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Gramatica limbii engleze Articolul

Definitie: Articolul reprezinta un determinant substantival care contribuie la realizarea intelesului unui substantiv intr-o propozitie. Tipuri de articole: Articolul Hotarat - THE Articolul Nehotarat - A / AN Articolul zero (forma implicita sau neexprimata)

Articolul hotarat THE: Cand folosim articolul hotarat THE?

Inaintea unui substantiv care a mai fost mentionat in textul respectiv: Exemplu: A man knocked at the door and a girl opened it. The man was her father. Un barbat a batut la usa si o fetita i-a deschis. Barbatul era tatal ei. Inaintea substantivelor care sunt unice: Exemple: the moon, the earth, the stars, the sun, the air luna, pamantul, stelele, soarele, aerul Inaintea numeralelor ordinale: Exemple: the first, the second, the third, the twenty-first, the seventeenth primul, al doilea, al treilea, al douazeci si unulea, al saptesprezecelea In realizarea superlativului: Exemple: the best year, the youngest girl, the most important, the fastest, the tallest cel mai bun an, cea mai tanara fata, cel mai important, cel mai rapid, cel mai inalt Inaintea substantivelor care reprezinta nume de colectivitati si institutii: Exemple: the army, the crowd, the government, the police, the parliament armata, multimea, guvernul, politia, parlamentul Inaintea unor nume proprii (nume de familie, muzee, teatre, ziare, hoteluri, etc): Exemple: the Browns, the Johns, the National Theatre, the Marriott Grand Hotel, the New York Times, the Beatles familia Brown, familia John, Teatrul National, Marriott Grand Hotel (hotelul), New York Times (ziarul), Beatles (formatia) Inaintea substantivelor care indica nume de locuri geografice, munti, fluvii, oceane, mari etc: Exemple: the Alps, the Atlantic, the Thames, the Danube, the Red Sea, the Sahara Alpii, Atlanticul, Tamisa, Dunarea, Marea Rosie, Sahara

Cand NU folosim articolul hotarat THE?

Inaintea momentelor in care servim masa, decat daca ne referim la un moment anume: Exemple: Breakfast is ready. Micul dejun este gata. What time do you have dinner? La ce ora serviti cina? Atentie: The lunch I had yesterday was not so delicious. Pranzul pe care l-am servit ieri nu a fost atat de bun.

Inaintea numelor de anotimpuri decat daca ne referim la un anotimp anume: Exemplu: I always go to the mountains in spring. Intotdeauna merg la munte primavara. Atentie: The summer in 2010 was the warmest in Romania. Vara din 2010 a fost cea mai calduroasa din Romania.

Articolul nehotarat A / AN Utilizam articolul nehotarat A:

Inaintea substantivelor care incep cu o consoana: Exemple: a girl, a boy, a teacher, a family, a classroom o fata, un baiat, un profesor, o familie, o sala de clasa

Utilizam articolul nehotarat AN:

Inaintea substantivelor care incep cu o vocala (a, e, i, o, u): Exemple: an elephant, an apple, an interview, an onion, an action un elefant, un mar, un interviu, o ceapa, o actiune

Articolul nehotarat - exceptii:

Folosim articolul nehotarat AN inaintea unui substantiv care incepe cu litera "h", doar atunci cand este vorba despre un "h mut". Exemple: an hour, an honour o ora, o onoare Folosim articolul nehotarat A inaintea unui substantiv care incepe cu litera "u" sau grupul de litere "eu", doar atunci cand acestea se pronunta ca "you"

Exemple: a European, a university, a unit un european, o universitate, o unitate de masura

Cand folosim articolul nehotarat A/AN?

Inaintea unui substantiv concret nedeterminat si numarabil: Exemple: A boy entered into the classroom. Un baiat a intrat in clasa. The reporter took an interview. Reporterul a luat un interviu.

Inaintea unui substantiv concret cu functia de nume predicativ: Exemple: She is a teacher. Ea este profesoara. Ronnie is an elephant. Ronnie este un elefant.

Articolul zero Nu folosim articol in urmatoarele situatii:

Inaintea substantivelor care indica nume proprii la singular: Exemplu: Paul is going to the school. Paul merge la scoala. Inaintea substantivelor care indica nume de tari, orase si limba acestora: Exemple: France is a European country. Franta este o tara europeana. You speak English fluently. Tu vorbesti engleza fluent. Bucharest is the capital of Romania. Bucurestiul este capitala Romaniei.

In unele expresii invariabile: Exemple: by car, at school, in church, by train cu masina, la scoala, in biserica, cu trenul Inaintea substantivelor abstracte, care indica nume de culori, stiinte, arte, materii etc: Exemple: beauty, health, dinner, lunch, breakfast, truth, green, red, yellow, gold, silver, mathematics, physics

frumusete, sanatate, cina, pranz, mic dejun, adevar, verde, rosu, galben, aur, argint, matematica, fizica

Inaintea unora dintre substantivele ce nu au plural: Exemple: sugar, milk, salt zahar, lapte, sare Atentie: a / the bottle of milk, a / the cup of sugar (o) sticla de lapte, (o) cana de zahar

Exercitii
1. Completeaza cu a / an / the acolo unde este cazul: ___ woman ___ unit ___ United States of America ___ Johnsons ___ elephant ___ beauty ___ hour ___ Thames 2. Completeaza propozitiile din textul de mai jos cu a/an: a) ___ old woman laughed at him. b) ___ cat and ___ dog were in the kitchen. c) I saw ___ elephant at the zoo. d) It was ___ excellent movie. e) She watched ___ TV show 3. Completeaza cu a / an / the acolo unde este cazul: Daniel is ___ teacher. He likes ___ Physics very much. He teaches at ___ Theoretical Highschool from ___ Bucharest. ___pupils like him very much. One day, he decided to take ___ children to see ___ laboratory from another highschool. There, they made ___ experiment. All ___ children considered ___ experiment ___ most interesting they have ever made. 4. Modifica urmatoarele propozitii cu articolele corecte (acolo unde este cazul): a) An boy is eating a egg. b) Danube is very deep in the Summer. c) Beatles is my favourite music band. d) The winter is a best season for me. e) The London is capital of the England. 5. Tradu in limba engleza propozitiile de mai jos: a) Ai vazut filmul ieri seara? A fost un film foarte interesant. b) Baiatul alearga spre usa. c) O fata si un baiat s-au cunoscut pe plaja. d) Familia Brown pleaca la munte in aceasta vara. e) Iarna din 1989 a fost cea mai rece din Romania.

Rezolvari exercitii
1. Completeaza cu a / an / the acolo unde este cazul: a woman a unit the United States of America the Johnsons an elephant beauty (de regula nu are articol, fiind un substantiv abstract, dar pot exista si exceptii, de exemplu: "The beauty of buying a wedding dress is not the same with buying an ordinary one." - Frumusetea de a cumpara o rochie de mireasa nu se compara cu aceea de a cumpara una obisnuita. - ma refer la "acea" frumusete, nu la una in mod general) an hour the Thames 2. Completeaza propozitiile din textul de mai jos cu a/an: a) An old woman laughed at him. b) A cat and a dog were in the kitchen. c) I saw an elephant at the zoo. d) It was an excellent movie. e) She watched a TV show 3. Completeaza cu a / an / the acolo unde este cazul: Daniel is a teacher. He likes Physics very much. He teaches at the Theoretical Highschool from Bucharest.The pupils like him very much. One day, he decided to take the children to see a laboratory from another highschool. There, they made an experiment. All the children considered the experiment the most interesting they have ever made. 4. Modifica urmatoarele propozitii cu articolele corecte (acolo unde este cazul): a) An boy is eating a egg. A boy is eating an egg. b) Danube is very deep in the Summer. The Danube is very deep in Summer. c) Beatles is my favourite music band. TheBeatles is my favourite music band. d) The winter is a best season for me. Winter is the best season for me. e) The London is capital of the England. London is the capital of England. 5. Tradu in limba engleza propozitiile de mai jos: a) Ai vazut filmul ieri seara? A fost un film foarte interesant. Did you see the movie last night? It was a very interesting movie.

b) Baiatul alearga spre usa. The boy is running to the door. c) O fata si un baiat s-au cunoscut pe plaja. A girl and a boy met on the beach. d) Familia Brown pleaca la munte in aceasta vara. The Browns go to the mountains this summer. e) Iarna din 1989 a fost cea mai rece din Romania. The winter of 1989 was the coldest in Romania.

Numeralul cardinal

1 - one 2 - two 3 - three 4 - four 5 - five 6 - six 7 - seven 8 - eight 9 - nine 10 - ten

11 - eleven 12 - twelve 13 - thirteen 14 - fourteen 15 - fifteen 16 - sixteen 17 - seventeen 18 - eighteen 19 - nineteen 20 - twenty

21 - twenty-one 22 - twenty-two 23 - twenty-three 24 - twenty-four ....... 30 - thirty 31 - thirty-one 32 - thirty-two 33 - thirty-three 34 - thirty-four

40 - forty 50 - fifty 60 - sixty 70 - seventy 80 - eighty 90 - ninety 100 - one hundred 200 - two hundred 1,000 - one thousand 10,000 - ten thousand

153 - one hundred and fifty-three 198 - one hundred and ninety-eight 203 - two hundred and three 405 - four hundred and five 1,000,000 - one million 12,000,000 - twelve million 13,632,521 - thirteen million six hundred thirty-two thousand five hundred and twentyone ATENTIE:

se foloseste cratima intre numeralul zecilor si cel al unitatilor Exemple: 21 - twenty-one; 99 - ninety-nine se pune virgula dupa fiecare grup care indica miile Exemplu: 1,222,351 mentionarea conjunctiei and este obligatorie inaintea grupului zecilor si unitatea finala Exemplu: 2,532 - two thousand five hundred and thirty-two cifrele zecimale se citesc astfel: 2.4832 - two point four eight three two

Numeralul ordinal Mod de formare:


Prin adaugarea terminatiei "th" la numeralul cardinal corespunzator. Exceptii: one - first (1st) two - second (2nd) three - third (3rd) five si nine, la care se suprima -e final, fifth (5th) si ninth (9th) zecile la care -y final se transforma in -ie, forty - fortieth (40th)

1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th

the first (primul) the second (al doilea) the third (al treilea) the fourth (al patrulea) the fifth (al cincilea) the sixth (al saselea) the seventh (al saptelea) the eighth (al optulea) the ninth (al noualea) the tenth (al zecelea) the eleventh (al unsprezecelea) the twelfth (al doisprezecelea) the thirteenth (al treisprezecelea) the fourteenth (al patrusprezecelea) the fifteenth (al cincisprezecelea)

16th 17th 18th 19th 20th 21st 22nd 23rd ....... 30th 40th ....... 100th 101th 1,000th

the sixteenth (al saisprezecelea) the seventeenth (al saptesprezecelea) the eighteenth (al optsprezecelea) the nineteenth (al nouasprezecelea) the twentieth (al douazecilea) the twenty-first (al douazeci si unulea) the twenty-second (al douazeci si doilea) the twenty-third (al douazeci si treilea) ....... the thirtieth (al treizecilea) the fortieth (al patruzecilea) ....... the hundredth (al o sutalea) the hundred and first (al o suta unulea) the thousandth (al o mielea)

Data in limba engleza In limba engleza pentru exprimarea datei se foloseste numeralul ordinal, care poate fi pus inainte sau dupa numele lunii.
Exemple: 21st July (the twenty-first of July) June 4th (the fourth of June) 23 April, 1989 (the twenty-third of April nineteen eighty-nine) December 29 (the twenty-ninth of December)

Numeralul fractionar Numerele fractionare exprima una sau mai multe parti ale unui intreg si se scriu ca fractii (1/2, 3/4, 7/8, 1/3, 2/10). Cand citim sau cand scriem cu litere fractiile in limba engleza, folosim

numerale cardinale pentru numarator si numerale ordinale pentru numitor (la numitor pentru 2 folosim half - jumatate si pentru 4 folosim quarter - sfert). Exemple: 1/2 se citeste one half 3/4 se citeste three quarters 7/8 se citeste seven eights 1/3 se citeste one third 2/10 se citeste two tenth 1/1 se citeste one whole (un intreg)

Ora in limba engleza Ora in limba engleza se exprima folosind numerale cardinale pentru ore si pentru minute (la minute sunt cateva exceptii pe care le vedem in exemplele de mai jos). Minutele se exprima inaintea orelor, intre minute si ore, pentru prima jumatate a cadranului ceasului se foloseste past, iar pentru a doua se foloseste to. In engleza americana se folosesc prepozitiile after si before in loc de past si to.
Exemple: What time is it? (Cat e ceasul?) it's ten to one (e unu fara zece) it's half past six (e sase si jumatate) it's a quarter past twelve (e douasprezece si un sfert) it's a quarter to two (e doua fara un sfert) it's six past five (e cinci si sase) it's five o'clock (cinci fix)

Numeralul distributiv Numeralul distributiv exprima gruparea numerica a obiectelor, distributia lor.
Exemple: one at a time (cate unul o data) one by one (unul cate unul) two at a time (cate doi o data) two by two (doi cate doi) one after another (unul dupa altul) every week/month/year (in fiecare saptamana/luna/an) every two days (la fiecare doua zile, din doua in doua zile) every six hours (din sase in sase ore)

Numeralul multiplicativ Numeralul multiplicativ se formeaza din numeralul ordinal + times, in afara de once (o data) si twice (de doua ori).
Exemple: once (o data) twice (de doua ori)

three times ( de trei ori) four times (de patru ori) five times (de cinci ori)

Numeralul adverbial Numeralul adverbial se foloseste atunci cand vrem sa precizam sau sa subliniem ceva (arata "in al catelea rand").
Exemple: first(ly) (in primul rand) second(ly) (in al doilea rand) third(ly) (in al treilea rand) fourth(ly) (in al patrulea rand) fifth(ly) (in al cincilea rand)

Numeralul repetitiv Numeralul repetitiv arata pentru a cata oara s-a intamplat ceva (se intampla sau se va intampla).
Exemple: (for) the first time (pentru prima oara) (for) the second time (pentru) a dou oar (for) the third time (pentru a treia oara) (for) the fourth time (pentru a patra oara) (for) the fifth time (pentru a cincea oara)

Numeralul colectiv Numeralul colectiv arata ca obiectele la care ne referim fac parte dintr-un grup. Numeralele colective sunt couple(doi, doua), pair (pereche), team (echipa), dozen (duzina, duzini), score (douazeci).
Exemple: a pair of shoes (o pereche de pantofi) three dozen of flowers (trei duzini de flori)

Numeralul nehotarat Numeralul nehotarat se foloseste pentru a exprima un numar indefinit de obiecte.
Exemple: much (mult, multa) how much (cat, cata - mult, multa) so much (atat, atata - mult, multa) not so much (nu atat, nu atata - mult, multa) too much (prea mult, multa) a number of (un numar de) a lot of (o multime/gramada de)

many (multi, multe) how many (cati, cate - multi, multe) so many (atati, atatea - de multi, multe) not so many (nu atat, atatea - de multi, multe) too many (prea multi, multe) several (mai multi, mai multe) several days (mai multe zile) tens of (zeci de) hundreds of (sute de) millions of (milioane de)

Exercitii
1. Scrie in litere urmatoarele numere: 10; 21; 123; 13; 1000; 1,450; 58; 33; 1,024; 985 2. Tradu in limba romana: three hundred and thirty one million and twenty-nine a quarter to nine seven eights the fifth 3. Tradu in limba engleza: Ziua mea de nastere este pe 21 aprilie. Sunt 14 elevi in aceasta clasa. Al patrulea baiat este fratele meu. Este ora trei fara un sfert. Intalnirea noastra este la ora doisprezece si jumatate. 4. Scrie in litere urmatoarele ore: 10:45; 11:25; 12:40; 13:30; 14:05; 16:00; 09:15; 12:10; 08:20; 07:53

Exercitii rezolvate
1. Scrie in litere urmatoarele numere: 10 - ten 21 - twenty-one 123 - one hundred and twenty-three 13 - thirteen 1000 - one thousand 1,450 - one thousand four hundred and fifty 58 - fifty-eight 33 - thirty-three 1,024 - one thousand and twnty-four 985 - nine hundred and eighty-five

2. Tradu in limba romana: three hundred and thirty - 330 one million and twenty-nine - 1,000,029 a quarter to nine - noua fara un sfert seven eights - 7/8 the fifth - al cincilea 3. Tradu in limba engleza: Ziua mea de nastere este pe 21 aprilie. My brithday is on twenty-first of April. Sunt 14 elevi in aceasta clasa. There are fourteen pupils in this classroom. Al patrulea baiat este fratele meu. The forth boy is my brother. Este ora trei fara un sfert. It's a quarter to three. Intalnirea noastra este la ora doisprezece si jumatate. Our meeting is at half past twelve. 4. Scrie in litere urmatoarele ore: 10:45 - a quarter to eleven 11:25 - twenty-five minutes past eleven 12:40 - twenty minutes to one 13:30 - half past one 14:05 - five minutes past two 16:00 - four o'clock 09:15 - a quarter past nine 12:10 - ten minutes past twelve 08:20 - twenty minutes past eight 07:53 - sevent minutes to eight

Pronumele
Pronumele sunt cuvinte care desemneaza o persoana sau inlocuiesc un substantiv, referinduse la o fiinta, idee, obiect sau o actiune despre care s-a mentionat anterior sau care este cunoscuta de catre interlocutor. Dupa continut si functie, pronumele pot fi: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Personale Reflexive si de intarire Demonstrative Nehotarate Relative Interogative Reciproce

1. Pronumele personal

Cazul Nominativ (cu functie de subiect): I (eu) You (tu, dumneata, dumneavoastra) He (el) She (ea) It (el, ea - neutru, pentru nume de obiecte, lucruri, animale) We (noi) You (voi, dumneavoastra) They (ei, ele, dumnealor) Exemple: I am a big girl. (Eu sunt o fata mare.) He lives near the school. (El locuieste langa scoala.) We like chocolate very much. (Noua ne place ciocolata foarte mult.) Do you like football? (Tie iti place fotbalul?)

Cazul Genitiv (cu functie de nume predicativ): Mine (al meu, a mea) Yours (al tau, a ta) His (a lui) Hers (a ei) Its (a lui, a ei - neutru) Ours (al nostru, a noastra) Yours (al vostru, a voastra) Theirs ( a lor) Exemple: This book is mine. (Aceasta carte este a mea.) Yours is on the shelf. (A ta este pe raft.) It is John's shirt. It is his. (Este camasa lui John. Este a lui.) That dress is Mary's. It is hers. (Acea rochie este a lui Mary. Este a ei.) I made that pie for my friends. It is theirs. (Am gatit acea placinta pentru prietenii mei. Este a lor.)

Cazul Dativ (cu functie de complement indirect): (to) me (mie, imi, mi) (to) you (tie, iti, ti) (to) him (lui, ii, i) (to) her (ei, ii, i) (to) it (lui, ei - neutru)

(to) us (noua, ne, ni) (to) you (voua, va, v) (to) them (lor, le) Exemple: He gave me a very nice present. (Mi-a dat un cadou foarte dragut.) I sent you a letter last week. (Ti-am trimis o scrisoare saptamana trecuta.) Give us some water, please! (Da-ne niste apa, te rog!) They presented you a very interesting plan. (V-au prezentat un plan foarte interesant.) I lent them some money. (Le-am imprumutat niste bani.)

Cazul Acuzativ (cu functie de complement direct) Me (pe mine, ma, m) You (pe tine, te) Him (pe el, il, l) Her (pe ea, o) It (pe el, il, l, pe ea, o - neutru) Us (pe noi, ne) You (pe voi, va, v) Them (pe ei, ii, i, pe ele, le) Exemple: My mother saw me in the garden. (Mama mea m-a vazut in gradina.) I watched her on the TV. Am vazut-o la televizor. Did you see them? (I-ai vazut?) Andreea will meet us in the front of the theatre. (Andreea ne va intalni in fata teatrului.) After reading the exercise, Ana resolve it in five minutes. (Dupa ce a citit exercitiul, Ana l-a rezolvat in 5 minute.)

2. Pronumele reflexiv si de intarire Pronumele reflexive sunt cuvinte care insotesc un verb si se refera la subiect. Se folosesc atunci cand subiectul si complementul direct se refera la aceeasi persoana.
Pronumele de intarire sunt identice ca forma cu cele reflexive si insotesc substantive sau pronume personale pentru a le sublinia, a le scoate in evidenta. myself (ma, insumi, insami) yourself (te, insuti, insati) himself (se, insusi) herself (se, insesi) itself (se, insusi, insasi (neutru) ourselves (ne, insine, insene) yourselves (va, insiva, inseva themselves (se, insisi, insesi)

Exemple: I wanted to write it myself. (Am vrut sa o scriu singur.) (Am vrut sa o scriu eu insami).) He himself doesn't know the answer. (El insusi nu cunoaste raspunsul.) The light will turn off itself after ten minutes. (Lumina se va stinge singura dupa zece minute.) They bought the house themselves. (Ei si-au cumparat casa singuri.) (Ei insisi si-au cumparat casa) You yourselves ate all the steak. (Voi insiva ati mancat toata friptura.)

3. Pronumele demonstrativ Pronumele demonstrativ este pronumele care inlocuieste numele unui obiect si il deosebeste de alte obiecte de acelai fel aratand aproprierea, departarea (in spatiu sau timp) sau identitatea obiectului cu sine insui sau cu alt obiect.
this (acesta, aceasta, asta, asta) that (acela, aceea, ala, aia) these (acestea, acestia, astia, astea) those (acelea, aceia, aia, alea) Exemple: This is my brother. (Acesta este fratele meu.) Those are his parents. (Aceia sunt parintii lui.) These are delicious. (Acestea sunt delicioase.) Did you buy that? {Tu ai cumparat aia?) I've never seen this. (Nu am mai vazut asta niciodata.)

4. Pronumele nehotarat Pronumele nehotarat sau nedefinit inlocuieste un substantiv fara a da indicatii precise legate de obiectul denumit de acesta.
Some, any, every se pot combina cu -one, -body, -thing pentru a obtine pronumele nehotarate. Rezulta astfel urmatoarele pronume: anyone (oricare) anybody (oricine) anything (orice) someone (cineva) somebody (cineva) something (ceva) everyone (oricare, toata lumea) everybody (toata lumea) everything (totul)

No poate forma pronume nehotarate impreuna cu -one, -body: nobody, no-one ATENTIE: Pronumele nehotarate anyone, anybody, someone, somebody, everyone, everybody, no-one trebuie folosite cu un verb la singular. Alte exemple de pronume nehotarate: enough, few, less, little, many, much, several, more, most, all, both,every, each, any , either, neither, none, some. Exemple: I want something from you. (Vreau ceva de la tine.) She didn't find anything in the fridge. (Nu a gasit nimic in frigider.) There was no-one in the room. (Nu era nimeni in camera.) Few will be chosen. (Putini vor fi alesi.) Something tells me that you are wrong. (Ceva imi spune ca gresesti.) I gave him enough to go and buy a car. (I-am dat destul sa plece si sa cumpere o masina.) Somebody knocked at the door. (Cineva a batut la usa.) Is there anybody in this house? (Este cineva in aceasta casa?)

5. Pronumele relativ Pronumele relativ face referire la un substantiv sau un inlocuitor substantival mentionat anterior si leaga propozitia sau grupul de cuvinte, oferind mai multe detalii despre substantivul respectiv.
who (care) whom/who (pe care) whose (al (a, ai, ale) carui, careia, carora) what (ce, ceea ce which (care, pe care (pt. lucruri, obiecte ...) that (care) whoever (oricine, oricare) Exemple: My brother, who is a doctor, lives in Bucharest. (Fratele meu, care este doctor, locuieste in Bucuresti.) Tom, whose car was stolen, bought another one last week. (Tom, a carui masina a fost furata, a cumparat alta saptamana trecuta.) I found a dog that was lost. (Am gasit un caine care se pierduse.) I didn't like what I saw. (Nu mi-a placut ce am vazut.) I picked all the leaves which fell. (Am cules toate frunzele care au cazut.) The coach will select whomever he pleases. (Antrenorul il va alege pe oricine va dori.) He said whatever had in mind. (A spus orice avea in minte.) Whoever crosses the line first will win the race. (Oricine va trece primul linia va castiga cursa.)

6. Pronumele interogativ

Pronumele interogative sunt cuvinte care introduc intrebari, propozitii interogative directe sau indirecte. who? (cine?) whom? who? (pe cine?) whose? (al (a, ai, ale) cui?) what? (care?, pe care, ce?) which? (pe care dintre? care dintre) Exemple: Whom did you see last Sunday? (Pe cine ai vazut duminica trecuta?) Whose shoes are those? (Ai cui sunt pantofii aceia?) What are you doing? (Ce faci?) Which do you like more? (Care iti place mai mult?) I don't remember to whom I gave my blouse. (Nu imi aduc aminte cui i-am dat bluza.) I already told him what I know about it. (I-am spus deja ceea ce stiam despre asta.)

7. Pronumele reciproc Pronumele reciproce se folosesc pentru a exprima relatii de reciprocitate intre fiinte, idei si lucruri.
Au urmatoarele forme: each other (unul altuia, reciproc) one another (unul pe altul, unul pe celalalt) Exemple: They gave each other maps. (Ei si-au dat unul altuia harti.) My friend and I borrowed each other's ideas. (Prietena mea si cu mine ne-am imprumutat una alteia ideile.) The scientists often use one another's equipment. (Oamenii de stiinta isi folosesc des unul altuia echipamentul.)

Exercitii
1. Completeaza propozitiile urmatoare cu forma corecta a pronumelui reflexiv: a) I enjoyed _____ at the party b) My father didn't buy the book for _____ c) The dog cut _____ while running in the street. d) Help _____ to some fruit, John and Mary. e) We saw _____ in the snow. 2. Completeaza propozitiile de mai jos cu forma corecta a pronumelui posesiv: a) This is my cat. It is _______

b) That is his lamp. It is _______ c) These are our maps. They are _______ d) Those are their shoes. They are _______ e) This is her shirt. It is _______ 3. Completeaza corect spatiile goale cu unul dintre pronumele din paranteze: a) I saw Mr. Thompson _____ is John's father. (that, who, which) b) _____ did you meet last week, John or Steve? (which, who, whose) c) Puffy, _____ is a big cat, is very lazy. (which, who, whose) d) _____ are you doing? (whom, what, that) e) _____ is going with you at the theatre? (who, that, whom) 4. Completeaza cu pronumele personal corect. Atentie la cuvintele din paranteze: Exemplu: _____ is reading the newspaper. (My father) Raspuns: He is reading the newspaper. El citeste ziarul. a) _____ is walking in the garden. (your sister) b) _____ are cooking an apple-pie. (my mother and I) c) _____ is from Timisoara. (Andreea) d) _____ has a brother and a sister. (Daniel) e) _____ are eating a big cake. (My friends) 5. Inlocuieste cuvintele subliniate cu pronumele corect din cele 3 variante: Exemplu: My mother is writing a letter to grandmother. Mama mea scrie o scrisoare bunicei. 1) me; 2) him; 3) her. Raspuns: My mother is writing a letter to her. Mama mea ii scrie o scrisoare. a) Tom is drawing a flower for his brother. Tom deseneaza o floare pentru fratele lui. 1) she; 2) him; 3) he. b) I am organizing a surprise party for his parents. Eu organizez o petrecere surpriza pentru parintii lui. 1) our; 2) them;

3) they. c) I don't know the answer. Nu cunosc raspunsul. 1) he; 2) she; 3) it. d) Can you help your friends with this exercise? Iti poti ajuta prietenii cu acest exercitiu? 1) them; 2) our; 3) yours. e) Can you visit Sally this weekend? O poti vizita pe Sally in acest weekend? 1) her; 2) she; 3) it. 6. Alege forma corecta a pronumelui reflexiv din lista de mai jos: myself - yourself - himself - herself - itself - ourselves - yourselves - themselves a) I wrote this letter _____ b) His grandmother often talks to _____ c) Dana and Andreea picked the mushrooms _____ d) Please help _____ with some pie! e) He did the homework _____ f) The lion can defend _____ g) We cleaned _____ the house. 7. Scrie pronumele (personale, reflexive, nehotarate, demonstrative, relative, interogative) din paranteze, in acord cu fiecare propozitie. a) _____ is nice. (ea) b) Give _____ the prize. (el / ea) c) _____ speak English. (noi) d) _____ are flowers. (acestea) e) Have you seen _____?(pe ei) f) This is _____ book. (a ta) g) The dog _____ barked is Puffy. (care) h) Is there _____ in the room? (cineva) i) The earth is for _____. (oricine) j) Let's buy _____ a car. (noi insine) 8. Tradu in limba romana urmatoarele propozitii: a) We often sing in the bathroom. b) I did this myself. c) Those are my best friends.

d) Have you seen anybody in the school? e) I loved the song that you sang. f) Everyone knew the story. g) Come with us. h) Whose are these books? 9. Tradu in limba engleza urmatoarele propozitii: a) Noi mergem la scoala in fiecare dimineata. b) Eu ma trezesc la ora 08:00. c) Ai vazut ceva la piata? d) Ana merge singura la opera. e) El va da premiul oricui va dori. f) Care este parerea ta? g) Care este filmul tau preferat? h) Nimeni nu citise poezia. 10. Alege pronumele corect: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves, each other. a) Mary and Andrew haven't met _____ for a long time. b) My friends enjoyed _____ at the party. c) I bought _____ a new camera. d) Victor, did you do the Physics homework _____? e) People often give _____ presents at Christmas. f) Dana often thinks at _____ g) We helped _____ with our report. h) Thomas repaired the car _____

Exercitii rezolvate
1. Completeaza propozitiile urmatoare cu forma corecta a pronumelui reflexiv: a) I enjoyed myself at the party M-am distrat la petrecere. b) My father didn't buy the book for himself. Tatal meu nu si-a cumparat cartea pentru el. c) The dog cut itself while running in the street. Cainele s-a taiat in timp ce alerga pe strada. d) Help yourselves to some fruit, John and Mary. Serviti-va cu niste fructe, John si Mary! e) We saw ourselves in the snow. Ne-am vazut in zapada.

2. Completeaza propozitiile de mai jos cu forma corecta a pronumelui posesiv: a) This is my cat. It is mine. Aceasta este pisica mea. Este a mea. b) That is his lamp. It is his. Aceea este lampa lui. Este a lui. c) These are our maps. They are ours. Acestea sunt hartile noastre. Sunt ale noastre. d) Those are their shoes. They are theirs. Aceia sunt pantofii lor. Sunt ai lor. e) This is her shirt. It is hers. Aceasta este camasa ei. Este a ei. 3. Completeaza corect spatiile goale cu unul dintre pronumele din paranteze: a) I saw Mr. Thompson who is John's father. (that, who, which) L-am vazut pe dl. Thompson care este tatal lui John. b) Who did you meet last week, John or Steve? (which, who, whose) Pe cine ai intalnit saptamana trecuta, pe John sau pe Steve? c) Puffy, which is a big cat, is very lazy. (which, who, whose) Puffy, care este o pisica mare, este foarte lenesa. d) What are you doing? (whom, what, that) Ce faci? e) Who is going with you at the theatre? (who, that, whom) Cine merge cu tine la teatru? 4. Completeaza cu pronumele personal corect. Atentie la cuvintele din paranteze: a) She is walking in the garden. (your sister) Ea se plimba prin gradina. b) We are cooking an apple-pie. (my mother and I) Noi gatim o placinta cu mere. c) She is from Timisoara. (Andreea) Ea este din Timisoara. d) He has a brother and a sister. (Daniel) El are un frate si o sora. e) They are eating a big cake. (My friends) Ei mananca un tort mare.

5. Inlocuieste cuvintele subliniate cu pronumele corect din cele 3 variante: a) Tom is drawing a flower for him. Tom deseneaza o floare pentru el. b) I am organizing a surprise party for them. Eu organizez o petrecere surpriza pentru ei. c) I don't know it. Nu il cunosc. d) Can you help them with this exercise? Ii poti ajuta cu acest exercitiu? e) Can you visit her this weekend? O poti vizita in acest weekend? 6. Alege forma corecta a pronumelui reflexiv din lista de mai jos: myself - yourself - himself - herself - itself - ourselves - yourselves - themselves a) I wrote this letter myself. Am scris aceasta scrisoare eu insami. b) His grandmother often talks to herself. Bunica lui vorbeste deseori cu sine insasi. c) Dana and Andreea picked the mushrooms themselves. Dana si Andreea au cules ciuperci ele insesi. d) Please help yourself with some pie! Te rog serveste-te cu niste placinta! e) He did the homework himself. Si-a facut tema el insusi. f) The lion can defend itself. Leul se poate apara el insusi. g) We cleaned ourselves the house. Noi insine am curatat casa. 7. Scrie pronumele (personale, reflexive, nehotarate, demonstrative, relative, interogative) din paranteze, in acord cu fiecare propozitie. a) She is nice. Ea este draguta. b) Give him the prize. Da-i lui premiul.

c) We speak English. Noi vorbim engleza. d) These are flowers. Acestea sunt flori. e) Have you seen them? I-ai vazut? f) This is your book. Aceasta este cartea ta. g) The dog that barked is Puffy. Cainele care a latrat este Puffy. h) Is there anyone in the room? Este cineva in camera? i) The earth is for everyone. Pamantul este pentru toata lumea. j) Let?s buy ourselves a car. Hai sa ne cumparam noi insine o masina. 8. Tradu in limba romana urmatoarele propozitii: a) We often sing in the bathroom. Noi cantam deseori in baie. b) I did this myself. Eu insami/insumi am facut asta. c) Those are my best friends. Aceia sunt prietenii mei cei mai buni. d) Have you seen anybody in the school? Ai vazut pe cineva in scoala? e) I loved the song that you sang. Mi-a placut cantecul pe care l-ai cantat. f) Everyone knew the story. Toata lumea stia povestea. g) Come with us. Vino cu noi. h) Whose are these books? Ale cui sunt cartile acestea?

9. Tradu in limba engleza urmatoarele propozitii: a) Noi mergem la scoala in fiecare dimineata. We go to school every morning. b) Eu ma trezesc la ora 08:00. I wake up at 8 o'clock. c) Ai vazut ceva la piata? Did you see anything at the market? d) Ana merge singura la opera. Ana goes by herself at the opera. e) El va da premiul oricui va dori. He will give the prize to whomever he wishes. f) Care este parerea ta? What is your opinion? g) Care este filmul tau preferat? Which is your favourite movie? h) Nimeni nu citise poezia. No-one read the poem. 10. Alege pronumele corect: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves, each other. a) Mary and Andrew haven't met each other for a long time. Mary si Andrew nu s-au mai intalnit unul cu celalalt de mult timp. b) My friends enjoyed themselves at the party. Prietenii mei s-au distrat la petrecere. c) I bought myself a new camera. Eu insami mi-am cumparat o camera noua. d) Victor, did you do the Physics homework yourself? Victor, ti-ai facut tema la fizica tu insuti? e) People often give each other presents at Christmas. Lumea isi ofera des cadouri unul altuia de Craciun. f) Dana often thinks at herself. Dana se gandeste des la ea insasi. g) We helped each other with our report. Ne-am ajutat reciproc cu raportul nostru.

h) Thomas repaired the car himself. Thomas a reparat el insusi masina.

Verbul
Verbul, in orice limba, este partea de vorbire care exprima de regula actiunea, dar poate exprima si starea sau existenta. In limba engleza, verbele pot fi impartite in doua mari categorii:

VERBE AUXILIARE (NEPREDICATIVE) VERBE PRINCIPALE (PREDICATIVE)

1. VERBE AUXILIARE Sunt verbe necesare la formarea structurilor gramaticale. In limba romana, acestea se numesc verbe nepredicative, si anume, nu au inteles de sine statator si nu pot forma singure un predicat verbal, ci impreuna cu alte cuvinte.
Aceste verbe pot fi impartite in 2 grupe principale: verbe auxiliare primare si verbe auxiliare modale.

1.1 Verbe auxiliare primare: to be (a fi), to do (a face) si to have (a avea)


Aceste verbe pot fi atat auxiliare, cat si principale. Ca verbe auxiliare le regasim in urmatoarele structuri: TO BE - ajuta la formarea timpului prezent continuu: He is watching TV. (El se uita la televizor.) - ajuta la formarea diatezei pasive: These poems are written by famous poets. (Aceste poezii sunt scrise de poeti renumiti.) TO HAVE - ajuta la formarea timpurilor trecute: I have played guitar yesterday. (Am cantat la chitara ieri.) TO DO - ajuta la alcatuirea formei negative a verbelor: I do not speak French. (Nu vorbesc franceza.) - ajuta la alcatuirea formei interogative a verbelor: Do you listen to classic music? (Asculti muzica clasica?) - pentru a accentua anumite remarci: I do wish to play volleyball with you. (Chiar imi doresc sa joc volei cu tine.) - ajuta anumite verbe principale in unele constructii:

He writes faster than she does. (El scrie mai repede decat ea.)

1.2 Verbe auxiliare modale: can/could, may/might, will/would, shall/should, must, ought to
Aceste verbe sunt utilizate pentru a schimba intelesul initial al unui verb principal. Verbele modale auxiliare exprima necesitatea sau probabilitatea. Exemple: I can't speak Japanese. (Nu stiu sa vorbesc japoneza.) Mihai may eat the whole pie. (Mihai poate manca toata placinta.) Would you like to join me? (Ai vrea sa ma insotesti?) We should run faster. (Ar trebui sa alergam mai repede.) He must go to the dentist. (Trebuie sa mearga la dentist.) You ought to stop smoking. (Ar trebui sa renunti la fumat.)

2. VERBE PRINCIPALE In aceasta categorie intra majoritatea verbelor. In limba romana, acestea se numesc verbe predicative, care au inteles de sine statator si pot forma singure un predicat verbal cand se afla la un mod personal. La randul lor, pot fi impartite in doua grupe: verbe tranzitive si verbe intranzitive.

2.1. Verbe tranzitive Sunt verbe de actiune si care sunt urmate de un complement direct, mai exact un obiect la care sa faca referire.
Exemple: Iulian painted a beautiful flower on the blackboard. Iulian a pictat o floare minunata pe table. painted - verb tranzitiv; a flower - obiect direct I always eat an apple after dinner. Intotdeauna mananc un mar dupa cina. eat - verb tranzitiv; an apple - obiect direct He washes the dishes. El spala vasele. washes - verb tranzitiv; the dishes - obiect direct

2.2. Verbe intranzitive

Sunt verbe care nu pot avea un complement direct. Exemple: Daniel arrived at 5 o'clock. Daniel a ajuns la ora 5. Mary goes to school. Maria merge la scoala. She wants an apple. Ea vrea un mar. ATENTIE: In limba engleza exista verbe care pot fi atat tranzitive, cat si intranzitive in functie de cum sunt folosite: Exemple: She often speaks on the phone. (vb intranzitiv) Ea vorbeste des la telefon. She speaks Chinese. (vb tranzitiv) Ea vorbeste Chineza. Glass breaks. (vb intranzitiv) Sticla se sparge. It breaks my heart. (vb tranzitiv) Mi se rupe inima. I always eat before I go to school. (vb intranzitiv) Intodeauna mananc inainte sa merg la scoala. I eat cereals in the morning. (vb tranzitiv) Mananc cereale dimineata.

La indicativ prezent, verbele primesc un "-s" numai la persoana a III-a singular, celelalte ramanand neschimbate. Pentru verbele cu terminatia in "-ch", "-sh", "-ss", "-x" - la persoana a III-a singular, acestea primesc terminatia "-es". Exemple: to teach - teaches (a preda), to reach - reaches (a ajunge), to kiss - kisses (a saruta), to fix - fixes (a repara), to mix - mixes (a amesteca), to finish - finishes (a termina), to diminish - diminishes (a diminua), to distinguish - distinguishes (a deosebi), to launch - launches (a lansa), to miss - misses (a lipsi), to dress - dresses (a se imbraca) Verbele cu terminatia in "-y" precedate de o consoana, la persoana a III-a singular, il vor modifica pe "y" in"i" si vor primi terminatia "-es" Exemple: to cry - cries (a plange), to try - tries (a incerca), to fly - flies (a zbura), to dry -

dries (a se usca)

Verbele cu terminatia in "-o" primesc terminatia "-es" la persoana a III-a singular. Exemple: to do - does (a face), to undo - undoes (a anula), to go - goes (a merge)

ATENTIE: Cu exceptia verbelor auxiliare "TO BE" si "TO HAVE", toate verbele din limba engleza se conjuga la formele simple interogative si negative cu ajutorul verbului auxiliar "TO DO".

Verbele principale (predicative) se mai impart in alte 2 grupe: verbe regulate si verbe neregulate.

Verbe regulate Cele mai multe verbe in limba engleza sunt regulate. Ele se conjuga astfel:
Indicativ prezent - Forma afirmativa I ask You ask He / She / It asks We ask You ask They ask Indicativ prezent - Forma negativa I do not ask You do not ask He / She / It does not ask We do not ask You do not ask They do not ask Indicativ prezent - Forma interogativa Do I ask? / Don't I ask? Do you ask? / Don't you ask? Does he / she / it ask? / Doesn?t he ask? Do we ask? / Don't we ask? Do you ask? / Don't you ask? Do they ask? / Don't they ask?

Verbe neregulate Verbele neregulate in limba engleza sunt acele verbe care nu se supun regulilor generale de conjugare. In limba engleza, orice verb are 3 forme; forma intai este intotdeauna infinitivul, si la verbele regulate si la cele neregulate.

Pentru verbele regulate formele 2 si 3 se obtin usor din forma intai prin adaugarea unui "ed". Pentru verbele neregulate formele 2 si 3 pot fi foarte diferite de forma 1 si necesita a fi invatate. Ai mai jos niste exemple de verbe neregulate si formele lor. to fall - fell - fallen (a cadea) to be - was - been (a fi ) to bring - brought - brought (a aduce) to eat - ate - eaten (a manca) to do - did - done (a face)

Conjugarea verbului "TO BE"


Forma afirmativa: I am (I'm) - Eu sunt You are (You're) - Tu esti He is (He's) - El este She is (She's) - Ea este It is (It's) - El/Ea este We are (We're) - Noi suntem You are (You're) - Voi sunteti They are (They're) - Ei/Ele sunt Forma interogativa: Am I? - Sunt eu? Are you? - Esti tu? Is he? - Este el? Is she? - Este ea? Is it? - Este el/ea? Are we? - Suntem noi? Are you? - Sunteti voi? Are they? - Sunt ei/ele? Forma negativa: I am not (I'm not) - Eu nu sunt You are not (You aren't) - Tu nu esti He is not (He isn't) - El nu este She is not (She isn't) - Ea nu este It is not (It isn't) - El/Ea nu este We are not (We aren't) - Noi nu suntem You are not (You aren't) - Voi nu sunteti They are not (They aren't) - Ei/Ele nu sunt

Conjugarea verbului "TO HAVE"


Forma afirmativa: I have (I've) - Eu am You have (You've) - Tu ai He has (He's) - El are

She has (She's) - Ea are It has (It's) - El/Ea are We have (We've) - Noi avem You have (You've) - Voi aveti They have (They've) - Ei/Ele au Forma interogativa: Have I? - Am eu? Have you? - Ai tu? Has he? - Are el? Has she? - Are ea? Has it? - Are el/ea? Have we? - Avem noi? Have you? - Aveti voi? Have they? - Au ei/ele? Forma negativa: I have not (I haven't) - Eu nu am You have not (You haven't) - Tu nu ai He has not (He hasn't) - El nu are She has not (She hasn't) - Ea nu are It has not (It hasn't) - El/Ea nu are We have not (We haven't) - Noi nu avem You have not (You haven't) - Voi nu aveti They have not (They haven't) - Ei/Ele nu au

MODURILE VERBALE Modul indicativ Este folosit pentru a face o afirmatie sau pentru a adresa o intrebare.
Modul imperativ Este folosit pentru a da instructiuni, ordine, sugestii. Majoritatea propozitiilor imperative au ca subiect pronumele "you", deci subiectul la persoana a doua singular sau plural. Exemple: Get out of here! Iesi afara de aici! Go to the market! Mergi la piata! Modul subjonctiv Este folosit in propozitii subordonate pentru a exprima urmatoarele:

o dorinta: I wish you were here. Mi-as dori sa fii aici.

fraze conditionale care incep cu "if": If we were more efficient, we'd finished our homework on time. Daca am fi fost mai eficienti, ne-am fi terminat tema la timp. fraze introduse prin "as if" sau "as though": He acted as if he were guilty. A reactionat ca si cum ar fi fost vinovat. fraze introduse prin "that": I asked that she be present at the trial. Am solicitat ca ea sa fie prezenta la proces.

Despre modurile verbelor vom vorbi pe larg in lectia 23 a acestui curs.

Exercitii
1. Completeaza spatiile goale cu forma corecta a verbului TO BE: a) Forma afirmativa I _____ in the classroom. He ____ in the garden. They ____ in the house. b) Forma negativa You _____ in the office. She _____ in the bathroom. We _____ in the restaurant. 2. Tradu in limba engleza propozitiile de mai jos: a) Eu am 12 ani. b) Tu esti in casa cu tatal tau. c) Noi avem 2 buchete de flori. d) Voi sunteti in clasa a patra. e) El are un mar si doua portocale. f) Ea este in curtea scolii cu prietena ei. 3. Completeaza spatiile goale cu forma interogativa a verbului TO BE: a) _____ you a good friend? b) _____ he your father? c) _____ they your colleagues? d) _____ she in the living room? e) _____ we in the courtyard? 4. Tradu in limba engleza urmatoarele propozitii: a) Ea nu joaca tenis. b) Noi mergem la scoala in fiecare dimineata. c) Iti place sa canti? d) Trenul nu pleaca la ora 07:00 dimineata. e) Le place laptele cateilor?

f) Ferestrele sunt facute din geam. g) El nu are nevoie de ajutor. h) Ai pasaportul la tine? 5. Conjuga la timpul prezent - forma pozitiva urmatoarele verbe si tradu in limba romana: to know; to write; to walk 6. Conjuga la timpul prezent - forma interogativa urmatoarele verbe si tradu in limba romana: to eat; to speak; to run 7. Tradu in limba engleza urmatoarele verbe: a vinde, a verifica, a cumpara, a curata, a cere, a veni, a ridica, a cobori, a sosi, a urca 8. Completeaza spatiile goale cu forma corecta a verbului din paranteze: a) Every month, Cristina (go) to the theatre. b) It always (rain) in London. c) This chocolate (be) delicious. d) We (have) a lot of things to do. e) He (live) in the centre of New York. f) The plain (fly) very high. g) She (arrive) at 8 o'clock this evening. 9. Alege forma corecta a verbului "to be": Exemplu: He _____ a boy. He is a boy. a) I _____ a woman. b) We _____ pupils in 3rd grade. c) You _____ doctors. d) Azorel and Grivei _____ my dogs. e) His sister _____ seven years old. f) Georgiana and Mihaela _____ good friends. g) The hamster _____ in the cage. 10. Completeaza cu "do" sau "does" spatiile goale: a) _____ Marius live with his mother? b) _____ they play in the garden? c) _____ I clean the bathroom? d) _____ he run faster than his sister? e) _____ Adrian wear a t-shirt? f) _____ we work in front of computer?

Exercitii rezolvate
1. Completeaza spatiile goale cu forma corecta a verbului TO BE: a) Forma afirmativa I am in the classroom. (Eu sunt in clasa.) He is in the garden. (El este in gradina.) They are in the house. (Ei sunt in casa.) b) Forma negativa You aren't in the office. (Tu nu esti la birou.) She isn't in the bathroom. (Ea nu este in baie.) We aren't in the restaurant. (Noi nu suntem la restaurant.) 2. Tradu in limba engleza propozitiile de mai jos: a) Eu am 12 ani. I am 12 years old. b) Tu esti in casa cu tatal tau. You are in the house with your father. c) Noi avem 2 buchete de flori. We have 2 bouquets of flowers. d) Voi sunteti in clasa a patra. You are in 4th grade. e) El are un mar si doua portocale. He has an apple and two oranges. f) Ea este in curtea scolii cu prietena ei. She is in the schoolyard with her friend. 3. Completeaza spatiile goale cu forma interogativa a verbului TO BE: a) Are you a good friend? (Esti tu un prieten bun?) b) Is he your father? (Este el tatal tau?) c) Are they your colleagues? (Sunt ei colegii vostri?) d) Is she in the living room? (Este ea in sufragerie?) e) Are we in the courtyard? (Suntem noi in curte?) 4. Tradu in limba engleza urmatoarele propozitii: a) Ea nu joaca tenis. She doesn't play tennis. b) Noi mergem la scoala in fiecare dimineata.

We go to school every morning. c) Iti place sa canti? Do you like singing? d) Trenul nu pleaca la ora 07:00 dimineata. The train does not leave at 7 o'clock in the morning. e) Le place laptele la cateilor? Do dogs like milk? f) Ferestrele sunt facute din geam. Windows are made of glass. g) El nu are nevoie de ajutor. He doesn't need help. h) Ai pasaportul la tine? Do you have your passport with you? 5. Conjuga la timpul prezent - forma pozitiva urmatoarele verbe si tradu in limba romana: to know; to write; to walk I know - Eu stiu You know - Tu stii He, she, it knows - El, ea stie We know - Noi stim You know - Voi stiti They know - Ei, ele stiu I write - Eu scriu You write - Tu scrii He, she, it writes - El, ea scrie We write - Noi scriem You write - Voi scrieti They write - Ei, ele scriu I walk - Eu merg (ma plimb) You walk - Tu mergi (te plimbi) He, she, it walks - El, ea merge (se plimba) We walk - Noi mergem (ne plimbam) You walk - Voi mergeti (va plimbati) They walk - Ei, ele merg (se plimba) 6. Conjuga la timpul prezent - forma interogativa urmatoarele verbe si tradu in limba romana: to eat; to speak; to run

Do I eat? - Mananc eu? Do you eat? - Mananci tu? Does he, she, it eat? - Mananca el, ea? Do we eat? - Mancam noi? Do you eat? - Mancati voi? Do they eat? - Mananca ei, ele? Do I speak? - Vorbesc eu? Do you speak? - Vorbesti tu? Does he, she, it speak? - Vorbeste el, ea? Do we speak? - Vorbim noi? Do you speak? - Vorbiti voi? Do they speak? - Vorbesc ei, ele? Do I run? - Alerg eu? Do you run? - Alergi tu? Does he, she, it run? - Alearga el, ea? Do we run? - Alergam noi? Do you run? - Alergati voi? Do they run? - Alearga ei, ele? 7. Tradu in limba engleza urmatoarele verbe: a vinde - to sell a verifica - to check a cumpara - to buy a curata - to clean a cere - to ask a veni - to come a ridica - to raise a cobori - to get down a sosi - to arrive a urca - to get up 8. Completeaza spatiile goale cu forma corecta a verbului din paranteze: a) Every month, Cristina goes to the theatre. In fiecare luna, Cristina merge la teatru. b) It always rains in London. Intotdeauna ploua in Londra. c) This chocolate is delicious. Aceasta ciocolata este delicioasa. d) We have a lot of things to do. Noi avem o multime de lucruri de facut. e) He lives in the centre of New York. El locuieste in centrul orasului New York.

f) The plain flies very high. Avionul zboara foarte sus.

g) She arrives at 8 o'clock this evening. Ea soseste la ora 8 in seara aceasta. 9. Alege forma corecta a verbului "to be": a) I am a woman. Eu sunt o femeie. b) We are pupils in 3rd grade. Noi suntem elevi in clasa a treia. c) You are doctors. Voi sunteti doctori. d) Azorel and Grivei are my dogs. Azorel si Grivei sunt cainii mei. e) His sister is seven years old. Sora lui are 7 ani. f) Georgiana and Mihaela are good friends. Georgiana si Mihaela sunt bune prietene. g) The hamster is in the cage. Hamsterul este in cusca. 10. Completeaza cu "do" sau "does" spatiile goale: a) Does Marius live with his mother? Locuieste Marius cu mama lui? b) Do they play in the garden? Se joaca ei in gradina? c) Do I clean the bathroom? Curat eu baia? d) Does he run faster than his sister? Alearga el mai repede decat sora lui? e) Does Adrian wear a t-shirt? Poarta Adrian un tricou? f) Do we work in front of computer? Lucram noi in fata calculatorului?

Substantivul
Substantivul reprezinta partea de vorbire care denumeste fiinte, lucruri, obiecte, fenomene ale naturii, stari, sentimente. Exemple: boy (baiat), girl (fata), pencil (creion), table (masa), thunder (tunet), emotion (emotie), love (dragoste), happiness (fericire).

FELUL SUBSTANTIVELOR Substantivele se pot imparti in patru categorii:


substantive comune; substantive proprii; substantive abstracte; substantive colective.

a) Substantivele comune Desemneaza fiinte (oameni si animale) si obiecte / lucruri.


Exemple: Man The man walks into the room. Barbatul intra in camera. Woman I saw that woman in the schoolyard. Am vazut-o pe acea femeie in curtea scolii. Cat The cat eats mice. Pisica mananca soareci. Brother My brother is a student. Fratele meu este student. Pencil Give me the pencil, please! Da-mi creionul, te rog! Book Do you like this book? Iti place aceasta carte? Boat I bought this boat for his birthday. Am cumparat aceasta barca pentru ziua lui de nastere.

b) Substantivele proprii Desemneaza nume de familie si prenume, nume de munti, orase, mari, oceane etc.
Exemple: John eats an orange every evening. John mananca o portocala in fiecare seara. Puffy is my favourite name for a cat. Puffy este numele meu preferat pentru o pisica. Every month, me and my husband eat at Jaristea Restaurant. In fiecare luna, eu si sotul meu mancam la restaurantul Jaristea. The Mississippi River is the largest river in North America. Raul Mississippi este cel mai mare rau din America de Nord. Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world. Muntele Everest este cel mai inalt munte din lume.

c) Substantive abstracte Sunt acele substantive care desemneaza un aspect, o idee, un concept, o stare de spirit, o calitate, o traire, un sentiment, sau orice altceva dincolo de concret.
Exemple: Love Please send her my love! Te rog, transmite-i dragostea mea! Courage He's got courage. Are curaj. Joy This baby brought us a lot of joy into our life. Acest copil ne-a adus numai bucurii in viata noastra. Liberty The prisoners were not at liberty to speak. Detinutii nu au avut libertatea de a vorbi. Truth Tell me the truth ! Spune-mi adevarul!

d) Substantive colective Sunt acele substantive care se refera la un grup de oameni sau lucruri. In mod normal, sunt folosite la singular. In engleza britanica se pot folosi atat cu verbe la singular, cat si cu verbe la plural. In engleza americana au intotdeauna un verb la singular.
Exemple: army (armata); audience (audienta); board (consiliu); cabinet (cabinet); navy (marina); group (grup); majority (majoritate); minority (minoritate); troup (trupa); jury(juriu); team (echipa); society (societate); school (scoala); public (public); company (companie); committee (comitet); government (guvern); enemy (inamic); press (presa); aristocracy (aristocratie); family (familie); staff (echipa).

GENUL SUBSTANTIVELOR In limba engleza, putem vorbi de 4 genuri.

1. GENUL MASCULIN
Exemple: man (barbat); lion (leu); boy (baiat); king (rege); horse (cal); actor (actor); nephew (nepot); son (fiu); father (tata); gentleman (gentleman); waiter (chelner); uncle (unchi); bull (taur); husband (sot)

2. GENUL FEMININ
Exemple: woman (femeie); girl (fata); queen (regina); actress (actrita); niece (nepoata); daughter (fiica); mother (mama); lady (doamna); waitress (chelnerita); aunt (matusa); heroine (eroina); cow (vaca); wife (sotie)

3. GENUL NEUTRU Sunt substantivele care se refera la un membru al unei specii care nu este nici masculin, nici feminin. De obicei, sunt acele substantive care exprima obiecte sau lucruri fara viata.
Exemple: chair (scaun); table (masa); tree (copac); book (carte); car (masina); train (tren); bed (pat); street (strada) etc ATENTIE: Numele de tari sunt considerate neutre.

4. GENUL COMUN Sunt acele substantive care fac referire la fiinte care pot fi atat genul masculin, cat si feminin.
Exemple: child (copil); student (student); friend (prieten); candidate (candidat); member (membru); leader (lider)

NUMARUL SUBSTANTIVELOR

a) Substantivele numarabile Sunt acele substantive care pot avea atat forme de singular, cat si de plural. Formele de plural sunt urmatoarele:

Pluralul cu "s" Exemple: book - books / carte - carti hand - hands / mana - maini arm - arms / brat - brate house - houses / casa - case day - days / zi - zile Pluralul cu "es" Substantivele cu terminatia in "-o", "-ch", "-sh", "-x", "-s" primesc la plural terminatia "es". Exemple: potato - potatoes / cartof - cartofi tomato - tomatoes / rosie - rosii church - churches / biserica - biserici bus - buses / autobuz - autobuze kiss - kisses / sarut - saruturi brush - brushes / perie - perii hero - heroes / erou - eroi box - boxes / cutie - cutii Exceptii: photo - photos / poza - poze kilo - kilos / kilogram - kilograme soprano - sopranos / soprana - soprane radio - radios / radio - radiouri piano - pianos / pian - piane

Pluralul cu "ies" Substantivele cu terminatia in "consoana + y" primesc la plural terminatia "-ies" Exemple: baby - babies / bebelus - bebelusi factory - factories / fabrica - fabrici fly - flies / musca - muste lady - ladies / doamna - doamne Pluralul cu "ves" Unele substantive cu terminatia in "-f" sau "-fe" primesc la plural terminatia "-ves". Exemple:

wife - wives / sotie - sotii wolf - wolves / lup - lupi half - halves / jumatate - jumatati thief - thieves / hot - hoti knife - knives / cutit - cutite life - lives / viata - vieti leaf - leaves / frunza - Frunze calf - calves / vitel - vitei loaf - loaves / bucata (de paine) - bucati (de paine) Exceptii: proof - proofs / dovada - dovezi belief - beliefs / credinta - credinte chief - chiefs / sef - sefi

Plurale neregulate Unele substantive isi modifica vocalele in momentul in care se afla la plural. Exemple: mouse - mice / soarece - soareci tooth - teeth / dinte - dinti goose - geese / gasca - gaste foot - feet / picior - picioare woman - women / femeie - femei man - men / barbat - barbati child - children / copil - copii person - people / persoana - persoane

Substantive care au aceeasi forma si de singular si de plural Exemple: deer - cerb duck - rata sheep - oaie trout - pastrav fish - peste fruit - fructe Unele substantive imprumutate isi pastreaza pluralul grecesc, italian sau latin Exemple: crisis - crises / criza - crize cactus - cacti / cactus - cactusi datum - data / data - date stimulus - stimuli / stimul - stimuli thesis - theses / teza - teze bacterium - bacteria / bacterie - bacteria Pluralul substantivelor proprii Numele de familie se pot folosi la plural pentru a indica intreaga familie. Numelui i se va adauga un "-s". Exemple: The Browns, The Kennedys, The Ewings

b) Substantivele nenumarabile De obicei, au doar forma de singular. Se impart in:

Substantive concrete Exemple: wine - vin water - apa oxygen - oxygen gold - aur silver - argint salt - sare bread - paine milk - lapte sand - nisip snow - zapada rain - ploaie grass - iarba wood - lemn Substantive abstracte Exemple: courage - curaj humour - umor hardness - duritate wit - istetime hope - speranta intelligence - inteligenta time - timp patience - rabdare reality - realitate education - educatie joy - bucurie freedom - libertate experience - experienta beauty - frumusete love - dragoste Substantive verbale Exemple: camping - camping smoking - fumat shopping - cumparaturi parking - parcare jogging - jogging singing - cantat dancing - dans

Nume de limbi: Exemple: German, French, English, Chinese etc Substantive cu forma de plural, dar care in mod normal primesc un verb la singular Exemple: savings - economii wages - salariu archives - arhiva scissors - foarfece pyjamas - pijamale earnings - economii trousers - pantaloni measles - pojar mumps - oreion billiards - billiard physics - fizica mathematics - matematica Alte substantive nenumarabile: advice - sfat baggage - bagaj luggage - bagaj furniture - mobila damage - dezastru hair - par homework - tema information - informatie knowledge - cunostinta money - bani news - stire business - afacere

FOARTE IMPORTANT: Substantivele nenumarabile nu sunt niciodata precedate de expresii de numar precum: a, an, one, two, three etc. Se pot folosi cateva expresii care indica numarul / cantitatea. Exemple: a piece of information - o informatie a piece of furniture - o mobila a piece of advice - un sfat a piece of equipment - un echipament a type of behavior - un gen de comportament an item of luggage - un bagaj a case of mumps - un caz de oreion

SUBSTANTIVELE COMPUSE

Substantivele compuse pot fi alcatuite din:


substantiv + substantiv: toothpaste - pasta de dinti; toothbrush - periuta de dinti; bedroom - dormitor; bathroom - baie; adjectiv + substantiv: monthly ticket - abonament; fast food - fast food; blackboard tabla; full moon - luna plina verb + substantiv: swimming pool - piscina; dining room - sufragerie; living room camera de zi; prepozitie + substantiv: underground - subteran substantiv + verb: haircut - tunsoare substantiv + prepozitie: hanger on - cuier pe; love-in - indragostire adjectiv + verb: dry-cleaning - uscatorie prepozitie + verb: output - productie; outcome - rezultat

Astfel, substantivele compuse se pot forma din:


2 cuvinte unite; 2 cuvinte legate intre ele prin cratima; 2 cuvinte separate alaturate.

GENITIVUL SUBSTANTIVELOR Pentru a exprima posesia, de cele mai multe ori in limba engleza folosim prepozitia "of".
Exemple: the door of the car - usa masinii the smile of the girl - zambetul fetei the eyes of the woman - ochii femeii

Genitivul sintetic Pentru a exprima posesia, in cazul persoanelor si animalelor folosim genitivul sintetic:
Se adauga 's pentru toate substantivele aflate la singular sau pentru acelea care nu au pluralul in "s" Exemple: Nancy's car - masina lui Nancy His mother's shirt - camasa mamei lui My children's boots - cizmele copiilor mei Se adauga ' pentru toate substantivele care au pluralul in "s" Exemple: the teachers'students - elevii profesoarei the Browns'apartment - apartamentul familiei Brown his sisters'friends - prietenii sorei lui

EXERCITII
1. Alcatuieste pluralul urmatoarelor substantive: table clock leaf gentleman baby tooth friend city life chief 2. Inlocuieste substantivele urmatoare cu pronumele personal potrivit: the girl the dog the actor the schoolboy the pencil the grandmother 3. Alcatuieste cat mai multe substantive compuse cu ajutorul urmatoarelor cuvinte: dining, bird, school, class, kinder, mate, room, boy, father, black, book, girl, board, living, garden, note, exercise, parents, grand 4. Pune forma corecta de plural pentru urmatoarele substantive: half _______ kilo _______ woman _______ bus _______ day _______ foot _______ potato _______ chief _______ 5. Completeaza urmatoarele propozitii cu forma de singular sau plural a substantivelor din paranteze: a) I have two (question) for you. b) My (foot) hurt bad. c) We have a (dog). d) How many (shelf) are in your kitchen? e) The cat is sitting on my (bed). f) There is a (book) on the table.

6. Alege verbul corect si tine cont de substantiv: a) Where (is / are) my jeans? b) The stairs (is / are) over there. c) The USA (is / are) a very nice country. d) Mathematics (is / are) not easy. e) My sunglasses (is / are) on the table. f) Homework (is / are) difficult. 7. Completeaza spatiile goale cu cuvintele urmatoare: advice, chocolate, sugar, oil, football, meat, tea a piece of _______ a packet of _______ a bar of _______ a game of _______ a bottle of _______ a slice of _______ a cup of _______ 8. Alcatuieste genitivul cu 's sau of pentru urmatoarele substantive: (my sister) bed _______ (a glass) milk _______ (the waitress) dress _______ (France) economy _______ (the number) street _______ (Mr Brown) car _______ (the window) room _______ 9. Completeaza cu genitivul corect urmatoarele propozitii: a) This is _______ car. (Mary) b) The _______ room is very large. (children) c) _______ sister is ill. (John) d) These are the _______ pencils. (boys) e) My _______ apartment is in the centre of Bucharest. (parents) f) Let's go to the _______ house. (Smiths) g) That is the _______ bike. (girl) 10. Modifica substantivele ingrosate din feminin in masculin: Exemplu: My aunt visits her niece. (Matusa mea isi viziteaza nepoata.) My uncle visits his nephew. (Unchiul meu isi viziteaza nepotul.) a) Their queen is a widow. b) The daughter is taller than her mother. c) Does any actress like to play the role of a princess? d) The heroine killed the tigress. e) Her sister works as a waitress.

f) His wife is a policewoman. g) My grandmother is a teacher.

EXERCITII REZOLVATE
1. Alcatuieste pluralul urmatoarelor substantive: table => tables masa => mese clock => clocks ceas => ceasuri leaf => leaves frunza => frunze gentleman => gentlemen domn => domni baby => babies copil => copii tooth => teeth dinte => dinti friend => friends prieten => prieteni city => cities oras => orase life => lives viata => vieti chief => chiefs sef => sefi 2. Inlocuieste substantivele urmatoare cu pronumele personal potrivit: the girl => she the dog => it the actor => he the schoolboy => he the pencil => it the grandmother => she 3. Alcatuieste cat mai multe substantive compuse cu ajutorul urmatoarelor cuvinte:

dining, bird, school, class, kinder, mate, room, boy, father, black, book, girl, board, living, garden, note, exercise, parents, grand dining-room (sufragerie) classroom (sala de clasa) schoolgirl (eleva) grandfather (bunic) kindergarden (gradinita) notebook (caiet) schoolboy (elev) classmate (coleg de clasa) grandparents (bunici) blackboard (tabla) living-room (sufragerie) 4. Pune forma corecta de plural pentru urmatoarele substantive: half => halves jumatate => jumatati kilo => kilos kilogram => kilograme woman => women femeie => femei bus => buses autobuz => autobuze day => days zi => zile foot => feet picior => picioare potato => potatoes cartof => cartofi chef => chefs bucatar => bucatari 5. Completeaza urmatoarele propozitii cu forma de singular sau plural a substantivelor din paranteze: a) I have two questions for you. Am doua intrebari pentru tine. b) My feet hurt bad. Ma dor picioarele.

c) We have a dog. Noi avem un caine. d) How many shelves are in your kitchen? Cate rafturi sunt in bucatarie? e) The cat is sitting on my bed. Pisica sta pe patul meu. f) There is a book on the table. Se afla o carte pe masa. 6. Alege verbul corect si tine cont de substantiv: a) Where are my jeans? Unde sunt blugii mei? b) The stairs are over there. Scarile sunt acolo. c) The USA is a very nice country. USA este o tara foarte frumoasa. d) Mathematics is not easy. Matematica nu e usoara. e) My sunglasses are on the table. Ochelarii mei sunt pe masa. f) Homework is difficult. Tema este dificila. 7. Completeaza spatiile goale cu cuvintele urmatoare: advice, chocolate, sugar, oil, football, meat, tea a piece of advice (un sfat) a packet of sugar (un pachet de zahar) a bar of chocolate (un baton de ciocolata) a game of football (un joc de fotbal) a bottle of oil (o sticla de ulei) a slice of meat (o bucata de carne) a cup of tea (o ceasca de ceai) 8. Alcatuieste genitivul cu 's sau of pentru urmatoarele substantive: (my sister) bed / my sister's bed (patul surorii mele) (a glass) milk / a glass of milk (un pahar de lapte) (the waitress) dress / the waitress' dress (fusta chelneritei) (France) economy / the economy of France (economia Frantei) (the number) street / the number of the street (numarul strazii)

(Mr Brown) car / Mr Brown's car (masina domnului Brown) (the window) room / the window of the room (fereastra camerei) 9. Completeaza cu genitivul corect urmatoarele propozitii: a) This is Mary's car. Aceasta este masina Mariei. b) The children's room is very large. Camera copiilor este foarte mare. c) John's sister is ill. Sora lui John este bolnava. d) These are the boys' pencils. Acestea sunt creioanele baietilor. e) My parents' apartment is in the centre of Bucharest. Apartamentul parintilor mei este in centrul Bucurestiului. f) Let's go to the Smiths' house. Sa mergem la casa familiei Smith. g) That is the girl's bike. Aceea este bicicleta fetei. 10. Modifica substantivele ingrosate din feminin in masculin: a) Their king is a widower. Regele lor este vaduv. b) The son is taller than his father. Fiul este mai inalt decat tatal sau. c) Does any actor like to play the role of a prince? Ii place vreunui actor sa joace rolul de print? d) The hero killed the tigre. Eroul a ucis tigrul. e) Her brother works as a waiter. Fratele ei lucreaza ca ospatar. f) Her husband is a policeman. Sotul ei este politist. g) My grandfather is a teacher. Bunicul meu este profesor.

Adjectivul

Adjectivele sunt acele cuvinte folosite pentru a descrie un substantiv, de exemplu: baiat mare, fata frumoasa, trei mere, etc. Ele raspund la intrebarile: Ce fel de? Care? Cat, cate?

FORMA ADJECTIVULUI Adjectivele in limba engleza sunt invariabile, adica nu isi schimba forma in functie de gen sau numar.
Exemple: a good cake (o prajitura buna), good cakes (prajituri bune) Unele adjective ne ofera informatii despre substantiv de tipul: varsta, marime, culoare; acestea se numescadjective de fapt (fact adjectives), asupra carora nu exista argumente contra. Alte adjective arata ceea ce crede cineva despre ceva anume sau despre cineva - exemple: nice (dragut), beautiful (frumos), horrid (oribil) - acestea se numesc adjective de opinie (opinion adjectives). ATENTIE: Adjectivele de opinie stau inaintea adjectivelor de fapt. Exemplu: It's a beautiful black dog. Este un caine frumos negru.

ORDINEA ADJECTIVELOR Ordinea adjectivelor in limba engleza este foarte importanta. Exista o ordine pe care vorbitorii nativi de limba engleza, in mod normal, o urmeaza. Mai jos este o lista cum ar trebui sa fie asezate adjectivele intr-o propozitie / fraza, insa, evident, exista si exceptii si combinatii diferite in functie de situatii.
1. Adjectivele de opinie Exemple: good (bun); bad (rau); beautiful (frumos); ugly (urat); smart (istet) 2. Adjectivele de fapt care indica dimensiunea Exemple: big (mare); small (mic); high (inalt); low (scund); thin (slab); fat (gras) 3. Adjectivele de fapt care indica varsta Exemple: new (nou); antique (antic); old (vechi); young (tanar); three-year old (trei ani varsta) 4. Adjective de fapt care indica forma Exemple: square (patrat); round (rotund); circular (circular); oval (oval) 5. Adjective de fapt care indica culoarea Exemple: red (rosu); black (negru); grey (gri); green (verde) 6. Adjective care indica originea Exemple: Chinese (chinez); American (american); French (francez) 7. Adjective care indica materialul / compozitia Exemple: iron (fier); brass (alama); cotton (bumbac); gold (aur); wooden (lemn); vegetable (vegetal)

LOCUL ADJECTIVELOR In general, adjectivele se asaza in fata substantivului pe care il determina. Exemple: a good boy (un baiat bun); a fast car (o masina rapida)
EXCEPTII: Adjectivul se poate aseza dupa substantive in urmatoarele situatii:

cand are functia de nume predicativ, introdus printr-un verb: Exemplu: This student is clever. (Acest elev este destept) cand adjectivul este combinat cu un numeral intr-o unitate de masura: Exemple: ten years old (in varsta de zece ani); five feet high (cinci picioare inaltime) cand adjectivele sunt formate cu ajutorul prefixului "a": Exemple: alive (viu); alone (singur); ashamed (rusinat); afraid (temator); asleep (adormit)

TIPURI DE ADJECTIVE
A. Adjectivele demonstrative Aceste adjective sunt invariabile in gen, dar au forma de plural. SINGULAR: This (acest, aceasta) That (acel, acea) PLURAL: These (acesti, aceste) Those (acei, acele) MOD DE UTILIZARE: This, these - arata ceea ce este apropiat de cel care vorbeste This man is my father. (Acest barbat este tatal meu) These flowers are my favourite. (Aceste flori sunt preferatele mele) That, those - arata ceea ce este indepartat de cel care vorbeste That girl is my best friend. (Acea fata este prietena mea cea mai buna) Those shoes are horrible. (Acei pantofi sunt oribili) B. C. Adjectivele posesive Aceste adjective indica raportul de posesie dintre un posesor si ceea ce acesta poseda: my house (casa mea); your book (cartea ta), sunt invariabile in gen (mai putin la persoana a treia singular) si in numar.

SINGULAR: My (meu, mea, mei, mele) Your (tau, ta, tai, tale) His (lui, sau, sa, sai, sale) Her (ei, sau, sa, sai, sale) Its (lui, ei, sau, sa, sai, sale) PLURAL: Our (nostru, noastra, nostri, noastre) Your (vostru, voastra, vostri, voastre) Their (lor) D. E. Adjectivele nehotarate Cele mai intalnite adjective nehotarate sunt: SOME (ceva, cativa, cateva, unii, unele, oarecare, niste) - se foloseste in propozitiile afirmative. Exemple: There are some apples on the table. Sunt cateva mere pe masa. Some people think I am student. Unii oameni cred ca sunt elev. - se poate utiliza si cand vrem sa oferim ceva in mod politicos si asteptam un raspuns pozitiv. Exemplu: Do you want some coffee? Vreti (ceva/niste) cafea? - totodata, some poate fi folosit si in sens calitativ, admirativ. Exemplu: That was some dress! Aceea era o rochie grozava! (Ce rochie grozava!) F. ANY (oricare, orice, ceva, niste) - in propozitiile afirmative se traduce prin "oricare, orice" Exemple: She may open the door at any moment. Poate deschide usa in orice moment. Any doctor can give you this information. Orice doctor iti poate da aceasta informative.

- in propozitiile interogative se traduce prin "vreun, vreo, niste, unii, unele, cativa, cateva" Exemple: Can we have any tea? Putem bea niste ceai? Is there any boy in this team? Este vreun baiat in echipa asta? G. NO, NOT ANY (niciun, nicio, niciunul, niciuna) Exemple: No doctor is better than Michael. Niciun doctor nu este mai bun decat Michael. There was not any hope for him. Nu mai era nicio speranta pentru el. H. ONE ( adjectivul numeral - un, o, singurul, singura) Exemple: One student in fifty graduated. Un student din cincizeci a absolvit. This is the one problem we have. Aceasta este singura problema pe care o avem. This is a one way street. Aceasta este o strada cu sens unic. I. EVERY (fiecare, toti, toate) Exemple: Every detail in this matter is important. Fiecare detaliu din aceasta situatie este important. We have every reason to believe he is a thief. Avem toate motivele sa credem ca este hot. Every day I wake up at seven o'clock. In fiecare zi ma trezesc la ora sapte. J. EACH (fiecare) - intotdeauna insotit de un substantiv la singular

Exemplu: Each girl won a prize. Fiecare fata a castigat un premiu. K. SUCH (asemenea, astfel de) Exemple: I have never seen such mountains. Nu am mai vazut niciodata asemenea munti. Have you ever read such a book? Ai mai citit vreodata asemenea carte? L. SAME (aceeasi, acelasi, aceiasi, aceleasi) Exemplu: It's the same story I read last week. E aceeasi poveste pe care am citit-o saptamana trecuta. M. OTHER (alt, alta, alti, alte) THE OTHER (celalalt, cealalta, ceilalti, celelalte) Exemple: The other teacher didn't arrive at school. Celalalt profesor nu a ajuns la scoala. Have you any other questions to ask? Mai ai alte intrebari de pus? N. ANOTHER (un alt, o alta, inca unul) Exemplu: There is another reason for this. Exista un alt motiv pentru asta. O. P. Alte adjective nehotarate: much (mult, multa) - pentru substantivele care nu se pot numara many (multi, multe) - pentru substantivele care se pot numara a lot of / lots of (o multime de) little (putin, putine) - pentru substantivele care nu se pot numara few (putin, putine) - pentru substantivele care se pot numara

enough (destul, destule) plenty of (o multime de)

GRADUL DE COMPARATIE AL ADJECTIVELOR


1. COMPARATIVUL DE EGALITATE as.......as Exemplu: She is as pretty as her sister. Este la fel de draguta ca si sora ei. 2. 3. COMPARATIVUL DE INFERIORITATE not as.......as not so.......as Exemple: Michael is not as smart as Daniel. Michael nu este la fel de istet ca Daniel. This tree is not so big as the tree from my garden. Acest copac nu este atat de mare precum copacul din gradina mea. 4. 5. COMPARATIVUL DE SUPERIORITATE Constructia acestuia depinde de lungimea adjectivului adica: - la adjectivele scurte (monosilabice), se adauga "er" la sfarsitul adjectivului Exemple: tall (inalt) - taller (mai inalt) small (scund) - smaller (mai scund) short (scurt) - shorter (mai scurt) ATENTIE: la adjectivele monosilabice terminate in consoana, precedata de o singura vocala, consoana finala se va dubla. Exemple: big (mare) - bigger (mai mare) thin (slab) - thinner (mai slab) fat (gras) - fatter (mai gras) - la adjectivele lungi (formate din doua sau mai multe silabe), acestea sunt precedate de adverbul more

Exemple: intelligent (inteligent) - more intelligent (mai intelligent) curious (curios) - more curious (mai curios) ATENTIE: la adjectivele formate din doua silabe cu terminatia in "l" (in momentul pronuntarii cuvantului) se va adauga "er" Exemple: able (capabil) - abler (mai capabil) noble (nobil) - nobler (mai nobil) - adjectivele formate din doua silabe cu terminatia in "y", "w", "er", "some", pot fi considerate atat adjective scurte cat si lungi si ca atare pot forma comparativul de superioritate in ambele moduri. Exemple: pretty (dragut) - prettier (mai dragut sau more pretty) narrow (ingust) - narrower (mai ingust sau more narrow) handsome (chipes) - handsomer (mai chipes sau more handsome) 6. 7. SUPERLATIVUL Indica superioritatea sau inferioritatea fata de un grup. SUPERIORITATEA se formeaza astfel: - la adjectivele scurte, se adauga est la finalul adjectivului si este precedat de the Exemple: the biggest (cel mai mare) the smallest (cel mai mic) the shortest (cel mai scund) - la adjectivele lungi, vor fi precedate de the urmat de most Exemple: the most intelligent (cel mai intelligent) the most curious (cel mai curios) INFERIOARITATEA se formeaza astfel: - indiferent de forma adjectivelor (scurte sau lungi), acestea sunt precedate de the least Exemple: the least intelligent (cel mai putin intelligent) the least curious (cel mai putin curios) 8. 9. COMPARATIVE SI SUPERLATIVE NEREGULATE bad (rau) worse (mai rau) the worst (cel mai rau) good (bun) better (mai bun) the best (cel mai bun) far (indepartat) farther, further (mai indepartat) the farthest, the furthest (cel mai indepartat)

late (intarziat) later (mai recent) the lattest (cel mai recent) latter (cel din urma - din doi) the last (cel din urma - din mai multi) much (mult, multa) more (mai mult, mai multa) the most (cel mai mult, cea mai multa) many (multi, multe) more (mai multi, mai multe) the most (cei mai multi, cele mai multe) near (apropiat) nearer (mai apropiat) the nearest (cel mai apropiat) old (batran) older (mai batran) the oldest (cel mai batran) elder (mai in varsta) the eldest (cel mai in varsta)

EXERCITII
1. Aseaza in ordinea corecta adjectivele din paranteze: a) I took myself a trip. (1-week, nice) b) Those are cookies! (chocolate, delicious, huge) c) You like furniture. (leather, Spanish, black) d) My mother wants a coffee table. (stone, square, grey) e) The archeologists found bones. (animal, large, prehistoric) 2. Completeaza spatiile goale cu ajectivele posesive corecte: a) Maria said, "This is _______ cat with _______ short tail." b) _______ father drops me off to school on _______ way to work. c) The students use _______ own tools in the laboratory. d) Do you want me to help you find _______ things? e) Tom and Mary have a new store. _______ business is very successful. 3. Completeaza spatiile goale cu adjectivul demonstrativ corect: a) Look at _______ woman over there. She is a French teacher. b) My grandfather, who fought in World War II, told me that in _______ days they didn't have enough food. c) _______ men are my best friends in this room; _______ men over there are my enemies. d) _______ paintings in that room are beautiful. e) _______ house is mine; _______ house is my sister's. 4. Tradu in limba engleza urmatoarele propozitii: a) Michael este mai istet decat fratele sau. b) Cel mai putin inalt elev din clasa aceasta este Adrian. c) Aceasta este cea mai interesanta poveste. d) Sandra este mai slaba decat Ioana. e) El este cel mai bun actor din echipa. 5. Completeaza spatiile goale cu adjectivul nehotarat corect: a) I noticed _______ (ceva) water on the table.

b) _______ (cate) old songs do you know? c) Do you have _______ (niste) oranges? d) I have _______ (destui) money to buy an apartment. e) He has _______ (putin) sugar in the house. f) There is _______(nu e timp) time to see a movie. 6. Completeaza cu adjectivele posesive corecte spatiile goale: a) The woman looks for _______ (a sa) cat. b) Mr Peterson is looking for _______ (a lui) car. c) We have _______ (ale noastre) own tools. d) Welcome to _______ (a noastra) house! e) _______ (a ei) mother is a doctor. f) _______ (ai lor) friends are in the schoolyard. 7. Tradu in limba engleza urmatoarele propozitii: a) Aceasta masina este rosie. b) Acele fete sunt in clasa intai. c) Acei barbati sunt doctori. d) Aceasta este clasa mea. e) Acela este cainele ei. f) Acestea sunt caietele noastre. 8. Completeaza spatiile libere cu forma corecta a adjectivelor, la gradul de comparatie indicat:

Adjectiv bad __________ __________ thin beautiful fat

Comparativ __________ faster __________ __________ more beautiful __________

Superlativ __________ __________ the best __________ __________ __________

9.

10. Trece adjectivele de mai jos la gradul de comparatie specificat la fiecare, in paranteze. small (superlativ) little (comparativ) much (comparativ) happy (superlativ) interesting (comparativ) cheap (superlativ) young (comparativ) high (comparativ) low (superlativ) 11. Tradu urmatoarele adjective in limba engleza: cel mai dulce

mai putin tare cel mai puternic mai important mai albastru mai curat cel mai mare cel mai putin interesant mai indepartat

EXERCITII REZOLVATE
1. Aseaza in ordinea corecta adjectivele din paranteze: a) I took myself a nice 1-week trip. Am fost intr-o calatorie frumoasa de 1 saptamana. b) Those are delicious huge chocolate cookies! Acelea sunt prajituri delicioase, uriase de ciocolata! c) You like black Spanish leather furniture. Tie iti place mobile neagra din Spania de piele. d) My mother wants a square grey stone coffee table. Mama mea vrea o masa de cafea patrata, gri, din piatra. e) The archeologists found large prehistoric animal bones. Arheologii au gasit oase mari preistorice de animal. 2. Completeaza spatiile goale cu ajectivele posesive corecte: a) Maria said, "This is my cat with its short tail." Maria a spus, "Aceasta este pisica mea cu coada ei scurta." b) My father drops me off to school on his way to work. Tatal meu ma lasa la scoala in drumul lui spre munca. c) The students use their own tools in the laboratory. Elevii isi folosesc propriile instrumente in laborator. d) Do you want me to help you find your things? Vrei sa te ajut sa iti gasesti lucrurile? e) Tom and Mary have a new store. Their business is very successful. Tom si Mary au un nou magazin. Afacerea lor este de succes. 3. Completeaza spatiile goale cu adjectivul demonstrativ corect: a) Look at that woman over there. She is a French teacher.

Priveste-o pe femeia aceea de acolo. Este profesoara de franceza. b) My grandfather, who fought in World War II, told me that in those days they didn't have enough food. Bunicul meu, care a luptat in Al doilea Razboi Mondial, mi-a spus ca in zilele acelea ei nu aveau suficienta mancare. c) These men are my best friends in this room; those men over there are my enemies. Acesti barbati sunt prietenii mei cei mai buni in aceasta camera; acei barbati de acolo sunt dusmanii mei. d) Those paintings in that room are beautiful. Acele tablouri din camera aceea sunt frumoase. e) This house is mine; that house is my sister's. Aceasta casa este a mea; acea casa este a surorii mele. 4. Tradu in limba engleza urmatoarele propozitii: a) Michael este mai istet decat fratele sau. Michael is smarter than his brother. b) Cel mai putin inalt elev din clasa aceasta este Adrian. The least tall student in this classroom is Adrian. c) Aceasta este cea mai interesanta poveste. This is the most interesting story. d) Sandra este mai slaba decat Ioana. Sandra is thinner than Ioana. e) El este cel mai bun actor din echipa. He is the best actor in the team. 5. Completeaza spatiile goale cu adjectivul nehotarat corect: a) I noticed some water on the table. Am observat ceva apa pe masa. b) How many old songs do you know? Cate cantece vechi cunosti? c) Do you have any oranges? Ai niste portocale? d) I have enough money to buy an apartment. Am destui bani sa cumpar un apartament. e) He has little sugar in the house. El are putin zahar in casa.

f) There is no time to see a movie. Nu e timp pentru a vedea un film. 6. Completeaza cu adjectivele posesive corecte spatiile goale: a) The woman looks for her cat. Femeia isi cauta pisica sa. b) Mr Peterson is looking for his car. Dl Peterson isi cauta masina lui. c) We have our own tools. Noi avem propriile noastre unelte. d) Welcome to our house! Bine ati venit la casa noastra! e) Her mother is a doctor. Mama ei este doctorita. f) Their friends are in the schoolyard. Prietenii lor sunt in curtea scolii. 7. Tradu in limba engleza urmatoarele propozitii: a) Aceasta masina este rosie. This car is red. b) Acele fete sunt in clasa intai. Those girls are in the first grade. c) Acei barbati sunt doctori. Those men are doctors. d) Aceasta este clasa mea. This is my classroom. e) Acela este cainele ei. That is her dog. f) Acestea sunt caietele noastre. These are our notebooks. 8. Completeaza spatiile libere cu forma corecta a adjectivelor, la gradul de comparatie indicat:

Adjectiv bad fast good

Comparativ worse faster better

Superlativ the worst the fastest the best

thin beautiful fat

thinner more beautiful fatter

the thinnest the most beautiful the fattest

9.

10. Trece adjectivele de mai jos la gradul de comparatie specificat la fiecare, in paranteze. small (superlativ) => the smallest little (comparativ) => less much (comparativ) => more happy (superlativ) => the happiest interesting (comparativ) => more interesting cheap (superlativ) => the cheapest young (comparativ) => younger high (comparativ) => higher low (superlativ) => lower 11. Tradu urmatoarele adjective in limba engleza: cel mai dulce (the sweetest) mai putin tare (less strong) cel mai puternic (the strongest) mai important (more important) mai albastru (bluer) mai curat (cleaner) cel mai mare (the biggest) cel mai putin interesant (the least interesting) mai indepartat (farther)

Adverbul
Adverbul este partea de vorbire care exprima caracteristica unei actiuni, stari sau insusiri si descrie sau modifica verbe, adjective sau chiar alte adverbe. De cele mai multe ori, adverbul indica unde, cand sau cum are loc o actiune si in ce imprejurari se desfasoara.

FOLOSIREA ADVERBELOR Adverbele pot determina verbe, adjective sau alte adverbe.
Exemple: Mary opened quickly the door. - determina verbul "opened" Mary a deschis repede usa.

The shirt was incredibly expensive. - determina adjectivul "expensive" Camasa era incredibil de scumpa. She spoke extremely fast. - determina adverbul "fast" Ea a vorbit extrem de repede.

FORMAREA ADVERBELOR Adverbele se formeaza de cele mai multe ori prin adaugarea terminatiei -ly la forma de singular a adjectivului. Insa, atentie, nu toate cuvintele cu terminatia -ly sunt adverbe, ca de exemplu: lovely (minunat), lonely (singur), friendly (prietenos), neighborly (apropiat), motherly (mamos), acestea fiind adjective.
Modificari in formarea adverbelor:

la terminatia in -y a unui adjectiv, pentru a deveni adverb, terminatia se va inlocui cu -i+ly Exemple: easy (usor) => easily (cu usurinta) angry (furios) => angrily (cu furie) lucky (norocos) => luckily (cu noroc) la terminatia in -le a unui adjectiv, pentru a deveni adverb, terminatia -e va dispare si se va inlocui cu -y Exemple: gentle (delicat) => gently (cu delicatete) probable (probabil) => probably (cu probabilitate) terrible (teribil) => terribly (teribil) la terminatia in -ic a unui adjectiv, pentru a deveni adverb, se va adauga -ally Exemple: economic (economic) => economically (cu economie) tragic (tragic) => tragically (tragic) basic (fundamental) => basically (fundamental)

Evident, pot exista si exceptii: public (public) => publicly (in public) Exista si adverbe cu forme neregulate: Exemple: good (bun) => well (bine) true (adevarat) => truly (intr-adevar) whole (intreg) => wholly (in intregime) hard (greu) => hard (cu greutate) fast (rapid) => fast (repede) early (recent) => early (devreme)

POZITIONAREA ADVERBELOR Adverbele pot fi asezate fie la inceputul propozitiei, fie in mijloc, fie la final. Exemple: Sometimes Mary goes to the church. Uneori, Maria merge la biserica.
I rarely make a mistake. Eu rareori fac o greseala. Tony visits his mother frecquently. Tony isi viziteaza mama frecvent. In propozitiile negative, de obicei adverbele se pozitioneaza dupa not. Exemplu: You do not often miss the train. Tu nu pierzi des trenul. In propozitiile interogative afirmative sau negative cu n't, adverbele aflate in mijlocul propozitiei urmeaza de obicei subiectul propozitiei. Exemple: Is it always this cold in March? Este intotdeauna atat de frig in luna martie? Doesn't he usually know the answers? El nu cunoaste de obicei raspunsurile?

TIPOLOGIA ADVERBELOR
1. Adverbe de mod Acestea raspund la intrebarea: how? (cum?) Se aseaza dupa verb si dupa complementul acestuia: He runs fast. El alearga repede. Exemple: fast (rapid) quickly (repede) easily (cu usurinta) eagerly (cu nerabdare) loudly (tare) patiently (cu rabdare) well (bine) carefully (cu atentie)

beautifully (frumos) softly (incet) 2. 3. Adverbe de loc Acestea raspund la intrebarea: where? (unde?) Se aseaza in general dupa verbul principal si dupa complementul acestuia: I searched everywhere. Am cautat peste tot. Exemple: ahead (inainte) back (in spate) forward (inainte, in fata) here (aici) there (acolo) somewhere (undeva) outside (afara) inside (inauntru) near (aproape) backwards (inapoi) outwards (spre exterior) upwards (in sus) 4. 5. Adverbe de timp, durata si frecventa Acestea raspund la intrebarea: when? (cand?) TIMP: today (astazi); yesterday (ieri); tomorrow (maine); now (acum); last year (anul trecut); later (mai tarziu) DURATA: all day (toata ziua); not long (nu mult); for a while (pentru un timp); since last year (de anul trecut) FRECVENTA: sometimes (uneori); frequently (frecvent); never (niciodata); often (des); yearly (annual) De obicei, adverbele de timp se aseaza la sfasitul propozitiei sau la inceput: I wrote a letter yesterday. Am scris o scrisoare ieri. Later he called his mother. Mai tarziu, a sunat-o pe mama sa. Adverbele care indica durata se aseaza la finalul propozitiei: He drove all day.

A condus toata ziua. Adverbele de frecventa se aseaza de obicei in fata verbului principal, dar dupa verbele auxiliare (be, have, may, must): I often read a story in the evening. Deseori citesc o poveste seara. You must always be polite. Trebuie sa fii intotdeauna politicos. 6. 7. Adverbe de siguranta si probabilitate Exemple: certainly (desigur); definitely (cu siguranta); probably (probabil); surely (cu siguranta); maybe (poate); obviously (evident); perhaps (poate); really (intr-adevar) De obicei, se aseaza intre verbul auxiliar si cel principal: I have probably missed the train. Probabil am pierdut trenul. 8. 9. Adverbe de grad Exemplu: almost (aproape); nearly (aproape); quite (destul); just (doar); enough (destul); scarcely (abia); completely (complet) Se aseaza fie in fata adjectivului sau adverbului determinat, fie in fata verbului principal: You were just leaving. Tocmai ai plecat. She has almost finished. Ea aproape a terminat. ATENTIE:
o

Enough se aseaza dupa adjectiv sau verb: I didn't study enough. Nu am studiat suficient. Too se aseaza in fata adjectivului sau adverbului: Tony works too much. Tony lucreaza prea mult. Very se aseaza in fata adjectivului sau adverbului: Mary is very beautiful. Mary este foarte frumoasa.

10. Adverbe de legatura De obicei pozitionate la inceputul propozitiilor, aceste adverbe fac legatura intre o idee exprimata in propozitia din care fac parte cu o idee exprimata intr-o propozitie anterioara. Exemple: however (totusi) I would like to eat a cake. However, I don't have enough money. Mi-ar placea sa mananc o prajitura. Totusi, nu am suficienti bani. nevertheless (totusi, cu toate astea) You were very ill; nevertheless, you found time to call me on my birthday. Ai fost foarte bolnav; cu toate astea, ti-ai facut timp sa ma suni de ziua mea. therefore (de aceea, asadar) He won the contest, therefore he got another medal. A castigat concursul, asadar a mai primit o medalie. Alte exemple de adverbe de legatura: also (de asemenea); consequently (in consecinta); finally (in sfarsit); meanwhile (intre timp); otherwise (altfel); thus (asadar); instead (in schimb); hence (prin urmare); furthermore (mai mult, in plus)

GRADELE DE COMPARATIE ALE ADVERBELOR Adverbele formeaza comparativul si superlativul la fel ca adjectivele.

pentru adverbele monosilabice, se va adauga terminatia -er la comparativ si -est la superlativ Exemplu: hard - harder - hardest (greu - mai greu - cel mai greu) pentru adverbele formate din mai multe silabe, vor fi precedate de more la comparativ si de most la superlativ Exemplu: patiently - more patiently - most patiently (rabdator - mai rabdator - cel mai rabdator)

Unele adverbe au forme neregulate pentru comparativ si superlativ: Exemple: badly - worse - worst (rau - mai rau - cel mai rau) little - less - least (putin - mai putin - cel mai putin) well - better - best (bine - mai bine - cel mai bine) much - more - most (mult - mai mult - cel mai mult)

EXERCITII
1. Scrie adverbul corespunzator fiecarui adjectiv in parte: Exemplu: easy - easily efficient rapid quick sure hard bad good probable close deep careful beautiful 2. Scrie la fiecare propozitie adverbul corespunzator adjectivului din paranteze: Exemplu: She swims _______ (good) She swims well. a) My brother ran _______ (quick) to the bus. b) Mary is _______ in love. (deep) c) It is _______ morning. (near) d) She _______ left the house. (quiet) 3. Completeaza cu gradele comparativ si superlativ urmatoarele adverbe ca in exemplu: Exemplu: fast - faster - fastest a) well b) hard c) little d) much e) early f) often 4. Formeaza adverbe din urmatoarele adjective: a) regular b) terrible c) fantastic d) nice e) heavy 5. Pozitioneaza corect adverbele din paranteze in urmatoarele propozitii: Exemplu: I must write an exercise. (also) I must also write an exercise.

a) Did you enjoy the movie? (both) b) Tony drives his car. (carefully) c) We went to the theatre. (yesterday) d) My father will buy flowers for my mother. (probably) e) I will move to Paris next year. (definitely) 6. Gaseste adjectivul in prima propozitie si completeaza spatiile goale cu adverbul corespunzator: Exemplu: Mary is happy. She smiles happily. a) My brother is a careful driver. He drives _______ b) Her French is fluent. She speaks _______ c) Our mum was angry. She spoke to us _______ d) She is a good dancer. She dances _______ e) John is a wonderful singer. He sings _______ 7. Construieste propozitii cu urmatoarele cuvinte, asezandu-le corect: Exemplu: watch I TV sometimes / I sometimes watch TV a) I always my wash car b) You the sleep often during day c) He alone his homework does never d) Mother my loudly speaks e) Fluently German speaks Tony 8. Alege adverbul potrivit pentru urmatoarele propozitii: Exemplu: He must be pretty lazy: I've hardly (ever / never / usually / ever since) seen him working. Raspuns: I've hardly ever seen him working. a) I have (seldom / hardly ever / usually / ever) met such a beautiful girl. b) Have you (ever / never / still / usually) seen this movie? c) It was a horrible accident and Mary is (still / already / yet / always) in the hospital. d) I'm afraid I haven't read that book (already / ever / never / yet). e) My father is (usually / once a week / daily / every morning) at work at 9 o'clock. 9. Aranjeaza cuvintele pentru a forma propozitii: a) I'll / you / see / soon b) I / immediately / help / need c) ? / where / you / now / are d) ? / what / yesterday / you / did / do e) was / arrogant / then / he / very 10. Alege adverbul corespunzator in propozitiile urmatoare: a) We wanted to go to Paris; (otherwise / moreover / instead) we went to London. b) You need to work harder; (instead / accordingly / otherwise) you'll get fired. c) I really don't know why he came; (otherwise / instead / in contrast), I would tell you. d) John has very little money; (in contrast / nonetheless / similarly), his brother is a millionaire. e) She is a very smart woman; (therefore / in contrast / still) it is not at all surprising that she got the job.

EXERCITII REZOLVATE
1. Scrie adverbul corespunzator fiecarui adjectiv in parte: efficient => efficiently rapid => rapidly quick => quickly sure => surely hard => hard bad => badly good => well probable => probably close => closely deep => deeply careful => carefully beautiful => beautifully 2. Scrie la fiecare propozitie adverbul corespunzator adjectivului din paranteze: a) My brother ran quickly to the bus. Fratele meu a alergat repede la autobuz. b) Mary is deeply in love. Mary este profund indragostita. c) It is nearly morning. Este aproape dimineata. d) She quietly left the house. A iesit din casa in liniste. 3. Completeaza cu gradele comparativ si superlativ urmatoarele adverbe ca in exemplu: a) well - better - best b) hard - harder - hardest c) little - less - least d) much - more - most e) early - earlier - earliest f) often - more often - most often 4. Formeaza adverbe din urmatoarele adjective: a) regular - regularly b) terrible - terribly c) fantastic - fantastically d) nice - nicely e) heavy - heavily 5. Pozitioneaza corect adverbele din paranteze in urmatoarele propozitii: a) Did you both enjoy the movie? V-a placut filmul amandurora?

b) Tony drives his car carefully. Tony isi conduce masina cu atentie. c) We went to the theatre yesterday. Am fost la teatru ieri. d) My father will probably buy flowers for my mother. Tatal meu ii va cumpara probabil mamei flori. e) I will definitely move to Paris next year. Ma voi muta definitiv la Paris anul viitor. 6. Gaseste adjectivul in prima propozitie si completeaza spatiile goale cu adverbul corespunzator: a) My brother is a careful driver. He drives carefully. Fratele meu este un sofer atent. El conduce cu atentie. b) Her French is fluent. She speaks fluently. Franceza ei este fluenta. Ea vorbeste fluent. c) Our mum was angry. She spoke to us angrily. Mama noastra era furioasa. Ne-a vorbit cu furie. d) She is a good dancer. She dances well. Ea este o buna dansatoare. Danseaza bine. e) John is a wonderful singer. He sings wonderfully. John este un cantaret minunat. El canta minunat. 7. Construieste propozitii cu urmatoarele cuvinte, asezandu-le corect: a) I always wash my car. Intotdeauna imi spal masina. b) You often sleep during the day. Deseori dormi in timpul zilei. c) He never does his homework alone. El nu-si face niciodata temele singur. d) My mother speaks loudly. Mama mea vorbeste tare. e) Tony speaks German fluently. Tony vorbeste germana fluent. 8. Alege adverbul potrivit pentru urmatoarele propozitii: a) I have hardly ever met such a beautiful girl. Rareori am vazut o fata asa frumoasa. b) Have you ever seen this movie?

Ai vazut vreodata acest film? c) It was a horrible accident and Mary is still in the hospital. A fost un accident oribil si Mary inca este in spital. d) I'm afraid I haven't read that book yet. Mi-e teama ca nu am citit inca acea carte. e) My father is usually at work at 9 o'clock. Tatal meu este la munca de obicei la ora 9. 9. Aranjeaza cuvintele pentru a forma propozitii: a) I'll see you soon. Ne vedem in curand. b) I need help immediately. Am nevoie de ajutor imediat. c) Where are you now? Unde esti acum? d) What did you do yesterday? Ce ai facut ieri? e) He was very arrogant then. A fost foarte arogant atunci. 10. Alege adverbul corespunzator in propozitiile urmatoare: a) We wanted to go to Paris; instead we went to London. Am vrut sa mergem la Paris; in schimb ne-am dus la Londra. b) You need to work harder; instead you'll get fired. Trebuie sa muncesti mai mult; altfel vei fi concediat. c) I really don't know why he came; otherwise, I would tell you. Chiar nu stiu de ce a venit; altfel, ti-as fi spus. d) John has very little money; in contrast his brother is a millionaire. John are foarte putini bani; in contrast, fratele sau este milionar. e) She is a very smart woman; therefore it is not at all surprising that she got the job. Ea este o femeie foarte desteapta; de aceea nu e deloc surprinzator ca a primit postul.

Prepozitia
Prepozitia reprezinta partea de vorbire care indica relatia dintre substantive, pronume si alte parti de vorbire dintr-o propozitie. Cel mai des, acestea preced un substantiv. Nu isi schimba forma, indiferent de cazul sau genul cuvantului la care face referire. Prepozitiile nu au inteles de sine statator, ele capata diferite sensuri puse in legatura cu alte

cuvinte. Exista prepozitii simple (at, in, on, behind, under etc) si prepozitii compuse (in between / intre, because of / din cauza ca, pentru ca, on behalf of / in numele).

TIPURI DE PREPOZITII
1. PREPOZITIILE DE TIMP on - se utilizeaza pentru a exprima zilele saptamanii: on Monday (luni) in - se utilizeaza pentru a exprima: - luna / anotimpul: in March (in martie); in Spring (primavara) - timpul zilei: in the afternoon (dupa-amiaza) - anul: in 2001 - o anumita perioada de timp: in a minute (intr-un minut) at - se utilizeaza pentru a exprima: - pentru noapte: at night (la noapte) - pentru weekend: at weekend (in weekend) - ora exacta: at half past ten (la 10 si jumatate) since - se utilizeaza pentru a exprima de cand a inceput actiunea pana in prezent: since 2011 (din 2011) for - se utilizeaza pentru a exprima de cand dureaza actiunea pana in prezent: for two years (de doi ani) to - precizeaza timpul exact: ten to six (sase fara zece minute) past - precizeaza timpul: ten past eight (opt si zece minute) to, till, until - precizeaza de cand si pana cand are loc actiunea: from Monday to/till Saturday (de luni pana sambata) by - precizeaza pana cand are loc actiunea: by 7 o'clock (pana la ora 7) Alte prepozitii de timp: ago - six years ago (cu 6 ani in urma) after - after school (dupa scoala) between - between Monday and Thursday (intre luni si joi) during - during the holidays (pe perioada sarbatorilor) before - before Easter (inainte de Pasti) within - within an hour (intr-o ora) up to - up to three hours a day (pana la 3 ore pe zi) 2. 3. PREPOZITIILE DE LOC

in - in the room (in camera), in the kitchen (in bucatarie), in the book (in carte), in the car (in masina) at - at the concert (la concert), at the table (la masa), at the door (la usa), at school (la scoala) on - on the first floor (la primul etaj), on the wall (pe perete), on the table (pe masa), on the plane(in avion), on the radio (la radio) by, next to, beside - standing by the car (sta langa masina) under - under the table (sub masa) over - over the shirt (peste camasa), over the river (peste rau) Alte prepozitii de loc: after (dupa) in front of (in fata) among (printre) behind (in spatele) on to (pe) from (din) 4. 5. PREPOZITIILE DE MISCARE through - through the tunnel (prin tunel) to - to the theatre (la teatru) towards - towards the hospital (catre spital) along - along the river (de-a lungul) across - across the ocean (peste ocean) past (langa) about (prin) around (in jurul) Numeroase substantive, adjective si verbe se folosesc corect numai insotite de anumite prepozitii. Hai sa vedem impreuna cateva exemple:

SUBSTANTIVE CU PREPOZITIE belief in (credinta in) concern for (preocupare pentru) confusion about (confuzie cu privire la) love of (dragoste de)

foundness for (toleranta pentru) need for (nevoie de a) reason for (motiv pentru) success in (succes in) respect for (respect pentru)

ADJECTIVE CU PREPOZITIE afraid of (frica de) angry at (furios la) aware of (constient de) capable of (capabil de) careless about (neatent la) interested in (interesat de) made of (fabricat din) married to (casatorit cu) proud of (mandru de) sure of (sigur de) VERBE CU PREPOZITIE ask about (a intreba despre) bring up (a aduce) find out (a afla) look for (a cauta ceva) look forward to (a astepta cu nerabdare sa) grow up (a creste) look up (a privi in sus) make up (a alcatui) pay for (a plati) prepare for (a se pregati pentru) talk about (a vorbi despre) trust in (a crede in) work for (a lucra pentru) EXPRESII IDIOMATICE Aceeasi prepozitie poate implica frazelor din care face parte un inteles diferit de cel obisnuit. Cateva exemple:
in the street (pe strada) in the playground (pe terenul de joaca) in the sky (pe cer) in the sun (la soare) on the way to (in drum spre) on the first floor (la etajul intai) at this moment (in acest moment) by my watch (dupa ceasul meu) by heart (pe de rost) by mistake (din greseala) to go on a trip (a merge in excursie)

outside the garden (in fata gradinii) to look out of the window (a privy pe fereastra) at present (in prezent) in all probability (dupa toate probabilitatile) in a year's time (peste un an) in the open air (la aer curat)

EXERCITII
1. Recunoaste prepozitiile de loc, de timp sau de miscare din propozitiile de mai jos: a) I am looking at the photos with my colleagues. Ma uit la fotografiile cu colegii mei. b) The cat is under the table. Pisica este sub masa. c) You are standing by the window. Tu stai in picioare la fereastra. d) All our documents are kept within the drawer. Toate documentele noastre sunt pastrate in sertar. e) They sailed across the ocean. Ei au navigat peste ocean. f) There is a school in front of the hospital. Este o scoala in fata spitalului. 2. Alege prepozitia corecta si completeaza spatiile goale: a) I saw a movie (at / in / on) television. b) She took her key (from / out of / outside) her pocket. c) The hotel is (on / at / in) the High Street. d) Andrew left school (at / to / on) the age of 16. e) The cat is standing (in / on / at) the table. f) She was born (in / on / at) 2004. 3. Completeaza spatiile goale cu prepozitia corecta: a) I am waiting _____ the bus. b) This song was written _____ Michael Jackson. c) You are allergic _____ bees. d) I like to travel _____ France in may. e) I brought some flowers _____ me. f) I havent smoked _____ ages. 4. Completeaza spatiile goale cu una din urmatoarele prepozitii: of, on, at, to, with, in, for, along. a) His t-shirt has a picture _____ it. b) The queen _____ England wanted to wear golden dress at her wedding. c) I went _____ Brussels last week.

d) She spent the afternoon _____ her friends. e) We walked _____ the banks of River Seine. f) Shes been waiting _____ me for about four hours. g) Whats the weather like _____ Paris? h) She was _____ the cinema last evening. 5. Tradu in limba engleza: a) Statuia este in fata stadionului. b) In spatele operei se afla un hotel. c) Lui Philip ii place sa zboare deasupra oceanului. d) Ea a plecat la munte la ora 8 dimineata. e) Noi stam intr-un hotel foarte dragut. 6. Tradu in limba romana: a) Meet me at 08:30 pm in front of the cinema. b) We see our parents only at Christmas. c) I'm planning to leave on Thursday. d) My birthday is on 01st of September. e) It is very cold in winter.

EXERCITII REZOLVATE
1. Recunoaste prepozitiile de loc, de timp sau de miscare din propozitiile de mai jos: a) I am looking at the photos with my colleagues. b) The cat is under the table. c) You are standing by the window. d) All our documents are kept within the drawer. e) They sailed across the ocean. f) There is a school in front of the hospital. 2. Alege prepozitia corecta si completeaza spatiile goale: a) I saw a movie on television. Am vazut un film la televizor. b) She took her key out of her pocket. Si-a scos cheia din buzunar. c) The hotel is in the High Street. Hotelul este pe High Street. d) Andrew left school at the age of 16. Andrew a abandonat scoala la varsta de 16 ani.

e) The cat is standing on the table. Pisica sta pe masa. f) She was born in 2004. Ea s-a nascut in 2004. 3. Completeaza spatiile goale cu prepozitia corecta: a) I am waiting the the bus. Astept autobuzul. b) This song was written by Michael Jackson. Acest cantec a fost scris de Michael Jackson. c) You are allergic to bees. Tu esti alergic la albine. d) I like to travel to France in may. Imi place sa calatoresc in Franta in luna mai. e) I brought some flowers with me. Am adus niste flori. f) I haven't smoked for ages. Nu am mai fumat de ani de zile. 4. Completeaza spatiile goale cu una din urmatoarele prepozitii: of, on, at, to, with, in, for, along. a) His t-shirt has a picture on it. Tricoul sau are o poza pe el. b) The queen of England wanted to wear golden dress at her wedding. Regina Angliei a dorit sa poarte o rochie aurie la nunta sa. c) I went to Brussels last week. Am fost la Bruxelles saptamana trecuta. d) She spent the afternoon with her friends. Ea si-a petrecut dupa-amiaza cu prietenii sai. e) We walked along the banks of River Seine. Ne-am plimbat pe malurile raului Sena. f) Shes been waiting for me for about four hours. M-a asteptat aproape 4 ore. g) Whats the weather like in Paris? Cum este vremea in Paris? h) She was at the cinema last evening. A fost la cinema seara trecuta.

5. Tradu in limba engleza: a) Statuia este in fata stadionului. The statue is in front of the stadium. b) In spatele operei se afla un hotel. There is a hotel behind the opera. c) Lui Philip ii place sa zboare deasupra oceanului. Philip likes to fly above the ocean. d) Ea a plecat la munte la ora 8 dimineata. She left to the mountain at 8 am. e) Noi stam intr-un hotel foarte dragut. We are staying at a very nice hotel. 6. Tradu in limba romana: a) Meet me at 08:30 pm in front of the cinema. Ne intalnim la 08:30 pm, in fata la cinema. b) We see our parents only at Christmas. Ne vedem parintii doar de Craciun. c) I'm planning to leave on Thursday. Planuiesc sa plec joi. d) My birthday is on 01st of September. Ziua mea este pe 01 septembrie. e) It is very cold in winter. Este foarte frig iarna.

Prezentul Simplu
MOD DE FORMARE

AFIRMATIV Subiect + Verbul la infinitiv (la persoana a III-a singular se adauga terminatia "-s" sau "-es") Exemple: I go to school every day. Merg la scoala in fiecare zi. He reads a book every month. El citeste o carte in fiecare luna. She lives in Bucharest.

Ea locuieste in Bucuresti.

INTEROGATIV Do / Does (pers.III, sg.) + Subiect + Verbul la infinitiv Exemple: Do you go to school every day? Mergi la scoala in fiecare zi? Does he read a book every month? Citeste el o carte in fiecare luna? Does she live in Bucharest? Locuieste ea in Bucuresti?

NEGATIV Subiect + do / does (pers.III, sg.) + not + Verbul la infinitiv Se folosesc adesea contractiile don't (do + not) si doesn't (does + not) Exemple: I don't go to school every day. Nu merg la scoala in fiecare zi. He doesn't read a book every month. El nu citeste o carte in fiecare luna. She doesn't live in Bucharest. Ea nu locuieste in Bucuresti.

Reguli pentru adaugarea terminatiei "-s" sau "-es" la afirmativ pentru persoana a III-a singular

La majoritatea verbelor se adauga terminatia "-s" la persoana a III-a singular la afirmativ Exemple: I talk He talks I work He works I sleep He sleeps Verbelelor care se termina in ss, -sh, -ch, -x, -o li se adauga terminatia "-es" Exemple: I kiss He kisses I wish He wishes

I catch He catches I mix He mixes I go He goes

La verbele care se termina in litera y precedata de o consoana, se inlocuieste litera y cu litera i , iar apoi se adauga terminatia "-es" Exemple: I fly He flies I study He studies I cry He cries La verbele care se termina in litera y precedata de o vocala, se adauga terminatia "-s" Exemple: I pay He pays I stay He stays I play He plays

Cand folosim Prezentul Simplu? Folosim Prezentul Simplu (Present Simple) pentru:

activitati zilnice, saptamanale, lunare, anuale Exemple: I go to the mountains every month. Merg la munte in fiecare luna. We have breakfast at 7.30 every morning. Luam micul dejun la ora 7.30 in fiecare dimineata.

obiceiuri, hobby-uri Exemple: She plays tennis in her free time. Ea joaca tenis in timpul liber. In the summer, they go to the seaside. Vara, ei merg la mare.

situatii permanente Exemple: He lives in Paris. El locuieste la Paris. I work as a manager. Eu lucrez ca manager.

a exprima actiuni care respecta un anumit program Exemple: The bus for Bucharest lives at 12.15 on Monday. Autobuzul pentru Bucuresti pleaca luni la 12.15.

I have Maths Friday at 11.30. Eu am matematica vineri, la 11.30.

situatii emotionale Exemple: I love my girlfriend very much. Imi iubesc prietena foarte mult. He hates cats. El uraste pisicile.

adevaruri generale Exemple: The earth moves around the sun. Pamantul se misca in jurul soarelui. Water boils at 100C. Apa fierbe la 100C.

Expresii cu care se foloseste adesea Prezentul Simplu every day/ week/ month/ year etc., every morning/ evening/ afternoon/ night, usually, always, sometimes, often, never, in the morning/evening/night etc.
Exemple: He goes to the gym every day. El merge la sala in fiecare zi. I play football every week. Eu joc fotbal in fiecare saptamana. We go to the dentist every year. Noi mergem la dentist in fiecare an. She watches TV every evening. Ea se uita la televizor in fiecare seara. She usually studies hard for her exams. De obicei, ea se pregateste din greu pentru examene. I always do my homework. Intotdeauna imi fac temele. He sometimes goes shopping. El face cumparaturi uneori. I often play pool with my friends. Eu joc deseori biliard cu prietenii mei.

She never goes to school by bus. Ea nu merge niciodata la scoala cu autobuzul. In the evening we play Monopoly. Seara jucam Monopoly.

EXERCITII
1. Pune propozitiile urmatoare la persoana a III-a singular: Exemplu: They live in Craiova. (He) Ei locuiesc in Craiova. He lives in Craiova, too. El locuieste in Craiova, de asemenea. a) I fly from Bucharest to Rome every week. (Mary) Eu zbor de la Bucuresti la Roma saptamanal. b) We usually play in the park. (John) Noi ne jucam de obicei in parc. c) They like their jobs very much. (He) Ei isi iubesc serviciile foarte mult. d) I want a new car. (She) Eu imi doresc o masina noua. e) You wake up at 7 o'clock. (Paul) Tu te trezesti la ora 7. f) You always wash the dishes. (Angela) Tu intotdeauna speli vasele. g) We watch TV every afternoon. (Tom) Ne uitam la TV in fiecare dupa-amiaza. h) I go to school by bus. (My brother) Eu merg la scoala cu autobuzul. i) You cook every Saturday. (My mother) Tu gatesti in fiecare sambata. j) We study hard for our exams. (Mark) Noi ne pregatim din greu pentru examene. 2. Scrie forma interogativa a urmatoarelor propozitii: Exemplu:

You like swimming. Tie iti place sa inoti. Do you like swimming? Iti place sa inoti? a) He lives in Bucharest. El locuieste in Bucuresti. b) You wear a uniform at school. Tu porti uniforma la scoala. c) My father drives very well. Tatal meu conduce foarte bine. d) Mr Smith teaches English. Dl Smith preda engleza. e) You like pizza and hamburgers. Tie iti plac pizza si hamburgerii. f) My neighbor works as an engineer. Vecinul meu lucreaza ca inginer. g) Your father repairs the car every month. Tatal tau repara masina in fiecare luna. h) We drink coffee every morning. Noi bem cafea in fiecare dimineata. i) Mary pays her bills every month. Mary isi plateste facturile in fiecare luna. j) He goes to bed very early every evening. El se duce la culcare foarte devreme in fiecare seara. 3. Foloseste forma negativa pentru propozitiile urmatoare, folosind cuvintele din paranteze, la fel ca in exemplul de mai jos: Exemplu: I like Mathematics. (Physics) Imi place matematica. (Fizica) I like Mathematics, but I don't like Physics. Imi place matematica, dar nu imi place fizica. a) Mary writes postcards. (letters) Mary scrie vederi. (scrisori) b) I go to the cinema. (theatre) Eu merg la cinema. (teatru)

c) They read newspapers. (books) Ei citesc ziare. (carti) d) You study French. (English) Tu studiezi franceza. (engleza) e) Mr Brown works in an office. (at home) Dl Brown lucreaza intr-un birou. (acasa) f) I like football. (rugby) Imi place fotbalul. (rugby) g) He drives a car. (a lorry) El conduce o masina. (un camion) h) Dan and John travel by train. (plane) Dan si John calatoresc cu trenul. (avionul) i) We drink tea. (coffee) Noi bem ceai. (cafea) j) She plays chess every day. (tennis) Ea joaca sah in fiecare zi. (tenis) 4. Formuleaza propozitii folosind conjunctia but: Exemple: I watch TV every evening. (John) Eu ma uit la televizor in fiecare seara. (John) I watch TV every evening, but John doesn't. Eu ma uit la televizor in fiecare seara, insa John nu se uita. He doesn't speak French. (they) El nu vorbeste franceza. (ei) He doesn't speak French, but they do. El nu vorbeste francez, dar ei vorbesc. a) Julia washes the dishes. (I) Julia spala vasele. (eu) b) He doesn't want to go to the seaside. (his girlfriend) El nu vrea sa mearga la mare. (prietena lui) c) I go to the cinema every week. (they) Eu merg la cinema saptamanal. (ei) d) She doesn't swim. (her sister) Ea nu inoata. (sora ei) e) We have breakfast early in the morning. (Paul)

Noi am luat micul dejun dimineata devreme. (Paul) f) I don't play football. (my best friend) Eu nu joc fotbal. (prietenul meu cel mai bun) g) Me and my brother play on the computer. (Michael) Eu si fratele meu ne jucam pe calculator. (Michael) h) John doesn't read the newspaper every day. (we) John nu citeste ziarul zilnic. (noi) i) My mother likes to do shopping. (I) Mamei mele ii place sa faca cumparaturi. (eu) j) You don't travel by plane. (she) Tu nu calatoresti cu avionul. (ea) 5. Adauga propozitiilor de mai jos adverbele din paranteze: Exemplu: I have lunch at 12 o'clock. (always) Iau pranzul la ora 12. (intotdeauna) I always have lunch at 12 o'clock. Intotdeauna iau pranzul la ora 12. a) My sister gets up at 10 o'clock. (usually) Sora mea se trezeste la ora 10.(de obicei) b) We play football on Sundays. (sometimes) Jucam fotbal duminica. (uneori) c) I go out with a stranger. (never) Ies cu un strain. (niciodata) d) She listens to music in the evening. (always) Ea asculta muzica seara. (intotdeauna) e) He goes to school by bus. (often) El merge la scoala cu autobuzul. (deseori) f) I eat a hamburger in the morning. (never) Eu mananc un hamburger dimineata. (niciodata) g) I read the newspaper in the evening. (usually) Eu citesc ziarul seara. (de obicei) h) In the morning I play on the computer. (sometimes) Dimineata ma joc pe calculator. (uneori) i) Mother washes the dishes in the evening. (always) Mama spala vasele seara. (intotdeauna)

j) They go skiing in the winter. (often) Ei merg la schi iarna. (deseori) 6. Dupa exemplele de mai jos, formeaza intrebari la propozitiile urmatoare: Exemple: He works in a factory. El lucreaza intr-o fabrica. He works in a factory, doesn't he? El lucreaza intr-o fabrica, nu-i asa? sau She doesn't speak English. Ea nu vorbeste engleza. She doesn't speak English, does she? Ea nu vorbeste engleza, asa e? a) My mother doesn't play chess. Mama mea nu joaca sah. b) It sometimes rains in March. Uneori ploua in luna martie. c) I feel better today. Ma simt mai bine astazi. d) Your friends don't live in Bucharest. Prietenii tai nu locuiesc in Bucuresti. e) You play the piano every day. Tu canti la pian zilnic. 7. Folosind adverbele din paranteze si luand ca exemplu modelul de mai jos, raspunde la intrebarile urmatoare: Exemplu: Do you go to school by bus? (always) Mergi la scoala cu autobuzul? (intotdeauna) I always go to school by bus. Intotdeauna merg la scoala cu autobuzul. a) Do you read books in the evening? (sometimes) Citesti carti seara? (uneori) b) Does he spend his weekend at the seaside? (usually) Isi petrece el weekend-ul la mare? c) Do you help your parents? (often)

Iti ajuti tu parintii? d) Does she sleep in the afternoon? (never) Doarme ea dupa-amiaza? e) Do they go to the theatre? (occasionally) Merg ei la teatru? (ocazional) 8. Pune adverbele din paranteze in pozitia corecta in urmatoarele propozitii, conform exemplului de mai jos: Exemplu: I go skiing. (on Saturdays, often) Eu merg la schi. (sambata, deseori) I often go skiing on Saturdays. sau On Saturdays I often go skiing. Deseori eu merg la schi sambata. a) Helen goes swimming. (three times a week) Helen merge la inot. (de trei ori pe saptamana) b) I drink a cup of coffee. (always, in the morning) Eu beau o ceasca de cafea. (intotdeauna, dimineata) c) We go out. (in the evening, from time to time) Noi iesim afara. (seara, din cand in cand) d) They go to the theatre. (usually, once a month) Ei merg la teatru. (de obicei, o data pe luna) e) My father reads the newspaper. (often, in the evening) Tatal meu citeste ziarul. (deseori, seara) 9. Dupa exemplele de mai jos, adauga propozitii cu "but": Exemple: I don't like coffee. (my sister) Nu imi place cafeaua. (sora mea) I don't like coffee, but my sister does. Nu imi place cafeaua, dar surorii mele ii place. You get up early. (I) Tu te trezesti devreme.(eu) You get up eatly, but I don't. Tu te trezesti devreme, dar eu nu. a) I travel every year. (my mother) Eu calatoresc anual. (mama mea)

b) We meet every day. (they) Noi ne intalnim zilnic.(ei) c) You don't play football with Michael every day. (John) Tu nu te joci fotbal cu Michael in fiecare zi. (John) d) They don't know the answers. (we) Ei nu stiu raspunsurile. (noi) e) My father doesn't drive a motorcycle. (my brother) Tatal meu nu conduce o motocicleta. (fratele meu) 10. Tradu urmatoarele propozitii folosind timpul Prezent Simplu: a) Vacanta de vara tine doua luni. b) Prietenii mei locuiesc la Brasov. c) Copiii se joaca in parc in fiecare zi. d) Eu ii vizitez pe parintii mei saptamanal. e) Noi ne uitam intodeauna seara la televizor.

EXERCITII REZOLVATE
1. Pune propozitiile urmatoare la persoana a III-a singular: a) Mary flies from Bucharest to Rome every week, too. Mary zboara de la Bucuresti la Roma saptamanal, de asemenea. b) John usually plays in the park, too. John se joaca de obicei in parc, de asemenea. c) He likes his job very much, too. El isi iubeste serviciul foarte mult, de asemenea. d) She wants a new car, too. Ea isi doreste o masina noua, de asemenea. e) Paul wakes up at 7 o'clock, too. Paul se trezeste la ora 7, de asemenea. f) Angela always washes the dishes, too. Angela intotdeauna spala vasele, de asemenea. g) Tom watches TV every afternoon, too. Tom se uita la TV in fiecare dupa-amiaza, de asemenea. h) My brother goes to school by bus, too. Fratele meu merge la scoala cu autobuzul, de asemenea. i) My mother cooks every Saturday, too.

Mama mea gateste in fiecare sambata, de asemenea. j) Mark studies hard for his exams, too. Mark se pregateste din greu pentru examene, de asemenea. 2. Scrie forma interogativa a urmatoarelor propozitii: a) Does he live in Bucharest? El locuieste in Bucuresti? b) Do you wear a uniform at school? Porti uniforma la scoala? c) Does my father drive very well? Tatal meu conduce foarte bine? d) Does Mr Smith teach English? Dl Smith preda engleza? e) Do you like pizza and hamburgers? Iti plac pizza si hamburgerii? f) Does my neighbor work as an engineer? Vecinul meu lucreaza ca inginer? g) Does your father repair the car every month? Tatal tau repara masina in fiecare luna? h) Do we drink coffee every morning? Noi bem cafea in fiecare dimineata? i) Does Mary pay her bills every month? Mary isi plateste facturile in fiecare luna? j) Does he go to bed very early every evening? El se duce la culcare foarte devreme in fiecare seara? 3. Foloseste forma negativa pentru propozitiile urmatoare, folosind cuvintele din paranteze, la fel ca in exemplul de mai jos: a) Mary writes postcards, but she doesn't write letters. Mary scrie vederi, dar nu scrie scrisori. b) I go to the cinema, but I don't go to the theatre. Eu merg la cinema, dar nu merg la teatru. c) They read newspapers, but they don't read books. Ei citesc ziare, dar nu citesc carti. d) You study French, but you don't study English. Tu studiezi franceza, dar nu studiezi engleza. e) Mr Brown works in an office, but he doesn't work at home.

Dl Brown lucreaza intr-un birou, dar nu lucreaza acasa. f) I like football, but I don't like rugby. Imi place fotbalul, dar nu imi place rugby-ul. g) He drives a car, but he doesn't drive a lorry. El conduce o masina, dar nu conduce un camion. h) Dan and John travel by train, but they don't travel by plane. Dan si John calatoresc cu trenul, insa nu calatoresc cu avionul. i) We drink tea, but we don't drink coffee. Noi bem ceai, dar nu bem cafea. j) She plays chess every day, but she doesn't play tennis. Ea joaca sah zilnic, dar nu joaca tenis. 4. Formuleaza propozitii folosind conjunctia but: a) Julia washes the dishes, but I don't. Julia spala vasele, dar eu nu le spal. b) He doesn't want to go to the seaside, but his girlfriend does. El nu vrea sa mearga la mare, dar prietena lui vrea. c) I go to the cinema every week, but they don't. Eu merg la cinema saptamanal, dar ei nu merg. d) She doesn't swim, but her sister does. Ea nu inoata, dar sora ei inoata. e) We have breakfast early in the morning, but Paul doesn't. Noi am luat micul dejun dimineata devreme, dar Paul nu l-a luat. f) I don't play football, but my best friend does. Eu nu joc fotbal, dar prietenul meu cel mai bun joaca. g) Me and my brother play on the computer, but Michael doesn't. Eu si fratele meu ne jucam pe calculator, dar Michael nu se joaca. h) John doesn't read the newspaper every day, but we do. John nu citeste ziarul zilnic, dar noi il citim. i) My mother likes to do shopping, but I don't. Mamei mele ii place sa faca cumparaturi, dar mie nu imi place. j) You don't travel by plane, but she does. Tu nu calatoresti cu avionul, dar ea calatoreste. 5. Adauga propozitiilor de mai jos adverbele din paranteze: a) My sister usually gets up at 10 o'clock. De obicei, sora mea se trezeste la ora 10.

b) We sometimes play football on Sundays. Uneori jucam fotbal duminica. c) I never go out with a stranger. Niciodata nu ies cu un strain. d) She always listens to music in the evening. Intotdeauna ea asculta muzica seara. e) He often goes to school by bus. Deseori, el merge la scoala cu autobuzul. f) I never eat a hamburger in the morning. Eu nu mananc niciodata un hamburger dimineata. g) I usually read the newspaper in the evening. De obicei, eu citesc ziarul seara. h) In the morning I sometimes play on the computer. Uneori, dimineata ma joc pe calculator. i) Mother always washes the dishes in the evening. Intotdeauna mama spala vasele seara. j) They often go skiing in the winter. Deseori, ei merg la schi iarna. 6. Dupa exemplele de mai jos, formeaza intrebari la propozitiile urmatoare: a) My mother doesn't play chess, does she? Mama mea nu joaca sah, nu-i asa? b) It sometimes rains in March, doesn't it? Uneori ploua in luna martie, nu-i asa? c) I feel better today, don't I? Ma simt mai bine astazi, nu-i asa? d) Your friends don't live in Bucharest, do they? Prietenii tai nu locuiesc in Bucuresti, nu-i asa? e) You play the piano every day, don't you? Tu canti la pian zilnic, nu-i asa? 7. Folosind adverbele din paranteze si luand ca exemplu modelul de mai jos, raspunde la intrebarile urmatoare: a) I sometimes read books in the evening. Eu citesc uneori carti seara. b) He usually spends his weekend at the seaside. De obicei, el isi petrece weekend-ul la mare.

c) I often help my parents. Deseori imi ajut parintii. d) She never sleeps in the afternoon. Ea nu doarme niciodata dupa-amiaza. e) They occasionally go to the theatre. Ei merg ocazional la teatru. 8. Pune adverbele din paranteze in pozitia corecta in urmatoarele propozitii, conform exemplului de mai jos: a) Helen goes swimming three times a week. Three times a week Helen goes swimming. b) I always drink a cup of coffee in the morning. In the morning I always drink a cup of coffee. c) We go out in the evening from time to time. From time to time we go out in the evening. d) They usually go to the theatre once a month. Once a month they usually go to the theatre. e) My father often reads the newspaper in the evening. In the evening my father often reads the newspaper. 9. Dupa exemplele de mai jos, adauga propozitii cu "but": a) I travel every year, but my mother doesn't. Eu calatoresc anual, dar mama mea nu. b) We meet every day, but they don't. Noi ne intalnim zilnic, dar ei nu. c) You don't play football with Michael every day, but John does. Tu nu te joci fotbal cu Michael in fiecare zi, dar John da. d) They don't know the answers, but we do. Ei nu stiu raspunsurile, dar noi da. e) My father doesn't drive a motorcycle, but my brother does. Tatal meu nu conduce o motocicleta, dar fratele meu da. 10. Tradu urmatoarele propozitii folosind timpul Prezent Simplu: a) Vacanta de vara tine doua luni. The summer holidays last for two months. b) Prietenii mei locuiesc la Brasov. My friends live in Brasov. c) Copiii se joaca in parc in fiecare zi.

The children play in the park every day. d) Eu ii vizitez pe parintii mei saptamanal. I visit my parents every week. e) Noi ne uitam intodeauna seara la televizor. We always watch TV in the evening.

Prezentul Continuu
MOD DE FORMARE

AFIRMATIV Subiect + to be (conjugat in functie de persoana) + Verbul la infinitiv + terminatia "-ing" Exemple: I'm writing an article now. Scriu un articol acum. They are playing football. Ei joaca fotbal. She is having lunch at this moment. Ea ia pranzul in acest moment.

INTEROGATIV To be (conjugat in functie de persoana) + Subiect + Verbul la infinitiv + terminatia "-ing" Exemple: Am I writing an article now? Scriu eu un articol acum? Are they playing football? Joaca ei fotbal? Is she having lunch at this moment? Ia ea pranzul in acest moment?

NEGATIV Subiect + to be (conjugat in functie de persoana) + not + Verbul la infinitiv + terminatia "-ing" Se folosesc adesea contractiile isn't (is + not) si aren't (are + not)

Exemple: I'm not writing an article now. Eu nu scriu un articol acum. They aren't playing football. Ei nu se joaca fotbal. She isn't having lunch at this moment. Ea nu ia pranzul in acest moment.

Reguli pentru adaugarea terminatiei "-ing" verbelor la infinitiv

La majoritatea verbelor se adauga terminatia "-ing" fara nici o modificare: Exemple: play playing try trying drink drinking sing - singing go - going draw - drawing cook - cooking learn - learning send - sending wash - washing La verbele care se termina in litera e precedata de o consoana, se renunta la litera e si se adauga terminatia "-ing" Exemple: make making come coming leave leaving La verbele formate dintr-o singura silaba (monosilabice) care se termina intr-o consoana precedata de o vocala, se dubleaza consoana si apoi se adauga terminatia "-ing" Exemple: get getting sit sitting hit hitting

Cand folosim Prezentul Continuu? Folosim Prezentul Continuu (Present Continuous) pentru:

activitati care se petrec in momentul vorbirii Exemple: She is watching TV now.

Ea se uita la televizor acum. Mother is washing the dishes at this moment. Mama spala vasele in acest moment.

actiuni care se desfasoara pe o perioada mai mare de timp, incluzand si momentul vorbirii Exemple: John is studuing Maths for his exam. John studiaza la matematica pentru examen. My brother is writing a book. Fratele meu scrie o carte.

a vorbi despre o intalnire sau un aranjament din viitorul apropiat Exemple: He is flying to New York next week. El zboara la New York saptamana viitoare. I'm meeting Susan next Sunday. Ma intalnesc cu Susan duminica viitoare.

Expresii cu care se foloseste adesea Prezentul Continuu now, at this moment, these days, this week, today, tonight etc.
Paul is repairing his car now. Paul isi repara masina acum. I'm having lunch at this moment. Iau pranzul in acest moment. He is working hard for a project these days. El lucreaza din greu pentru un proiect zilele acestea. They are going to the basketball game this week. Ei merg la meciul de baschet saptamana aceasta. I'm writing a letter today. Scriu o scrisoare astazi. I'm watching TV tonight. Ma uit la televizor in seara aceasta.

EXERCITII
1. Pune verbele din paranteze la timpul Prezentul Continuu: Exemplu:

Diana (play) with Tim now. Diana (a se juca) cu Tim acum. Diana is playing with Tim now. Diana se joaca cu Tim acum. a) Everybody (wear) blue T-shirts today. Toata lumea (a purta) tricouri albastre astazi. b) I (listen) to classic music at this moment. Eu (a asculta) muzica clasica in acest moment. c) What (do) mother in the kitchen? Ce (a face) mama in bucatarie? d) We (organize) a study trip this week. Noi (a organiza) o excursie de studiu saptamana aceasta. e) Our colleagues (plan) a surprise party for John's birthday these days. Colegii nostri (a planui) o petrecere surpriza pentru ziua lui John zilele acestea. f) I (meet) with my best friend at the cinema tonight. Eu (a se intalni) cu prietenul meu cel mai bun la cinema in seara aceasta. g) My father (work) in the garage now. Tatal meu (a lucra) in garaj acum. h) This week, you (go) to the theatre with your geography teacher. Saptamana aceasta, tu (a merge) la teatru cu profesoara de geografie. i) At this moment, in Bucharest, it (rain). In acest moment, la Bucuresti, (a ploua). j) My friends (travel) to Egypt this week. Prietenii mei (a calatori) la Egipt saptamana aceasta. 2. Corecteaza afirmatiile false ca in exemplul urmator: Exemplu: Jim is playing basketball. (watch TV) Jim se joaca baschet. (a se uita la TV) No, Jim is not playing basketball. Jim is watching TV. Nu, Jim nu se joaca baschet. Jim se uita la televizor. a) Mother is cooking at this moment. (iron) Mama gateste in acest moment. (a calca) b) My brother is learning English now. (study French) Fratele meu invata engleza acum. (a studia franceza) c) All my colleagues are working hard for their final exams these days. (plan their

holiday) Toti colegii mei studiaza din greu zilele acestea pentru examenele finale. (a planui vacanta) d) The cat is climbing the tree now. (eat a mouse) Pisica se urca in copac acum. (a manca un soarece) e) I am taking some photos for my album. (read a book) Fac niste poze pentru albumul meu. (a citi o carte) f) You are drinking Coke Cola now. (drink a coffee) Tu bei Coca Cola acum. (a bea o cafea) g) Joana is swimming in the pool. (play volleyball on the beach) Joana inoata in piscina. (a juca volei pe plaja) h) I am making an apple-pie now. (do my homeworks) Eu fac o placinta cu mere acum. (a face temele) i) It is raining today. (snow) Ploua azi. (a ninge) j) We are riding by bicycle to school. (go by bus) Noi mergem cu bicicleta la scoala. (a merge cu autobuzul) 3. Scrie forma interogativa a urmatoarelor propozitii: Exemplu: I am having lunch at this moment. Eu iau dejunul in acest moment. Am I having lunch at this moment? Iau eu dejunul in acest moment? a) We are playing cards. Noi ne jucam carti. b) Mother is washing dishes. Mama spala vasele. c) My brother is reading a newspaper. Fratele meu citeste un ziar. d) We are serving breakfast. Noi servim micul dejun. e) They are decorating the Christmas tree. Ei decoreaza pomul de Craciun. f) My family is planning a trip to Maldive Islands these days. Familia mea planuieste o excursie in Insulele Maldive zilele acestea.

g) Father is sleeping in the bedroom. Tata doarme in dormitor. h) You are watching a horror movie. Tu te uiti la un film de groaza. I) Your sister is doing her homeworks. Sora ta isi face temele. j) I am sending a postcard in France now. Eu trimit o vedere in Franta acum. 4. Alege varianta corecta la Prezentul Continuu: a) We _______ basketball in the schoolyard. Noi _______ baschet in curtea scolii. a) play; b) prepare; c) ski b) They _______ a movie in the dining-room. Ei _______ un film in sufragerie. a) watch; b) play; c) eat. c) My friends and I _______ some flowers in the garden. Prietenii mei si cu mine _______ niste flori in gradina. a) read; b) wash; c) travel d) I _______ my homeworks at Maths. Eu _______ temele la Matematica. a) do; b) make; c) give. e) You _______ a novel to your little brother. Tu _______ o poveste fratelui tau mai mic. a) read; b) create; c) put. f) The poet _______ a poem about love at this moment. Poetul _______ o poezie de dragoste in acest moment. a) create; b) give; c) look. g) I _______ after my lost cat. Eu _______ dupa pisica mea pierduta. a) look; b) search; c) spend. h)_______ we _______ to the cinema tonight? _______ noi _______ la cinema in seara aceasta? a) go; b) watch; c) eat. i) The sun _______ brightly. Soarele _______ puternic. a) show; b) shine; c) rain. j) My friends _______ on a picnic without me.

Prietenii mei _______ la picnic fara mine. a) go; b) play; c) read. 5. Corecteaza forma gresita a verbului: a) I am makeing an apple-pie. Eu fac o placinta cu mere. b) Mary is comeing from Italy today. Mary vine din Italia astazi. c) We are siting in the living-room. Noi stam in camera de zi. d) He is geting off the bus at the first station. El coboara din autobuz la prima statie. e) My brother isn't writeing poems. Fratele meu nu scrie poezii. f) You aren't plaing with kids. Tu nu te joci cu copiii. g) They aren't leaveing Bucharest tomorrow evening. Ei nu pleaca din Bucuresti maine seara. h) He is comeing tonight to see me. El vine in seara asta sa ma vada. i) She is haveing lunch at this moment. Ea ia pranzul in acest moment. j) Are you flyng to the New York next week? Zbori tu la New York saptamana viitoare? 6. Dupa modelul de mai jos, fa propozitii cu activitatile pe care le ai in vacanta: Exemplu: Go - grandparents I am going to my grandparents. Eu merg la bunicii mei. a) take - photographs (a face - fotografii) b) eat - sweets (a manca - dulciuri) c) do - homeworks (a face - temele) d) play - friends (a se juca - prieteni) e) read - poems (a citi - poezii) 7. Foloseste Prezentul Continuu conform modelului de mai jos: Exemplu: I've arranged to go to the theatre next Sunday. Mi-am propus sa merg la teatru duminica viitoare.

I'm going to the theatre next Sunday. Merg la teatru duminica viitoare. a) I've arranged to call my mother tonight. Mi-am propus sa o sun pe mama diseara. b) I've arranged to play with my cousin today. Mi-am propus sa ma joc cu varul meu astazi. c) I've planned to eat a cake tomorrow. Mi-am propus sa mananc o prajitura maine. d) I've planned to visit my parents next week. Mi-am propus sa imi vizitez parintii saptamana viitoare. e) I've arranged to study tomorrow morning. Mi-am propus sa invat maine dimineata. 8. Trece verbele din paranteze la timpul Prezent Continuu: Exemplu: My sister _______ a poem. (read) My sister is reading a poem. Sora mea citeste o poezie. a) Your parents _______ Bucharest tonight. (leave) b) Jim and Tony _______ at the casino next Saturday. (play) c) My father _______ his car at this moment. (repair) d) Tom _______ for the Physics test. (study) e) They _______ on an important project. (work) 9. Completeaza propozitiile de mai jos, folosind timpul Prezent Continuu, conform exemplului de mai jos: Exemplu: You usually drink a coffee in the morning, but _______ (tea - this morning). You usually drink a coffee in the morning, but you are drinking tea this morning. De obicei bei o cafea dimineata, dar in aceasta dimineata bei ceai. a) The children usually play in the park, but _______ (in the schoolyard - today). b) My sister generally studies in the afternoon, but _______ (in the morning - at this moment). c) We usually go to school by bus, but _______ (by car - today). d) Our parents usually work until 6 pm, but _______ (5 pm - today). e) Mother usually washes the dishes in the evening, but _______ (clothes - tonight). 10. Fa cateva propozitii cu activitatile pe care le intreprinzi luna aceasta, conform modelului de mai jos: Exemplu: going to the mountains This month, I am going to the mountains. Luna aceasta, merg la munte.

a) going to the opera b) attending a conference c) studying in London d) going on a trip e) having a test.

EXERCITII REZOLVATE
1. Pune verbele din paranteze la timpul Prezentul Continuu: a) Everybody is wearing blue T-shirts today. Toata lumea poarta tricouri albastre astazi. b) I am listening to classic music at this moment. Eu ascult muzica clasica in acest moment. c) What is mother doing in the kitchen? Ce face mama in bucatarie? d) We are organizing a study trip this week. Noi organizam o excursie de studiu saptamana aceasta. e) Our colleagues are planning a surprise party for John's birthday these days. Colegii nostri planuiesc o petrecere surpriza pentru ziua lui John zilele acestea. f) I am meeting with my best friend at the cinema tonight. Eu ma intalnesc cu prietenul meu cel mai bun la cinema in seara aceasta. g) My father is working in the garage now. Tatal meu lucreaza in garaj acum. h) This week, you are going to the theatre with your geography teacher. Saptamana aceasta, tu mergi la teatru cu profesoara de geografie. i) At this moment, in Bucharest, it is raining. In acest moment, la Bucuresti, ploua. j) My friends are travelling to Egypt this week. Prietenii mei calatoresc la Egipt saptamana aceasta. 2. Corecteaza afirmatiile false ca in exemplul urmator: a) No, mother is not cooking at this moment. Mother is ironing. Nu, mama nu gateste in acest moment. Mama calca. b) No, my brother is not learning English now. My brother is studying French. Nu, fratele meu nu invata engleza acum. Fratele meu invata franceza. c) No, all my colleagues are not working hard for their final exams these days. All my colleagues are planning their holiday).

Nu, toti colegii mei nu studiaza din greu zilele acestea pentru examenele finale. Toti colegii mei isi planifica vacanta. d) No, the cat is not climbing the tree now. The cat is eating a mouse. Nu, pisica nu se urca in copac acum. Pisica mananca un soarece. e) No, I am not taking some photos for my album. I am reading a book. Nu, eu nu fac niste poze pentru albumul meu. Citesc o carte. f) No, you are not drinking Coke Cola now. You are drinking a coffee. Nu, tu nu bei Coca Cola acum. Tu bei o cafea. g) No, Joana is not swimming in the pool. Joana is playing volleyball on the beach. Nu, Joana nu inoata in piscina. Joana joaca volei pe plaja. h) No, I am not making an apple-pie now. I am doing my homeworks. Nu, eu nu fac o placinta cu mere acum. Imi face temele. i) No, it is not raining today. It is snowing. Nu, nu ploua astazi. Ninge. j) No, we are not riding by bicycle to school. We are going by bus. Nu, noi nu mergem cu bicicleta la scoala. Mergem cu autobuzul. 3. Scrie forma interogativa a urmatoarelor propozitii: a) Are we playing cards? b) Is mother washing dishes? c) Is my brother reading a newspaper? d) Are we serving breakfast? e) Are they decorating the Christmas tree? f) Is my family planning a trip to Maldive Islands these days? g) Is father sleeping in the bedroom? h) Are you watching a horror movie? i) Is your sister doing her homeworks? j) Am I sending a postcard in France now? 4. Alege varianta corecta la Prezentul Continuu: a) We are playing basketball in the schoolyard. Noi ne jucam baschet in curtea scolii. b) They are watching a movie in the dining-room. Ei se uita la un film in sufragerie. c) My friends and I are washing some flowers in the garden. Prietenii mei si cu mine udam niste flori in gradina. d) I am doing my homeworks at Maths. Eu imi fac temele la Matematica. e) You are reading a novel to your little brother. Tu ii citesti o poveste fratelui tau mai mic.

f) The poet is creating a poem about love at this moment. Poetul creaza o poezie de dragoste in acest moment. g) I am looking after my lost cat. Eu ma uit dupa pisica mea pierduta. h) Are we going to the cinema tonight? Mergem noi la cinema in seara aceasta? i) The sun is shining brightly. Soarele straluceste puternic. j) My friends are going on a picnic without me. Prietenii mei merg la picnic fara mine. 5. Corecteaza forma gresita a verbului: a) I am making an apple-pie. Eu fac o placinta cu mere. b) Mary is coming from Italy today. Mary vine din Italia astazi. c) We are sitting in the living-room. Noi stam in camera de zi. d) He is getting off the bus at the first station. El coboara din autobuz la prima statie. e) My brother isn't writing poems. Fratele meu nu scrie poezii. f) You aren't playing with kids. Tu nu te joci cu copiii. g) They arent leaving Bucharest tomorrow evening. Ei nu pleaca din Bucuresti maine seara. h) He is coming tonight to see me. El vine in seara asta sa ma vada. i) She is having lunch at this moment. Ea ia pranzul in acest moment. j) Are you flying to the New York next week? Zbori tu la New York saptamana viitoare? 6. Dupa modelul de mai jos, fa propozitii cu activitatile pe care le ai in vacanta: a) I am taking photographs. Eu fac fotografii.

b) I am eating sweets. Eu mananc dulciuri. c) I am doing my homeworks. Eu imi fac temele. d) I am playing with my friends. Eu ma joc cu prietenii mei. e) I am reading poems. Eu citesc poezii. 7. Foloseste Prezentul Continuu conform modelului de mai jos: a) I'm calling my mother tonight. O sun pe mama diseara. b) I'm playing with my cousin today. Ma joc cu varul meu astazi. c) I'm eating a cake tomorrow. Mananc o prajitura maine. d) I'm visiting my parents next week. Imi vizitez parintii saptamana viitoare. e) I'm studying tomorrow morning. Invat maine dimineata. 8. Trece verbele din paranteze la timpul Prezent Continuu: a) Your parents are leaving Bucharest tonight. Parintii tai pleaca din Bucuresti astazi. b) Jim and Tony are playing at the casino next Saturday. Jim si Tony joaca la casino sambata viitoare. c) My father is repairing his car at this moment. Tatal meu repara masina in acest moment. d) Tom is studying for the Physics test. Tom invata pentru testul la fizica. e) They are working on an important project. Ei muncesc la un proiect important. 9. Completeaza propozitiile de mai jos, folosind timpul Prezent Continuu, conform exemplului de mai jos: a) The children usually play in the park, but they are playing in the schoolyard today. Copiii se joaca de obicei in parc, dar astazi se joaca in curtea scolii. b)My sister generally studies in the afternoon, but she is studying in the morning at this moment.

Sora mea studiaza de obicei dupa-amiaza, dar in acest moment studiaza dimineata. c) We usually go to school by bus, but we are going by car today. Noi mergem la scoala cu autobuzul de obicei, dar astazi mergem cu masina. d) Our parents usually work until 6 pm, but they are working until 5 pm today. Parintii nostril de obicei lucreaza pana la 6 dupa-amiaza, dar astazi lucreaza pana la 5. e) Mother usually washes the dishes in the evening, but she is washing clothes tonight. Mama spala de obicei vasele seara, dar in seara aceasta ea spala rufele. 10. Fa cateva propozitii cu activitatile pe care le intreprinzi luna aceasta, conform modelului de mai jos: a) This month, I am going to the opera. Luna aceasta, merg la opera. b) This month, I am attending a conference. Luna aceasta, particip la o conferinta. c) This month, I am studying in London. Luna aceasta, studiez la Londra. d) This month, I am going on a trip. Luna aceasta, merg intr-o excursie. e) This month, I am having a test. Luna aceasta, dau un test.