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Substantivul

(The Noun) Cuvinte cheie: substantive substantivul

Definitie-Denumeste obiecte in sens foarte larg, adica lucruri, fiinte, fenomene (chair,
men, snow, tree) Are categoriile gramaticale de: gen, numar si caz Poate indeplini in propozitie functiile de: SUBIECT, ATRIBUT, NUME PREDICATIV, COMPLEMENT, ELEMENT PREDICATIV SUPLIMENTAR sau poate fii echivalentul unei propozitii sau fraze

Denumeste obiecte in sens foarte larg, adica lucruri, fiinte, fenomene (chair, men, snow, tree) substantiv subiect atribut

Clasificare-In engleza substantivele sunt clasificate din mai multe puncte de vedere
Din punct de vedere al formarii: simple: day, food, sping prin derivare cu sufixe sau prefixe: childhood, dislike compuse: classroom prin conversie: verbe: cook, fall, reading adjective: the good and the evil

prin constrangere: gym (gynnastics), lab (laboratory), etc abrevieri: Dr (doctor), Miss Knight (domnisoara Knight), etc

Din punct de vedere al individualizarii: comune: denumesc un element dintr-o categorie de obiecte de acelasi tip

day, food, sping, table, wood, peace, love

proprii: individualizeaza un obiect dintr-o anume categorie

London, Bucharest, Romania, January, Continental Hotel, The Times

Numele proprii in engleza se scriu cu litere mari, inclusiv numele lunilor si zilelor din saptamana, titlurile si numele nationalitatilor (cu exceptia prepozitiilor, articolelor si conjunctiilor)

In engleza substantivele sunt clasificate din mai multe puncte de vedere substantive clasificare simple compuse comune proprii

Numarul-Numarul este categoria gramaticala prin care se specifica ideea de plural.


In engleza pluralul se formeaza prin adaugarea desinentei -s. Exista doua categorii de substantive: numarabile denumesc elemente ce pot fi numarabile

child - children a lot of apples, one book, three books

La singular se acorda cuverbe la singular, iar la plural se acorda cu verbe la plural The book is on the shelf. The children are in the classroom. nenumarabile denumesc notiuni vazute ca u intreg

tea, information, scissors, beauty

Numarul este categoria gramaticala prin care se specifica ideea de plural. numarul numarabile nenumarabile

Genul-Se refera la caracteristica cuvintelor care indica numele obiectelor. In lumea


inconjuratoare exista fiinte (feminine sau masculine) si lucruri (neutru). Substantivele in limba engleza se impart in trei grupe dupa aparteneta la gen: nume de persoane nume de animale nume de lucruri

Numele de persoane de sex masculin in engleza sunt de gen masculin, iar cele de sex feminin sunt de gen feminin

father-mother, brother-sister, actor-actress, widow-widower, bride-bridegroom

Numele de animale mari sunt de obicei de sex masculin, iar cele de animale mici de sex neutru, dar se pot face diferente de sex prin forme diferite

ox: bull-cow, horse: stalion-mare, frog, cock-hen

Numele de obiecte sunt de gen neutru masculine: anger, fear,ocean, the Danube feminine: affection, hope, revenge neutre: baby, infant, child

Se refera la caracteristica cuvintelor care indica numele obiectelor. In lumea inconjuratoare exista fiinte (feminine sau masculine) si lucruri (neutru). gen masculin feminin neutru

Cazul-cIndica raporturile dintre obiecte si actiuni


Nominativ Acuzativ Dativ Genitiv

Verbul
(The Verb) Cuvinte cheie: verbul

Definitie-Verbul este partea de vorbire care exprima actiuni, procese si stari.


are caregorii gramaticale de persoana si numar comune cu alte parti de vorbire si categoriile specifice de timp, mod, aspect si deateza; indeplineste functia sintactica de predicat

Verbul este partea de vorbire care exprima actiuni, procese si stari.

verbul the verb predicat

Timpul-Categoria gramatica de timp (tense) este specifica verbelor si se refera la


ordinea evenimentelor asa cum e perceputa de vorbitor. Clasificare: Prezent (au loc in momentului vorbirii - now) anterioare: Present Perfect simultane: Present posterioare: Future

Trecut (au loc la un moment anterior vorbirii - then) anterioare: Past Perfect simultane: Past Tense posterioare: Future in the Past

Viitor (au loc dupa momentul vorbirii ) anterioare: Future Perfect simultane: Future posterioare: nu exista marca pentru aceste evenimente

In analiza timpului trebuie luate in consideratie trei elemente: momentul vorbirii (now), momentul actiunii(now, then, tomorrow), momentul de referinta. Axa timpului: pe axa prezentului: Present, Present Perfect, Future pe axa trecutului: Past Perfect, Past Tense, Future in the Past pe axa viitorului: Future Perfect

Categoria gramatica de timp (tense) este specifica verbelor si se refera la ordinea evenimentelor asa cum e perceputa de vorbitor. timp verb present past future

Prezentul Simplu-Prezentul Simplu (Present Tense Simple) prezinta o actiune care


are loc in momentului vorbirii - now.

Prezentul Simplu in engleza se formeaza folosind infinitivul verbului (fara to), adaugandu-se doar la persoana a III-a singular terminatia -(e)s. Terminatia -(e)s se pronunta: s dupa consoane surde: he thinks z dupa vocale si consoane sonore: he runs, he studies sau iz: he washes

Terminatia -es se foloseste cand verbul se termina in s,x,z,sh,ch,tch sau o: he watches, he goes. Verbele terminate in -y precedat de o consoana schimba y in i si se adauga -es: he tries. Afirmativ: to drive I drive You drive He/she drives We drive You drive They drive to be I am (I'm) You are He/she/it is We are You are They are

Negativ: se foloseste do not (don't) sau does not (doesn't) pentru persoana a III-a singular. to drive I do not (don't) drive You do not (don't) drive He/she does not (doesn't) drive We do not (don't) drive You do not (don't) drive They do not (don't) drive to be I am (I'm) not You are not (aren't) He/she/it is not (isn't) We are not (aren't) You are not (aren't) They are not (aren't)

Interogativ: se foloseste auxiliarul do sau does (la persoana a III-a singular) urmat de

verb. Se conjuga numai auxiliarul. to drive Do I drive? Do you drive? Does he/she drives? Do we drive? Do you drive? Do they drive? Folosire: Prezentul simplu este folosit pentru actiuni obisnuite, repetate fixate prin adverbe sau locutiuni adverbiale ca: every day, usually, rarely, sometimes, once a week, often etc. I usualy watch TV. We play tennis every day. Prezentul exprima actiuni generale care au loc intr-un moment nespecificat, dar care include si momentul vorbirii. Adverbele folosite sunt: always, never, ever. Sun shine. Birds fly. Wood always floats in the water. Prezentul se refera la actiuni care se petrec in momentul vorbirii sau care au loc pentru o perioada limitata in prezent, comentarii, demonstratii, exclamatii Look! It's raining! What are you reading these days? Prezentul poate avea valoare de viitor pentru exprimarea datei: Tomorrow is Sunday. actiunilor planificate, aranjamente de viitor folosite cu verbe de miscare (go, came, leave) sau verbe ca begin, start, finish: He leave Cluj at ten. The bus for Bucharest lives at 12.15 on Monday. subordonate de timp (introduse de after, before) sau conditionale (introduse de if, in case): If it rains I'll stay home. to be Am I? Are you? Is he/she/it? Are we? Are you? Are they?

Prezentul cu valoare de trecut se foloseste in povestiri ( One day the girl goes to the woods), sau cu verbele tell, learn, write (She tells me that they won. )

Prezentul Simplu (Present Tense Simple) prezinta o actiune care are loc in momentului vorbirii - now. prezent simplu infinitiv simple present infinitive

Prezentul Continuu-Prezentul Continuu (Present Continuous Tense) este folosit


pentru a exprima o actiune viitoare care a fost planificata in momentul prezentului. Se formeaza din verbul to be la prezent si participiu prezent (forma -ing) a verbului de conjugat. Afirmativ: I am (I'm) playing football You are (you're) playing football He is (he's) playing tennnis She is (she's) playing tennnis We are playing football You are playing football They are playing football Negativ: I am not (I'm not) playing football You are not (aren't) playing football He is not (isn't) playing tennnis She is not(isn't) playing tennnis We are not playing football You are not playing football They are not playing football Interogativ: Am I playing football? Are you playing football? Is he playing football? Is she playing football? Are we playing football? Are you playing football? Are they playing football? Formarea participiului: -y final se pastreaza, chiar daca e precedat de consoana sau vocala: (study) studying, (play) playing In engleza britanica -l final se dubleaza, dar incea americana numai daca accentul cade pe ultima silaba -ie final se transforma in -y: (die) dying, (lie) lying

-e final se pierde: (have) having exceptii: (see) seeing, (be) being consoana finala se dubleaza daca vocala precedenta e scurta si accentuata: (stop) stopping

Prezentul Continuu (Present Continuous Tense) este folosit pentru a exprima o actiune viitoare care a fost planificata in momentul prezentului. prezent continuu present continuous to be

Concordanta timpurilor (The Sequence of Tenses)-Este acordul obligatoriu


al timpului verbului din subordonata cu timpul verbului din regenta sa. In limba engleza timpul verbului din subordonata trebuie sa se subordoneze timpului verbului din regenta. Cu alte cuvinte timpurile verbelor din regente dicteaza folosirea anumitor timpuri in subordonatele lor. Exista in acest sens trei reguli de cunoscut si aplicat. Regula I: Daca in regenta verbul este la Present Tense sau Present Perfect Tense in subordonata se poate folosi orice timp. Regula II: Daca in regenta verbul este la trecut in subordonata el trebuie sa fie la unul din cele trei timpuri trecute ale limbii engleze: The Past Perfect, The Past Tense, The Future in the Past. Regula III: Daca verbul din regenta este la viitor in subordonatele conditionale si temporale, el trebuie sa fie la Present Tense sau Present Perfect Tense, iar daca subordonata este completiva directa verbul va fi la viitor. REGENTA I. Verbul este la prezent SUBORDONATA verbul poate fi la orice timp he had come = venise he came = a venit We all know that = Noi toti stim he will come= el va veni ca he would come = el ar veni he would have come = el ar fi venit II. Verbul este la trecut verbul trebuie sa fie la trecut she had come = ea venise - anterioritate He did not know that = El nu a she came = ea a venit - simultaneitate stiut ca

she would come = va veni - posterioritate III. Verbul este la viitor I shall tell you the truth if/when = Iti voi spune adevarul daca /cand you give (have given) me the book. = imi vei da cartea. B. verbul va fi la orice timp in subordonata completiva directa. I shall see what = Eu voi vedea I shall do. = voi face. ce A. verbul sa fie la Present sau Present Perfect in subordonatele conditionale si temporale

EXCEPTII (deci cazuri cand nu se aplica regulile de concordanta a timpurilor) 1. Cand in subordonata se exprima un adevar stiintific /general. Everybody knew that gold is a metal. = Toata lumea stia ca aurul este metal. I told you that silver is gray. = Ti-am spus ca argintul este gri. 2. Cand subordonata este: a) cauzala He will not go to school because he didn't learn his lessons. = El nu va merge la scoala pentru ca nu si-a invatat lectiile. We shall go on the trip because they gave us the money. = Vom merge in excursie pentru ca ei ne-au dat banii. b) atributiva You will see the man who wrote that book. = Il vei vedea pe omul care a scris cartea aceea. I saw the girl who will play the piano. = Am vazut fata care va canta la pian. c) comparativ modala Tomorrow I shall work more than I worked yesterday. = Maine voi munci mai mult decat am muncit ieri. Alte exemple: If you didn't give him the money he won't buy any books. = Daca nu i-ai dat banii el nu va cumpara nici o carte. If I had bought that house I would be a rich man now. = Daca as fi cumparat casa aceea as fi un om bogat acum. If you came in time you wouldn't have missed the train. = Daca veneai la timp n-ai fi pierdut trenul. If you were with us you would have admired the scenery. = Daca erai cu noi ai fi admirat peisajul

(The Sequence of Tenses) Este acordul obligatoriu al timpului verbului din subordonata cu timpul verbului din regenta sa. In limba engleza timpul verbului din subordonata trebuie sa se subordoneze timpului verbului din regenta. Cu alte cuvinte timpurile verbelor din regente dicteaza folosirea anumitor timpuri in subordonatele lor. Exista in acest sens trei reguli de cunoscut si aplicat. concordanta timp tense present

Viitorul Simplu-Viitorul Simplu (Future)


In mod paradoxal, limba engleza nu are o forma ca atare a viitorului, dar idee de viitor se poate exprima in nenumarate moduri. Se poate exprima prin: Will/ shall + infinitiv : He will be here at 5 o'clock. Be going to + infinitiv : She's going to buy a new computer. Prezentul continuu : The British Council is moving to a new building next year. Prezentul simplu : The train leaves at 7:15.

Afirmativ I will/shall (ll) drive You will drive She/he will drive We shall drive You will drive They will drive Interogativ Shall/Will I drive? Will you drive? Will she/he drive? Shall/Will we drive? Will you drive? Will they drive? Negativ I shall/will not (shant/wont) drive You will not (wont) drive He/she will not (wont) drive We shall not (shant) drive You will not (wont) drive

They will not (wont) drive Folosire: 1. Viitorul Simplu se foloseste in legatura cu presupuneri care se vor desfasura in viitor. We'll come back. (Ne vom intoarce). 2. Viitorul Simplu se foloseste pentru a descrie actiuni obisnuite ce vor avea loc in viitor. Drivers will always have to pay their speed tickets. (Soferii intotdeauna vor trebui sa-si achite amenzile pentru depasirea vitezei). 3. Viitorul Simplu se foloseste in cadrul propozitiilor conditionale de tip 1, precum si in propozitii temporale. He will come home when he finishes his work. (El va veni acasa dupa ce isi va termina treaba). 4. Viitorul Simplu se foloseste pentru a descrie actiuni ce exprima intentia (mai ales cele luate in momentul deciziei). I will have some coffe, please. (As dori o cafea, va rog). Cuvinte cheie: viitor future present will shall

Viitorul Simplu (Future) In mod paradoxal, limba engleza nu are o forma ca atare a viitorului, dar idee de viitor se poate exprima in nenumarate moduri. viitor future present will shall

Lista verbelor regulate-Exista mii de verbe regulate in limba engleza. Aceasta este
o lista de 600 de mai multe comune regulate verbe. Retineti ca exista unele diferente de ortografie in engleza americana (de exemplu, "practise" devine "practice" in engleza americana).

A
accept add allow amuse applaud appreciate attach attack

admire admit advise afford agree alert

analyse announce annoy answer apologise appear

approve argue arrange arrest arrive ask

attempt attend attract avoid

B
back bake balance ban bang bare bat bathe battle beam beg behave belong bleach bless blind blink blot blush boast boil bolt bomb book bore borrow bounce bow box brake brake branch breathe bruise brush bubble bump burn bury buzz

C
calculate call camp care carry carve cause choke chop claim clap clean clear clip compare compete complain complete concentrate concern confess cough count cover crack crash crawl cross

challenge change charge chase cheat check cheer chew

close coach coil collect colour comb command communicate

confuse connect consider consist contain continue copy correct

crush cry cure curl curve cycle

D
dam damage dance dare decay deceive decide decorate delay delight deliver depend describe desert deserve destroy detect develop disagree disappear disapprove disarm discover dislike divide double doubt drag drain dream dress drip drop drown drum dry dust

E
earn educate embarrass employ empty end enjoy enter entertain escape excite excuse exercise exist expand explain explode extend

encourage

examine

expect

F
face fade fail fancy fasten fax fear fence fetch file fill film fire fit fix flap flash float flood flow flower fold follow fool force form found frame frighten fry

G
gather gaze glow glue grab grate grease greet grin grip groan guarantee guard guess guide

H
hammer hand handle hang happen harass harm hate haunt head heal heap heat help hook hop hope hover hug hum hunt hurry

I
identify ignore increase influence intend interest invite irritate

imagine impress improve include

inform inject injure instruct

interfere interrupt introduce invent

itch

J
jail jam jog join joke judge juggle jump

K
kick kill kiss kneel knit knock knot

L
label land last laugh launch learn level license lick lie lighten like list listen live load lock long look love

M
man manage march mark marry match mate matter measure meddle melt memorise mend mess up milk mine miss mix moan moor mourn move muddle mug multiply murder

N
nail name need nest nod note notice number

O
obey object observe obtain occur offend offer open order overflow owe own

P
pack paddle paint park part pass paste pat pause peck pedal peel peep perform permit phone pick pinch pine place plan plant play please plug point poke polish pop possess post pour practise pray preach precede prefer prepare present preserve press pretend prevent prick print produce program promise protect provide pull pump punch puncture punish push

Q
question queue

R
race radiate rain raise reach realise receive recognise record reduce reflect refuse regret reign reject rejoice relax release rely remain remember remind remove repair repeat replace reply report reproduce request rescue retire return rhyme rinse risk rob rock roll rot rub ruin rule rush

S
sack sail satisfy save saw scare scatter scold scorch scrape scratch scream shiver shock shop shrug sigh sign signal sin sip ski skip slap soothe sound spare spark sparkle spell spill spoil spot spray sprout squash stop store strap strengthen stretch strip stroke stuff subtract succeed suck suffer

screw scribble scrub seal search separate serve settle shade share shave shelter

slip slow smash smell smile smoke snatch sneeze sniff snore snow soak

squeak squeal squeeze stain stamp stare start stay steer step stir stitch

suggest suit supply support suppose surprise surround suspect suspend switch

T
talk tame tap taste tease telephone tempt terrify test thank thaw tick tickle tie time tip tire touch tour tow trace trade train transport trap travel treat tremble trick trip trot trouble trust try tug tumble turn twist type

U
undress unite unpack use

unfasten

unlock

untidy

V
vanish visit

W
wail wait walk wander want warm warn wash waste watch water wave weigh welcome whine whip whirl whisper whistle wink wipe wish wobble wonder work worry wrap wreck wrestle wriggle

X
x-ray

Y
yawn yell

Z
zip zoom

Exista mii de verbe regulate in limba engleza. Aceasta este o lista de 600 de mai multe comune regulate verbe. Retineti ca exista unele diferente de ortografie in engleza americana (de exemplu, "practise" devine "practice" in engleza americana). verbe regulate engleza americana verbele regulate

Trecutul Simplu-Trecutul Simplu (Past Tense Simple)


Desemneaza un eveniment definit care a avut loc pe axa trecutului (evenimentul este amintit in momentul prezent). Exprima o actiune care a avut loc la un moment dat in trecut iar perioada de timp s-a

incheiat. Se formeaza astfel: verb la infinitiv + (-ed) (la verbele regulate) forma a doua a verbului (la verbele neregulate) Verbe regulate Afirmativ I played tennis You played tennis He/she played tennis We played tennis You played tennis They played tennis Interogativ Did I play tennis? Did you play tennis? Did he/she play tennis? Did we play tennis? Did you play tennis? Did they play tennis? Negativ I did not (didnt) play tennis. I was not (wasn't) You did not play tennis. He/she did not play tennis. We did not play tennis. You did not play tennis. They did not play tennis. Timpul trecut se foloseste pentru a exprima actiuni incheiate in trecut. Se foloseste de obicei cu : yesterday(ieri),last week(saptamana trecuta),four days ago(acum 4 zile). Exemple: .... We were not (weren't) Was I? Were you? ....... Verbe neregulate I was You were He/she was We were You were They were

I was at home yesterday. She visited Romania last month. They didn't go to Ben's party last weekend. Where did you go on vacation last summer?

Trecutul Simplu (Past Tense Simple) Desemneaza un eveniment definit care a avut loc pe axa trecutului (evenimentul este amintit in momentul prezent). Exprima o actiune care a avut loc la un moment dat in trecut iar perioada de timp s-a incheiat. past tense trecut engleza

Trecutul Continuu-Trecutul Continuu (Past Contunuous Tense)


Trecutul continuu se formeaza cu ajutorul formei de trecut simplu a auxiliarului to be, was/were + forma participiului prezent (-ing) a verbului principal. Mod de formare Afirmativ: Subiect + was (pers.I/III sg) / were (restul pers.) + Verbul la infinitiv + terminatia "-ing" Exemple: 1. I was learning a poem at this time yesterday. 2. You were watering the flowers at this time yesterday. 3.They were mending the radio at this time yesterday. Interogativ: Was (pers.I/III sg) / Were (restul pers.) + Subiect + Verbul la infinitiv + terminatia "ing" Exemple: 1. Was I learning a poem at this time yesterday? 2. Were you watering the flowers at this time yesterday? 3. Were they mending the radio at this time yesterday? Negativ: Subiect + was (pers.I/III sg) / were (restul pers.) + not + Verbul la infinitiv + terminatia "-ing" Se folosesc adesea contractiile wasn't (was + not) si weren't (were + not) Exemple: 1. I wasn't learning a poem at this time yesterday.

2. You weren't watering the flowers at this time yesterday. 3.They weren't mending the radio at this time yesterday.

Verbe regulate I was playing tennis You were playing tennis He/she was playing tennis We were playing tennis You were playing tennis They were playing tennis Was I playing tennis? Were you playing tennis? Was he/she playing tennis? Were we playing tennis? Were you playing tennis? Were they playing tennis? I was not (wasnt) playing tennis. You were not playing tennis. He/she did not playing tennis. We were not playing tennis. You were not playing tennis. They were not playing tennis.

Verbe neregulate I was being You were being He/she was being We were being You were being They were being

Afirmativ

Interogativ

Was I being? Were you being? .......

I was not (wasn't) being .... We were not (weren't) being

Negativ

Trecutul continuu ca si prezentul continuu sunt forme verbale apartinand registrului oral, limbii vorbite cu precadere si sunt rar folosite in registrul scris. Trecutul continuu este folosit pentru a exprima actiuni in desfasurare intr-un moment din trecut. Deoarece indica o limita a duratei actiunii este foarte folosit pentru a indica actiuni care au avut loc (trecut simplu) in timp ce o alta actiune era in desfasurare, sau pentru a indica o actiune in desfasurare care este intrerupta de o alta. Ex.: Carlos lost his watch while he was running. I was watching Oprah when John came in screaming. Exprima activitati din trecut: Ex.: Once I was driving through Kenya with a friend. Pentru a vorbi despre obiceiuri din trecut. Trecutul continuu este insotit in acest caz de always. Ex.: Grace was always handing in late papers. My father was always lecturing my brother. Trecutul Continuu (Past Contunuous Tense) Trecutul continuu se formeaza cu ajutorul formei de trecut simplu a auxiliarului to be,

was/were + forma participiului prezent (-ing) a verbului principal.