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UNIVERSITATEA Titu Maiorescu Facultatea de Psihologie

TITLUL CURSULUI:
CURS PRACTIC LIMBA ENGLEZ Fundamente de gramatic i vocabular

Comunicare de specialitate in limba engleza


Facultatea de Psihologie
Curs pentru nvmnt la distan

INTRODUCERE

Coordonatorul cursului este lector dr. Alice Popescu, titular la Facultatea de Psihologie, Universitatea Titu Maiorescu, Bucuresti.

CURSUL

1.Introducere Cursul se intinde pe parcursul anilor I si II de studiu, iar forma de evaluare este examenul semestrial scris.

2.Prescriere Cursul const n prezentarea unor modalit i de comunicare i interpretare n limba englez.

3.Coninut n acest curs vor fi studiate prin intermediul unor fie numerotate de-a lungul cursului modalit i de comunicare n limba englez, structuri gramaticale, topic, prin numeroase exemplificri utile studiului individual.

4.Obiectivele cursului Cursul de limba englez pentru nvmnt la distan i propune s sedimenteze elemente de limba englez dobndite n formarea preuniversitar a studentului ID, elemente lingvistice i de interpretare necesare unei deschideri a studentului ID ctre lumea tiin ific interna ional. Pentru o analiz gramatical i interpretarea de texte, sunt folosite tematici cu predilec ie din psihologie (inclusiv psihologie social, psihologia comunicrii etc.). De asemenea, prin acest curs se urmrete formarea deprinderilor orale i scrise utile n activitatea socio-profesional, n vederea cptrii unei autonomii valide de informare i comunicare n limba englez .

Cerine : 1.demonstrarea insusirii cunostintelor de gramatica si vocabular propuse spre studiu. 2.participare la activit ile anunate n calendaruldisciplinei.

I.OBIECTIVE ALE CURSULUI

OBIECTIVE GENERALE: Dezvoltarea de competene n utilizarea limbii engleze pentru comunicare i informare n general , ca i n domeniul tiinelor sociale i n special al psihologiei, astfel nct studenii s fie capabili : S neleag dup auz enunuri n flux verbal; S neleag enunuri, texte citite n limba englez; S comunice verbal un mesaj, enun n limba englez; S exprime n cuvinte proprii n limba englez, n scris, un mesaj/enun.

OBIECTIVE APLICATIVE: 1.pronunarea de diverse enunuri cu intonaia corect; 2.nelegerea sensului global al unui mesaj ascultat; 3.raportarea informa iei ascultate la limbajul i experiena cultural proprie; 4.adaptarea formulelor conversa ionale la contextul dat (formal, informal); 5.susinerea de dialoguri referitoare la sine i la universul propriu; 6.descrierea de persoane, locuri, activit i; 7.identificarea unit ilor de coninut ale unui text; 8.exprimarea nelesului global al unui text; 9.recunoaterea i utilizarea formelor speciale de coresponden; 10.valorificarea deprinderilor acumulate pentru perfec ionarea competenelor de limb englez.

II. EXIGENE I CRITERII DE EVALUARE

Se va practica urmtoarea

v Examen scris semestrial:

An I:

Sem. I - Exercitii grila de testare a urmatoarelor timpuri gramaticale: 1.Present Simple and Continuous Tense 2.Past Simple and Continuous Tense 3.Present Perfect Simple and Continuous Tense 4.Past Perfect Simple and Continuos Tense (Engleza pentru admitere, Andrei Bantas, Ed. Teora, Bucuresti, 1995 sau reed., vol. I)

Sem. II- Exercitii grila de testare a urmatoarelor timpuri gramaticale: 1.Future Simple and Continuous Tense 2.Constructions with the Future 3.Future-in-the-Past 4.Future Perfect Tense (Engleza pentru admitere, Andrei Bantas, Ed. Teora, Bucuresti, 1995 sau reed., vol. I) -Exercitii de vocabular (UNIT 1, UNIT 2, UNIT 3, UNIT 4, UNIT 5), English for Social Sciences, Daniela Niculescu Zdrenghea, Ed. Europa Nova;

An II: Sem. I- Exercitii de testare a cunostintelor de gramatica si vocabular (UNIT 6, UNIT 7, UNIT 8, UNIT 8) IDEM Sem II: Exercitii de testare a cunostintelor de gramatica si vocabular (UNIT 9, UNIT 10, UNIT11, UNIT 12). IDEM

III. STRUCTURA CURSULUI


Materia de studiu pentru invatamintul la distanta se regaseste in cursul English for Social

Sciences, autori Daniela Niculescu Zdrenghea, Aurelia Ana Vasile (prezentat in forma electronica pe acest cd) si in cartea Engleza pentru admitere, de Andrei Bantas, Ed. Teora, Bucuresti,1995 sau reed., vol.I (facultativ, va sunt recomandate, pentru aplicatii si verificare, si volumele II si III.)

IV. PREZENTARE SINOPSIS

English for Social Sciences

Unit Unit Unit Unit Unit Unit Unit Unit

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

WHY PSYCHOLOGY ? DEVELOPING RELATIONSHIPS INTERESTS AND ATTITUDES PARADOXICAL BEHAVIOUR CAREER DEVELOPMENT ON BECOMING A PERSON FUTUROLOGY, THE SCIENCE OF TOMORROW POWER

Unit 9 EMPATHY Unit 10 WHAT SHOULD I DO ? Unit 11 DECISION MAKING Unit 12 GONE WITH THE WAVE OBSERVAII PRIVIND STRUCTURA CURSULUI v Activit ile de prezentare de noi con inuturi (reactualizare) sunt combinate cu activit i practice, participarea activ a studenilor deinnd un rol fundamental. v Fiecare capitol (unit) este alctuit din dou cursuri. v Fiecare curs con ine text(e) din domeniul tiinelor sociale i aplica ii pe text(e) pe probleme de vocabular, gramatic, ortografie i pronun ie, elemente de cultur i civiliza ie britanic i american.

UNIT 1 WHY PSYCHOLOGY? COURSE 1: WHY STUDYING PSYCHOLOGY? Text 1: from GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY, Littlefield, Adams & Co., New Jersey, 1963, pages 4-6 Why We Study Psychology Interest in the study of psychology grows out of a felt need to gain a better understanding of people. The purpose of an elementary or first course in psychology is to give the student an opportunity to become acquainted at first hand with the functional aspects of psychological principles, to correct misconceptions he may have had concerning his own and other peoples attitudes and behaviour, and to come to appreciate the various areas of psychological study. Functions of psychological study An individual of any age is faced with problems that have psychological implications. From early childhood through old age, everyone experiences situations involving one or more specific form of relationship. His abilities, motives and mode of thinking may be inadequate for success-achieving behaviour unless he is helped to gain a better understanding of all the factors inherent in the situation. The primary concern of psychology is human adjustment. An individual is stimulated to action by forces within or outside himself. He experiences needs, wants, or interests, and seeks ways of fulfilling them. People and objects in his environment become motivators of the kind of behaviour which he exhibits. A persons entire life consists of series of responses that are either satisfying or unsatisfying to himself and that earn either approval or disapproval from his associates. In other words, as a child, an adolescent, or an adult, a person constantly is engaging in the process of adapting himself or adjusting to inner strivings or outer demands. Without some knowledge or understanding of a situation, the individual by chance makes a good adjustment; too often the adjustment is bad and may even become serious maladjustment. The psychologists functions are to discover the basic principles of good adjustment and then to help people apply these principles in every phase of human relationships so that they become well-adjusted, constructive members of their various groups. A further responsibility of psychologists is to recognize

the overt symptoms of maladjustment, trace its causes, and utilize such methods as may seem appropriate to effect an improved adjustment. AREAS OF RELATIONSHIP. An individuals problem of adjustment may concern the relationship of, 1. One person with another, e.g., teacher-child, husband-wife, 2. One person with a group, e.g., worker-fellow workers, child-siblings (frai sau surori cu un printe comun), 3. Group with group, e.g., adolescent gang with rival gang, nation with nation, 4. Person with object, e.g., driver with automobile, scientist with atom, 5. Object with object, e.g., earth with moon, fiber glass with curtain, 6. Self with self, e.g., personal honesty with loyalty, immediate desire with long range goal. Each of the foregoing problems-arousing relationships represents many influencing factors. It is the function of psychology to assist the individual to analyse these factors, recognise their relative significance, and pattern his behaviour in such way as to solve the problem satisfactorily. Pre-reading I. Discuss the following questions in groups: 1.Why do you want to study psychology? Suggested motives: Because we like the domain; Because we can get good jobs; Because we can earn a good living; Because Id like to understand myself and the others better. Give at least five motives, and group them under the right heading: 1. extrinsic motives; 2. intrinsic motives. 2.Has anyone (a family member, a friend, ) influenced you in making such a decision ? Reading LANGUAGE FOCUS New Vocabulary: gain, earn, win; purpose, goal, aim, target; to become acquainted; (in) adequate; to trace; to achieve, accomplish, to fulfil; area, domain, field; foregoing; to arouse; (mal)adjustment; (dis)approval; to approach, to tackle; average; (un)skilled; peers; further; hence; thoroughly, in detail; concern; regard(less); thus; to evolve; in terms of. Practice Group Work: Decide upon 3-7 key words in the text you have read. Try to give your personal meaning to these words. Discuss the meanings you have assigned to them. STRUCTURES The Noun: v irregular plural of nouns (child children, oxoxen, manmen, womanwomen, footfeet, toothteeth, goosegeese, louselice, mousemice; ); v spelling irregularities (Nouns which receive -es at the plural form, end in : a)-sh: flashflashes; b)-ss: kiss-kisses; c)-ch: watch-watches; d)-x: box-boxes; e)-z: buzz-buzzes; f f)-consonant + o:tomato-tomatoes; g)-consonant + y (yi):fly-flies; h)-f/-fe (fv): wife-wives, leaf-leaves.

v nouns borrowed from Latin and Greek (datum-data, addendum-addenda, thesis-theses, synthesissyntheses, analysis-analyses, basis-bases, focus-foci, genius-genii, stimulus-stimuli, traumatraumata, schema-schemata, phenomenon-phenomena, criterion-criteria, matrix-matrices, appendix-appendices); nouns that have the same form both in the singular and in the plural: seriesseries, species-species, means-means. Practice: Insert the missing noun forms (either plural or singular) in the table below: SINGULAR PLURAL a) analysis b) addenda c) diagnoses d) priority e) process f) hypothesis g) foci h) phenomena i) genius , j) schema k) appendices l) datum m) life n) teeth o) woman p) children q) stimulus r) phone-booth s) letter-box t) series u) millenium

Irregular Verbs: understand, be, make, give, think, have, read. PRONUNCIATION: inherent, coherent GRAMMAR FOCUS Auxiliaries BE, DO, HAVE I)BE SIMPLE PRESENT I am You are He/She/It is We are You are They are II.)DO SIMPLE PRESENT I do You do He/She/It does We do

SIMPLE PAST I was You were He/She/It was We were You were They were

SIMPLE PAST I did You did He/She/It did We did

You do They do III.)HAVE SIMPLE PRESENT I have You have He/She/It has We have You have They have

You did They did

SIMPLE PAST I had You had He/She/I had t We had You had They had

The Simple Present Use: Habitual, repeated actions in the present; Permanent situations; General truths; Timetables/ official programmes (with future meaning). Time Expressions: (expressing frequency) never, always, sometimes, often, usually, seldom (rarely); every day/week.

Practice Arrange the expressions of time in the right place on an axis which has 0% marked at one end, and 100% at the other end, to express frequency. 100% always ... ...

0% Form: Affirmative (no auxiliary !): Add -s or -es to the short infinitive of the verb, at the 3rd person singular. Verbs which receive -es at the 3rd person singular, end in : a)-sh: washwashes; b)-ss: miss-misses; c)-ch: search-searches; d)-x: mix-mixes; e)-z: buzz-buzzes; f)-consonant + o:do-does; g)-consonant + y (yi):flyflies.

Give the a) Smile; b) Fix; c) Travel; d) Match; e) Go; f) Caress;

simple

present

third g) h) i) j) k) l)

person Cry; Pray; Teach; Crash; Fry; Do;

singular

form

of m) n) o) p) q) r)

the following Scratch; Try; Admit; Deny; Say; Hiss.

verbs:

Practice (bibliography) Grammar exercises from: G. Gleanu, Exerci ii de gramatic englez, Editura Albatros, 1980 (sau reeditri mai recente), paginile 6-7, sau V. Evans, Round-up 4, Longman, 1993, paginile 3-8, sau N.Coe, Grammar Spectrum 3, Oxford Univ. Press, 1995, paginile 6-7, sau alte volume cu exerci ii de gramatic. 1.Choose the most appropriate words underlined: a) A persons life consist/consists of series of responses to stimuluses/stimuli. b) Each area of human relationship requires/require intensive and extensive study based on some hypothesis/hypotheses. c) The psychologists functions is/are to discover the basic principles of psychological phenomena/phenomenons. d) The research datums/data shows/show overt symptoms of maladjustment.

COURSE 2: THINKING LIKE A PSYCHOLOGIST Pre-reading Word-web: A psychologist has to deal with: (Brainstorming) Stages of growth Interests and attitudes

Perception

PSYCHOLOGIST

Affectivity/ Feelings

Personality

Positive thinking

..

Therefore he needs some:

Creativity

Empathic approach

Critical thinking

SKILLS

Problem solving

Ability to investigate

..

Reading Text: WHAT IT TAKES TO THINK LIKE A PSYCHOLOGIST (From December 1995 American Psychological Association Monitor) Some psychology educators fear that graduate programs neglect to teach the critical thinking skills students need to succeed. Imagine practitioners who are so sure they know what causes patients troubles, they search automatically the diagnostic categories, automatically tying anxiety to childhood trauma or depression to a bad marriage. Its a disturbing prospect, yet an entirely possible one for someone whose academic training was strong on facts, but weak on critical-thinking skills needed to think like a psychologist, says Boston College psychologist Peter Gray, PhD. A psychology student with the proper training knows to view the anxiety or depression as a scientific problem to consider a broad range of possible causes and treatments, says Gray, who writes on critical thinking and how to teach it. Thinking like a psychologist is thinking scientifically, says George Stricker, PhD, of Adelphi Universitys Institute of Advanced Psychological Studies. Its approaching every problem as a new one. Problem-solving skills transfer into practice, while facts and theory often change, Stricker points out. But not all of todays psychology students are encouraged to think scientifically, say Gray, Stricker and other psychology professors. These educators are concerned that unless more emphasis is put on thinking critically and scientificallythe fundamental traits of whats needed to be a good psychologistthe field runs the risk of producing bad-prepared professionals. To ensure that theyre turning out critical thinkers, educators should focus on the logic and evidence behind the concepts they teach instead of treating them as premises for memorisation, they advise. Most importantly, educators should teach students to always approach problems with an inquiring and skeptical attitude,Stricker says. We need to convey a message that thinking like a psychologist means always asking yourself how you know something, he says. Looking for contradictions Teaching students to practice scientific thinking at all levels of psychology enables them to become more competent professionals, says psychologist Diane Halperne, PhD, of California State UniversitySan Bernardino. Halperne served as critical thinking consultant to the National Education Goals Panel, Which in 1992 charged educators with increasing the number of college graduates with advanced skills in critical thinking and problem-solving. Halperne weaved critical thinking into her teaching by encouraging students to look for both evidence and lack of evidence. Investigators should always seek information that contradicts their Hypothesis or thats easily overlooked or omitted, Halperne teaches. If a student were writing a paper on whether exercise reduces depression, she would advise the student to also consider whether exercise increases depression, and to look for data supporting both arguments. Consistent with the scientific method, which is essentially the application of logic, scientific thinkers constantly question their own assumptions and look for alternative conclusions and

disconfirming evidence, she says.The method involves the basics of any scientific experiment, such as hypotheses, control variables, methodology, systemic observations and statistical analysis. Theory vs. facts In undergraduate psychology, educators can help students think like psychologists by centering classes around theories and ideas , rather than facts and technical terms, says Gray. Its not the accumulation of facts that makes people educated, its whether they can ask the right questions and use evidence to answer them,, he said. If they havent learned that, they havent learned anything useful. In his introductory classes, even the tests are theory-based. He may, for example, ask students to critique Piagets stages of childrens intellectual development from an evolutionary psychology perspective. At the graduate level, students often find critical thinking difficult because theyve grown accustomed to memorising facts, says William Halikias, PhD, a psychology instructor at Antioch New England GraduateSchool. They learn the material to pass the test and forget it just as fast. Halikias believes psychology professors can break students from narrow-minded thinking and prepare them for practice by teaching them to: Organise inferencesStudents need to look at all possible reasons for a problems occurrence instead of being drawn in by the most emotionally compelling one. For example, if a child refuses to attend school, it could be difficulty learning to read rather than separation anxiety from the mother, that is causing the problem. Distinguish the level of certaintyEducators must teach students how to separate known facts from speculation, instead of jumping to conclusions. For example, in a sex-abuse case, a childs anxiety is not necessarily evidence of abuse; it may be due to the trauma of being removed from the home and interviewed by strangers. Manage the data collection processStudents must learn to collect all relevant data about the client, instead of taking shortcuts. For example, neglecting to take a complete medical history from a client with a memory disability means neglecting the role of the clients past alcoholism in the disorder. Use knowledge of groups to understand behaviour of the individualEducators should teach students how to assess clients, without generalising and stereotyping the clients behaviour. For example, the belief that most divorcing spouses are hostile to one another is unfounded because most divorcing couples are willing to negotiate out of court. The good psychologist has two faces, says Halikias. One is pointed to the individual and the other to the group. LANGUAGE FOCUS: New Vocabulary: (under)graduate; to neglect; to succeed vs to fail; practice (word family); broad vs. narrow; to tie, to connect, to link; weak, feeble vs. strong; proper, suitable; to jump to conclusions ; to be due to; shortcut; to focus ; evidence (cognate); to grow accustomed; to inquire; (dis) order; to occuroccurence; to assess(to evaluate); to weave; to overlook; to miss the mark; to challenge; to engage in; faculty; tool; trial; to put on the stand; spouse(wife or husband); debiasing; forensic work; lack of; to lack; to run a risk; to enable (word family). PRONUNCIATION: Alcoholism; skepticism; hostile; doubt. Practice the abbreviations A BBC TB

I.Match

in

column

A .

to

their

explanations

in

column

B:

B Bachelor of Arts General Meeting

LP UN FBI TV BA UNESCO MSN IBM Hi-Fi PIF BIOS VIP GM PhD URL OLE PDF

Doctor of Philosophy Television The United Nations Educational, Scientific & Cultural Organisation Very Important Person British Broadcasting Corporation Long-playing record Program Information File The Microsoft Network Basic Input/Output System International Business Machines Tuberculosis The United Nations The Federal Bureau of Investigation High fidelity Portable Document Format Uniform Resource Locator (address of a document on the web) Object Linking and Embedding

II. Group Work Imagine a situation in which a patient/client needs help from a person who graduated from the School of Psychology. One of the students in each group presents the situation. The others try to establish what kind of job should have the person who can better serve the patients needs (see the list below) List of jobs related to psychology: human resource manager; psychiatrist (shrink); psychotherapist; job counsellor; family counsellor; school counsellor.

GRAMMAR FOCUS Simple Present Form: Interrogative: Do/Does + Subject + Verb? Negative: Subject + do/does + not + Verb (short form: dont/doesnt). Practice Write/Say at least four things that you usually, often, always do, and other four that you dont do/never do. Exercises 1.Make up affirmative, interrogative or negative sentences as suggested by the hints below: a) She/always/approach/a hypothesis/thoroughly. b) /his parents/approve of/ his behaviour? c) What kind of data /she/obtain/whenever/she/apply/such a test? d) A child/not evolve/normally in an aggressive environment. e) He/seldom/speak/in terms of/his own life experience.

f) A researcher/usually/show/special interest in the adjustment problems.

UNIT 2 DEVELOPING RELATIONSHIPS COURSE 1 HUMAN ATTACHMENT Speaking A student draws a family (as he/she imagines it) on the blackboard. The other students are asked to write sentences (in the present progressive tense: am/ is/ are + verb-ing) to describe the mimic and the gestures of the student at the blackboard as he/she is drawing. Words at the students disposal: Smile, frown, withdraw, sad, happy, shocked, hidden, hold hands, keep at a distance, warm, cold, indifferent, look forward, look at one another, look downwards, have fun, together, stay isolated, in front of, behind, next to, become tense, become relaxed, frustrated, smug(arrogant) undecided, hurt, thoughtful, puzzled, confident, joyful, relieved, frightened, guilty, miserable, open-hearted, suspicious, indifferent, childish, generous, egoistic, impulsive

Then the student at the blackboard is asked to describe his/her drawing using the present progressive. Such tests are applied in psychotherapy and counselling. Practice LIKING AND LOVING Test (from Social Psychology; page 260, table 6.2.)

I.

Answer each of the following questions on a scale from 1=not at all, to 10=totally. Answer them first with a good friend in mind and then thinking of a possible partner. STATEMENT FRIEND PARTNER 1.This person is one of the most likable people I know. 2.I feel I am confident in this person about virtually everything. 3.This person is the sort of person I would like to be. 4.I would forgive this person for practically anything. 5.I have great confidence in this persons good judgment. 6.I would do almost anything for this person. A. Sum of your responses to questions 1+3+5= B. Sum of your responses to questions 2+4+6= Which is greater? A or B? What kind of relationships have you been thinking about: (tick the right answer) Casual dating Exclusive dating Engaged couple Married couple I. RUBINS CONCLUSIONS Short text (page 260) They found that casual daters reported more liking than loving. But among those in more committed relationships, liking and loving did not differ. Do these conclusions apply to our situation/context ? GRAMMAR FOCUS The Present Progressive Use: The present progressive is used to express: an action in progress at the moment of speaking; a temporary action in the present (I am attending an English course.); fixed arrangements in the near future (Shes flying to Paris the day after tomorrow.) annoyance or criticism (with always): Hes always talking too much. Time Adverbials: now; at the/this moment. Form: Affirmative: Subject + am/is/are + verb-ing. Interrogative: Am/is/are + Subject + verb-ing..? Negative: Subject + am/is/are + not + verb-ing(short form: isnt/arent). Practice: 1. Talk about things that are happening now. 2. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verb in brackets: a) We (go) on a camp to the mountains next weekend. b) The birds (sing)., the sun (shine), and I (feel).intoxicated now that I (think)..about the upcoming holidays. c) Some neighbours .always (make). too much noise.

d) She (work)..at the new project this month. Reading; Text HOW DO I LOVE THEE ? (Part 1, page 261-263, Social Psychology) Different Types of Love : How Do I Love Thee ? Both Rubin and Clark see an important difference between a relationship that is not love (liking, exchange relationships) and one that is (loving, communal relationships). But love itself is not some simple, unitary, psychological state. As Elizabeth Barrett Browning expressed it her famous poem, we experience many kinds of loving: How do I love thee? Let me count the ways. Apparently, the count can be quite high. George Levinger (1988) notes that love has more entries in Bartletts Familiar Quotations than any other word except man. Poets, novelists, philosophers, and theologiansamong othershave all tried to define love and count its varieties. So have social psychologists. The most common approach in social psychology divides all love into two types: the intensely romantic passionate love, and the more stable partnership of companionate love (Hatfield, 1988; Peele, 1988). Passionate love is a state of high arousal: being loved by the partner is ecstasy; being rejected is agony. Companionate love, on the other hand, is a secure, trusting attachment. This basic dichotomy runs throughout several more elaborate classifications. In their perspective on love, Philip Shaver and his colleagues (1988) propose that the way in which a person interacts with significant others, called attachment style, may be relatively constant across the life span. A persons attachment to a romantic partner should, therefore, resemble the sort of attachment he or she experienced as a child in relation to parents. Basing their approach on research examining parent-child relationships (Ainsworth et al., 1978). Cindy Hazan and Shaver (1987) asked adult subjects which of three attachment styles best described their experiences and feelings. The three alternatives subjects chose from are listed in the table below. Subjects also responded to a variety of more specific questions about the nature and quality of their romantic relationships.

Table: Attachment Styles


Which of these descriptions best characterises your adult attachments?

Question: Which of the following best describes your feelings? A. I find it relatively easy to get close to others and am comfortable depending on them and having them depend on me. I dont often worry about being abandoned or about someone getting too close to me. B. I am somewhat uncomfortable being close to others; I find it difficult to trust them completely, difficult to allow myself to depend on them. I am nervous when anyone gets too close, and often, love partners want me to be more intimate than I feel comfortable being. C. I find that others are reluctant to get as close as I would like; I often worry that my partner doesnt really love me or wont want to stay with me. I want to merge completely with another person, and this desire sometimes scares people away.
The first type of attachment style is described as secure, the second as avoidant, and the third as anxious/ambivalent.

LANGUAGE FOCUS Archaic forms of the personal pronoun: thee, thine, thou, thy, etc. Suffixes: -ship, as in relationship. Give other examples. Expressing similarities: Bothand(see also Penny Ur, page 9, Comparing things)

Practice: Use the structure Both and, and the hints below to make comparisons: a) I / my fellow students / study at university. b) A shrink / a psychotherapist / have studied psychology. c) A cat / a dog / are mammals. d) Freud / Jung / are well-known psychoanalysts. New Vocabulary: entry (about dictionaries); arousal; attract vs reject; (in)secure; dichotomy; span; respond, answer, reply. Prepositions: BETWEEN (when we refer to two things) vs AMONG (when we refer to more than two things). Give examples. Adjectives: TOO + ADJECTIVE (table above) E.g.: too close. Give at least three examples. Practice: Match the definition in the first column to the right concept in the second column (concepts: passionate love, attachment style, companionate love) by drawing arrows to connect them. Definition Concept a secure, trusting attachment Attachment style the way in which a person interacts with Passionate love significant others, may be relatively constant across the life span. a state of high arousal: being loved by the Companionate love partner is ecstasy; being rejected is agony

COURSE 2

FEELINGS AND THE SELF

Pre-reading I. Fill in the blanks with the suitable words from the box below: Which , love, the, other, metaphor, truly, according to, emphasis, like secondary,

For John Lee (1977), love is ________1 a many splendored thing, with the ____________2 on many. Lee uses color as a _____________3 for love. Three types of love -- ______________4 he calls eros, ludus, and storge are ________5 primary colors; they form the basis for _________6 combinations. Lee also describes three ________________7 types called mania, agape, and pragma although ______8 potential number runs much higher. _______________9 Lee, How many colors of __________10 are there ?As many as there are possible mixtures and combinations, as in color itself.(Lee, 1988, p.49).

Reading: II. Text (part 2) Of the adults who participated in this research, 56 percent indicated that the secure style of attachment best described the experiences and feelings. Around 25 percent of subjects chose the avoidant description, and about 20 percent selected the anxious/ambivalent characterisation. This distribution is within the range of that obtained for children in a number of different cultures (van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg , 1988). Among children, however, the secure attachment style is usually a more prevalent, and the anxious/ambivalent style more rare. Adults who reported a secure style of attachment described their romantic relationships as involving happiness, friendship, and trust. Those with the avoidant style emphasised a fear of closeness. Individuals with an anxious/ambivalent attachment style reported a love life full of emotional extremes, obsessive preoccupation, sexual attraction, desire for union with the partner, desire for reciprocation from the partner, and love at first sight. Thus, the anxious/ambivalent attachment style in adults resembles passionate love, while the secure adult attachment style is similar to companionate love. LANGUAGE FOCUS New Vocabulary: to avoid, avoidant, avoidance, avoidable; at first sight; label; bottom vs top; to depend on; to manage, to merge, to combine, to become one; to scare away; reluctant, unwilling, disinclined to; to partake; storge; to commit to, make oneself responsible for; commitment, pledge, (un)commited, promise; undertaking; to focus (verb) focus foci/focuses (noun); according to, as X puts it/suggests; to consist of + enumeration, be made up of: to consist in, have as the chief or only element E.g.: The happiness of a country consists in the freedom of its citizens.; to involve vs to evolve; to depict, to present, to deal with; major vs minor; pattern, structure, model. PRONUNCIATION: Beloved [bilvid] Practice: Match the concepts in column A to their right definitions in column B (table 6.5, page 264, Social Psychology). GRAMMAR FOCUS recycling Present Simple vs Present Progressive 1. Put the verbs in brackets into the present simple or the present continuous (progressive): a) Young people (become)..less willing to assume commitment through marriage. b) According to Philip Shaver and his colleagues (1988) the way in which a person (interact)...with significant others (be).. called attachment style. c) He always (avoid) people who dont look up to him and praise him excessively. d) The documentary Focus on Attachment Styles (begin) tomorrow at 5 p.m.. e) Jerry (work). at a psychological research institute in Vienna. f) But this week he (participate) to an international colloquium in Berlin. g) We (go). to the library for the next couple of days. h) As John Lee (put)..it, there are three types of love. 2. Match the expressions below --that denote the use of each verb tense-- in the sentences in exercise 2 above to the letter of the sentence and specify what verb tense (present simple or present continuous/progressive) is used (as in the example): A. temporary situation/action; B. annoying repeated situation/action; C. changing situation; D. commentaries, reviews, narratives; E. general truths, laws of nature;

g h i

F. officially programmed actions/future meaning; G. informally planned actions/future meaning; H. permanent situations/actions. E.g.: Sentence Use Simple (see exercise2) Present a) C. -b) c) d) e) f) g) h)

Present Continuous v

Bibliography: G. Gleanu, Exerci ii de gramatic englez, p.52 sau Grammar Spectrum 3, p.10-11, or other grammar books. Additional Activities: I. Describing peoples appearance. (see also B.J. Thomas, Advanced Vocabulary & Idiom, Longman 1989, p.71-72 What are they wearing ? for further practice) Complete each passage below with the correct words from the list above it to make an accurate description of one of the people in the illustration.

Picture1

Picture2

Picture 3

Picture 1 Hes a tall.1man. He has grey hair and a 2nose. Hes wearing a blue3suit and a red...4 His trousers arent . 5An inch of .6shows from each of his 7 His grey shoes are. 8 From the way hes bending, he seems to be looking for something. single-breasted crooked sleeves slim cuff polished well-pressed tie Picture 2 Hes a .1man with2shoulders and a slim3 He has no beard or moustache; hes..4 Hes wearing a light blue.5, pink.6, grey.7and light blue..8 He has got a 9round his head and sports cuffs at his10as tennis players have. Hes holding a tennis racket in his right hand. broad young wrist band waist trainers shorts

T-shirt

clean-shaven

socks

Picture 3 Shes young, maybe..1 She has a ..2 .3 Her short .4hair is light brown. She is.5dressed. Shes wearing a6 yellow7and a8dark green skirt. Shes standing in front of her business colleagues. plain thirtysh wavy blouse neatly short-sleeved slender figure II. Re-arrange the lines of the following poem from Sonnets from the Portuguese XLIII to make up another poem. How do I love thee? Let me count the ways, I love thee to the depth and breadth and height My soul can reach, when feeling out of sight For the ends of Being and Ideal Grace. I love thee to the level of every days Most quiet need, by sun and candlelight. I love thee freely, as men strive for Right; I love thee purely, as they turn from Praise;

I love thee with the passion put to use In my old griefs, and with my childhoods faith; I love thee with a love I semed to lose With my lost saints, -- I love thee with the breath, Smiles, tears, of all my life! and, if God choose, I shall but love thee better after death. (Elizabeth Barrett Browning) Replace the underlined words/phrases with other words of your choice to follow in Elizabeth Brownings footsteps.

UNIT 3 INTERESTS AND ATTITUDES COURSE 1 DIVERGENCE OF INTERESTS Speaking: Chain Story (simple past) Students choose a word from the recently learnt vocabulary. Each student contributes to the telling of a story started by the teacher. The sentence must contain the chosen word. Reading: Text Danger of Too Great Divergence of Interests, General Psychology, page 165 Although a person should have more than one interest which has become habitual with him, there is danger in the possession of too many interests, in that none of them can be developed successfully. An illustration of this danger may be seen in the story of a man who was extremely versatile. This man painted a little,; he sang a little; he took part in several successful motion pictures; he was one of the first to explore artistic photograhy; he was deeply religious, and he devoted time freely to boys organisations. He seemed intensely interested in each of these activities at the time of

engaging in it, but he was unable to stay with any one of them long enough to develop more than moderate success. This man is now old and disillusioned, without any definite interest for his old age. Often a bright student is interested in so many fields that he finds it difficult to decide upon his vocation or his major in college. He may choose one field of interest and switch to another. For a student of this kind the advisable thing to do might be to choose a vocation or profession which is in line with his abilities and interests, and which also represents a definite occupational need of his community. He then can specialise in that field, and direct some of his other interests into a-vocational or leisure-time activities. Other Interest Factors Sometimes our interests are influenced by community, national, or world conditions. In wartime, for example, a person may develop an interest which would be completely lacking during peacetime. Recently, many women have developed interests in an expanding list of vocational activities. Among these are such as air hostessing, research, and various armed service activities. These interests represent a changed attitude of women toward the world of work and their place in it. Earlier, many of these interests were held by a few women or were completely lacking. In like manner, many persons who in the past were only moderately interested in political, economic, or international matters, have developed, as a result of recent world conditions and problems, a keen and enlightened interest in many of these areas. LANGUAGE FOCUS New Vocabulary: bright, intelligent, clever; deep vs shallow; versatile, interested in and clever at many different things, having various uses; success vs failure; leisure-time activities; avocation, occupation that is not a persons ordinary business, improperly, vocation; to switch to, to move to. Practice Expressing (dis)like. 1. What are you interested in ? (use the gerund forms: verb-ing) Im mostly Interested in Reading books mainly Collecting stamps, 2. Im very fond of + verb-ing Verb-ing I like Enjoy Love Dislike hate 3.Express like or dislike regarding the following activities: a) playing soccer; b) studying psychology; c) watching TV; d) playing chess; e) collecting things; f) gardening. GRAMMAR FOCUS The Adjective 1.Irregular Adjectives Positive Comparative good better ill/bad Worse much More many More

Superlative (than) (the) best worst most most

little far old near

Less further/farther Older/elder nearer

least furthest/farthest oldest/eldest nearest/next

2.Short Adjectives (1-2 syllables) Positive Comparative Superlative fast Faster (than) (the) fastest nice Nicer nicest heavy Heavier heaviest thin Thinner thinnest

3..Adjective + enough Long enough Big enough Strong enough 4.Than versus then E.g.: more than, better than (the comparative); then to express time (afterwards) 5..Adverbs which end in -ly Adjective + -ly: beautifully, successfully; freely; deeply. Practice 1.Provide the required forms (as specified above the arrow) of the following:

comparative 1

a) old
b)

old

comparative 2

superlative

c) ill
comparative

d) many
superlative

e) many
comparative

f) hot
superlative

g) easy
superlative

h) little
adverb

i) improper
noun

j) occupy
adverb

k) good
superlative

l) good
adjective

m) success
adverb

n) success
adjective

o) use
adverb

p) use
past (second form)

q) do
past (second form)

r) have
past (second form)

s) be
past participle (third form)

t) be 2.Match the words in the two columns below to make up the appropriate set phrases (structure: as + adjective + as + noun): as adjective as a noun 1) Lightning a) Mad 2) Toast b) Proud c) Quick 3) Feather d) Light 4) Ice e) Heavy 5) Hatter 6) Lead f) Warm g) White 7) Peacock 8) Snow h) Sweet i) Cold 9) Gold j) Good 10) Honey Example: (a) 5

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

(h)

(i)

(j)

1) 6.Simple Past Use: Activities in the past; Past state or habit; Past actions which happened one after the other. Time Expressions: (the day before) yesterday; last Sunday/week/month/July/year; three years/a fortnight ago; in 1985; on the 1st of December 1918; then; When?; How long ago?

Form: Affirmative: Regular verbs: Subject + verb-ed (spelling: short verbs; verbs which end in cons. + y) Irregular verbs: Subject + verb at the 2nd form Interrogative: Did + S + verb(short infinitive)? Negative:S + did + not (didnt) + verb Practice I. Find (by skimming through the text) the verbs in the Past Tense and write them under the right heading : Regular Verbs Irregular Verbs . II. Answer the questions : How do you Usually/often/sometimes/always spend Your weekends? did --------------------------------------- Spend Last weekend? III. Put the time expressions in italics under the right heading in the table below (to say what verb tense each is used with): Usually; a fortnight ago; now; seldom; rarely; in 2000; nowadays; the day before yesterday; never; on April the first 1992; When?; these days; How long ago...?; often; every other day; now and then; sometimes; last Sunday; at the moment, then. PRESENT CONTINUOUS PRESENT SIMPLE PAST SIMPLE

IV. Ask questions and give answers according to the hints below (add any necessary words): 1) When / meet / Carly ? Fortnight ago. 2) You / have a good time / together? Yes, 3) Helen / join you? No, / can / because / have to / baby-sit / for her nephews. 4) How long ago / last / go to a fair? Long enough. / 1995 / when / graduate from high school.

COURSE 2

AGGRESSION

Pre-reading I.Match the concept/phrase to its definition:

Concept Longitudinal research Angry aggression Aggression Instrumental aggression Cycle of family violence Dehumanization

Definition Behaviour intended to injure another person Behaviour intended to injure another person to obtain something of value Impulsive, emotional behaviour intended to injure another person Regarding someone as less than human and therefore not deserving of compassionate treatment (Bandura, 1975) Studying the same subjects over a period of time so that changes in behaviour can be observed The transmission of aggressive behaviour across generations

II.Vocabulary Steps Arrange the following nouns (to show that they gradually differ in terms of meaning) on imaginary steps: fury, anger, cruelty, rage, grudge, resentment, outburst (of anger). Reading Text: Child Abuse, from Social Psychology, pages 381-382 Child Abuse When six-year-old Lisa Steinberg died in the fall of 1987, the whole country reacted with outrage. Illegally adopted by Joel Steinberg, a disbarred attorney, Lisa lived with Steinberg and Hedda Nussbaum, a former editor of children books. According to Nussbaum, Steinberg terrorized both her and Lisa by repeated beatings. After one vicious attack, Lisa was left lying on the bathroom floor for nearly twelve hours. By the time Steinberg and Nussbaum called for medical assistance, Lisas brain injuries were irreversible. She died. On January, 30, 1989, Steinberg was convicted of first-degree manslaughter. The amount of media attention given to Lisas death is unusual. Unfortunately, the tragedy of child abuse is not. The abuse of children is widespread in the United States, as indicated by the result of two surveys conducted by Straus and his colleagues. Although levels of overall violence toward children have remained stable across the decade, the incidence of both severe and very severe violence has declined. This decline does mean, however, that we should expect reduced reports of child abuse to police and social agencies. Increased reporting and decreased incidence, at least of extreme abuse, are likely to go hand in hand as people become more aware of the problem and more determined to do something about it. The Conflict Tactics Scale used in Strauss two surveys examines only a limited number of abusive behaviors towards children. It does not, for example, ask about sexual abuse. There are some important differences between physical and sexual abuse. Mothers are more likely than fathers to physically abuse their children, and most victims are boys (Straus et al., 1980). In contrast, fathers are more likely than mothers to sexually abuse their children, and most of these victims are girls (Russell, 1984). Despite these differences, certain factors are associated with both types of abuse: stress, social isolation, marital conflict, and having been abused as a child (Russell, 1984: Straus et al., 1980; Wolfe, 1985). LANGUAGE FOCUS New Vocabulary: outrage; disbarred attorney; (the) former vs (the) latter; vicious (attack); to convict; manslaughter; amount; widespread; survey; graph; overall, global; increase vs decrease; inflate vs deflate; to be/become aware of...; determined; to injure, to wound, to hurt; lay vs lie (see B.J. Thomas, Advanced Vocabulary and Idiom, Longman, 1989, pages 44-45, exercises 6 & 7). GRAMMAR FOCUS I.HABITUAL PAST used to + verb Use: to talk about things we did in the past, but we no longer do in the present.

Practice: Write about, and then tell the other students at least three things that you used to do in the past, but no longer do. E.g.: When I was a child I used to II.FREQUENTATIVE WOULD Use: to talk/write about habitual/frequent activities in the past Practice: I. Underline the frequentative would forms of the verbs in the text below. II. Write a short composition (of 50-100 words) about Christmas and/or Easter. (See Thanksgiving on the Farm, from Patricia Wilcox Peterson,Changing Times, Changing Tenses, U.S.Information Agency, Washington D.C., 1992, page 90). THANKSGIVING ON THE FARM I remember our Thanksgivings on the farm. When I was growing up, we lived on a farm near the town. There were many other relatives who lived near us. Every year they would all come, from other farms and from the town to be with us. Wed work for days to prepare for the holiday. Mother and the girls would clean every part of the house, and theyd get all the extra rooms ready for the relatives. Then theyd wash all our best clotheswe call these dresses and suits our Sunday best. The men would cut extra wood for all the cooking, for we had an old wood-burning stove. Father would always kill the biggest turkey, and then hed clean the bird. Finally, the whole family would drive into town to buy the food that we couldnt produce on the farm, like coffee and sugar. On Thanksgiving morning the women would get up early to begin cooking. Mother would stuff the turkey with bread and onions, and then shed roast it. Aunt Ellen would make a dozen pumpkin pies. Aunt Ann would pick autumn flowers from the garden for the center of the table. Shed also bring in vegetables to eat with the turkey and the pies. The older children would help set the table while the twin babies played in their high chair. But I liked to play with the cat, waiting for somebody to give me pieces of food. All this time our old dog would lie under the warm stove, watching the activity.

UNIT 4 PARADOXICAL BEHAVIOUR COURSE 1 THE UNHELPFUL CROWD Pre-reading: Listening to Sounds (see Penny Ur, op. cit., page 46) Students close their eyes and listen to the sounds they may hear; then they write and tell (using the simple past and the past progressive). E.g.: There was a car. It was going past, accelerating. Somebody dropped something. Somebody closed a door. Reading: Text (part 1) The Unhelpful Crowd, from Social Psychology, pages 314-315. Kitty Genovese, Andrew Mormille, and the eighteen-year-old switchboard operator were at a serious disadvantage in needing spontaneous emergency help in urban environment. Bibb Latan and John Darley (1970) were not convinced, however, that the stresses and strains of city life fully explain why these individuals didnt get the help they needed. So, these researchers set out to see if they

produce unresponsive bystanders in the cool, calm environment of a psychology laboratory. One study went this way. When a subject arrived, he or she was taken to one of a series of small rooms located along a corridor. Speaking over an intercom, the experimenter explained that he wanted subjects to discuss personal problems that college students often face. Subjects were told tat to protect confidentiality the group discussion would take place over the intercom system and the experimenter would not be listening. Participants were required to speak one at a time taking turns. Some subjects were assigned to two-person dyads; others to larger groups of three or six people. Although the opening moments of the conversation were uneventful, one participant did mention that he had a seizure disorder that was sometimes triggered by study pressures. But soon an unexpected problem developed. When it came his turn to speak again, the person who suffered from a seizure disorder stuttered badly, had a hard time speaking clearly, and sounded in a serious trouble.
I could really-er-use some help so if somebody would-er-give me a little h-help-uh-er-er-er-er c-could somebodyer-er-help-er-uh-uh-uh (choking sounds).Im gonna die-er-er-Imgonna die-er-help-er-er-seizure-er (chokes, then quiet).

What would you do? Would you interrupt the experiment, dash out of your cubicle, and try ti find the experimenter? As it turns out, subjects responses to this emergency strongly influenced by the size of their group. Actually, all subjects were participating alone, but tape-recorded material led them to believe that others were present and that there was a crisis. All the subjects who thought they were involved in a two-person discussion left the room quickly to try to get help. In the larger groups, however, subjects were less likely and slower to intervene. Among subjects in the six-person groups, 38 percent never even left the room and those who did go for help took longer to get out the door than subjects in smaller groups. This research led Latan and Darley to a chilling conclusion: the more bystanders there are, the less likely the victim will be helped. In the bystander effect, the presence of others inhibits helping. Before the pioneering work of Latan and Darley, most people would have assumed just the opposite. Isnt there safety in numbers? Dont we feel more secure rushing in to help when others are around to lend their support? Latan and Darley overturned this common-sense assumption and provided a careful step-by-step analysis of the decision-making process involved in emergency interventions.

LANGUAGE FOCUS New Vocabulary: environment, setting; urban vs rural; stress and strain; to set out; bystanders; cool and calm; to face something; event, eventful , uneventful, eventfully; to assign; to take turns; seizure; disorder; triggered by, to trigger, a trigger; to stutter; to choke; to dash (out)of; cubicle; to turn out; lead-led-led, leading, leader, leadership; crisis, crises; chilling (conclusion); to be likely/probable; to lend-lent-lent vs to borrow; to rush; assumption, to assume; to overturn; to provide; to make a decision. Cognates (false friends): actually, eventually. GRAMMAR FOCUS Prepositions: along, over. Prepositions that show time, place and manner. (see Virginia Evans, Round up 4, Longman 1992, pages 122-125; or Grammar Spectrum, O.U.P., 1995, pages 84-86 or other similar books). Emphatic do in affirmative sentences (imperative, simple present, simple past). E.g.: Please, do come in! Practice: Give the emphatic form of:

a) He prefers playing on the computer. a) Help yourselves, please. b) They liked their new neighbourhood. The + comparative the + comparative: E.g.: the sooner, the better.; The more, the merrier. The Past Progressive: Use: to express: an action in progress at a certain moment in the past; an action that was in the middle of happening at a stated time in the past; two or more actions which were happening at the same time in the past (simultaneous actions); to describe the background to the events in a story. Time Expressions: yesterday at 5 p.m.; at this time last Monday; then; at that time; the day before yesterday, from 10 to 12 a.m..

Form: Affirmative: Subject + was/were + verb-ing. Interrogative: Was/Were + Subject + verb-ing? Negative: Subject + was/were + not + verb-ing.(short form: wasnt/werent). Practice Bibliography: Grammar exercises from the already mentioned volumes. 1. Fill in the blanks with the right forms of the words in brackets: Kitty Genoveses case supports the theory that the (many)..1 the bystanders, the (little)2 likely to help the victim. When she (be attacked)..3 in the middle of the street, while she (cry out)..4for help, and the criminal (stab) ..5 her, many bystanders (watch).6 passively. Eventually, the victim (be killed). 7 It (turn out). 8 that whenever such things (happen). 9 no one would take the responsibility of helping because everybody (expect) .10 others to act. 2. What were the bystanders thinking? (express at least three ideas) They were thinking that: 1.. 2.. 3..

COURSE 2 NOTICING THAT PEOPLE NEED HELP Pre-reading: What did/was doing Mrs. Brown yesterday ? (G.Gleanu, op. Cit. exercise 99, page 71). Reading Text (part 2), Social Psychology, page 315-316.

The first step is to notice that someone needs help or, at least, that something out of the ordinary is happening. Clearly, subjects in the seizure study could not help but notice the emergency. In many situations, however, the problem isnt always perceived. The presence of others can be distracting and can divert attention away from indications of victims plight. As noted earlier, people may fail to notice that someone needs help when they are caught up in their own self-concerns. Consider the Biblical parable of the Good Samaritan (Luke 10:25-37). On the road from Jerusalem to Jericho, three people passed a man lying half-dead by the roadside: a priest, a Levite, and a Samaritan. The only one who helped was the Samaritan, a social and religious outcast in Jewish society of that time. The story points out that people with low status are sometimes more virtuous than those with high status and prestige. Why? Perhaps in part because high-status individuals tend to be busy people, preoccupied with their own concerns. Such self-concerns may prevent them from noticing a victim in need of assistance. John Darley and Daniel Batson (1973) put this interpretation of the Biblical parable to an ingenious test. They asked seminary students participating in their study to think about what they wanted to say in an upcoming talk was to be based on the parable of the Good Samaritan; the other half was expected to discuss the jobs seminary students enjoy most. All subjects were then instructed to walk over to a nearby building where the speech would be recorded. At this point, subjects were told either that they were running ahead of schedule, that they were right on time, or that they were already a few minutes behind schedule. On the way to the other building, all subjects passed a research confederate slumped in a doorway, coughing and groaning. Which of these future ministers stopped to lend a helping hand? Surprisingly, the topic of the upcoming speech had little effect on helping. The pressure of time, however, made a real difference. Of those who thought they were ahead of schedule, 63 percent offered helpcompared with 45 percent of those who believed they were on schedule and only 10 percent of those who had been told they were late. In describing the events that took place in their study, Darley and Batson noted that on several occasions a seminary student going to give his talk on the parable of the Good Samaritan literally stepped over the victim as he hurried on his way! LANGUAGE FOCUS New Vocabulary: to notice vs to observe a rule; at least; ordinary, common, usual, customary, habitual; to perceive, perception; to distract; to divert attention;plight(of a victim); to be caught up in; an outcast; to point out vs. to underline; to emphasize; upcoming, following; to cough; to groan; to slump; be/run right on time/behind schedule/ahead of schedule. The self concept 1. Give examples of compounds with self(e.g.: self-concern; self-awareness; self-hood; selfpreservation; self-assertion; self-esteem; self-dependence; self confidence; self aggrandizing attitudes; self-control. 2. Briefly discuss about the Freudian interpretation of PERSONALITY: the three selves: the id,the ego, the superego (the ideal self). 3. Match the concepts in column A to their appropriate definition in column B: CONCEPT A. self-actualization B. self-assertion C. self-composed DEFINITION 1. unique identity, individuality 2. reliance on ones capacities 3. the process of understanding oneself and developing ones own capacities and talents (coined by Abraham Maslow) 4. having ones emotions under control 5. the ability to exercise the will so as to prevent oneself from expressing strong emotion or acting impulsively 6. behaviour asserting ones claims or rights,

D. self-confidence E. self-esteem

F. selfhood

G. self-control E.g.: A. 3. B. C.

expressing confidence in ones proper merit or aggressively asserting the superior quality of ones own mind and body 7. ones good opinion of ones dignity or worth

D.

E.

F.

G.

Practice 1.Word-web Try to design a word-web for the key concept PSYCHIC PROCESSES. 2.Human Sounds (see B.J.Thomas, Intermediate Vocabulary, page 40). GRAMMAR FOCUS 1.The Reflexive and the Emphatic Pronoun SINGULAR PLURAL Myself ourselves yourself yourselves Himself/herself/itself themselves 2.Past Simple vs.Past Progressive Formative Evaluation. -recycling.

UNIT 5 CAREER DEVELOPMENT COURSE 1 JOBS AND EMPLOYMENT Pre-reading Talk about the advantages and disadvantages of the jobs you are being prepared for. Reading Text: Jane Smith has been out at the supermarket, to do the shopping. Shes just come back home. Shes bought a new blouse to cheer herself up because the firm shes been employed at is almost bankrupt. She hasnt removed the tag from the backside of the blouse, and she rushes to tear it away. She has already put the blouse on when the postman rings at the door.

Five minutes later. Jane is upset. Shes just opened a letter which has brought her bad news. Shes lost her job! For the past year shes worked as a bookkeeper at a firm. Now the majority of the firm shares have been bought by another firm. The manager has kindly suggested looking for another job. Being given the pink slip so soon, has taken her by surprise. She has recently bought some furniture and hasnt paid for it yet. Now she may not be able to pay at all, because she hasnt saved any money lately. LANGUAGE FOCUS New Vocabulary: tag; bankrupt(cy); to tear tore torn (away); upset, sad, grieving; bookkeeper; account(ancy), accountant, to account for, accountable for; share (B.E.)/stock (A.E.), shareholder;to be given the pink slip, to be given the axe, to be fired; pay-paid-paid; to save (money/time). GRAMMAR FOCUS 1.The verb look + preposition: to look for= try to find; to look up/down to somebody = to respect, admire/to despise; to look after = to take care, protect; to look out = to be careful. Fill in the correct particle(s): My sister-in-law is looking ..1a good baby-sitter who would look ..2her two-year-old daughter. She looks .3 to irresponsible people even if they looked . 4to her. 2. Uncountable nouns: furniture; news; information; advice; luggage; bread; soap; flour 3.Partitive phrases used with uncountable nouns: an item of; a piece of; a bar of; a loaf of 4.The Present Perfect Use: to express: an action before another present action or moment; a completed action whose results are effective in the present; actions which happened at an unstated time; personal experiences or changes which have happened; emphasis on number ; a recently completed action. Time Adverbials: ever, never, just, already, yet, lately, recently, so far, up to/till now, this month/year, for,since, How long? Questions. Form Affirmative: S + have/has + 3rd form of the verb Interrogative: Have/Has + S + 3rd form of the verb? Negative: S + have/has + not + 3rd form of the verb(short form: havent/hasnt). Practice 1.Identify the present perfect forms of the verbs in the text and the expressions of time which accompany (and require) such verb forms. 2.Jobs What does a policeman do? Gives fines, lawyer reporter football player physicist physician 3.What has just happened ? (Penny Ur, page 92)

Make up sentences to match the cues: Oh! Oh? Congratulations! Welcome! Good bye! Thank goodness! 4.Write a resume using the Resume(hints)below.

RICH ANDREWS
OBJECTIVE

[Click here and type objective]


EXPERIENCE

19901994 Arbor Shoe Southridge, SC National Sales Manager n Increased sales from $50 million to $100 million. n Doubled sales per representative from $5 million to $10 million. n Suggested new products that increased earnings by 23%. 19851990 Ferguson and Bardell Southridge, SC District Sales Manager n Increased regional sales from $25 million to $350 million. n Managed 250 sales representatives in 10 Western states. n Implemented training course for new recruits speeding profitability. 19801984 Duffy Vineyards Senior Sales Representative n Tripled division revenues for each sales associate. n Expanded sales to include mass market accounts. n Expanded sales team from 50 to 100 representatives.
EDUCATION

Southridge, SC

19711975 Southridge State University Southridge, SC n B.A., Business Administration and Computer Science. n Graduated Summa Cum Laude.
INTERESTS

Southridge Board of Directors, computers.


TIPS

running,

gardening,

carpentry,

[Click here and type return address]

Select text you would like to replace, and type your information.

5.Cover Letter (hints).

Company Name Here


14 October, 2010 [Click here and type recipients address] Dear Sir or Madam:

Type your letter here. For more details on modifying this letter template, double-click (. To return to this letter, use the Window menu.
Sincerely,

[Click here and type your name] [Click here and type job title]

Letter Jumble (page 21, Practise Advanced Writing, Mary Stephens, Longman, 1997). 5.Write a cover letter to a human resource manager job entry advertised by the Coca Cola Company in Cotidianul a week ago. 6.Write a fax (mind the format!) to the Central European University, Nador u. 9, Budapest, Hungary 1051, Tel: (361)3273069, Fax: (361)3273124, to Mrs. Gabriella Ivacs, to ask for information about the summer courses organised in the year 20__ for postgraduate students.

COURSE 2

SELF-ESTEEM AND SOCIAL SUCCESS

Pre-reading 1.Express your agreement/disagreement to the 10 statements of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (1965) below. Statement Agree Disagree

12345 MAIN STREET ANY C ITY, STATE OR PR OVINCE 12345-6789 P HONE (123) 456-7890 FAX (123) 098 -7654 E-M AIL M E@MYCOMP ANY.COM

1.I feel that I am a person of worth, at least on an equal plane with others. 2.I feel that I have a number of good qualities. 3.All in all, I am inclined to feel that I am a failure. 4.I am able to do things as well as most other people. 5.I feel I do not have much to be proud of. 6.I take a positive attitude toward myself. 7.On the whole, I am satisfied with myself. 8.I wish I could have more respect for myself. 9.I certainly feel useless at times. 10.At times I think I am no good at all.

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Text: How Is Your Self-Esteem?, Sociology, page 142. Questions to consider 1.List three or four of your major roles and imagine yourself a failure in each of them in turn. What steps could you take to protect your self-esteem? Are there any roles where failure could not be rationalised, where failure would damage your self-esteem? 2.Where do you stand on the self-esteem scale? (Students calculate their score and compare them to those obtained by other students in their group). Supplementary Question What is your opinion about the quality of the test? Reading Text: How Is Your Self-Esteem?, Sociology, page 142. The ten questions in the box above make up the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (1965), widely used by psychologists and sociologists to measure self-esteem (Bohrenstedt & Fisher, 1986; Shamir, 1986). Some have criticised the scale because it was high social desirability bias; people may distort their answers to provide more positive images. This is not a problem, however, because the question at issue is not whether people really do have anything to be proud of or whether they really are a success or failure. Rather our concern is how they feel about themselves. Since we are asking about subjective interpretations rather than objective facts, this is one scale in which everybody really can be above average. Some of the more important research findings on self-esteem are the following: 1.We always think better of ourselves than others do (Wylie, 1979). In this sense, the lookingglass self is always a little distorted in our own favour. 2.Self-esteem turns out to be very stable. Even blows to major role identities, such as the loss of a high status job, may not result in much loss of self-esteem (Shamir, 1986). This stability of selfesteem testifies to the skill most of us have in negotiating our self-concepts.

3.People with high self-esteem are more confident and hence more open to new ideas and new relationships. People with low self-esteem, on the other hand, are defensive and anxious, afraid to challenge themselves or others (Michener et al., 1986). __________________________________________________________________________________

When others responses are ambiguousand they usually are, we just believe what we want to.
__________________________________________________________________________________ We cannot all be above average. Yet studies on topics from intelligence to physical attractiveness show that hardly anybody thinks he or she is below average and large majorities think they are above average. How do people manage to protect their self-esteem ? They do so by: 1) Using the identity salience hierarchy to emphasise roles they do well; 2) Being very careful about their choice of looking glasses (Rosenberg, 1979); and 3) Simply interpreting others responses in ways that support a positive self-image. When others responses are ambiguousand they usually are, we just believe what we want to (Felson, 1985). LANGUAGE FOCUS New Vocabulary: bias; to distort; scale; average; rather; above vs below; looking glass, mirror; confident; hence; to challenge; yet (in various contexts); salient, salience; to support; ambiguous.

Practice Uses of MAKE versus DO. MAKE An attempt Mistakes Noise A complaint A fuss Coffee/tea Breakfast (meal) Furniture (an object) Ones bed A decision An excuse Up ones mind An offer A mess A phone call A fortune Money Trouble Plans A living arrangements damage

DO Lessons Homework Housework An exercise Ones best With(out) something A favour Justice The washing up The shopping Ones correspondence Ones hair Good/harm The cooking Ones duty Business with someone The carpets Ones room The dishes Fine/well The grand/polite Do as you would be done.

progress How do you do Someone rich/poor wonders sense A speech An impression A will A wish A remark Room for A trip/journey/voyage A gesture/a discovery Somebody angry/happy A fresh/new start It ones business A guess at Oneself at home Sure of To make a mountain out of a molehill. To make both ends meet. To make haste slowly. Make hay while the sun shines. Practice Fill in the blanks using either MAKE or DO at the right tense. 1. She has already..dinner. 2. Its hard to .a decision at such short notice. 3. Patience .wonders (miracles). 4. You shouldnt.the polite if you dont feel that way. 5. I hatethe washing up. 6. .as you would be done. 7. I havent up my mind as to what I shouldnext. 8. She..her hair at the hairdressers last Wednesday. 9. Why havent youyour homework. 10. the housework is equivalent to chores (A.E.) / chares (B.E.). 11. She always.a mountain out of a molehill. 12. hay while the sun shines. 13. haste slowly. 14. yourselves at home. 15. Dontsuch a fuss!

PRONUNCIATION : hierarchy. Follow-up activities: Sociology, page 142, (Questions to Consider). 1. List three or four of your major roles and imagine yourself a failure in each of them in turn. What steps could you take to protect your self-esteem? Are there any roles where failure could not be rationalised, where failure would damage your self-esteem?

2. Where do you stand on the self-esteem scale?

GRAMMAR FOCUS 1.The verb turn + preposition: Turn against = start disliking someone/something; Turn down = 1.reduce the volume of; 2.refuse a request; Turn off = make something stop working; Turn on = make something work; Turn up = increase the volume of Practice Fill in the correct particles: The way Jim turned..1the offer, eventually made the boss turn.2him. He didnt either listen or at least turn.3the volume of the CD player while the boss was talking to him. On the contrary, after a few minutes he even turned4the volume. The boss got angry and turned the player..5 Yet, Jim immediately did the opposite, turned it.6and declined the offer. 2.The structures Whetheror not/Whetheror whether(see the text). Briefly comment on What a distressing contrast between the radiant intelligence of the child and the feeble mentality of the average adult. (S. Freud) using these structures (Whetheror not/Whetheror whether). 3.Long Adjectives Degrees of Comparison Positive Comparative Superlative careful More careful than The most careful of/in expensive Expensive expensive demanding demanding demanding Cross out the unnecessary words: a) He is as very absent minded as his sister. b) His insight on the issue was more deeper than expected. c) The environment was the many most comfortable one available at the time. d) The side effects were the less important for the chemical reaction. e) The sooner the upcoming session the more faster the problem is worked out. 4.The Present Perfect Progressive vs the Present Perfect Use: to express: an action which has started before another present action/moment, and has continued up to the moment of speaking, and may continue even afterwards; a finished action before another present action/moment, to emphasise the idea of duration; actions which have visible results in the present; irritation, anger, annoyance, explanation or criticism. Choose the right item: 1. Aunt Ellie is out of breath because shein the orchard for a couple of hours. a. worked; b. has worked; c. has been working. 2. She.many dozens of fruit so far. a. picked; has picked; has been picking. 3. She still.to lean the ladder against a tree, though she is tired. a. want; b. wants; c. wanted. 4. Dropping out is not her style. So, she.stillher best to finish the job. a. has done; b. has been doing; c. is doing.

Time Expressions: for, since, how long. Form: Affirmative: Subject + have/has + been + verb-ing Interrogative: Have/Has + Subject + been + verb-ing? Negative: Subject + have/has + not + been + verb-ing. Practice Write a letter to a friend telling him/her about the things that have changed in your life over the last year.

UNIT 6 EDUCATION AND THE SELF COURSE 1 HUSKY HAD BEEN VERY HEALTHY

Pre-reading Talking about health and diseases (contagious, chronic, common disease). The human body. Reading Text: HUSKY HAD BEEN VERY HEALTHY, pages108-111, Changing Times, Changing Tenses. Husky Yellowhair is a little boy on the Navajo Indian Reservation in Arizona. Its difficult for his family to get to a doctor, because they dont have a car or a telephone. Their closest neighbours live ten miles* away. Last month Husky had caught a cold. Hed felt sick for three days, so his mother wanted to bring him to a doctor. Shed kept him in bed the whole time, and shed given him medicine every day for three days. Still, he didnt feel any better. On the third day, he developed a fever. At that time, Huskys parents asked some friends to take them to the hospital. At the hospital, Husky tried to sleep. He put his head in his mothers lap. From time to time he looked for the doctor, but he didnt really want to see him. Husky had always been afraid of doctors and hospitals. Up to that time, Husky had been very healthy, so he hadnt seen many doctors. As he was waiting, he grew more afraid. The family had waited for an hour when the doctor came. The young doctor found the problem immediately. The cold had gone to Huskys ears, and hed developed an ear infection. Although it wasnt a serious disease, it had caused the pain and the fever. With stronger medicine, Husky would be well soon. * 1, 609. 3 metres LANGUAGE FOCUS Vocabulary: sick, disease, ill(ness); a fever, hay fever, feverish; lap, laptop; health(y); to catch (a cold); to pick up an infection. GRAMMAR FOCUS 1.The verb catch + preposition. To catch Up with = Become equal to others on = become popular On to = understand Up on = bring/come up to date 2.The verb bring + preposition. To bring along = to fetch with on = cause out = produce up = educate/rear/raise children 3.The verb keep + preposition. To keep up = Go forward on = continue off = maintain a distance In(with somebody) = remain on good terms with out = avoid Practice Fill in the blanks with the suitable prepositions (mind the explanations in bold in the brackets): One strange happening caught..(became popular) with dozens of people. Two tomatoes were jogging in the street. One of them, some steps behind the other, cried.(exclaimed), Keep.(continue) jogging! Ill keep.(maintain a distance) for a few seconds. And keep(avoid) trouble. Im a bit out of breath. Ill catch.(reach the same stage) you.

The tomato ahead couldnt keep(remain in good terms) with the one behind--after their recent make upbecause a bike ridden astray brought..(caused) a horrible accident that simply smashed the latter. [play on words: ketch up vs catch up]. 4.The Article: Definite (the); Indefinite (a/an); Zero. (see grammar reference). Fill in the blanks with a/an/the where an article is necessary: 1) He is .1undergraduate student. 2) He goes to.2university in .3 morning every day from Monday to Friday. 3) His friend came to 4university yesterday to bring him .5keys that he had forgotten at..6home. 4) Fortunately, 7T.M. University is not very far from 8district they live in. 5.The Past Perfect Tense Use: to express an action before another past action/moment. Time Expressions: before, for, since, after , just, already, yet, ever never, till/until, when, by, by the time. Form: Affirmative: S + had + 3rd form of the verb . Interrogative: Had + S + 3rd form of the verb .? Negative: S + had + not + 3rd form of the verb .(short form: hadnt). Choose the appropriate verb form: 1) He..away the old worn out hat two weeks before he went shopping for another one. a. has thrown; b. had thrown; c. threw. 2) The client said he..alreadya shrink before. a. had seen; b. saw; c. has seen. 3) Wecranky because of the bad weather yesterday. a. are; b. was; c. were. 4) The ozone layer..thinner and thinner. a. gets; b. is getting; c. get.

COURSE 2

BALANCING EQUITY AND EXCELLENCE

Pre-reading: Group Work: Mention at least 5 shortcomings of the Romanian educational system in terms of equity (equal opportunities and access) and excellence (competitive process and results, creativity). Briefly comment on this issue. Reading: Text: Sociology, page383. BALANCING EQUITY AND EXCELLENCE In 1983, an 18-member National Commission on Excellence in Education issued a report that was extremely critical of U.S. education. The report indicated that 13 percent of all 17-year-olds and as much as 40 percent of minority youths are functionally illiterate. In a comparison of U.S. students with students from 21 other nations, Americans scored the worst on 7 of 19 achievement tests and never came in either first or second. The commission argued that the problem was caused not by factors beyond our control but simply by lack of insight and will. The solutions recommended included:

1) a more demanding sequence of basic courses; 2) longer school days and school years, and 3) higher standards for school achievement. Generally, the call for excellence in education has been well received. By 1984, 17 states had instituted competency testing for high school graduation and 7 more were in the process of implementing it. Increasingly, however, policy makers are facing the dilemma posed by the potentially conflicting demands of equity and excellence (Alexander et al., 1985). THE DROPOUT PROBLEM Despite the sharp expansion in education in the last decades, a substantial minority of the population has not graduated from high school. In 1984, fully 14 percent of all young adults 25-29 had not graduated from high school; this figure is 21 percent among blacks and 41 percent among Hispanic young adults. These dropouts pose a potentially major social and economic problem. As one study summarised the issues: Dropping out of high school is associated with an array of individual and social costs. For the individual, failure to complete high school is associated with limited occupational and economic prospects, disenfranchisement from society and its institutions, and substantial loss of personal income over his or her lifetime. For society, premature school-leaving is associated with increased expenditures for government assistance to individuals and families, higher rates of crime, and maintenance of costly programmes for purposes such as employment and training. (Steinberg et al., 1984:113). For all these reasons, the dropout problem is a social policy issue. It is an issue that the reports on excellence ignore altogether. An important question for policy makers is whether steps made to increase excellencehigher standards, more basics, longer school years or school dayswill increase the dropout problem. If imposition of higher standards increases the SAT scores of those students who remain but doubles the dropout rate, especially among minority or disadvantaged students, will we have gained? Or, as one recent report claims, will this be a blueprint for failure? (McDill et al., 1986:139).

LANGUAGE FOCUS To issue, an issue; (il)literate, (il)literacy; achieve(ment); youth(s); to argue, argument; beyond; lack of insight and will; will, testament; demanding; sequence; call for excellence; politics vs. policy; to pose; to drop out, a dropout; array; disenfranchisement; loss vs. gain; income; expenditure; to maintain, maintenance; costly, expensive, dear; altogether; to impose, imposition; to take the floor; compulsory; eel; squirrel; nervous breakdown; to double vs. to treble; to claim; blueprint; to sweep (over) swept swept; tide; mediocre, mediocrity; tough; trend, tendency; to attempt; sharp expansion; despite, in spite of. Punctuation marks: comma , full stop . semicolon ; colon : inverted commas hyphen question mark ? exclamation mark ! dots GRAMMAR FOCUS I. The Present Perfect and the Past Perfect (recycling).

Practice 1.Identify the present perfect and the past perfect forms of the verbs in the text above. 2.How much freedom should children have? (B.J. Thomas, Advanced Vocabulary and Idiom, Longman, 1989, page 6). II. The Past Perfect Progressive Use: to express: an action continuing up to a specific time in the past; a continuous, past action which had visible results or effect in the past. Time Expressions: before, for.., since, after , just, aready, yet, ever never, till/until, when, by, by the time. Form: Affirmative: S + had + verb -ing. Interrogative: Had + S + verb -ing.? Negative: S + had + not + verb -ing.(short form: hadnt). Choose the correct item: 1) Shein a stable family before she got married in 2000. a. has been brought up; b. was brought up; c. had been brought up. 2) Harry..an ugly accident a couple of years before they moved house. a. had; b. had had; c. has had. 3) He is weary. He.at the boring project all day. a. has been working; b. has worked; c. had worked. 4) They were worried. The police.for their kidnapped children for a fortnight without finding a clear lead. a. had looked; b. has been looking; c. had been looking. 5) He..all the possible assumptions until yesterday morning when he had that illumination. a. had exhausted; b. had been exhausting; c. has exhausted. Listening Listen to The Animal School fable and find the flaws that such a school has, from the points of view of equity and excellence (see the tape script). Also comment on The family that learns together, earns together. Tape script The Animal School Once upon a time, an animal meeting was held in the forest. The issue at stake was animal education. The animals were going to set up a school. An Animal School Board was elected. Despite some stifled protest, the Animal School Board decided on a common curriculum for all the animals. The four compulsory curriculum areas were: Running, Climbing, Swimming, and Flying. There were no optional subjects. All the animal students had to attend all these four types of classes. But, no matter how dedicated efforts the students made, some difficulties were encountered. The duck was very good at Swimming, even better than the teacher, but it got poor grades at Flying; and the Running classes were a disaster as the duck hurt its legs because of over-exercise so that even the performance at Swimming got lower. The squirrel was excellent at Climbing but had some problems with taking off from the ground at Flying as it expressed preference to fly down from a tree. Because of the stress of all the Swimming lessons it had a nervous breakdown and dropped out. Some similar experiences had the rabbitthough it was a brilliant student at Running. Eventually, it had to see an animal psychotherapist because of the enormous effort made at the other classes.

Anyway, by the end of the school year, a common eel ended up valedictorian as it could swim well, was able to climb, crawl and fly a little, no matter how small and insignificant it was. (adapted from the fable quoted by Stephen Covey)

UNIT 7 FUTUROLOGY THE SCIENCE OF TOMORROW COURSE 1 THE FUTURE OF OUR WORLD IN THE NEXT MILLENIUM Pre-reading: 1.Word Web: words related to the key word FUTURE (E.g.: anticipate, forecast, foretell, predict, prognosis,). 2.Dialogue between an optimist and a pessimist (pages 123-124, Changing Times, Changing Tenses). Fill in the dialogue (use the right replies). Reading Text The Car of the Future, (Changing Times, Changing Tenses, pages 120-121). LANGUAGE FOCUS New Vocabulary: to be in trouble, ask,/look for trouble, troublesome, troublemaker/shooter, to get someone into trouble, troublous, disturbed, to fish in troubled waters; air conditioning; gas (A.E.) vs petrol (B.E.); lights, headlight, light vs darkness, light/dark colour (blue), light (adj.) vs heavy; foot feet (goose, tooth); 1 mile = km; to be short of, shortage; supply, to supply. GRAMMAR FOCUS 1.Expressing comparison with: as + adj.as + noun: (see Penny Ur, op. cit., page 57). E.g.: as thin as ice, as white as snow. 2.Expressing future time I. The Simple Future Use: to express: an action we are not sure about (use of probably); hopes, fears, threats, on-the-spot decisions, offers, promises, warnings, predictions, comments (with expect, hope, believe, Im afraid, Im sure, I know, I think probably); a prediction or a future action or event which may or may not happen. Time Expressions: tomorrow, tonight, next week/year/.., in two days, the day after tomorrow, soon, in a week/fortnight, on the 1st of June, in 2003, a.s.o.. Form: Affirmative: S + shall/will + verb .(short form: ll). Interrogative: Shall/will + S + verb .? Negative: S + shall/will + not + verb .(short form: shant/wont). 3. The verb take + preposition: after = to resemble down = to write/record for = to mistakenly assume that sb/sth. Is sb./sth. else For granted = to assume as a fact that does not need any confirmation In = to receive, admit; to reduce the size of; to include/comprise off = to remove; to depart (aeroplanes) over = to take control/possesion of to = to adopt as a habit/practice/hobby

Practice Grammar exercises (G. Gleanu, op. cit., Ed. Albatros, 1980, - v. i alte edi ii, pag. 216-228) from various grammar books or from the suggested references.

Speaking Briefly express (in approximately 200 words) how you imagine the future of psychology in the next millenium. (group or individual work, as best suitable). Suggestions: machinery development and human brain, coping with physical impairments: deafness, dumbness, blindness, mental retardness, a.s.o..

COURSE 2

WOMEN PAST AND FUTURE

Pre-reading In which way do you think the condition of women has changed lately (for better/worse)? Give arguments. Reading Text Psychoanalysis and Women (Book Review on The Psychology of Women: Psychoanalytic Perspectives, by Arnold Richards and Phyllis Tyson) This book compares Freuds theories with thencontemporary theories about the mind of women. Valuable history is contained in the pages of this book both the history of Freud and his relationships with women and the history of various theoretical trends in examining the psychology of women. Other topics include object choice in women, bisexuality, the meaning of perineal activity, and genital anxiety. More than 24 analysts contributed to the 20 chapters in the book; most of the contributors are from the US, but the book also includes 2 chapters from British training analysts associated with the British Psychoanalytical Society. This volume reflects a relatively homogeneous perspective about certain women. It describes women who are troubled with conflicts about desire, where desire is misunderstood as dangerous. Which women are described? Janice Lieberman answers this question in her commentary on the art chosen to illustrate in 6 sections of the bookFreud and the Feminine, The Theory of the Psychology of Women, The Body in the Psychology of Women, Motherhood, The Psychology of Homosexuality, and Women and Training and Research. Lieberman states, These art works for the most part show women still in conflict at fin de sicle, not completely resolved as to the acceptance of their bodies or roles. It is these troubled women whom the authors describe in their clinical observations. What is the perspective of the authors? Their predominant psychoanalytic perspective presents women as having primary feminity, that is, female development proceeds along lines that generate anxiety [called female genital anxiety] about damage and loss similar to the fear of castration that troubles males. Disappointing is the fact that this perspective and the re-formulations and more innovative new formulations of Freuds major theories of female psychology recapitulate Freuds basic misunderstanding of desire. In other words, the authors know that Freuds psychology of women is inaccurate, and they argue against Freuds perspective. However, their contributions do not further the readers understanding of the psychology of women. Instead, they perpetuate old views by applying Freuds misunderstanding to troubled women. Freuds misunderstanding of desire, for example, is expressed in his conceptualisation of the Oedipus complex: Freud proposed that a soon at the age of 3 to 5 years passionately desires his mother and views his father as a competitor. Out of his own innate aggression, Freuds theory continues: the son wishes to destroy his father. When the son recognises that his fathers superior strength could turn

against him, he suffers the castration anxiety. This anxiety, according to Freud, causes the child to give up his desire for his mother, to reconstruct his desire as dangerous, and finally to identify with his fathers aggression. An alternative interpretation, one emerging from an understanding of attachment behaviours and from early mother-infant observation research, is that the son reaches out in innocence to his mother, loving out of his own nature the one that his father also happens to love. The son has neither sexual desire for his mother nor murderous rage for his father. [] Applying the alternative interpretation of desire to the daughter, the daughter reaches out in innocence to her mother, loving out of her own nature the one whom her father loves. Furthermore, she reaches out in innocence to her father, loving out of her own nature the one whom her mother loves. In initial attunement, both identification and affection are united and focused on the primary caregivers regardless of the gender of the caregivers or the infant Undifferentiated experiences within the caregivers/infants attunement are experienced as physical or bodily events and thus are internalised without awareness of separateness or conflict and are maintained with a strong sense of security. If the daughters tenderness is fostered, she will strengthen her identification with mother and her bond of affection with father. In differentiation after 18 months of age, boys retain affection for the first caregiver (mother) but shift identification to the father. Girls retain identification with the first caregiver but shift affectional ties to the father. The shifted function, whether it is the shift of identification or the shift or affection, must rely on mental images. Mental images are developed with greater awareness of separateness between the child and the parent The function (identification or affection) that is shifted becomes more highly invested and more vulnerable to shame because it is experienced as less secure than the earlier state where the functions were fused and experienced without awareness of emotional separateness. Although the child gives up a degree of emotional security, differentiation and the shift of function increase psychological autonomy For girls, then, gender identity occurs through the integration of ongoing identification with mother. For boys, gender identity is established as being different from mother. LANGUAGE FOCUS New Vocabulary: to reach out attunement; caregiver, caretaker; regardless of vs regarding; to shift, a shift, shifted; to rely on/upon, reliable weather/person; to fuse; to give up; to foster; tender(ness); strong, strength, to strengthen; gender; degree vs rank or grade; to occur, occurrence; ongoing (adj.). GRAMMAR FOCUS 1.The verb give + preposition in = to hand in/give smth to an authorized person/surrender off = to release/produce (vapour) out = to become exhausted (supplies,power); to announce; to fail/collapse up = to leave/abandon/surrender; to no longer protect. 2.The Future Progressive Use: to express: an action in progress at a certain time in the future. Time Expressions: tomorrow at 5 p.m., tonight from 7 to 9 p.m., a.s.o.. Form: Affirmative: S + shall/will + be + verb -ing.(short form: ll). Interrogative: Shall/will + S + be + verb -ing.? Negative: S + shall/will + not + be + verb -ing.(short form: shant/wont).

Practice 1.Finish up the following text (from a teenagers point of view, using the simple future and the future progressive). When My about to Divorce Parents Will Be in Court My parents have received a subpoena for their first divorce session. So, tomorrow at 10 a.m., they will be trying to reach a consensus, and their lawyers will be bargaining the terms of divorce 2.The Career Woman Fill in the table below to describe the existential situation of career women nowadays: Issue at stake Drawbacks Advantages Building a family life Children upbringing and education Supporting their husbands a.s.o.

UNIT 8 COURSE 1

POWER POWER AND LEADERSHIP

Pre-reading What is a leader going to do if he prefers using: CONCEPT DEFINITION FAVOURITE REPLY Power 1. a. Coercion 2. b. Authority 3. c. Traditional authority 4. d. Charismatic authority 5. e. Rational-legal authority 6. f. Influence 7. g. Match the concepts to their corresponding definitions and to their suitable replies (see the two columns below). DEFINITIONS REPLIES Exercise of power through force or threat of force. I know youve been wondering how you might serve me, (unlikely). Authority based on sanctity of time-honoured I dont feel very well today; would you help me routines. mow the lawn? Authority based on submission to a set of Do it or else. rationally established rules. Ability to get others to act as one wishes in spite Im your father and I told you to mow the lawn. of their resistance; includes coercion and authority. Not power, but ability to persuade others to It is your turn to mow the lawn; I did it last change their decisions. week. Authority based on extraordinary characteristics It is your duty to mow the lawn. of leader. Power supported by norms and values. I know you dont want to mow the lawn, but you have to do it anyway.

Reading Text page 391, Sociology Political Institutions Power inequalities are built into almost all social institutions. In institutions as varied as the school and the family, roles associated with status pairs such as student/teacher and parent/child specify unequal power relationships as the normal and desirable standard. In a very general sense, political institutions are all those institutions concerned with the social structure of power. This general definition includes many of the institutions of society. The family, the workplace, the school, and even the church or synagogue have structured social inequality in decision making. The most prominent political institutions, however, is the state.

The State as the Dominant Political Institution The state is the social structure that successfully claims a monopoly on the legitimate use of coercion and physical force within a territory. Legitimacy of the State The stability of any political system, democratic or authoritarian, depends on the degree to which it is supported by societys norms and values. If the legitimacy of the system is widely supported, then it can govern by authority. Lack of legitimacy can be a problem for both democratic and authoritarian systems. Many of the democratic governments of South America, for example, have foundered because their citizens did not share strong norms about the superiority of rational-legal authority. Lacking these norms, they offered little support for democratic governments and little resistance when military juntas or other dictators took the reins of government. LANGUAGE FOCUS New Vocabulary: (in)equality; similes; a pair of; coercion; charisma; threat, menace; to submit to, submission; to persuade, to convince; to mow the lawn; duty, to be on duty, to do ones duty, dutyfree; ones turn. GRAMMAR FOCUS 1.Expressing intention about the future: be going to future. Practice What are you going to do when you graduate from university ? (Mention at least three things). 2.Expressing actions in the immediate future:be about to future. Follow up Activity: Pictures from Magazines What are they about to do? Hes/shes about to.. 3.Expressing formally planned future actions with the Simple Present. 4. Expressing informally planned future actions with the Present Progressive.

COURSE 2

ADVERTISEMENTS

Pre-reading Discuss about the quality and the psychological impact of advertisements on ordinary people. (in groups or individually). Reading Advertisements (see the texts below). LANGUAGE FOCUS New Vocabulary: tuition; staff; range; accomodation; outstanding, remarkable; effective; race (speed contest; categories of people and animals with the same physical traits). To praise Price Prize

To advertise Advertisement = ad Clipped words Refrigerator fridge Autobus bus Advertisement - ad Laboratory - lab Practice 1.Identify the verb forms that express future time in the advertisements below and talk about their use. Text 1 RUN FOR THE MONEY Every year at least 1000 runners begin their marathon race around cities in the world. Most of them usually stay in the race to the end. The prize is money. The runners will finish the race at different times. Some will have run for three hours; some will have run for three and one-half hours; and some will have run for much longer. Each runner will have used his own special method to keep going. There are old athletes who will have run every marathon race for thirty years. They havent ever won any prizes for speed, but theyll have finished more races than other participants. 2.Ask questions starting with: When will..? How long...? How often...? Text 2 RIPOFF COLLEGE CENTRE FOR ENGLISH ORGANIZES COURSES FOR JUNIORS (aged 6-17) AND ADULTS (18+) 4 hours tuition mornings highly qualified staff wide range of teaching techniques excellent family accomodation Courses start on June, the 15th.

Text 3. Objects in virtual reality are produced by a computer, and they appear three-dimensional. Virtual reality in video games and cartoons is already widely used. In the future, we will see more serious uses of it. An outstanding surgeon is planning to practise an operation on a virtual patient. Virtual-patient surgery is about to become a method for the effective training of medicine students and for research in this field or in the related ones. Engineers and architects are going to use virtual reality to make their own projects to work better. Follow-up activity Write an essay about the impact which virtual reality will have on the social sciences (psychology) of the future.

UNIT 9. EMPATHY COURSE 1 DOES ALTRUISM EXIST ? Pre-reading What do you think empathy actually refers to? Reading Text DOES ALTRUISM EXIST ? , Social Psychology, p.302 (Part 1). LANGUAGE FOCUS New Vocabulary: welfare; to confine, to limit; an account; downtrodden, to tread; to stress, to emphasise; to draw a bottomline; nevertheless; to empathise; to assist, assistance, assistant; plight; distress; instead of. Practice Make up at least five sentences with out of.. (E.g.: She helped him out of pity.) GRAMMAR FOCUS 1.Adjectives describing character: (un)selfish, altruistic, sociable, (un)reliable, easy-going, cheerful, friendly, surly, withdrawn, optimistic, pesimistic, fun-loving, bossy, shallow; open-hearted, tightfisted, narrow-minded,. 2.Modal Verbs Expressing ability (skill and achievement). Modal verb To express Examples CAN Ability in the present or How well can you speak German? future COULD/WAS ABLE TO Ability in the past Two years ago, Jane could hardly speak Ability in the past for German, but now she can speak it very repeated actions well. He could/was able to swim a lot when he was young. COULDNT/WASNT For repeated or single actions Grandma couldnt/wasnt able to find her ABLE TO wallet. I WILL/WONT BE Skill and achievement in the I cant use the computer very well yet, ABLE TO future but by the end of the university year Ill be able to use it perfectly. If you keep up learning throughout the

COULD + PERFECT INFINITIVE

For past ability, when the action was not performed; When we dont know whether it was performed or not; To express irritation at or reproach for the nonperformance of an action.

course, youll be able to master English. I could have given you a helping hand. Why didnt you let me know in due time? The cake has vanished! Who could have taken it ? You could have anticipated it !

Practice 1.Identify the modal verbs in the given text and specify what they express. 2.How many things can you think of that: Impressed you? Made you happy? Bothered you? Annoyed you?

COURSE 2

DOES ALTRUISM EXIST ? (Part 2).

Pre-reading Match the jumbled phrases to restore the proverbs: No news is Is lost. Out of sight, Without fire All that glitters Grow fonder. Where there is a will Leap. Look before you Before the horse. When in Rome Sorry. Make hay while Out of mind. Dont put the cart Good news. You cant have your cake and The best teacher. Better safe than Is not gold. Experience is Run deep. The more you have, Eat it. Theres no smoke The more you want. Absence makes the heart There is a way. Still waters While the sun shines. He who hesitates. Do as the Romans do. Reading Text, p.302, Social Psychology (Part 2). LANGUAGE FOCUS New Vocabulary: to state, to assert, to affirm, to insist, to maintain, to claim; Out of sight, out of mind.; sympathy; puzzle (verb & noun), puzzled; proposition, to propose, proposal; so long (leavetaking formula). Practice Give suitable leave-taking formulas for the following contexts (mind the formal and informal ways of addressing to people). Youve been talking to a Professor at the University; youre in a hurry because you have an appointment and youre leaving.

Youre in another room in the students hostel; its late at night, and you want to go to your own room. You need to leave the auditorium earlier than you should, and you have to apologize for that and to say good-bye to your peers (fellow students). GRAMMAR FOCUS Expressing possibility and probability MAY Perhaps, very possible MIGHT Slight possibility MAY/MIGHT + Possibility in the present Present Infinitive or future MAY/MIGHT + In speculations about past Perfect Infinitive actions COULD possibility COULD BE CAN CAN CANT MUST Practice 1.Abstract picture. What May Be? Might Could Can 2.Invisible object. Drawing in the air an object and then guessing what it: May/ Might/ Can/ Could be. 3.Rearrange the lines of the poem Death Sweet, by Thomas Lovell Beddoes, in a logical order, to reconstruct the poem: JUMBLED LINES No./LOGICAL ORDER A. . Getting a length beyond our tedious selves; B. Is it not sweet to die ? for, what is death, 1. C. Spilling our woes, crushing our frozen hopes, D. Then, if the body felt, what were its sense; E. But sighing that we neer may sigh again, F. But trampling the last tear from poisonous sorrow, G. Turning to daisies gently in the grave, H. In love and the enamelled flower of song ? I. And passing like an incense out of man ? J. If not the souls most delicate delight As an alternative of MAY/MIGHT BE possibility Occasional possibility It does not seem possible./I dont think. It is almost certain./I think.

John may be back tomorrow. They might come here for Christmas this year. He may/might visit his parents next summer. She may/might have gone on a trip to Ireland. Frank could still be in the library . He is a bookworm. I wonder the cat is. It may/might/could be in the kitchen with its paw in the fish bowl. I cant plunge in the swimming pool. There isnt enough water in it. Scarlet fever can be quite dangerous. You have rested a lot lately. You cant be weary. He looks cross. He must have problems at home.

K. When it does filtrate, through the pores of thought, Insert numbers under the heading No./LOGICAL ORDER. The first line has been already identified for you, as an example. You may get several logically valid ways of reconstructing the poem. This may mean that you have your own poetic skills and outlook, id est (=that is), you are creative yourself. However, you may find out the order of the lines of the poem, as the poet himself imagined them from the table below. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. 3. 1. 5. 7. 2. 4. 8. 11. 6. 9. 10.

UNIT 10

WHAT SHOULD I DO ? PROFESSIONAL ETHICS

COURSE 1

Pre-writing Mention a few things that you are/are not allowed to do when you perform your profession of psychologist/psychotherapist/shrink, a.s.o.. Give further suggestions (added to those in the table below). You may do/should do/must do You may not do Thorough investigations; Divulge your patients secrets; Gain the patients confidence; Harm your patients self through your actions; Transfer your patients affection towards Engage into close affective relationships with your another object if he/she clings too much to patients; you; Do your best to arouse your patients Recommend/advise ways of actions, according to your responsibility for his/her own choices; will, to your patients; Be balanced; Lose temper; Be neutrally benevolent. Talk too much yourself, instead of creating conditions for your patient to talk about his/her problems. Rearrange the courses of actions listed in the table above (including those you have added), under the right heading in the chart below: COURSE OF ACTION PERMITTED DESIRABLE NECESSARY COMPULSORY(MANDATORY) PROHIBITED . .. .. .. GRAMMAR FOCUS Expressing permission Formal and informal ways of expressing permission.

MODAL VERB CAN COULD MAY MIGHT COULD/WAS,WERE ALLOWED TO MUSTNT CANT

USE Informal. More polite Formal More formal Permission in the past Denying permission by law/norms/rules Refusing permission

EXAMPLES Can I borrow your car, Dad ? Could I borow your car, Dad ? May I use your phone ? Might I see your identity card, Sir ? On weekends we were allowed to stay up late. You mustnt stop your car here ! You cant enter unless you are wearing a tuxedo.

Practice 1.Writing: You are in a university campus. Describe your life in the campus. Mention at least five things you may do in the campus, and five that you may not/mustnt do. 2.Situational Dialogue Draw an ideal/imaginary university campus. Place yourself somewhere in the campus. Then, ask your peers to give you directions to another place in the campus. Use the phrases in the box below.

Asking for directions Excuse me, how can/could I get to I cant find my way in the campus. Could you tell me how to get to..

Giving directions You may go straight ahead Turn right/left after the Its opposite the Its nearby the Its on the right/left side of the street. until you get to.

HABIT FORMATION Pre-reading Match the definitions in column B to the phrases with habit in column A. No. Column A. Column B. 1. Dont let yourself get/fall into bad habits! A To have the habit of 2. Its hard to get out of a habit! B. To acquire a habit(about oneself) 3. Dont get your child into the habit of waiting C. To abandon a habit until someone else works out his problems! 4. We almost always act from force of habit. D. To make someone acquire a habit 5. He is in the habit of talking too much when he E. To do things because habit has become isnt supposed to. more powerful than ones will. Reading Habit Formation, from General Psychology, pp.204-205.

COURSE 2

Text

Habit Formation
Many forms of behaviour have become so automatic through practice that they appear to be natural. Habit formation begins early in life. By the time an individual reaches adulthood he has learned the habit. The Functioning of Habit. Many everyday habitual forms of behaviour serve an individual well as time and energy savers. From the hour he arises until he goes to bed he proceeds from one activity to another. In ways acceptable to his particular cultural environment, he engages in certain habitual activities, such as walking, talking, dressing, working, eating, driving an automobile, reading the newspaper, listening to a radio programme or watching television. It is only when a new situation arises or an emergency occurs requiring non-habitual behaviour approaches that habit fails to function adequately. Then conscious and specific reactions are needed. Psychological Principles Involved. Many habits are attained unconsciously through imitation; others represent planned and practised skills. In general, the habits utilised in everyday living are valuable to the individual in that they free him from concern about petty details. He is enabled thereby to devote his time and energy to creative activity.

Some habits represent unpleasant, non-constructive behaviour that may be harmful for the individual possessing the habit as well as for his associates who become the victims of his bad habit. Some bad habits are: excessive use of hard liquor, swearing, laziness, lying, non-planned stealing, proneness to outbursts of rage without cause. The psychologist William James offered suggestions for the building of habits. These suggestions are especially adaptable to the breaking of undesirable habits and the acquiring of new ones. The important principles include:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Launch the new habit with as strong and decided initiative as possible. Never permit an exception to occur till the new habit is securely rooted in your life. The need for securing success at the outset is imperative. Abrupt acquisition of the new habit is the best way, if there is a real possibility of carrying it out. Seize the very first possible opportunity to act on every resolution you make, and on every emotional prompting you may experience in the direction of the habits you aspire to gain. Keep the faculty of effort alive in you by a little gratuitous exercise every day.

6. 1. 2. 3.

The suggestions given by James can be supplemented by three others.


Utilise voluntary practice to break an involuntary habit. Utilise the conditional response method to substitute a new habit for an old one. Establish definite mental specifications for the new habit.

LANGUAGE FOCUS New Vocabulary: habit, habitual, habitat, habitable (fit to be lived in), habitation (living in), to habituate oneself, to attain a habit; to proceed; to arise; petty; thereby; to save (1.to rescue; 2.to keep money; 3.to spend time); to be prone to, proneness to; outburst; outbreak; root (noun and verb); outset (noun); to prompt; resolution, resolute. Practice Add the suitable negative prefixes (un-, in-, il-, im-, non-, dis-) to the following words: desirable, constructive, definite, possible, legible, literate, pleasant, important, known, probable, relevant, responsible, formal, persistent. GRAMMAR FOCUS 1.The verb carry + preposition Carry + Meaning Out Fulfil, achieve On Continue, conduct, manage Away Cause to lose self control Off Win, succeed Through Help (through difficulties) Fill in the sentences with the right verb phrases of the verb carry. 2.Expressing advice MODAL VERB Should/ought to/had better Shouldnt Should(nt) have/ought(not) to have

USE Advice Criticism Criticism after the event

EXAMPLES You should see a dentist. He shouldnt swim in the sea at such a low temperature. You shouldnt have gone to that party!

Practice The psychologist William James (see last paragraph, page 204 in the text), named some principles of breaking undesirable habits. Rephrase them by using the modal verb structures: should + verb or ought to + verb, in order to express advice.

UNIT 11 DECISION MAKING COURSE 1 INTERESTS AND DECISION MAKING Pre-reading When you make decisions are you mainly interested in their effects: in the short run ? in the long run ? Reading Text Decision Making and Duration of Interest, from General Psychology, pp.163-164. (Part 1). LANGUAGE FOCUS New Vocabulary: to delay, to cancel, to postpone, to put off (Never put off till tomorrow, what you can do today.); to reveal, to unravel, revelation; part-time, full-time activity; to deny, denial; remote, far off/away; to vary with. Practice Fill in the suitable verb forms/tenses of make and do. (recycling). GRAMMAR FOCUS Expressing obligation and necessity MODAL USE EXAMPLES VERB Must Strong obligation or personal All citizens must observe the laws of a country. feelings of necessity Have to External necessity I have to attend all the lectures and seminars.(others decide it is necessary). Ive got to Informal, its necessary Ive got to finish my assignment today. Exercises (suggested reference: Mike Watkins, Practise Your Modal Verbs, Longman, 1996). COURSE 2 INTERESTS AND PERSONALITY

Pre-reading In what kind of terms can you see the relationship between personal interests, micro-group interests, macro-group interests ? What part do laws play within such a context ? Reading Text (Part 2). LANGUAGE FOCUS New Vocabulary: science, scientist, man of science, scientific(al)(ly); under circumstances; to interfere; outcome, result; great vs big vs large; anxious, anxiety. Practice Fill in great, big, or large, as required by the contexts below: 1.She didin her exams and everybody congratulated her. 2.The room was so that we wondered how they could possibly heat it in winter. 3.Suddenly, a .bear came up right behind them. 4.He made a .mistake to let her down in such a way. 5.She was a ..skier and she enjoyed the .spaces that rolled up in front of her in the mountains while she was skiing.

GRAMMAR FOCUS Expressing absence of necessity or prohibition Mustnt Prohibition You mustnt do drugs. Cant Prohibition You cant enter the room if you are not a member of the club. Neednt It is not necessary You neednt put on thick clothes. Its getting warm. Dont It is not necessary in the You dont need/have to finish the job right away. need/have to present/future Didnt It was not necessary in the He didnt need to go to university yesterday because need/have to past they didnt have any lectures or seminars. Practice 1.Tick or cross in the slots under the right modal verb heading from the grid below for each of the following phrases which refer to the rights of children: Phrases which refer to the rights of children: 1. be forced to work in order to earn a living; 2. spoil me; 3. express warmth, honesty, and understanding; 4. encourage me when I seem terribly scared of something; 5. be forced to beg in order to earn money; 6. punish me too hard; 7. relate to me as if I were one of your friends; 8. teach me not to have the feeling that Im good for nothing; 9. be given to adoption unless in his/her own interest; 10. overprotect me from the consequences of my deeds; 11. avoid patronizing me; 12. be punished for anything, unless proved guilty; 13. answer to my silly questions; 14. be physically abused; 15. be pushed to doing drugs; 16. learn from my own experience; 17. use verbal force to convince me; 18. make promises and then forget to keep them; 19. make me feel that my mistakes are sins; 20. make me do things myself, in order to become a responsible person. Tick and cross in the grid next to the number of the phrase (the numbers from 1. to 20. which you may notice in front of each of the phrases above): No. Must Should Mustnt Shouldnt 1. x x v x 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. UNIT 12 COURSE 1 GONE WITH THE WAVE GROUP THINK

Pre-reading Give as many words as you can which are formed with the prefix over. E.g.: overrule, overestimate, overdo, overcome, overreact, overdraw, overflow, overlook, overload, overpay, overtake, overwhelm, overwork, a.s.o.. Reading Text: Group Think, from Social Psychology, p.506, (from Janis diagnoses to cut out of the loop). Janis diagnoses the causes of groupthink in terms of three major factors: group cohesiveness, group structure, and the situational context. Since highly cohesive groups are more likely to reject members with deviant opinions, they are more susceptible to groupthink than more fragmented groups that can tolerate a wider range of opinion among their members. Group structure is also important. Groups that are composed of people from similar backgrounds, isolated from other, directed by a strong leader, and lacking in systematic procedures for making and reviewing decisions are particularly likely to fall prey to group-think. Finally, stressful situations can provoke groupthink. Under stress, urgency overrules accuracy, and the reassuring support of other group members becomes especially desirable. Individuals differ in how susceptible they are to groupthink in the face of stress, with some being more resistant than others (Callaway et al., 1985). Once groupthink begins to dominate the decision-making process, a rash of behavioural symptoms breaks out. These symptoms can be classified into three major categories. v Overestimation of the group: Members maintain an illusion of invulnerability and an exaggerated belief in the morality of the groups positions. Did Kennedy and his advisers sufficiently question the wisdom of the invasion plan they had inherited from the Eisenhower administration? Or did they think that, as the best and brightest, they could surely pull off a little invasion? v Closed-mindedness: Members rationalise the correctness of the groups actions and believe stereotypes about the characteristics of the targets of these actions. Did Nixon and his advisers ever think realistically about what was appropriate for political activities in a democracy? Or were they convinced that anything goes against the enemy? v Increased pressures toward uniformity: The pressures to sustain group cohesiveness grow increasingly strong. Group members censor their own thoughts and act as mindguards to discourage deviant thoughts by other group members. Those who refuse to conform are expelled from the group. Did Reagan and those who supported the Iran exchange seriously listen to those who opposed it? Or were officials (like the Secretaries of Defense and State who wouldnt join the team and support the policy simply cut out of the loop? LANGUAGE FOCUS New Vocabulary: cohesive(ness), cohesion =tendency to stick together; to cohere = to stick together, coherence, coherency, coherently; deviant=different in moral and social standards from what is normal and accepted, to deviate, deviation (from), deviationist, deviationism; background=setting; to fall prey; accuracy, accurate; insure, ensure, assure, reassure; rash; pull vs.

push; inherit, inheritance, heritage, heredity; proper, appropriate; enemy=foe; to sustain; to censor(ship); to expel(-l-) from; to cut out of the loop; to join in/up* (*the army). PRONUNCIATION: cohesion, coherent, inherent, to deviate, heritage.

GRAMMAR FOCUS: 1.Expressing advice, conclusions, and predictions MODAL VERB USE Must Drawing conclusions, deductions Must have Conclusions about the past, deductions Should, ought to, had Advice or warning better Cant Will Conclusions Predictions

EXAMPLES They must be twins. Helen must have left the keys there. You should do more gymnastics! You had better leave this place at once! Therefore, the hypothesis cant be verified. The bread will go stale if you keep it too long.

2.The verb break + preposition BREAK Meaning + Away Escape, run away from; give up ideas, family tradition. from Down Knock or smash to the ground; suffer a physical or mental weakening; cease to function (through some mechanical or electrical failure). In Interrupt/join in (a conversation); accustom smb to a new routine; enter by force. Off End abruptly, and discontinue; take a break/pause; stop talking. Out Start suddenly (fire, epidemic disease, rioting, and quarrel). Through Make a way through (an enclosure, obstacles); overcome (shyness, reserve); make discoveries. Up Smash, demolish, disintegrate; become weak; finish school before a holiday; to scatter/disperse (a demonstration); come to an end (about a relationship). With Separate from; end association with. 3.The verb pull + preposition PULL + Meaning Apart Demolish, destroy, or criticise severely. Aside Move to one side (curtain, mask, or veil). Down Demolish, destroy; cause to fall to a lower position. In Earn; fetch to the police station for questioning. Off Remove, or succeed in achieving/gaining smth. Out Extract, draw out (tooth, nail). Out of Retire, or withdraw. Through Help to recover from illness/faint; succeed in avoiding difficulties. Together Combine efforts.

Up

Cause (car, bike) to stop; improve the position of smb.

Practice 1.Practise the modal verbs above to: draw conclusions using the Antecedents, Fig.1. make predictions using the Consequences, Fig.1. give advice and warn using the Consequences, Fig.1.
Figure 1. Groupthink: Antecedents, Symptoms, and Consequences. According to Janis, highly cohesive groups with like-minded members working under stressful conditions run a particularly high risk of groupthink. In groupthink, agreement within the group has a higher priority than gathering accurate information and making careful decisions. Groupthink creates creates a defective decision-making process that increases the probability that a bad decision will result. [Based on Janis, 1982.] Antecedents High cohesiveness Group structure Homogeneous members Isolation Directive leadership Unsystematic procedures Stressful situations

Groupthink

Symptoms Overestimation of the group Closed-mindedness Increased pressures toward uniformity

Consequences Defective decision-making Incomplete survey of alternatives Incomplete survey of objectives Failure to examine risks of preferred choice Failure tore-appraise initially rejected alternatives Poor information search Selective bias in processing information at hand Failure to work out contingency plans High probability of a bad decision

2.Give examples of words formed with the suffix -dom. E.g.: wisdom, freedom, kingdom, boredom, a.s.o..

COURSE 2

THE SPECKLED BAND

Pre-reading Give your own examples of verbs that express a slight movement caused by certain feelings or cold, a.s.o.. E.g.: shiver/tremble with cold/fear. Reading Text (adapted from The Speckled Band, by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle). Read the text below and fill in the gaps using suitable words (mind the grammar structures): Helen Stoner1. shivering while she was talking with Sherlock Holmes. The detective thought she .2. be cold, so he invited her to sit..3. the fire. Helen was a young woman, about thirty years old, but her hair was already....4. grey with ...5. She started telling Holmes that her twin sister had died under .6. circumstances. Helen explained that her mother had been a rich woman, and when she married Dr. Roylott an agreement was.7. about that money. He 8. inherited one thousand pounds only if Helen and her sister Julia hadnt got married. Their stepfather was a very.9. man and he .10. get angry quickly. Dr. Roylott 11. killed Julia, but Sherlock Holmes .12. prove that. GRAMMAR FOCUS Verb Phrases which express change of state. 1.The verb turn + preposition PREPOSITION MEANING away Move towards a different direction; stop facing or looking at; refuse help/hospitality. down Refuse to accept, reject (candidate/offer); reduce the loudness, brightness, force of (light, gas, sound). in Hand in, deliver (essay, exercise, article);) (informal) inform on, report upon; surrender (to the police, authorities); (informal) go to bed. Inside out Make the inside of something face outwards; search thoroughly. into (cause to) become; change into; be changed into. off Disconnect, switch off; change direction. on Connect, start the flow of; switch on (light, gas, radio); depend on/upon. out Extinguish (light, lamp); appear, be present, attend; develop, progress; empty the contents from; make, produce; expel (smb.) drive out. to Apply to (for advice, help, information); begin to work vigorously. up Find, expose, make visible (especially by digging); appear, arrive, be found suddenly or unexpectedly; improve, rise, increase. 2.The verb grow + preposition PREPOSITION MEANING Away from Cease to have an easy, loving relationship with. from (about flowers, vegetables), germinate. On/upon Become more attractive, gain influence over, increase as a habit (of smb.); become more interesting to/liked by. Out of (about clothes, shoes), become too big for; abandon, lose (bad habits) with the passage of time; have as its origin or cause. Up Increase in size or height; become adult.

3.The verb get + preposition PREPOSITION MEANING about Move from place to place with the implication of overcoming difficulties, walk, travel; (rumour, news) spread, circulate; across (help to) cross (bridge, river, street). Across to Make clear, transmit (to), become clear to; Along (with) Make progress (with); agree, co-operate; Around/round Avoid (an obstacle), find a way of not doing or obeying; escape from; gain the favour of somebody for a special purpose; at Learn, discover (truth, intentions, facts); reach, gain access to; set to work on smth.; (informal) criticise, find fault with; Away with (informal) go unpunished, not suffer for (slander, impudence and indiscipline); by Pass an obstacle; (informal) be successful, be accepted; down Bring down, descend, dismount; write, record; depress, break the spirit of smb.; swallow with difficulty medicine, pill, drink, food; in Enter; enter the station, arrive (train); (cause to) be elected into off On out over through up Get dressed in, put on; seize smb.s possessions, thoughts, emotions; Come down (horse, bus train, bike); leave, start a journey; remove, take off; Make progress, advance; mount (horse, bus); (news, information, secret) become known, leak, speak, utter; Cause to cross/climb; pass over, surmount difficulties; recover from illness, surprise, disappointment; (help to) be successful in, pass; manage to do, read, write. Awaken, rise from bed; stand up; carry up, climb.

Practice Use the following verbs to write an essay based on a real or an imaginary situation/event/happening: To amaze, to astonish, to astound, to flabbergast, to surprise, and some of the verb phrases above.

V.BIBLIOGRAFIE SUPLIMENTARA RECOMANDATA: Adamson, Donald, Practise Your Tenses, Longman, 1996; Bdescu, Alice, Gramatica limbii engleze, Editura tiin ific i Enciclopedic, Bucureti, 1984 (sau alte lucrri de gramatic a limbii engleze); Gleanu, Georgiana, Exerciii de gramatic englez, Editura Albatros, 1979; Gleanu, Georgiana, Exerciii de gramatic englez, Editura Albatros, 1987; Watkins, Mike, Practise Your Modal Verbs, Longman, 1996.

VI.BIBLIOGRAFIE FACULTATIV: Conan Doyle, Arthur, The Speckled Band and Other Stories, Heinemann, 1999; De Devitiis, G., English Grammar for Communication, Longman, 1991; Evans, Virginia, Round up, Longman, 1996; Galea, Ileana, Criveanu, I., Iva, A., Voia, M., Dicionar englez romn de expresii verbale, Ed. Echinox, Cluj, 1991; Groza Filip, A., Synonyms in Practice, Ed. Dacia, Cluj, 1996; Hewings, M., Advanced Grammar in Use, C.U.P., Cambridge, 1999; ODell, F., McCarthy, M., English Vocabulary in Use, C.U.P., Cambridge, 1994; Peterson Wilcox, Patricia, Changing Times, Changing Tenses, U.S. Information Agency, 1992; Plant, P., Everyday English, VEB Verlag, Leipzig, 1978; Stancu, Victoria, Engleza intensiv, Ed. Niculescu, 1997; Thomas, B.J., Intermediate Vocabulary, Longman, 1995; Thomas, B.J., Advanced Vocabulary and Idiom, Longman, 1995.

Example of both vocabulary and tenses oriented test: 1.Cross the odd-pronunciation word (its pronunciation is different from that of the other three words) out: a.tear; b.care; c.beer; d.bear. 2. Cross the odd-pronunciation word out: a.calf; b.half; c.scarf; d.cart. Choose the right answer (only one answer is the right one): 3.Please, go and buy two. a.breads, b.loafs of, c.loaves of, d.kilos of. 4.Id like a . a.soap, b.tin of soap, c.soaps, d.bar of. 5.Pollution has determined strange..all over the planet. a.phenomena, b.phenomenons, c.phenomeni, d.phenomenas. 6.Throughout the experiment, some guinea pigs are exposed to various types of. a.stimulus, b.stimuluses, c.stimuli, d.stimula. 7.The scientists noticed a ..of side effects that followed the treatment. a.serie, b.series, c.seria, d.serieses. 8.She is feeling.than yesterday. a.good, b.bad, c.ill, d.worse. 9.You should be..while crossing the road. a.most careful, b.more careful, c.carefully, d.more carefully. 10.The scientist.the solution to the problem. a.know, b.knowing, c.is know, d.knows. 11.Susan..to the disco tonight. a.go, b.is going, c.has gone, d.went. 12.It a lot last night. a.rain, b.will rain, c.has rained, d.rained. 13.When he came in, Ion the phone. a.was talking, b.were talking, c.talked, d.am talking. 14.Heres my essay. I .it at last. a.has finished, b.have finished, c.had finished, d.finished. 15.We havent seen this movie a.just, b.already, c.never, d.yet. 16.She. English for five years. a.have study, b.studied, c.has been studying, d.will study. 17.Mary was sighing because she .a lot of trouble with her children. a.had had, b.has had, c.is having, d.has. 18.Theya new supermarket downtown. a.open, b.are open, c.will open, d.shall open. 19you control your heartbeat with your mind ? a.may, b.can, c.should, d.must. 20.I go to the dentist. a.am allowed, b.am able, c.must, d.would.

Note: the test will be scored with 10 points (0,5 point for each correct answer).