PIC 1050 10.63 0.68 11.31 10.20 90.26
Winter Camborough 11.52 0.62 12.14 11.12 91.60
PIC 1050 10.75 0.78 11.53 10.30 89.41
Spring Camborough 11.64 0.66 12.30 11.25 90.72
PIC 1050 10.61 0.66 11.27 10.18 90.48
Summer Camborough 11.14 0.81 12.05 10.62 90.54
PIC 1050 10.49 0.70 11.19 9.92 89.12
Autumn Camborough 11.14 0.81 11.95 10.62 90.54
Annual PIC 1050 10.62 0.71 11.33 10.15 89.92
average Camborough 11.43 0.68 12.11 11.06 91.07

Comparing the results achieved by both during autumn. The possible causes which
sow groups, we observe that the reproduction led to these results, could be the
performances were similar during the four reminiscences inherited from the ancestral
seasons. wild pig, when parturitions passed during
From the data presented in tab. 2, it was spring, while for the autumn season, the
found that the amounts of piglets farrowed excessive heat during summer overlaps with
alive were close during the 4 seasons, pregnancy, leading thus to modest results.
resulting that in intensive growing It was also noticed that the greatest
conditions, when the appropriate rearing amount of piglets have been achieved by the
technology is fulfilled, the season has low Camborough sows. The difference against
influence on sows prolificacy. the 1050 PIC sows was 8.96% (0.91 capitis).
The highest amount of farrowed piglets It should also be noticed the very high
was achieved from both PIC lines, during percentage of weaned piglets, from the
spring, while the lowest one was recorded farrowed ones, meaning approximately 90%

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in both groups, which demonstrate the decreasing reproduction indexes, while those
excellent potential as good mothers of the too young are not fully physiologically
PIC sows and the very well technology prepared.
practiced in the unit. Concerning the sows prolificacy, as
Literature [2, 4, 5, 6, 8] indicates a influenced by age, data in literature indicate
survival rate of 85-94% for the weaned that best reproduction results are obtained
piglets, basing on the amount of the farrowed during the 3rd, 4th and 5th parturition,
ones. This proves that the productions regardless the breed, so between the ages of 2
achieved within the S.C. SUINPROD and 3 years. However, the sow live weight
ROMAN S.A. are very good. should not exceed 160 kg.
Regarding the prolificacy of the sows, as
3. Prolificacy of the PIC sows, influenced by age, the data from both sows
according to the parturition chronology groups are presented in tab.3 and fig. 2.
Age sows may affect prolificacy in that
sows passing over 3.5 years, which have

Table 3
Prolificacy of the PIC sows, depending on the parturitions chronology

Piglets Piglets Total Weaned


Weaned
farrowed farrowed farrowed piglets from
Season piglets
alive dead piglets farrowed
(capitis)
(capitis) (capitis)) (capitis) ones (%)
I PIC 1050 10,50 0,78 11,28 9,92 87,94
Camborough 11,20 0,73 11,93 10,68 89,50
II PIC 1050 10,59 0,70 11,33 10,20 90,34
Camborough 11,34 0,66 12,00 10,95 91,10
III PIC 1050 10,80 0,62 11,42 10,44 91,42
Camborough 11,65 0,61 12,26 11,33 92,41
IV PIC 1050 10,72 0,66 11,38 10,18 89,46
Camborough 11,58 0,64 12,22 11,24 91,59
V PIC 1050 10,50 0,77 11,27 10,02 88,91
Camborough 11,38 0,74 12,12 11,00 90,75
Annual PIC 1050 10,62 0,71 11,33 10,15 89,92
average Camborough 11,43 0,68 12,11 11,06 91,07

PIC 1050 Camborough


12.5 12,26 12,22 12,12 12,11
11,93 12
11.9 11,42
11,28 11,33 11,38 11,27 11,33
Capete

11.3
10.7
10.1
9.5
I II III IV V Media
Fătarea anuală

Fig. 2 Amount of piglets farrowed by the PIC sows

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

From the data presented in tab. 3, it could literature recommendations for this
be noticed that prolificacy, expressed by the parameter.
amount of farrowed piglets calved, was 4. Piglets casualties, recorded in both
higher in Camborough sows than in the PIC groups, were below 10%, compared with the
1050 ones, during the 5 parturitions. literature statement (around 15%) until
Expressed in relative terms, these differences weaning moment. They could be due both to
were comprised between 5.91% and 7.54%. the very good sows quality and technological
The percentage of piglets farrowed alive conditions provided during gestation and
was in both groups of sows (93.73% at PIC from farrowing to weaning, as well.
1050 and 94.38% at Camborough), which
demonstrates the very well genetic potential REFERENCES
of the PIC sows. Journal articles
Concerning the amount of dead farrowed [2] Farmer C., Robert S. and Matte J.J., 1996 –
piglets, the average values were close in both Lactation performance of sows fed a bulky diet
groups (0.71 capitis in PIC 1050 and 0.68 during gestation and receiving growth hormone
releasing factor during lactation, Journal of
capitis in Camborough).
Animal Science, vol.74, pg. 1298-1306
Prolificacy of the high productivity [3] Johnson R.K., 2000 – Maternal heterosis in
hybrids is situated between 12.05 and 13.2 swine: productive performance and dam
piglets/farrowing [1, 5, 6, 7, 8], meaning that productivity, Journal of Animal Science, vol.40,
the performances achieved within the S.C. pg. 1021-1026
ROMAN SUINPROD S.A. company were [4] Mc Glone J.J., and Hicks T.A., 2006 –
situated at the lower limit. Farrowing hut design and sow genotype
(Camborough vs. 25% Meishan) effects on
outdoor sow and litter productivity, Journal of
CONCLUSIONS Animal Science, vol.78, pg. 2832-2835
1. Fecundity was poorly influenced by [5] Păsărin B., Stan T., Tărăboanţă Gh., Gîlcă I.,
parturition chronology at all studied sows, 1999 – Researches regarding the influence of Hal
the differences recorded in the 5 observed and hal gene son some production and
parturitions being very low. reproduction indices at sows, Lucrări ştiinţifice
2. Comparing the fecundity values U.A.M.V. Iaşi, vol.41-42
recorded at the 2 analyzed sows lines, it [6] Tănase D. şi col., 1990 – Dinamica unor indici
de reproducţie la scroafe în raport cu intensitatea
could be observed a very well average value,
de folosire la reproducţie a vierilor, Lucrări
passing over 81% in both groups (PIC 1050 - ştiinţifice vol. 33-34, Institutul Agronomic Iaşi,
81.72%; Camborough - 81.90%), indicating seria Zootehnie-Medicină Veterinară
that the sows in both groups have special Books
maternal features. [1] Cuc Aurelia, 1981- Optimizarea criteriilor de
3. The average prolificacy, expressed by selecţie pentru obţinerea materialului porcin de
the farrowed piglets amount, was higher in prăsilă în fermele de elită – Teză de doctorat;
Camborough sows (12.11 piglets/farrowing) U.Ş.A.M.V. Bucureşti
than in PIC 1050 sows (11.33 [7] Buletine Informative PIC, colecţia 2003-2007
[8] www.hypor.com
piglets/farrowing), meaning a difference of
6.8%. Both values were comprised within the

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BACK

Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 52 seria Zootehnie

INTRARASIAL TYPE OF BIG


MOLDOVAN KARAKUL SHEEP

I. Buzu, Silvia Evtodienco, O. Maşner, P. Liuţkanov

Institute of Zootechny and Veterinary Medicine

Abstract
The purpose of research is to create a new intraraceal type of Karakul sheep, which would ensure
a high productivity of fur leather, meat, milk. Was used a method of growing through cross-breeding of
sheep of indigenous breed named Tsushca with those from Karakul classic breed of asian type. As a
result was created a new type of sheep population named Moldavian Flesh Karakul, with a typical
exterior for Karakul race, from which will be obtained 68,5-71,2% of fur leather of highest sorts with a
large surface (1839 cm2). Body mass of adult rams is 89.0 - 98.5 kg, of sheep - 55.5 - 57.2 kg. Ewe’s
production of milk is 76,6-80 kg. Ewe’s genotype is 12.5 - 25.0% share of blood of Tsushca breed and
87.5 - 75.0% of Asian Karakul breed. New type of Karakul sheep breed overcomes the classical
Karakul breed mass body with 45.1%, milk production with 53.2% and fur leather surface with 31.3%.
Mass of reformed sheep carcass after the fattening is 32.3 ± 1.0 kg, of 6 months lambs- 16.6 ± 0.3 kg.
The slaughter benefit is respectively 54.8% and 47.5%.
Key words: Type, sheep, Karakul fur leather, meat, milk

INTRODUCTION MATERIALS AND METHODS


In Moldova there are around 800 As a biological material for researches,
thousand sheep, 400 thousand of which are have served the aboriginal sheep breed
Karakul breed, Tsushca and their metisses Tsushca, classic breed Karakul (Asian),
(Karakul x Tsushca). These sheep breeds imported from Central Asia countries
ensure, firstofall, food security of rural (Uzbechistan, Turkmenistan) and their
population with dairy products (cheese, metisses of different generations.
urda), meat and the manufacturing processes Tsushca sheep breed is described by
raw materials ( fur leather, fur, skins, wool). researchers [6,7,8] as animals which are easy
The sheep use effectively to feed the natural to feed and maintain, with robust
pastures and crop residues as a result of constitution, resistant body to different
harvesting crops. Therefore, sheepbreeding is diseases and environements, but at the same
an accessible branch, essential to the rural time, with a low productivity for the mixed
population. Nearly 95% of the sheepherd is type of milk-fur leather-wool. The sheep
in individual sector, but their productivity is body has a pear-shaped form, the head is
not high. From one sheep it is obtained elongate with a right profile, with horns or
annual an average of 40-45 kg milk, 7-8 kg without horns, small ears, short and thin or
meat, 2,0-2,2 kg wool, and 10-15 % fur long tails. The udder has a globular shape
leather of high quality, which is inferior to with well-developed nipples. Tsushca sheep
economical requests of this branch. To have a good milk production which is over
increase the production potential of animals 100 kg per lactation. [8] Their body mass is
is required a genetic improvement of about 42-45 kg. Their prolificity is 105-
autochton sheep breed, which is scientifically 107%. Average yield of raw wool is 2,5-3,0
argued, taking in consideration the kg. Rams have horns twisting in a spiral with
biological characteristics of sheep and very robust members, hoof horn resistant to
historical traditions of our people. necrobacterioziz, and body mass of 60-65 kg.
From Tsushca lambs, slaughtered at 2-3 days
after birth can be obtained fur leather with

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

low quality loops, attributed to the remained 12,5% share of blood Tsushca breed
assortment of "smushca". On the main and 87,5% share of Karakul breed.
regions of fur leather (buttocks, back) are In the second phase (1986-1996) were
separated non-valuable ring-type loops, half applied well-known methods of intensive
rings and peas, on the lateral sides overbear selection in order to improve the
loops of snail type, and smoothness. The characteristics of quetsch by using their
pilose covering consists of overgrown fibers, breeding rams, tested after the qualities of
which are rough, with gloss or opaque progeny fur leather.
appearance, fibers pigmentation is reduced- At the third stage (1997-2000) was
black, and the light grey fur leathers are practiced the targeted, progressive method of
mixed with white fibers. selection according to the three main
Classic Karakul breed is famous in the characters: fur leather quality (class), body
world for its valuable and unique loops mass and milk production. At this stage we
characteristics of lambs fur leather, sought to maintain the quality of fur leather
slaughtered at 1-3 days after birth, this is well and milk production at the already attained
described by a number of notorious sufficient level, and to increase essentially
researchers [3,4,10]. However, pure Karakul the animals body weight (meat production
sheep breed of import manifest in Republic potential). Were selected the most burliness
of Moldova, also some negative features such breeders, mostly without horns. Were set
as low resistance to a number of helmintious minimal limits of characters for sheep
and respiratory diseases, a law potential of selection in weeding nucleuses: the fur
milk and meat production (small body mass). leather quality - class I, body mass: rams - 85
In this context, our purpose was to create a kg, sheep - 50 kg, mutton of 18 months - 65
new intrarasial sheep type, which would kg, ewe lamb - 44 kg, rams of 6 months - 35
combine a good quality of fur leathers loops, kg, ewe lambs of 6 months - 30 kg, milk
inherited from Karakul breed, with a high milk production per lactation -65 kg.
productivity, inherited from Tsushca race and The fourth phase (2001-2005) was a
a high body mass development (potential for period of consolidation, at a desirable level, of
meat), obtained by selection. At different morphoproductiv characteristics in the sheep
stages of this type creating, various methods of population genotype, with a well defined
research and breeding have been applied. structure type. In the list of continuers lines
At the first stage (1978-1985) was were selected only tested young rams after the
implemented a method of growing through progeny qualities, by applying methods of
cross breeding of Karakul sheep breed with imunogenetical monitoring and being
Tsushca, according to the following schedule confirmed as enhancers.
(Figure. 1). To infuse gene (We) of quetsch The qualities of lamb fur leather were
color has been practiced heterogeneous mating examined 1-2 days after delivery by the
of black sheep (Karakul and metise) with methods indicated in the USSR Instructions
Tsushca rams and quetsch metisses (Karakul X (Samarkand, 1989) of Karakul lambs
Tsushca) especially selected, and the metis inventory [9] - at first stages of research and
quetsch sheep (initially there were no quetsch selection, using the methods developed by
Karakul sheep in the flock) with black Karakul the authors of this work [1] - the second
rams. Since third-generation all metise females, phase of research and selection. Milk
with different participation rate to Karakul production of sheep was assessed by control
breed (3 / 4 and 7 / 8), and the Karakul breed milking over the entire lactation, according to
sheep, were mated, in biggest part with metis the method of T. Nica [2].Animal body
rams of their own reproduction. Since 1982 developing was determined by their
imports of rams from Republic of Moldova, has individual weigh at birth, at age of 20 days,
been suspended. Selection works were done age of 60 days, 6 months, 18 months, and all
through the method of increasing the sheep herd adult sheep - annually before monti, at the
"in itself". The biggest part of sheep genotypes end of October. In the warm period (May-

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 52 seria Zootehnie

November) sheep were brought to grazing long and strong neck, long and straight or
natural meadows and lands with stubble, in slightly convex back, long and splay groat,
the cold period (December-April) - the palm and massive tail, formed in two
stabulation, feeding them with corn silage, emphasized parts, almost reaching jarets, the
straw and concentrates, according to top of tail is thin, forming "S" and hanging
zootechnical rules. below jarets. The trunk has a cylindrical
shape, with strong legs, parallel located.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Requested rams type, in their majority are
During the period of about 25 years, hornless, or with just horns rudiments, after
beginning with selection and growth work of their temperament and neuro-physiological
sheep sovkhoz of Cotovski (Cainari district) type are mildler as the asian Karakul type.
and continuing with selection work at Sheep are also very well developed, with
breeding farms of National Institute of robust constitution, elongate head elongate
Zootechny and Veterinary Medicine and at with a less convex profile, long, hanging
CAP «Agrosargal", has been created a new ears, elongate neck, straight or slightly
intrarasial sheep type for fur leather-milk- convex back, a pear-shaped trunk, and long
meat, called by some researchers [13] as an legs. Well-developed mammary glands. All
intensive type, whith special features sheep are hornless.
comparing to baseline breeds. Karakul sheep Fur leather production
of Moldovan type is characterized by New born lambs of Moldovan Karalul
uniformity of individuals appearances type have a silky pilose coating, consisting of
represented by three color varieties – black, valuable loops that mostly correspond (over
light grey and grey. 70%), to the inventory requirements of upper
Rams are burliness have robust classes - elite and class I (Table1).
constitution, an oblong head with convex
profile, long ears, hanging down (drooping),

Table 1
Inventory lambs ratings from IZMV flock
Inventory year, Lambs classes
specification n Elite I Class II Class
head % head % head %
2004, total 392 80 20,4 222 56,6 90 23,0
including, light 160 28 17,5 83 51,9 49 30,6
grey
2005, total 362 84 23,2 191 52,8 87 24,0
including, light 105 16 15,2 52 49,5 37 35,3
grey

In 2004-2005, high classes lambs share commercial value. (tab. 2). Despite the fact
was about 76-77% in the whole flock , 20,4- that to slaughtening were delivered only
23,2% of which were of the highest class lambs which hadn’t met the requirements for
(elite). Most lambs had desired loop types: reproduction, the fur leather share of Ist sort
jackets (tubular) - 49.6%, costal - 18.9% and was quite high - about 65,5-68,5%. The
flatten - 13.9%. The unwanted types – that average usefull surface of fur leather is over
kaukazian had only 17.5% of lambs. Lambs 1800 cm2, which exceeds with 28.6% the
at birth are well developed in size of body standard Karakul breed (1400 cm2). Under
length and height waist. Slaughting them, is the grading standards in force, 85.5 - 90.6%
obtained fur leather mostly of highest sorts, of fur leather surface is large (> 1400 cm2).
with a big surface, which determines their

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

Table 2
The quality of merchandising fur leather, obtained from Karakul lambs of Moldovan type
*
type, fur leather sort Period of research
2003 2004 2005
pcs % pcs % pcs. %
Pure Karakul 125 89,9 158 90,8 146 90,1
Including: Ist sort 87 62,6 110 63,2 107 66,0

of which: jacket type 42 33,6 35 22,2 49 45,8


Ist costal type 12 9,6 27 17,1 24 22,4
Ist flat type 13 10,4 30 19,0 19 17,8
Ist kaukazian type 20 16,0 18 11,4 15 14,0
ON THE WHOLE 139 100 174 100 162 100
Including: Ist sort 92 66,2 114 65,5 111 68,5
Fur leather average
2
surface, cm 1744±25 1677±20 1839±26
including: big >1400 126 90,6 149 85,6 143 88,3
very big >1800 50 36 60 34,5 92 56,8
medium 900 - 1400 13 9,4 25 14,4 19 11,7
small 700 - 900 - - - - - -

* Note: Fur leather sorting was done according ГОСТ requierements – 8748-70, 2865-68, 11124-
65 and 10327-75

There are up to 56.8% of fur leather with Control of milk production performance,
very large surface (> 1800 cm2). Practically during 2003-2005 showed that Moldovan
there are no fur leather with small surfaces. type of Karakul sheep has an increased
potential of this productive character (tab. 3).
Milk production

Table 3
Milk production of Moldovan type of Karakul sheep
Year nb Lactation term, days Milk production per lactation,
kg
2003 119 174,2±2,7 72,4±1,3
2004 163 171,8±1,8 78,0±1,5
2005 209 157,5±1,3 77,8±1,1
Average 491 166,3±1,8 76,6±1,3

The average milk yield of sheep per the maximum production of milk per day at
lactation with an average duration of 166.3 40-45 days after lactation (in May), and then
days was 76.6 kilograms, and in the most in June, it is decreasing a little bit in August,
favorable year (2004) - 78.0 ± 1.5 kg. It is and subsequently, in September-October is
important to notice that a part of sheep suddenly diminishing. According to chemical
(40.5%) had a milk production over 80 kg composition (Table. 4) and physical
per lactation. Sheep-recorder registered with properties, Moldovan Karakul sheep milk has
no 8846 produced during 170 days - 139 kg a higher value compared to other sheep
of milk. In the lactation diagram is registered breeds known throughout the world [8,11].

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 52 seria Zootehnie

Table 4
Chemical composition and physical properties of Moldovan Karakul sheep milk
Quantitative indicators (M±m)
Color of
Milk Total of
sheep Total of
n production Fat Casein dry Acidity Density
pilose protein, 0 0
per % % substance, T A
coating %
lactation, kg %
Black 46 80,9±3,5 7,5±0,4 5,2±0,3 4,0±0,2 18,3±0,7 21,7±0,8 35,2±0,8
Light grey 37 77,9±4,5 7,8±0,4 5,6±0,3 4,3±0,3 18,8±0,5 21,2±0,9 35,0±0,5
Grey 17 95,4±5,8 7,9±0,4 5,3±0,3 4,2±0,2 18,2±0,5 21,9±0,8 33,8±0,9

Content of dry matters is on average 18,2- lactation and 4,4-4,9% in the second half.
18,8%, exceeding average sheep species with Average acidity per lactation is 21,2-21,9o T, the
5,1% [11], including fat content with 14,9%. density 34,0-35,2 o A. From Karakul sheep milk
The content of dry substances varies from 16,0- is prepared Moldovan traditional cheese, with
17,4% - in the first half of lactation and up to increased content of dry nutrients and with
19,4-20,4%, in second half of lactation. Fats are delicious specific taste qualities.
on average 7.5 - 7.9%, with a lowest level (6,4-
6,8%) in the first half of lactation and higher Body development and meat production
(8,2-9,3) in the second half. Total protein in Results of body measurements show
milk is on average 5,2-5,6%, with deviations certainly (tab. 5) that the new created type is
from 4,3-4,8%, in the first half of lactation and a part of sheep population with high waist,
5,6-6,4% in the second half, from which the with back height of 76.8 ± 1.8 cm for rams
caseins in lactating are on average 4,0-4,3%, and 64.6 ± 0.4 cm for sheep.
with variation of 3,5-3,7% in the first half of

Table 5
Body measurements of Moldovan Karakul sheep, cm (M±m)
New type rams New type sheep New type Asian type
Specification Breeders Rams of (N=20) ewes sheep
(N=10) 18 mths (N=23) (N=35)
(N=4)
Hight at the top 76,8±1,8 69,7±1,5 **64,6±0,4 60,1±0,4 61,6±0,3
Hight at the
80,8±2,0 77,0±1,7 ***69,9±0,7 64,7±0,5 66,9±0,5
croupe
Chest depth 37,3±0,8 34,3±3,7 ***33,1±0,4 29,7±0,4 29,8±0,3
Chest width 25,3±0,8 24,7±3,7 *21,1±0,3 18,8±0,2 20,3±0,2
Chest perimeter 100,5±1,7 92,3±0,7 ***86,9±0,9 77,4±0,9 77,7±0,5
Oblique length of 90,7±1,8 86,0±1,5 ***81,9±0,7 76,2±0,5 65,7±0,3
the trunk
Width at hips 20,8±0,3 17,3±0,3 19,0±0,2 15,5±0,2 -
groats
Groat width at 15,2±0,5 14,3±0,9 12,7±0,3 10,5±0,2 -
makloks
Whistle 11,3±0,2 11,3±0,3 8,3±0,1 7,8±0,1 7,9±0,2
perimeter
**P≤0,01; ***P≤0,001

Thorax is sufficiently developed with a 90.7 ± 0.3 and 81.9 ± 0.7 cm for sheep. The
clear superiority of depth. Chest perimeter is posterior train is also well developed. Width
100.5 ± 1.7 cm for rams and 86.9 ± 0.9 cm groats at the hips for rams is 20.8 ± 0.3 cm,
for sheep. The body is rather long, at both and for sheep - 19.0 ± 0.2 cm. Thus,
males and females. Body length for rams is Moldovan Karakul sheep is significantly

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

higher compared to Asian Karakul sheep on manifested by body length. Thus, the new
top - with 4.9% (P ≤ 0.01), the rump - with type of sheep are longer compared to
4.0% (P ≤ 0.01) have a more developed and Karakulul Asian sheep with 16.2 cm (P ≤
extensive thorax, and the perimeter - with 9.2 0001). The sheep body conformation is a
cm (P ≤ 0001). The most pronounced dolicomorf type, specific to this breed.
superiority of the new type of sheep is

Table 20
Body clues of Moldovan Karakul sheep, %
Breeding Rams Sheep Ewes
Body clu rams Ewes (n=20) (n=23)
(n=10) (n=4)
Body format 120,2±4,4 123,6±4,6 126,9±1,2 127,9±1,9
(obl. length/ top hight) x 100 %
Robustness 110,6±2,7 107,4±1,5 106,4±1,5 97,6±4,0
(chest perim./obl. length) x 100 %
Thorax 67,8±2,3 71,8±10,0 63,8±1,1 63,4±0,6
(thor. width/tor. depth) x 100 %
Skeleton 14,8±0,3 16,3±0,5 12,8±0,2 13,0±0,2
(whistle perim./ top hight) x 100 %

Body size has a rectangle shape at rams habitus, big and long body, which obviously
and trapeze at ewes, with width, depth and correlates with positive potential of meat
length good emphasized. Thus the oblique production of the animal.
trunk length exceeds the height values at top New type sheep are quite precocious,
with 20.2% - for rams, and 26.9% - for starting even from intrauterine development
sheep. The same thing is observed at young stage. It was found that young sheep body
sheep. Thorax clu has high values: at rams - mass, at all ages, overcome that of standard
67.8 ± 2.3% at ewe lambs - 71.8 ± 10.0%), at Asian Karakul breed (tab. 6).
sheep - 63.8 ± 1.1% and at ewes - 63.4 ±
0.6%. These, generally, reflect a large

Table 6
Dynamic of body weight development at Moldovan Karakul lambs, kg
Young Breed 2003 (N=210) 2004 (N=164) 2005 (N=193)
sheep age standard M±m Cv, % M±m Cv,% M±m Cv,%
At birth 4,0 4,5±0,1 17,5 4,4±0,1 19,3 5,2±0,1 19,7
At 20 days 7,5 7,7±0,3 24,7 7,9±0,2 21,5 9,1±0,2 20,3
At 3 months 15,0 19,8±0,7 23,4 22,4±0,6 21,2 23,7±0,4 16,5
(weaning)

Body mass of lambs (2005) was: at birth 19%. The intensity of relative growth of
5.2 ± 0.1 kg, at the age of 20 days - 9.1 ± 0.2 young sheep from birth to the age of 20 days
kg, at 3 months - 23.7 ± 0.4 kg, by this clu was (2005) 75.0%, from age of 20 days to
exceeding Asian Karakul lambs, respectively weaning (3 months) -157%, from age of 3
with 30.0, 21.3 and 58.0. months up to 6 months -- 48%, from 6
At the age of 6 months new type Karakul months up to 18 months - 52%.
lambs reach body mass of 35 - 40 kg and Rams-breeders had over the years (2003-
ewe lambs 32 -35 kg (Table 7). 2005), average body mass of 91.9 ± 3.3 kg,
At the age of 18 months, ewe rams has a ranging from 88.2 up to 98.5 kg, adult sheep
body mass of 65 - 70 kg and the ewes - 52,9-57, 2 kg, rams of 18 months - 69,6-
weighing 45 - 50 kg, what is more than the 73,3 kg.
standard race, with 27 and respective with

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 52 seria Zootehnie

Table 7
Body mass of Moldovan Karakul sheep (M±m), kg
Year Average
Specification 2003 2004 2005
n M±m n M±m n M±m M±m
Rams breeders 15 88,2±3,0 11 89,0±2,2 9 98,5±2,9 91,9±3,3
Sheep 543 52,9±0,5 493 57,2±0,4 496 55,5±0,3 55,2±1,3
Rams of 18 mths 6 73,3±1,9 4 70,0±2,1 5 69,6±1,7 71,0±1,2
Ewes of 18 mths 286 49,0±0,5 245 52,1±0,5 178 49,3±0,4 50,1±1,0
Lambs of 6 mths 6 43,0±1,2 5 40,0±3,1 7 41,2±2,6 41,4±0,9
Ewe lambs of 6 283 30,1±0,3 232 34,4±0,4 287 32,5±0,3 32,3±1,2
mths

Body mass of 18 months ewes was on from 30.1 ± 0.3 up to 34.4 ± 0.4 kg. New
average 49.0, 52.1, and 49.3 kg properly. type Karakul sheep have a well developed
Lambs of 6 months selected for breeding, body and respectively a high potential of
had body mass of 40.0 - 43.0 kg. Body mass meat production (tab. 8).
of 6 months ewe lambs ranged on average

Table 8
Values of main slaughtering clues of Moldovan Karakul sheep
Adult sheep (reformed) Lambs of 6 mths
Specification % at BM % at BM
M±m before M±m before
slaught slaught
Body mass before slaughtering, kg 64,6±1,1 100 35,8±0,3 100
Carcass weight, kg 32,3±1,0 50,0 16,6±0,3 46,7
Internal fat 2,97±0,4 4,6 0,32±0,1 0,87
Yield of cutting, % 54,8 47,5

At adult sheep slaughtering reformed juicy delicious taste, buttocks are well
with body mass before slaughtering of 64.6 ± developed, with considerable fat deposits
1.1 kg, were collected carcasses weighing what is specific to Karakul breed.
32.3 ± 1.0 kg, which is 50.0% of weight Regarding general appearance of sheep
before slaughtering. Carcasses were covered and lambs carcasses, both are long, the main
with a uniform layer of fat. At halfcarcasses parts muscles are sufficiently developed,
could be observed a good developing having a layer of pericorporal fat, with a
longitudinal muscle. The meat is dark brown well commercial appearance what is
color. Return to slaughter (which includes the important to make growth the Karakul sheep
carcass with kidney and internal fat), at in Moldovan economic conditions in present
slaughtered sheep was - 54, 8%, which could and for the future.
be compared with other famous sheep breeds Intrarasial type of Moldovan Fat Karakul
in the world [12, 13]. sheep was ratified by the Board Member and
At the slaughtering of 6 months lambs approved by order of the Ministry of
with body weight of 35.8 ± 0.3 kg, was Agriculture and Food Industry No.. 238 of
obtained carcasses with average weight of 23. 12. 2007 as achieved selection.
16.6 ± 0.3 kg. Percentage report of carcass
from the mass of slaughtering of lambs is CONCLUSIONS
46.7%. Yield of cutting of slaughtered lambs 1. In Republica of Moldova was created
is 47.5%, exceeding the metis breeds for and ratified a new sheep type „Big Moldovan
meat [5]. Young sheep meat, at this age, has Karakul”.
a pale red color, with moderate saturation of
intramuscular fat, which has aspecifical and

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

2. Karakul sheep of moldovan type differ


from classical Karakul breed of Asian type REFERENCES
by more developed body mass and incresed Journal articles
milk production, they also have a better [5] Ерохин А. И., Нассири М. Р., Шикалова В.
resistance to some diseases and pedo- П. Откормочные качества и мясная
продуктивность баранчиков породы финский
climatic calamities, yelding up a little for
ландрас и их помесей. Ж. Овцы, козы,
their fur leather qualities. шерстяное дело. 1999, № 3, стр. 22-24.
3. Compared with Tsushca sheep breed, [8] Ильев Ф. В. О молочной продуктивности
Karakul of Moldovan type have a bigger овец. Труды Кишиневского
body development, much better fur leather, сельскохозяйственного института им. М. В.
but yelding up a little for their milk Фрунзе, т. 47, 1966, стр. 83-88.
production. [11] Литовченко Г. Р., Есаулов Н. А. Молочная
4. Share of higher class lambs (elite and продуктивность овец. В книге «Овцеводство»,
Ist class) is on average per flock 76-77% , т. 1, М. «Колос», 1972, стр. 370-396.
[12] Фазульзянов Ф. Х. Продуктивность овец
from them is obtained fur leather of Ist sort, породы прекос. Ж. Зоотехния, 1999, № 11, стр.
88,3-90,6% of which have a large surface. 11-12.
Average fur leather surface is 1839.2 cm2. [2] Nica Th. Îndrumări de modul cum trebuie
5. New type young sheep is quite efectuat controlul producţiei laptelui la oi. Foaia de
precocious, reaching an average body mass at informaţiuni REAZ, nr. 5-6, Bucureşti, 1937
birth - 5.2 ± 0.1 kg, at the age of 20 days - 9.1 Books
± 0.2 kg, 3 months - 23.7 ± 0.4 kg lambs of 6 [1] Instrucţiuni de bonitare a mieilor Karakul cu
months - 41.4 ± 0.9 kg, ewe lambs of 6 principii de ameliorare. Chişinău, 1996.
[3] Васин Б. Н. Руководство по
months - 34.4 ± 0.4 kg, rams of 18 months -
каракулеводству. М., «Колос», 1971, 320 с.
71.0 ± 1.2 kg, ewes of 18 months -50 , 1 ± [4] Дъячков И. Н. Племенное дело в
1.0 kg. каракульском овцеводстве. Ташкент, изд.
6. Adult rams have an average body mass «Фан», 1980.
of 98.5 ± 2.9 kg, adult sheep - 55.5 ± 0.3 kg, [6] Ильев Ф. В. Крештереа оилор ын Молдова.
exceeding the clasical Karakul breed Едитура «Картеа молдовенеаскэ», Кишинэу,
representants, with respectively 51.5 and 1969.
23.3%. [7] Ильев Ф. В. Методы скрещивания,
7. New type of sheep have increased применяемые при выведении молдавского
каракуля, и полученые результаты. Труды
skills for meat production. Mass of 6 months Кишиневского сельскохозяйственного
lambs carcasses is 16.6 ± 0.3 kg, of reformed института им. М. В. Фрунзе, т. ХIV, 1957, стр.
sheep after the fattening - 32.3 ± 1.0 kg, the 25-100.
yield of cutting presents respectively 47.5 [9] Инструкция по бонитировке каракульских
and 54.8%. ягнят с основами племенного дела. Самарканд,
8. Karakul sheep of Moldovan type have 1989.
a good milk production which is on average [10] Кошевой М. А. Селекция и условия
per lactation 76.6 ± 1.3 kilograms, exceeding разведения каракульских овец. Ташкент, изд.
«Фан», 1975.
the classical Karakul breed with 53.2%. Milk
[13] Яцкин В. И. Повышение еффективности
is distinguished by increased content of dry производства баранины. М. 2004, стр. 300.
substances - 18,2-18,8%, including fats - 7,5-
7,9%.

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 52 seria Zootehnie

ELITE TYPE OF SHEEP OF MOLDAVIAN TSIGAIE


OF ALEXANDERFELD

I. Buzu, O. Maşner, P. Liuţcanov

Scientific practical Institute of Biotechnologies in Medicine and Veterinary Zootehny

Abstract
The purpose of research - creating a new type of sheep tsigaie which would ensure a high
production of wool-meat-milk. It was used the method of intrarasial crossing with sheep breed of
Tsigaie of indigenous type (mother base) with intrarasial rams of Crimean Tsigaie and Tsigaie
Priazov. After five levels was created a sheep population named new type of Moldovan Tsigaie of
Alexanderfeld with productive capacity much higher then indigenous sheep type of tsigaie,exceeding
the standard requirements for wool production with 46.8%, body weight with 32 %, milk production
with 57%. The created population has a specific genotype with a high frequency of blood antigens
Cb, II, Bb, Aa, Ca and Ma. Genealogical structure of the new type of sheep include two elite lines.
Key words: type, sheep, wool, meat, milk.

INTRODUCTION MATERIALS AND METHODS


Breeding of Tsigaie sheep Budjac steppe As a biological material for research and
of Republic is dated to the second half of improvement has served the initial efective
XVIII century. These, according to of sheep flock of Agricultural Production
researches of F. V. Iliev (1966) were brought Cooperative "Elita-Alexanderfeld", Cahul
in south of the republic by Bulgarians and district. After composition (genotypic and
were used mainly to produce wool and milk. phenotypical), the flock is quite diverse,
Under the influence of socio-economic, comprising both sheep Tsigaie-bred of pure
climateric factors (nutrients) and the type – indigenous bred type - for wool-milk,
traditions of indigenous people on the also sheep resulting from previous crosses of
exploitation of this sheep breed and recovery tsigaie sheep of indigenous type with merino
of obtained products, was formed its rams, and also hybrids (metis) from crosses
ecological and morfoproductiv (domestic) of tsigaie x Tsushca and merino x Tsushca of
type of sheep of tsigaie. Many researchers in different generations. As breeder material
different periods (T. Iliev, 1969; F. Dovbuş, were used rams of intrarasial types well
1974; V. Babenco et al. , 1988) found that known in tsiagie breed - for wool-meat
sheep of tsigaie of coresponding type is (Crimean type) and meat-wool (type
characterized by the indices of production Priazov), other rams from initial flock were
relatively low, including the habitus, but has removed of breeding (F. Dovbuş, 1968).
an increased resistance to specific conditions Works were done in five consecutive
of republic south area. Because of world stages: I (1962-1976), II (1977-1986), III
trends of exploration and improvement of (1989-1996), IV (1996-2000). Each phase is
sheep, will be taken the direction of completed by strengthening character, using
increasement of milk and meat production, the sheep breeding in „itself” method "itself"
skills improvement of local (native) breed, according to time requierements. In
maintenance and development of sheep improvement process were used combinations
genofond. Since 1962 have been initiated of classical methods of sheep breeding of pure
works in order to improve and create a new breed and through crossing with
type of sheepof tsigaie with highest potential recombination of breeder material, according
for meat-wool-milk, keeping at the same time to the goal and necessity of correction of one
adaptive capacity of this breed. or another character. So rams of crimean type

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

participated in phases I and III and type selection after the method of independent
Priazov at stages II, IV and V. limits to the three products – wool, body mass
Priority directions of improvement process (potential for meat production) and milk
of indigenous Tsigaie sheep and creating new production, creation of selected groups by
type were: body mass increasing, exterior applying different selection intensity; directed
indices improvement, higher meat production reproduction of requested sheep type and
(young sheep precocity and carcasses quality), creating of elite lines. Since 2000, requested
improvement of wool production quality sheep type is reproducing in "itself" with
(fineness, uniformity, length , extension) and application of high selection intensity,
quantitatively, especially in first two stages, particularly for remount rams.
maintaining and increasing milk production.
Basic methods and procedures which were RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
used: testing and selecting rams after their After the realisation of improvement five
origin, phenotype and genotype, performance steps by using genitorial material (rams) of
evaluation and selection of young sheep at intrarasial types for wool-meat and meat-
weaning (3,5-4 months) after their body mass, wool, works were finished by breeding in
exterior and length of wool locks; implements „itself" of sheep with a genotype consisting
and selection of young sheep at age of 12 -14 of the three blood morfoproductive types
months after exterior type, body mass and shares of Tsigaie breed (fig. 1).
characteristics of wool sheepskin; sheep

Tip de
Crimeea (lana- Tip indigen
carne) 10,27%
48,67% Tip Priazov
(carne-lana)
40,56%

Figure 1. Blood shares of different morfoproductive types in the new type Tsigaie sheep
(wool-meat-milk)

This synthetic genotype, as is shown in that research for improvement of local breed
figure 1, with 10.27% blood share from of Tsigaie sheep, were done at different
Tsigaie – indigenous type for wool-milk, stages and in other countries, where these
48.67% of Tsigaie - of Crimean type for sheep are breeded, so remarkable results were
wool- meat and 40.56% of Tsigaie -- type obtained (A Mihailov., Et al., 1987; Ćinculov
Priazov for meat-wool allows the realisation M., M Krajinović, I Pihler., 2003, Iaţchin V.,
of high mixed productivity. 2004; and others )
In this context, according to research to Applying the classical methods of efective
improve the breed of Tsigaie made by M. improving by combining the proper
Jireacov, V. Luşnicov (1997), A. Karpova elaborations with use of differential selection
(2002), new type (sheep) creation inside of intensity, according to improvement value of
the breed with specific unique genotypes for gender and age groups contributed
maintaining the genetic variability of the significantly to improving the initial flock of
breed, ensure its development through sheep but the new-created type being better
recombination of these genotypes and after production indices, comparing to
reproduction of individuals corresponding to standard Tsigaie breed in Republic, and to the
improvement direction. It is important to note flock level at an earlier stage of work (Tab. 1).

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Table 1.
Comparative values of production indices characteristic to the new type comparing to initial flock
Indices Gender and age groups
sheep Ewe sheep (12-14 lambs (12-14 months)
months)
Initial flock (after F. Dovbuş, 1968)
Body mass, kg 41,8 30,0 -
Wool production, kg 2,90 3,68 -
Wool length, cm - 8,41 -
Standard of Tsigaie breed (Implements instructions of Tsigaie sheep breed, Chişinău, 1997)
Body mass, kg 45,0 35,0 40,0
Wool production, kg 4,0 4,0 4,0
Wool length, cm 8,0 8,5 8,5
Actual flock of the new elite type
Body mass, kg 54,2 46,07 63,4
Wool production, kg 4,74 5,58 8,25
Wool length, cm 9,0 13,9 14,3

According to results presented in the measurements are well-developed at rams for


table, there is an essential superiority of the breeding and ewes. It is obvious also that adult
new elite type flock comparing to initial sheep of new type for meat-wool-milk
flock after all analysed indices, especially compared with those of indigenous type for
after the body mass and wool. wool and milk (widespread in the southern
High productivity of the new type sheep, is republic) where all measurements are higher,
in concordance with corresponding values of especially after the height of the withers and to
sheep exterior, also confirmed by rump length of the oblique trunk. These
measurements, and respectively body indices features to print a massive body, well
(Table. 2). After the analysis of body developed in length and depth. It is obvious
development after the main measurements can also that the adult sheep of new type for meat-
be said that the new type of Tsigaie sheep are wool-milk compared with those of indigenous
with high waist, elongate and massive body, type for wool and milk (widespread in the
with well pronounced wide and depths. Height south of republic) where all measurements are
at top is 77.8 cm for breeding rams and 70.0 higher, especially after the height at top and
cm for adult females (ewes), oblique length of cruppers, oblique length of trunk. These
the trunk is 93.1 and 82.5 cm corresponding to features print a massive body, well developed
gender and thorax perimeter respectively in length and depth.
100.9 and 92, 6 cm. Also other body

Table 2.
Principal values of measurements and body indices of new type Tsigaie sheep, (M±m), cm
Rams (new type wool- Sheep
Specification meat-milk)
breeding Ewe rams New type Indigenous type
wool-meat-milk wool-milk
Height at top 77,8±0,7 72,7±0,5 70,0±0,5 64,6
Height at cruppers 80,0±0,8 75,3±0,7 73,1±0,4 65,3
Thorax width 25,2±0,5 23,7±0,6 21,7±0,4 20,1
Thorax depth 35,6±0,3 31,8±0,6 32,3±0,3 30,5
Thorax perimeter 100,9±1,2 94,1±1,1 92,6±1,0 84,0
Oblique length of trunk 93,1±0,8 85,2±1,3 82,5±0,6 72,4
Whistle perimeter 10,1±0,1 9,8±0,2 8,4±0,1 8,28
Body indices,%:
format 119,7 116,8 117,9
thorax 71,5 73,5 67,2
bones 13,0 13,1 11,9
compacted 129,1 129,4 132,4

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

Body indices, demonstrate a relatively long The average milk production of primipar
body with well developed thorax at rams and sheep was 94.9 ± 3.96 kg (70,14-139,35 kg).
ewes. Values of compacted index confirms Results obtained by us in development of new
skills for mixed productivity of these sheep. production capacities for mixed production of
New type Tsigaie sheep has advantages Tsigaie sheep confirmed that among the three
over the standard breed from republic after productions there is no physiological
wool production on average with 46.8% and antagonism and selection process support with
body mass with 32.0%. According to our appropriate sheep alimentation, allows
research of milk production of new type sheep achieving intended results (V. Taffeta, I. Vintila
established that milk production, throughout S. Zamfirescu, 1997),
period of lactation, was on average 118.2 kg or After investigating the meat production
more than 2 kg milk to 1 kg of body weight at skills of new-type sheep (rams of 8-9
females. Females already in first lactation has a months) were determined high values
good lactogen potential and capacity to grow statistically authentic difference compared
(nurse) two lambs. with the same type of indigenous rams of
indigenous Tsigaie sheep (tab. 3).
Table 3
Meat production of young rams of the new type for wool-meat-milk comparing to indigenous type for
wool-milk
Rams of 8-9 months Ramsof 9 months
Specification (new type wool-meat-milk) (indigenous type - wool-milk,
after I. Mogoreanu, 1985)
M±m % M±m %
Weight at slaughter, kg **35,6±0,9 - 30,70±0,48 -
Carcass weight, kg **16,3±0,6 100 13,17±0,62 100
Internal fat weight, kg *0,453±0,06 2,78 0,75±0,09 5,69
Slaughter yield,% 45,8±0,5 - 44,23±1,41 -
In carcass: meat, kg ***12,3±0,23 80,0 9,02±0,40 75,12
bones, kg 3,10±0,25 19,0 2,75±0,14 24,07
joints, kg 0,134±0,05 1,0 - -
Ratio meat:bones 4,21:1 3,28:1
*P≤0,05; **P≤0,01; ***P≤0,001

The results of young rams slaughtering at improvement process, conditions offered for
the age of 8 - 9 months (no special fattening) this genotype, contributed to create a whole
from the new type of sheep, shows that from new type of sheep. Imunogenetical
Tsigaie rams of the new type with average researches showed that hereditary basis of the
body mass of 35.6 kg, are obtained carcass new type of sheep is composed of 38
with weight of 16.3 kg, return of the genotypes, the occurrence of which is due to
slaughter is 45.8%. After taking the bones the combination of those 20 alele.
out of carcass, was established that carcass Number of genotypes varies according to
contains 80% meat, 19% bones and around the blood groups, such as A - includes 8
1% joints, and ratio meat: bones is 4,21:1. genotypes, B and C each have 9 genotypes, and
Obtained carcases have a good commercial D, M, R I - 3 genotypes in each. Systems A, B
aspect. Comparing obtained indices with and C include 4 locus and in the other there are
results from slaughtering indigenous type 2 effective locus. More frequent type of alele at
rams for wool-milk, obtained by previous the new type of Tsigaie sheep are: A - A
research of I. Mogoreanu (1985), was found (0,582), in B - B (0,693), in C - C (0,718), D -
an authentic statistical superiority (P ≤ 0,05- D (0,682), in M - M (0,616) in R - R (0,584)
0001) for rams of new type of Tsigaie sheep. and in I - I (0,702). The degree of homozigoted
Phenotypic particularities of new type of into the blood groups (%):A - 42.73, B - 49.81,
Tsigaie sheep, existing significant differences C - 48.94 D - 68.0, M - 61.4, R - 53.51; I --
compared to indigenous type of sheep breed 63.51, and the general degree of homozigoted is
for wool-milk is explained by genetical 52.98%, which confirms a hereditary
specific population concerned, as a result of strengthening coresponding to the population.
the initial flock improvement. Therefore, After effective alele (Na) was established
applied methods and genetic material used in that the highest values are in A, B and C

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 52 seria Zootehnie

systems – 2,340, 2,008 and 2,034 sheep took from Crimean type high frequency
accordingly, followed by R (1,869), M antigens Bb (0.87) and Ca (0.65) and from the
(1,629), I (1,575) and D ( 1,471). Total type Priazov low frequency antigens Be
efficiency per locus is – 1,888. (0.29). In process of selection, at created sheep
Except genetic particularities of the new population Bd and Bi antigens disappeared
type of sheep also was ascertained a difference which were quite common (0.72, and 0.53) in
in antigens frequency in the system of blood the initial flock.
groups of the original type (indigenous for Genetic improvement of initial flock of
wool-milk) and intrarasial types Crimean and sheep and a new type of sheep pan with
Priazov used as improvement material to specific hereditary characteristics, is
create a new type for wool-meat-milk. confirmed by genetic distance from the initial
According to obtained results, was determined population and types amelioratoare (tab. 4)
that in improvement process, the new type of
Table 4
Genetic distances between types of Tsigaie sheep participants in improvement process
Tsigaie sheep breed Code 1 2 3
New type for wool-meat-milk 1
Crimean type for woll-meat 2 0,1729
Type Priazov meat-wool 3 0,2567 0,3140
Indigenous (initial) wool-milk 4 0,2706 0,3250 0,3141

Thus, from the analysis presented in table [3] Бабенко В.Ф., Ожог Е.А., Барташ А.А.
and genetic distance calculations is found that Сравнительная характеристика цигайских,
the new type of sheep and wool-meat type остфризских овец и их помесей прямого и
(Crimean) genetic distance is 0.1687, wool- реципрокного скрещивания. Сборник научных
трудов МНИИЖиВ // Технологическое и
meat type (Priazov) is 0.3002 and indigenous ветеринарное обеспечение животноводства,
type for wool-milk respectively 0.3120. Штиинца, Кишинев, 1988, с. 61-71.
[6] Жиряков А. М., Лушников В.П.
CONCLUSIONS Эффективность массового отбора цигайских
1. New type of elite Tsigaie sheep created овец по живой массе, Ж. Зоотехния (1997) 9: 7-8.
in our republic, is an improved sheep [7] Ильев Ф.В. Из прошлого цигайского
population with specifical phenotypic and овцеводства Молдавии, Труды Кишиневского
genotypic features which ensure the КСХ, Овцеводство, Картя Молдовеняскэ,
Кишинев, 1966, Т. 47, с. 10-20.
achievement of skills for a mixed [9] Карпова О. С. Актуальные вопросы
productivity, and the genetic improvement of селекции цигайских овец. Ж. Овцы, козы,
initial flockof tsigaie sheep is confirmed by шерстяное дело (2002) 4: с. 26-29.
imunogenetical research results, determining [10] Михайлов А.А., Андруцкий Н.А., Жарук
genetic distances among morfoproductive П.Г. Откормочные и мясные качества
Tsigaie sheep types participated in improving цигайских овец нового заводского типа. Ж.
of indigenous Tsigaie sheep for wool-milk. Овцеводство (1987) 24: 48-51.
2.Tsigaie sheep of elite new type is valuable [12] Яцкин В.И. Повышение эффективности
genetic material for increasing productive производства баранины: Монография, Москва,
2004, c. 307-313.
capacity of indigenous type of Tsigaie sheep Books
breed, can be successfully used to maintain [4] Довбуш Ф.М. Овцеводство в совхозе
genetic variability and development of Tsigaie «Победа», Картя Молдовеняскэ, Кишинев,
sheep breed in the world. 1968. 46 c.
[5] Довбуш Ф.М. Раса де ой Цигэй ши методеле
REFERENCES де ымбунэтэцире а ей, Кишинэу, 1974.
Journal articles [8] Ильев Ф.В. Крештеря оилор ын Молдова,
[1] Ćinkulov M., Krajinović M., Pihler I. Картя Молдовеняскэ, Кишинэу, 1969, 187 п.
Diferenţe fenotipice între două tipuri de oi din [11] Могоряну И. И. Цигайское овцеводство
rasa Ţigaie. Lucrări ştiinţifice, Zootehnie şi Молдавии и пути его совершенствования.
Biotehnologii, vol. XXXVI, AGROPRINT, Автореферат диссертации на соискание ученой
Timişoara, 2003, p. 295-299. степени доктора сельскохозяйственных наук,
[2] Tafta V., Vintilă I., Zamfirescu S. Producţia, Москва, 1985, 30с.
ameliorarea şi reproducţia ovinelor, Cereş,
Bucureşti, 1997, p.152-153.

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

STUDY OF THE GENETIC STRUCTURE OF THE


POPULATIONS OF SHEEP AND POULTRY ON THE BASIS
OF IMMUNOGENETIC MARKERS

Tatiana Lupolov, Valentina Petcu

Mozyr State Pedagogical University, Belarus


e-mail: LupolovT@tut.by
University of Agriculture of Republic of Moldova, Chişinău

In this work the results of the genofund structure and the possibility of using of immunogenetic
markers, β-Lg, Оv, Cn etc in selection are given. For this reason the breed, lines, hybrids of various
kinds of sheeps and poultry were studied on the basis of such exponents as frequency of alleles and
genotypes, genetic similarity of population, genetic balance, the structure of polymorphic system of
blood albumen and milk of sheep and polymorphic blood systems and albumen of hen eggs.
At sheeps was founded polymorphism lactoproteins αS1Cn, βCn, kCn, βLg. In the locus αS1Cn,
there are three alleles which are most typilcal for the type αS1CnВ –0,9354. In the locus βCn there
are two alleles which have been discovered in the type βCn with the frequency of 0,5988. The loci of
the genes kCn and βLg are characterized by two alleles which are most often found in the type kCn
0,7581 and βLgA0,6776. La ovine, în cercetările noastre a fost stabilit polimorfismul
lactoproteinelor αS1Cn, βCn, kCn, βLg
At hens crosses hybrids Albo-70, Roso SL 2000 and Roso 93 in the systems of hemoglobin,
transferrins and ceruloplasmins were characterized by the presence of two alleles: A and B. The
frequency of occurrence of alleles is different: in the system of hemoglobin the allel HbA has a
higher frequency –0,9000–0,9875. In the system of transferrins the allel TfB is found more often–
0,7625–0,7879. The advantage of allel СрА has been proved in the locus of ceruloplasmins as well.
Thus the ascertained polymorphism of the milk proteins may be widely used as a biochemical
test to evaluate the state of the breed gene pool as for predicting the productive qualities of these
animals.
Key words: allele, frequency, genotype, polymorphic system, locus

INTRODUCTION LG is characterized by higher per cent of


Currently the searching of different genes protein and larger output of cheese [2, 3].
as markers allows to hold purposeful The purpose investigations – study
selection, revealing the most useful polymorphic systems in milk of sheep’s and
genotypes. The study of albumen’s blood of poultry and the aim of possible use
polymorphism in economically profitable the genetic marker in selection.
loci represents the first step to the modern
approach of domestic animal breeding [9]. MATERIALS AND METHODS
Such an approach allows to reveal correlation The experiments on hen crosses Albo 70,
of polymorphous features with productive Roso Sl 2000, Roso 93 (n=40) which are
quality of hens, deducibility of chickens, used in Open Corporate Enterprise “Avicola-
viability, etc [8]. Nord”. For holding the investigations
In sheep breeding milk albumen β-LG is samples were selected in order to study the
an object of great interest, its locus can be polymorphous blood systems Hb, Tf, Cp.
used as a marker for diagnosing contents fat On the example of populations of sheep
and protein of sheep’s productivity milk [4, of Karakul breed (n=31), on sheep breeding
5]. The results of some investigations point farm “Tevit” of village Maksimovka, New
out that sheep milk with BB genotype of β- Annensk region, inheritably specified

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albumen types α1S1Cn, βCn, kCn, βLg. The The biometrical processing was held on
investigation was held on the base of the basis of commonly used methods [1].
Agricultural University of Moldova,
Kishinev. The defining of genetic variants of RESULTS AND DISCUTIONS
albumens was carried out with the help of In hen system of hemoglobine 2 alleles HbA
electrophoresis on starchy gel on the basis of and HbB were found. They have higher
O. Smith’s [6] method and Zhebrovsky [7]. frequency for HbA 0,9000-0,9875 type (table 1).
For defining the genetic distance between the
crosses Mayal-Lingstrem formula was used.

Table 1.
The frequency of alleles of albumen’s loci of hens of different crosses

System protein Allele Crosses


Albo 70- Roso SL 2000 Roso SL 93
Hemoglobin (Hb) A 0,9875 0,9000 0,9250
B 0,0125 0,1000 0,0750
Transferin (Tf) B 0,7879 0,7625 0,7625
C 0,2125 0,2375 0,2375
Ceruloplasmin (Cp) A 0,5250 0,5379 0,5250
B 0,4750 0,4625 0,4750

In a transferine system we discovered 2 The presence of two alleles lead to the


TfB и TfC alleles with the highest frequency formation of three genotypes: HbAA, HbAB,
of TfB allele. The frequency of TfB allele was HbBB. Roso SL 2000 and Roso SL 93 crosses
in limits of 0,7625-0,7879, the highest – had predominantly homozygous AA
0,7879 was observed in hen population Albo- genotype- 35 individuals (87,5%), but
70. In the same population TfC had the lowest heterozygous AB genotypes in these
index–0,2125. What concerns the hens of populations had–- 2 and 4 individuals
Roso SL 93 and Roso SL 2000, they had the accordingly. BB genotype in Roso SL 2000
same frequency of two alleles meaning was population had 3 individuals (7,5%), but
identical, which prove common origin. Roso SL 93 – 1 individual (2,5%). The hens
The next analyzed polymorphous system of Albo 70 cross revealed only 2 types of AA
was ceruloplasmin, in the locus of which two genotypes – 39 individuals (97,5%) and AB –
alleles –CpA and CpB - of approximately 1 individual (2,5%).
equal frequency, with a small advantage of The results χ 2 (1,02 – 1,73) show genetic
CpA allele–0,5379 of hens Roso SL 2000 balance in investigated populations (table 2).
were found. The rest two populations had the
same frequency of CpA allele – 0,5250.

Table 2
The frequency of alleles of loci of albumen system of hens of various crosses
Crosses The frequency of χ2 The frequency of χ2 The frequency of χ2
genotypes of Hb genotypes of Tf genotypes of Ср
HbAA HbAB HbBB TfCC TfBC TfBB СрАА СрАВ СрВВ
Albo 70 39 1 – 1,02 29 5 6 1,83 19 4 17 2,19
(39,00)* (0,98) (1,00) (24,83) (13,38) (17,00) (11,01) (19,99) (9,02)
Roso 35 4 1 1,3 28 5 7 2,08 16 10 14 9,34
SL 93 (37) (5,55) (6,00) (23,25) (14,48) (19,00) (11,57) (19,99) (9,08)
Roso 35 2 3 1,73 28 5 7 2,08 19 13 12 1,94
SL (36) (7,2) (8,00) (23,25) (14,48) (19,00) (11,12) (19,88) (8,55)
2000
*Theoretically expected number

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The presence of two alleles in analyzed were differentiated on the basis of three
populations lead to differentiation of hens on genotypes – AA, AB and BB. The largest
the basis of the types of transferine with three number were homozygous genotypes AA of
genotypes. Homozygous TfCC genotype –28 Albo -70 and crosses – 19 (47,5%)
and 29 (70% and 72,5%) individuals was the individuals, homozygous genotypes BB – 17
most frequent in all tested groups. 5 individuals (42,5%).
individuals (12,5%) in all populations Loci of blood albumens are used while
possessed heterozygous genotypes. studding the genetic similarities between
The populations of hens of the populations. The genetic similarity between
investigated crosses on ceruloplasmine types crosses is shown in table 3.

Table 3.
Coefficients of genetic similarity between investigated crosses
Specification r mr
Roso SL 2000 – Roso SL 93 0,9601 0,0010
Roso SL 2000 – Albo 70 0,9366 0,0016
Roso SL 93 – Albo 70 0,9325 0,0017

Roso SL 2000 – Roso SL 93 crosses, the locus - βLgА и βLgВ, with higher
which were obtained by crossing lines of frequency for type βLgА – 0,6774 (picture 1).
hens Rhode-Island, are very similar and the With the aim of possible use the locus as
quantity r is the largest - 0,9601 ± 0,0010, a marker, we analyzed individuals of
that proves their common origin. different genotypes of βLg according to their
Among sheep the greatest interest takes milk productivity. The obtained results are
milk albumen βLg, which is connected with given in the table.
indices of milk productivity of animals. In
our investigations 2 alleles were revealed in

Picture 1. The frequency of alleles of βLg in milk of sheeps Karakul

Table 4
The characteristics sheep’s Karakul of of different genotypes βLg according to their milk productivity

Index β-Lg АА(n=15) β-Lg АB(n=12) β-Lg BB(n=4)


Х ± Sx CV,±Scv % Х ± Sx CV,±Scv % Х ± Sx CV,±Scv %
Productivity,l 11,61±0,552 37,5± 3,42 10,24±0,5 50 ± 5,1 9,09± 0,75 40 ± 7,07
Fat, % 8,07 ± 1,041 17,6± 1,61 7,94±1,14 17,76± 1,8 8,55± 2,14 16,96 ± 2,3
Dry substance % 18,93 ± 2,44 10,51±0,96 18,69±2,7 11,23±1,14 19,48±4,87 11,24±1,99
Protein, % 4,66 ± 0,6 21,03±1,92 4,82 ± 0,7 18,26±1,87 4,37 ± 1,1 22,88±4,04
Casein, % 3,7 ± 0,48 21,62±1,97 3,73±0,54 18,23± ,86 3,45 ± 0,86 23,48±4,15

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According to the results of the table the AB. That’s why we suggest using locus βLg
following conclusions can be drawn: as a genetic marker in selection of sheep
1. Tthe sheep with βLg AA genotype according to milk productivity.
have higher productivity 11,611. 4. Analyzed populations were in
2. The sheep with βLg BB genotype genetic balance of loci according to Hardy
have the highest per cent of fat 8,55%.It Weinberg law.
points out the fact that milk from these
individuals exeeds average index of butter-fat REFERENCES
for this breed 0,4%. Journal articles
3. In sheep milk with βLg AB [1] Bucătaru N.,: Genetică, Chişinău,
genotype the concentration of protein and Universitatea, 1993, 235–248.
casein was the highest – 4,82% and – 3,73% [2] Korman K., [et al.]: Wstępne badania nad
accordingly. określeniem wpływu genotypu laktoglobuliny na
przydatność mleka do wyrobu serów
podpuszczkowych i serwatkowych, J. Zeszyt
CONCLUSION Specjalny, 2002, 14: 85–92.
From the presented dates, we infer the [3] Kukovics S.,: The effect of β-lactoglobulin
following conclusions: genotype on cheese yield, EAAP, 1998, Publ. 95:
1. There were 2 alleles discovered in 524–527.
loci that define the systems of blood albumen [4] Manchego A. I., Garzon Sigler [et al.]:
that belong to hens of investigated crosses. In Relacion entre la β- lactoglobulina y los indices
tecnologicos en ganado ovino, Archivos de
such a way, the observed polymorphism Zootecnia, 1993, 42, № 1:155–160.
allows to reveal the most important [5] Schmoll F., [et al.] Associations of beta-
genotypes in order to diagnose useful lactoglobulin variants with milk production, milk
qualities of hens. composition and reproductive performance in milk
2. The most genetically similar sheep, Wiener Tieraerztliche Monatsschrift, 1999,
crosses are Roso SL 2000 and Roso 93. 2:57–60.
3. As a result of defining of the [6] Smithies O.,: Zone electrophoresis in starch
influence of locus βLg on the productive gels, J.Biochem. 1955, 61: 629–641.
[7] Жебровский Л.С.: Изучение состава
qualities of sheep it became clear that AA
молочных белков, Ленинград, 1979, 125.
genotype influences milk productivity, the [8] Коваленко В.П., Бондаренко Ю.В.,:
individuals with such a genotype produce Генофонд сельскохозяйственной птицы, 1977,
more milk compared to other genotypes. 3:15-17.
What concerns fat, the priority of βLg BB [9] Кушнер Х., Зубарева Л., Гинтовт В.,:
genotype was pointed out, and in case of Генетика белкового полиморфизма у животных
common albumen and casein – heterozygote и птиц, М.: Колос, 1970, 15.

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

DESCRIPTION OF THE HAEMOLYTIC SYSTEM FOR


TESTING THE BLOOD GROUPS IN SMALL RUMINANTS

Gh. Hrincă

Station of Research and Development for Sheep and Goat Breeding, Popauti-Botosani
e-mail: ghrinca@yahoo.com

Abstract
The paper analyses the biochemical, structural and physiological peculiarities of the
haemolytic system (antigen–antibody–complement) which underlines the technique used in the
serology of blood groups – haemolysis – for detecting the blood group factors in sheep and goats.
The evolution of the whole haemolytic process in ovicaprinae is presented (sensitiveness of
erythrocytes, their coupling with antibodies, forming operation of antigen-antibody complex,
`
activity phases of the complement fractions and C1 -esterase, alteration of erythrocyte membrane,
haemoglobin remission).
Key words: antigen, antibody, complement, blood group, ovicaprinae.

INTRODUCTION principle. Thus, the reactant elements are as


The techniques used in the blood group follows: red cells of sheep or goats are used as
serology in animals are based on the antigens; the erythrocyte suspensions are
reciprocal reaction capacity of antigens with prepared from the fresh drawn blood
antibodies when they are in immediate according to the standard method. As
contact. The combination of these two antibodies, the monospecific reagent sera are
immunobiochemical entities engenders a used; these anti-sera can be obtained either by
complex (antigen-antibody complex) with isoimmunisation method or by
diverse properties of those of the component heteroimmunisation method, depending on the
elements. animal species used as donor in the donor-
In the blood group serology in animals receiver couples in the immunization process.
there are two phenomenon categories at the In order to normally develop the antigen-
level of antigen-antibody complex: 1) antibody reaction, the complement of rabbit or
aggregation phenomena by guinea pig, absorbed on sheep or goat red
haemagglutination and 2) phenomena of cells, is added to these component elements.
structural and functional cellular alteration by At the same time, two serological controls
haemolysis reaction. In this last phenomenon, (one of the physiological serum and another of
besides antigens and antibodies, the presence the complement) are made to avoid pseudo
of a third component of haemolytic system – reactions. All immunoserogical reactions take
complement – is necessary. place in the micro-titrater Takátsy under
In small ruminants (sheep and goats), thermostatic conditions of 25-260C.
the immunogenetic test for detecting the The aspect of cellular or membrane
blood group factors is haemolysis. ultrastructure can be pointed out by
electronic microscopy and the aspects of
MATERIAL AND METHODS biochemical structures can be achieved by
In such experimental works, the blood of electrophoresis, chromatography etc.
different animal species (sheep, goat, cow,
rabbit, guinea pig etc.) is used. The blood is METHODOLOGY AND
drawn on sodium citrate (anticoagulant). DISCUSSIONS
The classical method of haemolytic test The essence of the haemolytic process in
for immunogenetic studies is based on the the blood group serology in sheep and goats is
antigen-antibody immunoserological reaction based on the structural and electrochemical

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structure between antigen and antibody and of N-acetylated neuraminic acid residues
the specificity of enzymatic reactivity of the associated by 2,4- β-glycoside bindings [fig.
complement on the antigen-antibody 1c]. These glycoproteins are named
complement. sialoglycoproteins because the sialic acid is
present in their structure; the
Antigens
sialoglycoproteins are constituents of the
The antigens of haemolytic system are cellular membranes and have an important
represented by erythrocytes that own a role for membrane integrity. The
mosaic of glycopeptides, lipoproteins and sialoglycoproteins have molecular masses of
mucous-polysaccharides structures endowed approximately 30000 daltons. Depending on
with antigenic specificities on the external the biochemical composition, isomeric
surface of their membranes [3, 4, 7]. It seems structure and stereochemical configuration,
that the antigenic specificity of the there are three types of sialoglycoproteins:
macromolecular structures of erythrocyte glycophorine A, glycophorine B and
membrane is conferred by the sialic acid [fig. glycophorine C. Approximately 131 amino-
1b] which is constituted, in its turn, of the acids enter in their structure having the N-
neuraminic acid residues [5, 8]. The terminal extremity orientated to the exterior
neuraminic acid is a more complex of erythrocyte membrane and the C-terminal
aminoglucide composed of a pyruvic acid extremity in cytoplasm [3, 6, 7, 8]. These
residue and another of mannose amine [fig. substances can be destroyed by
1a]. Therefore, the sialic acids are neuraminidase.
homogeneous mucous polysaccharides made

a b c
Neuraminic acid Sialic acid Fragment of sialoprotein

Fig. 1 – Biochemical structures of glycoproteins on the surface of red cells

The antigenic specificity conferred by with glycoproteins in the structure of red


sialoproteins can be increased by the corpuscle membranes [fig. 3], together
presence of some complex lipids (named determining the specificity of blood group.
sphingolipids) [fig. 2] which are associated

Fig. 2 – Biochemical structure of sphingolipid (ceramide)

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

Fig. 3 – Saccharide-lipid-protein complex on the red corpuscle membrane

In generic terms, the antigens are also named haptenes or antigenic determinants
constituted of two fragments: [fig. 4b], representing the antigen fragments on
- a protein which confers antigenic which the antibodies are fixed; the haptenes are
valence to antigen molecule, having a high represented by the coupled groupings of the
enough molecular mass; antigen molecule. The configuration of these
- a coupled grouping which confers biostructures determines their specific
strictness specificity to antigenic molecule interaction with the antibody molecules, the
and which electively joins with the adequate haptene finding a complementary structure on
antibody. Separated from the protein the antibody molecule. More haptenes can be
macromolecule, the coupled grouping is able fixed on a cellular membrane, either the same
to specifically join with the antibody, but it is haptene in more places, or different haptens on
almost missed of antigenic valence [3, 4, 7]. whole erythrocyte surface. Consequently, the
The antigenity of erythrocyte antigens is antigen molecule contains more combination
conferred not so by their chemical zones (antigenic determinants), where the
composition (being very similar in most antibody molecules are bound; therefore, the
species), but especially by the presence of antigen is “polyvalent” and the antigenic
some isomeric and stereochemical structures determinants are represented by different
of the erythrocyte membrane [fig. 4a] [5, 6, 7]. chemical groupings (-NH2, -OH, -SH etc.) or
The biochemical structures on or in the red cyclic amino-acid radicals (Phe, Tir, Trp) [fig.
corpuscle walls, which confer antigenity, are 4c] [3, 4, 5, 7].

a b c
Stereochemical structure Haptene Molecular structure of haptene
Fig. 4 – Antigen structure

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The differences among the antigenic the same structure of the COOH extremity in
determinants concerning their arrangement in all immunoglobulins. That is why these
or on the cellular membrane, isomeric regions were named constant regions (C).
structure and spatial conformation will lead The amino extremity (NH2) of each heavy
up to as many differentiations among the chain and of each light chain differs from an
glycoprotein, lipoprotein or mucous- antigen class to another one owing to a
polysaccharide molecules; these aspects certain number of substitutions. These
determine a certain antigenic individuality, a regions were named variable regions (V). In
certain specificity for each substance, certain zones of these regions, an emphasised
conferring a metabolic individuality to each variability appears, so that these zones were
red cell and, consequently, to each organism. named hypervariable regions too; they
Thus, the surface of red cell of one individual occupy the positions 26-32, 48-55 and 90-95
has a certain antigenic constellation. The vast in the light chains and the positions 31-37,
antigenic diversity is pointed out by the 51-68, 84-91 and 101-110 in the heavy
agency of the specific antibodies. chains [fig. 5b, c]. However, trifling
variations appear in the constant regions too,
Antibodies but only as regards the amino-acids
The antibodies of the haemolytic system succession. These variations are named
are represented by γ-globulins with decreased allotypes. If the V region determines the
electrophoresis mobility at pH=8.6 and γ- antibody specificity, the constant region is
microglobulins of Bence-Jones type [fig. 5a]. implied in the antibody attaching on the red
Because the antibodies are implied in the cell surface [2, 7].
immune response they are also named The two chain types form pleat series
immunoglobulins (Ig) [1, 2, 4]. named fields. In the constant region of heavy
All immunoglobulins are composed of chains there are three fields: CH3; CH2 şi
four chains: two longer chains named heavy CH1; each field is composed of 108 amino
chains (HC) and two shorter chains named acids. In the constant region of light chains
light chains (LC). The heavy chains are there is only a similar structure to the one of
constitutes of approximately 446 amino-acids the heavy chain fields [7].
and the light chains are formed of 214 amino- The variable region has capacity to
acids. Disulphide bindings (S-S) join the specifically bind the antigens. The constant
heavy chains between them and the heavy fields intervene in other immune processes. It
chains with the light chains [fig. 5b, c]. The seems that they join with the complement
molecular mass of the L chains is 23000 generating a reaction series that lead to the
daltons and the one of the H chains is 55000 red cell destruction.
daltons, so that whole molecular mass of an At the end of each branch of the
antibody molecule is approximately 150000 bifurcation fork (Y) there is the binding site
daltons. The two chain classes are combined of antigen which consists in a hollow resulted
in such a way as to result a characteristic by folding of the N-terminal regions of the
configuration of the antibody molecule, co-operant light and heavy chains. So, each
having a forked shape (Y), which suit to the Ig molecule has two identical binding sites
functional valences. Each branch of Y for an antigen [7]. Therefore, unlike antigens,
structure is named Fab fragment and it is the antibodies are “bivalent”, their molecule
endowed with a combination zone for antigen. containing two combination sites at which
The caudal zone of Y structure is named Fc, level the antigens are bound. These sites are
being responsible of affixation of the characterised by a certain spatial organization
antibody molecule on the red cell surface (stereospecificity) which is complementary to
with antigenic properties [fig. 7] [1, 2, 7]. the antigenic determinants [fig. 5a]. The Fab
The sequence of amino-acids pointed fragments confer to antibody molecule the
out that about a half of each light chain and property to combine with the respective
about three quarters of each heavy chain keep antigen; in fact, the two Fab molecular

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

fragments determine the “bivalence” of the the level of the Fab N-terminal segments
antibody molecule, therefore the capacity to appears to be the structural base of the
be bond with the two antigen molecules [fig. antibody specificity [1, 7].
7]. The variability of primary structure from

a b c
Stereochemical structure Immunoglobulin chains Chemical bindings

Fig. 5 – Antibody structure

The antibody biosynthesis is started by under a strictly genetic control. On that


an antigen. The antibody owns the capacity account the antibodies have a high specificity
to specifically react with the antigen which being coupled only with the antigen which
caused their forming operation. So, the determined their appearance. The forming
antibody synthesis is determined by an operation of an antibody implies the
antigenic stimulus and constitutes the integration of the two regions (C and V).
immune response within the defence reaction Because there is a vast diversity of variable
of organism against some strange agents. The regions and a small number of constant
biochemical process of antibody producing is regions, it can be assumed that the two
named immunisation and the animal which regions are separately synthesized, being
biosynthesized antibody becomes immunised. united by a certain mechanism in the somatic
The immune serum or antiserum represents cells. Therefore, the constant and variable
the blood serum of an animal which was regions both of heavy chains and of light
immunised [8]. chains are controlled by two genes.- one for
The two combination types from the the constant regions and an other for the
same antibody molecule (Ac) have the same variable regions.
specificity for a certain antigen (Ag) and take In immunogenetics, the alleles are
part in achievement of reaction between these named allotypical variants. The genes VH
structures, a complex antigen-antibody (Ag- and CH, (that control the synthesis of variable
Ac) resulting. The antigen-antibody reaction and constant regions of heavy chains), on the
is stereospecific and the combination one hand, and the genes VL and CL (that
between Ac and Ag is based on existence of control the synthesis of variable and constant
a structural and electrochemical regions of light chains), on the other hand,
complementarity between the Ac site and are linked to direct the synthesis of a single
antigenic determinants [fig. 7]. polypeptide [3, 8].
Both polypeptides chains (heavy and To immunoserologically typify the sheep
light) from both regions (constant and and goats, both isoantibodies (antibodies
variable) are synthesized in the organism proceed from immunization of sheep or goats)

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and heteroantibodies (antibodies proceed from found dissolved in plasma in variable


immunization of animals belonging to other quantities and it is composed of several
species in which the sheep or goat globulin and lipoprotein fractions which can
erythrocytes were injected) are used. react with the complex antigen-antibody. Its
In the haemolysis reaction, a molecule biochemical composition presents two
category, represented by complement, structural groups: a grouping named
intervenes for amplification and completion “haptophor” which achieves the binding with
of the effect of antibodies on the antigenic erythrocyte antigens and the second grouping
red cells. named “toxophor” which accomplishes the
proper lysis processes [fig. 6a] [3, 4]. The
Complement complement, symbolised by C`, is composed
The complement or alexine is a from four various factors: C1` , C 2` , C 3` and
thermolabile substance being present in `
blood serum and achieves the lysis of red C . It is possible that, besides the four
4
cells of sheep and goat that were sensitized factors of complement, there can be found
by an immune serum. In the laboratory, the `
most frequent source of complement is the
another four factors ( C 5 , C 6` , C 7` and
fresh blood serum of rabbit or guinea pig. C8` ), but their structure and immunological
The complement is that integrant part of
haemolytic system which makes the red cell function are not yet well-known [fig. 6b].
`
on which the antibodies were fixed to be There was demonstrated that the C1 factor
destroyed. The haemolysis reaction does not has a complex enough structure, being
occur without the presence of complement.
The complement system includes a composed from three fractions: C1q ,
`
C1`r
complex activity series implied in
immunological mechanisms of the and C1`s [fig. 6c] [4, 7].
haemolytic process. The complement is

a b c
`
Stereochemical structure Complement factors Fraction C1q

Fig. 6 – Complement structure

Antigen-Antibody Interaction complement intervene in a certain succession


in the haemolysis reaction. The first fraction
The action of diverse factors of
complement is achieved in more phases. First which reacts is C1` , after that the fraction
of all, the sensitized erythrocytes of sheep or C `
and then the fraction C 2` intervene and
goat react with anti-red cell antibodies of 4
`
sheep, respectively goat: E + A =EA the fraction C 3 appears towards the end
(sensitized erythrocytes). Then the factors of which finally releases the haemolysis.

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By identification of polymorphism of the C1` -esterase, substance that represents


serumal esterases [2, 3] and of more complex
`
structure of the C1 factor, the action only a portion of the C1` macroglobulin.
mechanism of the complement is much more Practically, the C1` -esterase
represents the
complex in the haemolysis phenomenon. active haemolytic fraction, its role being, on
Another fraction of the C1` factor was the one hand, the hydrolysis of some esters
` with limited number of amino-acids and, on
discovered, being noted C 1a . In fact, this the other hand, inactivating the components
fraction is an isoenzymatic form of esterase, C 4` and C 2` when they are in solution.

Fig. 7 – Antigen-Antibody-Complement complex in the haemolysis process

` ` ` `
As a result of involvement of the C1 - achieved: EA C1 C 4 C 2 . This intermediate
esterase in the haemolytic phenomenon, its complex has a very short existence because
successive phases should be the following: theC1` -esterase lyses the fraction C 2` in the
the sensitized erythrocytes of sheep or goat
`
join with antibody achieving the moment in which the fraction C 3 is also
immunogenetic couple erythrocyte-antibody attached, fraction which, practically,
`
(EA), at which the fraction C1 of determines alteration of erythrocyte membrane
complement is attached, resulting the and, at last, causes the erythrocyte lysis and
` ` the haemoglobin remission in solution [3, 4, 7].
complex EA C1 . To fix the fraction C 4 at To avoid the crossed reactions in the
this complex the presence of active form of haemolysis reaction the absorption of serum
the C1` -esterase is necessary to achieve the of rabbit or guinea pig on sheep or goat
erythrocyte is obligatory.
`
intermediate complex EA C1 C 4` . But the
C ` CONCLUSIONS
1 -esterase can not carry on the enzymatic
1. The haemolytic system (antigen–
`
activity if it has not the fraction C 2 as antibody–complement) underlines the technique
used in the serology of blood groups –
substratum. In the presence of magnesium
haemolysis – for detecting the blood group
ions, another intermediate complex is factors in sheep and goats.

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2. The antigens of the immunoserological


system in ovicaprinae are represented by REFERENCES
erythrocytes. The antigenic valences are Journal articles
represented by the mosaic of glycopeptides, [5] Monnier N., Higo-Moriguchi K, Sun Z. Yu J.,
lipoproteins and mucous-polysaccharides Prasad B. V. V., Taniguchi K., Dormitzer Ph. R. -
structures (especially of sialoglycoproteins) met High-Resolution Molecular and Antigen Structure
on or in the erythrocyte membrane. of the VP8 Core of a Sialic Acid-Independent
3. The antibodies are immunobiochemical Human Rotavirus Strain. J. of Virology, 2006, 80,
replies of specific erythrocyte antigens; they are 3: 1513-1523.
composed of γ-globulins arranged in heavy [6] Rhind S. N., Hopkins J., Dutia Bernadette M., -
chains (HC) and light chains (LC) and present a Amino-terminal sequencing of sheep CD1
stereospecific forked configuration (Y) having antigens and identification of a sheep CD1D gene.
combination sites with antigens (variable Immunogenetics, 1999, 49, 3: 225-230, Publisher:
regions) and complement (constant region). Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, 1999.
The biosynthesis of protein chains is genetically Books
controlled. [1] Antibody Resource Page - The Study of
4. The complement is composed of several Antibody Recognition,
thermolabile globulin and lipoprotein fractions http://www.antibodyresource.com, 2009.
which cause the erythrocyte lysis of sheep and [2] Capra J. D., Rodgers W. A., Wilson P. C. -
goat sensitized by an immune serum, presenting Molecular Immunogenetics Research Program at
two structural groups: “haptophor” (which OMRF (Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation),
makes the binding with erythrocyte antigens) 1997-2007.
and “toxophor” (which accomplishes the proper [3] Klein J. - Immunogenetics. Biological &
lysis processes). The complement is composed Biomedical Science. The McGraw-Hill
of several fractions having enzymatic action on Companies, 2003.
the antigen-antibody complex. [4] Mihaescu Gr. – Imunologie şi imunochimie.
5. The whole haemolytic process in Edit. Univ. Bucureşti, 2001.
ovicaprinae takes place in more phases: [7] The University of Arizona - The Biology
sensitiveness of erythrocytes, their coupling Project, http://www.biology.arizona.edu, 2000.
with antibodies, forming operation of antigen- [8] Travers P. J. – Immunology. Internat. J. of
antibody complex, activity phases of the Immunogenetics. Blackwell Publishing, 2006.
complement fractions, alteration of erythrocyte
membrane, haemoglobin remission.

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BACK

Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

NEW TYPE BOVINE OF BLACK AND WHITE BREED

S. Chilimar1, V. Focşa2
1
Agrarian State University of Republic Moldova
e-mail: schilimar@rambler.ru
2
Institut of Biotechnology in the Animal Breeding and Veterinary Medicine

Abstract
Within last three decades in Republic Moldova new zonal type of bovines of Black and White
breed has been created. Animals of new type are characterized by high genetic potential of dairy
production (7 - 9 thousand in kg of milk for lactation). On 53 best farms it is received on 5 - 7
thousand in kg of milk from each cow for a year. The young growth has good parameters of meat
production. At intensive cultivation the daily average gain of alive weight has made 900 - 1100
grammes. At slaughter an output of carcase has made more 55%
Key words: cattle, Black Mottled, milk, beef, slaughtering efficiency

INTRODUCTION efficiency of mothers (6539-6135 kg)


The breeds of large horned livestock earlier characterized manufacturers of lines Hilteese
brought up in Republic of Moldova - red Аdеmа 37910, Niko 31652 and Lindberg M-
steppe and Simmental had low potential of the 2363. In Republic Moldova bulls of many
dairy efficiency, insufficient fitness to machine known lines of Holstein cattle from
milking, did not meet the requirements of Germany, Denmark, Great Britain, Bulgaria,
industrial conducting dairy cattle breeding. Romania, Estonia, Lithuania, Russia, and
During the period since 1960 for 1974 work on other countries were delivered. Due to use of
crossing the specified breeds with Jercy race bulls Holstein breeds in republic the high
was carried out. At cross-breed cows the genetic potential of dairy efficiency is
maintenance of fat in milk on 0.2-0.3 % has created. Most the wide circulation was
raised, but dairy efficiency remained at a level received with line Wes Bac Adiale 1013415.
3.0 – 3.5 thousand in kg of milk for a year. In Stage-by-stage use of bulls of improving
this connection the program of creation of new breeds was planned. At the first stage of
type of dairy cattle has been developed and cows Red Steppe and Simmental breeds
realized. crossed to bulls of Black and White breed,
and received half-breed cows were crossed
Technique of creation of new type of to bulls Holstein breeds. At the second stage
Black and White cattle half-breed animals with a high share of
For creation of new type of cattle genes of improving breeds to breed in it self
crossing cows of local populations Red of for fastening desirable attributes. In
Steppe (RS) and Simmental (S) cows with structure of new type there are two
bulls of Black and White (BW) and Holstein subtypes: „northern”, created on the basis of
(H) breeds was carried out. With 1971 on crossing Simmental cows with bulls of
1976 in Republic Moldova 95 bulls - improving breeds and „southern”, created
manufacturers have been delivered from on the basis of crossing Red of Steppe cows
Estonia, Ukraine, Moscow, Leningrad and with bulls of improving breeds.
Kaliningrad areas of 22.5 thousand heads of
Black and White cattle, including on Results of creation of new type of
genealogic structure of 27.5 % of Black and cattle
White bulls concerned to a line of Dutch bull The basic stages of creation of new type
Annas Adema 30587. The highest dairy of cattle: During 1975-1980 hybrids of the

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 52 seria Zootehnie

first generation from crossing local have shown, that increase of a share of genes
populations of cows Red Steppe and Holstein breeds from 50 % up to 75 % and
Simmental breeds with bulls of black - from 75 % up to 87.5 % at the some people
motley breed have been received. Their cross-breed cows was observed easing the
biological features and productive qualities constitution. It has allowed to draw a
are investigated. Per 1981-1985 intermediate conclusion what to conduct escalating share
genotypes have been received and approved. of genes on Holstein breed to over 75-87.5 %
For 1986-1990 carried out selection of of a share of genes at animals of new type is
animals of desirable type with an optimum inexpedient.
share of genes of improving breeds, studying For "northern" zone subtype the variant
of their моrfо-productive features, a of crossing with use cross-breed bulls that
bookmark of genealogic lines of new type of will allow to receive animal genes from
cattle. Per 1991-2008 carried out selection shares Holstein breeds at a level of 75-81.2
and duplication of animals of desirable type, % with the subsequent cultivation "in itself "
studying of genetic structure and approbation is optimum. For a "southern" zone subtype it
of new type of Blak and White breed. is desirable to use the circuit of crossing as a
Researches of cross-breed cows with a result of which the share of genes Holstein
different share of genes of improving breeds breeds at animals will make 62.5-75.0 %.

Efficiency of cows for 305 days for first lactation

Dairy productivity ± at standard of race


Share of genes
n Milk Fat milk, kg fat, %
Holstein breed, %
М ± m, kg М ± m, %
Subtip "northern"
25-50 75 4249±128.2 3.55±0.010 + 449 -0.05
51-75 604 5145± 38.4 3.58±0.040 +1345 -0.02
76-87,5 1302 5224± 26.4 3.58±0.002 +1424 -0.02
90 and + 342 4578± 37.7 3.59±0.004 + 778 -0.10
Media: 2323 5077± 20.0 3.58±0.002 +1277 -0.02
Subtip "southern"
25-50 273 4862± 72.6 3.69±0.010 +1262 +0,09
51-75 850 4634± 58.9 3.71±0.010 +1034 +0,11
76-87,5 487 3938± 58.7 3.74±0.007 + 338 +0,14
90 and+ 68 3423± 81.9 3.75±0.018 - 177 +0,15
Media: 1678 4420± 37.8 3.2±0.006 + 820 +0,12

The studies of the mongrels with share Optimum for "north" zonal subtype is a
miscellaneous gene perfecting sorts have variant of the crossbreeding with use cross-
shown that increasing of the share gene breed that will allow to get the animal with
Holstein race with 50 % before 75 % and share gene Holstein of the race at a rate of
with 75 % before 87,5 % weakening existed 75-81,2% with the following breeding "in
beside some with high half bred of the itself". For "south" zonal subtype advisable
mongrels to constitutions. This has allowed to use the scheme of the crossbreeding, as a
to draw a conclusion about that to lead result which share gene Holstein of the race
increasing the bloodies to race over 75-87.5 beside animal will form 62.5-75.0%.
% share gene beside animal of the new type
inadvisable.

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

CONCLUSION REFERENCES
As a result called on studies is created Journal articles
new inside the breed type Black and White [1] Chilimar S., Miron I. Выращивание
race for breeding in Republic Moldova. The племенных бычков на элевере НПО «Тевит»,
Научный сборник № 31-32 «Разведение и
dairy productivity cortex on the first lactation
генетика животных», Киев, 1999.
forms from 4420 ± 37.8 kg before 5077 ± [2] Chilimar S. Tendinţe şi strategia dezvoltării
20.0 kg milk with contents of fat 3,58 - 3,72 zootehniei în R. Moldova. Culegere a lucrărilor
%. Cows of the new type have milk simpozionului „Fondul afrosilvopastoral şi
productivity on 820-1277 kg above standard creşterea animalelor”, Braşov, 2001
of the race. [3] Chilimar S. şi al. Tipul intrarasial de taurine
The сows of the south subtype exceed the Bălţat cu Negru în R. Moldova. Simpozion
standard of fat in milk on 0.12%, cows of the internaţional „50 ani de învăţământ superior
south subtype had a contents of fat on 0,02% zootehnic la Iaşi”, 2001.
[4] Chilimar S. şi al. „Rezultatele creşterii şi
below standard. The velocity of the milking testării tăuraşilor de prăsilă după performanţele
has at the average formed 1.80 l at minute. proprii”. Culegere de lucrări ştiinţifice a INZMV,
In new type there are 5 genealogical lines 2001.
oxen. It is determined genetic feature to new [5] Chilimar S. Producţia de carne a tineretului
population animal type. bovin din rasele simmental şi Bălţată cu Negru.

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 52 seria Zootehnie

QUANTITATIVE GENETICS RESEARCHES ON THE B.N.R.


POPULATION REARED IN THE PRIVATE FARMS FROM
THE NORTH-EASTERN AREA OF ROMANIA

V. Ujică1, V. Maciuc1, Rodica Dănăilă1, Şt. Creangă1, I. Nistor2


1
Faculty of Animal Sciences, University of Agricultural Sciences
and Veterinary Medicine „Ion Ionescu de la Brad” Iasi, Romania
e-mail: vmaciuc@yahoo.fr
2
O.A.R.Z. Iaşi

Abstract
The research has been conducted in terms of household and semiintensive operating Black and
White Romanian cows from Moldova region. The primary data came from a database of OARZ:
Iasi, Bacau, Botosani, Suceava, Vaslui and Vrancea, obtained by control of production,
supplemented by direct observations of some personal holdings taken in research. The heritability
for milk quantity varies between 0.21 and 0.37 for the Black and White Romanian cows from Bacau
and Vrancea. The fat quantity has a medium value, between 0,27 şi 0,38 %. The percentaj of fat and
protein from milk is strongly genetically determinated and in our case the coeficient of heritability
has value between 0.57 for the Black and White Romanian cows from Iasi and 0.83 for the Black
and White Romanian cows from Vaslui. The quantity of milk is strongly and positively correlated
with the quantity of fat (r = 0.99) and the quantity of protein from milk (r = 0.85). Between the
quantity of milk and other characters for milk quality and reproduction indices the correlations
were negative and had low value for: fat content in milk r = - 0.24, protein content of milk r = -
0.23, dry period r = -0.35 etc.
Key words: Cows, Black And White Romanian, Milk, Heritability, Correlation

MATERIAL AND METHOD by literature. When estimating genetic


The research was conducted in conditions parameters the used method was REML
of household system and semiintensiv system (Restricted Maximum Likelihood).
dairy cows, Black and White Romanian This method is based on an iterative
(BNR), reared in Moldova. The primary data process of a function maximization.
came from OARZ database of Iaşi, Bacău, Calculation techniques vary according to the
Botoşani, Suceava, Vaslui şi Vrancea, chosen optimization algorithm, but they all
obtained by official control of production, require BLUP solutions for different effects
supplemented by direct personal observations of the model in every iterative cycle. Also, a
made in research holdings. The herds of cows large number of iterative processes are made
in this area were raised, fed, maintained and until convergence is reached.
exploited in some private households which
were differentiated in terms of fodder and RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
provision of food, management of For all studied characters, respectively,
technological factors of production, the length of first total lactation, the quantity of
degree of technical equipment, manpower milk in first normal lactation, fat content,
and method of production capitalization. amount of fat, protein content, protein
Complexity of the issues imposed the use quantity, age at first calving, interval between
of a varied methodology of work according birth to first fecund insemination (SP1), dry
to the pursued aspects, using and respecting period between first and second lactation
the methodology of investigation specific for (RM2) and the interval between first and
research in animal husbandry recommended second birth (CI2), heritability coefficients

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

were estimated (Table 1) and comparison Fat and protein in milk have a strong
was made between characters and between hereditary transmission (h2> 0.4),
regions for the same character. considering that these are quantitative
Thus, it may be noted that for the length characters which influence the milk quality.
of the first lactation, the lowest coefficient Values between 0.57 (the population of dairy
was recorded in the group of Black and cows in Iasi) and 0.83 (the population of
White Romanian cows from Bacau and BNR dairy cows Vaslui) have emerged from
Vaslui (h2 = 0.12) and the highest in Vrancea the sorted and processed raw data in these
(h2 = 0 , 38). For this character, all values are investigations. The values for protein
in compliance with those of literature, heritability coefficient ranged between 0.46
showing that this character is medium to low and 0.80 set out in Bacau and Vaslui.
heritable. By comparison between the coefficients
The heritability coefficient for the of heritability established for the dairy cow
quantity of milk ranged between 0.21 and populations used in the 6 regions for age at
0.37, values recorded in populations of dairy first calving, it can be noted that the lowest
cows in Bacau and Vrancea. value was found in Iasi, 0.21, and the highest,
It may be concluded that the results from 0, 37, in Vrancea. All estimated heritability
this research includes the character of milk coefficients are in accordance with the
quantity in the category of those medium literature.
heritable. The fat and protein quantity are The interval between birth to first fecund
included in the same group of characters with insemination (SP1)- this being another
medium heritability . character considered in the research- had a
For fat, the average values are between heritability coefficient between 0.14 and
0.27 and 0.38 (Bacau, Vrancea and Vaslui, 0.29, extremes found Bacau and Vrancea,
respectively). For the protein, the heritability which makes them medium to low heritable
coefficient had values between 0.25 (Bacau) characters.
and 0.36 (Vaslui).

Table 1
The heritability (h2) of the morphoproductive characters of the B.N.R. population from NE areas of the
country

Total Total Total Total Total Total Total


number number number number number number number
Specification of BNR of BNR of BNR of BNR of BNR of BNR of BNR
Iaşi Bacău Botoşani Suceava Vaslui Vrancea Moldova
(1005) (881) (493) (80) (103) (687) (3249)
Length of first
0,14 0,12 0,30 0,30 0,12 0,38 0,29
normal lactation
Milk quantity (305
0,24 0,21 0,23 0,25 0,24 0,37 0,27
days)
Fat content 0,57 0,58 0,62 0,61 0,83 0,74 0,75
Fat quantity 0,32 0,27 0,35 0,32 0,38 0,38 0,30
Protein content 0,50 0,46 0,51 0,54 0,80 0,65 0,64
Protein quantity 0,30 0,25 0,34 0,29 0,36 0,30 0,28
Age at first birth 0,21 0,35 0,27 0,31 0,26 0,37 0,26
SP 1 0,22 0,14 0,21 0,22 0,27 0,29 0,20
RM 2 0,24 0,18 0,17 0,22 0,21 0,24 0,08
CI 2 0,34 0,17 0,28 0,36 0,32 0,39 0,18

The heritability coefficient for the dry Botosani, Iasi and Vrancea, respectively. For
period between first and second lactation the whole population of Black and White
(RM2) was between 0.17 and 0.24, Romanian cows, the heritability coefficient is
calculated on the basis of the data from

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 52 seria Zootehnie

0.08; this result was obtained due to the very (RM2) and the interval between births I and
large number of individuals. II (CI2).
The hereditary transmission for the The coefficients of repeatability found in
interval between the first and second this research have the following limits: 0.15 -
parturition (CI2) had values between 0.17 0.32, for the length of the first normal
and 0.36 for populations of dairy cows in lactation, 0.22 and 0.30 for the quantity of
Bacau, Suceava respectively. milk on normal lactation at first lactation,
According to data from literature, the varies between 0.60 and 0.74 for the fat
interval between birth to first fecund content, between 0.29 and 0.40 for quantity
insemination (SP1), the dry period between of fat, between 0.53 and 0.69 for protein
the first and second lactation (RM2) and the content and between 0.27 - 0.33 for the
interval between the first and second quantity of protein (Table 2). All these values
parturition, as well (CI2) are low heritable are close to those in the literature for each
characters. character.
In addition to heritability for populations Regarding repeatability for the
of cows analyzed in Moldova (BNR), reproduction characters it can be stated that
repeatability has also been estimated (tab.2.) repeatability had the lowest value for the
for the same characters: length for first total population of cows from Bacău (0.18) for the
lactation, the quantity of milk in first normal service period (SP1) and the greatest for the
lactation, fat content, fat quantity, protein population of cows in Suceava and Vrancea
content, protein quantity, age at first calving, (0.24); for the dry period (RM2), the lowest
length from birth to first fecund insemination repeatability was for the population from
(SP1), dry period between lactation I and II Bacau (0.16) and the largest for the
population in Suceava and Vaslui (0, 20).

Table 2
The repeatability of the morphoproductive characters of the B.N.R. population from NE areas of the
country

Total Total Total Total Total Total Total


number number number of number of number number of number of
Specification of BNR of BNR BNR BNR of BNR BNR BNR
Iaşi Bacău Botoşani Suceava Vaslui Vrancea Moldova
(1005) (881) (493) (80) (103) (687) (3249)
Length of
first normal 0,21 0,20 0,32 0,29 0,15 0,32 0,26
lactation
Milk quantity
0,28 0,24 0,25 0,26 0,22 0,30 0,28
(305 days)
Fat content 0,60 0,61 0,70 0,72 0,74 0,69 0,72
Fat quantity 0,30 0,29 0,40 0,30 0,32 0,34 0,31
Protein
0,53 0,53 0,61 0,61 0,69 0,62 0,60
content
Protein
0,29 0,27 0,33 0,28 0,29 0,28 0,30
quantity
SP 1 0,20 0,18 0,20 0,24 0,23 0,24 0,17
RM 2 0,17 0,16 0,19 0,20 0,20 0,17 0,10
CI 2 0,31 0,25 0,34 0,35 0,30 0,33 0,20

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

Table 3
The correlations between some of the morphproductive and reproduction features for the first normal
lactation of the B.N.R. population from NE areas of the country

Correlated characters n rg rp
Length of first normal lactation 3249 0,57 0,76
Fat content 3249 -0,22 -0,24
Fat quantity 3249 0,99 0,99
Protein content 2977 -0,20 -0,23
Milk quantity (305
Protein quantity 2977 0,73 0,85
days)
Age at first calving 3249 -0,10 -0,14
SP 2 2194 -0,35 -0,37
RM 2 2194 -0,22 -0,35
CI 2 2194 -0,36 -0,41
Fat content 3249 0,90 0,97
Fat quantity 3249 0,89 0,93
Length of first normal
Protein content 2977 0,95 0,98
lactation
Protein quantity 2977 0,91 0,94
Age at first parturition 3249 -0,19 -0,17
Fat quantity 3249 0,96 0,98
Protein content 2977 0,99 0,97
Fat content
Protein quantity 2977 0,92 0,95
Age at first parturition 3249 -0,21 -0,17
Protein content 2977 0,89 0,90
Fat quantity Protein quantity 2977 0,99 0,98
Age at first parturition 3249 -0,12 -0,13
Protein quantity 2977 0,98 0,99
Protein content
Age at first parturition 3249 -0,20 -0,22
SP 2 2194 0,15 0,16
VP RM 2 2194 0,11 0,15
CI 2 2194 0,18 0,17
RM 2 2194 0,67 0,51
SP 2
CI 2 2194 0,83 0,69
RM 2 CI 2 2194 0,71 0,60

The lowest value for the repeatability of and the protein content of milk (-0.23), the
the calving interval (CI2) (0.25) was also quantity of milk and service-period (-0.37),
found in Bacău and the highest value (0.35) in the quantity of milk and the dry period
Suceava. And in these cases, the values of the (-0.35), the quantity of milk and calving
repeatability coefficient are close to those in interval (-0.41) are medium correlated.
the literature for each character. The estimated Between length of the first lactation and
genetic parameters for the analyzed population content of milk fat, the quantity of milk fat,
include correlations (tab. 3.) between the main content and quantity of milk protein there are
morpho-productive characters. strong positive correlations (0.97, 0.93, 0.98,
Thus, it may find that between the and 0.94). The length of the first lactation is
quantity of milk from first lactation, assessed low and negatively correlated with age at
for normal lactation and other characters are first calving (-0.17).
both positively and negatively correlated for The content of milk fat is strongly
the BNR population of cows. The quantity of positively correlated with the amount of milk
milk is strongly positively correlated with fat (+0.98) with the milk protein content
length of lactation (0.76), with the quantity of (+0.97) and the amount of milk protein. A
milk fat (0.99) and the amount of milk low negative correlation is established
protein (0.85). Between the quantity of milk between the fat content of milk and age at
and the other characters the correlations are first calving (-0.17).
negative and the quantity of milk and the fat Between the quantity of milk fat and
content of milk (-0.24), the quantity of milk protein content of milk there is a strong

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 52 seria Zootehnie

positive correlation (+0.90), as well as milk on normal lactation at first lactation,


between the quantity of milk fat and the varies between 0.60 and 0.74 for the fat
quantity of milk protein (+0.98). Between the content, between 0.29 and 0.40 for quantity
quantity of milk fat and age at first calving, of fat, between 0.53 and 0.69 for protein
the correlation is low negative (-0.13). content and between 0.27 - 0.33 for the
The milk protein content is strongly quantity of protein (Table 6.4, Fig. 6.19-
positively correlated with the quantity of milk 6.21). All these values are close to those in
protein (+0.99) and medium negatively the literature for each character.
correlated with the age at first calving (-0.22). The quantity of milk is strongly positively
The reproduction characters considered correlated with length of lactation (0.76), the
for the study are positively correlated, ie. the quantity of milk fat (0.99) and the quantity of
age at first calving is low positively milk protein (0.85). Between the quantity of milk
correlated with the service period (+0.16), the and the other characters correlations are negative;
dry period (+0.15) and the calving interval the quantity of milk and quantity of milk fat
(+0.17); the service period is strongly (-0.24), the quantity of milk and the protein
positively correlated with the dry period content of milk (-0.23), the quantity of milk and
(+0.51) and the calving interval (+0.69) and service-period (-0.37), the quantity of milk and
the dry period is also strongly positively the dry period (-0.35); the quantity of milk and
correlated with the calving interval (+0.60). calving interval (-0.41) are medium correlated.

CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES
Following the study we can conclude the Journal articles
following: [4] Ujică V., Maciuc V.,: The genetic evaluation of
The quantity of milk is a character for exterior character in Romanian cattel population
Black and white (BNR), Interbull meeting,
which the heritability coefficient ranged
Uppsala, Sweden, 2000.
between 0.21 and 0.37, values recorded in [5] Ujică V., Nistor I., Pantazi D., Gavrilaş
populations of dairy cows in Bacau and Angela,: Valoarea genetică şi managementul
Vrancea. It may be said that the results from creşterii taurinelor de rasa Brună în exploataţiile
this research includes the character milk private (familiale) din Moldova, Simpozion
quantity in the category of those medium stiinţific în zootehnie, Editia a 10-a, Universitatea
heritable. The quantity of fat and protein can Agronomică şi de Medicină Veterinară “Ion
be included in the same group of characters Ionescu de la Brad”, Iaşi, 1999.
with medium heritability. For fat, the average Books
[1] Dănăilă Rodica,: Contribuţii la studiul
values are between 0.27 and 0.38 (Bacau, producţiei de lapte a vacilor exploatate în unele
Vrancea and Vaslui respectively). For the ferme private din zona de Est a ţării. Teză de
quantity of protein, the coefficient of doctorat. Facultatea de Zootehnie, U.S.A.M.V.
heritability had values between 0.25 (Bacau) Iaşi, 2009.
and 0.36 (Vaslui). Fat content values are [2] Maciuc V., Ujică V., Nistor I.,: Ghid practic de
between 0.57 (at the population of dairy cows ameliorare genetică a bovinelor pentru lapte,
in Iasi) and 0.83 (the population of BNR Editura Alfa, Iaşi, 2003.
cows of Vaslui). [3] Maciuc V.,: Managementul creşterii bovinelor.
Edit. Alfa, Iaşi, 2006.
The coefficients of repeatability found in
[7] Ujică V., Maciuc V., Nistor, I.,: Managementul
this research have the following limits: 0.15 - creşterii vacilor de lapte. Edit. Alfa, Iaşi, 2007.
0.32, for the length of the first normal
lactation, 0.22 and 0.30 for the quantity of

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

RESEARCHES CONCERNING THE INFLUENCE


OF THE BIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES ON
THE BOAR SPERM PRESERVATION

Elena Marandici1, G. Darie1, P. Chintea2


1
Agrarian State University of Moldova
e-mail: darie@mail.ru, lenutamar@gmail.com
2
Institute of Genetics and Plant Physiology of the ASM

Abstract
The experiences were held on the boar sperm. There were studied the bioactive substances with
the role of antioxidizer made at the Institute of Genetic of Science Academy of Republic of Moldova.
The bioactive substances (PGL-1) were used as a structure dilution GHTS what is used for boars
sperm dilution with the concentration of 0,1 – 1%. The experimental researches showed that the
studied substances were not toxic for sperm used in the structure of GHTS dilution with the
concentration of 0,1-1 whit gave the possibility to increase the period of boar sperm stoking till 168
hours, keeping the sperms mobility at the level of standard of artificial insemination.
Key word: Boar, sperm, dilution, motility, concentration, bioactive substances, antioxidizer

INTRODUCTION A lot of researches what were held into


The perfection of swine reproductive direction of dilution and boar sperm
methods has forced using the artificial conservation for finding of one dilution with
insemination. One of the direction of this a large using in practice, give the positive
brunch in is finding of one dilution for using results but this did not allow at the moment
it for sperm, because of this process it is their large using in practice as well as for
possible to increase the quantity of sperm, bulls, the problem is still open. Our
and it is as well possible to reduce the researches are held to this direction as well.
number of boars at the reproduction units.
The sperm dilution at the solution units it is MATERIAL AND METHOD
very necessary for valuable boars rising. For The researches were held using the boar
a large number of females, and reducing the sperm of Landrace, Marele alb, Duroc,
improvement period of animal herds. Pietrain breeds.
The researches in this brunch for studding Ejaculates were collected using manual
the boar sperm dilution were held and are technique with the stop between collection –
developed around the warden as well in three days. Emidiafly after collecting the
Republic of Moldova Milovanov V.C. ejaculates were appreciated using the class
(1977), Nauk V.A. (1991), Serdiuk S.I. method under the mobility, concentration and
(1977), Darie G. (1999), Gusicov A.M. sperms′ morphology. There were used just
(1993), have studied the dilutions what have ejaculates with standard indices of sperm in
in their composition neelectrolits, electrolist, this experiment (table 1).
antioxidants, egg yolk, antibiotics, etc.

Table 1
Standard indices of boar row sperm used for artificial insemination
Indices Characteristics
Consistence As milk to cream – colored
Color Grey – white to white
9
Concentration 25 x 10 sperms / ejaculate
The sperm mobility ≥ 7 points
Abnormal sperms ≤ 15 %

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 52 seria Zootehnie

As a dilute for boar sperm diluting there RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


were studied dilute GHTS, in its composition After the held analysis immediate after
as a supplement there was introduced the the collection? There was shown that sperm
preparation PGL-1, what has the feature of what had to be diluted and user for females
antioxidant with the concentration of 0.1-1%/ had a good quality. The average of its
The sperm conservation was developed at the mobility was 9 points, and the concentration
temperature of +16 – 180C. of sperms was 0,22 mlrd/ml with low percent
The females′ insemination has been done of abnormal sperms.
using the diluted sperm under next program: Under the concentration of substance
there was done the first insemination, which PGL-1, which was introduced as an
has been repetition after 12 hours for all additional component with the concentration
groups at the interval of 2,4 and 6 days. of 0,1; 0,5; 1% of dilute GHTS, the sperms′
The insemination results where evaluated mobility after dilution had not change (figure
under the furrowing index (%). 1), but there was noticed a easy increasing of
percent of dead and abnormal sperms.

9 9 9 9
9
8,33
8
7,83
8 7,66
7,16 7,33 7,16
6,83
7 6,83

6 5,66
6 5,66
5,33
5 0 hours
4,5 4,33 0,10%
3,66 3,66
4 0,30%
3 0,50%
3

2 1,83 1,66 1,66


1,33
1 0,66 0,83 0,66
0,66
0 0
0
0 hours 24 48 72 96 120 144 168 hors

Figure 1. Motility, hours

After 24 hours of incubation at the conservation. The sperms′ mobility was 7,16
temperature of +16-180C there were noticed points in the experimental group where the
changes of sperms′ mobility under the concentration of substance PGL-1 was 0,5%
substance PGL-1 concentration, what was compare with the control group where the
introduced as a supplementary component in sperms′ mobility was just 0,6%, but after 168
dilute GHTS. The best results were received hours of sperm conservation, their mobility
when the concentration of PGL-1 substance was 3 points and zero point correspondingly.
was – 0.5%. The changes of sperms′ As well there were changes of absolute
mobility happens after 96 hours of sperms index of sperms maintenance (figure 2).

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

248

250

197

200
167

150

100

120 hours

144 hours

168 ore
50

0
0,1% 0,5% 1%

Figure 2. Sperms maintenance after 168 hours incubation

The better index of maintenance was maintenance and mobility, what was shown
received in the experimental group where the in our experiences.
concentration of substance PGL-1 was 5%. After the results analyses the females′
This can be explained that sperms being a fecundity (table 1) which were inseminated
special cells feature with their autonomy artificially with the sperm what was diluted
presents very special physiology’s what and conservation during 6 days was just
allow to pass from one kind of metabolism to 62,9% compare with 69,5% when the
of another, and tinning their energetic females insemination was done with the
resources. These biologic peculiarities can be diluted sperm using GHTS with its
by using bioactive substances with the role composition of 0,5% of substance PGL-1 and
satisfied of antioxidant for providing the conservation during 2 days.

Table 2
The females′ fecundation
The length of sperm conservation GHŢS+PGL-1
2 days 69,5
4 days 67,3
6 days 62,9

It can be explained by the positive From those studied three concentrations


influence of PGL-1 substance added to dilute PGL-1 substance, what were entered in the
GHTS. dilute GHTS components, provided higher
results at boar sperm conservation, when the
CONCLUSIONS concentration was 0,5%. This dilute can be
The biologic substances using with the used successfully for boar sperm dilution,
role of antioxidant user in composition of what allows the sperm conservation at the
dilute GHTS led to next conclusions.

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 52 seria Zootehnie

temperature of +16-180C during 5-6 days, [3] СЕРДЮК, С. Искусственное осеменение в


without diminution of fecundity. промышленном свиноводстве. Москва.
«Колос», 1977, 159 с.
[4] DARIE, G. Studii cu privire la influenţa
REFERENCES oxidanţilor asupra indicilor spermatici.
Journal articles Simpozionul ştiinţific “Realizarea zootehniei – o
[1] НАУК, В. Структура и функция спермиев şansă pentru România în mileniu III”, Iaşi, 1999,
сельскохозяйственных животных при p.12.
криоконсервации. Кишинев, Штиинца, 1991, [5] ГУСЬКОВ, А. Физиолого-биологические и
197 с. технологические аспекты повышения
[2] МИЛОВАНОВ, В. Теория и практика воспроизводительной способности животных.
длительного сохранения семени барана и Автореферат дис.докт.биол.наук Дубровицы,
хряка. Физиология воспроизведения 1993, с. 38.
сельскохозяйственных животных. Харьков,
1977, с.12 – 25.

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

OBSERVATIONS CONCERNING HAEMATOLOGICAL


PROFILE IN GOAT

Stela Zamfirescu1, Irina Topoleanu2, Dorina Nadolu2


1
Ovidius University of Constanta, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural, Romania
e-mail: stela@canals.ro
2
The Research and Developmental Institute for Sheep and Goat Palas Constanta

Abstract
This study had analysed the hematological profile of goats (adult and youg females and males)
and the influence of sex on the hematological values whith MS4/5 Hematological Anlyser (Melet
Schloesing, France). On the red blood cell (RBC) counts of goats , sex had any influence. The
hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Ht) values were smaller in both sexes (8.18±0.27 in females and
8,2±0,17 in males) as well as the packed cell volume (PCV)values(14,37±0,36 in females and
15,5±1,6 in males) .Mean of the hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) was higher in the female than
male goats ,(43,65±1,01 in male and 44,09±1,21 in female).Leukocytes mean was high in both
sexes, which may be interpreted as a potential infection. Lymphocytes represented more than 50%
of the total white blood cell (WBC) counts in male and females goats.Monocyte and basophile mean
was not influenced by sex. But, in the case of eosinophil average, the males had smaller values than
females and both were smaller than normal. Mean of neutrophils was lower than normal.The
haematologic profile on the youg goats of 3 month age, male and female, was the lower values with
8-10 % in comparison with the adult goats and bucks. Since the animals are apparently healthy, any
value may be regarded as possible infection or metabolic and nutritional disorder.
Key words: goat, hematological profile,hemoglobin,eritrocyte, leukocyte.

INTRODUCTION alter the blood values of goats (Anosa and


Despite the social and economic values of Isoun, 1978, Radostits et al 1994).
goats as source of meat, milk and hides, with Blood is an important and reliable
a great production potential, the research medium for assessing the health status of
effected on goats in our country were individual animals (Oduye, 1976). Much
neglected for long time.The goats revaluation work has not been done on hematological
depends on various factors, including the profiles of goats. Therefore, this paper
great prevalence of diseases, poor focused on the hematological values of
management practices and extensive apparently healthy goats as influenced by sex
production systems .The diseases action is in The Department of Reproduction and
the most aggressive on animals.From this Biotechnologies from The Research and
point view, clinic and paraclinic exams are Developmental Institute for Sheep and Goat
essential to sanitary strategies (control, Palas Constanta,
prevention or treatment). The RBC, Hb, PCV, MCV, MCHC and
The hematological tests served as WBC values obtained in this study in both
information base for animal health assistance. sexes in goats were comparable to those
It has been reported that regardless of age, sex previosly reported (Sarror and Schil, 1977;
and climate, goats reared under traditional Anosa and Todd et al, 1952);
husbandry system have low hematological
values compared to those reared under MATERIALS AND METHODS
modern husbandry (Coles, 1980; Schalm et al, The goats used in this study were kept in
1975). Low nutritional grassland pasture, The Department of Reproduction and
stress, parturition and climatic factors greatly Biotechnologies bio-base. The animals were

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 52 seria Zootehnie

apparently healthy. The study was made on determined as described by Schaim et al


14 goats , divided by sex (14 females and 4 (1975).All of them were statisticcally processed
males).Two ml of blood was collected from with the purpose of constituting the
each animal from the external jugular vein hematological profile. It is know that goats and
following proper restraint by the attendants the sheep have smallest erythrocytes as
and with minimal excitement. The blood volume, but in highest number 14-15 mil/mm)
were collected in ethylenediamine tetracetate The statistical analysis was carried out
(EDTA) vacutainer tubes and transported to using statistical Student test.
the laboratory for analysis. The samples were
analyzed within two hours from collection RESULTS
with the hematological analyzer MS 4-5 The hematological (mean ± Se) profiles of
Meled Schloesing,Germany. the goats are presented in tables 1 to 6. The RBC
The red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell mean on female was, 13.06±0.45 and
(WBC), packed cell volume (PCV), 12,57±0,28. The coefficients of variance permits
hemoglobin concentration (Hb), differential the use of mean as statistic interpretation.This
leukocyte counts (DLC) mean corpuscular means are closed to the normal mean of RBC
volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular 14-15 mil/mm(Table 1 and 2).
hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were

Table1
Erythocyte paramters (mean ± S.e.) of female goats

Statistics
Female
Sd Se
N Mean Min Max Median CV
(yEr±) (yEr±)
RBC
14 13.06 1.72 0.46 9.11 15.8 13.37 13%
(m/mm)
MCV 14 14.38 1.37 0.36 12.6 18.3 14.35 9%
HCT
14 18.78 3.309 0.88 12.4 23.8 20.05 18%
(%)
MCH
14 6.23 0.34 0.09 5.7 6.7 6.25 5%
(pg)
MCHC
14 44.09 4.55 1.22 35.7 53.9 43.85 10%
(g/dl)

Table 2
Erythrocyte parameters (mean ± S.e.) of male goats

Male
Statistics
RBC MCV HCT MCH MCHC
(m/mm) (%) (pg) (g/dl)
N 4 4 4 4 4
Mean 12.57 15.5 19.55 6.5 43.65
Sd(yEr±) 0.5658 3.23316 4.90748 0 9.17987
Se(yEr±) 0.2829 1.61658 2.45374 0 4.58993
Min 12.08 12.7 15.3 6.5 35.7
Max 13.06 18.3 23.8 6.5 51.6
Median 12.57 15.5 19.55 6.5 43.65
CV 5% 21% 25% 0% 21%

In both, males and females the coefficient of goats. The erythrocyte parameters HCT,
of variance is less than 30% which revealed MCH and MCHC were analyzed in both
that the mean of erytrocytes and erytrocitar sexes. HCT mean was 18,77 ±0,88% in
constants are representative for this category females and 19,55±2,45 % in males. MCH

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

had the following values: 6,22±0,08 in maximum of 9,3 and 8,2±0,17 in males with
females and 6,5±0 pg in males. MCHC was a minimum of 7,9 and a maximumof 8,5.
44,09 ±1,21 in females compared with These parameters translated to a
43,65±1,01 in males. potential presence of anemic disease which
Coefficient of variance did not exceed the can explaine the biological reduction of the
limit of 35%, which can by used in statistically hemoglobin. The hemoglobin mean is
interpretation. Except MCHC, HCT and MCH smaller than the normal values 10-15
were higher in males than females. g/100ml. In corroboration, the hemoglobin
The mean of hemoglobin concentration with the hematocrit can establish the anemic
was lower than normal :8,18 ±0,27 g/100 ml status of animal (table 3 and 4)
in females with a minimum of 5,5 and a

Table 3
The hematocrit and hemoglobin means in female goats

Female
Statistics
HCT Hb
(%) (g/dl)
N 14 14
Mean 18.78 8.19
Sd(yEr±) 3.31 1.01
Se(yEr±) 0.88 0.27
Min 12.4 5.5
Max 23.8 9.3
Median 20.05 8.55
CV 18% 12%

Table 4
The hematocrit and hemoglobin means in male goats

Male
Statistics HCT Hb
(%) (g/dl)
N 4 4
Mean 19.55 8.2
Sd(yEr±) 4.9 0.35
Se(yEr±) 2.45 0.17
Min 15.3 7.9
Max 23.8 8.5
Median 19.55 8.2
CV 25% 4%

The RBC values in the ruminants in this contracts and this causes the release of more
study may, among other things, be due to RBC into circulation.The MCV and MCHC
excitement or strenuous exercise during values in both sexes fluctuated and their
handling (Gartner et al., 1969). This leads to values are dependent upon RBC, Hb and
the release of adrenaline and hence spleen PCV values.

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Figure 1 .Representation of erythrocytic parameters in male and female goat

45

40

35

30

25 FEMALE
MALE
20

15

10

0
RBC PCV HCT HB MCH MCHC

The fluctuation of this values are and a maximum of 15,33, respectively. Both
represented in figure 1., where we observed categories of goats had higher values than
the differences between females and males. normal (5-14 mil/mm) and can be attributed
The total WBS mean in males and to immune response to different
females is between 15,41± 1,43 with a environmental factors and physiological
minimum of 10,21 and a maximum of23,75 status (table 5-6).
and 12,77±1,47 with a minimum of 10,21
Table 5
Leucocyte values (mean ± S.E. ) of female goats

Statistics
Females
N Mean Sd(yEr±) Se(yEr±) Min Max Median CV
WBC
14 15.41 4.52 1.21 10.21 23.75 14.89 29%
(m/mm)
Lym(%) 14 54.54 5.36 1.431 49.3 69.4 52.2 10%
Mon(%) 14 4.83 0.76 0.20 3.6 6.4 4.9 16%
NEU(%) 14 35.5 4.93 1.32 22.6 41.8 35.7 14%
EO(%) 14 4.16 2.54 0.68 0 8.8 3.35 61%
BA(%) 14 0.47 0.27 0.07 0.1 1 0.45 57%

Table 6
Leucocyte values (mean ± S.E. ) of male goats

male
Statistics WBC Lym Mon NEU EO BA
(m/mm) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%)
N 4 4 4 4 4 4
Mean 12.77 53.8 4.85 38.1 2.85 0.4
Sd(yEr±) 2.96 2.65 0.29 2.42 0.40 0.12
Se(yEr±) 1.48 1.33 0.14 1.21 0.20 0.06
Min 10.21 51.5 4.6 36 2.5 0.3
Max 15.33 56.1 5.1 40.2 3.2 0.5
Median 12.77 53.8 4.85 38.1 2.85 0.4
CV 23% 5% 6% 6% 14% 29%

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

Figure 2. Representation of leucocytar parameters in male and female goats

60

50

40

FEMALE
30
MALE

20

10

0
WBC Lym% Mon % Neut % Eo %

In leukocytary series, the mean of compared with the males value 2,85±0,20%
lymphocytes was 54,53 ±1,43% in female (figure 2).This fact can be explained by the
and 53,8±1,32%in males, respecting the isolation of females that graze on the field,
normal rapport between 50-55%. The from the males which remain in the stable.
monocytes are in the same normal limit(3- The white blood cells (WBC) are the
5%) and their means are 4,82± 0,20% for soldiers of the body and their high counts
females and 4,85±0,28 %in male. may also be due to the increase of the
Neutrophils average was smaller than normal complement in the immune systems o the
(40-45%) as follows: 35,5±1,31% in females animals. It may also be attributed to
and 38,1±1,21% in males.The 4,16±0,68% physiological phenomena i.e. excitement or
value of eosinophils in females indicated a strenuous exercise during handling.
potential helmintic or infectious aggression
Table 7
Hematological values (mean ± S.E. ) young female goat

Statistics
Young female
N Mean Sd(yEr±) Se(yEr±) Min Max Median CV
WBC
14 15.41 4.52 1.21 10.21 23.75 14.89 29%
(m/mm)
Lym(%) 14 54.54 5.36 1.431 49.3 69.4 52.2 10%
Mon(%) 14 4.83 0.76 0.20 3.6 6.4 4.9 16%
NEU(%) 14 35.5 4.93 1.32 22.6 41.8 35.7 14%
EO(%) 14 4.16 2.54 0.68 0 8.8 3.35 61%
BA(%) 14 0.47 0.27 0.07 0.1 1 0.45 57%

Table 8
Hematocrit and hemoglobin values (mean ± S.E. ) of young female goat
Young female kidds
Statistics HCT Hb
(%) (g/dl)
N 14 14
Mean 18.78 8.19
Sd(yEr±) 3.31 1.01
Se(yEr±) 0.88 0.27
Min 12.4 5.5
Max 23.8 9.3
Median 20.05 8.55
CV 18% 12%

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The haematologic profile on the female 6. What caused the fluctuation in various
youg goats of 3 month age(tab .7 and tab. 8), parameters may be undetected minor
a was the lower values with 8-10 % in infections, weather extremities and poor
comparison with the adult goats and bucks. management
Since the animals are apparently healthy, any
value may be regarded as possible infection REFERENCES
or metabolic and nutritional disorder. Journal articles
[1] Anosa, V.O. (1978): Haematological studies
CONCLUSIONS of domestic animals in Nigeria. Zbc. Vet. Med. 25:
1. The MCV and MCHC values in both sexes 640 – 646.
[2] Coles, E.H., (1980). Veterinary clinicla
fluctuated and their values are dependent pathology, 3rdEdn., W.B. Sanders Co.
upon RBC, Hb and PCV values. Hemoglobin Philadelphia, pp 10 –20.
has low level, indicating an anemic status of [3] Holman, H.H. (1964): The blood picture of the
female and male goats. goat II.Changes in erythrocyte shape, size and
2.The total WBC mean had very high values number associated with age. Res. Vet. Sci. 5:274.
in both sexes and can be attributed to the [4] Holman, H.H., and Dew, S.M. (1965a): The
immune response to different factors. bloodpicture of the goat III. Changes in Hb
3. The high lymphocyte counts in the animals concentrations and physical measurements
occurring with age. Res. Vet. Sci.6: 245.
in this study might be attributed to stress
[5] Holman, H.H. and Dew, S.M (1965b). The
and immune response to the environment blood picture of the goats. Iv. Changes in
which harbours various detectable and coagulation times, platelet counts, and leucoytes
undetectable parasitic and/or bacterial numbers associated with age. Res.Vet. Sci.
organisms. The eosinophil values can [6] Oduye, O.O. (1976). Haematol. Val. of
translate to an infection or helmintic nIgeriagoats and sheep. Trop. Animal. Health .and
aggression. prod. 8:131-136.
4. Since the animals are apparently healthy, [7] Radostits, O.M. Blood, D.C. (1994).Vet. Med., 8th
any value beyond the upper limit in one or edition, Bailliere Tindall, London, pp 86-180.
[8] Schlam, O.W. Jain, N.C. and Carol, E.I.
both sexes may be regarded as leucocytosis (1975).Veterinary Heamatology. 3rd edn. Lea and
and any value below the lower limit may be Fibinger, Philadelphia. P. 144 – 167.
termed leucopaenia. [9] Todd, A.C., Wyant, Z.N., Stone, W.M. and Elam,
5. Sex showed relatively influence on the G.W.(1952). On the blood picture of healthy Soujthern
haematological values of the goat studied , andHampshire Ewes, Amer. J. Vet. Res. 13:74.
existing fluctuations in all the hematological [10] Wilkins, J.H. and Hodges, R.E.D.H.
parameters of both sexes (1962):Observations on normal goats blood. Royal
Army Vet. Corp. J. 33:7.

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

RESULTS CONCERNING THE FREEZING PRETABILITY


OF BUCK SEMEN AND FECUNDITY AFTER ARTIFICIAL
INSEMINATION OF LOCAL GOAT

Stela Zamfirescu1, Dorina Nadolu2


1
Ovidius University of Constanta, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural, Romania
e-mail: stela@canals.ro
2
The Research and Developmental Institute for Sheep and Goat Palas Constanta

Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the freezing pretability of semen collected from 38 bucks
Alpine and Saanen breeds , imported from Germany(2005).For this reason semen was frozen in Tris
and Natrium citrate extenders, besides seminal plasma, using the rapid freezing methodin liquid
nitrogen. The results of freezing pretability of semen were valuated by monitoring spermatic and
cryobiological index : the fresh semen motility versus freezing-thawing semen motility at 24 h after
freezing , motility after Bloom staining of spermatozoa, ultrastructural damages studied by electron
microscopy and finally, by direct testing of fecundante capacityof spermatozoa by artificial
insemination of goat.The mean values of fresh semen motility were 86.81±0.88% for Alpine and
85±2,24% for Saanen, while after defreezing were 46.34±2.66% for Alpine semen and 56.12±4,02%
for Saanen semen.Some ultrastructural damages were observed in freezing- thawing spermatozoa(
partial and integral plasmatic membranae loss, nuclear and mithocondrial degenaration) .The
results were appreciated by „in vivo”testing of frozen semen, using artificial insemination of goats
and monitoring the fecundity and prolificacy.So, we obtained a very good fecundity ( 60%) after
artificial insemination of very good motylity of the spermatozoa. All the results showed that buck
semen has high pretability to freezing and can be used for artificial insemination.This study
followed to find a possibility to preserve the good quality semen and to be distributed in time and
space for the amelioration of the Romanian local goats.
Key words: frozen semen, pretability, motility, fecundity, prolificacy

INTRODUCTION in view to freezing. The semen was collected


The advantages of frozen semen are with artificially vagina after bucks training
well-known: zootehnically, economically and for 7-10 days , in the presence of one goat
veterinary. Preservation of genes from goats with induced oestrus .After semen collecting
and its dissemination in time and space, make it was made the first dilution 1:1 with Tris
easy the international genes exchanges. and natrium citrate medium , at pH 6,8-6,9.
Artificial insemination with frozen semen The fresh semen valuation referred to:
contributes to improvement of local goats spermatic volume directly readed in
populations. All this presume the collection glass ; spermatozoon concentration
technologies improvement for semen valuated with Spermaque photometer;
freezing process. The frozen buck semen at valuation of semen motility on 1 to 100 scale
high quality is used in artificial insemination in microscope. The ejaculates with more than
of goats from farms in natural mate season 70% motility were washed in washing
and against season. medium in view to remove the seminal
plasma.
MATERIALS AND METHODS The semen dilutions were made in
The studies were made on 38 bucks from laboratory as follows: a dilution at 37°C until
Alpine and Saanen breed imported from the semen concentration reached to
Germany, from which semen was collected 1x10⁹/ml;the last dilution at 4°C with

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 52 seria Zootehnie

dilution medium containing the glycerol as vaginoscope and insemination pistolet, in 1


cryoprotector. Then, the semen was frozen or 2 intracervically insemination.
IN Tris and sodium citrate medium with a
glycerinic level 8% and 10% yolk of egg, RESULTS
using the rapidly freezing method. The The results valuation was made by:
packing of semen prepared for freezing was monitoring of cryobiological indicators
done in plastique paillettes with 0,25 ml compairing with spermatic indicators (fresh
volume, in the freezing room. This method semen motility versus frozen semen motility
presume to place for 8 minutes the paillettes at 24 h after freezing process), motility after
on a support at 4 cm distance from nitrogen eosine-nigrosine colouring and finally,
level (nitrogen vapours) and then by directly testing of fecundante capacity by
immersing in the nitrogen liquid at -196°C. artificial insemination of goat.The it was
The frozen-defrozen semen valuation was calculated the reproduction indicators: the
execute after 24 hours from freezing process fecundity and the prolificacy of inseminated
by monitoring the general motility, individual goat.
motility ,the percent of alives or deaded The mean motility of Alpine fresh semen
spermatozoons (viability) by eosine- was 86.81±0.88% and the coefficient of
nigrosine colouring of semen smear.In our variance 8% .The mean motility for Saanen
experiment were frozen 2800 paillettes. fresh semen was 85±2,24% and the
To „in vivo” testing of frozen semen , the coefficient of variance 14%.After defreezing,
goats were prepaired for artificial the viability mean expressed by by eosine-
insemination .The oestrus was induced using nigrosine colouring of semen smear, was
Chronogest sponges with 45 mg 46.34±2.66% for Alpine semen and
fluorogestone acetate for 11 days, then it 56.12±4,02% for Saanen semen. The
were administrated 125 µg prostaglandine coefficient of variance were 48% and
PGF2α and Folligon 400 UI on day 39%,respectively, which indicated a high
8.Artificial inseminations were done at 43 individual variability concerning the semen
hours after sponges removal, using a pretability to freezing (table 1)

Table 1
The cryobiological indicators of frozen semen (Alpine and Saanen
Alpine Saanen
Motility of Motility of Motility of Motility of
Volume fresh freezing- Volume fresh freezing-
Statistics
semen thawaing semen thawaing
semen semen
(ml) (%) (ml) (%)
(%) (%)
N 10 10 10 10 10 10
Mean 1,07 86,81 46,35 1,16 85 56,13
Sd(yEr±) 0,33 7,32 22,18 0,366 12,32 21,66
Se(yEr±) 0,04 0,88 2,67 0,07 2,25 4,02
Min 0,3 70 0 0,3 45 10
Max 2 95 80 1,8 95 90
Median 1 90 47,6 1,15 90 59,15
CV 31% 8% 48% 31% 14% 39%

The figure 1 shows the comparative diagram of minimum and maximum values of fresh
and frozen semen:45% and 95% motility for fresh semen versus 10% and 90% for frozen
semen (Saanen breed).

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Figure 1 Motility of Saanen fresh and frozen semen

The individual variability concerning the semen pretability to freezing is show in figure 2
and 3, where it notice the motility dynamic of the two types of semen (fresh and frozen) from
Alpine and Saanen breed.

Figure 2 Dynamics of fresh and frozen semen of Saanen bucks

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Figure 3 Dynamics of fresh and frozen semen of Alpine bucks

The fecundity was tested “in vivo” on goats being 55. The prolificacy was 160%,
255 goats with induced oestrous (Chronogest, the number of kids being 88.
45 mg FGA) from private farms. It was On 60 goat from Boitan farm were done
appreciated the fecundity and prolificacy artificial inseminations in double doses with
percent. Alpine buck semen .The fecundity percent
The artificial insemination in single dose was 46,6 % (n=28) and the prolificacy 132%
with frozen Saanen semen was done on 195 (n=37). In the table 3 are presented the
goats from Avram farm. The fecundity fecundity result after the insemination of 382
percent was 28,2%, the number of dropping goat and the conception rate was ranged
between 51-66%.

Table 2.
Conception rate after artificial insemination of goats with freezing semen(2006)
Female
Number of Fecundity Prolificacy
Exploitation inseminated
inseminations (n/%) (n/%)
(n)
1.Avram exploatation 195 1 55/ 28.2 88/160
2.Boitan exploatation 60 2 28//46.6 37/132

Table 3
Kidding rate (F %) of the goats( in induced oestrous) which were artificially inseminated with frozen
sperm from bucks of Saanen breed (ICDOC Palas Constanta -October –November 2006)
Inseminated
Fertility
Lot Farm goats
(%)
(n)
Lot 1 Topolog Farm (County of Tulcea) 162 59.68
Lot 2 Onesti Farm * 60 65.00
Lot 3 SC Holder Trade Farm - Baia, County of Tulcea 46 51,00
Lot 4 ICDOC Palas - biobasis 114 50.00
TOTAL 382 66.15
*- semen imported from France

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CONCLUSIONS [6] Chemineau, P. 1984. - "Buck effect" in tropical


1. The buck semen is pretable to freezing goats. In Courot, M, ed., The male in farm animal
in view to preserve the genetic material. reproduction. Martinus Nijhoff Publ. Colloque
CEE, 6-7 October 1983, Nouzilly, France. p. 310-
2. The motility after freezing was 40-60%, 315.
which make possible the artificial [7] Cognie, Y., Colas, G. & Thimonier, J.,1984.-
insemination Control of reproduction in the ewe. In Ortavant, R.
3. A high individual variability of semen & Schindler, H., eds., The reproductive potential
concerning pretability to freezing it was of cattle and sheep. INRA, Paris. Les Colloques de
notice. l'INRA No. 27. Joint Israeli-French Symposium,
4. Fecundity and prolificacy had high 21-23 February 1984, Rehovot, Israel. p. 175-190.
values on condition that the technologies [8] Corteel şi colab., 1998, - Artificial breeding of
adult goat and kids induced with hormones to
of freezing and artificial insemination
ovulate outside the breeding season-Small
are respected. Rum.Res., 1, 19-35).
[9] LeBoeuf B., Manfred E., Boue P., Piacere A.,
REFERENCES Baril G., Boqua C., Humblot P., 1998,.-
Journal articles L’insemination artificielle et l’ameleration
[1] Baril, 1993. Synchronization of estrus in goats: genetique dez lachevre latiere en France, INRA
The relationship between time of occurrence of Prod. Anim., 11(3), 171-181).
estrus and fertility following artificial [10] LeBoeuf B., 1998. Artificial insemination of
insemination. Theriogenology, 40, 621-628. dairy goats in France. Elsevier – Live stoc
[2] Belley, C., Forgerit, Y. & Corteel, J.M. 1986. - production science. Nr 55. p 193-203.
Essais préliminaires de diagnostics précoces de la [12] Terqui, M. & Cognie, Y. 1984.- Definition of
gestation chez la chèvre laitière par échographie. ovarian activity and restoration of pituitary and
Xème Congrès de la Société Française pour ovarian functions in ewes and cows. In Ortavant,
l'Application des Ultrasons à la Médecine et à la R. & Schindler, H., eds., The reproductive
Biologie, 15-17 September 1986, Tours, France. potential of cattle and sheep. INRA, Paris. Les
[3] Bindon, B.M. & Piper, L.R. 1986.- The Colloques de 1' INRA No. 27. Joint Israeli-French
reproductive biology of prolific sheep. Oxford Symposium, 21-23 February 1984, Rehovot,
Rev. Reprod. Biol., 8:414-451. Israel, p. 11-24.
[4] Bindon, B.M., Piper, L.R., Cahill, L.P., Book
Driancourt, MA. & O'Shea, T. 1986. - Genetic and [11] Smith, J.F. 1980. - Influence of nutrition on
hormonal factors affecting superovulation. ovulation. A summary of recent pasture allowance
Theriogenology, 25:53-70. trials in New Zealand. In Lindsay, D.R., ed., Proc.
[5] Chemineau, 1989 - Le soisonnement de la Workshop on Influence of nutrition on the fertility
reproduction des caprins des zones temperees et of male and female sheep in Australia and New
des zones tropicales, Bull. Tech. Ovine et caprin, Zealand, August 1980, Perth, Australia.
27, 43-51).

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 52 seria Zootehnie

THE COMPETITIVENESS OF THE ROMANIAN ECONOMY


IN THE CONTEXT OF EUROPEAN UNION ACCESSION.
SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING
AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT

Roxana Paraschiv, G. Mursa

Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, ”Al. I. Cuza” University Iasi


e-mail: roxana_paraschiv@yahoo.com

Abstract
Member of the European Union, Romania faces huge competitiveness problems which affect the
capacity of taking advantage of its new status. This paper aims at identifying Romania’s major
competitiveness difficulties, with a special focus on the agriculture and rural development in order to
find the best solution for improving the current situation. The methodology of our study included both
statistical analysis methods and sociologic analysis methods. We had a large survey of economic
literature on competitiveness, agriculture and rural development matters, we analyzed the European
and Romanian statistics, as well as other studies and strategies concerning Romania’s economic
situation. We notice that, despite pre-accession funds and some other efforts to improve Romania’s
competitiveness, our country possess, at this moment, not even a single competitive advantage on the
European market and the situation of agriculture and rural economy is particularly difficult. The
paper details these problems, the impact of European integration on Romania’s competitiveness and
especially the impact of the common agricultural policy on Romanian agriculture and rural economy,
also trying to offer solution for surpassing these difficulties.
Key words: rural development, competitiveness, European integration

INTRODUCTION MATERIAL AND METHOD


Romania’s integration in the European The specific nature of our analysis has
Union raises the sensitive problem of the determined the structure of the paper. The
economic competitiveness and the question paper elaboration has been preceded by the
of our country’s ability to take advantage of analysis and understanding of the Romanian
the integration’s benefits. The rural sector through the available statistics.
competitiveness problem appears even more For this reason, the paper presents the facts
acute because of the European Union’s together with their interpretation and the
Lisbon Agenda, whose objective is proposed solutions in the next section. The
improving European economy methodology of our study included both
competitiveness performances. For our statistical analysis methods and sociologic
country this issue is a sensitive one because analysis methods. We had a large survey of
the planned economy and the transition economic literature on competitiveness,
seriously affected the ability to compete on agriculture and rural development matters,
external markets. Our analysis is motivated we analyzed the European and Romanian
by these acute realities, which we try to statistics, as well as other studies and
understand and find the proper solution. strategies concerning Romania’s economic
Identifying Romania’s potential competitive situation.
sectors as well as the necessary measures for
improving these sectors’ performances is not RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
only an up-to-date issue, but also an The World Economic Forum, a well-
emergency for Romania’s development. known institution specialized in studying
competitiveness, has identified three

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development stages for an economy: factor- World Economic Forum, the fiscal burden
driven stage of development (when the main and the fiscal legislation. Corruption,
competitive resources of a country are its underdeveloped infrastructure and political
primarily production factors such as instability are as well important obstacles
abundant natural resources and cheap, while inflation didn’t appear, last year as a
unskilled labor), efficiency-driven stage of major problem.
development (when, as wages are increasing, Our country’s weak competitiveness
the economy must stimulate the products performances lead to the incapacity of taking
quality and complexity, and the advantage of the EU integration benefits.
competitiveness is driven by higher According to the Finance Ministry in the first
education and training, efficient good semester after Romania’s integration the
markets and efficient use of existing commercial deficit was about 7 million euro,
technologies) and the innovation-driven stage increasing with 3.3 million euro (86%)
(when the competitiveness is based on compared to the similar period of the
innovation capacity, on new products and previous year. The most important part of
technologies) [4]. this deficit is coming from EU trading
There is a logic sequence of these stages partners, implying that removing the
and every country must favor the factors with commercial obstacles has favored the
greater contribution at increasing the European producers, while the Romanian
competitiveness, according to its exporters do not have the capacity of
development stage – for the first stage the exploiting this advantage. Besides the
institutions, the infrastructure, the commercial deficit is also caused by the
macroeconomic stability, health and primary improper structure of exports comparing to
education, for the second stage, higher the imports – we generally export low added
education and training, market efficiency and value products (textiles, metal products,
the technologies and for the third stage, inferior steel, furniture, cellulose, paper,
innovation and business climate. wood) and we import high technology
At the global level, World Economic products, with high added value. Even if on
Forum places Romania on the 68th place 2004 there was a small decrease of resource
(from a total of 134 countries). Among the and low technology products exports and an
EU member countries, Romania holds the increase in medium technology products
26th place, preceding only Bulgaria. The best exports, from that year on there were no
competitive advantages of our country are the significant evolution in this direction. But
public debt (the 12th place), higher education Romania imports the most part of the
(the 45th place), technical education (the 12th necessary technology and this implies an
place), business starting procedures (the 13th improper connection between the research
place), internal market size (the 39th place). and the production sectors. In these
The weak points are related to the circumstances the commercial balance
governmental decisions’ transparency (the account could be improved if Romania
126th place), public expenditure efficiency exported not only price competitive products,
(the 107th place), the firms’ ethical behavior but also innovation competitive products.
(the 103rd place), roads’ quality (the 123rd Through its nature, the economic
place), the savings rate (the 101st place), the competitiveness concept implies the
local competition intensity (the 82nd place), comparison with the other actors on the
the fiscal burden (the 108th place), the private market. Romania’s situation comparing with
expenditure for research and development the European Union reflected in table 1
(the 89th place), the last generation should generate quick answers and measures
technologies (the 93rd place), the link reduce the economic gap. The possibilities of
between the universities and business (the being competitive on a more developed
90th place). The most important problems of market are extremely low, and the cheap
the business climate are, according to the labor is not a long lasting advantage. These

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difficulties become more evident as we see and development activities, which lower even
that the gaps concern not only the GDP per more the possibility of reducing the gaps.
capita but also the education and research

Table 1
Main structural indicators of Romania for 2004-2006 comparing to EU average [3]
Romania
EU 25
2004 2005 2006
GDP per capita (% of EU average) 100% 32.5% 33% 36.2%
Labour productivity (% of EU average) 100% 33.4% 34.2% 36.8%
Employment rate 64,7% 57.7% 57.6% 58.8%
Research and development
1.85% 0.39% 0.41% 0.46%
expenditure (% of GDP)
Educational level(% of population
between 20-24 years old which 77.7% 74.8% 75.2% 77.2%
attended secondary schools)
GDP growth 3% 8.5% 4.1% 7.7%
Inflation rate 2.2% 11.9% 9.1% 6.6%
Unemployment rate 7.9% 8.1% 7.2% 7.3%

The lack of competitiveness is a major this sector we could already notice in the last
problem of the Romanian economy, even if years a slower growth rate.
the Post accession Strategy 2007-2013 Some potentially competitive sectors
identifies in an optimistic manner a number presented in the Post-accession Strategy are
of sectors which could offer Romania an directly or indirectly related to agriculture
advantage in European competition: and rural development, but the situation of
ecological agriculture, IT industry, wine these sectors is not better.
industry, tourism (agrotourism, cultural Concerning the ecological agriculture,
tourism), textiles, handcraft products, Romania is criticized by the international
furniture industry, natural pharmaceutical organization for the lack of the necessary
industry [7]. A closer look at these sectors mechanism for controlling the agricultural
tempers he authorities’ optimism. and food products quality. The European
The IT industry, a sector included by the Commission in its report from 2006
Romanian authorities in the above mentioned regarding Romanian agriculture brings into
list has a long way until being able to attention these deficiencies [6]. Although
compete with the big, world-known 2006 was the last year for genetically
producers. In this sector we only have the modified organisms culture, Romania does
human capital, which we export, but we lack not have a single laboratory meeting the EU
the necessary investment. The Ireland case, standards for controlling the products
often reminded, could be relevant for containing these kinds of organisms. The
Romania when we look not only at the final same lack of control and information is
results but also at the efforts made for their visible in using fertilizers and herbicides in
achievement, meaning the investment in agricultural production or additives in food
education and in attracting foreign industry. In these circumstances it is hard to
investment. speak about entering the European market of
The textile and clothing industry is not ecological products, both because of the lack
able to offer Romania a long term of expertise and because of the strict EU
competitive advantage, because of the standards for these products.
increasing Asian competition, the Asian work The wine industry, although there are
force being cheaper that the Romanian and studies suggesting that Romania has a
the quality constantly improved. Besides, for competitive advantage in this sector because
of the low costs, is a part of the first stage of

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development identified by the World EU 15 countries or even regarding the new


Economic Forum because it is based on member states. The Romanian officials admit
cheap and abundant resources and, in this the fact that the only competitive advantage
context, could not sustain Romanian is the 16% flat tax.
competitiveness on long term. We have the Coming back to agriculture and rural
same situation with the handcraft products or development, we have to mention that
the furniture industry that are low value Romania has some advantages that could
added and high consumer of resources favor its development, such as:
sectors. Especially regarding the furniture - the important agricultural potential;
industry there are studies including it among - low industrialization and extensive
the loser Romanian industry after EU trade agriculture that have limited the pollution in
liberalization. The comparative advantage of this sector;
this sector is reducing together with the share - the availability of human resources;
of the furniture exports in the total exports to - the availability of the resources for
EU [1]. In these circumstances we can not rural tourism and ecological agriculture;
talk about the furniture industry as about a - the still well preserved traditions that
competitive industry on the European market. characterizes the Romanian village and that
The tourism, although it benefits of could represent an opportunity for rural
special natural resources, continues to be tourism development.
affected by the lack of expertise which would Unfortunately these advantages are
permit the exploitation of these benefits as accompanied by numerous weak points:
well as by the poor infrastructure and by the - the climate variability and the recent
lack of promotion and visibility. For many extreme meteorological phenomena that
years we have been spoken about Romania’s affect the production and lead to soil erosion.
important tourism potential, but up to now it The insufficient financial resources impede
hasn’t become a real competitive advantage the farmers to use soil improvement
and is improbable to become in the close techniques and that determines a reduction of
future. We are constantly surpassed even by the production potential. Besides, because of
neighbor countries which know better how to the lack of the financial resources, the
respond to clients’ needs and to attract them Romanian agriculture is four times less
not only through the natural resources but secured than the European agriculture and the
also through their services. Romania is not climate variability determines huge loses for
any more a preferred destination for farmers.
Romanians and even less for high income - the high share of sustenance farms,
foreigners from West. with an average area of 2.15 ha, too small to
The natural pharmaceutical industry use modern and efficient production
although expanding in Romania, is a market methods;
hard to penetrate in the western countries. - the lower income in rural sector
The necessary studies and certificates compared to the urban sector, that
demand for high financial resources and discourages the involvement in agricultural
important efforts that could not be made on production;
short or medium term. The introduction of a - insufficient financial resources for
new drug in the human consumption needs, agricultural activities, which are not preferred
in the classical industry, tens of years of tests by the banks in their financing operations
and studies and that tempers our optimism because the farmers have not enough
regarding this sector. guarantees;
The reality is that, up to now, despite the - poor infrastructure in the rural areas
sectors that could offer Romania a both physical (roads, utilities) as well as
competitive advantage on the European medical and educational;
market, our country could not develop even a - the low interest and possibilities of the
single competitive advantage regarding the rural population for secondary and higher

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education. The low social-economical and would reduce the employed population with
educational level of the rural population about 1 million, but this implies the
makes almost impossible the exploitation of involvement of the government in order to
the opportunities for rural development. raise the pension level, very small at this
Taking into account the difficulties faced moment;
by our country’s agriculture, the government - increasing the farms areas, in order
has designed the National Strategic Plan of to create the conditions for a modern
Rural Development 2007-2013, which agricultural production and higher
entitles Romania to receive about 8 million productivity;
euros from European funds in the above - creating stimulus and support for
mentioned interval of time. The plan the development of alternative economic
determines four major development axes:[5] activities in the rural area. The rural
- improving the competitiveness of the development is not synonymous with
agricultural and forestry sectors – 45% of the agricultural development and the alternative
total funds; activities such as rural tourism, food industry,
- improving the environment and the forestry activities, handcraft activities could
countryside – 25% of the total funds; use a part of the agricultural workforce and
- improving the quality of life in rural could represent a source of higher income for
areas and rural economy diversification - rural population. In order to achieve these
30% of the total funds; goals several other measures, presented here
- implementation of the public/private would be necessary;
partnership organized as Local Action - the development of the
Groups – 2.5% of the total funds; infrastructure, an essential condition for the
The government involvement through development of alternative activities;
proper measures and well designed priorities - supplementary investment in
is essential for avoiding the increase of agriculture and in the other activities related
poorness and unemployment in the rural area to the rural sector. This needs access to
after the implementation of the common proper financial resources, hard to get
agricultural policy and the program for the because of the low income in this sector and
agriculture restructuring. The priorities of the because of the impossibility to offer the
Romanian rural sector are the workforce guarantees for bank loan. The government
excess and the fragmentation of the land, should support, in this case, the finance
which represent the main cause of low process in the rural area in order to make
competitiveness of this sector, encouraging possible the development of the agriculture,
the subsistence agriculture. of the alternative economic activities and the
The present situation of agricultural reduction of the workforce employed in
sector, the low income, the high share in agriculture;
GDP, the excess of workforce represents a - the access to educational and
threat even for Romanian ability to adopt training programs for the rural workforce,
euro, because the success of the Monetary essential for their capacity of involvement in
Union depends on the resemblance of the the development of the alternative economic
productive structure of the member states. activities.
The structural reform of the Romanian In order to apply all these reforms,
rural sector should, in this context, include, Romania can benefit of the financial support
as main measures: from the European Union and must be able to
- the reduction of the workforce fully benefit of this opportunity.
employed in the agricultural sector. In order
to come close to the European agricultural CONCLUSIONS
labor force average (about 15%) we need to Economic globalization has determined
dismiss about 2 million persons [2]. The the increasing of the competition at the
retirement of the persons above 60 years old international level, and in this context the

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competitiveness of an economy is essential encouraging investments, in developing the


for its surviving. Romania’s integration in the physical, medical and educational
EU and the removal of the economic infrastructure. Together with the European
obstacles have stressed the competition and national public financial resources, there
pressure faced by our country. Romanian is also necessary the development of
economic performances are behind the public/private partnership for the rural sector.
European average and our country’s
economy did not manage, despite its REFERENCES
potential, to develop even a single Journal Articles
competitive advantage in front of its [2] Dumitriu, M., Diminescu, D., Lazea, V.: Rural
European partners. In this context, our development and the Romanian Agriculture
country’s capacity to benefit from the Reform, Working Papers Series, European
integration advantages is strongly questioned. Institute of Romania 2004, 10-11
[3] ***, Eurostat, http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu,
The situation of the Romanian rural
2007
sector is particularly difficult. This sector is [4] ***, Global Competitiveness Report
dominated by agriculture, whose key features 2008/2009, World Economic Forum, 2008,
are the workforce excess, the subsistence www.weforum.org
farms and the low productivity. The physical [5] ***, National Strategic Plan of Rural
and social poor infrastructure, the lack of the Development 2007-2013, Romanian Government,
financial resources for investment worsen http://www.maap.ro/pages/dezvoltare_rurala/NSP_
this sector’s problems. octombrie_2006_en.pdf
Romania’s economic stability depends on [6] ***, Monitoring report on the state of
preparedness for EU membership of Bulgaria and
the agricultural restructuring and on the rural Romania, European Commission, Bruxelles, 2006
development. In this process our country [7] ***, Post-accession Strategy 2007-2013,
could also benefit of the financial support of Romanian government,
the EU. Among the solution proposed in this http://www.guv.ro/presa/integrare /12/
paper for Romanian rural development, two strategie_post_aderare.pdf
might be considered top priorities – the Book
reduction of the agricultural workforce and [1] Daianu, D. (ed): Winners and Losers in the
the increase of the farms’ size. These reforms Process of European Integration. A Look at
România, Romanian Center for Economic
are conditioned by the government
Policies, Bucuresti, 2001.
involvement in providing a proper level of
agricultural pensions, in facilitating the
access to financial resources and in

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 52 seria Zootehnie

CHALLENGES OF THE COMMON AGRICULTURAL


POLICY IN THE ENLARGED EUROPE

Roxana Paraschiv, G. Mursa

Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, ”Al. I. Cuza” University Iasi


e-mail: roxana_paraschiv@yahoo.com

Abstract
The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) has its roots in the 1950’s, when the western European
economies, seriously damaged by the war, could not guarantee the food supplies. Initially, the CAP
aimed at increasing agricultural productivity in order to solve the food supply problems. Since then,
the CAP faced continuous change and adjustment process. This paper aims at analysing the recent
changes of the CAP, their impact on the member states as well as the future challenges of the CAP
in the enlarged European Union. The approached subject needed an adequate methodology, which
included both statistical analysis methods and sociologic analysis methods. We had a large survey
of economic literature on the subject, on the European statistics and debates and we have also
analysed the current economic and agricultural situation of the new member countries and the
challenges they are facing after their accession in the EU. We noticed that, despite the reform of the
CAP in the perspective of enlargement and despite the structural funds for the new member states,
these countries face huge problems, especially where the agricultural sector has an important
share. Besides that, the CAP faces other challenges too, such as the environment protection, food
safety problems or the financial support for agricultural policy. All these problems have been
analyzed in the present paper as well as some solution we propose for overwhelming them.
Key words: Common Agricultural Policy, enlargement

INTRODUCTION of CAP, but despite all these, it still needs


Agriculture may be considered, without further improvements. Our analysis is
any mistake, a key sector for an economy, motivated by the present context of another
providing the vital food resources for the CAP reform (agreed on November 2008 and
population. At the European Community voted on January 2009) and of EU East
level, the importance of this sector was enlargement that has imposed an important
clearly visible after the Second World War pressure on CAP. Understanding CAP, its
when, as a result of the war damages, the evolution, reforms, challenges and future
food supplies could not be guaranteed any perspectives is essential especially for our
longer. The need to increase agricultural country, which must find its place in the
productivity and to support the farmers led, European agriculture and must take
in the 1950s, to a common agricultural policy advantage of the opportunities CAP offers.
at the European Economic Community
(EEC) level. The Common Agricultural MATERIAL AND METHOD
Policy (CAP) was the first and the most Due to the specific of our research, the
developed common policy of the EEC and dates and statistics included in this paper
the large budgetary expenditure for its have already been processed and are not
objectives stress its importance. Although included in a rough form in the paper. For
CAP succeeded in reaching its main this reason our paper presents the facts
objective – European food self-sufficiency, it together with their interpretation in the next
has faced strong criticism and opposition section. Our methodology included statistical
both inside and outside the EEC. The analysis methods and sociologic analysis
evolution of the EEC economic and methods as well as a large survey of
agricultural conditions led to several reforms

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economic literature on the subject, on the prices- other challenges occurred – the
European statistics and debates and the imbalances o the financial support among
analysis of the current economic and EEC’s regions, the World Trade Organisation
agricultural situation of the new member negotiations, the still existing surpluses in
countries and the challenges they are facing beef, cheese, milk and the perspective of EU
after their accession in the EU. enlargement to the East. [1]
In this context, Agenda 2000, proposed
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS by the European Commission in 1997
The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) included other reforms – a. the further
is determined at EU level and operated by the reduction of support prices for cereals, beef
member states, aiming at supporting farmer’s and (for the first time) dairy products in order
incomes and also at encouraging then to to reduce the gap between EU and the world
produce high quality products demanded by prices and b. the integration of rural
the market, using new and environmentally development policy as a second pillar of the
friendly technologies. CAP. [4] Consequently, the CAP currently
Starting from the 1980s, the CAP has two pillars:
succeeded in assuring EU self-sufficiency - Pillar 1 – that provides direct aid
and also led to important surpluses for the and market interventions to secure food
major farm commodities which were production and farmers’ income, being
exported or stored. Despite the general good responsible for more than 70% of the total
results of the CAP, this policy has also CAP expenditure;
determined huge controversies and debates at - Pillar 2 – that focuses on rural
EEC/EU level, being criticized both in and development, supporting the restructuring of
outside the Community. The major points of the agricultural sector, the protection of the
discontent were the high budgetary cost, the environment, diversification and innovation
distortion of the world markets and the in rural areas.
environmental sustainability. In 2002, the European Commission
During the 1980s, the distortion of the decided a more radical CAP reform by
markets because of the intensive production increasing the support to rural development
beyond the market absorption power became and decoupling direct payments from
obvious, as well as the financial imbalances – production. The “decoupling” process means
80% of the budget for agriculture was that the farmers are no longer paid just to
allocated to 20% of the European farmers, produce food. The financial support for the
mainly large and developed, while the small farmers is paid independently of how much
farmers struggled to access the new, they produce, but instead they have to respect
expensive technologies. But the most environmental, food safety, phytosanitary
important and visible financial imbalance and animal welfare standards. The direct
was the share of the agricultural expenditures payments would be reduced for the farmers
in EEC’s budget – from 35.7% in the 1965 to that do not meet these requirements. By the
70.8% in 1985 and about 60.7% during 1980- decoupling process, the farmers are also free
1992. All these problems led to some to produce what is more profitable, according
important reforms of the CAP. to what markets want.
The first one was MacSharry reform from The CAP faces today other major
1992, aiming at limiting the production rise challenges – EU enlargement, food safety
by reducing the level of support prices for problems, environmental problems, WTO
some major commodities. MacSharry reform negotiations. By 2005, the debates
also introduced the direct payment system to concerning the agricultural policy focused on
support the farmers’ income. Although this the continuation of the 2003 reforms, as a
reform has some positive effects – the partial part of another adjustment process, called
absorption of agricultural surpluses, the raise “Health Check”. The debates on this new
of farmers’ income, the decrease of consumer adjustment concluded recently, on the 20th of

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November 2008 with the political agreement countries applying the Single Payment
of the EU agricultural ministers, adopted as a Scheme for article 68 measures or might be
legislative text in January 2009. The Health transferred to the Rural Development Fund.
Check, taking into account the present - Shifting money for direct aid to Rural
challenges, aims at modernising and Development – currently, 5% of the
simplifying the CAP and wants to help the payments for the farmers receiving more than
farmers to respond better to the market 5000 euro in direct aid is transferred to the
signals. The Health Check was not intended Rural Development budget. This percent will
to be a major CAP reform, but an rise to 10 by 2012, and an additional 4% of
improvement and modernisation of the 2003 the payments above 300.000 euro will be
reform. The major adjustments refer to used in the same purpose. Member states
improving the Single Payment Scheme, the may use this money for programs concerning
market conditions and the capacity to deal the climatic change, renewable energy, water
with new challenges. management, biodiversity, innovation.
The most important measures included in - Investment aid for young farmers –
the Health Check are: [3] these investments will be increased from
- Phasing out milk quotas – the milk 55.000 euro to 70.000 euro.
quotas will be increased by one percent every - Abolition of the set-aside – the Health
year between 2009-2014 and will completely Check abolishes the requirement for arable
expire in April 2015. farmers to leave 10% of their land fallow.
- Decoupling of the support – as we said - Cross-compliance – the financial aid for
before, previous reform has partially the farmers is conditioned by the fulfilment
decoupled the direct payments to the farmers of the environmental, animal welfare and
from the level of production. The remaining food quality standards. The Health Check
coupled payments will also be decoupled and simplifies the cross compliance by
moved into the Single Payment Scheme withdrawing irrelevant standards.
(SPS). The only exceptions are the suckler - Intervention mechanisms – the
cow, goat and sheep, where the member intervention mechanisms are reformed so as
states may maintain the current level of not to affect the farmers’ capacity to respond
coupled support. to market signals.
- Assistance to sectors with special Even if it is too soon to evaluate the impact
problems (so called “Article 68 measures”) – of Health Check reform, there are already
the member states have the right to retain by voices criticizing the measures concerning
sector 10% of their national budget ceiling the environment, considered insufficient for
for direct payments to be used for the present situation. A number of new
environmental measures or for improving the member countries (Latvia, Estonia, Slovakia)
quality of the products from that sector. From voted against the final deal, with the Czech
now on, this money may be more flexible Republic abstained, feeling that the reform is
used, not necessary in the same sector. encouraging more the old member states than
- Extending the Single Area Payment the new ones. Nevertheless we must admit
Scheme (SAPS) – the countries that are using the strong pressure of the East enlargement
the SAPS may continue to do so until 2013 on the CAP. Even if the Central and Eastern
and will not be forced to apply the Single European countries received 520 million euro
Payment Scheme by 2010. per year during 2000-2006 to prepare for
- Additional funding for EU-12 farmers – participating at CAP, the agricultural sector
90 million euro will be allocated for the new of these countries is more fragmented,
member states in order to support them until inefficient and traditional than in the old
the direct payments to the farmers have been member countries but also plays a greater
completely implemented. economic role and has a bigger share in
- Using the currently unspent money – GDP. In the Central and Eastern European
unspent money might either be used by the (CEE) countries, the agriculture employs

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over 20% of the workforce (about 9.5 million future reform of CAP and the perspective of
people) compared to 6% in the rest of the EU reduction the financial support for farmers
(8.2 million people). The agriculture are accompanied by the fear that this would
contribution to the GDP is on average 8% in cause the decline of the agricultural sector,
the CEE countries, while it reaches only taking into account its vulnerability. But the
2.5% in the rest of the EU. Additionally, farmers could still manage agricultural risk
agriculture, like the entire economy of these by using strategies such as:
countries has suffered a transition process - diversification of agricultural
and the property reform has caused great activities;
difficulties. The CAP still needs - the use of storage, forward contracts
improvement to meet the needs of the new and credit markets;
member states. The financial resources for - the use of future and option
rural development are insufficient and CAP markets;
provides more incentives against the - diversification into non-agricultural
restructuring of agricultural activities. activities;
The CAP reform process will never be - part-time farming.
over, since EU is evolving and so is the It has already been noticed that the farmers
international context. The future tend to diversify their production, although
development of the CAP must focus on the the CAP encourages specialisation and also
sustainable development, coordination the that the majority of the farmers are already
agricultural production, rural development, working part time. The present forms of
environment protection. CAP must also adapt financial support do not consider the income
to the globalisation challenges as it continues of the farmers or that they are working full or
to attract criticism and create tensions in the part time.
EU’s relations with its trading partners. In the Another fear regarding future CAP reform
present context, CAP has the difficult task of is related to the impact on food security.
helping European agriculture to become Defined by some key features such as food
internationally competitive without reliance accessibility, stability, affordability and
on subsidy and protection. This would solve nutrition, food security is normally associated
both the problem of international tensions as with developing countries with low
well as the internal discontent regarding the production, unaffordable imports and
cost of this policy - at this moment the CAP distributional deficiencies. Nevertheless the
costs EU consumers and taxpayers about 100 developed countries are also concerned about
billion euro each year [2]. food security because the reduction of
The CAP does not meet the standards of internal production might increase import
the Lisbon Strategy, which wants to increase dependency which is considered a risky
the European economy competitiveness. The strategy. However studies concerning the
costs of the agricultural policy as well as its impact of agricultural liberalisation suggest
distorting trade effects do not help the that this would result in a small decrease in
European Union to reach Lisbon objectives. self-sufficiency of agriculture for developed
The distorting trade effects of the CAP countries from 98% to 93% [2]. Besides,
strongly affect the developing and poor food security is not exactly synonymous with
countries which rely mostly on the self sufficiency and usually the efforts to
agricultural production and exports. In these assure self-sufficiency have significant costs
countries agriculture accounts for 40 per cent in terms of efficiency.
of GDP, 35 per cent of exports and 50-70 per
cent of total employment. CONCLUSIONS
The future evolution of the CAP must also The Common Agricultural Policy is one of
be coherent with other EU policies, the most important common policies at EU
especially with those concerning economic level. After succeeding in assuring European
reform, cohesion and enlargement. The food self-sufficiency and under the pressure

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of its critics, CAP has passed through several quality and environmental criteria as a
reforms that aimed at reflecting both condition for receiving the money;
European and international evolutions. - increasing the focus and the
Despite the important progress that has been financial support for the second pillar of the
achieved, the CAP still faces important CAP, the rural development.
challenges such as environment protection, Some of these reforms might be difficult to
food safety problems, WTO negotiation, East be achieved but they are nevertheless
enlargement whose problems are not entirely necessary.
solved. Taking into account the present
context and challenges CAP must focus in REFERENCES
the future on some key issues: Journal articles
- promoting sustainable agriculture [1] Rusu M., Giurca D., Luca L.: Analysis of the
on a broad scale. The CAP focused too much Common Agricultural Evolution and Directions –
only on production and farmers’ income and a Romanian Perspective, European Institute of
the consequences were high budgetary Romania, 2007,
http://www.ier.ro/SPOS2007/EN/Studiu%
expenditure, high prices, high surpluses as
203_agricultura_final_EN.pdf
well as the damage of the environment. The [2] ***, A Vision for the Common Agricultural
CAP should focus from now more on the Policy, Department for Environment Food and
quality of products and production methods, Rural Affairs, HM Treasury, dec 2005, London,
food safety, social coherence in rural areas, http://www.hm-
environment and the effects of the treasury.gov.uk/d/A_Vision_for_the_CAP.pdf
agricultural policy on the small-scale farmers [3] ***, "Health Check" of the Common
outside the European Union. Agricultural Policy, 2009,
- re-thinking the budgetary http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/ healthcheck/
index_en.htm
expenditure and re-directing the money from [4] ***, The CAP Reform Process, Institute for
subsidies to sustainable production based on International Integration Studies, 2005,
high ecological and quality criteria. http://www.tcd.ie/ iiis/
- the total decouple of the financial policycoherence/index.php/iiis/eu_agricultural_pol
support from the production as well as icy_reform/the_cap_reform_process

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

IS THE EUROPEAN UNION AN OPTIMUM CURRENCY


AREA?

V.-L. Ichim

“Ştefan Lupaşcu” Institute of European Studies – Iaşi, Romania


e-mail: liviuichim@yahoo.com

Abstract
The criteria to determine the optimum currency areas established by Robert Mundell have
dominated the majority of the UME debates and the conclusions showed that Europe, made either of
6, 15 or more countries doesn’t represent an optimum currency area, because it doesn’t meet but
only partially these criteria. Though, the adoption of the single currency can contribute to the
increasing of the monetary optimality degree because the monetary unification accelerates the
economic integration and thus leads to a better synchronization of the business cycles and,
implicitly to the possibility of utilizing only one monetary policy in the countries part of the currency
area.
Key words: Optimum Currency Area, economic integration, asymmetrical shocks

MATERIAL AND METHOD RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


The Mundell’s theory concerning The criteria mentioned by Mundell
monetary areas, published in 1961, although (1961) in order to determine the optimal
subsequently was largely developed, was monetary areas prevailed in most of the
frequently used more to discourage than to debates concerning European Monetary
encourage the foundation of monetary unions. Union, debates with conclusions underlying
An important discussion connected to the that Europe, formed either from 6 or 15
influence of the economic integration over the states, does not represent an optimal
EU monetary area optimality determined the monetary union because it fulfills only in part
separation of optimality criteria as follows: the mentioned criteria.
a) Exogenous criteria, that must be A first reason would be that the optimal
fulfilled before forming a monetary union or monetary areas will never fit in the borders
before adhesion to a monetary union: the of a state or of a state union.
degree of economic opening, symmetry of On the other hand, the work markets in
business cycles and shocks, inflation rates, the main European states suffer from
mobility of production factors, production profound rigidity, the labor factor, less
variation and price and salary flexibility; mobile in some states, is even less mobile
b) Endogenous criteria, which are taken as an average for all states.
considered to be fulfilled as an effect of It is estimated that in 1995, in EU the
monetary union achievement or adhesion to migration represented less than 1% from total
such a union: trade integration, shock population amount while in USA 3% of the
symmetry, financial integrity and mobility of population change their residency annually
production factors. (Cerna, 2006). The greater mobility of the
In other words, appears the following labor force in USA can be explained by: lack
question: The states desiring to form a of linguistic and cultural borders, unitary
monetary union, but do not fulfill the criteria system of study degree recognition,
mentioned by the optimal monetary area budgetary federalism, good functioning of
theory, could fulfill these criteria the social and insurance protection systems,
subsequently to monetary area foundation? use of one currency and last, but not least, the

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greater relevance of the statistical data specialization appears in time for its different
concerning this phenomenon. regions. Starting from the fact that in the
However, the labor force migration inside United States the industrial production
EU represents a fact with an underestimated specialization degree is greater than in
real dimension, also due to the lack of a European states, it results that in time in the
unitary reporting and collection system for European Union will appear the same
statistical data concerning this phenomenon. phenomenon, and a greater specializations
In our opinion, on a long term, it does not means a smaller degree of production
contribute to the increase of the optimality variation and as a result, an increased
degree in the EU developed areas and poor vulnerability in front of asymmetrical shocks.
developed areas because the labor force Christian Hen and Jaques Léonard
migrates only in one direction, from poor (2002), referring to the fact that EU weight in
states – as the ones found in transition to the world trade exchange registered a slight
market economy – to developed ones, rebuff beginning in the ’70 because the
leading to appearance of deficits of labor community exports are based less on the high
force in certain areas of the ex-communist technology areas contribution (characterized
states economies. This situation increases the by a high demand) in comparison to USA
gap between the economic operators in the and Japan, and mentions that the high
developed countries that enrich their technology products represent 26% of the
productivity, financial power and consolidate Union exports against 30% for USA and 35%
their position on the market, and those found for Japan. Also, they state that one third of
in the transition economies. the increase registered by the American
The extension towards East of EU made economy in the second half of the ’90 is
the entire Union monetary optimality to based on the IT and communication
decrease as a result of great development technology (IT&C), while this contributed
gaps between old and new members, and with only 15% to GDP increase in EU.
also, because of the different economic Paul Krugman (1993) foresees that the
structures and little correlated business cycles monetary union will determine the member
characterizing the West European and East states to be more specialized in achieving
European states. products for which they register comparative
The analysis of the economic integration advantages, starting from the example of an
effects over business cycles synchronicity led American region, New England, for which he
to two different points of view, known in the observed that the economic integration had as
scientific debates under the name „European effect the increase both in the specialization
Commission point of view”, and „ degree at regional level and also increase of
Krugman’s point of view”, respectively. the risk for severe recession appearance with
Distinct from European Commission that regional character. At the end of 1987, the
in 1990 affirmed that as the integration American state Massachusetts (located in
degree increases, the asymmetrical shocks New England) registered an unemployment
frequency decreases and the business cycles rate of 2.5%, representing less than half of
among the countries become more the national average, but the asymmetrical
synchronized, Paul Krugman declared in 1993 shocks taken place in 1990 determined the
that a closer integration has as result a greater decrease of demand for the products made in
specialization and implicitly an increase of the New England, and this led to local economy
asymmetrical shocks. collapse and to an unemployment rate almost
These points of view were discussed four times higher. Therefore, Krugman
again and reconsidered by other authors. reaches the conclusion that the economy
Paul Krugman and A.J. Venables (1996) integration does not guarantees the economic
question the validity of the optimal monetary structure convergence because leads to
area theory, declaring that in an economic geographical focus of an industry and
and monetary union the tendency towards formation of regional clusters.

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This example confirms in a certain included in the union because the single
measure the thesis of the so called currency accelerates the economic integration
integration paradox, formulated by process. Out of this reason it is estimated that
Krugman. It is true that under condition of the optimal monetary areas theory is
scale economies for which the economic validating itself (Cerna, 2006). Therefore, the
integration opens the way, the increase of adhesion opportunity to a monetary union is
specialization degree seems possible. But, granted a new perspective.
also, the situation to which we refer can be Such reasoning corresponds to an
the result of different performances registered approach of Lucas criticism type, according
in research or teaching areas in the above to which under hypothesis of rational
mentioned states, or only a problem of expectations the initially considered
option. parameters in an econometrical model will
De Grauwe (1997) does not agree with not be maintained. The policy changes
Krugman’s opinion concerning the determine a behavior modification of the
integration effects, justifying that this starts economic agents in order to adapt to a new
from the theory according to which the reality. Consequently the econometrical
industry focus will not exceed the member models cannot be used for foundation of
states borders, but the borders will have little economic policy objectives.
importance in the regional delimitation of the Additionally, the verification of
industrial focus. Consequently, the optimality criteria observation is relatively
asymmetrical shocks will not possess a difficult and not very accurate. For example,
national character, and in this case the if we consider the shock similarity criterion
floating currency rates would not be used for the difficulty consists of establishing the
counterpoising these shocks. Also, among the symmetrical and asymmetrical shocks
Union member states there will be produced causes. These shocks can be induced by
the trade creation phenomenon. modifications registered by demand or
The European Commission point of view supply, can be the result of inefficient or
is supported by J. Frankel and A.K. Rose even abusive national macro-economical
(1998a,b), that declare that a greater policies can possess a temporary or
integration of the trade leads to a closer permanent character.
correlation of the business cycles among the The validity of the endogenous optimality
states. More than that, the authors consider in monetary area theory is considered by
that the business cycles and trade integration H.A. Hallett and L. Piscitelli (2001) to be
are inter-connected processes and uncertain and dependant in a great degree of
endogenous to monetary union foundation. the structural convergence in the starting
Therefore, they demonstrate that the states stage of a monetary union. If it is decided the
that do not fulfill the optimal monetary area transition to a single currency under
criteria before adhesion to the monetary conditions of structural divergence, this
union (ex ante) can fulfill these subsequently divergence will accentuate itself.
to this adhesion (ex post), because inside a This point of view justifies the adhesion
monetary union the trade connections conditioning to UEM according to Maastricht
between member states are intensifying and criteria that imply that the states desiring to
this leads to increase of business cycles join the Euro area to have low and similar
symmetry among the member states. As a inflation rates, close interest rates on long
consequence, the costs for passing to a single term periods, a high degree of financial
currency are considered to be relatively low. convergence and to observe the budgetary
The above mentioned reasoning promotes discipline (fact allowing the inflation rate to
the thesis of endogenous optimality of be maintained to a low level) and a steady
monetary areas, according to which the currency against Euro in the last two years
formation of a monetary union ensures in before adhesion (the possible exceeding of
time the optimality of the monetary areas the fluctuation limit of ±15% shows a high

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volatility of the exchange rate and the fact Third, the regulation according to which
that the state desiring to use Euro does not the floating rates are superior to the steady
have a convergent enough economy with the ones or to a common currency in diminishing
Euro area). the asymmetrical shocks effect is not always
The European Commission point of view valid because is conditioned, in case of free
is in a great extent supported also by capital circulation, by the adopted monetary
empirical studies analyzing the effects of policy, importance granted to financial policy
trade integration over the shocks symmetry in and economy opening degree.
case of the transition states. The UME member states register a high
For example, Ian Babetskii (2004) volume of mutual trade exchanges, and that
reaches the following conclusions: justifies the option made in favor of a
- trade focusing leads to increase of common currency.
symmetry of shocks registered at demand Fourth, because it is founded on internal
level; stability maintenance principle, UME ensures
- the integration effects over the by means of BCE the premises of a healthy
asymmetry of shocks registered by offer are and coherent economic development for the
different from one state to another; Euro states.
- reduction of exchange rate volatility has In this context, Tomasz Koźluk (2003)
a positive effect over convergence of shocks stated: „Assuming that adhesion to a
registered by demand. monetary union should increase credibility
As a result, we can estimate that the (of monetary policy – n.n.), it becomes easier
results obtained as concerns shocks produced to maintain inflation to a low level”.
over demand support the hypothesis of Consequently, the Central European Bank
monetary areas endogenous optimality. must promote a prudent monetary policy in
Also, the results obtained by Ian line of reaching his basic objective: price
Babetskii acknowledge the statement of P. stability. Its mission becomes more difficult
Kenen (2001), stating that the impact of the as the Euro area extends.
trade integration over shock asymmetry We must underline that the adhesion to a
depends on the shock type. monetary union does not entirely solve the
various problems the national economies
CONCLUSIONS confront, as the ones connected to
Against numerous critics UEM can prove unemployment, production or inflation, but
in time its viability by cumulated action of implies toleration of some constraints and
several factors. some costs. On the other hand, on background
First, the common currency benefits (that is of increase of the economic opening degree,
also a universal currency) and its effects applied production variation, the monetary union
towards integration of product, service and adhesion benefits, as concerns liquidity increase
financial markets or increase of the and financial stability, can compensate the
convergence degree are often underestimated or additional adjusting costs necessary for joining
ignored. the union.
Second, the capital mobility allowed by
an integrated financial market (the greatest REFERENCES
worldwide) can replace the labor force Journal articles
mobility facilitating the adaptation process [1] Babetskii, I. (2004): „EU Enlargement and
imposed by modification in supply and Endogeneity of some OCA Criteria: Evidence
from the CEECs”, Working Paper Series, nr. 2,
demand. The monetary union in itself is an
Czech National Bank.
integration factor that will develop at the [3] De Grauwe, P., (1997): The Economics of
same time the mobility of production factors Monetary Integration, Oxford University Press,
and will reduce the probability of Oxford.
asymmetrical shocks. [4] Frankel, J. and Rose, A.K. (1998a): „Is EMU
More Justifiable Ex Post than Ex Ante?”,

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European Economic Review, nr. 41, 1998, pp. [12] Mundell, R. (1961): „A Theory of Optimum
563-570. Currency Areas”, American Economic Review,
[5] Frankel, J. and Rose, A.K. (1998b): vol. 51.
„Endogeneity of the Optimum Currency Criteria”, Books
Economic Journal, nr. 108, 1998, pp. 1009-1025. [2] Cerna, S. (2006): Teoria zonelor monetare
[6] Hallett, H.A. and Piscitelli, L. (2001): „The optime, Editura Universităţii de Vest, Timişoara.
Endogenous Optimal Currency Area Hypothesis: [8] Kenen, P.B. (2001): „Currency Areas, Policy
Will a Single Currency Induce Convergence in Domains, and the Institutionalization of Fixed
Europe?”, Paper Presented at The Royal Economic Exchange Rates”, Centre for Economic
Society Annual Conference, University of Performance.
Durham. [9] Koźluk, T. (2003): CEEC Accession Countries
[7] Hen, C. and Léonard, J. (2002): Uniunea and the EMU. An Assessment of Relative
Europeană. Un memento complet asupra Suitability and Readiness for Euro-Area
integrării europene, ediţia a X-a, Editura CNI Membership, Departmento Economico, Istituto
Coresi SA, Bucureşti. Universitario Europeo, Florenţa.
[11] Krugman, P. and Venables, A.J. (1996): [10] Krugman, P., (1993): „Lessons of
„Integration, Specialization, and the Adjustment”, Massachusetts for EMU”, în Torres Francisco,
European Economic Review, nr. 40, 1996, pp. Francesco Giavazzi (eds.), The Transition to
959-967. Economic and Monetary Union, Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge.

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 52 seria Zootehnie

CHOICES IN INTEREST RATE RISK MANAGEMENT


PROCESS

Cecilia Pop1, Roxana Calistru2


1
Facultatea de Agricultură – U.S.A.M.V. Iaşi
e-mail: cicippp@yahoo.com
2
Facultatea de Economie – Univ. “Petre Andrei” din Iaşi

Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to highlight the presence of interest rate risk at the level of non
financial companies, risk which, although incidental, affects the decision process in its core; and to
offer modern management solutions, in order to support the managers that underlie the investment
financing decisions at the level of these companies. Methodologically, the research has been done
mainly as a quantitative intercession, with estimates and tests of inductive type and appeal to
adequate techniques of analysis and reading off. The results of research reveal the placing of
estimation and interest rate risk management in the decision making problems of non financial
company; the setting-up of interest rate risk management into a suitable algorithm developed on
logical steps; the structured analysis of the derivatives for the interest rate risk management; the
growth of applied component, as an actual way to estimate and test the acquired results. As a result
of the research, we can draw the conclusion that the efficient management of the interest rate risk
depends on the moment in which the tools we use interfere with the risk management decisions and
on the way in which the management strategies answer to each manager’s own decisions.
Key words: management, interest rate, risk, derivatives

INTRODUCTION interest rate, on the success of which they are


The management of interest rate risk is dependent.
part of the broader function of risk
management at the level of a company. Even MATERIAL AND METHOD
the companies outside the banking and Decision making presumes to get
financial sectors become more aware of the through several preliminary stages within the
need to actively manage the risks incumbent interest rate risk management process: from
on them. The risk management and business identifying the risk types that economic agent
management become inseparably. Making faces with, grouping and sorting out the
choice of the most suitable approach of the manageable ones, passing through their
interest rate risk management, the risk analysis and quantification, continuing with
manager must know which are the available the examination that can take different shapes
ways to assess the risks: from sparing or [1] (sparing, acceptance, transfer,
accepting, to diversification or hedging. The diversification, covering etc.) and monitoring
hedging technique’s goal is to neutralize and of examination strategies, to the assessment
remove the risk, as compared to of the results. Thus, the decisions affecting
diversification, which follows rather its the future and on which the efficiency and
reduction. Thus, for non-financial companies, effectiveness of the risk management process
the hedging with derivative tools headed the depend, are the ones adopted in the
previous practice of diversification. examination stage.
Generally, the interest rate risk management The examination of a position exposed
using the techniques of hedging with to the interest rate risk is achieved by
derivatives allows a company to obtain the adopting an opposed and equal position,
estimated revenues from transactions or other either through traditional measures, or
operations influenced by the change in through operations on capital market [4].

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Both categories of operations generate derivative’s market, then the strategy is


additional costs bore by the society in the called hedging [2].
form of an insurance premium against the 2. Determination of the most suitable tool
interest rate risk. to be used in the risk’s examination
Traditionally, a company opted for the In order to control the interest rate risk
revision of contractual regulations on the of a position or portfolio, one must initiate a
claims and debts at maturity, setting one’s position on another tool or tools. The most
sights on the possibilities of early important category of such tools integrates
reimbursement/ redemption of the the derivate financial products or derivatives.
debts/investment or on renegotiate the The first factor in determination of the tool or
interest rate, in the case of an unfavorable tools that should be use in controlling the risk
change of it. When in the company’s balance is the correlation degree between the interest
there is a trade-off for the positions that are rate on which is based the derivative tool and
sensitive to interest rate, one can act to eve up the interest rate that creates the support risk
the claims and debts at the same maturity. that manager intends to cap. In addition, for a
The protection against the interest rate risk position that request liquidity, one doesn’t
can be done through the immunization of want the risk to be controlled by an
each claim and debt at maturity. This instrument with a reduced liquidity or an
assumes each of them to be contracted in instrument whose value is determined solely
terms that make the immunization period and by a counterparty.
its maturity equal. 3. Determination of the position that
Operations on capital market using should be taken in the case of chosen
derivatives that have as support assets tool for risk’s examination
sensitive to interest rate represent the newest Once chosen the risk’s examination
and most dynamic tool for interest rate risk tools and the goals of the strategy, one must
management. determine the position that is to be taken in
The derivatives are complex products and the case of the tool, namely the two
their use assumes knowing in detail their dimensions of the position: the type and the
features, developing and use of proper size. The position’s type refers to the
assessment techniques and mechanisms, and orientation of the operation that is to be
expertise. Moreover, one must keep in mind initiated on the derivate tool: sell (short
that any model, no matter how sophisticated, position) or buy (long position). For instance,
offers only a partial representation of reality if one wants to decrease the exposure to the
and can generate a result only for the interest rate risk of a long position in
environment he recovers. The decisions belong governmental bonds using futures contracts
at each level to the people, the expertise being that have governmental bonds as support,
an important element in this equation. then the most appropriate step is to initiate a
The implementation of any interest rate short position on that futures contract. The
risk examination strategy using derivatives second dimension is the size of position
implies several preliminary steps to be taken initiated on the examination tool of the
by the risk manager: selected risk. For instance, when futures
1. Determining the objectives of the strategy contracts or bonds are used, the size of the
The tools for risk measurement provide position is represented by the number of
the information concerning the potential loss contracts. The position’s value depends on
of a position. Having this information, the the volatility of the price of position whose
manager can determine what is expected risk is to be controlled.
from the strategy of risk examination. If the 4. The assessment of the potential result of
goal intended through the strategy consists of the risk examination strategy
the compensation of the effect of an adverse After choosing the position on the tool or
change in the price of basic asset or liability tools for risk examination, the next step is the
through the result of the position on the determination of the potential result of the

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strategy. Most of the times this step asks for reference asset has a price variation very
the determination of the strategy’s result for close to the price variation of the held bond.
different scenarios that take into account Thus, he chooses to sell futures contracts for
different levels of the future interest rate. The treasury bonds, with maturity in September
analyzed scenarios can be compared later to this year, in order to cap the selling of
the goals set for the risk examination strategy. corporate bonds. In this situation, one can
One can notice, for instance, that in the case of talk about a cross-hedge, because the
some scenarios the goals can be met, while for reference asset of the chosen contract is not
others, the results of risk examination strategy the same to the asset whose interest rate risk
can be below the results of the situation when is capped.
anything would be done. The information given by the stock
exchange at the date of hedging strategy’s
In order to analyze the way in which the initiation are the following: the corporate
interest rate risk management strategies using bond is traded at a 12.4% yield; the futures
derivatives respond to the goals set by the price of the contract on treasury bonds,
risk manager, we opted for three strategies: maturity in September is 70, the nominal
hedging with futures contracts, buying PUT value is 10,000,000 units and the conversion
options and selling CALL options applied to factor for the deliverable bond is 0.9660; the
the same spot position exposed to the interest deliverable bond, coupon of 7.625%,
rate risk. maturity in 2029 is “the cheapest at the
Hedging with futures contracts means delivery” of futures contract on treasury
to initiate a futures position, as a temporary bonds, in September this year and is traded at
substitute for a transaction that will take an yield of 11.50%.
place in the future on the cash market. If Because the conversion factor is 0.9660,
prices on demand and futures change in the the target price of hedging strategy is 70 *
same time, then any loss made by hedger at 0.9660 = 67.62 and the expected yield is
any position, either cash or futures, will be 11.789% (yield at a price of 67.62). The
compensated by the profit made at the other expected yield for the held corporate bond is
position. Hedging is a special case of 11.789% + 0.90% = 12.689%, corresponding
examination of the interest rate risk. The risk to a selling price effectively blocked at
manager follows a duration equal to zero. [3] 92.628.
The most frequently met case is the one At these target levels, the value of
in which the asset held spot, whose risk must absolute period, at a change by 50 basic
be hedge, is not identical with the asset points of the interest rate is of 2.8166% for
supporting the futures contract. This type of the deliverable bond and 3.6282% for the
hedging is known as cross-hedge. In the corporate bond. As a result, at a nominal
analysis, one wants to hedge in July this year value of 10,000,000 units of the bond whose
the interest rate risk pertaining to a portfolio risk must be capped, the absolute period is
of corporate bonds on long term (coupon 3.6282% * 10,000,000 units = 362,820 units;
11.75%, maturity in 2029, nominal value of and at a nominal value of 100,000 units of
10,000,000 units) that the company intends to the deliverable bonds, the absolute period is
sell at the end of September, in order to make 2.8166% * 100,000 units = 2816.6 units.
available funds necessary for a new project. The number of futures contracts
The risk manager must cover himself against (hedging rate) = 0.9660 * (-362,820 /
the risk of interest rate increase till the end of 2816.6)=-124 contracts
September, fact that would lead to the One must sell 124 futures contracts on
decrease of the bonds’ selling price. As the treasury bonds in order to cap the interest rate
derivate tools having as support the corporate risk generated by the spot position held on
bond held as spot can’t be found on the corporate bonds, succeeding thus to block a
market, the risk manager goes toward a selling price of 92.628.
largely traded type of contract, whose

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

In order to test the strategy, one can future interest rate, during July – September,
determine the result for different scenarios reflected in the price of corporate bond in the
that take into account different levels of the last day of maturity month:

Table 1
The target rate in a strategy of cross-hedge with futures contracts on treasury bonds
Value of Yield of Yield of Price of Total
Futures Fin. result
corp. bond corp.bond at deliverable deliverable financial
price** for 124FC
at selling selling % bond * bond result
7 600 000 15,468 14,568 54,590 56,511 1 672 636 9 272 636
8 000 000 14,696 13,769 57,741 59,773 1 268 148 9 268 148
8 400 000 13,996 13,096 60,887 63,030 864 280 9 264 280
8 800 000 13,359 12,459 64,018 66,271 462 396 9 262 396
9 200 000 12,776 11,876 67,134 69,497 62 372 9 262 372
9 600 000 12,240 11,340 70,233 72,705 - 335 420 9 264 580
10 000 000 11,745 10,845 73,312 75,892 - 730 608 9 269 392
10 400 000 11,287 10,387 76,364 79,052 -1122448 9 277 552
10 800 000 10,861 9,961 79,394 82,188 -1511312 9 288 688
11 200 000 10,463 9,563 82,403 85,303 -1897572 9 302 428
* The yield of deliverable bond is kept at a distance of 90 basic points against the corporate bond’s yield, i.e. they
evolve in parallel (the difference between the two yields is constant in time, respective 12.40% - 11.5% = 0.90%).
**Through convergence, the futures price equals the price of the deliverable bond divided by the conversion factor
0.9660

By adding in the last column the results management. First of all, the risk manager
from the two markets, spot and futures, one must determine the minimum selling price
obtains values very close to 9,262,800 units, that he accepts for the bonds that are to be
meaning a price of 92.628 for the sold corporate capped. Comparing the price the strategy
bonds, identical to the price that the manager with futures contracts can block, we assume
blocked as target price of the strategy. that the risk manager considers a minimum
In the second strategy, the risk manager acceptable a price of the bond of 87.668 that
uses options on futures contracts, instead of corresponds to a futures price of 66.
futures contracts, in order to protect himself In the next Table there are integrated
against the rise in interest rate. The strategy the strategy’s results for a wide range of
he must use in this case is the buying of PUT possible values of the interest rate, reflected
options or long PUT [5]. A first step consists in the price of corporate bond in the last day
of selecting the strike price for the chosen of the maturity month:
option as tool of interest rate risk
Table 2
Strategy of hedging with PUT options on futures contracts on treasury bonds

Value of corp. Yield of corp. Futures Value for Premium for Total financial
bond at selling bond at selling % price* 124 PUT** 124 PUT result
7 600 000 15,468 56,511 1 176 636 46 500 8 730 136
8 000 000 14,696 59,773 772 148 46 500 8 725 648
8 400 000 13,996 63,030 368 280 46 500 8 721 780
8 800 000 13,359 66,271 0 46 500 8 753 500
9 200 000 12,776 69,497 0 46 500 9 153 500
9 600 000 12,240 72,705 0 46 500 9 553 500
10 000 000 11,745 75,892 0 46 500 9 953 500
10 400 000 11,287 79,052 0 46 500 10 353 500
10 800 000 10,861 82,188 0 46 500 10 753 500
11 200 000 10,463 85,303 0 46 500 11 153 500
*is determined identically as in Table 1
** Value for 124 PUT = 124 * 100,000 units * 1% * max [(66 – futures price), 0]

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The total financial result that allows the units nominal value (0.465), respectively
determination of the actual selling price of below 87.203. This minimum actual price can
the capped bonds is computed in the last be calculated by the risk manager before the
column. It is composed of the result obtained hedging strategy to be initiated.
on spot market, from the selling of the bonds The degree in which the strategy of
at the current market price and the result selling CALL options responds to the needs
obtained from the exercise of the PUT option of covering the interest rate risk [5], in the
at maturity, revised with the premium paid case of the same portfolio of corporate bonds,
for options. The financial result of the is pursued in Table 3. The strategy starts
transaction on the PUT options market is from a price of future contracts on treasury
equal to the value of option minus the cost of bonds of 71-24 at the date of hedging
the option, being about a buying. The value initiation, case in which the selling of CALL
of the PUT option in the moment of exercise options on future contracts is good to be done
is the price of exercise minus the futures at the price of exercise of 78, receiving in
price of the support contract, everything exchange a premium of 24 points. The
multiplied by the nominal value of the number of contracts of sold options will be
support asset (1000 units). If the difference is the same, 124, for a nominal value of
negative, the buyer gives up the option, case 10,000,000 units of the corporate bonds spot
in which its value is equal to zero. Following held. For the same range of possible prices of
the last column in the table, one can notice the bond at the option’s maturity, based on
that the actual selling price of the capped the way the interest rate fluctuates, the
bonds never decreases below the minimum obtained results are integrated in the
acceptable price set by the risk manager following table:
(87.668) minus the options premium at 100

Table 3
Strategy of hedging with CALL options on futures contracts on treasury bonds
The amount Total
Value of corp. Yield of corp. Futures The premium
due for 124 financial
bond at selling bond at selling % price* for 124 CALL
CALL** result
7 600 000 15,468 56,511 0 46 500 7 646 500
8 000 000 14,696 59,773 0 46 500 8 046 500
8 400 000 13,996 63,030 0 46 500 8 446 500
8 800 000 13,359 66,271 0 46 500 8 846 500
9 200 000 12,776 69,497 0 46 500 9 246 500
9 600 000 12,240 72,705 0 46 500 9 646 500
10 000 000 11,745 75,892 0 46 500 10 046 500
10 400 000 11,287 79,052 - 130 448 46 500 10 316 052
10 800 000 10,861 82,188 - 519 312 46 500 10 327 188
11 200 000 10,463 85,303 - 905 572 46 500 10 340 928
*is determined identically as in Table 1
**The amount due in the sold CALL contract computed as 124 * 100 000 USD * max [(futures price - 78), 0]

The selling actual maximum price in the dissolution of the futures contract underlying
case of CALL capping strategy can be the option, 75.348 respectively. This price
computed before launching the strategy. It is corresponds to a yield of 10.536% for the
equal to the price of the capped bond deliverable bond. The equivalent yield for the
corresponding to the price of exercise of the corporate bond is 90 basic points higher or
sold option, plus the received premium. In the 11.436%, corresponding to a price of 102.666.
given example, the price of exercise of sold Adding the received premium of 0.465 basic
CALL option is 78. Multiplying the price of points, one obtains the price of 103.410. This
exercise by the conversion factor 0.966 we get price is the maximum possible for the actual
the price of the cheapest bond at the price of selling the bond to be hedged.

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS derivatives offered by stock market,


Comparing the alternate strategies regulated, respond to the goals of each risk
we’ve proposed for hedging the interest rate manager. The results of the three proposed
risk faced by the investor that possesses a strategies: hedging with futures contracts,
corporate bond portfolio, we can draw a hedging with PUT options and hedging by
conclusion on the way in which the strategies selling CALL options are integrated in the
for interest rate risk management with following graph:

Figure 1 – Comparison between the results of the alternate strategies of capping the interest rate risk
by derivate financial products
115,00
o piaţă în creştere
110,00
(scădere a ratei dobânzii):
obligatiunilor corporatiste

105,00 pozitia neacoperita


Pret de vanzare al

100,00
nu are nici un punct de
95,00
vedere: short futures
90,00

85,00
o piaţă în scădere sigură
80,00 (creştere a ratei dobânzii):
75,00 long PUT
70,00
o piaţă staţionară cu o
uşoară scădere: short
68

96

96

59

03

45

61

63
,4

,6

,9

,3

,5

,7

,8

,4

CALL
15

14

13

13

12

11

10

10

Rata dobanzii %

- If the manager anticipates a market in - If, in exchange, he anticipates a


sure decrease for the support asset (increase stationary market with a slight decrease, then
of interest rate) or basically “bearish”, buying is better to cash the premium into a strategy of
a PUT option and paying the premium is the selling the CALL. This strategy doesn’t limit
right strategy. Buying the PUT option offers the level of potential losses at an unfavorable
the possibility to obtain an unlimited gain at a evolution of interest rate, reason for which
decrease of support asset’s price (an increase many managers do not consider it a strategy of
of interest rate), that compensates the loss on covering the risks. However, the potential
the spot market. If the evolution is not as losses are smaller than the ones generated by
expected (the interest rate decreases), but the unfavorable movement of the interest rate
favorable to the cash position because it on the unhedged cash position. The difference
assimilates to the growth of the prices of titles comes from the premium cashed from the
in portfolio, the gain on spot market is buyer through the sale of the CALL option.
adjusted with the premium paid for the PUT’s The premium acts as a buffer for the
procurement. The hedging with PUT option downward movement of the prices, reducing
allows to the investor to make profit from the the losses when the rate increases. The cost of
growth of prices (the interest rate decrease), this buffer is that the manager gives up the
offering the necessary protection against their potential gains generated by a reduction of the
decrease (increase of interest rate) as well. The interest rate, because his revenues have a
PUT protection strategy ensures the selling ceiling in this strategy. The selling actual
minimum actual price of the bonds in portfolio maximum price in the case of CALL hedging
(87.203 in the given example) before the strategy can be computed before the launching
initialization of the strategy, as being the of the strategy and it is equal to the price of the
minimum acceptable price set by the risk capped bond corresponding to the price of
manager minus the premium. exercise of the sold option, plus the cashed
premium (103.410 in our example).

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- If he has no point of view regarding the perspective on the market, based on which he
future evolution of interest rate, but he wants will act on the parallel derivative market.
to cap the risk at all costs, then he will have to The derivatives are complex products
access the futures market. The futures and their use assumes knowing in detail their
strategy allows him to block the selling price features, the development and use of several
of the support asset (92.628 in our example), proper techniques and mechanisms for
no matter the interest rate evolution. One assessment, and expertise. In addition, one
avoids thus the potential losses, but does not must keep in mind that any model, no matter
allow to the operator to benefit from the how sophisticated, offers only a partial
favorable evolution of the interest rate: the representation of reality, and the model can
gain from the cash market will be annihilated generate a result only for the environment he
by the loss on the futures market. recovers. The decisions belong to people at
- There is yet the situation in which the each level, the expertise being an important
prevision of the interest rate evolution element in this equation.
indicates a growing market for the held
asset or “bullish”, case in which initiating no REFERENCES
hedging position is the best strategy. Books:
[1] Bodie, Z.; Merton, R.: Finance, Prentice Hall,
CONCLUSIONS Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 2000, p.200-210
One cannot say that one or another [2] Corduneanu, C.: Instrumente, mecanisme şi
strategii de administrare a riscurilor ratei dobânzii,
interest rate risk hedging strategy using
Editura Mirton, Timişoara, 2005, p.
derivatives is „the best” or „the most correct” [3] Fabozzi, J.F.: Bond markets, Analysis and
one. Each strategy has its advantages and Strategies, 5th edition, Pearson Education
disadvantages. In order to choose one of them, International, Prentice Hall, 2004, p.9-35
one must analyze them and compare them to [4] Stancu, I.: Finanţe, Editura Economica,
the goals of each risk manager. The best Bucureşti, 1997, p.676-681
strategy and the best strike price depend upon [5] Stephens J.J.: Managing Interest Rate Risk
the point of view of the manager regarding the using Financial Derivatives, The Institute of
market evolution. The manager responsible Internal Auditors UK and Ireland, John Wiley &
Sons LTD, England, 2002, p.63-91; p.107-137
with the selection of strategy has his own

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BACK
Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

ESTIMATION OF INTEREST RATE RISK ATTENDING


THE BONDS LOAN

Roxana Calistru1, Cecilia Pop2


1
Facultatea de Economie – Univ. “Petre Andrei” din Iaşi
e-mail: oxdav@gmail.com
2
Facultatea de Agricultură – U.S.A.M.V. Iaşi

Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze the techniques and methods to estimate the
interest rate risk attending a bonds loan, in order to be able to offer a useful and efficient tool for
underlying and improve the investment financing decisions. Methodologically, the research has
recourse to adequate methods of assessment of financial flows: the binomial method, the decision
tree, the Monte Carlo simulation and the specific parameters for updating the cash flow, as well as
the statistical measurement of output’s volatility through the chronological series method. The
research relieves placing the interest rate risk’s estimation in decision process of the companies;
systematization and clarification of ways to estimate the interest rate risk in relation with the
strategy of the company and the investment programs’ financing source; the conveyance and
estimation of bond’s price volatility as a fundamental of the interest rate risk; quantification of
sensitivity of held position to interest rate change. The success in interest rate risk management
can’t be achieved unless a good quantification is made, allowing afterwards diminishing the risk
exposure to admissible level.
Key words: interest rate, risk, bond, valuation, duration

INTRODUCTION Interest rate risk assessment that follows


The ideal of every manager is to find bond loan is an essential phase in the ample
some interest rate model that explains, but interest rate risk management process,
especially forecasts, the behavior of interest retraced in order to achieve the optimization
rates. Alas, none presently do so [2]. That is of investments fund decisions.
not to say that interest rate behavior cannot
be explained. Various economical, financial, MATERIAL AND METHOD
political or social factors explain some of the The comprehension and the knowledge of
behavior of interest rates over history. interest rate risk management start up with the
Interest rates can be seen to fluctuate from wise attitude on the wide nature of this risk.
day to day, intra-day or longer period, due to Interest rate risk could be identify with the
the changes in monetary politics. possibility that the holder of a debenture
The implications are clear. Corporations and/or debt, a present or a future one, with
with debts can rely only on uncertainty as far fixed or flexible interest rate, to record a loss
as their cost of funds and payment aschedule due to the future changes in the market interest
(cash flows) are concerned. Investors with rate (decrease, increase or changing in interest
portfolios of bonds will also have to manage rate structure outwards or at term) [5].
the constant volatility in interest rates, in For the bond loans drawn up with fixed
order to protect the value of their interest rate, the decrease of market interest
investments. Either issuer or underwriter, rate involves an increase of the update value
seller or buyer, portfolio owner or manager, of debts. The increase of the market value of
the holder of a bond position is eager for debts leads to the decrease of the common
controlling interest rate risk, impossible to be stock value, calculated as difference between
done without passing through risk assets and liabilities. The effect is similar for
quantification phase. debts drawn up with variable interest rate as

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the matching is done quarterly, half/yearly or financial asset in this way, a consistent
yearly, and the loss could be marked inside valuation framework can be developed.
the period. The starting point for the determination
As underwriter for bond loans with fixed of the appropriate rate is the theoretical spot
interest rate, the company will bear an rate on default-free securities. Since
opportunity loss when the market interest rate Treasury securities are viewed as default-free
grows up. The company will collect much securities, the theoretical spot rates on these
less from financial incomes then the credit securities are the benchmark rates. They
market could offer in present. The decrease could be obtain from the Treasury Yield
of market value for these assets leads to the Curve, that is the graphical depiction of the
same loss of the common stock value, as relationship between the yield on zero-
result of the ineffective management of coupon Treasury securities of different
interest rate. The effects are the same for the maturities, typically constructed from the on-
investments done with variable interest rates. the-run Treasury issues. For a non-Treasury
The key to measuring the potential loss bond, the theoretical value must reflect not
of a position is how good the estimate is of only the spot rate for default-free bonds, but
the value of the position after an adverse rate also a risk premium to reflect default risk and
change. The fundamental relationship for the any options embedded in the issue. There is
loss of a position result from the adverse no reason to expect the credit spread to be the
change in interest rate is: potential loss of a same regardless of when the cash flow is
position = value of position after adverse expected to be received, that involve the
rate change – current market value of necessity to build up a term structure for
position. [4] credit spreads.
A bond valuation model is used to
determine the value of a position. For any For a correct estimation of cash flows
bond in which neither the issuer nor the for bonds with embedded options, is
investor can alter the repayment of the necessary to induct in analysis the possibility
principal before its contractual date, the that interest rates will change in future and
valuation process is easier. The fundamental the way these changes will affect the issuer
principle of valuation is that the value of a of the bond or the bondholder decision to
financial asset is the present value of the exercise an option. This is done in valuation
expected cash flow [1]. Cash flow in the case methodologies by introducing a parameter
of a bond derives from interest income or that reflects the interest rate volatility. There
repayment of principal. Once the cash flow are two main approaches to the valuation of
for a bond is estimated, the next step is to bonds with embedded options: the binomial
determine the appropriate interest rate to use method and the Monte Carlo simulation
to discount the cash flow. The traditional method. [4]
practice in valuation has been to discount The binomial method is a technique for
every cash flow of a bond by the same valuing callable and putable bonds. Once we
interest rate (discount rate). The fundamental allow for embedded options, consideration
flaw of the traditional approach is that it must be given to interest rate volatility. This
views each security as the same package of can be done by introducing a binomial
cash flows. The proper way to view a bond is interest rate tree [2]. This tree is nothing
as a package of zero-coupon instruments. more than a graphical depiction of the
The reason that this is the proper way is interest rates over time based on some
because it does not allow a market participant assumption about interest rate volatility. How
to realize an arbitrage profit. By viewing any this tree is constructed is illustrated below:

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

Figure 1 – Binomial interest rate tree


σ
r4e8
NHHHH

r3e
NHHH
σ σ
r2e4 r4e6
NHH NHHHL
2σ 4σ
r1e r3e
NH NHHL
σ σ
r0 r2e2 r4e4
N NHL NHHLL
r1 2σ
r3e
NL NHLL
σ
r2 r4e2
NLL NHLLL

r3
NLLL
r4
NLLLL
Azi 1 an 2 ani 3 ani 4 ani

The point denoted by N is the root of the Each node represents a time period that
tree and correspond to the current one year is equal to one year from the node to its left.
spot rate, noted by r0. What we have assumed Each node is labeled with N, representing
in creating this tree is that the one year rate node, and a subscript that indicates the path
can take on two possible values the next that one year interest rate took to get to that
period and the two rates have the same node and is calculated using the same
probability of occurring. One rate will be lognormal random walk describe earlier. L
higher than the other. It is assumed that the represents the lower of the two one-year rates
one year rate can evolve over time based on a and H represents the higher.
random process called a lognormal random To find the value of the bond at a node,
walk with a certain volatility. we first calculate the bond’s value at the two
We use the following notation to nodes to the right of the node we are interest
describe the tree in the first year: in using the following notations: VH = bond’s
value for the higher one-year rate; VL =
σ = assumed volatility of the one year rate; bond’s value for the lower one-year rate; C =
r1,L = lower one year rate one year from now; coupon payment.
r1,H = higher one year rate one year from
now. 1 VH + C VL + C 
The relationship between r1,L and r1,H is Bond `s value at a node =  + 
2  (1 + rx ) (1 + rx ) 
as follows:
r1,H = r1,L (e2σ), where e is the base of the The volatility assumption has an
important impact on the theoretical value.
natural logarithm 2.71828, so r1,H is replaced More specifically, the higher the expected
by r1,L (e2σ) in the tree. volatility (σ), the higher the value of a bond.

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The second method for valuing bonds in interest rate is needed [4]. The choice and
with embedded options is Monte Carlo implementation of the most suitable trading
simulation [1]. The method involves strategy or hedging is determined by finding
simulating a sufficiently large number of a mean to measure the volatility of a bond’s
potential interest rate paths in order to assess price. The most frequently used indicators
the value of a security along these different measuring the degree of exposure of these
paths. This method is most flexible of the financial tools to the change of yield and,
two valuation methodologies for valuing thus, of interest rate are the following: value
interest rate sensitive instruments where the of a „basic point”; yield variation at the price
history of interest rate is important. change; duration and convexity.
Mortgage-backed securities are commonly
valued using this method, but it is use by 1. Value of a „basic point”
some dealers to value callable and putable The value of a „basic point” [3]
bonds too. The simulating works by represents the absolute (not relative) change of
generating a set of cash flows based on future a bond’s price when the yield changes by 1
simulated refinancing rates, that involves basic point (by 0.01%). The price of a „basic
simulating of anticipated payment rates. point” is the same at the growth by 0.01% of
the yield and at the drop by 0.01% of it. For
For an effective control of exposure to six bonds taken into account, the price of a
the interest rate risk, the quantification of the basic point can be determined as follows:
sensitivity of the held position to the changes

Table 1
The value of a basic point
Initial price at 8% Price at Price of a basic
Bond
yield 8.01% yield point
Coupon 8%, 5 years maturity 100,0000 99,9595 0,0405
Coupon 8%, 20 years maturity 100,0000 99,9019 0,0981
Coupon 5%, 5 years maturity 87,8337 87,7961 0,0376
Coupon 5%, 20 years maturity 70,3108 70,2340 0,0768
Zero-coupon, 5 years maturity 67,5564 67,5239 0,0325
Zero-coupon, 20 years maturity 20,8289 20,7889 0,0400

The indicator can’t serve, though, for the In USA, the corporate and municipal
calculation of the absolute change of the bonds are traded in eighths of percentage
price when the yield changes by a larger points of the nominal value, i.e. changes
number of basic points (100, for instance). smaller than 1/8 * 1% * 100 USD nominal
value = 0.125 USD are not accepted. As a
2. Yield variation at the price change consequence, the investors want to know
This indicator assumes the calculation of what yield variation draws in the price’s
the yield until the maturity if the bond’s price change by 0.125 USD, or which is „the yield
decreases by X units. The difference between of an eighth”. The yield variation at a
the initial yield and the one obtained in that decrease by an eighth of the price of two
way represents the yield’s variation at a hypothetical bonds is the following:
change by X units of the bond’s price.

Table 2
Example setting the yield variation at the drop by an eighth of the bond’s price

Initial yield Initial price minus The new Yield


Bond Initial price
(%) an eighth yield variation
7%/20 5,000 125,10 124,975 5,00872 0,00872
7%-5 5,000 108,75 108,625 5,02760 0,0276

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3. Duration bond is determined using these methods, the


The most relevant way for measuring the result obtained for the life takes into account
sensitivity of a bond’s price to the changes in both the updating with many interest rates,
the interest rate is the one setting how the and the eventually changes of the cash flows.
price will change, as percentage from the If the life is computed as such, is called
actual price, if the interest rate changes by a effective duration or option-adjusted
smaller number of basic points. duration.
Duration can be defined as the The difference between modified
approximate percentage change of the bond’s duration and effective duration for bonds
price at the parallel move of the yield’s curve with included options can be, sometimes,
by 100 basic points. For instance, a bond very large. So that, for the bonds with
with a life of 5 will change its price by included options, one considers that the
approx. 5% at the parallel move of the yield’s actual life is the best measure of the
curve by 100 basic points. At the parallel sensitivity of price to the parallel movements
move by 50 basic points of the yield’s curve, of the yield curve.
the bond’s price will change by about 2.5%. Starting from the theoretical form of the
A manager that anticipates a drop of the price of a bond:
interest rate will extend (increase) the
portfolio’s duration. Assuming that the
manager increases the portfolio’s life from 4 C C C M
P= + +...+ +
to 6, it means that at a decrease of the interest 1+ y (1+ y)2
(1+ y) (1+ y)n
n
rate by 100 basic points, the portfolio’s value
will increase by another 2%, as compared to where:
the case in which the duration would have P = bond’s price;
remain unchanged. C = semi-annual coupon (in units);
The form preferred by practitioners is y = half of the yield until maturity or the
modified duration, meaning by that the requested yield;
approximate percentage change of the bond’s n = number of semesters (number of years
price at the parallel move of the yield’s curve until maturity * 2);
by 100 basic points, assuming that the cash M = principal reimbursed at maturity.
flows of the bond do not change when the One can determine the approximate
curve moves. The change of the bond’s price change of the price in the case of small
when the curve is moved by a smaller changes of yield [3], computing the 1st degree
number of basic points is due only to the derivative of the previous equation in terms
update by the new level of the yield. of the yield. That allows us to identify the
The assumption that the cash flows will computing formula for the Macauly duration
not change when the yield curve is moving is indicator:
valid only when one talks about bonds
n
without included options, such as, for tC nM
instance, the Treasury bonds, because the ∑ (1 + y ) + (1 + y )
t =1
t n

payments made by the state to the bond Macaulay duration =


P
holders do not change when the yield curve is
changed. One cannot say the same neither in and the relation between this and the
the case of bought back and paid back bonds, modified duration:
nor in the case of mortgage bonds. For this
type of bonds, a yield change will draw up an Macaulay duration
alteration of the expected cash flows. Modified duration =
The assessment methods previously 1+ y
described take into account the effects
produced by the movement of the yield curve There is presented in Table 3 an
on the cash flows. Thus, if the value of the example for the calculation of the two

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indicators: Macauly duration and modified coupon 5% and 8% yield until maturity.
duration for a bond with 5 years maturity,

Table 3
The calculation of Macauly duration and modified duration for the 5%/5 bond, 8% yield until maturity
1 3
CF for 100 units 2 3 PVCF pondered with
Period (t) PV for 1 unit PVCF
par value maturity
t
a b c=1/(1+0.04) d=b*c e=a*d
1 2,5 0,96153846 2,4038462 2,4038462
2 2,5 0,92455621 2,3113905 4,6227811
3 2,5 0,88899636 2,2224909 6,6674727
4 2,5 0,85480419 2,1370105 8,5480419
5 2,5 0,82192711 2,0548178 10,2740888
6 2,5 0,79031453 1,9757863 11,8547179
7 2,5 0,75991781 1,8997945 13,2985617
8 2,5 0,73069021 1,8267255 14,6138041
9 2,5 0,70258674 1,7564668 15,8082016
10 102,5 0,67556417 69,2453273 692,4532730
87,8336563 780,5447890
1
CF = cash flow; 2PV = present value; 3PVCF = present value of cash flow.

Macauly duration (in halves of years) = 780.544789 / 87.8336563 = 8.89


Annualized Macauly duration = 8.89 / 2 = 4.45
Annualized modified duration = 4.45 / 1.04 = 4.27
The properties of these two indicators can be seen computing the indicators in a similar
way as in the previous example, for the six considered hypothetical bonds:

Table 4
Macauly life and changed life for the six hypothetical bonds
Bond Macauly duration Modified duration
8% / 5 4,22 4,06
8% / 20 10,29 9,90
5% / 5 4,45 4,27
5% / 20 11,37 10,93
0% / 5 5 4,81
0% / 20 20 19,23

One can notice that the values obtained - Generally, the smaller the coupon, other
for the two indicators are, for all the six factors being constant, the longer the
bonds, smaller than the maturity. The only modified duration;
case in which the Macauly duration is equal - The lower the level of yield to maturity,
to maturity is the one of the bond with zero other factors being constant, the longer
coupon, and that can be seen from the the modified duration.
formula. The modified duration is, though,
smaller than maturity in the case of zero 4. Convexity
coupon bond as well. The 2nd degree derivative of the price
The properties of the modified duration, function is called the measure of the absolute
noticed in the proposed example, are the convexity and serves for the correction of the
following: approximation of price-yield relation:
- The longer the maturity, other factors d 2P
being constant, the longer the modified the measureof the absolute convexity =
dy 2
duration;

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

And in the case of convexity we can talk rate risk pertaining a bond position must take
about changed convexity (doesn’t take into into consideration the expected volatility of
account the potential changes in the cash the yield. The larger the yield’s expected
flows that can occur when the yield is volatility, the larger the interest rate risk for a
changed) and actual convexity (admits that in position with the given life and current value.
the cash flows changes can occur by The measurement of the yield’s volatility is
changing the yield). For the bonds with made using statistical methods and
included options or for the mortgage ones, indicators. The modern theories of portfolio
significant differences between the two types management, developed by M. Markovitz
of convexity can occur. and J. Tobin, introduced the concepts of
standard deviation and variance, through
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS which one measure how much can an event
The properties of the duration are similar deviate from the average, the element’s
to those of the bond’s price volatility, so that volatility respectively. The variance is one of
the link between the modified duration and the possibilities to quantify the risk.
price’s volatility is direct: the longer the
modified duration, the higher the bond’s CONCLUSIONS
price volatility, making a good measure of Once measured the interest rate risk for
the interest rate risk for small changes of the a bond position or for a bonds portfolio, the
yield. next step in risk management is the
The drawback is that, no matter an diminishment of exposure to the risk up to an
upward or downward movement of the yield acceptable level. This phase is called risk
curve, the duration approximates the same control.
percentage change of the price, which is not
always true. At small changes of the yield, REFERENCES
the percentage change of the price is the Books:
same, whether the yield increases or [1] Anghelache, G.: Piaţa de capital: caracteristici,
decreases, while at large changes of it, that is evoluţii, tranzacţii, Editura Economică, Bucureşti,
not so. 2004
Duration offers, in fact, a first [2] Cooke, S.; Slack, N.: Making Management
Decisions, Second Edition, Prentice Hall Int (UK)
approximation for small parallel movements
LTD, 1991, p.177-191
of the yield curve. The approximation can be [3] Corduneanu, C.: Instrumente, mecanisme şi
improved, continuing the process on the strategii de administrare a riscurilor ratei dobânzii,
second level. The convexity is the additional Editura Mirton, Timişoara, 2005, p.200-210
measuring tool of the bond’s price change [4] Fabozzi, J.F.: Bond markets, Analysis and
that supplements the approximation offered Strategies, 5th edition, Pearson Education
by duration. International, Prentice Hall, 2004, p.59-63
Duration and convexity give us the [5] Stancu, I.: Finanţe, Editura Economica,
amplitude of the price’s volatility at yield’s Bucureşti, 1997, p.676-681
changes. The measurement of the interest

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 52 seria Zootehnie

REFLECTIONS ABOUT THE ROLE OF CIVIL SOCIETY


IN THE RURAL DEVELOPMENT

C. Bulgariu

Universitatea "P. Andrei" din Iaşi


e-mail: bulgariuc@xnet.ro

Abstract
Especially after the integration of Romania in the European Union the possibilities of recuperation
of the fallbacks of our rural areas in the process of a durable development have been diversified. The
primary actors involved in creating and funding the programmes are the people which put into action
the programme and the local authorities. Along side them we consider that the civil society must be a
catalyst for the programmes and help the local community absorb the funds given to it and help it
multiply the results. The involvement of the civil society in the formation of certain conducts , in
promoting the universal values , in harnessing the local resources , in talking and helping each
individual ,etc. are just some suggestions to go on. The projects which aimed to help the rural areas by
encouraging initiative and raise the awareness of local resources have reduced results because of the
Romanian peasant’s feeling that everything he already has is enough and his is satisfied with himself.
The role of civil society should be to help the people understand that the must not settle for a little and
that they should work so that they can help themselves and they’re community. The conclusions of this
study, based on the projects build on European funding in the North-Eastern region concerning the
development of peoples awareness of they’re own resources in the rural areas, are that certain
financial solutions must be found and that certain procedures are needed so that the civil society can
take part in the long term development of these areas. The civil society could represent a link between
the local communities and the economical experts.
Key words: civil society, public authorities, juridical persons, rural development, conduct

INTRODUCTION The role of comercial societies is a


The fact analysis that contribue to the primordial economical one (of offering
rural progress showed that the public incomes to the employees but also to the
authorities and the economical local authorities through taxes and imposits),
representatives play an important part in the but to this one it should be added a
growing wellfair of the local comunity. technological one (the obligation of inducing
The role of the administrative teritorial the technical progress,mostly in what regards
units is represented by : the ensurance of a the environment protection) and a social role
complex infrastructure ( the utility ensurance, for the creation of a healthy social
the culturale and educational spaces environment.
ensurance, the ensurance of a better transport The question we have always asked
network etc.)[1];the maintenance of great ourselves is if those two actors are enough
conditions destinated to the drawing in of (the state and the economical companies ) for
investors by the offering of emplacements, the ensurance of a right rythm for the rural
imposit deductions etc.;the continuous devellopment? Are there any other factors
information given to the colectivities that should be involved? The answer is surley
members of the existing develloping afirmative and it regards the civil society.
opportunities; the drawing in of new
financing sources through different projects METHOD AND MATERIAL
and programs of rural develloping in every This examination used the statistical data
existing activity domain. offered by the firms that have implemented

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

the projects[4] regarding the entrepreneuring The civil society is, in our opinion, an
develloping in the rural medium generalizing engine of the rural development which is not
their conclusions.Even more, there were used used to it’s potential .This opinion is
informations that came from the city halls of sustained by the role the civil society has:
the townships,especially from the -it promotes universal values
develloping Region from North-East. -it help use the financel,turist and other
resources
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS -it help with the human resources of the
Althought in these past five years there community
have been many programs of entrepreneuring -consults and advises anyone who wants to
education ,especially in the rural build a busyness or expend one.
environment,the results are not very -the creation of certain work procedures
decisive.The number of the new opened through with experience can be exchanged
firms is the one imposed by the financers, the and through which people could be helped on
firms that already exited did not other levels not just the economical one.
significatively improved the level of -encouraging the protection of the
profitability, but in our opinion the most environment, respecting each other person
nocive aspect was represented by the and respecting the work you do.
people’s perception regarding risc and None the less, to succeed in these goals is
private intiative.Even more,the perception of very hard because of the small communities
those who did not participate to these kind of where the civil society is very small and as a
projects ,ene though no one forbidden them consequence has small possibilities.The lack
the access, considered that the ones that are of local newspapers,radio stations,televisions
interrested are part of the „people that know and financial support are just a couple of the
other people” category. All those who are not difficulties of the romanian villages.
interested in participating in an economical The exchange of experience is twice as
activitie settle with what they have and think succesful if it works together with the civil
that money is „the devil’s eye” and that’s society. The big difference is that people
why he won’t participate in the development would be more confident if they had the
of his community.They consider that the state certainty that the things presented to them are
should take care of everything , because real and it would be a very good guideline for
they’re poor and they can not. them.This is the only way we can change that
This kind of thinking not only doesn’t neutral state and make people realize they
help the community but it also amkes the gap can trully do something great for themselves
between the rural and urban areas so much and their community. The positive attitudes
more greater.That’s why we consider that for concerning change spred a lot more faster is
supporting the economical developmen we the civil society gets involved.
need to give great attention the the The role of the civil society is that more
psichological „traning” of the people which important as the average age of the people is
live in rural areas and make them understand quite high.Even if you can’t do a lot of fizical
that change isn’t necessarily a bad thing. work , if you do a thing and you do it right, if
Anyone who would come from outside you have a positive attitude about work and
this area of semi-closure and tried to help the respect the people who have studied a lot,
community won’t be able to get through to you can make a difference.Furthermore you
the people becase they consider that only should teach your children to apply by these
their problems are important and only they „rules” because this is the only way we can
can understand them.That’s why every really make a difference.
community need a couple a persons that the Even if, we can say that the civil spirit is
people trust and that are open to change , that better in the rural area than in the cities , this
would be the civil society. attitude isn’t used to it’s full potential.that’s
why we think that too much respect is not

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 52 seria Zootehnie

that good and the civil society should be of these actions will be seen in the medium
more agressive. and long term.
A change is possible here only with the
intervention of the local authorities.The CONCLUSIONS
involvement of the cityhall of town hall in as Studing the results of more programmes
many projects as possible would be a great of busyness development ,especially from the
help for the civil society.Unfortunatly , the North-Eastern area, has shown that progress
law does say that the city hall must can be achieved in the rural areas through
participate ut the law also doesn’t say that the responsobility and taking a chance with an
city hall doesn’t have to,so it’s all up to us.In idea, with a busyness.We believe that with
the latest years such „partnerships” have been the civil society we could sustain this
encouraged so taht we may change the rural progress and build on it.It’s main objectives
mentality and succed in trully developping are to mobilize the creative sparks in every
the rural area.Financing non-guvernmental person and encourage them in order to help
organizations out of the local budget is only the people and help the community.
present in the urban area because in the rural Last, but not least, we consider that a
areas there are never funds for such kinds of programme of finance through european or
projects, which makes the civil society budgetary funds is necessary , which would
almost non-existent. have as main objectives the development of
A solution for this problem would be the the civil society and integrating it in the life
help of the District Council.These institutians of the community, especially in the small
have the resources to get these programmes communities.
going and help the civil society become an
active factor in prommoting the long-term REFERENCES
development.Although we can’t say exactly Journal articles
how much the civil society will help the [1] nb. 189/1998 Law regarding local and public
economy or how long it will take we finances, Monitorul Oficial al României nb.
consider it to be very important because it 404/22 octombrie 1998
gives as an example of a normal and healthy [2] Nb 215/2002 Law regarding the public
social and economical life. administration , Monitorul Oficial al României nr.
We don’t have to finance such activities 204/23 aprilie 2002
[3] nb. 273/2006 Law regarding local and public
all the time.If the cvil society becomes more
finance, Monitorul Oficial al României nr. 618/18
and more „popular” it can finance itself iulie 2006
without needing funds from the local [4] www.esfcrea.ro
budget.We also have to add that these
investments can be seen as long –term
investments in human resources.The benefits

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

THE PROCEDURES TO BALANCE A LOCAL BUDGET IN


ROMANIA

C. Bulgariu

Universitatea "P. Andrei" din Iaşi


e-mail: bulgariuc@xnet.ro

Abstract
In the latest years the problem of balancing the local budgets has required more and more
complexes procedures which could adapt to Romania’s economical and social development. The
rising proportion of the taxes on the income given and the rising proportions of current income given
from the state to the local communities help balance the budgets. This work paper propose a analyze
of this relations between the public budget fund of state and the local budgets in Romania in the last
five years. Because of the decentralization of public administration more and more tasks of the state
have been transferred to the public authorities. Although the funding for these is still done through
transfers from the state budget, they are more solid than ever and they give mayors and local
councils the possibility to create programmes and projects for long-term development. In our
opinion, although the steps taken towards the decentralization of public finance are small, they are
solid and they could lead to a very good result. The regularization of transfers on the basis of the
criteria presented here is a modern one and it suits our country after the year 2000, although, in
some small areas the sums calculated are insufficient to cover all the current costs.
Key words: balanced local budget, transfer from public budget of state, separates quota, income
tax, fiscal code

INTRODUCTION statisticly analyse the way financial exchange


The premise I started from in writting this between the state’s budget and the budgets of
paper is that Romania’s local financial the local communities have been done, were
autonomy is at an insatisfactory level for it to used in the elaboration of this paper.
be able to ensure a long-term regional
development.The causes which lead to this RESULTS AND DISCUTIONS
premise have their origins in the Starting with the fact that the request of
administrativ – territorial organization of the resources is always bigger than the offer , the
country before 1989, but also in the way in sums offered for each district , in conformity
which reforms were introduced in the public to the laws current to each year, have been
administration.The efforts, in the five years smaller than the actions which requested
after 2003, to ensure a solid financing for the financial support in each of the districts in the
local communities ,together with the perioed 2003-2008.
procedures used have been analysed to find The connections between the budgetary
possible ways to make the city halls the fund of the state the the local budgetary funds
motors of economical development. depends on the economical development of
There are still a lot of ways used under the administrativ –territorial unit.The
their potential to help the relationship connection between the way funds are
between the local authorities and romanian distributed and the requests of financing can
public funds and even european. be established with the help of certain
criterias and procedures.
THE MATERIAL AND THE METHODE In conformity to the law 273/2006 [4]
The yearbook of Romania[6] and the about the due in the income of the budgetary
curent legislation ,that have been used to fund of the state, for every level of each

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administrativ –territorial unit, every month, In conformity to the local laws nb.
in 5 working days from the end of the last 273/2006[4], 82% of the due on the income
month when this due was collected 47 % is distributed ,every month, to the locla
goes to the budgets of local communities, budgets of villages, towns and cities.11% in
towns and cities in the region where the due Bucharest and 22% in the rest goes to special
was collected from, 13 % goes to the district accounts to help balance the budgets of each
and 22 % to the district treasury to help of the communities in every area.
balance the local budgets of the willages, The sums from these special accounts are
towns and cities in that district. distributed after the following criterias:
82% of the due on the income from - the financial capacity of the district
Bucharest is divided as following:23,5 % to based on the due of the income collected
the sectors of the city, 47,5 % to the local from each person in proportion of 70%:
budget of Bucharest and 11% in a special
account for public financing in this city.
I vmtj Nr . loc j
×
S rj = × S rtj
I vmj Nr . loc tj
n  I vmtj Nr . locj 
∑ 
 I vmj
×
Nr . loc . tj


i =1  
Where:
Srj -the sums broken down for each district
Srtj – the sums broken down for all the districts
Ivmj – the due on the income for every person in a certain district in the year prior to the year in
which this criterias is made.
Ivmtj -the due on the income for every person in the year prior to the year in which this criterias
is made.
Nr. locj – the number of people in the district;
Nr. loctj – the total number of people in the districts.

- the surface of the district 30%; I


I = vl
From the sums broken down from some vml Nr . loc l
of the incomes of the state’s budget for I vj
balancing local budgets and the 22% , 27% is I vmj =
Nr .loc . j
given to the local district’s budget and the
rest to the local budgets of the towns and The first stage in distributing the funds
cities as following: from the sums broken down by the
a. 80% is given through a decision authorities limit the sums so that the average
of the director of the general direction in for each person is less or equal to the due on
public financing depending on:population, the average income for each person from the
surface,financel capacity,etc. district in the last year based on the next
b. 20% is given through a decision criterias:
of the local council for the support of the - the number of people per administrativ
development programmes, where the territorial unit that participate in this stage for
programmes neeed local funding. 75 %
To be able to distribute the sums broken - the surface of living area per
down form the state’s budget , there are some administrativ territorial unit that participates
indicators that can be calculated:”the due for in this stage 25%
a average income for each person from each In the second stage, for the funds left
administrativ territorial unit”, „the due from a after the first stage, depending on the
average income for each person in the financial capacity of every community , the
district”. sums are distrubuted as following :

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

I vmj Nr . loc
Ivm 1
× Nr . loc
1
j
S re 2 = n
× S rje 2
 I Nr . loc 1 
∑ 

 I
vmj

vm 1
×
Nr . loc . j



i = 1

Where:
- Sre2 the sums distributed to the administrativ territorial units in the second stage
- Srje2 – the sums that must be distributed to the administrativ territorial units in the district in
the second stage ;
- Ivm1 – the due on the average income per person per administrativ territorial unit in the prior year;
- Ivmj – the due on the average income per person in the district in the prior year;
- Nr. loc. 1 –the number of the persons in each administrativ territorial unit.;
- Nr. loc. j – the number of people in the district.

The procedure through which the local budgets are balanced by the state budget.

The sums broken down + 22% from the due on the income

27% for the local budget of 73% for the local budgets of the villages, towns
the district and cities.

80% through a decision of the Director of the


genera direction of public finance for 20% through the decision
adminsitrativ territorial units in two stages: of the Local council for
- financial capacity 70%; economical and social
- the district’s surface 30% development.

Stage 1 – criterias: population 75%


- surface 25%
- financial capacity

Stage 2 - criterias: financial capacity

The connection between the budgetary fund of the state and the local budgetary fund for
balance[1]

After the two stages the sums distributed to lineary, without any notable variations.The
each administrativ territorial unit, including funds are greater in certain areas with
districts and even Bucharest, will drop with the bigger requests for develpment in a certain
use of a multiplication with the divizions stage.for example Suceava had received
between the sum of dues and local taxs and rents greater funds than Iasi in 2004 because of
from the last year and the sum of duesand local the expences necessary to celebrate 500
taxes and rents from the last financial year. years from the death of Stefan The Great.
Analysing the distributian of the funds, Hers a chart with the funds awarded by the
the transferes to the districts are quite state for each district :

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 52 seria Zootehnie

VR

VL

VS

TL

TM

TL

SV

SB

SJ

SM

PH

OT

NT

MS

MH

MM

IF

IS

IL

HD

HR

GJ

GR

GL

DJ

DM

CV

CT

CJ

CL

CS

BZ

BR

BV

BT

BN

BH

BC

AG

AR

AL
%

0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 5 5,5 6

The funds received by every district for the total sum of the funds from the state in the year
2007

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

In order the improve the connection recources can provide better services for the
between the state budgetary fund and the people.
local budgetary funds, different Guvernments In the past, the way these funds were
have tried to apply different rules. (the distributed didn’t take into consideration the
189/1998 [2] has been modified by 215/2002 factors described above and this had serious
[3] and by 273/2006 [4]) effects on the local communities.
In order to build a better relationship
CONCLUSIONS between the state and local communities, in
The local administration, through the the year 2009 there will be promoted a set of
curent laws, can get a loan from the state principals that will make the communication
treasury, but it can not exceed 5% of the local between the two „parties” easier and will
incomes estimated for the next year, for help the financial balance and also to set
balancing it’s financial situation. small costs for the public services offered to
In conformity with the same laws, the people. This new set of principal
villages, towns and cities follow the next especially heps the smalll communities to
principals when wantign to balance their learn to use their resources efficently and
financel status: even gain new funds.
-the possibility of covering the functioning We consider that the rol of the cenral
section of the local budget from their own authorities in coordonating the financial
income; activities at a local level is still too high and
-After calculating the necessary sums for creats the premises for the intervention of
covering their expenses, certain sums are subjetiv factors in considering the needs and
proposed for balancing the functioning opportunities of financing some of the
section of the local budget. projects.This state will become permenent
-minimum prices for public services for the only when the local resources will be
people considerable larger that the funds from the
-Certains funds are established for the state in the local budgets , so that the funds
development of the local budgets, in from the state should only help with the
conformity with the state’s budget. balancing and development in the region of
Transfers for the local budgets :represent certain national strategies from all the
a way through which recources from the state domains of the social and economical life.
are transfered to the local budgets for
investments financed from external loans , in REFERENCES
which the Guvernment also contribues. Books
Also, from the state’s budget, throught [1] Voinea Gh., Local FInance, Publishing House
the budgets of certain credit supliers, Junimea, Iaşi, 2008, p. 101
[2] nb. 189/1998 Law regarding local and public
transfers can be made towards local bugets to
finances, Monitorul Oficial al României nb.
help with national or local plans of 404/22 octombrie 1998
development. [3] Nb 215/2002 Law regarding the public
Through percentages of the income administration, Monitorul Oficial al României nr.
broken down, through certain criterias 204/23 aprilie 2002
established for given local budgets funds, the [4] nb. 273/2006 Law regarding local and public
state is trying to eliminate the subjectiv finance, Monitorul Oficial al României nr. 618/18
factors of it’s relationship with the local iulie 2006
communities. [5] The budget law for Romanian for the years
2003 – 2008
Sometimes, the distribution of funds from [6] The yearbook of Romania for the years 2003 –
the state to the local budgets is caused by 2008
political factors. In this case, certain
administrativ territorial units that have more

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STATE AND AGRICULTURE. SOME RECOMMENDATIONS


ON AGRICULTURAL POLICY
G. Mursa, Roxana Paraschiv
FEAA, „Al. I. Cuza” University of Jassy
e-mail: mursa@uaic.ro

Abstract
The main purpose of the paper is to make a critical analysis of government policies regarding
agriculture. The reason of this approach is that, over time, various nations have tried many methods
to develop this sector seen as vital especially in the conditions of the demographic growth. Most
governments have considered agriculture as a strategic area that should enjoy preferential policies.
However, despite of huge amount of resources voulme spent by public authorities , the results were
below expectations in many times and in many countries. This analysis uses the specific methods of
modern economic theory to show that the competitivity of agricultural sector does not depend
primarily on the volume of resources invested by government but on a framework that fosters
private investment, an adequate policy of incentives, on the degree of liberalizing trade with
agricultural products. The interpretation of statistical data and the use of the elements of
quantitative analysis leads us to conclude that the development of the agricultural sector primarily
depends on the role played by free markets. Government policies are only adjuvant to be dealt with
the infrastructure, with a basic educational level of labor force and a minimum health care for
people living in rural areas. The comparative analysis of data from the U.S. and the European
Union economies supports this conclusion.
Key words: agrarian policies, preferential policies, open markets, productivity, resources

INTRODUCTION movement of this sector. All these conditions


Economic developments of the last half have led governments in recent decades to be
century have highlighted the fact that involved deeply in agricultural activities.
agricultural production has been increasingly Therefore, the agriculture of these countries
subject to government intervention. There are benefited from preferential policies, the
many reasons for this situation. Many experts increased volume of grants, protection
have recommended the government through customs duties and other trade tools.
intervention for reasons of food security in Despite these measures, the results were, in
view of population growth after the Second many cases, well below expectations. That is
World War. Other experts, especially in why the need to achieve both a critical
Western Europe, supported the analysis of government intervention in
interventionism for the retention of part of agriculture, and on the other hand, to make
the active population in rural areas in despite some recommendations to follow for
of the natural, historical trends that shows designing future policies in this field.
that when the economy develops, the
population tends to leave rural areas for MATERIAL AND METHOD
urban areas. To remove this "cultural The main purpose of the paper is to
imbalance", European governments have demonstrate that the agricultural policies of
treated the agricultural sector with special many countries of the world must undergo to
attention trying to avoid the disappearance of a comprehensive process of reform because
rural, traditional areas. Another reason why they do not achieve their stated objectives.
agriculture has received special attention To reach this conclusion, we have taken as
from the authorities is due to the immense the basis a significant volume of data that we
pressure created by the trade union analyzed using the classical economic

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theories of scarces resource on the one hand, from the continuing fear of
allocation.Therefore, we analyzed the a major food crisis caused by rapidly
evolution of spendings for the farming sector increasing world population and, on the
as a share of total public expenditure other hand, from the massive migration of
focusing in particular on data from Western labor force from rural to the urban. Equally
countries. To highlight the economic effect true is the fact that farmers were able to form
of increasing government funding for a force of significant pressure on public
agriculture, the comparisons were made with authorities. For these reasons, governments
the dynamics of the labor force working in of the world, including those of Western
the field of agricultural production, trying in countries, have treated agriculture as a
this way to highlight, in a synthetic manner, privileged domain. Basically, we find that in
the overall productivity of this sector the last half century, the agricultural
compared with the overall performance of the production depends on a growing degree of
economic system. The recommendations increased administrative decisions of
derived from the analysis are based on government bureaucracy than the open
theoretical foundation conclusions drawn market. Instruments that regulate the
from comparative analysis of a series of activities of this sector are the classics:
statistical data provided, firstly, by the U.S. subsidies, price controls, restricting
economy, on the one hand, and by the competition through customs duties, quotas,
European Union, on the other hand. We licensing for cultivation of certain crops or
utilized this type of comparative analysis areas.[2]
because the agricultural sectors of the two Among the tools used by Western
economic entities presents , in terms of governments, the subsidies appear to be most
agricultural policies, both similarities and common. This is very visible both in
differentiations. In the same time, the agriculture the European Union and in the
interpretation of statistical processed data agricultural sector of the United States. The
highlighted the fact that as the degree of proof of exponential growth of government
government intervention in the agricultural intervention in the agricultural sector is the
sector increases the distortions in the share of the increasingly high volume of a
allocation of resources are becoming more funds allocated as subsidies to farmers in
important. The use of the comparative Western Europe. Today, the Western farms
analysis allowed us to show that, as a rule, receive annually about 50% (46.7% in 2006)
the agricultural policies in Western countries of the European Union budget which in
gives support to producers with political absolute terms is about 50 billion euros for an
influence, that the decisions to support the annual production of less than 150 billion.
agricultural production is not based on However, there were periods when the share
economic considerations. Moreover, the of funds for the agricultural sector reached
processing of the available information 60% of the European Union budget. [4] This
shows that the agricultural policies of means that one third of farmers' income is
developed countries tend to become guaranteed by government. From an
increasingly expensive, to limit competition economic point of view, we are dealing with
between indigenous and foreigners, to a serious imbalance demonstrating thet the
disvantage the agricultural areas of agriculture sector is treated in the European
developing countries. Union through preferential policies. Initial
justification for designers of these policies
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS was to preserve the traditional character of
In the last half century, the literature Western society by maintaining a significant
notes that the agricultural sector was one of volume of people in rural areas. However,
the favorite areas of government intervention. the labor force migration to urban areas has
Typically, the reasons invoked to support the not been hampered in despite a consistent
agricultural sector from public funds comes , support received by the rural population by

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guaranteeing revenue. Following this policy, the subsidy means a forced transfer of
in the EU countries, only 5% of the resources from an area capable to produce
population (living and working in the added value to the less efficient one that is
agricultural sector) receives half of the unable to finance their own activities. As a
annual budget of the European Commission. consequence, the government policies of
This shows that, directly or indirectly, the subsidizing agriculture sectors artificially
farmers in Western Europe get much of their restrict overall performance transfering
income from taxpayer's pocket and not from profitable resources to less productive
its own effort and this situation encourages sectors. The low performance is highlighted
anti-economic behavior and a poor allocation by the fact that although in the agricultural
of scarce resources. The series of anomalies sector in Western Europe works 5% of the
due to government intervention does not stop active population, agriculture's contribution
here. The estimates made in the OECD to the creation of GDP amounts only 3%. In
shows that these countries' farmers receive as the same time there a great inequality in the
an annual aid about 280 billion dollars which distribution og these subsidies. Thus, nearly
means that each year every family of these 40% of the total subsidies allocated to
countries finances the agricultural sector Western Europe agriculture go to only 2.2%
directly (taxes and duties turned into of farmers. Of this imbalance we can conclud
subsidies) or indirectly (higher prices paid by that farming subsidies are not allocated
restriction competitive market for agricultural departing from the principle of helping
products) to approximately $ 1000. The farmers with low possibilities, but a tool to
authors of Human Development Report have extract benefits for personal or well
calculated that in 2000, the subsidy received organized groups. In the European Union, the
by a cow in the European Union was 913 $ most farmers (80%) receive an annual direct
while the a citizen of a country in Sub- payment of up to Euro 5000 while only 2.2%
Saharan Africa received was only $ 8. [6]To of them receive a higher amount of 50,000
illustrate the size of the imbalances created euros. This discrepancy is visible too in the
by government, Johan Norberg calculated agriculture of the U.S. where 80% of farmers
that citizens of OECD paid directly or receive about 7000 $ annually while the
indirectly to agriculture annual an amount average subsidy is 16,000 $. Moreover, in
that would allow cows from farms OECD to the last 15 years large farms have been able
fly with business-class around the world with to obtain government funding for three times
$ 3000 in its pocket for shopping in duty- higher while small farmers receive the same
free.[1] The scope of the subsidies paid by amount. The degree of overall European
the budgets of these countries is to cover the agricultural productivity has declined by
difference between the high costs of joining new members. In this way, the
agricultural production and prices at which number of farmers increased by nearly 60%
products are sold on the market. Today, most of the cultivatable area recorded an increase
prices of agricultural products are subsidized. of 30% while the value of production saw a
For wheat, for example, the subsidy exceeds jump of only 10-20%.
60% of the final price. Equally important is Another way that many states are involved
the distortion for the export of sugar. Thus, in farming is the practice of restrictions on
for a quantity of sugar exported equivalent to foreign trade. To ensure high-income
1 euro, the European Union granted a subsidy farmers, many states set duties on imports
of 3.3 euro. In the United States, each bushel artificially increasing the sale price of
of wheat sold is subsidized by 52 cents. agricultural products. In Western countries,
[5]Such a policy will lead farmers to expand customs duties on imports of agricultural
their production and to increase their products is on average higher by 30% than
demands for government subsidies. But at the the world average. This technique restricts
whole economic system this means that the competition providing to local farmers an
productivity becomes lower. This is because income higher than that would be obtained

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under conditions of free trade. However, the collapse of prices, the government buys these
favoring domestic farmers is detrimental to overproductions using the taxpayers' money
consumers and foreign farmers. In fact, the forcing them on the one hand, to finance the
domestic consumers pay higher prices agricultural subsidies, to pay higher prices
subsidising without consent the income due to minimum limits, and on the other
national farmers while the foreign farmers hand, to finance the purchases of this
lose because being unable to sell outside the overproductions from their proper pocket.
country borders. The UNCTAD studies show Therefore, the policy of guaranteeing
that those most affected by the protectionism minimum prices for agricultural products
of the EU and U.S. are the farmers of shows clearly that, in fact, government
developing countries who lose annually support for agriculture is to the detriment of
about 700 billion dollars because they can consumers and taxpayers.The analysis of
not sell their products in markets protected agricultural policies in the last half century
by high customs barriers. This amount is 15 shows that the substitution of free market
times greater than the external aid provided mechanisms with the decisions of the
by developed countries to developing government bureaucracy has created in all
countries. The custom barriers impede countries considered important distortions in
competition from foreign agricultural resource allocation, which diminished the
products, diminish domestic supply, increase productive potential of the economic system
artificially domestic prices, causing a forced as a whole. Basically, in many developed
transfer of income from consumers of countries, the agriculture sector has become
agricultural products to protected farmers. heavily funded by taxpayers without their
From this process, consumers lose twice. express agreement to that effect. Slowly,
First, they finance the public subsidies fund government policies have transformed the
for agriculture and secondly pay higher agricultural sector from one that supports the
prices for agricultural products due to prosperity of citizens in one that is supported
restriction by competition. It is estimated that by the these . The subsudies have provided
in the European Union the losses suffered by guaranteed income to producers regardless of
consumers through artificially high prices are their agricultural market which has
about 50 billion euros annually. Basically, encouraged an attitude inconsistent with
the government intervention force the economic rationality. The guaranted prices of
consumers of agricultural products to finance agricultural products resulted in ignoring the
farmers' income by this amount. costs of production which has made farming
There are a lot of other instruments by an expensive area. Therefore agriculture
which the state intervenes in the agricultural produces only 1.9% of the value added of the
production. One of these relates to price European Union despite the fact that owns
control. To ensure a certain level of income, the twentieth part of the workforce. The
the European Union member states establish guaranted minimum prices has created
minimum price caps, levels below which the important annual surpluses of stocks. To
products of the agricultural sector can not be avoid the collapse of markets, were bought
traded on market. The justification for such by governments, ie, using, once again, the
intervention is that, in this domain, the income American and European taxpayers.
production costs are too high causing the lack Worse is that the United States and the
of farm profitability. However, such type of European Union have come to keep prices
intervention produces serious distortions in high for farmers, to provide forms of income
scarce resource allocation encouraging the to farmers not cultivating their land. In other
production which would not exist in the free words, despite the fact that everyone
market. The support of prices through complains of a possible food crisis, the
government aid produces in the Western government rewards farmers to reduce
European countries a chronic overproduction production. All these discrepancies,
of agricultural products. To avoid the distortions, anomalies have turned agriculture

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into a large consumer of resources and an of some farms but the contraction of the
important source of reducing the potential of agricultural sector maintained artificially
the economic system. To reduce the through subsidies will be offset by extending
magnitude of these imbalances, the that sectors to which will be the channeled
governments that practice these policies, the annually amount of 50 billion euros,
must project a comprehensive reform amount representing the agriculture
program which, in a reasonable time horizon, subsidies. Obviously, Western governments
to transform agriculture into a performance may retain a portion of these funds; it would
area, an important source of creating value be preferable to invest some amounts in
added not a big consumer of resources. agricultural research and education.
The analysis of statistical data and their Removing subsidies in developed countries
interpretation from the perspective of would have positive effects on poor countries
conventional theories of scarce resource or developing countries. A country like Mali
allocation lead us to the conclusion that both receives annually an external aid
U.S. and especially the European Union approximately 37 million dollars but lost 43
agriculture must follow an extensive program million of revenue due to decreased export of
of reforms which aim must be to limit the cotton because of unfair competition which
degree of involvement of government rich countries subsidize the cultivation of this
intervention and the widespread product [3]. The waiving of grant would not
reintroduction of the free market only lead to substantial savings for citizens of
mechanisms. rich countries but it would enable many poor
The first measure should be taken to countries to properly compete with farmers in
avoid distortions in the field is to remove the West. This is of paramount importance if
price controls. In an economic system, the we take into account that in poor countries
free prices is only possible way for rational about 60% of the labor force works in
allocation of scarce resources, the only agriculture. Moreover, many farmers in poor
acceptable way to connect needs with the countries produce agricultural goods at prices
interests of producers. Therefore, the policy 50% lower than the West but this advantage
of the European Union must propose phasing is removed by grants awarded in poor
out minimum prices apart from the duty free countries. Under conditions of free
market to determine the negotiation of free competition for this low price would benefit
consumers of agricultural products and consumers and Western.
farmers. In this way, the actual prices would A major source of distortion in western
fall which would allow access to a greater agriculture is due to the trade barriers. The
number of individuals in the consumption of analysis of the degree of trade protection in
food. developed countries shows that customs
Secondly, the agriculture of Western duties in the area of agriculture are at least
countries needs a comprehensive review of double compared to those of manufactured
policies for agricultural subsidies. Annually, products. The customs duties and other trade
only EU citizens directly contribute 50 barriers reduce the degree of competition
billion to subsidize farmers in their countries. artificially keeping prices at high level.
In fact, this amount shows that EU citizens Basically, these instruments of trade policy
support a production that otherwise would operates as an indirect subsidy to protected
not receive the recognition of the free market. farmers by ensuring them an unjustified
If governments would give up such a policy, revenue. There are studies showing that the
this amount should remain available to abolition of trade barriers will lead to
taxpayers and should be directed to other significant decreases in prices for agricultural
goods which would give rise to production of products bringing 350 billion dollars as
similar size in other parts of the economic estimated profits for farmers in developing
system. Inevitably, the reduction of subsidies and poor countries. To avoid radical changes
will lead, in the short term, to the liquidation in the market of agricultural products, the

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Western countries should sign an agreement means a gradual rereduction of government


which intend a gradual reduction of customs support for agriculture. To transform the
duties and abolishing all trade barriers. agricultural sector in an area of high
Should be considered a reasonable time so performance, governments should eliminate
that in the plans of farmers to not intervene price controls, to eliminate the barriers to
sudden changes which could cause world trade in agricultural products, to
significant losses in the short term. reintroduce the free market mechanisms.
Economic theory supported by statistics and
CONCLUSIONS facts shows that this is the only way to
Interpreting statistical data through the transform an agriculture sector from one that
filter of conventional economic theory shows wastes resources in an area that creates added
clearly that state intervention in agricultural value.
production has created serious distortions in
the allocation of scarce resources. Although REFERENCES
the original intention of government was to Journal articles
support a vital sector of activity, government [1] Norberg, J., American and european
protectionism is killing poor countries and their
policies have reduced the competitiveness of
people, Investor`s Business Daily, August 25,
agriculture transforming this area into an area 2003
funded by taxpayers and consumers. [3] ***Adress by President Blaise Compaore of
Although Western governments have sought Burkina Faso, Trade Negotiations Committee
to support the agricultural production of Geneva, 2003,
various reasons, the passage of time has http://www.wto.org/English/news_e/news03_e/tnc
shown that the support has become one of the _10june03_e.htm
long term. Today, the most efficient [4] ***European Commission, Financial
agricultural system in the world has turned Programming and Budget, European Commission,
2007,
into a sector dependent on government funds, http://ec.europa.eu/budget/library/publications/fin_
unable to provide economic support alone. reports/fin_report_07_data_en.pdf
This has created serious problems of [5] ***Farm Bill Resouces: ERS Research and
productivity in the agricultural sector Analysis, USDA,
compared with other sectors of the economic http://www.ers.usda.gov/FarmBill/
system. The analysis of agricultural policies [6] ***Human Development Report 2003, Oxford
in western countries has shown that lack of University Press, Oxford, 2003
competitiveness of these is transfered first to Book
[2] Schultz, Th., Distorsions of agricultural
the payer of duties and taxes, then to the
incentives, Indiana University Press, 1978
farmers in poor countries or developing
countries. The elimination of these anomalies

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 52 seria Zootehnie

RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA.


OPPORTUNITIES AND DIFFICULTIES
G. Mursa, Roxana Paraschiv
FEAA, „Al. I. Cuza” University of Jassy
e-mail: mursa@uaic.ro

Abstract
The basic objective of this work is to present and analyze the major difficulties faced by the
economic development of rural areas . Secondly, the paper examines the opportunities that can be
exploited to reduce disparities between rural and urban spheres. One of the main features of the
Romanian society is a big gap between the level of economic development in urban and in rural
areas. Unfortunately, this gap is a feature of a less competitive economic systems and is a great
hindrance to the development of overall national economy. This is why one of the fundamental
priorities of government policy should be rural development. To support our argument we will
analyze and interpret available statistical data from the point of view of the methods provided by the
contemporary theory of development. All considerations presented in the paper converge to the
conclusion that economic disparities between the two spheres of the economic system can be
reduced to a acceptable level by government policies to stimulate private investment, by
improving public infrastructure and through a better allocation of resources for education and
health. In these circumstances, the Romanian agricultural sector could exploit its huge potential.
Keywords: rural development, economic disparities, government policy, private investment,
infrastructure

INTRODUCTION it has never reached the level of development


The economic developments in the last of the urban environment. In parallel with the
two centuries has highlighted that, as the economic development of occidental village,
passage of time, in the composition of the was a phenomenon translation population to
economic system is producing enormous urbanize areas where opportunities for
structural changes. In short, we can easily improvement in personal life are more
find that the percentage contribution of numerous. For these reasons, the enhancing
agriculture sector to national income of the general welfare of the Western
decreased gradually but in favor of industry economies has been increasing standard of
and services. The analysis of advanced living of man of the village and the moving
systems in Western Europe and North to a more important part of the rural
America shows clearly that the oldest area of population to worldwide cities. Therefore,
economic activities (agriculture) has an the share of population urbanize in Western
increasingly small share in the process of Europe and the United States has increased
creating added value. The technological continuously representing today more than
advances led to an increase both in the 90% of the total population of these
agricultural production of the centuries that countries. Thus, the low share of population
the food needs of the Western world have no that lives in villages at a level below 10% is
importance so far held two hundred years. one of the essential features of the level of
This is why, today, most economic activities performance achieved by the advanced
are conducted in industry and services. The economic systems. From this perspective, the
increased productivity of the agricultural Romanian economy shows clear signs of an
sector has made the prosperity of the rural backward and underdeveloped economic
environment of Western countries to know an system. In our country, the half population
important leap in the fact that, economically, lives and works in agriculture, a sector of low

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productivity (compared with the performance material to the spiritual order. Given that human
of western agriculture), lives without the nature is one that seeks to continuously improve
minimum offered by urban world. Without its condition, it is easy to understand why
taking into account other elements, we can companies put an emphasis on the economic
say that a huge share of the rural population performance of the system. But economic
is the most obvious evidence of performance is only one component of a
underdevelopment of the Romanian society. phenomenon more complex and larger, a
In addition, a good part of this phenomenon phenomenon that highlights the issues of
is due to huge disparities between urban and quantitative and qualitative aspects of a human
rural. This is the reason that we consider life. This sophisticated process is called
absolutely necessary to radiograph the degree development. It includes, in addition to issues
of development of the Romanian village. of economic definable quantitative and
qualitative aspects of nature that take into
MATERIAL AND METHOD account other areas of human life such as
The structural analysis of local economic degree of education or health. Analysis of
system shows that, in general terms, Romania economic and social phenomena in our country
presents obvious signs of underdevelopment. emphasize that the degree of development of
One of the symptoms of underdevelopment is the rural and the urban environment there are
the major difference between the development significant differences. Human Development
of rural and urban. In the present work, we Index (HDI), a tool increasingly used to
intend to highlight this issue to show the causes highlight different aspects of qualitative and
of disparities between city and village and to quantitative human life shows that Romania is a
prove that in the medium and long term, country that shows great disparities in this
Romania has enough opportunities for rural regard. If we make a comparison village-town,
modernization. The conclusions of this analysis we find that urban areas of Romania presents a
will reveal that the process of rural development level of development that puts us in first world
in our country can take advantage of many category (only the metropolitan area of
opportunities, but may face a lot of obstacles. Bucharest reach the average of Portugal country
The working assumptions are based on ), while rural lower than the 0800 level,
comparison and interpretation of the Human indicating a specific value for the second group
Development Index (HDI) calculated for the [1]. The situation is serious considering that in
rural sector and for the urban. In our Romania, as in all underdeveloped countries,
demonstration, we gathered, analyzed and the share of population that lives in rural areas
interpreted a significant volume of data able to is extremely high compared with that of
support both hypotheses and analysis. The developed societies. Thus, in Romania, almost
conclusions drawn from quantitative analysis half of the population (44.8%) live at a level of
were interpreted through the filter of modern human development specifically
theories of development. In demonstrating the underdeveloped countries. Basically, the
economic and social disparities between urban percentage of rural population in Romania is 10
and rural, we used the tools of comparative times higher than in Western society. The
analysis, comparing, on the one hand, data from nearly 10 million people in Romanian village
Western economies with economic data from living and working in an poor economic area
the national and, on the other hand, comparing work to a large extent in agriculture, which at
the specific dimensions provided the analisys of 60% is for subsistence or semi-subsistence. In
rural environment with data collected in the addition, a good part of the Romanian rural area
urban economy. is declared weaker (29.5% of national terioriul
and 11% of the total population). But the best
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS measure of underdevelopment of the rural
In any society, the economic system is to environment is given by the local agriculture's
provide the goods and services to individuals contribution to Gross Domestic Product.
able to cover all types of human need, from the Despite the fact that the Romanian village

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provides half of the workforce of the economic lack of a suitable conducting material in the
system, the contribution to the creation of gross productivity of rural activities. In Romania,
value added is only 8%. [8] This size clearly unlike developed countries, the farmer lacks
shows that the economic performance and the an adequate endowment of agricultural
degree of development in romanian rural area machinery and the access to fertilizers and
are far below the Western countries. These chemical substances to treat crops is limited
arguments reveal that economic and social by their own poverty. In addition, land
development of Romania depends on ownership is very fragmented which prevents
eliminating major structural disparities between achievement of efficiencies of scale and
rural and urban. Therefore, the public reduce the average cost of production.
authorities must devise a strategy for long term Immediate consequence of the latter
whose stated purpose must not only be shortcomings are reflected in high price of
eliminating disparities of development between agricultural products produced in Romania.
the romanian society and the west but also Another major problem that impedes
between city and local village. In designing development in Romania concerns the quality
these policies or strategies, policymakers must of human resources. Although the Romanian
consider the alleged difficulties of village encompasses half the national
implementing such a strategy and the population and the same proportion of active
opportunities that may benefit. The artisans of employment of the nation, the quality of work
private and public policy must take into account force is relatively low. This is due, first, to the
that the process of rural development faces a trend of aging of the rural population. To some
number of obstacles or difficulties due to extent, young and competitive work force
objective and subjective causes . The difficulty from rural area has tended to migrate to urban
of implementing a major strategy for rural centers (although not a phenomenon of great
development in Romania is a poor state of magnitude). On the other hand, the young of
infrastructure in rural areas. Unlike the Swiss or Romanian villages waive economic activities
Austrian village, Romanian village lacks an in local villages preferring same activities in
adequate network of roads, many of which were Western economies. In terms of education,
constructed between 1960-1970 without having there is a clear difference between rural and
undergone significant upgrades. Because of this urban. Firstly, the rate of incorporation in the
situation, 60% of villages can not use direct education system is lower in the Romanian
access roads. Of streets in rural areas, only 10% villages than in cities. In terms of education
have been upgraded in recent years. The status there is a serious gap between urban education
of this part of the infrastructure is the main drag index ( 0.982) and rural education index (
of rural development because the opportunity to 0.786). The main source of these discrepancies
transform agriculture into a performance is are due in less literacy rates (the spread is only
impossible without quickly and cheaply access three percentage points in favor of the urban
roads. Despite the fact that Romania has very environment) and to a large extent the level of
good land quality, the lack of investment makes schooling. Thus, the number of urban people
them poor performance but this slowness is due attracted to three cycles of education is double
to poor quality roads. Romanian rural lacks that of rural areas (93% vs. only 45%), where
other facilities. For example, over 65% of rural the boundless in the secondary and tertiary
inhabitants are deprived of access to running cycles is 1 to 3 in ones living in the village.
water and 90% of them have no access to This is because, due to poor material
sanitation. Meanwhile, the possibilities of using condition, very few families can afford the
the Internet are low and the share of those who maintenance of children in following school
use the heat is insignificant (0.5%). [7] and university studies performed, to a large
Meanwhile, the number of plants extent, in cities. This should be added that
required for irrigation of crops is far below many schools in Romanian villages use
that of countries in Western countries. To unqualified teachers.
infrastructure deficiencies may be added the

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Educational status has immediate population, to modernize and diversify


consequences on economic realities. Thus, agricultural production economic activities.
60% of those who drive personal business in One of the major opportunities in rural
rural areas have only primary or secondary development in Romania is agri-tourism.
education. The entrepreneurship education is Last two decades have shown that more and
quite modest if take into account that only more and more tourists prefer to spend your
13% of small companies operate in the free time away from noise and congestion of
Romanian villages. The quality human large urban concentrations. From this
resource can be assessed after the health of perspective Romania has a clear comparative
the population. It should be mentioned that advantage possessing a natural landscapes
life expectancy in rural areas is 70.8 years covering the entire geographical diversity of
versus 72.5 years in cities and infant the marine landscapes to mountain, which is
mortality is 17.9 at thousand people in the rare on the European continent. Another big
villages and only 12.4 at thousand inhabitants advantage for the agri-tourism is represented
in the cities. This happens primarily due to by the good conservation of habits and
reduced quality of medical infrastructure. In popular traditions in many rural areas
villages, the number of people cared for by a (Bucovina, Maramures, Apuseni, Northern
doctor is 6 times higher than that of those Oltenia). Data provided by specialized
who populate the towns. [5] Deficiencies of institutions shows that the annual rate of
the educational system and medical causes expansion of rural and cultural tourism
human resources in rural Romanian to have a amounts to 15-20%, far exceeding all other
lower quality than those from urban areas. spheres of the field, bringing revenue
Summary radiograph of economic and amounted to at least 150 million euros. [2]
social life in rural areas shows that local Therefore, the opportunity for local investors
major brakes on the development can be and national authorities is to exploit this
grouped into infrastructure deficiencies and global trend, which started to manifest in the
reduced investment in human resources. But territory of Romania. The resources allocated
despite this situation, there are a lot of in recent years Romanian rural tourism, the
opportunities that can be fructificate for a emergence of tourist guesthouses (especially
radical change to the human condition in in mountain areas) show that entrepreneurs
Romanian village. have brought opportunities of the changing
The most important source of preferences of tourists today.
eliminating underdevelopment of Romanian Until now, our country were allocated only
village is the National Plan for Rural by Sapard funding amounts of over 2000
Development. Aware of the great inequalities projects related to the expansion of
between city and village, the public accommodation space. Potential investors in
authorities in Romania have developed a rural tourism have the possibility to attract
strategy that will run during 2007-2013 grants and investment amounts between 2500
funded from national and European funds of and 100,000 euros for the construction of
over 11 billion euros. The purpose of this pensions in rural areas/. Otherwise, only local
plan is to increase the competitiveness of the rural tourism in Romania will benefit in 2007-
agri-food and forestry, to improve the quality 2013 from European funds of 500 million
of the rural environment, to encourage together with a national contribution of 87
diversification of economic structure in rural million. [3] In addition to participating in
areas, to encourage rural development recreational needs of clients, tourist activities
initiatives. [6]. Therefore, local authorities, can produce significant effects on the Romanian
private firms and individuals have provided village. First, in this way the policy can create
funds (some grants) to invest in the employment and purchasing power in an
construction and upgrading of access roads, environment much more poor than the urban
repair schools and dispensaries community to area. Secondly, the development of tourism will
finance education and health of the rural produce itself a improving in other elements of

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infrastructure (roads, sewerage, in terms of modern economic criteria, the


communications). Obviously the latter is the romanian village presents symptoms of
condition and result of the progress of tourism underdevelopment. This is a special problem
projects in the Romanian village. An for the Romanian society because half the
investment in tourism in a rural community can national population lives and works in these
be an argument powerful enough to convince conditions. Therefore, rural development must
the authorities to consider and implement be one of the strategic concerns of national
projects for expansion and improvement of public authorities. The process of reducing
sanitation facilities, transport, methane gas etc. development disparities between rural and
Often communities benefit from investments urban should consider both obstacles and
such developing infrastructure elements opportunities. Thus, the most important
because any accommodation space and problems raised in the process of rural
recreation needs water, sanitation, construction development in Romania concerns the poor
of an access road. In other words, utilities quality of infrastructure and the relatively
created by the effort of the private investor can modest investment in human resources.
benefit the rural tourism and an important part However, these barriers can be overcome
of the community in which the investment is through public and private investment, by
made. Rural tourism market is an area very little exploiting the advantage of low cost labor, the
exploited that Romania. The revenues in advantages of natural environment that
tourism reach only half a billion euros, a promotes agri-tourism. Therefore, there are
quarter of Bulgaria, but the eighth part of reasons to believe that in the medium and long
income similar to Hungary and only 7% of term, the development of the Romanian rural
revenue Croatia. The potential agri-tourism area will reduce existing disparities between
could create new jobs, would produce an national areas and the development of the
income and lifting living standards for village in western Europe.
employment of Romanian villages. [4]
Another opportunity is the great natural REFERENCES
potential of Romanian agriculture. Despite the Journal articles
relatively low productivity of the domestic [1] Mursa, G., HDI - a measure of human development,
agricultural sector, the quality of soil and in: Popescu, C., (coord.) Human capital, social capital
natural conditions is a remarkable advantages and economic growth, "Al. I. Cuza" University Press
for rural development. It is estimated that 2 / 3 Iaşi, 2007, ISBN 978-973-703-295-9
[2]*** Developing tourism based on rural tourism
of the arable land of Romania includes land of
in recent years in Europe, Smart Financial, 2007,
good and very good fertility. To these are added http://www.smartfinancial.ro/smarttourist/turism+r
relatively low costs of labor force to use by the ural/
possible investement in rural areas. At the same [3]*** European funds of 500 million for rural
time, the Romanian village can benefit fully tourism in 2007 - 2013, January 2007,
from the large European funds granted for http://www.finantare.ro/stire-3336-Fonduri-
environmental protection and afforestation. europene-de-500-milioane-euro-pentru-turismul-
Obviously, a significant part of labor used for rural,-in-2007-_-2013.html
seasonal and irregular rural can be employed in [4]*** Impact of tourism and travel on jobs and
the economy , World Travel &Tourism Council –
those activities for which funds raised are Roumania, http://mturism.ro/index
allocated. But all they can in turn benefit the [5]*** National Human Development Report
agricultural sector in Romania if the investment 2007, The United Nations Development Program,
in infrastructure, education, public health and Bucharest, 2007
environmental protection are becoming reality. [6]*** National Plan for Rural Development 2007-
2013, http://www.maap.ro/pages/
[7]*** National Strategic Plan 2007 - 2013,
CONCLUSIONS February 2007,http://www.agromediu.ro/
Comparing the degree of development of [8]*** Romanian Statistical Yearbook 2007,
urban and rural areas of Romania shows that, Chapter 11 - National Accounts, 2007, INSSE

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

INFORMATICS MODEL REGARDING THE ANALYSIS OF


SOME TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC INDICATORS IN
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

Benedicta Drobotă, Elena Gîndu, A. Chiran, A.-F. Jităreanu

University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Iaşi


e-mail: bdrobota@yahoo.com

Abstract
In Romania, animal husbandry is a basic sub branch of agriculture, which in the last two
decades had an oscillate evolution, determined by the negative influence of some factors that were
after the year 1990.
Negative phenomena have led to radical changes in the evolution of herds and animals
productions; the most species have seen a reduction in number and lower obtained yields.
To revive and improve the technical-economic performance of livestock farms, the authors have
proposed to develop a computer model aimed at creating a database, which is the reference point
for analysis the key indicators.
Designing the information model regarding the technical and economic analysis in livestock
farming was based on analysis of the following data: land cultivated with fodder, livestock, on species
and categories, fixed assets of the units (buildings and agrozootechnical construction, machinery and
agricultural equipment, installations, means of transport, etc.), total production and production for
sale, costs of production, selling prices, subsidies, credits, total revenues, financial costs etc.
Based on this information it will determine the main synthetic and analytical indicators on unit
performance, indicators which must fall within certain limits of efficiency.
The advantage of computer designed model can result in data storage and renewing of data
with overall economic growth.
Key words: informatics model, indicators, animal husbandry, efficiency.

INTRODUCTION As a means of production, the animals


In Romania, animal husbandry is a basic display certain features, such as:
sub branch of agriculture, which in the last - animals may be used successively as a
two decades had an oscillating trend, driven means of workt, labor and objects of
by the influence of negative factors that were consumer goods;
beyond the year 1990. - to ensure the renewal of the herd and, for
Negative phenomena have led to radical continuity of production is necessary to
changes in the evolution of herds and livestock maintain a certain number of animals
production, which in most species have seen a corresponding with natural breeding
reduction in number and lower yields obtained. conditions, specific for each species of animals;
Both worldwide and in Romania the - animal attrition doesn’t begins as soon
demand for agricultural products and as they are used as means of production, but
food is constantly increasing, being much later, corresponding with the curves of
determined by several factors: organic production;
- increasing number of population; - animals may not be subject to partial
- increased income of population; replacement, as do other means of production
- changing in the structure of agricultural (machines, buildings, buildings), therefore the
products and food; duration of use is determined by the specific of
- ensure of national reserve of food and biological species. After the duration of
agricultural products, etc. operation (use) is over, the waste animals are
A feature of agriculture is the use in the reformed and replaced by new ones [1,3,5].
production of living organisms (plants and To revive and improve the technical-
animals), which are regarded as true "living economic performance of livestock farms,
machines". the authors have proposed the developing of
a computer model aimed at creating a

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 52 seria Zootehnie

database, which constitutes the reference regarding the unit performance, indicators which
point for the analysis of key indicators. must fall within certain limits of efficiency.

MATERIAL AND METHOD RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


The design of the model was based on The computer model was made in the
analyzing the following data: land cultivated Excel program. The interface comprises link
with fodder, livestock by species and to 6 Excel pages.
categories, fixed assets of units (their To return to the first page click the
depreciation), the total production and BACK button on each page. It shall only
production for sale, costs of production, enter data in white cells.
selling prices, subsidies, credits, total Based on these data, are calculated
income, financial expenses, etc. indicators on sectors (plant and animal
Using this information it will determine the husbandry) and on the total unit.
main synthetic and analytical indicators
Figure 1 – Interface of informatics model

INFORMATICS MODEL REGARDING THE ANALYSIS OF SOME TECHNICAL


AND ECONOMIC INDICATORS IN ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
Drobotă Benedicta, Gîndu Elena, Chiran A., Jităreanu A.-F.
USAMV Iaşi
bdrobota@yahoo.com

EXPLANATIONS
VEGETAL SECTOR
VEGETAL SECTOR INDICATORS
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY SECTOR
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY INDICATORS
TOTAL UNIT INDICATORS
IAŞI 2009

Indicators must fall within certain limits of efficiency, as follows:


1. Gross profit rate must be > 10%
2. Risk of exploitation
o <10% - the company is in a risky or unstable situation;
o 10% - 20% - the company is in a relatively stable situation;
o > 20% - the company is in a situation with no significant risks or comfortable.
3. The net result of the financial year > 0
For example, it was realized a model of a unprofitable crops with ones more profitable,
milk cow’s farm with a herd of 100 heads. To but which can provide the total necessary
ensure the necessary fodder we take into nutrients (tab. 3, tab. 4).
account 0.6 hectares per head. The structure In the livestock sector, the indicators are
of cultures was done according to the feed calculated for each category of animal and on
ration, so that the total feed produced to be total (tab. 5, tab. 6, tab.7).
used in animal feed (tab. 1, tab. 2). For the calculation of indicators on the total
Indicators of the vegetal sector are unit it was considered the self consumption
calculated for each crop, and also on total. In from vegetal (which in the given example was
this way, you can see the effectiveness of 100%) and the livestock (milk needed to calves
each culture and at need it can be replace the feed) sector (table 8, tab.9).

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

Table 1
Data from vegetal sector

The average secondary Fixed Seed/planting


Surface The average main Fertilizers
Year Culture production (straws) costs material
hectare production (kg/he) (lei/he)
(kg/he) (lei/he) (lei/he)
ALFALFA 9,00 13000,00 - 70,00 288,00 -
SILAGE CORN 10,00 40000,00 - 70,00 220,00 105,00
CORN 10,00 7000,00 10500,00 70,00 220,00 105,00
2009 SOY 5,00 3000,00 - 70,00 150,00 -
WHEAT 14,00 3500,00 3500,00 70,00 210,00 95,00
BEET FOR
FEED 2,00 80000,00 - 70,00 350,00 105,00
SUNFLOWER 10,00 3000,00 12000,00 70,00 420,00 90,00

Table 2
Data from vegetal sector

Services
Other Selling price Selling price for
Diesel performed Personnel
Pesticides Lease Insurance operating for main secondary Subsidies
Year Culture by third costs
(lei/he) (lei/he) (lei/he) expenses production production (lei/he)
(lei/he) parties (lei/he)
(lei/he) (lei/kg) (lei/kg)
(lei/he)
ALFALFA - 350,00 250,00 100,00 300,00 80,00 100,00 0,20 - 400,00
SILAGE CORN 70,00 300,00 250,00 100,00 300,00 150,00 100,00 0,06 - 400,00
CORN 70,00 300,00 250,00 100,00 300,00 300,00 100,00 0,40 0,02 400,00
2009 SOY 90,00 300,00 250,00 150,00 300,00 200,00 100,00 0,80 - 400,00
WHEAT 150,00 300,00 250,00 100,00 300,00 90,00 100,00 0,50 0,04 400,00
BEET FOR
FEED 170,00 400,00 250,00 200,00 300,00 500,00 100,00 0,05 0,01 400,00
SUNFLOWER 80,00 300,00 250,00 100,00 300,00 250,00 100,00 1,10 - 400,00

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 52 seria Zootehnie

Table 3
Indicators from vegetal sector
The total The total Total Standard
Total Production Operating Gross
Surface main secondary variable gross
Year Culture costs costs turnover margin
hectare production production costs margin
(lei/he) (lei/kg) (lei/he) (lei/he)
(tones) (tones) (lei/he) (lei/he)
ALFALFA 9,00 117,00 - 1468,00 1538,00 0,12 2600,00 1132,00 1532,00
SILAGE
CORN 10,00 400,00 - 1595,00 1665,00 0,04 2400,00 805,00 1205,00
CORN 10,00 70,00 105,00 1745,00 1815,00 0,23 3010,00 1265,00 1665,00
2009 SOY 5,00 15,00 0,00 1540,00 1610,00 0,54 2400,00 860,00 1260,00
WHEAT 14,00 49,00 49,00 1595,00 1665,00 0,44 1890,00 295,00 695,00
BEET FOR
FEED 2,00 160,00 - 2375,00 2445,00 0,03 4000,00 1625,00 2025,00
SUNFLOWER 10,00 30,00 120,00 1890,00 1960,00 0,65 3300,00 1410,00 1810,00

Table 4
Indicators from vegetal sector

Gross Threshold Total Gross


Gross profit Risk of Turnover Gross profit
Surface profit of costs on profit on
Year Culture rate per he exploitation on year rate on year
hectare profitability year year (lei)
(%) (%) (lei) (%)
(lei/he) (kg/he) (lei)
ALFALFA 1062,00 69,05 804 1517,14 1062,00
SILAGE CORN 735,00 44,14 3478 1050,00 735,00
CORN 1195,00 65,84 464 1520,18 1195,00
2009 SOY 790,00 49,07 244 1128,57 790,00 156.960,00 104.492,00 52.468,00 50,21
WHEAT 225,00 13,51 1581 139,14 225,00
BEET FOR
FEED 1555,00 63,60 3446 2221,43 1555,00
SUNFLOWER 1340,00 68,37 149 1914,29 1340,00

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

Table 5
Data from animal husbandry sector

The Selling
Other Selling price
Category Number The main secondary Fixed Drugs Animal Personnel price for
Feed/Premix costs for main Subsidies
Year of of production production costs insurance costs secondary
(lei/year) production (lei)
animals animals (kg;l;pieces/year) (manure ) (lei/year) (lei/year) (lei/year) (lei/year) production
(lei/year) (lei/kg;l;pices)
(tones/year) (lei/tone)
MILK
2009 COWS 100,00 6500,00 8,00 100,00 1658,60 60,00 300,00 360,00 50,00 1,00 - 2650,00
CALVES 80,00 50,00 2,00 - - - - - - 7,00 - -

Table 6
Indicators from animal husbandry sector

The total The total Profit


Categor Numbe Variable Standard
main secondar Total Productio Operating Gross Gross per
y of r of costs - gross
Year productio y costs n cost turnover margin profit feed
animals animals total margin
n (1000 productio (lei/year) (lei/kg;l) (lei/year) (lei/year) (lei/he) animal
(lei/year) (lei/he)
UM) n (tone) (lei)
MILK 242860,0 252860,0 650000,0 407140,0 672140,0 397140,0 3971,4
200 COWS 100,00 650,00 800,00 0 0 0,39 0 0 0 0 0
9
CALVES 80,00 4,00 160,00 - - - 28000,00 28000,00 28000,00 28000,00 350,00

Table 7
Indicators from animal husbandry sector

Threshold of Gross
Category of Number of Gross Risk of
profitability Turnover on Total costs per Gross profit profit rate
Year animals animals profit rate exploitation
(kg; l; year - total (lei) year - total (lei) per year - total per year -
(%) (%)
pieces/year) total (%)

2009 MILK COWS 100,00 157,06 159,65 3971,40 678000,00 252860,00 425140,00 168,13
CALVES 80,00 - - -

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 52 seria Zootehnie

Table 8
Indicators per unit
Sec.
Self Self Self Self Main prod.
Main prod. Sec. prod. prod. for
consumption consumption consumption consumption for sale - Other Total
for sale - for sale - sale – Turnover - Subsidies -
Year - main secondary - main - secondary animal income income -
vegetal vegetal animal lei lei
vegetal vegetal animal prod. animal prod. sector - - lei lei
sector - kg sector - kg sector-
prod.- kg prod. - kg kg;l;pieces - tone kg;l;pieces
tone
117000,00 - 36500 800,00 - - 613500,00 - 613500,00 268600,00 - 882100,00

400000,00 - - 160,00 4000,00 - 28000,00 4000,00 - 32000,00


- -
70000,00 105000,00 4000,00 4000,00
- - - - - - - -
2009
15000,00 - 2000,00 2000,00
- - - - - - - -
49000,00 49000,00 5600,00 5600,00
- - - - - - - -
160000,00 - 800,00 800,00
- - - - - - - -
30000,00 120000,00 - - - - - - - 4000,00 - 4000,00

Table 9
Indicators per unit
Gross Tax on Net results
Personnel Other Other
Material Depreciation Operating Financiar Interest Financial Financial results of profit / of the
costs operating financiar
Year costs costs costs - income – costs - costs - result the financial Turnover financial
– total - costs - costs -
– total lei - lei total - lei total - lei lei total - lei - lei year - lei year
lei lei lei
-TOTAL- lei -TOTAL- lei
188232,00 36720,00 150500 11750,00 387202,00 2300 200000 1500 201500 -199200

7650,00 1500,00 7500,00 16650,00


- - - - - -
7650,00 3000,00 7500,00 18150,00
- - - - - -
2009 3050,00 1000,00 4000,00 8050,00 253448,00 40551,68 212896,32
- - - - - -
11550,00 1260,00 10500,00 23310,00
- - - - - -
2190,00 1000,00 1700,00 4890,00
- - - - - -
9600,00 2500,00 7500,00 19600,00
- - - - - -

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES
1. To increase the performance of Journal articles
agricultural units, a particular role has the [5] Gîndu Elena, Chiran A., Ciobotaru Elena-
Adina, Dima T., 2001 – Aspecte privind
use of software that allows the marketingul laptelui şi a produselor lactate la
determination and analysis of key Societatea Agricolă AGROIND Berezeni, jud.
technical-economic indicators Vaslui. Lucrări ştiinţifice, Seria Agronomie, vol.
developments. 44, Iaşi.
2. The informatics projected program can [8] Şerbănescu Luminiţa, Necşulescu Consuela,
have multiple utilities, of which mention the 2008 – Projecting the informatic subsystem for
most important: raw material and finished producrs inventory
management.Lucr. şt. seria I, vol. X (2) –
o storing and updating data on the Management agricol. Ed. AGROPRINT
vegetal sector and / or livestock in Timişoara.
the long term; Books
o the main technical-economic [1] Anghel L., Florescu C., Zaharia R., 1999 –
indicators on branches and sectors of Aplicaţii în marketing. Ed. Expert, Bucureşti.
activity; [2] Chiran A., şi colab., 2007 - Marketing în
o forecasting of technical-economic agricultură. Ed. Alma Print Galaţi, Galaţi.
indicators trends of the vegetal [3] Chiran A., Gîndu Elena, 2007 - Zooeconomie.
Ed. PIM, Iaşi.
sector and / or livestock, and at
[4] Gaceu L., 2006 – Inginerie asistată de
enterprise level; calculator. Ed. INFOMARKET, Braşov.
o technical - economic substantiation [6] Merce Elena şi colab., 1999 – Strategii de
of decisions regarding the production dimensionare a factorilor de producţie în
capacity, reduce costs, maximize agricultură. Ed. ALETHEIA, Bistriţa.
profits, etc. [7] Merce Elena, Merce C.C., Arion F.H., 1999 –
3. In the future it is recommended the Simularea unui proces tehnico+economic în cadrul
extension of such software in the farm and exploataţiei agricole. Ed. STANDARD, Cluj-
differentiates according to the units profile Napoca.
and specialization.

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 52 seria Zootehnie

SOME ASPECTS REGARDING THE DEVELOPMENT OF


TOURISTIC AND AGROTOURISTIC SERVICES
IN ARIEŞENI AREA FROM APUSENI MOUNTAINS
Anca Dudaş, Alina Moşoiu
Universitatea din Oradea
e-mail: iulia_dai@yahoo.com

Abstract
The aim of this work is to highlight the tourism potential existing in Arieseni area, located in the
Bihor Mountains, at an altitude of 800-1000 m, on the Aries Big Valley in Arieseni depression, also
the offer of touristic and agrotouristic services existing here. The tourist offer in this area include
natural and anthropogenic tourism resources , the "production" equipment of touristic services,
mass food supply industrial, intended for tourism, labor specialized in specific activities,
infrastructure, marketing conditions (prices, rates, facilities, etc.). Exploitation of touristic and
Agro-tourism resources in the area Arieseni, took ampleness after 1990. The process took a longer
route and more slowly compared with other similar areas in the country, due to the influence of
factors such as lack of infrastructure, weak information on accessing European funds, reluctance of
local population, etc. Despite these obstacles, this area has seen increasing in recent years, worthy
to be taken into consideration.
Key words: tourism, agro-tourism, rural arrangement, offer

INTRODUCTION courthouse) and 40 km from the nearest town


Tourism, implicitly the agro-tourism is - Câmpeni.
now, undoubtedly, one of the phenomena that Tourism and agro-tourism resources
dominate contemporary world, one of the through their variety and complexity, have a
most profitable segments of the global high value, what gives to the area a high
economy, remarkable through dynamic, degree of tourist interest in the summer and
multiple motivations and a large variety of cold season (snow persists about 4-5 months
forms of manifestation. per year on north versant having an average
After the data published by the World thickness of about 60-70 cm).
Tourism Organization in 2000, tourism
outmatched the expenses for the development MATERIAL AND METHOD
of world agriculture and those for arming, The study was performed in the area
estimated at over one thousand billion U.S. "Vartop - Arieseni" in the Apuseni
dollars annually. Mountains and was based on sociological
Apuseni Mountains is one of the most investigation. To collect information was
interesting tourist destinations in Romania. used as a tool the written questionnaire.
Karst topography (about 400 caves), and There were prepared two types of
specific flora and fauna, represents also many questionnaires applied to the tourists who
reasons why was declared nature reserve. visited and stayed in the area, respectively to
There is no country in such a concentration the locals - those who have witnessed the
of monuments of nature, falling within a metamorphosis of the area under the agro
whole landscape very beautiful and tourism impact. The sample contained a
attractive. number of 100 tourists and 60 locals of the
Commune Arieseni of the Apuseni researched area.
Mountains is located in the north-eastern Of the investigated tourists 47% were
extremity of county of Alba, at the springs of male, and the difference was represented by
Big Aries, at 120 km from Alba Iulia (county women. Applied questionnaire included

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

questions on: the unit of accommodation, the From the negative aspects, there can be
number of daisies/stars, type of room mentioned the following:
reserved, the accommodation price, degree of a) There is not yet a notable
satisfaction, the price-quality report, preoccupation for the Romanian’s touristic
gastronomic offer, opportunities for product image in general on the world market
entertainment, the possibilities of redemption and much less for that from the rural area;
and prospects of returning to the area. b) There are insufficient the promotion
The questionnaire included a total of 14 materials that are distributed on the external
questions (some improved with a score from market;
1 to 5). I note that the questionnaire was c) There is not a devoted logo
applied only to persons over 18 years, each By capitalizing the offer of
questionnaire was validated in the analysis. accommodation and services of all structures
The second questionnaire applied to the of rural tourism, by creating various
locals sought to include as many people who programs for tourism, it is developing the
are proprietary of an agrotouristic hostel. rural tourism movement.
Thus, in total of 60 people questioned, 40 Arieş superior basin may be a point of
were owners of agrotouristic hostels or were attraction for tourists, due to heavy snow so
directly involved in the agrotouristic favorable for the winter sports, and various
activities in the area. The share of men was beauties (caves, waterfalls, tourist journey)
60% (36 men). that presents interest especially during the
The study involved also data collected summer.
from local authorities and public institutions. Because tourists are becoming more
Information processing was based on pretentious, the offer of tourist services in the
classical methods and the presentation of the area studied can be easily enriched with a
results was based on the tables, figures or number of original elements, refined
schemes. emphasized in other parts of the earth,
namely: karst phenomena ( caves, keys, etc )
RESULTS AND DISCUTIONS formation of rocks, (teaching role ), the
The agrotourism gives the possibility of collection of forest fruits, tourism industry,
knowing better the countryside with all its (mines, and plants processing minerals )
natural, spiritual and occupational valences, invite at the parties, the inclusion in the team
for the urban population. The very existence waits, practicing ski, competitions, initiation
and the launch of the Romanian village as a schools during the summer, (artificial snow),
tourism product, impose the necessity of climbing without a rope (Cheile Turzii),
knowledge and its differentiation. gold digger in the waters of the mountain,
Thus, the regional tourist offer is wise- men for 1-3 days: tourist receives
differentiated according to the villages household (house, garden, poultry and
characteristics. domestic animals, etc.) which he manages a
If reference is made to the world market, certain time without the intervention of the
which is a receiver of the Romanian offer is owners, feeding wild animals (with the
considered necessary to know the following supply of winter hay, salt etc.)
positive aspects, with reference to: Numerical evolution and territorial
a) The existence of tourists flows that distribution of touristic and agrotouristic
are possible to be attracted; pensions in the Apuseni Mountains followed
b) Tourists arrived in Romania several steps:
appreciate the hosting in other spaces than In 1997, in the ANTREC network, there
hotels; were 82 touristic and agrotouristic authorized
c) The touristic imagine of the country pensions in three counties: Cluj county, with
is getting better 57 pensions ( 69% ) had first place, followed
by Alba, 27% and Sălaj, with about 4%.

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Table 1.
The number of pensions and the accommodation capacity between 2006 – 2008

Year 2006 2007 2008


Nr. Nr. Nr. Nr. Nr. Nr.
Locality
pensions places pensions places pensions places
Albac 30 200 31 344 31 396
Arieşeni 30 222 30 414 33 623
Vârtop 19 196 21 380 25 567
Rimetea 32 320 34 356 38 400
Gârda de Sus 15 101 15 116 15 137
Scărişoara 2 8 3 24 5 64
Lupşa 1 10 1 20 1 35
Total 110 861 135 1654 148 2222

Until 2001, the number of touristic and number of places available from 861 in 2006
agrotouristic pensions from ANTREC to 1654 places in 2007 and at the end of 2008
network increased noticeably, especially in there were 2222 places.
the two counties Alba and Cluj, reaching In the area Vartop – Arieseni in 2006
130, the two counties owning together 95% were registered 49 units of accommodation,
of the total number of the rural touristic extending in 2007 to 51 pensions, and in
pensions from ANTREC of Apuseni 2008 there were 58.
Mountains. They were followed by Bihor Price / room varies between 30 – 40 RON
county, with 4 pensions and Salaj, with 2 for the units of a daisy, 50 – 80 RON for
pensions, counties with an early agrotourism, housing in units with 2 daisies, 70 – 100
at the time. RON for pensions with 3 daisies and 150
Most pension were small, the average RON for 4 daisies.
being 5 – 8 places/ pension. The most places, Most pensions, particularly those agro,
58% were in the county of Alba, followed by have developed very slowly, without
Cluj county, with 37%. substantial support and therefore have
In 2003, in the Apuseni Mountains, were modest endowments. Many have left the
officially registered 155 touristic and formal network for various reasons: the
agrotouristic pensions, with an formation of a stable and faithful customers,
accommodation capacity of 1165 places, elusion from taxes and rates and especially of
41% of ANTREC. the various checks, dissatisfaction with the
The evolution of number of modest support given by formal networks
accommodation units, including their etc.
capacity between 2006 – 2008, in Alba Tourism and agrotourism has as the main
county (including the area studied) is shown actor the man, and for this reason the
in the following table: phenomena that guide the touristic
Observe that if in 2006 there were mechanism should be evaluated primarily in
recorded 110 units of accommodation in the light of the impact on the human factor.
following years the value increased, reaching Under the dome of this consideration we
135 agrotouristic pensions in 2007 and at the applied a series of questionnaires to highlight
end of 2008 there were registered 148. human behavior in relation with the
Increasing the number of accommodation agrotouristic supply and demand of the
units, respectively upgrading and expansion Vartop Arieseni area.
of existing, determined the increase of

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Table 2.
Aspects of the offer assessed by tourists

Nr.
crt
Nr. Daisies 1 × 2 × 3 × 4 ×
1 Number tourists 18 42 26 14
Accommodation period
2 4 5,5 4,5 3
(days/person)
Satisfaction degree
3 2,5 3,9 4,6 4,7
(from 1 to 5 points)
Quality – price report
4 3,5 4,4 4,2 4
(from 1 to 5 points)
Gastronomical offer
5 - 4,1 4,8 5
(from 1 to 5 points)
Entertainment possibilities
6 4 4 4,2 4,9
(from 1 to 5 points)
Internet access possibilities
7 - - 3 5
(from 1 to 5 points)
Retainer/settlement possibilities
8 3,8 4,2 3,9 4,5
(from 1 to 5 points)
Revert temptation
9 3,2 4,3 4,6 4,7
(from 1 to 5 points)

Following evaluation of questionnaires tourist – the beneficiaries of services, but also


given to tourists addition, appears that 18% on locals, respectively the services offerers.
were accommodated in a unit of a daisy, 42% The appreciation towards the increase of their
opted for pensions of 2 daisies, 26% chose income and the possibility of seeking a job,
the comfort of the accommodation units of 3 respectively the dissatisfaction regarding the
daisies and other 14% opted for 4 daisies. lack of an infrastructure to allow easier
They were asked to give points from 1 to 5 ( access into the area and the appearance of
1 equivalent to total dissatisfaction, with 5 factors that disturb the peace of another time,
excellent ) vis-à-vis of agrotouristic offer in is reflected in the following figure
the area. The responses obtained are shown (appreciation was performed by means of
in the table 2. points from 1 to 5).
The impact of agrotouristic development
of the area was reflected not only on the
Fig. 1 The evaluation of the situation in Vartop-Arieseni area from local’s point of view

Noise
E 3,3
V Pollution
A 3,1
L
U
4,4 Income’s increase
A 4,1
T Jobs
E 2
D Presence of foreigners
3,7
A 4
S The development of
P 3,6 entertaining possibilities
E Locality aspect
3
C
T
S Canalization
0 1 2 3 4 5
Appreciation level Infrastructure

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 52 seria Zootehnie

Monitoring rural tourism phenomenon is If in 2006, most touristic and


extremely difficult. Is a very dynamic agrotouristic pensions had a capacity of
development, rapid changes of ownership, accommodation averaging 7,8 places /
classification, number of places. Many pension, proving that tourism activity is not
touristic and agrotouristic pensions are being in an advanced stage of development and
classified, having files laid-down at the office bring additional income to the residents ( the
of subsidiaries of ANTREC. Others have main source of revenue being based on
only permit from city hall, being in progress agricultural activities ), in 2007 the capacity
of classification and part work without a of accommodation of pensions amounts to an
permit (40% ). average of 12,2 places / pension, so that at
the end of 2008, capacity is 15 places /
CONCLUSIONS AND pension.
RECOMMENDATIONS In the studied area, Vartop –Arieseni, the
Assessment and recording responses from capacity of accommodation in 2006 is
tourists after filling out questionnaires show averaging 8,5 places /pension, extending in
that tourists are satisfied with the hospitality 2007 to 15,6 places/ pension and reached in
and accommodation that offers the area, but 2008 to 20,5 places/ pension.
the stimulate of their return is conditional on From a legal point of view, those who
infrastructure development, implementing the practice tourism and rural tourism in the area
latest technology to improve routes Vartop-Arieseni are authorized as family
communication, the arrangement of path, and associations, authorized persons, legal
diversification of methods of entertainment. persons.
There must be identified ways to promote the In order to ensure a favorable course for
area for to be exploited to maximum the development of rural tourism, in perspective,
agrotouristic potential. the following are required:
Knowing at a medium level an • A rigorous definition of the “rural
international language ( English preferred ), tourism” activity in the spirit of European
and promoting the offer on the Internet and standards, adapted to the specific of
other media sources would result in a greater Romanian realities (by elaboration some
number of foreign tourists to spent their measurable criteria to identify quantitative
leisure in the area Vartop- Arieseni. Among and qualitative the integration of the activity
owners of agrotourisic pensions 70% know in this field);
English language at a level that enables them • Adoption of new facilities
to communicate with foreign tourists, but applicable to the authorized agents that
locals or employees know English only in satisfy the real requirements of the rural
proportion of 34%. tourism;
The development of the area through • Improving the legislative
tourism and agrotourism is directly framework of pursuing rural tourism through
proportional to the incomes recorded by the elaboration of some sanitary and fiscal
locals and owners of units of norms concerning direct marketing of
accommodation. household products, various forms of
Also, economic and social status is insurance, etc.;
improved by increasing the offer of jobs, • Identify and assess the potential of
decreasing unemployment. rural tourism from the perspective of regional
Dissatisfaction of the locals is related to and local development programs and
the attitude of many tourists who pollute elaborate the projects of touristic
(through negligence and indifference) the arrangements (individual or integrated),
area. designed to outline and to diversify the
The evolution of number of units of tourism offer;
accommodation (hotel, hostel, villa, tourist • Institution of a compulsory of
complex) is evident over the past three years. minimum professional bands of providers of

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

tourist services (peasants, guides, local regeneration (specific infrastructure,


agents, etc.), through training, seminars and legislation, regulations, local orders, etc.);
information materials developed or supported • Elaboration of some studies for
by factors empowered in this regard sustainable development for the destinations
(associations of providers, consulting and of great attraction;
managerial firms, bodies of government • Assimilation of the latest and
agencies, educational institutions, etc.); performant means of promotion and
• Training experts in the agrotouristic commercial advertising: video clips, compact
field management at local, regional and discs, the internet;
national level; • Establishment of specialized
• Multiplicity of ways to promote departments in elaborating advertising
rural tourism offer in the domestic and materials at a high professional level, able to
international market (organization of penetrate foreign market information
conferences, exhibitions, symposiums, fairs,
elaboration of promotional materials, REFERENCES:
organization of marketing and promotion in Books
the promotional program of MTCT, [1] Alecu I., Constantin M.,2006 - Agroturism şi
collaboration with specialized foreign marketing agroturistic, Ed. Ceres, Bucureşti.
companies interested in organization of rural [2] Balaure V., Cătoiu I., Vegheş C., 2005 –
circuits in the Central Europe and the Marketing turistic, Ed. Uranus, Bucureşti.
introduction of Romanian offer in the [3] Bran Florina,1998 - Economia turismului şi
mediul înconjurător, Ed. Economică,
promoting catalogs thereof );
Bucureşti.
• Identifying by the skill forums [4] Chiran A. şi colab, 2008 - Marketing turistic.,
(MTCT, ANTREC etc.) of the touristic offer Ed. Universităţii din Oradea.
of maximum complex and representative for [5] Cocean P.,2002 - Geografia generală a
the Romanian rural and support them through turismului, Ed. Meteor Press, Bucureşti.
grants and facilities to promote, nationally [6] Coita D., 2002 – Marketing turistic, Ed.
and internationally; Universităţii din Oradea.
[7] Diaconescu Mihai, 2005 – Marketing
• Facilitating by MTCT of
agroalimentar, Ed. Universitară, Bucureşti.
collaboration between agencies and [8] Erdeli G., Gheorghilaş A., 2006 – Amenajări
organizations involved in developing rural turistice, Ed. Universitară, Bucureşti.
tourism in Romania and similar bodies and [9] Ielenicz M., Comănescu L., 2006 – România,
other European countries with traditionally potenţial turistic, Ed. Universitară, Bucureşti.
rural tourism; [10] Minciu Rodica, 2005 – Economia turismului,
• Assurance of facilities to support ediţia a III a revăzută ţi adăugată, Ed. Uranus,
the development of rural tourism: facilitating Bucureşti.
[11] Petrea Rodica, 2004 - Turismul rural în
access of peasant households and small craft
Munţii Apuseni, Ed. Universităţii din Oradea.
to credit from funds allocated from the state [12] Petrea Rodica, Petrea D., 2000 – Turismul
budget, the creation of a Mutual Fund for rural, Ed. Presa universitară clujană, Cluj
rural tourism for granting loans with Napoca.
subsidized interest rates and guarantee [13] Platona Iulia, 2003 – Turismul rural, Ed.
certificates of peasant household etc,; Universităţii din Oradea.
• Capitalization of natural heritage is [14] Rusu Maria, 2004 – Pensiune turistică şi
parallel with establishment of an organization agroturistică, Ed. Rentrop şi Straton.
[15] * * * , 2006 - Institutul Naţional de Statistică:
framework for the protection and
Anuarul statistic al României, Bucureşti.

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 52 seria Zootehnie

STUDY OF NATURAL CONDITIONS AND SOCIAL


RESOURCES FROM ŢIBĂNEŞTI MICROZONE,
IAŞI COUNTY

Liliana Biţic, A. Chiran, Elena Gîndu

University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine


„Ion Ionescu de la Brad” Iasi, Romania
e-mail: liliana_b_rotaru@yahoo.fr

Abstract
The studied area focuses on the territory of Ţibăneşti Microzone, Iaşi County, which is an
integrating part of the Northeastern Development Region of Romania. Geomorphologically, the
territory of the Ţibăneşti Microzone belongs to the sculptural relief of the Moldavian Plain, which is
characterized by a highly continental climatic regime with cold winters, very hot summers and
frequent droughts. The Ţibăneşti Microzone includes the Ţibana, Ţibăneşti, Tansa and Dagâţa
communes, having a total area of 24,769 ha and 23,150 people, of which 1192 are employees.
The aim of this work was to show the necessity of taking some measures, which contribute to the
future development of the studied microzone:
-Promotion of investments in the main fields, which use the labour surplus and lead to an
increase in the people’s living level;
-Promotion of some investment projects for increasing the degree of social infrastructure within
the microzone, but especially in the Tansa Commune;
-Setting up viable private farms, for the agriculture straightening, by using at maximum the
entire natural, economic and human potential from the studied area.
The analysis of indicators concerning natural and social conditions of the Ţibăneşti Microzone
emphasised the need of starting development programs where the main objectives be represented by
removing the weak points and changing them into opportunities.
Key words: analysis, natural conditions, social conditions, microzone

PREFACE Our investigation focused on gathering,


The results of scientific research and of selecting, processing and interpreting data,
farming practices, obtained under certain drawing conclusions and recommendations.
climate and soil conditions, are available only The studied area is represented by the
for a certain area. The extrapolation of these territory of the Ţibăneşti Microzone, Iaşi
data to other areas is relative, requiring the County, which is an integrating part of the
study on each area of the main soil and North-eastern Development Region of
climatic conditions that highly influence the Romania. Using some specific indicators, the
development degree of a certain area (I. P. authors had as aim to point out the most
Otiman, 2006). Thus, we may explain our significant aspects concerning the natural and
approach concerning the presentation of social conditions, which are determining
essential elements of the natural and social factors in projecting the strategies of
frame from Ţibăneşti Microzone, Iaşi County. economic and social development, in the
prospect of year 2013.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The scientific research in the economic RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
and social field is based on using more Study of natural conditions
classical, modern and economic- Geomorphologically, the territory of the
mathematical research methods. Ţibăneşti Microzone belongs to the

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

sculptural relief of the Moldavian Plain, 2.0 m (on narrow valleys) and at 3.0 – 5.0 m
where there are found slopes, sculptural (in the slide areas).
interfluves under the shape of plateaus, with Climatic regime
thick weakly bent ridges, while at the base of The Ţibăneşti Microzone is situated
slopes there are accumulative-sculptural within the continental climatic region,
areas, represented by narrow valleys. climate being continental, with cold winters
The eroded slopes occupy large areas, and hot summers and frequent droughts.
erosion being a negative phenomenon The microclimate of slopes with
resulting in the destruction of the soil layer. eastern exposure includes less sunny slopes.
Sometimes, soil is entirely eroded and the During the year, the temperature is lower,
parent rock appears at surface. because of reduced sun shining, exposure to
Landslides are found on slopes and at the cold winds and snow persistence in spring.
origin of narrow valleys in the western part of The microclimate of slopes with
the territory. The slide-diluvium, made up of a western exposure includes sunny slopes, on
mixture of clays, clayey-marls and, sometimes, which snow melts faster due to a stronger
saliferous deposits, has a fragmented surface sunshine.
under the shape of waves or hillocks, with a Strong winds, abundant rainfalls and lower
height varying between 0.2 and 0.8 m and temperatures characterize the microclimate of
small moist depressions. In some places, there plateaus in summer and in winter.
are active slides and stabilized slides. Thermal regime
The loessoid deposits occupy the greatest The mean annual temperature of air is
part of the territory, being s