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SCOPUL UNITĂŢII DE CURS

Scopul general al cursului este de a îmbunătăţi deprinderile de limbă engleză ale cursanţilor şi de a-i
pregăti în perspectiva folosirii limbii engleze în viitoarea lor profesie.

OBIECTIVELE CURSULUI:
 consolidarea, perfecţionarea şi dezvoltarea deprinderilor generale de limbă engleză;
 dezvoltarea deprinderilor cursanţilor de a-şi evalua şi ameliora performanţa lingvistică.

EVALUAREA CURSANŢILOR:

- răspunsurile la colocviu 70 %
Stabilirea notei finale (procentaje)
- teme de control (prezentate la tutoriale) 30 %
Lista materialelor didactice necesare Manual

STIMAŢI CURSANŢI,

Acest manual a fost conceput special pentru dumneavoastră în urma unui proces de selectare şi adaptare
a unor materiale existente, pentru a răspunde cerinţelor dumneavoastră specifice. El este mai mult decât o
colecţie de texte şi de activităţi destinate exersării deprinderilor de comunicare în limba engleză, deoarece el
poate fi folosit ca un instrument de lucru. Dat fiind specificul învăţământului deschis şi la distanţă, manualul
urmăreşte îndeosebi dezvoltarea deprinderilor de citire şi scriere în paralel cu dezvoltarea competenţei de folosire
corectă şi adecvată a limbii engleze.
Temele au fost selectate în concordanţă cu specialitatea pe care o studiaţi. În acest sens, exerciţiile de
vocabular tratează fondul lexical specific disciplinei psihologie. Exerciţiile de gramatică vă dau posibilitatea de a
recapitula şi consolida principalele probleme gramaticale ale limbii engleze. Evaluarea modului în care aţi
efectuat exerciţiile o puteţi face prin consultarea cheii prezentate la sfârşitul manualului.
Complexitatea materialului selectat vă pregăteşte pentru cerinţele examenului de licenţă, care se situează
în parametrii examenului internaţional Cambridge First Certificate.

Temele de la secţiunile 2, 3, 5, 6 – semnalate prin simbolul , şi de către denumirea Tutor-Assessed


Tasks – trebuie trimise prin poştă la adresa tutorelui, în termenul anunţat la prima întâlnire tutorială. Prima dintre
aceste teme (din secţiunea 2) va fi expediată cu cel puţin 10 zile înainte de primul tutorial în aşa fel încât tutorele
să o poată citi şi discuta cu dumneavoastră la această întâlnire. Notele obţinute la cele 4 teme din semestrul I
constituie 30% din nota finală obţinută la colocviu.

VĂ DORIM SUCCES!

Autorii mulţumesc Nadinei Cehan pentru ajutorul primit la editarea acestui suport de curs.
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READING DIGEST 1: TAKING A BREAK

EXERCISE 1.1
Read the following articles:

I CAN'T TRAVEL WITHOUT…


What are the things you can't do without when you go away?
A. Patrick Lichfield,
the photographer, never goes far without the Olympus Pearlcorder dictating machine which lets
him catch up with his correspondence wherever he is. The tiny tapes are either posted to his secretary,
Felicity, or he gives them to someone to bring back. The quality is very good but there are often some
interesting background noises.
B. Mel Calman,
the cartoonist, jokes about filling his suitcase with tranquillisers and three different kinds of
toothbrushes after recent, expensive dental treatment, but it is his diary and sketch-book that are always
with him when he is on the move. ‘I don't keep a diary except when I'm away. I start a new one each trip
now since I lost irreplaceable notes on two previous trips on a bus in the States.’
C. Richard Branson,
who launched Virgin Atlantic airways, believes in travelling light. ‘Suntan lotion for my nose and
my notebooks which are my lifeline. But I will always sling in a pack of cards. I love a game of cards,
particularly bridge, canasta or spades, but I'm not a gambler.’
D. Barry Norman,
the film critic, never travels anywhere without his credit card. ‘The days of anyone being
stranded abroad are now over. I remember once, before credit cards were common, the Daily Mail sent
me to Italy at a moment's notice. It was a bank holiday, I had no money and the banks were shut. There
I was in Milan on a beautiful sunny day sitting in my hotel because it was the only place I could eat or
drink because I could sign for it.’
E. Frank Muir,
the TV scriptwriter and humorist, never sets off on a journey without packing his Swiss army
penknife. ‘It does everything,’ he says. ‘It has about 140 things that come out. It opens bottles, gets
things out of horses’ hooves, it has scissors, screwdrivers, tweezers. I never go anywhere without it and
I have never used it.’
(from The Sunday Express Magazine)

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EXERCISE 1.2
Choose from the five sections (A - E) to answer the first five questions and write the letters in
the boxes. Then answer the last two questions freely, stating your own opinion.
Who likes to take as little luggage as possible? 1.
Who likes to keep a record of his travels? 2.
Who takes something he hasn't tested? 3.
Which two people seem to take their work with them when they travel? 4. 5.
Which two people take something to avoid bad experiences they've had? 6. 7.
Who takes the strangest thing, in your opinion?

Who takes the most useful thing, in your opinion?

GRAMMAR DIGEST 1:
THE VERB BE: AFFIRMATIVE STATEMENTS; SUBJECT PRONOUNS

INTRODUCTIONS
Read these introductions:
1. “Hello. My name is Monique. I'm French. I'm from Paris.”
2. “I'm Chen. I'm Chinese. I'm from Beijing.”
3. “I'm Fernando and this is Isabel. We are married. We are Colombian. We're from Bogotá.”
4. “Hi. I'm Rodica. I'm Romanian. I'm from Sibiu.”

Look at Monique's information card. Then complete the introduction card about yourself.
Information Card

Name: Monique Delande


Country: France
City: Paris
Nationality: French
Age: 28 years old
Married/Divorced/Single: Single
Information Card

Name: ______________ My name is ______________.


Country: ______________ I am from ______________.
City: ______________
Nationality: ______________ I'm ______________.
Age: ______________ I'm ______________ years old.
Married/Divorced/Single: ______________ I'm ______________.

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FOCUS 1: BE: AFFIRMATIVE STATEMENTS

subject verb be
Monique single.
She is from Paris. singular
Paris in France.
Fernando and Isabel Colombian.
are plural
They married.

Examples: Rodica is from Sibiu.


Isabel is twenty-four years old.
He is from the People’s Republic of China.
They are married.

EXERCISE 1.1
Fill in the blanks with is or are.
Example: The students are 19 years old.
1. Yumiko _______________ Japanese.
2. Rosa _______________ 35 years old.
3. The engineer _______________ Japanese.
4. Yumiko and Rosa _______________ 35.
5. The teacher _______________ Hispanic.

EXERCISE 1.2
Fill the blanks with the verb be or a name.
1. Rodica ______is_______ from Romania.
2. Isabel _______________ twenty-four years old.
3. _______________ is from the People's Republic of China.
4. Monique _______________ twenty-eight years old.
5. _______________ are married.
6. Chen _______________ twenty-five years old.
7. Rodica _______________ divorced.
8. Fernando and Isabel _______________ Colombian.
9. Monique _______________ from France.
10. Sibiu _______________ in Romania.

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EXERCISE 1.3
Read this information:
My name is Juan. I'm Julia. My name is Rosa. I'm Yumiko.
I'm from Mexico.I'm German. I'm Puerto Rican. I'm from Japan.
I am 19. I'm 19. I'm 35 years old.I'm 35.
I'm single. I'm single. I'm divorced. I'm married.
I'm a student. I'm a student. I am a teacher. I'm an engineer.
Now put these sentences in the correct order.
Example: are/Juan and Rosa/Hispanic. Juan and Rosa are Hispanic.
1. divorced/is/Rosa ______________________________
2. Yumiko/Japanese/is ______________________________
3. are/single/Juan and Julia ______________________________
4. 35/the engineer/is ______________________________
5. is/the German/a student ______________________________
6. from Puerto Rico/the teacher/is ______________________________
7. Juan and Julia/19 years old/are ______________________________
8. a student/is/the Mexican ______________________________
9. Asian/Yumiko/is ______________________________
10. are/single/the students ______________________________

EXERCISE 1.4
Fill in the blanks with is or are and the continents or regions.
Continents and Regions
Europe Africa The Caribbean
Central America North America South America
Asia The Middle East
1. Japan ______is_______ in _____Asia______.
2. The Dominican Republic _______________ in _______________.
3. Senegal and Nigeria _______________ in _______________.
4. Honduras and El Salvador _______________ in _______________.
5. Peru and Ecuador _______________ in _______________.
6. Bangladesh _______________ in _______________.
7. Israel _______________ in _______________.
8. Canada _______________ in _______________.
9. Italy and Greece _______________ in _______________.
Now write two sentences of your own.
10. _____________________________________________.
11. _____________________________________________.

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FOCUS 2: SUBJECT PRONOUNS WITH BE

subject pronoun verb be


I am single.
You are married.
He
She is Brazilian.
It
We
You are from Korea.
They

EXERCISE 1.5
Replace the noun phrase with a subject pronoun.
Example: Julia is German. She is a student.

1. Julia is from Europe. _______________ is German.


2. Juan and Julia are 19 years old. _______________ are single.
3. Rosa is from Puerto Rico. _______________ is a teacher.
4. The student is 19 years old. _______________ is Mexican.
5. Japan is a country. _______________ is in Asia.
6. My name is Yumiko. _______________ am Japanese.
7. You and I are from Asia. _______________ are Asians.
8. Mexico is a country. _______________ is in North America.
9. Juan is from Mexico. _______________ is single.
10. Rosa is a teacher. _______________ is divorced.

EXERCISE 1.6
The subject pronouns in the sentences below are not correct. Underline the incorrect pronouns
and write the correct sentences in the blanks.
1. Miyuki and Seung are from Asia. You are Asian. They are Asian.
2. John is thirty years old. She is from Cyprus. ____________
3. You and Hamid are Algerian. They are from Algiers. ____________
4. Port-au-Prince is in Haiti. She is the capital city. ____________
5. Clemente and I are from Rome. They are Italian. ____________
6. Pedro and Miguel are from Puebla. You are Mexican. ____________
7. Ayelet and Amir are from Tel Aviv. We are Israeli. ____________

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EXERCISE 1.7
Read the dialogues. Fill in the blanks with a subject pronoun.
Example: We are from the Dominican Republic.

1. A: _______________ are from Wellington.


B: _______________ are from New Zealand. How interesting!

2. A: _______________ is Finnish.
B: Yes, _______________ is from Helsinki.

3. A: _______________ are from Argentina.


B: I know. _______________ are students in our class.
4. A: _______________ is from Berlin.
B: Oh, _______________ is German.

5. A: _______________ are Nigerian.


B: _______________ are far from home!

6 A: _______________ am from Florence.


B: Oh, _______________ are Italian.

FOCUS 3: CONTRACTIONS WITH BE

subject pronoun + be be contractions


I am I’m
You are You’re
He is He’s
She is She’s
Romanian. from Romania.
It is It’s
We are We’re
You are You’re
They are They’re

EXERCISE 1.8
Think about the people and places in this unit. Match the people and places on the left with a
letter on the right. Use the name in the first statement and the subject pronoun and be contraction in the
second statement.
Example: Rodica is Romanian. She is divorced.

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1. Rodica a. in Colombia/the capital _______________________


2. Japan b. Colombian/married _______________________
3. Chen c. Romanian/divorced _______________________
4. Fernando and Isabel d. an Island/in the Caribbean _______________________
5. Monique e. Chinese/twenty-five years old _______________________
6. Moscow f. an island/in the Pacific Ocean _______________________
7. Bogotá g. in Russia/the capital _______________________
8. Haiti h. French/from Paris _______________________

EXERCISE 1.9
Rewrite the sentence using contractions (subject pronoun + be)
Example: Juan is Hispanic. He’s Hispanic.
1. Julia and Juan are single. ______________________________
2. Julia is a student. ______________________________
3. Rosa is from Puerto Rico. ______________________________
4. Yumiko is an engineer from Japan. ______________________________
5. Mexico and The United States are in North America. _________________________
6. My name is Julia. I am European. ______________________________
7. Julia and I are students. ______________________________
8. Julia and Rosa are single. ______________________________
9. Yumiko is 35 years old. ______________________________
10. Juan is a student from Mexico. ______________________________

EXERCISE 1.10
Draw a line from the famous people on the left to the country they come from on the right. Fill in
the nationality column on the right.
Example: Madonna is from the United States. She’s American.
Famous People Country Nationality
1. Madonna France 1. American----
2. Sophia Loren South Africa 2. _______________
3. Arnold Schwarzenegger The United States 3. _______________
4. The Rolling Stones Great Britain 4. _______________
5. Steffi Graf Austria 5. _______________
6. Michael Jordan Germany 6. _______________
7. Luciano Pavarotti Brazil 7. _______________
8. Catherine Deneuve Italy 8. _______________
9. Pele 9. _______________
10. Nelson Mandela 10. ______________

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FOCUS 4: INTRODUCTIONS AND GREETINGS

INTRODUCTIONS
examples explanations
Hello. My name’s Mario Ortiz. I’m from the
Philippines. Introducing yourself.
Hi! I’m Jennifer Brown. I’m from Florida. Please call
me Jenny.
Susan: Hello, John. This is Mario Ortiz. He’s from
the Philippines. Introducing another person.
John: Hi, Mario. Nice to meet you.
Mario: Nice to meet you too, John.
Jeff: Hi, my name is Jeff Jones. I’m from California.
What is your name?
Alicia: Alicia Torres. Meeting someone for the first time.
Jeff: Where are you from, Alicia?
Alicia: I’m from Chile.
Jeff: Oh, really? Nice to meet you.

GREETINGS

examples explanations
Ms. Chen: Good morning, Mr. Brown. Greetings can be formal or informal (very
Mr. Brown: Good morning, Ms. Chen. How are you friendly).
today? Formal
Ms. Chen: I’m fine, thank you. How are you?

Bill: Hello, John. How’s everything?


John: Fine, thanks, Bill. And how are you?

Jake: Hi, Yoshi. How are you doing?


Yoshi: O.K., Jake. How about you?
Jake: Not bad. Informal
Hello, Ms. Smith. Use a title (Mr., Ms., Ms., Dr., Professor) with a
NOT family name (last name), not with the full name,
*Hello, Ms. Susan Smith. not with the first name.
*Hello, Ms. Susan.

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EXERCISE 1.11
Fill in the blanks in the conversation.
Example: Susan: I’m Susan Wilson from New York.
My name is Jim. I’m from California.

1. Fred: Hello, I’m Fred.


Phillippe: _______________, Fred. _______________ Phillippe.
2. Lilik: Hi! I’m Lilik. _______________?
Demos: My name is Demos.
Lilik: _______________ ?
Demos: Greece. _______________?
Lilik: I’m from Indonesia.
3. Michael: Hi, Gregg. _______________ Jane?
Gregg: Hello, Jane. _______________?
Jane: Fine, thanks. _______________?
Gregg: Great!

EXERCISE 1.12

Asking personal questions


Here are some advertisements from the newspaper. Match the questions below to the correct
advertisers (1 – 4)
A. Are you single? Are you lonely? Are you ready to meet someone?
Call 1-800-555-LOVE
B. Is English hard for you? Are verbs difficult? Are you unhappy about your pronunciation?
Enroll now! Call 555-4433
C. Are you sad? Are you nervous? Are you worried?
Call 555-HELP
D. Are you overweight? Are you out of shape? Is your body weak?
Call now! 555-SLIM
1. Dr. Friend, Psychiatrist _______
2. The Lonely Hearts Dating Service _______
3. New Body Health Club _______
4. The Cool School of English _______

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FOCUS 5: BE: YES/NO QUESTIONS AND SHORT ANSWERS

yes/no questions short answers


affirmative negative contractions
Am I overweight? you are. you are not.
you’re not.
Are you nervous? I am. I’m not.
Is he/she lonely? he/she is. he/she is not.
Is English difficult? it is. it isn’t.
it’s not.
Yes, No,
Are we out of shape? you are. you aren’t.
you’re not.
Are you single? we are. we aren’t.
we’re not.
Are verbs difficult? they are. they aren’t.
they’re not.

EXERCISE 1.13

Read the conversations. Fill in the blanks with yes/no questions or short answers.
1. A: Hello, this is the New Body Health Club.
B: Hello. _______________ you open on Sunday?
A: Yes, _______________. We’re open from seven in the morning until ten at night.
2. Mitch: Hello, my name is Mitch Brown. _______________ you Karen Jones?
Karen: Yes, _______________.
Mitch: I got your telephone number from the Lonely Hearts Dating Service. How are you,
Karen?
Karen: Fine, thanks. And you?
Mitch: Not bad, thanks. _______________ free tonight?
Karen: No, I’m sorry, _______________. How about tomorrow?
Mitch: Great!
3. A: Hello, is this Dr. Friend’s office?
B: Yes, _______________.
A: _______________ Dr. Friend busy? I need to speak to him.
B: Just a minute, please.

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EXERCISE 1.14

Fill in the blanks below. Then choose the correct answer to the puzzle.
Guess the Place Guess Who I Am
(1) _______________ this place in Europe? Am I female?
Yes, it (2) _______________. No, (12)_______________ aren’t.
Is (3) _______________ in Switzerland? Am (13) _______________ an actor?
Not, it (4) _______________. (14) _______________, you aren’t.
(5) _______________ it in France? (15) _______________ I a singer?
(6) _______________, it is. No, you (16)_______________.
(7) _______________ it a museum? Am (17) _______________ an athlete?
Yes, (8) _______________ is. (18) _______________ you are.
Is it (9) _______________ Paris? Am I (19) _______________ soccer player?
Yes, it (10) _______________. Yes, you (20) _______________.
Is it (11) _______________? (21) _______________ I from Brazil?
Yes, you are.
Am I (22) _______________?

(the Hermitage?, the Louvre?) (Pele?, Shaq?)

Guess the Famous People


Are (23) _______________ from the U.S?
No, (24) _______________ not.
(25) _______________ we from Great Britain?
Yes, (26) _______________ are.
Are (27) _______________ part of the royal family?
(28) _______________, you are.
Are we (29) _______________.

(Charles and Diana?, Romeo and Juliet?)

FOCUS 6: BE + ADJECTIVE

examples explanations
Dr. Friend is busy. An adjective describes a person, place, or thing.
The health club is open. Adjectives can come after the verb be.
Verbs are difficult.
They are excellent. Do not put “s” and the adjective when the subject
NOT is plural (more than one).
*They are excellents.
Very makes the adjective stronger. Very comes
The classes are very good. before an adjective.

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EXERCISE 1.15
Mark Heller is single and lonely. He wants a girlfriend. He puts this advertisement in the
newspaper. Fill in the blanks with am or are. Use contractions where possible.
(1) __I’m__________ 28 years old. (2) I _______________ 1.78 tall. (3) I _______________
single. (4) I _______________ handsome and athletic. (5) I _______________ romantic. (6) I
_______________ (negative) shy. (7) _______________ you under 30? (8) _______________ you
tall? (9) _______________ you outgoing? (10) _______________ ready for marriage? Then call me:
(0720) 555-7954

EXERCISE 1.16
Write five sentences describing yourself. Use the list of adjectives to help you.
busy excellent sick healthy ugly young
angry energetic funny overweight strong tall
happy beautiful poor serious weak sad
thin messy rich intelligent loud noisy
athletic frightened shy outgoing quiet tired
organized interesting short talkative neat calm
nervous homesick handsome friendly lonely old
Example: I am outgoing.
1. ____________________________________________________________
2. ____________________________________________________________
3. ____________________________________________________________
4. ____________________________________________________________
5. ____________________________________________________________
Using the same list, write five sentences about your family.

Example: My parents are happy.


1. ____________________________________________________________
2. ____________________________________________________________
3. ____________________________________________________________
4. ____________________________________________________________
5. ____________________________________________________________
Using the same list, write five sentences about someone else you know.
Example: My room mate is athletic.
1. ____________________________________________________________
2. ____________________________________________________________
3. ____________________________________________________________
4. ____________________________________________________________
5. ____________________________________________________________

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EXERCISE 1.17

Write a complete sentence describing the following nouns. Use an adjective before each noun.
Example: your favorite sport: Soccer is an exciting sport.
1. your favorite sport: ________________________________________
2. your favorite type of music: ________________________________________
3. your favorite dessert: ________________________________________
4. your friend: ________________________________________
5. your favorite book: ________________________________________
6. your job: ________________________________________
7. your boss: ________________________________________
8. your country: ________________________________________

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READING DIGEST 2: IT’S ALL IN THE MIND

EXERCISE 2.1

You are going to read an article about the brain and intelligence. Before you read, answer the
following questions.
1. What is 'intelligence'?

2. Is an 'intelligent' person someone who:


• is good at passing exams? • deals with people well?
• is imaginative? • is sensible?
• gets what she/he wants in life? • reads a lot?
• understands new ideas quickly? • is good at crosswords?
• has a good memory?

EXERCISE 2.2

The following words all appear in the article. Match each one with its correct definition on the
right.
1. brain a) a natural form of sugar found in fruit
2. myth b) the bone of your head which encloses your brain
3. IQ c) a measure of how clever someone is
4. skull d) a tool with a narrow blade at one end, used to put screws into
something or remove them
5. addicted e) the organ in the top part of your head which controls thought,
feeling and physical activity
6. glucose f) instructions for cooking a particular dish
7. screwdriver g) a false story which many people may believe
8. mental h) unable to stop taking or using something
9. recipe i) concerned with the brain or thinking

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EXERCISE 2.3
Read the article quickly and decide which one of the following subjects it does not refer to:
a) improving your brain power b) men and women
c) psychological illness d) brain weight
e) old age f) the physical needs of the brain
THE MIND MACHINE
(0 __E___)
Although intelligence has been studied, and the brain has been studied, there is little
understanding of how the brain works to produce intelligence. This has something to do with the fact
that the brain contains around 100 billion cells (about the number of stars in the Milky Way).

(1 __________)
One of the continuing myths about the relationship between intelligence and the brain is that the
brains of very clever people are somehow physically different from those of ordinary people. At the
beginning of the century an American scientist called E.A Spitzka produced a list of the weights of the
brains of important, well-known men. The heaviest brain on the list was that of Turgenev, the Russian
novelist, at 2000 grams. However, the brain of another great genius, Walt Whitman, weighed only 1282
grams.

(2 __________)
There are no significant differences between the intelligence levels of males and females.
However, girls under seven score a little higher than boys in IQ tests and the highest IQ recorded is that
of Marylin von Savant at 230. However, men and women do differ in the way they think. Generally,
women are more skilled verbally and men do better on visual-spatial tasks.
Interestingly, the fibres which join the two halves of the brain have been found to be larger in
women than in men. This supports the theory that women can change from ‘practical’ to ‘emotional’
thinking more quickly than men.

(3 __________)
People with mental problems have often been treated extremely badly. Two hundred years ago,
the mentally ill were swung around in revolving chairs, or holes were drilled in their skulls to release evil
spirits. From the 1930s, the mentally ill were subjected to electric shock therapy and lobotomy - the
removal of part of their brain. In the 1960s and 70s, thousands of people were given drugs to cope with
anxiety and then became addicted to them.

(4 __________)
The brain needs ten times as much blood as other organs of the body, as it can't store glucose
for later use. This is different to muscles and other organs and although the adult brain makes up only
two per cent of the body weight, its oxygen consumption is twenty per cent of the body's total.

(5 __________)
There are similarities between brains and computers. Computers can do complicated
calculations at incredible speeds. But they work in a fixed way, because they can't make memory
associations. If we need a screwdriver and there isn't one, we will think laterally and use a knife or coin
instead. Computers can't do this. In fact, it is claimed that when it comes to seeing, moving and reacting
to stimuli, no computer can compete with even the brain power of a fly.

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(6 __________)
Most of our mental processes are deeply formed habits. Challenging your brain to do things
differently helps it develop. Try changing routines as often as you can: take a bus instead of going by
car, sit in a different chair. An extreme but useful exercise is to read something upside down - you can
actually feel your brain at work.
Exercise more. Good health and fitness levels give you overall improved energy which leads to
better concentration.
Cooking is a good all-round mental exercise. It needs mathematical, organisational and
scientific skills as well as challenging memory and creative ability. Use recipes at first and then learn to
guess amounts, combinations, reactions of ingredients and timing.
Do puzzles and play games. Teach yourself to work out codes and expand your vocabulary at
the same time.

EXERCISE 2.4

Read the article again and choose the most suitable heading from the list below for each
numbered part of the article. The first one has been done for you.
A. A horrifying history B. Bloodthirsty
C. Is bigger better? D. Make your brain work
E. How much do we know? F. The battle of the sexes
G. The super computer

EXERCISE 2.5
Make a note of two things you did not know before reading the article which you found interesting.

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GRAMMAR DIGEST 2:
BE: NEGATIVE STATEMENTS AND CONTRACTIONS
WH-QUESTIONS; IT

FOCUS 1: BE: NEGATIVE STATEMENTS AND CONTRACTIONS

negative statement contraction of contraction of


subject + be be + not
I am not shy. I’m not shy.
You are not old. You’re not old. You aren’t old.
He He’s He
She is not ready. She’s not ready. She isn’t ready
It It’s It
We We’re We
You are not nervous. You’re not nervous. You aren’t nervous.
They They’re They
Note: The contraction of be followed by not (he’s not) makes a negative statement stranger
than a negative contraction (he isn’t).

EXERCISE 2.1
Complete each dialogue with an affirmative or a negative statement and an adjective from the
list below.

Adjectives:
delicious smart ugly beautiful selfish mean

1. Ann: I’m short. I (a) _______________ fat. I (b) _______________ ugly.


Marilyn: No, you (c) _______________. You (d) _______________, Ann!
2. Woman: This dinner is terrible! I’m sorry.
Guest: No, it (a) _______________. It’s (b) _______________!
3. Mike: Sam, I (a) _______________ nervous about this test. I (b) _______________ stupid, Sam!
Sam: No, you (c) _______________.
Mike: You (d) _______________! Your average is 98!
4. Sally: You know, Jill, I’m in love with Jack. He (a) _______________ kind and generous.
Jill: Kind and generous??? No, he (b) _______________. He _______________.
5. Salesperson: That dress is perfect is you.
Customer: Perfect? Oh no, it (a) _______________. It (b) _______________.

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EXERCISE 2.2

Using the same list of adjectives as in exercise 1.15, write five negative statements about
yourself.
Example: I’m not organized.

1. ____________________________________________________________
2. ____________________________________________________________
3. ____________________________________________________________
4. ____________________________________________________________
5. ____________________________________________________________

EXERCISE 2.3

Using the same list of adjectives, write five negative statements about people you know. Two
of these sentences should be about two or more people.
Example: Maria and Paul aren’t talkative.

1. ____________________________________________________________
2. ____________________________________________________________
3. ____________________________________________________________
4. ____________________________________________________________
5. ____________________________________________________________

EXERCISE 2.4

Write your own personal advertisement for the newspaper or write one for a friend who is
single.
Example: My name is ________.

I’m (2) _______________. (nationality)


I’m (3) _______________ years old.
I’m (4) _______________. (adjective)
I’m (5) _______________. (adjective)
And I’m (6) _______________. (adjective)
Are you (7) _______________? (adjective)
Are you (8) _______________? (adjective)
PLEASE CALL ME!

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EXERCISE 2.5
Wh-questions words with be
Test your world knowledge: Match the questions with the answers.
questions answers
1. What’s the Amazon? a. the Pope
2. Where is the Kremlin? b. It’s a river.
3. Who is the head of the Catholic Church? c. It’s 12:00 noon.
4. How is the weather in Argentina in June? d. About 4,700 years old
5. Where are the Himalayas? e. In Moscow.
6. When is Thanksgiving in the United States? f. It’s cold.
7. It’s 9 a.m. in California. What time is it in New g. North America, South America, Africa,
York? Asia, Australia, Europe, and Antarctica.
8. How old are the Pyramids in Egypt? h. Because it is Independence Day.
9. What are the names of the seven continents? i. The last Thursday in November.
10. Why is July 4th special in the United States? j. In India, Nepal and Tibet.

FOCUS 2: WH-QUESTIONS WORDS WITH BE

Wh- question words are: what, where, who, when, how, what time, how old, and why. Use Wh-
questions words to ask for specific information.
question word
be subject answer meaning
What is the Amazon? a river THING
‘s
Where are the Himalayas? in India, Nepal, or PLACE
Tibet
Who is the head of the Catholic the Pope PEOPLE
‘s Church?
How is the weather in Argentina It’s cold. CONDITIONS
‘s in June?
When is Thanksgiving in the the last Thursday in TIME
‘s United States? November
What time is it in New York? It’s 12:00. TIME ON A CLOCK
How old are the Pyramids in Egypt? about 4,700 years old AGE
Why is July 4th special in the because it is REASON
‘s United States? Independence Day

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EXERCISE 2.6

Fill in the blanks with one of these wh-question words: what, where, how, how old, what time,
and why.
questions answers
1. How old is the Great Wall of China? About 2,200 years old
2. _______________ are the authors of this Anca Cehan and Stefan Colibaba
coursebook?
3. _______________ Morocco? In Africa
4. _______________ is the weather in the summer It’s hot.
in Washington, D.C.?
5. _______________ is the capital of Belgium? Brussels
6. _______________ is the first day of summer? June 21st
7. It’s 10 a.m. in Boston. _______________ is it It’s 4:00 p.m.
Paris?
8. _______________ is Independence Day in July 14th
France?
9. _______________ are you in this class? To learn English.
10. _______________ are the Nile and the Rivers
Mississippi?

EXERCISE 2.7

Match the question in Column A to the answer in Column B. Write the letter in the blank on the
left.
A B
__d___ 1. What’s your name? a. October 17th.
______ 2. Where are you from? b. I’m Turkish.
______ 3. Where is Istanbul? c. To study English.
______ 4. What’s your nationality? d. Mehmet.
______ 5. How old are you? e. It’s in Turkey.
______ 6. When’s your birthday? f. Twenty-five.
______ 7. Why are you here? g. Fine, thanks.
______ 8. How are you? h. Istanbul.

EXERCISE 2.8

Write questions with wh-question words for these answers.


1. What time is it?______________________________
It’s 10:15 right now.

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2. _____________________________________________
It’s Monday.
3. _____________________________________________
My name is Berta.
4. _____________________________________________
I’m twenty-five years old.
5. _____________________________________________
My birthday is on July 15th.
6. _____________________________________________
I’m Mexican.
7. _____________________________________________
My hometown is Mexico City.
8. _____________________________________________
My family is in Mexico City.
9. _____________________________________________
The weather in Mexico City is hot.
10. _____________________________________________
I am here to study English.

EXERCISE 2.9

Complete the story with the correct Wh-question word and the correct form of be. The first one
has been done for you as an example.

Monte: Welcome to The 64-Cent Question, the game show where we ask easy questions and the
contestants can win up to 64 cents. I’m your host, Monte Money, and our two contestants
tonight are Feliz Happy and Sandy Beach. How are you tonight, Feliz?
Feliz: I’m just happy to be here, Monte.
Monte: Great, and (1) _______________ you, Sandy?
Sandy: Fine, thank you, Monte.
Monte: Great, now let’s begin tonight’s game. The first question is for you, Feliz. (2)
_______________ the capital of the United States?
Feliz: Washington, D.C.
Monte: Right! Now, for you, Sandy, (3) _______________ the director of the movie E.T.?
Sandy: Steven Spielberg.
Monte: Great! Now Feliz, (4) _______________ plants green?
Feliz: Because they contain chlorophyll.
Monte: You’ve got it. Sandy, (5) _______________ old _______________ the Great Pyramids in
Egypt?
Sandy: About 4,700 years old.
Monte: Correct! Feliz, (6) _______________ the first day of spring?

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Feliz: March 21st.


Monte: Right again! Now, Sandy, (7) _______________ Leonardo da Vinci’s painting, the Mona
Lisa?
Sandy: In the Louvre in Paris.
Monte: Yes! For you, Feliz, (8) _______________ 7 x 8?
Feliz: 56.
Monte: You’re right again. Sandy, (9) _______________ the author of Tom Sawyer?
Sandy: Mark Twain.
Monte: Feliz, (10) _______________ the statue of Liberty located?
Feliz: In New York.
Monte: Finally, for you Sandy, the last question. (11) _______________ Thanksgiving celebrated in
the United States?
Sandy: On the third Thursday in November.
Monte: Amazing, folks! We have a tie! Well, tune in next week for The 64-Cent Question.

FOCUS 3: USING IT TO TALK ABOUT THE WEATHER

questions answers
How’s the weather in New York? It’s sunny summer.
It’s hot
It’s cold winter.
It’s snowy
in the
It’s cloudy spring.
It’s rainy
It’s windy fall.
It’s cool
What’s the temperature today? It’s 25 degrees Celsius.

FOCUS 4: USING IT TO TALK ABOUT TIME

What time is it?


3:00 It’s three o’clock.
It’s three.
3:05 It’s five after three.
3:15 It’s three-fifteen.
It’s a quarter past three.
It’s a quarter after three.
3:30 It’s three-thirty.
It’s half past three.
3:45 It’s three forty-five.
It’s a quarter to four.

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3:50 It’s three-fifty.


It’s ten to four.
12:00 It’s twelve o’clock.
It’s noon.
It’s midnight.

TUTOR-ASSESSED TASK

Choose the one word or phrase that best completes the sentence.

1. The students _______________ from Mexico.


(A) and (B) be
(C) are (D) is
2. When _______________?
(A) time is it (B) is your vacation
(C) in Canada (D) old are you
3. _______________ is married.
(A) They (B) It
(C) We (D) She
4. _______________ students in level 1.
(A) She is (B) It is
(C) They are (D) I am
5. _______________? It means very big.
(A) What means huge (B) What is the spelling of huge
(C) What is the meaning of huge (D) What is the pronunciation of huge
6. _______________ shy and athletic.
(A) She’s (B) It isn’t
(C) Am (D) It’s

7. The student _______________ Japanese.


(A) is (B) am
(C) be (D) she
8. _______________ an English teacher.
(A) They are (B) I’m
(C) They’re (D) To be

9. _______________ Montreal? _______________ in Quebec.


(A) Where is … It’s (B) Where be… It is
(C) Where is… Is (D) Where is … It’s

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10. Dr. Martin is _______________.


(A) opens (B) busy
(C) school (D) yes
11. You _______________ short.
(A) it’s (B) am
(C) no (D) aren’t

12. _______________? I’m 35.


(A) How age are you (B) How are you
(C) How old you are (D) How old are you
13. _______________ am not short.
(A) I (B) We’re
(C) She (D) I’m
14. A: Hi! I’m Anne Parker.
B: _______________.
(A) Nice to you meet, Ms. Parker (B) Nice to meet you, Ms. Parker
(C) Is nice, Anne (D) Nice to meet you, Anne

Identify the one underlined word or phrase that must be changes in order for the sentence to be
grammatically correct.

15. Is it cold? What’s the temperature today? It has 30 degrees.


A B C D
16. Is Jose from China? No, Jose’s no from China.
A B C D
17. Tense I am? Yes, you are; try to relax.
A B C D
18. Who is your teacher? Ms. Betty is my teacher.
A B C D
19. How are those problems? He isn’t difficult.
A B C D
20. Are you single? Yes, I’m.
A B C D
21. Is it raining? No, is not. It’s sunny.
A B C D
22. What time it is? It’s three o’clock Central time.
A B C D
23. How’s the weather today? Is cool and rainy.
A B C D
24. When are you wet? I’m wet because of the rain.
A B C D

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READING DIGEST 3: THE PRICE OF FAME

EXERCISE 3.1
Answer the following questions:
1. Who is your favourite actress/actor?
2. Why do you like her/him?

EXERCISE 3.2
Read the following text and make a note of one thing that you did not know which surprises you.
SUPER-BRATS
In the 1990s Macaulay Culkin was undisputed king of the Hollywood super-brats, the cute kids
who were making a fortune at the box office. He played Nintendo games with Michael Jackson and
dated a supermodel. 'Mack' as he is known to his friends, helped 20th Century Fox take an incredible
$507 million for Home Alone, which went on to become one of the biggest grossing films of all time.
Culkin played Kevin McCallister, the angelic child who's mistakenly left behind by his parents when they
go off to Europe for Christmas. Both hands clapped to his cheeks, eyes and mouth wide with fright,
Mack's signature 'Aaaaaaaaaahhhh!' scream face was copied by children across the world months after
the movie had left town. Writer/producer John Hughes says, 'Kids really liked it because Kevin was like
them. He didn't have superhuman powers. He foiled the burglars with plain old stuff from around the
house.'
Macaulay's personal fortune is now valued at around $lm for every year he's spent on earth, but
... 'I'm just like every other kid,' claims Mack. 'When I'm not doing movies I go out with my friends and do
things any normal kid would do: go to a video arcade or go get pizza. I don't get an allowance, but
whenever I need money I go, "Mom, Mom, can I get ten bucks for pizza?" She goes, "Sure, sure, sure.",
but it's not always "Sure, sure, sure." I have chores, I wake up every day at seven. Then I try to wake up
for half an hour. Then I walk the dog for twenty minutes, that's my favourite. I miss my family when I'm
away filming. My younger brothers and sisters love Home Alone, but I don't think they realise I'm in it.'
However, as LA-based psychologist Dan Rosenthal points out, 'Showbiz children are under an
incredible amount of pressure to achieve. First off there's the auditions. Parents push their kids into
attending way too many of them, often when they should be in school or doing their homework or
playing baseball or whatever.'
Rosenthal claims he has often seen children pushed to nervous breakdowns by starstruck
parents. 'The most disturbing aspect of all this is when parents make a child feet inadequate when they
fail to get parts. Kids can't cope.' He also describes how plastic surgery is becoming increasingly
common among pre-teens. 'Foolish parents or unscrupulous casting agents believe that if only little

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Mary had a nose job, she could have any part she wanted. The long-term psychological effects show
that it's simply not worth it. In fact, I often advise child clients to choose a nice risk-free career like
insurance instead.'

EXERCISE 3.3

Now read the text again and choose the correct alternative for each question.
1. In Home Alone Macaulay Culkin plays a child who
A. goes to Europe on holiday with his parents.
B. is deliberately deserted by his parents.
C. has nightmares.
D. finds himself on his own by chance.
2. John Hughes thinks children liked the film because the main character
A. was just a typical everyday kid. C. got on well with burglars.
B. wasn't very clever. D. was very strong.
3. Macaulay Culkin
A. earns $1m a year. C. earns $1m a film.
B. has over $5m. D. has under $5m.
4. When he needs money, Macaulay Culkin just asks his mother and
A. she gives him what he wants.
B. she gives him what he wants as long as it is for food.
C. she gives him what he wants if he does some work around the house.
D. she may or may not give him what he wants.
5. Psychologist Dan Rosenthal thinks
A. showbiz children are generally too ambitious.
B. the children's fame has a bad effect on their relationships with their parents.
C. the children's parents are often largely to blame for the children's problems.
D. parents feel inadequate if their children don't do well.
6. Rosenthal thinks plastic surgery
A. should be avoided by everyone.
B. can help children get parts, but that it's not worth the expense.
C. is a waste of time for showbiz children.
D. is not only a waste of time, but will also have a bad effect on the children in later life.
7. unscrupulous in the last paragraph means
A. not hard-working.
B. not caring about honesty or fairness.
C. not interested in financial gain.
D. not patient.
8. it in the last but one line of the text refers to
A. a nose job. C. a part in a film.
B. a psychological effect. D. life in general.

VOCABULARY
ENTERTAINMENT

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EXERCISE 3.4

Fill in the gaps in the following sentences with any appropriate word. You have been given the
first part of each word and the number of letters.
1. I like sitting in the front r - - in the cinema because I like to be really near the scr - - -.
2. The best sc - - - in the film is where she escapes.
3. He is a great dir - - - - - and really inspires his act - - -.
4. In general the pl - - was quite original, but the en - - - - was terrible. Everyone got married and they
all lived happily ever after!
5. It's the first Shakespeare pl - - I have seen in the th - - - - -.
6. My aud - - - - - went very well. They gave me the pa - -. Reh - - - - - - - start on Monday. It's all very
exciting!
7. The first per - - - - - - - - is in eight weeks' time.
8. Some of the cri - - - - from the top newspapers were there. I hope the rev - - - - will be good. They
should be. The aud - - - - - app - - - - - - for ages.
9. We went to a wonderful con - - - - last night. It was a new sym - - - - - by that Russian
com - - - - -. He actually con - - - - - - the orc - - - - - - himself.
10. They are my favourite pop gr - - -. I've got their last album on cass - - - -. I really like the lead sin - - -
and the bass guit - - - - - in particular.

TUTOR-ASSESSED TASK

Answer the following questions in writing:


1. What feelings do you have about Macaulay Culkin - envy/admiration/pity/irritation? Do you think he
is 'just like every other kid'?

2. What problems do you think that being a child star can cause the individuals concerned?

3. Do you think it is right that individual film/pop/sports stars can earn so much money?

4. Describe the last film/concert/opera/play that you went to. What was it like? Did you enjoy it?
Why?/Why not?
You will send this task to your tutor for assessment.

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GRAMMAR DIGEST 3:
NOUNS; COUNT AND NONCOUNT NOUNS; BE + ADJECTIVE + NOUN

EXERCISE 3.1
Categories
Write each word in the box in one of the three circles below.
milk dresses cash
dollars bread a shoe
a shirt cents an egg

Category
1. Food 2. Clothing 3. Money
_______________ _______________ _______________
_______________ _______________ _______________
_______________ _______________ _______________

EXERCISE 3.2

Look at the same words in different groups. What are the categories? Write a name for each
category.
Category
1. ________ 2. ________ 3. ________
a shirt dollars milk
a shoe cents bread
an egg dresses cash

FOCUS 1: THINGS WE COUNT AND THINGS WE DON'T COUNT

We can see things as whole or as things we can count. We use noncount nouns like money or
cash when we see a thing as whole. We use count noun like coins when we refer to things we can
count.

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Examples explanations
Count nouns Things we can count
SINGULAR PLURAL Count nouns take a/an in the singular. They take –s or
a dress dresses -es in the plural.
an egg eggs
Noncount nouns Things we don’t count
money Noncount nouns have one form. They are not singular
cash or plural.
clothing

EXERCISE 3.3
Check () count or noncount.

count noun noncount noun


food 
milk
egg
bread
clothing
dresses
shirt
shoe
money
dollars
cents
cash

EXERCISE 3.4

Grandma’s shopping list

Butcher Produce Stand


pork chops potatoes
steak strawberries
hamburger carrots
chicken onions
apple cider
broccoli
green beans
Dairy Bakery
milk brownies
butter rolls
ice cream doughnuts

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Classify the foods on the shopping list as count or noncount nouns. The first one has been
done for you as an example.

Count nouns Noncount nouns


1. pork chops 1. _______________
2. _______________ 2. _______________
3. _______________ 3. _______________
4. _______________ 4. _______________
5. _______________ 5. _______________
6. _______________ 6. _______________
7. _______________ 7. _______________
8. _______________
9. _______________
10. _______________

FOCUS 2: A/AN WITH SINGULAR COUNT NOUNS

a an
a house an orange
a movie an egg
a uniform* an hour*
Use a before a word beginning with a Use an before a word beginning with a vowel [a,
consonant or a consonant sound. e, i, o, u] or a vowel sound;
*uniform begins with a semi-consonant sound as in *hour begins with a silent “h”.
you.

EXERCISE 3.5

List the words below under the correct categories.

earring bed watch necklace


dormitory table apple desk
orange apartment ring house
armchair banana pear hotel

Fruit Furniture Jewellery Housing


_an orange__ _______________ _______________ _______________
_______________ _______________ _______________ _______________
_______________ _______________ _______________ _______________
_______________ _______________ _______________ _______________

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EXERCISE 3.6
List all the words below in the correct categories. Write a or an in front of the words.
tie month potato blouse helicopter
day carrot airplane radish undershirt
pea sweater truck sock automobile
herb year week train hour
Clothes Transportation Vegetables Time
1. ________ 1. ________ 1. ________ 1. ________
2. ________ 2. ________ 2. ________ 2. ________
3. ________ 3. ________ 3. ________ 3. ________
4. ________ 4. ________ 4. ________ 4. ________
5. ________ 5. ________ 5. ________ 5. ________

FOCUS 3: SPELLING OF REGULAR PLURAL COUNT NOUNS

singular plural explanations


a car two cars To make the plural form of most count nouns,
a book three books add –s.
a boy four boys Nouns that end in: vowel + -y, vowel + -o
a radio two radios Plural form: add –s.
a class two classes Nouns that end in: -ss, -ch, -sh, -x
a sandwich two sandwiches
a dish two dishes
a box three boxes Plural form: add –s.
a potato six potatoes Nouns that end in: consonant + o
a tomato four tomatoes Plural form: add –es.
a baby babies Nouns that end in: consonant + y
a city cities Plural form: change -y to -i, add –es.
a thief two thieves Nouns that end in: -f or -fe
a life three lives Plural form: change -f to -v, add –es.
Exceptions:
chief – chiefs
chef – chefs

EXERCISE 3.7

Write the plural form of the words below.


1. party ________ 7. wife ________
2. shoe ________ 8. watch ________
3. fox ________ 9. leaf ________
4. dictionary ________ 10. lady ________
5. week ________ 11. month ________
6. glass ________ 12. key ________

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EXERCISE 3.8

Complete the sentences with the plural of one of the nouns below.

city story holiday university state


mountain country continent company ocean

1. Thanksgiving and Christmas are __holidays___.


2. The Atlantis and the Pacific are _______________.
3. Africa and Asia are _______________.
4. Harvard and Yale are _______________.
5. IBM and Sony are _______________.
6. “Cinderella” and “Beauty and the Beast” are _______________.
7. The Alps are _______________.
8. Colombia and Venezuela are _______________ in South America.
9. Colorado and Vermont are _______________ in the United States.
10. Vienna and Oslo are two _______________ in Europe.

EXERCISE 3.9
Complete the story with a plural form of the words below. The first one has been done for you.
house class monster ax
princess party country hero
girl witch baby knife
cat boy treat orange
fairy door candy trick
toy wish holiday story

Halloween in the United States


It is interesting to know about holidays in (1) _______________. Halloween is celebrated on
October 31 in the United States. Small children and even (2) _______________ wear costumes. Some
children like frightening costumes. They dress like (3) _____________ and (4) _______________. The
scary costumes can include plastic (5) _______________ and (6) ____________ with fake blood, but
they don’t really hurt anyone. Some (7) ___________ dress like Superman and Batman and other (8)
_______________. (9) _______________ that give people (10) ____________ or Cinderella, Sleeping
Beauty, and other (13) ___________. Still other children dress like (14) _______________ and other
animals. In the afternoon the children have (15) _______________ in their (16) _______________ at
school. When it gets dark, the children knock on the (17) _______________ of all the (18)
_______________ in their neighbourhood. The people in the houses give the children (19)
_______________ like (20) _______________, (21) _______________ and other fruit, and small (22)
___________. If they don’t receive treats, some children play (23) _______________.

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FOCUS 4: REGULAR PLURAL NOUNS: PRONUNCIATION OF FINAL –S, AND –ES

Examples explanations
books, students, groups /s/
months, desks, cats Final –s is pronounced /s/ after voiceless sounds.*
beds, rooms, lives /z/
years, days, dogs Final –s is pronounces /z/ after voiced sounds.**
classes, faces /iz/
exercises, sizes Final –es is pronounced /iz/ after
dishes, wishes “s” sounds
sandwiches, watches “z” sounds
colleges, pages “sh” sounds
“ch” sounds
“ge/dge” sounds
This adds an extra syllable to the noun.
*Voiceless sounds: /p/t/f/k/th/.
**Voiced sounds: /b/d/g/v/m/n/l/r/ and vowels.

EXERCISE 3.10
Make the words below plural. Then, write each word in the correct pronunciation group.
 book radio dress house ticket rule
thing horse head list bus cup
car train boat church peach hat
/s/ /z/ /iz/
____books______ _______________ _______________
_______________ _______________ _______________
_______________ _______________ _______________
_______________ _______________ _______________
_______________ _______________ _______________
_______________ _______________ _______________

EXERCISE 3.11
Rhymes
Make the nouns in italics plural.
1. On Education
Word___, sentence___, exercise___, rule___,
Dictionary___, textbook___, page___, school___,
Classroom___, teacher___, student___, – all jewel___
Of education, these are the tool___.

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2. On Age
Day___, week___, month___, year___.
Getting old? Please, no tear___!!!

3. On Imports
The shoe___ are Brazilian,
The glove___ are Italian,
The chef___ are from France,
from South America – the salsa dance,
The toy___ are Chinese,
The camera___ are Japanese:
Tell me, what’s Romanian, please?

FOCUS 5: IRREGULAR PLURAL NOUNS

examples explanations
child children Some nouns change spelling in the plural.
man men
woman women
foot feet
tooth teeth
mouse mice
a deer two deer Some nouns do not change in the plural.
a sheep three sheep
a fish four fish
scissors shorts Some nouns are always plural. They have no
pajamas clothes singular form.
glasses pants

EXERCISE 3.12
Fill in the blanks with an irregular plural noun.
1. Big Bird is eight ___feet_______ tall.
2. Mickey Mouse and Minnie are famous _______________.
3. Actresses are _______________ and actors are _______________.
4. Bambi is a movie about _______________.
5. Famous _______________ in Hollywood are rich.
6. Bugs Bunny has two big front _______________.
7. Sesame Street is a television show for _______________.
8. _______________ of all ages like Disney movies.

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EXERCISE 3.13
Write the irregular plural form of each of the following nouns in the correct category. Use a
dictionary to look up words you do not know how to spell. The first one has been done for you as an
example.
child deer fish foot goose sheep
man woman mouse ox person tooth
moose
Humans Animals Body parts
_______________ _______________ _______________
_______________ _______________ _______________
_______________ _______________ _______________
_______________ _______________ _______________
_______________ _______________ _______________
_______________ _______________ _______________

FOCUS 6: COUNT NOUNS AND NONCOUNT NOUNS

count nouns nouncount nouns


Can take a/an or one in the singular. Cannot take a/an or one in the singular.
It’s a job. It’s work.
My vacation is for one week.
Can take –s or –es in the plural. Cannot take –s or –es.
They are earrings. It’s jewelry.
They’re watches.
Can take a singular or plural verb. Always takes a singular verb.
It is a table. Furniture is expensive.
They are chairs.

Some common noncount nouns

food bread rice sugar milk


fruit cheese fish salt water
coffee clothing milk traffic transportation
hair advice jewelry money furniture
love homework help crime news
work mail information luck electricity
music tea luggage garbage pollution

EXERCISE 3.14

Check () count or noncount for each underlined noun.

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count noncount
1. Money is important.
2. A dollar is useful
3. Grammar exercises are fun.
4. Homework is interesting.
5. Fruit is healthy.
6. Apples are my favourite fruit.
7. Here is my suitcase.
8. Good luggage is expensive.
9. Mail from home is important for an international student.
10. Stamps are cheap.

EXERCISE 3.15
Circle the mistakes in the following paragraphs. Correct the mistakes and rewrite the
paragraphs correctly. The first sentence has been done for you as an example.
Informations are easier to get with today’s new technology. A news is transmitted around the
world by TV satellites. Computers also make informations easier to get. Computers can help a person
do his homeworks. Computer networks allow people to tell some news and give some advices. With
computer mails, a person can send a message with an electricity and a phone line.
____________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
There is a new kind of store in the United States now. Superstores are a combination of
supermarkets and discount stores. Superstores have everything form foods to furnitures. At a
superstore you can buy beverages like a coffee, a tea, or a milk. In the same store you can buy
jewelries, clothings, musics and luggages. You can also buy things like a bread, a rice, a sugar, or a
fruit. You should bring lots of monies with you when you go to a superstore because there is a lot to buy.
But, one thing you can’t buy at a superstore is the love.
____________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________

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FOCUS 7: HOW MUCH IS / HOW MUCH ARE…?

examples explanations
Singular: To ask about prices use:
How much is a television set in China?
Plural: How much is…?
How much are newspapers in Croatia? How much are…?
Noncount:
How much is gas in Italy?

FOCUS 8: BE + ADJECTIVE + NOUN

examples explanations
Harvard and Yale are private universities. An adjective can come before the noun.
They are excellent colleges. Do not put –s on the adjective when the noun is
plural.
It’s a large university. Use a before an adjective with a consonant or a
English is a universal language. consonant sound.
He’s an “A” student. Use an before an adjective with a vowel sound.
She’s an honour student.
Psychology is a very interesting subject. Put very before the adjective to make the adjective
stronger.

EXERCISE 3.16

Make sentences using be + adjective + very + noun. Choose an adjective from the list. You can
use an adjective more than once.
exciting violent tall expensive dangerous
crowded popular talented useful interesting famous
1. Sears Tower and Hancock Tower ______are very tall______________ buildings in Chicago.
2. Disneyworld _____is a very popular_______ place in Florida.
3. Luciano Pavarotti ______________________________ singer.
4. Rambo and The Terminator ______________________________ movies.
5. A Mercedes ______________________________ car.
6. Teaching ______________________________ profession.
7. Baseball ______________________________ sport in the United States.
8. Sao Paolo ______________________________ city.
9. Eleanor Roosevelt and Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis _______________________________ women
in American history.
10. Computers ______________________________ tools.

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READING DIGEST 4: LIFE IN THE FUTURE

EXERCISE 4.1

You are going to read the transcription of an interview with two groups of people who give their
views on what life will be like in the future. After you read the first time, put a tick () in the boxes below
to show the subjects that each group mentions.

First Second First Second


group group group group

space travel test tube babies

robots unemployment

computers future places for people to live

nuclear weapons future forms of energy

over-population future forms of communication

LIFE IN THE FUTURE

Presenter: About thirty years ago we asked a group of thirteen-year-olds what they thought life
would be like in the year 2050. And this is what they said …
Speaker 1: In the year 2050, I think I’ll probably be in a spaceship on my way to the planet Mars.
Or else I may be in charge of robot court, judging some robots. Or I may be at the
funeral of a computer. Or, if something’s gone wrong with someone’s nuclear bombs, I
may be coming back to my cave from a hunting trip!
Speaker 2: I think the population will have gone up so much that either everyone will be living in big
plastic domes in the Sahara desert or else they’ll be living under the sea.
Speaker 3: Computers are taking over now. Computers and automation. And in the year 2050
there just won’t be enough jobs to go around.
Presenter: Well that was before the manned moon landing, the microprocessor and test-tube
babies. So, have the hopes and fears of today’s thirteen-year-olds changed as they
look forward to the year 3000? We asked a second group of children and here are
some of their answers.
Speaker 4: Obviously nuclear war worries me, but I don’t think that’ll happen. Unless they’ve got
computers that press the button for them. Because I don’t think that any human being
can – is capable – of actually pressing some button that releases all the nuclear arms.
Because it would just mean the destruction of the world.

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Speaker 5: Perhaps we’ll be able to convert brain waves into radio waves and then change them
back to brain waves, so you could actually have a conversation with someone without
talking. But you’d have to be able to stop understanding some of your thoughts, I
suppose, in case they got upset! And there’ll be so many people – I think there may –
unless they have another planet to go to – there’ll be loads and loads of tower blocks
for people to live in, or people will be restricted to a certain number of kids.
Speaker 6: It’ll probably be computers that are running the country by then. I mean they’re
beginning to now and that can be a good thing. But when it comes to war and things
like that – nuclear bombs, and they’re designing gases that can kill people within
seconds. I think that aspect of technology should be wiped out completely.
Presenter: Amazing, isn’t it? Thirty years later and yet the issues remain the same.

EXERCISE 4.2

Read the text again and choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D):
1 The people interviewed were probably:
A children at primary school.
B pupils at secondary school.
C students at university.
D workers of mixed ages.
2 The first speaker thinks that by the year 2050
A robots may have disappeared.
B computers may be in control of the world.
C civilisation may have been destroyed.
D people will be living on the moon.
3 The first speaker in the second group is fairly hopeful about the future because she thinks
A computers will prevent nuclear weapons from being fired.
B nuclear weapons could never be fired by accident.
C nobody would want to start a nuclear war.
D nuclear weapons will disappear from the world.
4 The presenter of the programme is surprised at the end because the two groups
A had such strange ideas.
B knew so much about technology.
C had such different opinions.
D mentioned such similar subjects.

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GRAMMAR DIGEST 4:
THE VERB HAVE: AFFIRMATIVE AND NEGATIVE STATEMENTS, QUESTIONS AND SHORT
ANSWERS; SOME / ANY; THIS / THAT / THESE / THOSE

FOCUS 1: HAVE AND HAS: AFFIRMATIVE STATEMENTS

The verb to have means "to own" or "possess".

subject verb
I
have
You
He
She
has
It a house.
Mary
We
You have
They (Pedro and Carmen)

EXERCISE 4.1

Fill in the blanks with have or has.


A. Carmen _has___ a Spanish name. She _______________ a husband. He
_______________ a Spanish name too. They _______________ two children. They _______________
two dogs. Carmen says: “I _______________ a beautiful family.”
B. Mary _______________ wallpaper in her house. Mary _______________ a clock. She
_______________ photographs and a map. She _______________ furniture. She _______________
canned food.
C. Modern people live in towns. The towns _______________ stores. Modern people
_______________ money. They _______________ jobs.

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FOCUS 2: HAVE: NEGATIVE STATEMENTS AND CONTRACTIONS

subject do/does base form verb


I
You
We do not
They (don’t)
Mary and her
have a telephone.
husband
He
She does not
It (doesn’t)
Mary

EXERCISE 4.2

Make the words below into sentences with has/have or doesn’t have/don’t have.

Traditional families are big.


1. They/many children.
___________________________
2. They also/grandmothers and grandfathers living with them.
_________________________________________________________
3. In a traditional family, only the father/a job.
______________________________________________
4. The mother/a job.
_________________________
5. The children/a babysitter.
______________________________

Modern families are different.


6. Sometimes they/two people.
____________________________
7. Sometimes they/one or two children.
_________________________________
8. Sometimes they/children.
__________________________

Now make four sentences of your own about modern families.


9. ____________________________________________________________
10. ____________________________________________________________
11. ____________________________________________________________
12. ____________________________________________________________

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FOCUS 3: HAVE: YES/NO QUESTIONS AND SHORT ANSWERS

do/does subject have


I
you
Do we
they
Pedro and Carmen have a telephone?
he
she
Does
it
Mary

affirmative negative
short answers short answers
I I
you you do not.
do.
we we (don’t)
Yes, they No, they
he he
does not.
she does. she
(doesn’t)
it it

EXERCISE 4.3
Read about the Amish people. Then make the words below into questions and give the
respective correct short answers based on the text.
The Amish are a special group of Americans. There are about 85,000 Amish people in the
United States. They have their own language. They also have a simple way of life.
The Amish are farmers, but they don’t have machines on their farms. They have horses. They
do not have electricity or telephones in their homes.
The Amish are called “the plain people”. They wear dark clothing. The men all have beards and
wear hats. The women wear long dresses and hats.
Amish children have one-room schoolhouses. They have Amish teachers. They have no school
after the eighth grade.
Example: An Amish man/car?
Does an Amish man have a car?
No, he doesn’t.
1. Amish people/a simple life?
____________________________________________________________
2. Amish women/jewelry?
____________________________________________________________
3. Amish home/electricity?
____________________________________________________________

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4. Am Amish farmer/horses?
____________________________________________________________
5. An Amish home/telephone?
____________________________________________________________
6. Amish people/their own language?
____________________________________________________________
7. An Amish child/computer?
____________________________________________________________
8. Amish people/colorful clothing?
____________________________________________________________
9. An Amish home/television?
____________________________________________________________
10. Amish children/special teachers?
____________________________________________________________
11. Amish children/school after eighth grade?
____________________________________________________________
12. Amish people/a modern lifestyle?
____________________________________________________________

EXERCISE 4.4

Write the questions that go with the following answers.


Example: Does Mark have a son?
No, he doesn’t have a son.
1. ____________________________________________________________
Yes, they do have a swimming pool.
2. ____________________________________________________________
Yes, he does have a sled.
3. ____________________________________________________________
No, they don’t have a fireplace.
4. ____________________________________________________________
Yes, she does have a cat.
5. ____________________________________________________________
Yes, they do have a fireplace.
6. ____________________________________________________________
No, they don’t have a woodpile.
7. ____________________________________________________________
Yes, California does have palm trees.
8. ____________________________________________________________
No, Wisconsin doesn’t have palm trees.
9. ____________________________________________________________
Yes, they do have a hammock.
10. ____________________________________________________________
Yes, Jack does have a warm coat.
11. ____________________________________________________________
Yes, she does have sunglasses.

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FOCUS 4: SOME/ANY

examples explanations
STATEMENT The children have some books. Use some in a statement.
They have some money.
NEGATIVE They don’t have any books. Use any in a negative sentence.
She doesn’t have any money.
QUESTION Do they have any books? Use any in a question.
Does she have any money?
They don’t have any books. (plural count) Use any with plural count nouns and
He doesn't have any money. (noncount noun) noncount nouns.

EXERCISE 4.5

Complete the rhyme with some or any.


I don’t have (1) _____any____ time today
I have (2) _______________ problems to solve
I have (3) _______________ bills to pay
Do you have (4) _______________ time to play?
I have (5) _______________ places to go
I have (6) _______________ people to see
Do you have (7) _______________ advice for me?
Yes, I do. “Slow down!”

EXERCISE 4.6

Read the following questions. Check () whether the speaker expects a positive response or is
unsure of what the response will be.
Positive Unsure
Example: Do you have any aspirin? ___ 
1. I’m not sure what color to paint the bathroom.
Do you have any advice? ___ ___
2. This exercise is difficult. Can you give me some help? ___ ___
3. My refrigerator just broke. Do you have any space in
your refrigerator for this meat? ___ ___
4. Does the library have any books about the Inuit people? ___ ___
5. Do you have some extra paper I could borrow? ___ ___

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EXERCISE 4.7

Decide if either some or any is necessary in each blank in the dialogue below. Then write the
correct word. If neither word is necessary, put an “x” in the blank. The first one has been done for you as
an example.

Kay: What are you doing this weekend?


Ray: I don’t know. I have some free time and I want to go to the movies, but I don’t have (1)
_______________ money.
Kay: Doesn’t your father have (2) _______________ money that he could lend to you?
Ray: He has money, but he doesn’t lend (3) _______________ of it to me. He says that if I want (4)
_______________ money I have to work for it. I don’t want to do (5) _______________ work. I
just want to have (6) _______________ fun.
Kay: Working is no that hard. If you mow a couple of lawns you can make (7) _______________
money fast.
Ray: I guess that isn’t so difficult. Besides, I won’t have (8) _______________ fun if I stay home all
weekend.

FOCUS 5: ASKING FOR SOMETHING POLITELY

Use Do you have …? to ask for something politely.


examples explanations
Use:
Do you have an eraser?
Answer:
 to ask for something politely.
Yes, I do.
OR
Sure.
Use:
Excuse me, do you have the time?
Answer:  to stop a person and ask for something.
No, I don’t.
OR
Sorry, I don’t.

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EXERCISE 4.8

Write the polite request for each cue.


Example: books: Excuse me, do you have any books?
1. pencils: _____________________________________________
2. telephone: _____________________________________________
3. fountain pen: _____________________________________________
4. basketballs: _____________________________________________
5. restrooms: _____________________________________________
6. photocopier: _____________________________________________
7. T-shirts: _____________________________________________
8. notebooks _____________________________________________
9. computers _____________________________________________
10. comic books _____________________________________________

FOCUS 6: USING HAVE TO DESCRIBE PEOPLE

He has short hair.


He has a mustache.
hair color hair length hair type other eye color
dark long straight a mustache black
light short wavy a beard brown
black medium-length curly bangs blue
brown green
red gray
blond
gray
white

EXERCISE 4.9

Correct the mistakes in the sentences.


has
1. He have a car.

2. She have not a house.

3. He no have a TV set.

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4. He doesn’t is rich.

5. She doesn’t has children.

6. Does he has a sister?

7. Does she is an Inuit?

8. Excuse me, have you change?

EXERCISE 4.10

Think of a person or people you know with traditional lifestyles. Write about these people. Write
about what they look like. Tell how their lives are different. Tell what they have and what they don’t
have.

FOCUS 7: THIS / THAT / THESE / THOSE

near speaker far from speaker


singular
This is a hamburger. That is a steak.
This hamburger is good. That steak is delicious.
plural
These are baked potatoes. Those are French fries.
These baked potatoes are hot. Those French fries are salty.
noncount
This is Italian bread. That is French bread.
This Italian bread is round. That French bread is long.

FOCUS 8: ASKING WHAT THINGS ARE

question answer
singular
What’s this? It’s a sandwich.
that? It’s an egg.
plural
What are these? They are French fries.
those? They’re cookies.
noncount
What’s this dish? It’s soup.
that dish?

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EXERCISE 4.11

Fill in the names in the blanks below to show you own family tree.

My Family Tree

_______________ _______________ _______________ _______________


Grandfather Grandmother Grandfather Grandmother

_______________ _______________
Mother Father

_______________
Me

Answer the following questions about your family tree. Use complete sentences.

1. What is your mother’s name?


____________________________________________________________
2. What is your father’s name?
____________________________________________________________
3. What are your grandmothers’ names?
____________________________________________________________
4. What are your grandfathers’ names?
____________________________________________________________

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READING DIGEST 5: HOW TO MAKE A FORTUNE

EXERCISE 5.1

The following words appear in the article you are about to read. Match each one with a
definition on the right.

1. a benefactor a) to employ someone


2. a speculator b) a businessman with great wealth and power
3. to devalue c) a person who helps other people by giving money
4. to hire someone d) a person who buys and sells goods
5. to gamble e) someone who tries to make money by taking business risks
6. a trader f) to reduce the value of something (especially money)
7. a tycoon g) to take a risk in the hope of gaining something

EXERCISE 5.2

Read through the article quickly. What are your initial feelings about George Soros? Do you
admire, dislike or not feel strongly about him either way?

THE MAN WHO BROKE THE POUND


When George Soros was a child, he thought he was god. Today he is a legend: the man who
broke the pound, the ultimate gambler who bet $10 billion on black Wednesday and won. Soros has
also made his name as the billionaire benefactor of the Eastern bloc.
At 5.30 p.m. (10.30 p.m. in London) on September 15, 1992, George Soros was sitting in his
Manhattan office, perched on the 33rd floor of a mirrored skyscraper overlooking Central Park.
Confident that sterling could not stay in the Exchange Rate Mechanism, Soros instructed his head
trader, Stanley Druckenmiller, to sell $10 billion-worth of sterling, taking a giant gamble that the sterling
would have to be devalued overnight.
(1_______) Next morning he was woken at 7 a.m. by a call from Druckenmiller telling him he
had just made $958m. Later he learned that he had made further gains by siding with the French
authorities against speculators attacking the franc. All in all, from the events of what became known as
'Black Wednesday', he had made close to $2 billion.
Attractive, with thick wavy grey hair, apple cheeks and appraising eyes behind aviator glasses,
Soros bears none of the accoutrements of a tycoon. (2_______) 'I have a very, very abstract mind,' he
says, 'and as a result I don't really take pleasure in material possessions. If I were a different person I'd
buy old masters, but I don’t like to collect.’

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Born in 1930 in Budapest he was the beloved younger son of a Hungarian Jewish lawyer,
Tivadar, who had been a prisoner of war in Siberia between 1917 and 1921. (3_______) Soros often
credits his success as a trader to the inflated sense of self his father gave him.
In 1947 Soros, aged 17, escaped the communist regime, leaving his parents behind in Hungary
and emigrating to London. His only source of income was the money given to him by an aunt who had
already fled to Florida. It was a desperately lonely period: he made few friends, partly because he
couldn't speak the language properly, partly because he had no money (4_______).
In 1949 he became a student of economics at the London School of Economics and then, later,
in 1956, aged 26, he moved to New York with $5000, his share of the profit he had made on £1000
given to him by a relative to invest. Then in 1957 George's parents also left Hungary for the States but,
apart from one disastrous attempt to open an espresso stand on Coney Island, they did not have a job
and George had to support them. He was still poor and when his father developed cancer in the early
1960s George was forced to ask the husband of a friend to help him find a surgeon who would treat him
free of charge.
The turning point came in 1963. He was hired by Arnhold and S. Bleichroeder to advise
American institutions on their European investments. (5_______) It was then that he set up the Soros
Fund which, by the late 1970s, was already beginning to make large profits. (6_______)
Since 1979, Soros, a native Hungarian, has ploughed more than $100m of his speculation
profits into funding an 18-strong network of foundations spanning central and eastern Europe and
Russia. (7_______) In 'The Man Who Broke The Pound', a Thames Television documentary, Soros said
the money he had made represented the equivalent of £12 for every man, woman and child in Britain,
who, he said, really ought to have contributed it to the transformation of Eastern Europe. 'But I am
happy to do it for them.'

EXERCISE 5.3

The following sentences have been removed from the article. Read the article again and put
each sentence in the correct numbered gap. There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.

A. One of his strongest memories is of being envious of the cat because it got sardines for breakfast
and he did not.

B. Its initial investment of $4.8m has grown to nearly $6 billion, one third of which is the personal stake
of Soros.
C. Out of the $250m he plans to donate in the next two years, $100m has gone to set up an
International Foundation for Science in Russia and $50m to the Humanitarian Initiative in Bosnia.
D. His simple $60 watch and patterned tie could have been picked up at an airport shop.
E. In 1978 he met Susan Weber, a 22 year-old art history documentary maker, at a dinner party.
F. He and his elder brother were doted on by their parents, particularly by their father, who worked
very little when he came back from the war, spending most of his time with his sons.
G. That evening, in his Fifth Avenue apartment, he enjoyed a simple supper, cooked by his French
chef, before retiring to bed.
H. Some time later, in 1973, he parted company with his employers.

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GRAMMAR DIGEST 5:
POSSESSIVES; THERE IS /THERE ARE; A / AN VERSUS THE

FOCUS 1: POSSESSIVE NOUNS

examples explanations
The boy has a dog.
The boy’s dog is small. Add an apostrophe (‘) and –s to a singular
Carol has a magazine. noun.
Carol’s magazine is on the table.
The boss has an office.
The boss’s office is big.
The boss’ office is big. Add an apostrophe (‘) and –s or just an
apostrophe (‘) to singular nouns and names that
Charles has a sister. end in –s.
Charles’s sister is twenty-six.
Charles’ sister is twenty-six.
The waiters have trays. Add only an apostrophe (‘) at the end of a plural
The waiters’ trays are heavy. noun.
The children’s school is near here.
Add apostrophe (‘) –s to irregular plural nouns.
Women’s clothing is cheap here.
Paul and Mary’s dog is friendly. For two or more subjects or a simple subject
My mother-in-law’s cookies are delicious. with hyphens (-) add –s at the end of last noun.

EXERCISE 5.1

Complete these sentences about Madeline the movie star and her family. Fill in the blanks with
the possessive nouns in parentheses.
1. (The movie star) _______________ life is very exciting.
2. (Madeline) _______________ clothes are expensive.
3. (friends) Her _______________ homes are big.
4. (brother) Her _______________ wife is a lawyer.
5. (husband) Her _______________ name is Mark.
6. (husband) Her _______________ mother is very nice.
7. (parents) His _______________ home is near the ocean.
8. (sister) His _______________ hobby is motorcycling.
9. (children) Their _______________ lives are busy.
10. (grandparents) Her _______________ car is very large.

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EXERCISE 5.2

Look carefully at the apostrophes in the sentences below. How many people are there in each
sentence? How many dogs? Check one or more than one for each sentence.

how many people? how many dogs?

one more than one one more than one

1. My daughter’s dog is big. __ ___ ___ ___

2. My daughters’ dogs are big. ___ ___ ___ ___

3. My son’s dog is big. ___ ___ ___ ___

4. My sons’ dogs are big. ___ ___ ___ ___

5. My sons’ dog is big ___ ___ ___ ___

6. My son’s dogs are big. ___ ___ ___ ___

7. My children’s dog is big. ___ ___ ___ ___

8. My children’s dogs are big. ___ ___ ___ ___

FOCUS 2: POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS

possessive adjectives possessive pronouns


My car is new. The car is mine.
Your house is beautiful. The house is yours.
His dog is old. The dog is his.
Its fur is white.
Her jewelry is expensive. (Its cannot be a possessive pronoun.)
Our children are cute.
The jewelry is hers.
Their television is big.
The children are ours.
The television is theirs.
NOTES:
 Do not confuse possessive adjective (its) with the contraction of it + is (it’s).
 Use possessive determiners with parts of the body:
My hair is black.
Your eyes are blue.

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EXERCISE 5.3

Fill in each blank with a possessive word (a possessive adjective or a possessive pronoun).
Many people have pets. (1) Their pets are very important to them. Charles’s family loves pets.
(2) ____________ children have a dog. Emily says the dog is (3) ____________, Jake says the dog is
(4)_____________. 5) ____________ dog is small. (6) ____________ legs are short, (7)
____________ ears are long. It’s cute.
Charles’s parents have a dog too. They introduce their dog: “This is
(8) ____________ dog. (9) ____________ name is Buck. He’s strong. (10) ___________ nose is flat.
(11) ____________ fur is short. We love Buck. He’s part of (12) ____________ family.”

EXERCISE 5.4

What are your three favourite possessions? List them and write an adjective that describes
each possession.
Example: family photographs, priceless
My family photographs are priceless.
1. ____________________________________________________________
2. ____________________________________________________________
3. ____________________________________________________________

EXERCISE 5.5

Sun and Lee Park are brothers. They are from Korea. They are studying English in the Britain,
but they are studying in different schools and have different program. Sun Park is studying at college.
Lee is studying in the intensive language programme at a university. The brothers talk to each other on
the phone and compare the two different English programmes.
Complete the dialogue using the correct possessive adjectives. The first one has been done for
you as an example.
Sun: Hello, Lee. How are you? How is your English programme?
Lee: It’s great. I have small classes. (1) _______________ classes only have ten students.
Sun: That’s good. (2) _______________ classes are very crowded. I have 30 students in my
classes.
Lee: Does (3) _______________ program have a lab? we have a language lab. The lab has
computers, tape recorders and listening stations.
Sun: Yes, we have several labs. The computer lab is very large and (4) _______________
computers are all new.
Lee: What about your teacher?
Sun: She is very nice. (5) _______________ name is Mrs. Haines. She always encourages us. She
tells us (6) _______________ English is improving every day.

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Lee: (7) _______________ teacher is a man. (8) _______________ name is Mr. Bentley. He also
encourages us, but (9) _______________ tests are very difficult. he makes us work very hard.
What about a text book? Which book are you using?
Sun: We’re using Progress III. It’s a very good book and the activities are fun.
Lee: We’re using Progress III too. I like it. How much does (10) _______________ programme cost?
Sun: It’s not too expensive.
Lee: (11) _______________ program is expensive. The cost is high and I don’t have any time to
work.
Sun: You should try (12) _______________ programme; it is only part time.

EXERCISE 5.6

Match the people with their things. Then write a statement about the thing, using the correct
possessive pronoun.
Example: The calculator is hers.

Lucy is an accountant a book bag


1. Billy is a truck driver. a calculator
2. Rodolfo and Juan are firemen. a cash register
3. Scott is a plumber. a fire hose
4. Toni is a singer. a dog leash
5. Joyce is a dog trainer. police badges
6. Julia and Thomas are police officers. plans for a house
7. Angie is a student. music
8. Roy is a salesclerk. a truck
9. Isaac is an architect. a football
10. Bruce is a football player. a wrench

1. ____________________________________________________________
2. ____________________________________________________________
3. ____________________________________________________________
4. ____________________________________________________________
5. ____________________________________________________________
6. ____________________________________________________________
7. ____________________________________________________________
8. ____________________________________________________________
9. ____________________________________________________________
10.___________________________________________________________

FOCUS 3: QUESTIONS WITH WHOSE

Use whose to ask who owns or possesses something.

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whose noun verb answers


It’s Carol’s dog.
Whose dog is this? It’s her dog.
It’s hers.
Carol’s.
They’re Jim’s glasses.
Whose glasses are these? They’re his glasses.
They’re his.
Jim’s.

Who’s and whose


examples explanations
Do not confuse who’s and whose.
Who’s she? My sister. Who’s and whose have the same pronunciation.
Whose car is that? Mine. Who’s = who is.
Whose asks about who owns something.

EXERCISE 5.7

Correct the mistakes in the following sentences.


1. This is Jim magazine.
_______________________________________________________________________
2. Charles is married. Sara is her wife.
_______________________________________________________________________
3. That computer is her’s.
_______________________________________________________________________
4. Is Jim the brother of Charles?
_______________________________________________________________________
5. Who’s son-in-law is Charles?
_______________________________________________________________________
6. Charles and Sara have two children. Jake and Jane are theirs children.
_______________________________________________________________________
7. What’s that name’s man?
_______________________________________________________________________
8. The Larry’s dog is small.
_______________________________________________________________________
9. Whose hungry?
_______________________________________________________________________
10. This dogs are cute.
_______________________________________________________________________
11. A: Is this the dog’s food? B: Yes, that’s its.
_______________________________________________________________________
12. The teacher has chalk on the face.
_______________________________________________________________________

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FOCUS 4: THERE + BE

examples explanations
Use there + be:
There are a lot of things in the apartment.  to show something or somebody exists
There is a cat under the bed.  to show something or somebody’s location.
 when you talk about something or somebody
There is a mouse in the house. for the first time.
NOT: *A mouse is in the house.
There are two men in the picture. Do not confuse there are with they are.
They are not happy.

EXERCISE 5.8

Circle (a) or (b) for the correct sentence.


Example: (a) Two men are in the room.
(b) There are two men in the room.
1. An angry restaurant customer says:
(a) “Waiter, a fly is in my soup.”
(b) “Waiter, there’s a fly in my soup.”

2. The waiter answers:


(a) “Sorry, sir. There’s more soup in the kitchen.”
(b) “Sorry, sir. More soup is in the kitchen.”

3. The customer gets the bill. He says:


(a) “Waiter, a mistake is on the bill.”
(b) “Waiter, there’s a mistake on the bill.”

FOCUS 5: THERE IS / THERE ARE

there + be noun phrase explanations


There is an angry at the table. singular count noun
There are two people in the restaurant. /plural count noun
There is soup in his dish. /noncount noun.
There is a dining room, in the restaurant. When there is more than one
kitchen, and noun, be agrees with the first
restroom noun.

Contractions: There is = There’s

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EXERCISE 5.9

Write sentences about an imaginary room, with there is (there's)/there are and the words below:
1. a tennis racquet in the closet
_____________________________________________________________________
2. high-heeled shoes in the closet
_____________________________________________________________________
3. women's clothing in the closet
_____________________________________________________________________
4. sneakers in the closet
_____________________________________________________________________
5. a coat in the closet
_____________________________________________________________________
6. CDs on the shelf
_____________________________________________________________________
7. books on the shelf
_____________________________________________________________________
8. an expensive rug on the floor
_____________________________________________________________________
9. two pillows on the bed
_____________________________________________________________________

FOCUS 6: THERE ISN’T / THERE AREN’T / THERE’S NO / THERE ARE NO

there be type of noun


There isn’t a vase on the table. singular count noun
There aren’t any children in this restaurant. plural count noun
There isn’t any water on the table. noncount noun

there be no
There is vase on the table.
There are no children in the restaurant.
There ’s water on the table.

EXERCISE 5.10
Make sentences about your room with there is/there are, there isn't/there aren't or there's
no/there are no with the words below:
1. television set
_____________________________________________________________________
2. rug
_____________________________________________________________________

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3. men's clothing
_____________________________________________________________________
4. computer
_____________________________________________________________________
5. window
_____________________________________________________________________
6. desk
_____________________________________________________________________
7. books
_____________________________________________________________________
8. toys
_____________________________________________________________________
9. exercise bicycle
_____________________________________________________________________
10. plants
_____________________________________________________________________
11. coffee pot
_____________________________________________________________________
12. ties
_____________________________________________________________________

EXERCISE 5.11

Use the information in the chart below about the city of Utopia. Write sentences with there
is/are, there isn't/aren't or there's no/there are no.
Example: 1. In Utopia, there aren't any guns.
In Utopia, there are no guns.
THE CITY OF UTOPIA
Yes No Yes No
1. guns X 6. universities X
2. public X 7. noise X
transportation
3. crime X 8. jobs X
4. museums X 9. parks X
5. traffic problems X 10. poor people X
2. _____________________________________________________________________
3. _____________________________________________________________________
4. _____________________________________________________________________
5. _____________________________________________________________________
6. _____________________________________________________________________
7. _____________________________________________________________________
8. _____________________________________________________________________
9. _____________________________________________________________________
10. _____________________________________________________________________

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EXERCISE 5.12
Read the politician's speech about the city of Utopia. Fill in the blanks with there is / are, there
isn't / aren't, or there's no / there are no.
Good evening, Ladies and Gentlemen. I am the Mayor of Utopia. I am here tonight to talk about
our wonderful city.
Today, (1) there are 50.000 people in our city. We are all happy. (2) ___________ problems
in our city.
(3) __________ jobs for all our people. (4) __________ good schools for the children and (5)
__________ nice houses for all our families. The houses are comfortable. They aren't expensive.
(6) __________ homeless people on our streets. Our streets are safe. (7) __________ crime here.
(8) __________ drugs. Our streets are clean. (9) ___________ garbage on the streets. (10) __________
pollution.
(11) __________ many museums and theatres, and parks in our city. (12) __________
entertainment for everyone. (13) ___________ good and cheap public transportation for everyone.
(14) __________ many reasons why Utopia is a great city! (15) __________ a good quality of life
here in Utopia. And don't forget: (16) ___________ an election this year. I want to be your Mayor for four
more years. Are you happy in Utopia? Then (17) __________ only one thing to do: VOTE FOR ME, your
Mayor Lucas Lime, on November sixth!

FOCUS 7: YES/NO QUESTIONS WITH THERE IS/THERE ARE

yes / no questions short answers type of noun


Is there a computer in the room? Yes, there is. singular count noun
No, there isn’t.
Are there any books on the shelves? Yes, there are. plural count noun
No, there aren’t.
Is there any jewelry in the box? Yes, there is. noncount noun
No, there isn’t.

EXERCISE 5.13
Ask yes/no questions with Is there/Are there and the words below:
Example: eggs in an eggplant?
Are there any eggs in an eggplant?
No, there aren't.
1. rain in a desert
________________________________
2. two billion people in China
________________________________
3. fifty-two states in the United States
________________________________
4. earthquakes in Japan
________________________________

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5. billions of stars in the sky


________________________________
6. life on the moon
________________________________
7. trees at the North Pole
________________________________
8. cure for the common cold
________________________________

EXERCISE 5.14
Cecilia is choosing a college to study at. She likes the academic programme and teachers at
New College, but she wants to have more services and facilities. Cecilia made a list of things New
College doesn’t have. Change the list into negative statements using there + be.
Example: smoking area in the cafeteria:
There’s no smoking area in the cafeteria.
1. swimming pool: _________________________________________
2. job counselors: _________________________________________
3. college radio station: _________________________________________
4. public transportation to town: _________________________________________
5. cultural events: _________________________________________
6. golf course: _________________________________________
7. math author: _________________________________________
8. drug store close to campus: _________________________________________
9. quiet places to study: _________________________________________
10. soccer team: _________________________________________

FOCUS 8: CHOOSING A/AN OR THE

A / an and the are articles. A / an are indefinite articles. The is the definite article.
a / an the
Use only with singular count nouns. Use with all nouns.
The bicycle is new. (singular)
Susan has a bicycle. The books are on the shelf. (plural)
The jewelry is in the box. (noncount)
Use to talk about a person or thing for the Use the second time you talk about a person or
first time. thing.
Susan has a necklace. Susan has a necklace.
The necklace is beautiful.
Use to classify people, animals, and things. Use when both speakers know which noun they
She is a businesswoman. are talking about.
It’s a restaurant. When’s the party?
It’s at 8:00.
Use when the noun is the only one.
The sun is hot.

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EXERCISE 5.15
Read the paragraph. Fill in a/an or the.
Susan owns (1) _______________ restaurant. (2) restaurant is very small. It has (3)
_______________ cook, (4) _______________ cashier, and (5) _______________ waiter. Susan is (6)
_______________ boss. Susan has (7) _______________ excellent cook in (8) _______________
kitchen: her mother! Susan has (9) _______________ sister. Her sister is (10) _______________
cashier in (11) _______________ restaurant. Her sister’s husband is (12) _______________ waiter.
Susan’s sister is (13) _______________ good cashier, but her brother-in-law is not (14)
_______________ very good waiter. He doesn’t have (15) _______________ good memory and is
always confused. This is (16) _______________ big problem for Susan.

EXERCISE 5.16
Choose the indefinite or definite article (a, an, or the) and fill in the blanks. The first one has
been done for you as an example.
A Friend’s Birthday
Cristina went to a bakery to buy a cake. (1) _______________ bakery is new; it just opened
last month. (2) _______________ cake is for (3) _______________ friend’s birthday.
(4) _______________ friend’s name is Lola. She is from Colombia. This is the first birthday Lola
is celebrating without her family. Cristina doesn’t want Lola to feel bad because she isn’t with her family.
Cristina wants to buy Lola (5) _______________ special present. But (6) _______________
present can’t cost too much because Cristina doesn’t have much money. Cristina looks for (7)
_______________ umbrella. She thinks that (8) _______________ umbrella will make (9)
_______________ practical and beautiful gift.
When she finds (10) _______________ perfect umbrella she tries to wrap it in colorful paper,
but (11) _______________ umbrella is (12) _______________ difficult present to wrap. Finally, she just
puts (13) _______________ big bow on (14) _______________ umbrella.
When Cristina gives Lola (15) _______________ present and (16) _______________ cake,
she is surprised. She is happy to have (17) _______________ good friend like Cristina.

EXERCISE 5.17
Correct the mistakes in the following sentences:
1. It's a picture on a wall.
_______________________________________________________________________
2. There are a bathroom, a kitchen, and a living room in my house.
_______________________________________________________________________
3. There have three bedrooms and two bathrooms in the apartment.
_______________________________________________________________________
4. Is a good restaurant in my neighbourhood.
_______________________________________________________________________

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5. There aren't milk in the refrigerator.


_______________________________________________________________________
6. In my picture, have one woman and two men.
_______________________________________________________________________
7. Are homeless people in your city?
_______________________________________________________________________
8. Is there a jewellery in Susan's apartment?
_______________________________________________________________________
9. Susan own a restaurant.
_______________________________________________________________________
Really? Where is a restaurant?
_______________________________________________________________________
10. Are there any museums in your town?
_______________________________________________________________________
Yes, they are.
_______________________________________________________________________
11. Excuse me. Is there the men's room in this restaurant?
_______________________________________________________________________
12. Do you have any children?
_______________________________________________________________________
Yes, I have the daughter.
_______________________________________________________________________
13. Are there pollution in your city?
_______________________________________________________________________
14. There no are women in the restaurant.
_______________________________________________________________________
15. There are no any poor people in Utopia.
_______________________________________________________________________

TUTOR-ASSESSED TASK

Choose the one word or phrase that best complete the sentence.
1. The teacher _______________ problem.
(A) has a (B) has any
(C) be a (D) have any
2. They _______________ have computers at that school.
(A) doesn’t (B) aren’t
(C) don’t (D) no
3. What’s that? It’s _______________ airplane.
(A) any (B) a
(C) an (D) some
4. She doesn’t _______________ new book.
(A) has a (B) have an
(C) has an (D) have a

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5. Costa Rica and Brazil are _______________.


(A) countrys (B) a country
(C) country (D) countries
6. I _______________ children.
(A) no have any (B) don’t have some
(C) doesn’t have any (D) doesn’t has any
7. He has _______________ homework.
(A) a (B) one
(C) any (D) some
8. Do the children _______________ toys? The _______________ are new.
(A) has any … children’s toys (B) have any … childrens’ toys
(C) has a … children’s toy (D) have any … children’s toys
9. Ulrika _______________ children.
(A) has one (B) has some
(C) have any (D) have some
10. They _______________ bread.
(A) have a (B) has some
(C) have any (D) have some
11. She _______________ short, brown hair.
(A) no has (B) doesn’t have
(C) doesn’t has (D) don’t has
12. There are two _______________.
(A) deer (B) deers
(C) mans (D) man
13. I have _______________ sugar in the cupboard. There isn’t _______________ more in the
bowl.
(A) some … any (B) some … some
(C) a … any (D) a … some
14. Do the dogs have food? No, the _______________ are empty.
(A) dog’s bowls (B) dogs’ bowls
(C) dog’s bowl (D) dogs’ bowl
15. The cat has a bed. _______________ bed is comfortable.
(A) It’s (B) Its
(C) Your (D) Their

Identify the one underlined word or phrase that must be changed in order for the sentence to be
grammatically correct.
16. Mickey is a famous mice in the Florida attraction, Disney World.
AB C D
17. Do you have three watchs on your wrist?
A B C D

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18. My house have heat in all of the rooms except the garage.
A B C D
19. How many does a hamburger cost at that new restaurant in Orlando?
A B C D
20. I have a daughter. My daughter’s hair is black like my.
A B C D
21. The coffee is hot. Her wants to drink some after she finishes her dinner.
A B C D
22. Who paper is this? It has Joan’s name on it. I think it is hers.
A B C D
24. Whose homeworks are on the table? I think it’s Sancho’s homework. He doesn’t have his.
A B C D
25. Do you have any biographies? Yes, we have many books about the lifes of famous people.
A B C D

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READING DIGEST 6: WHY LAUGHTER IS THE BEST


MEDICINE

EXERCISE 6.1
Look at the title of the article and try to predict what it will be about.

EXERCISE 6.2
The following words all appear in the article. Match each one with its correct definition on the
right.
1. to giggle a) to reduce or lessen pain or some other unpleasant feeling
2. to monitor b) funny, amusing
3. to relieve c) what the body uses to defend itself against things that enter it and cause
disease
4. research d) the treatment of illness of the mind or body
5. humorous e) to watch, listen to or examine what is happening
6. to stimulate f) to make something more active or develop more quickly
7. immune system g) to laugh in a silly, childish way
8. therapy h) detailed study of a subject to find out something new

EXERCISE 6.3
Now read the article and answer the following questions:
1. Do doctors now understand exactly how laughter helps?
2. Do people generally laugh more or less than before?
3. Is there any real evidence to suggest laughter helps?
WHY LAUGHTER IS THE BEST MEDICINE
Our unserious side is being taken seriously by doctors. Laughing helps you fight illness – and
gets you fit. But how it works is still being puzzled out.
A group of adults are lying in a circle on the floor listening to a recording of ’The Laughing
Policeman’. At first everyone feels ridiculous and there’s only the odd nervous giggle, but suddenly the
laughter becomes real. It quickly spreads around the room until everyone is infected by it. (1_______)
Doctors are starting to believe that laughter not only improves your state of mind, but actually affects
your entire physical well-being. The people lying in a circle are attending a workshop to learn the

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forgotten art of laughter. (2________) Britain’s first laughter therapist, Robert Holden says, “Instinctively
we know that laughter helps us feel healthy and alive. Each time we laugh we feel better and more
content.” (3________)
A French newspaper found that in 1930 the French laughed on average for nineteen minutes
per day. By 1980 this had fallen to six minutes. Eighty per cent of the people questioned said that they
would like to laugh more. Other research suggests that children laugh on average about 400 times a
day, but by the time they reach adulthood this has been reduced to about fifteen times. (4________)
William Fry – a psychiatrist from California – studied the effects of laughter on the body. He got
patients to watch Laurel and Hardy films, and monitored their blood pressure, heart rate and muscle
tone. He found that laughter has a similar effect to physical exercise. It speeds up the heart rate,
increases blood pressure and quickens breathing. (5________) Fry thinks laughter is a type of jogging
on the spot. Laughter can even provide a kind of pain relief. Fry has proved that laughter produces
endorphins – chemicals in the body that relieve pain. Researchers from Texas tested this.
(6________) The first group listened to a funny cassette for twenty minutes, the second listened
to a cassette intended to relax them, the third heard an informative tape, while the fourth group listened
to no tape at all. Researchers found that if they produced pain in the students, those who had listened to
the humorous tape could tolerate the discomfort for much longer.
Patch Adams is both a doctor and a performing clown in Virginia, America. (7________)
“There’s evidence to suggest that laughter stimulates the immune system,” says Adams, “yet hospitals
and clinics are well-known for their depressing atmospheres.” Adams practises what he preaches. He
wears his waist-length hair in a ponytail and also has a handlebar moustache. He usually puts on a red
nose when seeing patients.

EXERCISE 6.4

The following sentences have been removed from the article. Decide in which numbered gap
each one should go (there is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.)
A. Somewhere in the process of rowing up we lose an astonishing 385 laughs a day.
B. It also makes our facial and stomach muscles work.
C. He is convinced that humour should be a part of every medical consultation.
D. Some have even been referred by their family doctors.
E. They divided forty university students into four groups.
F. This will also help improve your personal relationships.
G. But we could be losing our ability to laugh.
H. This is laughter therapy in action.

VOCABULARY
BODY AND HEALTH

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EXERCISE 6.5

Fill in the gaps in the following sentences with an appropriate part of the body. Then decide
what the completed underlined idiom means.
1. He retired last year and now he has lots of time on his ________________.
2. Don’t put words in my ________________. That isn’t what I was going to say.
3. What’s his name? Oh, how frustrating, it’s on the tip of my ________________.
4. I’ve got a terribly sweet ________________ - I love sweets and chocolates.
5. He’s got a ________________ - coming round here after everything he said!
6. Look, we seem to have got off on the wrong ________________. Can we start again and be
friends?
7. Why don’t you tell me what the matter is? You’ll feel better if you get it off your ________________.
8. He may not be very clever, but at least his ________________ is in the right place.

EXERCISE 6.6

Choose the correct alternative in each sentence.


1. There were lots of people waiting to see the doctor in her theatre/ward/surgery.
2. I’ve got a terrible pain/sore/hurt in my left leg.
3. The doctor gave me this receipt/prescription/recipe for some painkillers.
4. This cut should heal/cure/recover soon.
5. You are very hot. Let me take your heat/fever/temperature.
6. I fell over and twisted/turned/slipped my ankle.
7. Before you go on holiday, you are going to need some punctures/stabs/injections.
8. She’s got a very sore/raw/rough throat and won’t be able to sing.
9. The ambulance men carried him away on a bed/stretcher/hammock.
10. It took him a long time to get over/by/off his illness.
11. She was covered in spots/freckles/bruises after she fell down the stairs.
12. Have we got any Sellotape/plasters/blu-tac? I’ve cut my finger.

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GRAMMAR DIGEST 6:
SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE: AFFIRMATIVE AND NEGATIVE STATEMENTS;
TIME EXPRESSIONS: IN, ON, AT; YES/NO QUESTIONS; ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY; WH -
QUESTIONS

FOCUS 1: TALKING ABOUT HABITS AND ROUTINES

examples explanation
a) Fran and Janice listen to music together. Use the simple present tense to talk about habits
or things that happen again and again.
b) Fran goes to the gym every evening.

EXERCISE 6.1

Underline all the simple present tense verbs that tell about Fran and Janice's habits and
routines.
Fran and Janice are friends and roommates. Fran is a doctor. She takes care of people, and
she loves her job. She starts work at 6:30 A.M. and finishes at 7:30 P.M. She visits her patients in the
hospital every morning. Then she hurries to her office to see other patients. She often skips meals, but
she eats fruit during the day.
Janice is an accountant. She works in an office from nine to five. She's not very busy, so she
often eats snacks like potato chips, cake and candy at work. After work, she plays tennis. Then she
goes home and prepares a light dinner.
Fran comes home at 8:00 and eats dinner with Janice. They talk, listen to music together and
relax. Then Fran goes to the gym. Janice watches television. Before bed, Janice and Fran feel hungry.
They enjoy some ice cream or milk and cookies. They go to sleep at midnight.

FOCUS 2: SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE: AFFIRMATIVE STATEMENTS

subject verb
I
You*
We work
They
He
She works
It
*Both singular and plural.

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EXERCISE 6.2
Circle the correct form of the verb.
1. Fran is a doctor. She (take / takes) care of sick people.
2. Janice is an accountant. She (work / works) in an office.
3. Fran (love / loves) her job.
4. Fran (start / starts) work at 6:30 A.M.
5. Janice (eat / eats) snacks like potato chips, cake and candy at work.
6. Janice (prepare / prepares) a light dinner every night.
7. Fran and Janice (exercise / exercises) every day.
8. Janice (play / plays) tennis after work.
9. Fran (go / goes) to the gym.
10. They (relax / relaxes) together after dinner.
11. They (enjoy / enjoys) ice cream or milk and cookies.
12. They (go / goes) to sleep late.

EXERCISE 6.3
Choose the correct word in parentheses to complete the story. Be careful to make the subject
and verb agree. The first one has been done for you as an example.
I want (want, wants) you to meet my friend Herb Ban and his wife, Sunny. They (1) __________
(live, lives) in the city. Herb (2) __________ (like, likes) the city because his apartment is close to his
job. Herb (3) __________ (walk, walks) to work every morning. He (4) __________ (work, works) in the
building across the street from his apartment. In the winter, Herb (5) __________ (go, goes) to work
without getting cold. He just (6) __________ (walk, walks) through a tunnel that (7) __________ (go,
goes) between the two buildings.
Sunny, Herb’s wife (8) __________ (think, thinks) the city is alright, but she (9) __________
(prefer, prefers) the country. Sunny (10) __________ (enjoy, enjoys) camping in the mountains. Every
summer, they (11) __________ (camp, camps) in Montana for two weeks. Herb always (12)
__________ (complain, complains) about the mosquitoes. He (13) __________ (hate, hates)
mosquitoes.
Personally, I (14) __________ (want, wants) to live in the country, but I’m like Herb. I (15)
__________ (work, works) in the city.

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EXERCISE 6.4

Match the occupations with what they do.


1. A doctor a. repairs cars
2. Construction workers b. protect people
3. A mechanic c. answers the telephone
4. Air traffic controllers d. takes care of sick people
5. A receptionist e. build houses
6. Taxi drivers f. direct airplanes
7. Police officers g. works in emergencies
8. A fire fighter h. take passengers to different places
Which of these jobs are the most stressful? Explain why.

FOCUS 3: THIRD PERSON SINGULAR: SPELLING AND PRONUNCIATION

base form of verb spelling pronunciation


1. The final sound of the verb is “voiceless” (for Add –s
example: /p/t/f/k/s/th)
He works eight hours every
work day. /s/
2. The final sound of the verb is “voiced” (for Add –s
example: /b/d/v/g/l/m/n/r/ or a vowel)
need
He needs exercise. /z/
3. The verb ends in sh, ch, x, z, or ss: Add –es
She watches the news every /iz/
wash night.
4. The verb ends in a consonant + y: Change –y to –i and add -es
hurry She hurries home. /z/
5. The verb ends in a vowel + y: Add –s

play He plays golf in the summer. /z/


6. Irregular forms: She has a good job.
have She goes to work in the
go morning.
do She does exercises. /z/

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EXERCISE 6.5
Finish the story with the correct form of the verb in parentheses. Be careful of irregular spelling.
The first one has been done for you as an example.
Norman goes (go) to work on the bus. He (1) __________ (hurry) to the bus stop because he
doesn’t want to miss the bus. Norman (2) __________ (enjoy) his work, but he (3) __________ (worry)
when he is late. His boss (4) __________ (have) strict rules about being on time.
Norman (5) __________ (work) for a toy company. He (6) __________ (test) toys. Every
morning Norman (7) __________ (have) a box of new toys on his desk. First, he (8) __________
(empty) the box and (9) __________ (look) at the toys he will test. Then, Norman (10) __________
(play) with the toys. He (11) __________ (try) them out.
After he (12) __________ (see) what a toy (13) __________ (do), Norman (14) __________
(write) a report about the toy. The report (15) __________ (say) what age child the toy is best for. It also
(16) __________ (tell) about any possible dangers o children. Then Norman (17) __________ (send)
his report and the toy to his boss.

EXERCISE 6.6

Thad Thrifty always tries to save money and resources. Before he goes grocery shopping, he
checks the advertisements in the newspaper and cuts coupons to save money. When he washes
clothes, he uses cold water to save energy. He also dries his clothes outside on a clothesline when the
weather is nice. He conserves electricity when possible. He always turns off lights when he leaves a
room.
Cara Careless spends money all the time. She buys food because it looks tasty. She forgets to
plan meals so she eats out a lot. She wastes water when the leaves the house. She always dries he
clothes in he dryer, even when the weather is warm.
Using the cues below make true statements about the habits and routines of Thad and Cara.
Example: check advertisements: Thad checks advertisements.
1. waste water: ________________________________________
2. use a clothesline: ________________________________________
3. save coupons: ________________________________________
4. forget to turn off stereo: ________________________________________
5. eat out a lot: ________________________________________
6. save energy: ________________________________________
7. use cold water to wash clothes: ________________________________________
8. dry clothes in a drier: ________________________________________
9. buy food because it looks tasty: ________________________________________
10. turn off lights: ________________________________________
11. try to save money: ________________________________________
12. spend money all the time: ________________________________________

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FOCUS 4: FREQUENCY AND TIME EXPRESSIONS I

examples explanations
every morning/afternoon/night
every day/week/year
every
summer/winter/spring/autumn Frequency expressions tell how often we do something
all the time
once a week
twice a month
three times a year
in + the morning
the afternoon
the evening
in + June
2007
the summer Time expressions tell when we do something
at + 7:30
night
noon
on + Mondays
June 15
the weekend

EXERCISE 6.7

Fill in the blanks with a frequency or time expression.


Fred and Jane get up (1) __________ seven (2) __________ day of the week, but not (3)
__________ weekends. (4) __________ Saturday, they get up (5) ___________ nine and play tennis(6)
__________ the morning. (7)__________ the afternoon, they go shopping. (8) __________ the
evening, they go out with friends. They go to bed (9) _________ midnight.
(10) __________ Sunday, they get up (11) __________ ten and have breakfast (12) __________ noon.
They stay home and read (13) __________ Sunday.

EXERCISE 6.8

Using the cues, make true statements about yourself by adding a time expression at the end or
beginning of the sentence. Skip the statements that are not true for you.
Example: go to school: I go to school three days a week.
1. eat pizza: ________________________________________
2. see your family: ________________________________________

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3. drink wine: ________________________________________


4. call your mother: ________________________________________
5. cook a meal: ________________________________________
6. watch TV: ________________________________________
7. go to the dentist: ________________________________________
8. eat Chinese food: ________________________________________
9. wash your clothes: ________________________________________
10. pay your bills: ________________________________________
11. read the newspaper: ________________________________________

EXERCISE 6.9

Make a list of things that you usually do in each of the following time periods. Then write
sentences about your activities using in, at, or on.
Example: summer
take a vacation: In the summer, I take a vacation.
go camping: I go camping in the summer.

summer
1. ____________________________________________________________
2. ____________________________________________________________
3. ____________________________________________________________
Mondays
4 ____________________________________________________________
5. ____________________________________________________________
6. ____________________________________________________________
noon
7. ____________________________________________________________
8. ____________________________________________________________
9. ____________________________________________________________
weekends
10. ____________________________________________________________
11. ____________________________________________________________
12. ____________________________________________________________
December
13. ____________________________________________________________
14. ____________________________________________________________
15. ____________________________________________________________

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FOCUS 5: FREQUENCY AND TIME EXPRESSIONS II

examples explanations
They watch TV every night. Frequency and time expressions usually come at the end
of a sentence.
She gets up at 7:00 every morning.
They watch the news every night at 7. When there is both a frequency and a time expression in
one sentence, the frequency expression comes before or
She gets up at 7:00 every morning.
after the time expression.
Once a week, they go out to eat. Frequency and time expressions can come at the
beginning of a sentence. Use a comma (,) after the
On weekends, they stay at home.
expressions at the beginning of a sentence.
I work on Friday nights. With days and dates, on is not necessary.
I work Friday nights.

EXERCISE 6.10

Make true statements about yourself using the time and frequency expressions below and the
simple present tense.
Example: once a week
I go to the library once a week.

1. once a week
_____________________________________________________________________
2. every weekend
_____________________________________________________________________
3. twice a week
_____________________________________________________________________
4. on my birthday
_____________________________________________________________________
5. once a year
_____________________________________________________________________
6. at 7:30 in the morning
_____________________________________________________________________
7. on Friday nights
_____________________________________________________________________
8. in August
_____________________________________________________________________
9. in the summer
_____________________________________________________________________
10. all the time
_____________________________________________________________________

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FOCUS 6: SIMPLE PRESENT: NEGATIVE STATEMENTS

subject do / does not base form of verb


I
You*
We do not (don’t)
They
John and Jane work
He
She does not (doesn’t)
It
Mary
*Both singular and plural

EXERCISE 6.11
Do you have a healthy life? Check () Yes or No.
Yes No
1. I smoke. ___ ___
2. I exercise every day. ___ ___
3. I drink six or more glasses of water every day. ___ ___
4. I eat fruit and vegetables. ___ ___
5. I eat fast food every day. ___ ___
6. I live a quiet life. ___ ___
7. I go to bed late. ___ ___
8. I skip meals. ___ ___
9. I feel tired every day. ___ ___
10. I eat red meat every day. ___ ___
11. I cook fresh food at home. ___ ___
12. I find time to relax. ___ ___
13. I overeat. ___ ___
14. I worry all the time. ___ ___

EXERCISE 6.12
Don and Ron are brothers. They are different in some ways and the same in others. Look at the
information about Don and Ron. Using the cues, make negative sentences.
Don is an accountant; he works in a bi office downtown. He has a sports car and lives in an
apartment. Still, Don likes to stay healthy. He likes exercise, but he doesn’t like jogging. He enjoys
playing basketball with his friends. He likes to do active things – he doesn’t like going to the movies. He
is a vegetarian, and he doesn’t smoke.

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Ron is a park ranger; he works outdoors. He has a pickup truck and lives in a house. Ron likes
to stay healthy. He likes exercise, but he doesn’t like jogging. He prefers playing volleyball with his
friends. Ron doesn’t’ like basketball or movies. He doesn’t smoke and he is a vegetarian.

Examples: work outside: Don doesn’t work outside.


eat meat: Don and Ron don’t eat meat.
1. work inside: ________________________________________
2. live in a house: ________________________________________
3. smoke: ________________________________________
4. have a sports car: ________________________________________
5. play volleyball: ________________________________________
6. jog: ________________________________________
7. like team sports: ________________________________________
8. drive a pickup truck ________________________________________
9. live in an apartment: ________________________________________
10. like movies: ________________________________________
11. like basketball: ________________________________________
12. eat meat: ________________________________________

FOCUS 7: TALKING ABOUT THINGS THAT ARE ALWAYS TRUE

examples explanations
The sun rises in the East. Use the simple present to make statements about
She enjoys life. things that always happen or things that are always
She doesn’t drink wine. true.

EXERCISE 6.13

Use the simple present affirmative or negative to complete the definitions of the new words
below.
1. Workaholics (love) love to work all the time.
2. Vegetarians (eat) ___________ meat.
3. Couch potatoes (sit) _________ in front of the TV all the time.
4. An alcoholic (drink) __________ a lot of wine, beer, or liquor every day.
5. A pacifist (like) __________ war.
6. An insomniac (sleep) _________ at night.
7. A stressed person (worry) __________ a lot.
8. A health-conscious person (care) __________ about his or her health.
9. Environmentalists (like) __________pollution.

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EXERCISE 6.14
Fill in the blanks. Use the simple present affirmative or negative of the verbs in parentheses.
Today, many Americans are under stress. They (move) (1) move at a fast pace. They (work) (2)
__________ all the time. They often (work) (3) __________ overtime. An average worker (have) (4)
_________ too much work and (have) (5) enough time to finish it. Many Americans (take) (6) vacations.
Time is important, but people (have) (7) time for themselves or their families.
Why are Americans so busy all the time? One reason is modern technology. Modern
technology (keep) (8) _________ us busy and (give) (9) ___________ us stress. Technology (help) (10)
___________ us relax. We (wear) (11) _________ beepers. We (use) ) (12) fax machines to send
messages fast. We (take) (13) __________ time to rest. Even on Sundays, many stores (stay) (14)
__________ open and people (go shopping) (15) _________. Today, stress is one of the top reasons
why Americans (get) (16) __________ sick.

EXERCISE 6.15

Read the list of activities below. Do good parents do these things? Check yes or no. Then write
a statement about each, making it affirmative or negative. The first one has been done for you as an
example.
Yes No
let their children stay up late every night ___ _
Good parents don’t let their children stay up late every night.
1. let their children play in the street ___ ___
________________________________________
2. make their children do chores (household jobs) ___ ___
________________________________________
3. give their children an allowance (weekly money) ___ ___
________________________________________
4. let their children watch TV five hours every day ___ ___
________________________________________
5. leave their children at home alone ___ ___
________________________________________
6. give their children cigarettes ___ ___
________________________________________
7. feed their children healthy food ___ ___
________________________________________
8. help their children with their homework ___ ___
________________________________________
9. let their children go to the library ___ ___
________________________________________
10. buy their children bicycles ___ ___
________________________________________

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FOCUS 8: YES/NO QUESTIONS

do/does subject base form of verb short answers


affirmative negative
Do I you you
you I I
we Yes, we do. No, we do not.
they work? they they (don’t.)
Does he he he
she Yes, she does. No, she does not.
it it it (doesn’t.)

EXERCISE 6.16

Read about students in the United States.


(1) In the United States, a child usually starts kindergarten at age five. (2) In public schools,
boys and girls study together. (3) Children go to school five days a week. (4) they don't go to school on
Saturdays. (5) They go to school from 8:30 A.M. to 3:00 P.M. (6) They don't wear uniforms in school. (7)
In public schools, children do not study religion.
(8) In high school, every student takes difficult exams to enter college. (9) A private college
costs a lot of money. (10) The government doesn't pay for private colleges. (11) Parents pay for their
children's education. (12) Many students work after school to help pay for college.
Write twelve yes/no questions about Romania, starting from the sentences marked 1 – 12 in the
reading.

1. Does a child usually start kindergarten at age five in Romania?


2. Do boys and girls usually study together?
3. ____________________________________________________________________
4. ____________________________________________________________________
5. ____________________________________________________________________
6. ____________________________________________________________________
7. ____________________________________________________________________
8. ____________________________________________________________________
9. ____________________________________________________________________
10. ____________________________________________________________________
11. ____________________________________________________________________
12. ____________________________________________________________________

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FOCUS 9: ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY

Adverbs of frequency tell how often something happens.


Examples
1. She often reads an English newspaper. She buys one every morning.
2. He usually thinks in Italian first. Then he translates his words into English.
3. Does she ever write letters in English?
4. Does she ever make telephone calls in English?
5. He thinks grammar is interesting. He always tries to understand how English works.
question: how often does Maria watch television?
always 100%
almost always
usually
Maria often/frequently watches television.
sometimes
seldom/rarely
never 0%

EXERCISE 6.17
The chart below shows learning habits and adverbs of frequency. Check () the box that is true
for you.
learning habits adverbs of frequency
always almost usually often some- seldom never
always frequently times rarely
1. use a dictionary
2. make telephone calls
in English
3. speak to native
speakers
4. discuss learning
problems with
classmates
5. practice English
pronunciation
6. record your voice on
tape
7. read books or
newspapers in
English
8. ask questions about
English
9. think in English
10. dream in English

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FOCUS 10: POSITION OF ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY

examples explanations
a) They always come to work early. Adverbs of frequency usually come between the
b) He sometimes asks questions. subject and the verb.
c) He never asks questions
d) Sometimes I ask questions. Adverbs of frequency can sometimes come at the
e) That’s not true. He asks questions beginning or at the end of a sentence for emphasis.
often
f) They are always in their office. Adverbs of frequency come after the verb be.
g) I am never late to work.

EXERCISE 6.18

Add an adverb of frequency to make the statements below true about Romania:

1. The students are of the same nationality.


The students are usually of the same nationality.
2. The teachers are women.
____________________________________________________
3. Teachers hit students.
____________________________________________________
4. Teachers are young.
____________________________________________________
5. Teachers give homework.
____________________________________________________
6. Teachers are relaxed and friendly.
____________________________________________________
7. Students work together to learn.
____________________________________________________
8. The classrooms are noisy.
____________________________________________________
9. Students take tests.
____________________________________________________
10. Students cheat on tests.
____________________________________________________

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FOCUS 11: WH-QUESTIONS

wh-question base form of


word do / does subject verb
What I do at work?
When you watch TV?
What time do we begin work?
Where they study English?
Why he need English?
How she go to work?
How often does Maria talk to her boss?
Who(m) Bill meet after work?

EXERCISE 6.19

Match each question to its answer. Write the letter on the line.
____ 1 Why does he need English? a on weekends
____ 2 When does the semester begin? b by car
____ 3 What do they do in class? c at the City University
4 What time does your class start? d They speak, read, write and listen
____ to English
____ 5 Where does he study English? e at 8:30
6 How often does he speak English? f because he wants to go to college
____ in the UK
7 When does she go out with her g on September 10th
____ girlfriends?
____ 8 How does he go home? h every day

EXERCISE 6.20

Read the story of a student named Denisa. Write wh-questions with the words in parentheses.
Denisa is a Romanian student in Leeds. She speaks three languages – Romanian, French and
English. She wants to be a bilingual teacher. Her English is very good, but she speaks with an accent.
Sometimes people don't understand her when she speaks. She often meets her Romanian friends to
talk about her problem. Denisa feels embarrassed and seldom speaks English. She feels angry at
English people. She says English people only speak English. They don't understand the problems
people have when they learn a new language.
Example: (Denisa/live) Where does Denisa live?
1. (Denisa/come from) __________________________________________________
2. (Denisa/want to be) __________________________________________________

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3. (Denisa/speak English) ____________________________________________


4. (Denisa/feel when she speaks English) ________________________________
5. (Denisa/feel this way) __________________________________________________
6. (Denisa/feel angry) __________________________________________________

Now ask two questions of your own about the story.


7. ____________________________________________________________________
8. ____________________________________________________________________

FOCUS 12: WH-QUESTIONS WITH WHO/WHOM

examples explanations
a) Q: Who usually meets the customers?
A: Maria Who asks a question about the subject (Maria) of
b) Q: Who speaks English? the sentence. Do not use do / does.
A: Maria.
c) Q: Who(m) does Maria meet? Who(m) asks a question about the object (her
A: Maria meets the customers. friends) of the sentence.
d) Whom does Maria visit on Sundays? Formal written English.
e) Who does Maria visit in Sundays? Informal or spoken English.
f) Q: What goes up but never comes down? What can also be the subject of a question.
A: Age! Do not use do / does in this case.

EXERCISE 6.21

Fill in the blanks with who or whom.


Example: Who speaks English?
Who(m) do you call every week?

1. _______ likes English?


2. _______ avoids English?
3. _______ bites his or her nails before a test?
4. _______ do you meet after work?
5. _______ do you usually visit on weekends?
6. _______ makes mistakes in English?
7. _______ do you call at night?
8. _______ understands the difference between who and whom?
9. _______ helps you with English?

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EXERCISE 6.22

Read about immigrant families in Canada.


Many families immigrate to Canada. At the beginning, the parents sometimes have problems.
They don't speak English. They don't learn English fast. The children often learn English before the
parents, so they translate for their parents. The children always help their parents. For example, the
children sometimes pay the rent to the landlords. They often talk with doctors about their parents'
health. The children take their parents to job interviews. They solve the family's problems. This is a big
job for the children, and they feel important. But their parents sometimes feel sad and helpless. Life is
often difficult for new immigrant families.
Fill in the blanks with who (subject) or whom (object).
Example: Q: Who learns English before the parents?
A: The children (learn English before the parents.)
Q: Whom do the children help?
A: (The children help) their parents.

1. _______ translates for the parents?


2. _______ helps the parents?
3. _______ do the children pay the rent to?
4. _______ do the children often talk to about their parents' health?
5. _______ do the children take to job interviews?
6. _______ solves the family's problems?
7. _______ feels important?
8. _______ feels sad and helpless?

EXERCISE 6.23

Read the following questions. Write I in front of the question if it is informal. Write F in front of
the question if it is formal.
Example: F With whom will you be attending the party?
___ 1. Who will you give the flowers to?
___ 2. To whom do you give your loyalty?
___ 3. For whom is this package?
___ 4. Who has my new hair dryer?
___ 5. Who ants ice cream?
___ 6. Who studies on weekends?
___ 7. With whom do you play tennis?
___ 8. Who sings the duet with you?

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EXERCISE 6.24

Read the story. Write who or whom questions to go with each answer.
Jill, Mandy, and Joy are roommates. They share an apartment near the college where they go
to school. They share the responsibilities for the apartment and they also do many things together.
Jill drives Mandy and Joy to school every day. Joy makes dinner on weekdays and Mandy
makes dinner on weekends. Joy’s responsibility is to take out the trash on Mondays. Mandy puts out the
recycling on Wednesdays. Jill washes her car on Saturdays.
Usually their friends, Sam, Roy, and George, eat dinner with them on Saturdays. Mandy and Jill
also play tennis together.
Example: Who are Mandy’s roommates?
Jill and Joy are Mandy’s roommates.
1. __________________________________________________________________
Mandy and Jill share an apartment with Joy.
2. __________________________________________________________________
Mandy, Jill, and Joy go to school.
3. __________________________________________________________________
Jill drives the car.
4. __________________________________________________________________
Mandy and Joy ride with Jill.
5. __________________________________________________________________
Joy cooks dinner on Tuesdays.
6. __________________________________________________________________
Mandy prepares dinner on the weekends.
7. __________________________________________________________________
Joy takes out the trash.
8. __________________________________________________________________
Mandy puts out the recycling.
9. __________________________________________________________________
Jill washes her own car.
10. __________________________________________________________________
They eat with Sam, George, and Roy on Saturday nights.
11. __________________________________________________________________
Mandy and Jill play tennis.
12. __________________________________________________________________
Jill plays tennis with Mandy.

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TUTOR-ASSESSED TASK

Choose the one word or phrase that best completes the sentence.
1. __________ live in Baltimore?
(A) Do she (B) Do you
(C) Does they (D) Do he
2. Carmella gets home __________ 5:00 and prepares dinner.
(A) at (B) in
(C) on (D) to
3. Do you __________ work in Saturday? Yes, I __________ work on Saturdays.
(A) usually … never (B) ever … seldom
(C) never … always (D) ever … always
4. __________ a good restaurant near my apartment.
(A) There are (B) Is it
(C) There is (D) This
5. __________ any mail for me today?
(A) Is (B) Are there
(C) Are (D) Is there
6. __________ the bookstore open on Saturday?
(A) When does (B) What time do
(C) Who does (D) What does
7. Forrest Bowlins is a banker. He __________ people’s money.
(A) manages (B) manage
(C) have to (D) wants a
8. Sheldon __________ a nap after school.
(A) take (B) does
(C) wanting (D) takes
9. Once a week, __________ Fridays, Diane goes dancing.
(A) in (B) at
(C) on (D) the
10. I celebrate my birthday __________ May 19th.
(A) on the (B) in
(C) the (D) on
11. A healthy person __________ eat hamburgers every day.
(A) don’t (B) doesn’t
(C) no (D) any
12. Chieko __________ want to miss class.
(A) no (B) not
(C) don’t (D) doesn’t

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13. Enriqueta and Jo __________ about their friend.


(A) worried (B) are worry
(C) are worried (D) worrying
14. Charlie is always tired. He __________ sleep very well at night.
(A) no (B) isn’t
(C) not (D) doesn’t
15. __________ do you get to school? __________.
(A) How … I take by bus (B) What .. By bus
(C) How … I take the bus (D) What … I ride

Identify the one underlined word or phrase that must be changed in order for the sentence to be
grammatically correct.
16. She makes plans for her vacation in December. She decides to go skiing, even
A B C
though she likes to go the beach.
D
17. There aren’t any milk in the refrigerator.
A B C D
18. The Italian restaurant is open, but it no have any linguine today.
A B C D
19. The sun rises always in the east and sets in the west.
A B C D
20. Many people in India don’t eats meat; they only eat vegetables.
A B C D
21. In the winter, they go for a ski in the mountains in Colorado.
A B C D
22. Is there anything for the children to do in the summer? They go to swimming.
A B C D
23. I need to do a phone call before we make a decision about the new car.
A B C D
24. Blanca doesn’t goes to the university on Fridays in December.
A B C D
25. There is a word I don’t know. What means sibling? It means a brother or sister.
A B C D

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READING DIGEST 7: SHIRLEY

EXERCISE 7.1

You are going to read an extract from a novel. For questions 1-7 choose the answer (A, B, C or
D) which you think fits best according to the text.
Shirley was preparing to leave her friend Caroline for the night when Caroline's guardian and
uncle, Mr Helstone, entered. He seemed to be upset. "I'm glad you haven't gone, Shirley," he said. "I
need a favour from you." Caroline joined them, expecting a lecture on their absence from church that
morning.
"I shall not sleep at home tonight," her uncle continued. "I have just met an old friend and
promised to go to his home. I shall return about noon tomorrow. Now ..."
Shirley interrupted him, pleased that Mr Helstone was ready to place his trust in her. "I
understand," she said. "Do you want me to stay in the house and watch over your niece and maids
while you are away?"
As it was growing late, the arrangements were made quickly, and the girls agreed not to
separate. Mr Helstone's reason for making these arrangements was that he knew riots were possible
that evening. "If there should be any trouble in the night, if you should hear the picking of a lock, the
breaking of glass or the sound of steps in the house, what would you do? I am not afraid to tell you, that
such incidents are very possible in the present time. So tell me, how would you behave?"
"I don't know," replied Shirley light-heartedly. "Perhaps I would faint - fall down and have to be
picked up again!" She laughed, then requested and received the loan of a pair of pistols, and Mr
Helstone went on his way.
The two girls ate supper, then moved to some seats in the bay window. They were silent,
listening for any noise or disturbance. Every window and door was locked and bolted, but Shirley kept
the pistols by her side, and gave Caroline a small, sharp knife. The two girls did not want to go to bed,
and sat silent for half an hour in a state of nervous excitement. The night was very still, and the air was
clear.
Towards midnight the barking of the house dog disturbed their quiet wait. Shirley put out the
candle so as not to be seen and leant cautiously out of the window.
There was a louder noise than the dog's barking - the sound of marching feet. They approached
steadily. It was not the tread of two or even a dozen men; it was the tread of hundreds. The march
stopped at the gate. There was silence.
From the angry voices, the girls realised that the group were planning some kind of attack on
the house. Caroline trembled. She doubted if she would have the courage to use her weapon even if the
need arose.
There was a pause. Then someone in the group dropped a weapon. The sound rang out on the
stone drive and the dog barked again, furiously, fiercely. Alarmed, the troop resumed their march.
Shirley turned calmly to Caroline and suggested that it was time for bed.

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1. Mr Helstone appeared to be worried because


A. Caroline and Shirley had not been to church that morning.
B. he feared that Shirley had already gone.
C. Caroline and Shirley were leaving.
D. he had met an old friend.

2. Why was Shirley pleased?


A. Mr Helstone was going away.
B. Mr Helstone would return the following day.
C. Mr Helstone had met an old friend.
D. Mr Helstone believed he could depend on her.

3. Mr Helstone believed that


A. there might be serious trouble that night.
B. the girls should leave the house.
C. the house was safe.
D. there was someone in the house.

4. Shirley was
A. likely to faint that night.
B. aware of and prepared for the possible danger.
C. unprepared for the danger.
D. unsure of what she would do.

5. The two girls


A. wanted to go to bed.
B. were too tired to sleep.
C. talked to keep themselves from falling asleep.
D. were too disturbed to go to bed.

6. Why did Shirley put out the candle?


A. To stop the dog barking.
B. So that no one would see her.
C. Because she wanted to close the window.
D. Because she wanted to go to bed.

7. Why did the troop march on?


A. Because of the dog's angry barking.
B. One of them had dropped a weapon.
C. Shirley said it was time for bed.
D. An alarm sounded.

VOCABULARY

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EXERCISE 7.2

Fill in the gaps with the appropriate word(s) from the list below:
disturbance, resumed, fainted, riot, guardian, tread, bolt, incidents
1. When her parents died, Mary's aunt became her ............................. . (legal protector)
2. Jane was so frightened when she saw the ghost that she ............................. . (collapsed)
3. The football hooligans caused a(n) ............................. when they ran onto the field in the middle
of the match. (trouble)
4. The anarchists started a(n) ............................. in the city centre over new government policies.
(violent protest)
5. There were so many people taking part in the demonstration that the ............................. of their
feet could be heard a mile away. (sound of walking)
6. After two months away from university because of a broken leg, he ............................. his
studies. (began again)
7. The police are supposed to investigate all ............................. reported to them. (events)
8. Remember to ............................. all the doors and windows before you go away on holiday.
(lock using a narrow piece of metal)

EXERCISE 7.3

Choose the correct item.


1. If they cause any ...……....., call me and I'll phone the police.
A. trouble B. nuisance C. anxiety D. problem
2. Ann is asleep. Please don't ...……..... her.
A. annoy B. disturb C. bother D. frustrate
3. She was so cold that she couldn't stop ...……..... .
A. shivering B. trembling C. stuttering D. shuddering
4. The dog barks ...……..... every time someone walks by.
A. violently B. fiercely C. stormily D. intensely
5. It's a good idea to store wine down in the ...……..... .
A. storage B. attic C. cellar D. loft
6. Kate watched the soldiers ...……..... in lines past her house.
A. walk B. stride C. stroll D. march

EXERCISE 7.4

Fill in the gaps with behave or treat.


1. One should ...……..... politely during an interview.
2. As a ...……....., the girl was taken to the zoo on her birthday.
3. The naughty child was told to ...……..... himself by the teacher.
4. It is against the law to ...……..... animals cruelly.

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EXERCISE 7.5
Fill in the appropriate word(s) from the list:
growing to put out to lean
to place to watch the need
resumed went to fall
1. ...……..... one’s trust in somebody 6. ...……..... out of the window
2. ...……..... over somebody 7. ...……..... a candle
3. It was ...……..... late. 8. If ...……..... arose…
4. He ...……..... on his way. 9. They ...……..... their march.
5. ...……..... asleep

EXERCISE 7.6
Fill in the correct word derived from the words in brackets.
It was Saturday night and Mathew was bored. He was alone in the house as his parents had
gone out to dinner. He had wanted to go with them but they had refused to let him, saying that his (1)
...……..... (behave) was too bad for them to even consider such a (2) ...……..... (possible). He was
sitting in his room when he suddenly heard a (3) ...……..... (disturb) downstairs in the kitchen, and he (4)
...……..... (nerve) got up to see what it was.
He crept (5) ...……..... (caution) to the kitchen door an peeked through it. To his (6) ...…….....
(amaze) he saw a man dressed in black, who was (7) ...……..... (doubt) a burglar, trying to get in
through the back door. Thinking fast, Mathew grabbed his baseball bat and ran into the kitchen, waving
it above his head.
The burglar, not expecting this kind of (8) ...……..... (interrupt), took one look at Mathew and ran
off, leaving Mathew very pleased with himself. When his parents got home later that evening Mathew
told them what had happened. As a reward for his (9) ...……..... (courage) actions, they immediately
made (10) ...……..... (arrange) to take him out to dinner and promised never to leave him alone at home
again.

EXERCISE 7.7

Fill in the appropriate particle(s).


1. She put ...……..... the light and went to sleep. (switched off)
2. Hello? Could you put me ...……..... to Mr Wilkins, please? (connect)
3. The plane crash was put ...……..... engine failure. (considered to be caused by)
4. Greenpeace put ...……..... their ideas on how to reduce pollution. (proposed)
5. Now the summer is here, we can put ...……..... our raincoats. (store)
6. The journey was put ...……..... till late summer. (postponed)
7. Catherine put ...……..... weight when she gave up smoking. (gained)
8. As soon as we arrived on the campsite, we put ...……..... our tent. (raised)

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EXERCISE 7.8

Fill in: make or do.


1. ...……..... my best 6. ...……..... peace
2. ...……..... the washing-up 7. ...……..... one’s hair
3. ...……..... a decision 8. ...……..... an appointment
4. ...……..... a good turn 9. ...……..... a puzzle
5. ...……..... fun of 10. ...……..... a fortune
11. ...……..... a job 16. ...……..... friends
12. ...……..... a promise 17. ...……..... space
13. ...……..... progress 18. ...……..... somebody a favour
14. ...……..... harm 19. ...……..... certain
15. ...……..... an experiment 20. ...……..... war

GRAMMAR DIGEST 7:
IMPERATIVES; PREPOSITIONS OF DIRECTION; QUANTIFIERS;
ADVERBS OF MANNER

FOCUS 1: IMPERATIVES: AFFIRMATIVE AND NEGATIVE

Affirmative
base form of verb
Have a piece of cake.
Give me a dollar.

Negative
don’t + base form of verb
Don’t throw your litter on the street.
Don’t ask your father now.

Polite imperatives
Examples: Please give me change for a dollar.
Please don’t do that again.
Don’t do that again, please.
NOTE: Don’t use a subject with imperatives.
Have a piece of cake. NOT *You have a piece of cake.

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EXERCISE 7.1

Underline all the affirmative imperatives and circle all the negative imperatives:
1. “Please give me change for a dollar, Sir.”
2. “Have a piece of cake with your coffee, Mary.”
3. “Don’t ask your father now. He’s very angry.”
4. “Don’t throw your litter on the street. Pick it up!”
5. “Go straight down the street and turn left at the bakery.”
6. “Watch out!”

EXERCISE 7.2

Fill in each blank with an affirmative or negative imperative.

use keep drink be drive


wear obey leave look use

To be a good driver, remember these rules:


1. __________ prepared to stop.
2. __________ ahead.
3. __________ your rearview mirrors.
4. __________ the speed limit.
5. __________ space between your car and the car in front of you.
6. __________ your seat belt.
7. __________ if you are very tired or are on medication.
8 __________ and drive.
9. __________ your horn to warn others of danger.
10. __________ your car in good condition.

FOCUS 2: USES OF IMPERATIVES

Imperatives have different uses or purposes.


imperative use
“Don’t worry. Relax.” Give advice or make a suggestion.
“Be careful!” Give a warning when there is danger.
“Make a right at the corner.” Give directions or instructions.
“Please give m some aspirin, Mom.” Make a polite request.
“Have some coffee, dear.” Offer something politely.
“Don’t come home late again!” Give an order.

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EXERCISE 7.3

Match the sentences in column A to those in column B:


A B
1. I don’t like my landlord. a. Go on a diet.
2. I have a headache. b. Go to the dentist.
3. I am overweight. c. Make friends with your classmates.
4. I have the hiccups. d. Move to a different flat.
5. I have a toothache. e. Call home.
6. I don’t have any friends here. f. Go to bed early
7. I feel tired every morning. g. Practise speaking to native speakers/
8. I miss my family. h. Hold your breath for two minutes.
9. I worry too much. i. Take it easy.
10. I can’t speak English very well/ j. Take some aspirin.

FOCUS 3: USING IMPERATIVES APPROPRIATELY

examples explanations
Police Officer to woman: “Show me your Use an imperative when:
license.”  The speaker has the right or authority to tell the
listener to do something
A teacher to a teacher: “Pass me that book,  The speaker and the listener are equals, for
please.” example, they work together

EXERCISE 7.4

Check () Yes if the imperative is appropriate in each situation. Check No if the imperative is
not appropriate.
situation imperative Yes No
1. A student says to a teacher: “Give me my paper.”
2. A student says to a classmate: “Wait for me after class.”
3. A man stops you on the street. He says: “Hey, mister. Tell me the time.”
4. A worker says to his boss: “Don’t bother me now. I’m busy.”
5. You get into a taxi and say: “Take me to the airport, and please
hurry!”
6. Father says to a teenage son: “Turn down that music! I can’t take it
anymore!”

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EXERCISE 7.5

Check yes if the imperative is appropriate in the situation. Check no if it is not appropriate.
Check depends if you think it could be appropriate in certain situations.
situation imperative Yes No depends
Example: Son to father: Give me the car keys! 
1. Police officer to teenager: Don’t drive so fast!
2. Student to teacher: Tell me the answer.
3. Patient to doctor: Please fill out these insurance forms.
4. Lawyer to client: Don’t say anything to the police.
5. Employee to boss: Give me the report!
6. Dentist to patient: Brush you teeth three times a day.
7. Roommate to roommate: Please answer the phone.

EXERCISE 7.6

For each inappropriate imperative in Exercise 7. 5, rewrite the imperative in an appropriate


form.
Example: Dad, please give me the car keys.

__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
______________________

EXERCISE 7.7

Study the following imperatives. Write the function of each imperative after it.
Use
Giving advice
Giving an order
Giving a warning when there is danger
Making a polite request
Politely offering something
Giving directions

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Example: Caution: Do not puncture or incinerate container. Do not expose to heat or


store it at a temperature above 50° C. Keep out of reach of children. Avoid
freezing.
Giving a warning where there is danger.

1. In a large bowl, mix the margarine and the sugar well. Beat in the molasses. Add the flour,
soda, cloves, cinnamon, ginger and salt.
__________________________________________________________________
2. Danger: Harmful or Fatal is Swallowed. Read caution on back label carefully.
__________________________________________________________________
3. Bring me that report, Private.
__________________________________________________________________
4. Please, eat some more pot roast, Tom.
__________________________________________________________________
5. Please gift wrap this.
__________________________________________________________________
6. Remember to call us if you have a problem. Eat well and get enough sleep.
__________________________________________________________________

FOCUS 4: PREPOSITIONS OF DIRECTION: TO, AWAY FROM, ON (TO), OFF (TO),


IN(TO), OUT (OF)

to away from on (to)

out of
off (of) in (to)

examples explanations
He gets in (to) the car. Prepositions of direction show movement. For
He gets on the bus. cars, taxis and vans, use in (to) and out of. For
He gets out of the taxi. buses, trains and planes, use on (to) and off
He gets off the train. (of).

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EXERCISE 7.8
Here is a story about the hard life of a mouse. Fill in the blanks with a preposition of direction
form Focus 4.
1. The mouse comes __________ his hole.
2. The cat jumps __________ the table.
3. The mouse runs __________ the cheese.
4. The cat jumps __________ the table and runs after the mouse.
5. The mouse runs __________ the cat.
6. The mouse runs __________ his hole.

FOCUS 5: PREPOSITIONS OF DIRECTION: UP, DOWN, ACROSS, ALONG, AROUND,


OVER, THROUGH, PAST

up down across

around
over
along

through
past

EXERCISE 7.9

Here is a story about the hard life of a cat. Fill in the blanks with a preposition from Focus 5.
1. The cat sees the dog. He runs __________ the field.
2. He runs __________ the grass.
3. He runs __________ the bridge.
4. He climbs __________ the tree.
5. the dog barks. He runs __________ the tree.
6. The dog’s owner arrives and puts a leash on the dog. The cat climbs __________ from the tree.
7. The cat walks __________ the dog.
8. He walks __________ the road with a smile on his face.

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EXERCISE 7.10

If the sentence is correct, write C in front of it. If the sentence is incorrect, write I in front of it and
rewrite the sentence making it correct.
Example: _I_ Debbie lives off 1638 Perma Drive.
Debbie lives at 1638 Perma Drive.
___ 1. She works at 400 State Street.
___________________________________________________________
___ 2. Debbie’s office is out of the seventh floor.
___________________________________________________________
___ 3. Every morning she is late for wok, so Debbie runs on her house.
___________________________________________________________
___ 4. She drives out of her driveway.
___________________________________________________________
___ 5. She turns left out of her neighbourhood and gets on the freeway.
___________________________________________________________
___ 6. Debbie gets at the freeway when she gets downtown.
___________________________________________________________
___ 7. She jumps out of her car.
___________________________________________________________
___ 8. She runs at the elevator.
___________________________________________________________
___ 9. She gets off on the seventh floor just in time.
___________________________________________________________
___ 10. When her boss arrives, Debbie is off her desk.
___________________________________________________________

EXERCISE 7.11

QUANTIFIERS

The chart below shows the number of calories and the amount of fat and cholesterol in the
foods Billy, Juanita, and Brad eat for breakfast every day.
Calories are the amount of energy a food produces in the body. To lose weight, we need to
reduce our calories.
There is fat in foods like butter, cheese, and meat. Too much fat is bad for your health.
There is cholesterol in foods like eggs, butter and cheese. Too much cholesterol can give you
heart disease.
Who eats a healthy breakfast?

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Look at the chart and answer the questions:


Calories Fat Cholesterol
(grams) (milligrams)
Billy
eggs (3) 140 9.8 399
sausages (2) 180 16.3 48
muffin 170 4.6 9
milk 165 8 30
Brad
cereal 80 1.1 0
orange juice 80 0 0
nonfat milk 85 0 0
banana (1) 130 less than 1 0
Juanita
pancakes (3) 410 9.2 21
vanilla milkshake 290 13 10
doughnuts (2) 240 20 18
1. Is there a lot of fat in Juanita’s breakfast?
_____________________________________________________________________
2. Who eats a breakfast with only a little fat?
_____________________________________________________________________
3. Whose breakfast has a lot of calories?
_____________________________________________________________________
4. Are there any calories in Brad’s breakfast?
_____________________________________________________________________
5. How much cholesterol is there in each breakfast?
_____________________________________________________________________
6. Which foods don’t have any cholesterol?
_____________________________________________________________________
7. Which foods have little fat?
_____________________________________________________________________
8. Which food has a lot of cholesterol?
_____________________________________________________________________

Whose breakfast is healthy? Write three sentences to explain why _____ has a healthy
breakfast.
1. ____________________________________________________________ calories.
2. ____________________________________________________________ fat.
3. ____________________________________________________________ cholesterol.

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FOCUS 6: REVIEW OF COUNT AND NONCOUNT NOUNS

examples explanations
Count nouns:
Billy eats a muffin and an egg.  Can have a/an in front of them.
Brad likes pancakes.  Can have plural forms.
Billy eats three eggs.  Can have a number in front of them.
There is a fast-food restaurant near here.  Can take singular or plural verbs.
There are a lot of calories in a milkshake.  Can be in questions with how many.
How many eggs does Billy eat?
Noncount nouns:
Cereal is healthy.  Can’t have a/an in front of them.
He eats bread and butter.  Can’t have plural forms.
It has a little cholesterol.  Can’t have a number in front of them.
Nonfat milk is good for you.  Can’t take plural verbs.
How much cholesterol does an egg have?  Can be in question with how much.

EXERCISE 7.12

Go back to Exercise 7.11. Make a list of the count and noncount nouns.

count nouns noncount nouns


eggs milk

FOCUS 7: THE MEANING OF QUANTIFIERS

Quantifiers are words or phrases that show how many things or how much of something we
have.
Positive meaning
count nouns
quantifiers
There are many eggs
There are a lot of apples
in the refrigerator.
There are some bananas
There are a few potatoes

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noncount nouns
quantifiers
There is a lot of milk*
There is some juice in the refrigerator.
There is a little cake

Negative Meaning
count nouns
quantifiers
There many potatoes
aren’t a lot of potatoes
There few tomatoes
aren’t any onions
in the refrigerator.
There are no onions
There
aren’t
There are
noncount nouns
quantifiers
There isn’t much cake*
There isn’t a lot of cake
There is little coffee in the refrigerator.
There isn’t any jam
There is no jam
*Use much in the negative statements. Do not use much in affirmative statements.
NOT: *There is much milk in the refrigerator.

EXERCISE 7.13

Cross out the incorrect quantifier in each sentence.


Example: My new apartment has many furniture.
some
a lot of

1. Middletown has a lot of pollution.


a little
a few
2. The teacher gives us some homework.
many
a little
3. Billy has a little girlfriends.
a few
many

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4. Mario speaks much languages.


three
a few
5. Mary has a lot of money.
a little
many

EXERCISE 7.14

Use the chart in Exercise 7.11 to complete the statements by adding quantifiers.
1. Doughnuts have a lot of calories.
2. A banana doesn’t have __________ calories.
3. There is __________ cholesterol in eggs.
4. There is __________ cholesterol in a muffin.
5. There is __________ fat in bananas.
6. Orange juice has __________ calories.
7. Sausages have __________ fat.
8. Eggs and pancakes have __________ fat.
9. There are __________ calories in cereal.
10. There is __________ cholesterol in orange juice.
11. There is __________ fat in cereal.
12. There is __________ fat in whole milk.

FOCUS 8: A FEW/FEW, A LITTLE/LITTLE

examples explanations
She has a few books. = She has some books. A few and A little have a positive meaning. They
I have a little time. = I have some time. mean some, or more than zero.
They have few books. = They don’t have many books. Few and Little have a negative meaning. They
They have little time. = They don’t have much time. mean not much, not many, almost zero.

EXERCISE 7.15

Linda and Kathy are both Americans living in Europe for a year. Their experiences are very
different. Fill in the blanks with few/a few or little/a little.

Linda is very lonely. She doesn’t have a full-time job. She has (1) few friends and (2)
__________ money. She works part-time as a baby sitter. She doesn’t like this kind of work. She has
(3) __________ patience for children. She speaks very (4) __________ Spanish.

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Kathy loves to be in different countries. She speaks (5) __________ languages. She goes to a
language school in Spain and she has (6) __________ very close friends. Kathy learns (7) __________
Spanish every day. She also works as a baby sitter and makes (8) __________ extra money. Kathy
works hard, but she always has (9) __________ time to go out and he\have fun. She has (10)
__________ problems in Spain.

FOCUS 9: QUESTIONS WITH HOW MANY AND HOW MUCH

questions answer explanations


How many count noun
How many universities are there? A lot. Use How many with
How many brothers do you have? Two. count nouns.
How many oranges do you eat every A few.
day?
How much noncount noun
How much money do you have in $200. Use How much with
you account? noncount nouns.
How much time do you have? Five
minutes.
How much gas do you need? Not much.

EXERCISE 7.16
Go back to Exercise 7.11. Make questions with how much or how many.
1. How many pancakes does Brad usually eat for breakfast?
2. How much juice does Bobby drink?
3. __________ eggs does Billy have?
4. __________ cholesterol is there in three eggs?
5. __________ calories are there in a vanilla milkshake?
6. __________ cholesterol is there in a bowl of cereal?
7. __________ fat is there in two doughnuts?
8. __________ calories are there in three pancakes?
9. __________ sausages can Billy eat?
10. __________ money does Brad spend on his breakfast

EXERCISE 7.17
Fill in the blanks with how much or how many or a quantifier (a lot, a little, some, any, much,
many).
1. Mom: How was school today, dear?
Child: O.K., Mom …
Mom: (a) __________ homework do you have tonight?
Child: I have (b) __________ homework – three compositions plus a spelling test tomorrow!
Mom: Don’t worry. I have (c) __________ time to help you tonight.

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2. Doctor: Please remember to take this medicine, Mr. Josephson.


Patient: (a) __________ medicine do I need to take every day?
Doctor: These are pills. You need three red pills a day, one after every meal. And you need
two blue pills a day, one in the morning and one before bed.
Patient: Say that again, please … (b) __________ red pills? (c) __________ blue pills? And
(d) __________ pills do I need to take in all?
Doctor: Three red pills and two blue pills. Five pills in all. Take these for a week. Then call
me.
Patient: O.K. Thanks, Doctor.

FOCUS 10: MEASURE WORDS

Measure words change the way we see a thing. A measure word before a noncount noun tells
us about the specific quantity.
Example: I have a lot of coffee. (coffee = noncount noun)
I have four cans of coffee. (specific quantity)
a can of tuna a box of cereal
a jar of jam a bottle of beer Containers
a tube of toothpaste a bag of sugar
a slice of pizza a glass of milk
Portions
a piece of pie a cup of coffee
a cup of flour a quart of milk
a pint of ice cream a pound of sugar Specific quantities
a teaspoon of salt a gallon of water
a head of lettuce a loaf of bread
Others
a sheet of paper a bar of soap
a bag of apples a can of beans Measure words can also be
a pound of onions a box of chocolates used with count nouns.
BUT: a dozen eggs five thousand people
NOT: *a dozen of eggs NOT: *five thousand of people

EXERCISE 7.18
Maggie is at the checkout counter. Write down her shopping list. Use measure words in the list.
Shopping list
___a pound of________ coffee ____________________ oil
____________________ milk ____________________ soda
____________________ rice ____________________ bred
____________________ soup ____________________ soap
____________________ toothpaste ____________________ lettuce
____________________ candy ____________________ toilet paper
____________________ eggs ____________________ beef
____________________ butter ____________________ peanut butter

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EXERCISE 7.19

Correct the mistakes in the following sentences.


1. Jane: Can I talk to you for a minute?
Kevin: Sure, I have little time.
Sure, I have a little time.
2. John has much friends.
_____________________________________________________________________
3. How many money do you have?
_____________________________________________________________________
4. My teacher gives us many homeworks.
_____________________________________________________________________
5. Her hairs are black.
_____________________________________________________________________
6. Elsie is in great shape. She runs few miles a day.
_____________________________________________________________________
7. We don’t sell no newspapers here.
_____________________________________________________________________
8. There are much stores in this city.
_____________________________________________________________________
9. I would like some informations please.
_____________________________________________________________________
10. My best friend gives me many advices.
_____________________________________________________________________
11. This school has little students.
_____________________________________________________________________
12. We have few time to finish this book.
_____________________________________________________________________

EXERCISE 7.20

Look at what Wendy Weightlifter and Skinny Sarah had for breakfast and lunch, then complete
the sentences below using many, a lot of, some, a few, a little, few, any, no, much, very little. There is
more than one correct answer for some of the blanks. The first one has been done for you as an
example.

Wendy Weightlifter Skinny Sarah


Breakfast Lunch Breakfast Lunch
4 eggs Chicken Yogurt vegetable soup
orange juice onion rings cup of coffee milk
bacon 4 apples bagel salad
3 pieces of toast 4 sodas grapes

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Wendy has some eggs for breakfast. She also drank (1) __________ orange juice. She ate (2)
__________ bacon. Finally, she ate (3) __________ toast.
Sarah didn’t eat (4) __________ for breakfast. She had (5) __________ yogurt. She drank (6)
__________ coffee and ate a bagel with (7) __________ jam.
Wendy also had a big lunch. She ate (8) __________ of chicken, (9) __________ onion rings
and (10) __________ apples. She also drank (11) __________ soda.
Sarah didn’t have (12) __________ chicken for lunch. She had (13) __________ soup. (14)
__________ salad and (15) __________ grape. She drank (16) __________ milk.
Write three sentences about what you ate yesterday using the quantifiers from the exercise
above.
1.___________________________________________________________________
2.___________________________________________________________________
3.___________________________________________________________________

EXERCISE 7.21
Read the answers below and then write the questions about what Wendy and Sarah ate. The
first one has been done for you as an example.

Example: How many onion rings did she eat?


She ate some onion rings.
1. __________________________________________________________________
She drank one cup of coffee for breakfast.
2. __________________________________________________________________
She didn’t have any hot dogs for lunch.
3. __________________________________________________________________
Wendy drank a lot of orange juice for lunch.
4. __________________________________________________________________
She didn’t eat much food for breakfast.
5. __________________________________________________________________
She had some vegetable soup.
6. __________________________________________________________________
She ate four apples for lunch.
7. __________________________________________________________________
She didn’t eat any grapes for lunch.
8. __________________________________________________________________
She didn’t have any soup for lunch.
9. __________________________________________________________________
She ate some yogurt for breakfast.
10. __________________________________________________________________
She had a little milk for lunch.

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EXERCISE 7.22
Wendy is training for a body-building competition. She needs to lose some weight before the
competition. She decided the best way to lose the weight would be to go to training camp. However,
Wendy is not very happy at camp. Finish the letter she wrote to her mom with a few, a little, few, or little.
The first one has been done for you as an example.
Dear Mom,
I hope everything is ok at home. I’m having a few problems here at training camp. I’m glad that I
only have __________ more time here. I’m ready to go home.
First, I wish we could have __________ more food. There is so __________ food at breakfast
that I’m starving by 10:00. All I had for breakfast were __________ grapes and __________ milk and a
piece of toast with __________ margarine.
Another problem is the exercise program. We are always doing something: lifting, weights,
walking, swimming, riding bikes – we have __________ time to relax. At the end of the day I have
__________ energy. I can barely make it into bed. Then we have so __________ hours to sleep. They
wake us up at 6:00 a.m. and we go to bed at 10:00. I am exhausted.
The only good thing is that I’ve made __________ friends. There are three girls in my cabin that
are also trying to lose __________ weight for the competition.
I will be home in three days. Thank goodness I only have __________ more time here. Maybe I
can lose __________ weight in __________ more days on this diet.

Your daughter,
Wendy

EXERCISE 7.23

Adverbs of Manner
Does Bill Rogers Get Life Insurance?
You work for a life insurance company. Look at Bill Roger’s record and read the sentences
below. Check True, False, or I don’t know.
Long Life Insurance Company
Health and Accident Record
Name: Bill Rogers Sex: Male
Date of Birth: 9/20/58 Marital Status: Single
Height: 5’7’’ Weight: 225 pounds
Health Information: Heart problems
Smokes 2 packs a day
Offenses: Ticket for speeding: 5/19/92, 8/15/96
Not stopping at a red light: 7/14/89, 9/21/94, 12/31/94, 7/4/95
Drunk driving: 12/31/95
Crashing into a wall: 3/17/96

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True False I don’t know


1. Bill is a careful driver.
2. He eats moderately.
3. He drives slowly.
4. He’s a heavy drinker.
5. He works hard.
6. He drives carefully.
7. He is a big eater.
8. He drives fast.
9. He dresses neatly.
10. He is a heavy smoker.

Are you going to give Bill Rogers life insurance? Write a paragraph on why you are, or on why
you are not going to give him life insurance.
____________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________

FOCUS 11: ADVERBS OF MANNER

examples explanations
He is a careful driver. Careful is an adjective. It describes the noun driver.
The adjective goes before the noun.
He drives carefully. Carefully is an adverb of manner. It describes the
verb drive. The adverb answers the question “how?”.
The adverb goes after the verb.
He drives his car carefully. When there is an object after the verb, the adverb
NOT: *He drives carefully his car. goes after the object (his car).

EXERCISE 7.24

Go back to Exercise 7.23. Underline all the adjectives and circle the adverbs of manner.
Example: Bill is a careful driver.
He eats moderately.

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FOCUS 12: SPELLING OF ADVERBS OF MANNER

adjective adverb rule


slow slowly Add –ly.
beautiful beautifully
heavy heavily Adjectives that end in –y: change y to i and add –ly.
fantastic fantastically Adjectives that end with –ic: add –ally.
terrible terribly Adjectives that end with –le: drop the –e, and add –y.
examples explanations
She’s a fast driver. She drives fast.
We have an early dinner. We have dinner early. Some adverbs have the same form as
We eat a late lunch. We eat lunch late. adjectives.
We are hard workers We work hard.

Joel’s a good cook. He cooks well. Some adverbs are irregular.


He works hard. Do not confuse hard with hardly.
In this example, hardly means “he doesn’t
He hardly works. work very much.”
She is lovely.
Marco is lonely. Some words that end in –ly are not
That dress is ugly. adverbs. They are adjectives.
Maria is friendly.
The party is lively.

EXERCISE 7.25
Find three sentences that describe each occupation. Write the letters next to the occupation.
Occupations
1. I am a teacher. ___ a. I respond to medical emergencies very quickly.
___ b. I defend my clients well.
___ c. I prepare lessons carefully.
2. I am a lawyer. ___ d. I draw beautifully.
___ e. I take care of international problems urgently.
___ f. I give medical treatment to people carefully.
3. I am an artist. ___ g. I paint well.
___ h. I speak three languages fluently.
___ i. I stay at the office very late.
4. I am a Secretary for the United Nations. ___ j. I drive fast.
___ k. I talk to my students politely.
___ l. I use colors creatively.
5. I am an emergency medical technician in ___ m. I study the law constantly.
an ambulance
___ n. I write on the blackboard neatly.
___ o. I act diplomatically.

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EXERCISE 7.26
How are the speakers saying the sentences below? Match each sentence with the best adverb.
Write the adverb in the blank.
Example: “Shhh, don’t say a word”, she said quietly.
politely sadly nervously quickly shyly
incorrectly impolitely happily angrily kindly
1. “I just got engaged!” she said ____________________.
2. “My dog just died,“ he said ____________________.
3. “I’m in a hurry,” she said ____________________.
4. “I ain’t got no mistakes,” he said ____________________.
5. “May I make a telephone call?” she asked ____________________.
6. “Bring me a menu, fast!” he said ____________________.
7. “This is the last time I’m telling you! Clean up your room!” she said _______________.
8. “WWWWill yyyyou mmmmarry mmmme?” he asked ______________________.
9. “Please, don’t ask me to speak in front of the class”, she said ____________________.
10. “Can I help you?” he asked ____________________.

EXERCISE 7.27
Read each statement. Use the adjective in parentheses to make another statement with an
adverb.
Example: My son is a safe driver. (careful)
My son drives carefully.
1. Barryshnikov is an excellent dancer. (graceful)
_____________________________________________________________________
2. Uta Pippig is a great runner. (fast)
_____________________________________________________________________
3. My father is a smoker. (heavy)
_____________________________________________________________________
4. The President is a good speaker. (effective)
_____________________________________________________________________
5. Pavarotti is a wonderful singer. (beautiful)
_____________________________________________________________________
6. Teachers are hard workers. (diligent)
_____________________________________________________________________
7. He is a careless writer. (incorrect)
_____________________________________________________________________
8. Some children are fast learners. (quick)
_____________________________________________________________________
9. These painters are messy workers. (sloppy)
_____________________________________________________________________
10. She is a good thinker. (quick/clear)
_____________________________________________________________________

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EXERCISE 7.28

Answer the questions below by using the given cues.


1. Why is Carrie an excellent teacher?
(a) speak/slow
She speaks slowly.

(b) pronounce words/clear


_____________________________________________________________________
(c) prepare/careful
_____________________________________________________________________
2. Why is Mark a good secretary?
(a) type/fast
_____________________________________________________________________
(b) answer the phone/polite
_____________________________________________________________________
(c) take message/accurate
_____________________________________________________________________
3. Why is Mike a good truck driver?
(a) drive/slow
_____________________________________________________________________
(b) respond/quick
_____________________________________________________________________
(c) work/hard
_____________________________________________________________________
4. Why is Paula Abdul a popular performer?
(a) sing/good
_____________________________________________________________________
(b) dance/fantastic
_____________________________________________________________________
5. Why is Miyuki a good language learner?
(a) study/hard
_____________________________________________________________________
(b) guess/accurate
_____________________________________________________________________
(c) asks questions/constant
_____________________________________________________________________

EXERCISE 7.29

Using the information from the story, fill in the blanks in the second story using adverbs instead
of adjectives. The first one has been done for you as an example.

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Mom was early coming home, because her shopping trip was terrible. She was enthusiastic
when she left the house because there were many new clothes she wanted to buy.
First she tried on a blue skirt. The skirt looked good, but the fit wasn’t fantastic. It was loose. So,
she tried on a black skirt, but it was tight. When she took the skirt off she was careless, and the zipper
broke. She tried to be careful when she fixed the zipper, but it got stuck. She couldn’t get the skirt on or
off. She became anxious and pulled on the zipper, but it still wouldn’t move. She didn’t know what to do.
Even though she felt shy, she called for a saleswoman. The saleswoman was glad to help. She tried to
unzip the skirt, but she was also unsuccessful. Mom was brave. She was calm and she waited. The
saleswoman got some scissors and made a neat cut near the zipper. Mom was quick to leave the store.
Mom came home early, because her shopping trip went ____________________. She left
____________________ because there were many new clothes she wanted to buy.
First she tried on a blue skirt. The skirt looked like it would fit ____________________, but it
didn’t fit ____________________. It fit ____________________. So she tried on a black skirt but it fit
____________________. She took the skirt off ____________________ and the zipper broke. She
tried to fix the zipper ____________________, but it got stuck. She couldn’t get the skirt on or off. She
pulled ____________________ on the zipper, but it still wouldn’t move. She didn’t know what to do.
She called for a saleswoman ____________________. The saleswoman ____________________
helped. She ____________________ tried to unzip the skirt. Mom stood ____________________ and
waited ____________________. The saleswoman got some scissors and cut ____________________
near the zipper. Mom left the store ____________________.

FOCUS 13: TALKING ABOUT A PERSON OR AN ACTION

examples explanations
Isabelle Allende is a good writer. When you want to say something about a person, place, or
thing, use an adjective.
Isabelle Allende writes well. When you want to say something about a verb or action,
use an adverb.
She is a very good writer. You can use very in front of an adjective or adverb.
She writes very well.

EXERCISE 7.30

Do these sentences tell us about the person or the action? Check the correct column.
Person Action
1. Meryl Streep is a fantastic actress.
2. My students learn easily.
3. Steven daces slowly.
4. Karl’s a fast runner.
5. My children are good cooks.
6. Bill Rogers drives carelessly.
7. My accountant is an honest person.
8. Marco speaks to his parents impolitely.
9. Gloria works very hard.
10. Our teacher is a clear speaker.

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EXERCISE 7.31
Read the statements on the following page. Write one sentence that tells about the person and
another that tells about the action.
Example: Can you believe it! Jeryl is the winner of the race! (runner)
She is a great runner. She runs very fast.
1. Just look at Joe! He finishes one cigarette and then starts on another. (smoker)
_____________________________________________________________________
2. My mom cooks a great meal every night. She loves to make new dishes. (cook)
_____________________________________________________________________
3. Gloria goes to work at 8:00 in the morning and leaves at 6:00 in the evening. She never takes a
break. (worker)
_____________________________________________________________________
4. He got another speeding ticket. This is his third ticket this year! (driver)
_____________________________________________________________________
5. Bob can sing, dance, and play the piano too. (performer)
_____________________________________________________________________

EXERCISE 7.32

Read each sentence and give three reasons why the sentence is true. Use adverbs in the
reasons.
Example: I don’t want Henry do drive me downtown.
Reasons: He doesn’t drive very carefully.
He drives very fast.
He’s a careless driver.

1. Harold drives forty miles an hour in a sixty-five-mile-an-hour zone!


2. I can’t understand Bruce when he speaks.
3. Patricia is now the chef a that expensive restaurant downtown.
4. Rose is a great secretary.
5. Lucia is a good language learner.
6. Ms. Lee is a great boss.

EXERCISE 7.33

Correct the mistakes in the following sentences.


1. Sarah comes to work in a suit every day. She dresses elegant.
2. Melanie speaks fluently French.
3. Sam studies three hours every night. He studies hardly.
4. Dinner starts at 8:00. They always arrive at 9:30. They always come very lately.
5. Johan plays the piano very good.
6. She speaks slow.
7. She sings lovely.

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EXERCISE 7.34
Think about the different jobs below. Using the cues, write two sentences for each job. One
sentence should focus on the performer; the other sentence on the activity.
Example: Receptionist/polite
performer: A receptionist is polite on the phone.
activity: A receptionist answers the phone politely.
1. Model/attractive
performer: ___________________________________________________________
activity: ___________________________________________________________
2. Waitress/quick
performer: ___________________________________________________________
activity: ___________________________________________________________
3. Nurse/calm
performer: ___________________________________________________________
activity: ___________________________________________________________
4. Truck driver/careful
performer: ___________________________________________________________
activity: ___________________________________________________________
5. Mechanic/messy
performer: ___________________________________________________________
activity: ___________________________________________________________
6. Race car driver/fast
performer: ___________________________________________________________
activity: ___________________________________________________________
7. Scientist/systematic
performer: ___________________________________________________________
activity: ___________________________________________________________
8. Pilot/cautious
performer: ___________________________________________________________
activity: ___________________________________________________________
9. Construction worker/noisy
performer: ___________________________________________________________
activity: ___________________________________________________________

EXERCISE 7.35

Think of a person, place, thing, or activity that fits each category below. Write a sentence using
very.
Example: a car that goes fast.
A Corvette goes very fast.

1. a basketball player who jumps high


_____________________________________________________________________

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2. an athlete who runs well


_____________________________________________________________________
3. someone you know who reads quickly
_____________________________________________________________________
4. a person who works lazily
_____________________________________________________________________
5. someone who sings beautifully
_____________________________________________________________________
6. a plant that grown slowly
_____________________________________________________________________
7. someone you know who shops carefully
_____________________________________________________________________
8. a sexy actress or actor
_____________________________________________________________________
9. a restaurant where you can buy good food cheaply
_____________________________________________________________________
10. a writer who writes poetically
_____________________________________________________________________
11. an animal that runs quickly
_____________________________________________________________________

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ANSWERS TO EXERCISES

READING DIGEST 1
Exercise 1.2
1. C. (travelling light) 2. B. (keep a diary)
3. E. (penknife … I have never used it)
4. A. (correspondence) 5. B. (sketch book), also possibly C. (notebooks)
6. D. (credit card) 7. B. (new diary)
GRAMMAR DIGEST 1
Exercise 1.1
1. is; 2. is; 3. is; 4. are; 5. is
Exercise 1.2
1. is; 2. is; 3. Chen; 4. is; 5. Fernando and Isabel; 6. is; 7. is; 8. are; 9. is; 10. is
Exercise 1.3
1. Rosa is divorced.
2. Yumiko is Japanese.
3. Juan and Julia are single.
4. The engineer is 35.
5. The German is a student.
6. The teacher is from Puerto Rico.
7. Juan and Julia are 19 years old.
8. The Mexican is a student.
9. Yumiko is Asian.
10. The students are single.
Exercise 1.4
2. is, the Caribbean; 3. are, Africa; 4. are, Central America; 5. are, South America;
6. is, Asia; 7. is, the Middle East; 8. is, North America; 9. are, Europe
Exercise 1. 5
1. She 2. They 3. She 4. He/She 5. It
6. I 7. We 8. It 9. He 10. She
Exercise 1.6
2. He; 3. You; 4. It; 5. We; 6. They; 7. They
Exercise 1.7
1. A. We, B. You; 2. A. She is, B. she; 3. A. They, B. they; 4. A. She, B. She;
5. A. They, B. They; 6. A. I, B. you.
Exercise 1.8
1.c Rodica is Romanian. She's divorced.
2.f Japan is an island. It's in the Pacific Ocean.
3.e Chen is Chinese. He's 25 years old.
4.b Fernando and Isabel are Colombian. They're married.
5.h Monique is French. She's from Paris.
6.g Moscow is in Russia. It's the capital.
7.a Bogotá is in Colombia. It's the capital.
8.d Haiti is an island. It's in Caribbean.
Exercise 1.9
1. They're; 2. She's; 3. She's; 4. She's; 5. They're; 6. It's; I'm; 7. We're; 8. They're;
9. She's; 10 He's
Exercise 1.10
1. Madonna is from the United States. She's American.
2. Sophia Loren is from Italy. She's Italian.
3. Arnold Schwarzenegger is from Austria. He's Austrian.
4. The Rolling Stones are from Great Britain. They're British.

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5. Steffi Graf is from Germany. She's German.


6. Michael Jordan is from the United States. He's American.
7. Luciano Pavarotti is from Italy. He's Italian.
8. Catherine Deneuve is from France. She's French.
9. Pele is from Brazil. He's Brazilian.
10. Nelson Mandela is from South Africa. He's South African.
Exercise 1.11
1. Hello, Fred/Hi, Fred/Nice to meet you Fred; My name is/I'm Philippe.
2. What's your name?; Where are you from?; Where are you from?
3. This is Jane; How are you?; And you?
Asking personal questions
5. Dr. Friend, Psychiatrist: C
6. The Lonely Hearts Dating Service: A
7. New Body Health Club: D
8. The Cool School of English: B
Exercise 1.12
1. B: are A: we are
2. Are; I am; Are you; I'm not
3. Yes, it is; Is
4. Are; they aren't; Are; they are; Is; it isn't/it's not
Exercise 1.13
Guess the Place
Is; it is. Is it; it isn't. Is it; yes. Is it; it is. Is it; it is; the Louvre
Guess Who I Am
you aren't; Am I; No; Am I; you aren't. Am I; Yes; Am I a; you are. Am I; Pele
Guess the Famous Couple
No; Are we; you aren't. Are we; you are. Are we; Yes; Charles and Diana
Exercise 1.14
2. I'm ...; 3. I'm; 4. am; 5. am; 6. am not/'m not; 7. Are; 8. Are; 9. Are; 10. Are you
Exercise 1.15
Answers may vary.
Exercise 1.16
Answers may vary.

READING DIGEST 2
Exercise 2.1
Answers will vary.
Exercise 2.2
1. e; 2. g; 3. c; 4. b; 5. h; 6. a; 7. d; 8. i; 9. f.
Exercise 2.3
e) old age.
Exercise 2.4
1. C.; 2. F.; 3. A.; 4. B.; 5. G.; 6. D.
GRAMMAR DIGEST 2
Exercise 2.1
1. a. am; b. am; c. aren't/'re not; d. are/'re beautiful
2. a. isn't/'s not; b. delicious
3. a. am/'m; b. am/'m; c. aren't/'re'not; d. are/'re smart
4. a. is/'s; b. isn't/'s not; c. is/'s selfish and mean
5. a. isn't/'s not; b. is/'s
Exercise 2.2
Sentences may vary.
Exercise 2.3
Sentences may vary.

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Exercise 2.4
Sentences may vary.
Exercise 2.5
1. b; 2. e; 3. a; 4. f; 5. j; 6. i; 7. c; 8. d; 9. g; 10. h.
Exercise 2.6
2. who; 3. where; 4. how; 5. what; 6. when; 7. what time; 8. when; 9. why; 10. what.
Exercise 2.7
2. h; 3. e; 4. b; 5. f; 6. a; 7. c; 8. g.
Exercise 2.8
1. What time is it right now?
2. What's today/what day is it?
3. What's your name?
4. How old are you?
5. When is your birthday?
6. What's your nationality?
7. Where is your hometown?
8. Where is your family?
9. How is the weather in Mexico City right now?
10. Why are you here?
Exercise 2.9
(all Monte): 1. how are; 2. What is; 3. Who is; 4. why are; 5. how old are; 6. what is;
7. Where is; 8. how much is; 9. who is; 10. where is; 11. When is.

READING DIGEST 3
Exercise 3.3
1. D. (… mistakenly left behind by his parents when they go off to Europe…)
2. A. (… Kids really liked it because Kevin was like them.)
3. B. (Macaulay’s personal fortune is now valued at around $1m for every year he’s spent on earth,
…)
4. D. (… but it’s not always “Sure, sure, sure.”)
5. C. (… children pushed to nervous breakdowns by starstruck parents; … parents make a child feel
inadequate …)
6. D. (The long term psychological effects show that it’s simply not worth it.)
7. B.
8. A.
VOCABULARY
Exercise 3.4
1. row/screen;
2. scene;
3. director/actors;
4. plot/ending;
5. play/theatre;
6. audition/part/rehearsals;
7. performance;
8. critics/reviews/audience/applauded;
9. concert/symphony/composer/conducted/orchestra;
10. group/cassette/singer/guitarist.
GRAMMAR DIGEST 3
Exercise 3.1
1. food: milk, bread, an egg.
2. clothing: a shirt, dresses. a shoe.
3. money: dollars, cents, cash.
Exercise 3.2
1. singular noun

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2. plural noun
3. noncount noun
Exercise 3.3
Count nouns: egg, dresses, shirt, shoe, dollars, cents.
Noncount nouns: food, milk, bread, clothing, money, cash.
Exercise 3.4
Count nouns: pork chops, hamburger, potatoes, strawberries, carrots, onions,
green beans, brownies, rolls, doughnuts.
Noncount nouns: steak, chicken, milk, butter, ice cream, apple cider, broccoli.
Exercise 3.5
fruit: an orange, a banana, an apple, a pear
furniture: an armchair, a bed, a table, a desk
jewellery: an earring, a watch, a ring, a necklace
housing: a dormitory, an apartment, a house, a hotel
Exercise 3.6
Clothes: a tie, a sweater, a blouse, a uniform, an undershirt
Transportation: an airplane, a truck, a train, a helicopter, an automobile
Vegetables: a pea, an herb, a carrot, a potato, a radish
Time: a day, a month, a year, a week, an hour
Exercise 3.7
1. parties; 2. shoes; 3. foxes; 4. dictionaries; 5. weeks; 6. glasses; 7. wives; 8. watches;
9. leaves; 10. ladies; 11. months, 12. keys.
Exercise 3.8
1. holidays; 2. oceans; 3. continents; 4. universities; 5. companies; 6. stories;
7. mountains; 8. countries; 9. states; 10. cities.
Exercise 3.9
1. countries; 2. babies; 3. witches; 4. monsters; 5. knives; 6. axes; 7. boys; 8. heroes;
9. Fairies; 10. wishes; 11. princesses; 12. stories; 13. girls; 14. cats; 15. parties; 16. classes; 17. doors;
18. houses; 19. treats; 20. candies; 21. oranges; 22. toys; 23. tricks.
Exercise 3.10
/s/: books, boats, lists, tickets, cups, hats;
/z/: things, cars, trains, heads, rules, radios;
/iz/: horses, dresses, churches, houses, peaches, buses.
Exercise 3.11
1. On Education
Words, sentences, exercises, rules,
Dictionaries, textbooks, pages, schools,
Classrooms, teachers, students, – all jewels
Of education, these are the tools.
2. On Age
Days, weeks, months, years.
Getting old? Please, no tears!!!
3. On Imports
The shoes are Brazilian,
The gloves are Italian,
The chefs are from France,
from South America – the salsa dance,
The toys are Chinese,
The cameras are Japanese:
Tell me, what’s Romanian, please?
Exercise 3.12
1. feet; 2. mice; 3. women/men; 4. deer; 5. people; 6. teeth; 7. children; 8. People.
Exercise 3.13
Humans: people, men, women, children

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Animals: moose, geese, deer, sheep, fish, oxen


Body parts: feet, teeth, hooves, hair
Exercise 3.14
count: dollar, exercises, apples, suitcase, stamps
noncount: Money, Homework, Fruit, Luggage, Mail
Exercise 3.15
informations; A news; informations; Computers; homeworks; advices; mails;
an electricity.
Information is easier to get with today’s new technology. News is transmitted around the world by TV
satellites. Computers also make information easier to get. A computers can help a person do his
homeworks. Computer networks allow people to tell some news and give some advice. With
computer mail, a person can send a message with electricity and a phone line.
foods; furnitures; a coffee; a tea; a milk; jewelleries, clothings; musics, luggages; a bread; a rice; a
sugar; a fruit; moneys; the love.
There is a new kind of store in the United States now. Superstores are a combination of supermarkets
and discount stores. Superstores have everything form food to furniture. At a superstore you can buy
beverages like coffee, tea, or milk. In the same store you can buy jewellery, clothing, music and
luggage. You can also buy things like bread, rice, sugar, or fruit. You should bring lots of money with
you when you go to a superstore because there is a lot to buy. But, one thing you can’t buy at a
superstore is love.
Exercise 3.16
Answers may vary.
3. is a very talented/popular; 4. are very violent/popular; 5. is a very expensive; 6. is a very
useful/interesting; 7. is a very popular; 8. is a very exciting/crowded/interesting; 9. are very famous; 10.
are very useful

READING DIGEST 4
Exercise 4.1
First Second First Second
group group group group
space travel  test tube babies
robots  unemployment 
computers   future places for people to live  
nuclear weapons   future forms of energy
over-population   future forms of communication 
Exercise 4.2
1. B.; 2. C.; 3. C.; 4. D.
GRAMMAR DIGEST 4
Exercise 4.1
A. has; has; has; have; have; have
B. has; has; has; has; has
C. have; have; have
Exercise 4.2
1. They have many children.
2. They also have grandmothers and grandfathers living with them.
3. In a traditional family, only the father has a job.
4. The mother doesn't have a job.
5. The children don't have a baby-sitter.
6. Sometimes they have two people.
7. Sometimes they have one or two children.
8. Sometimes they don't have children.

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Exercise 4.3
1. Do the Amish people have a simple life? Yes, they do.
2. Do the Amish women have jewellery? No, they don't.
3. Does an Amish home have electricity? No, it doesn't.
4. Does an Amish farmer have horses? Yes, he does.
5. Does an Amish home have a telephone? No, it doesn't.
6. Do Amish people have their own language? Yes, they do.
7. Does an Amish child have a computer? No, he doesn't.
8. Do Amish people have colourful clothing? No, they don't.
9. Does an Amish home have television? No, it doesn't.
10. Do Amish children have special teachers? Yes, they do.
11. Do Amish children have school after the eighth grade? No, they don't.
12. Do Amish people have a modern lifestyle? No, they don't.
Exercise 4.4
1. Do they have...? 6. Do they have...?
2. Does he have...? 7. Does California have...?
3. Do they have...? 8. Does Wisconsin have...?
4. Does she have...? 9. Do they have...?
5. Do they have...? 10. Does Jack have...?
11. Does she have...?
Exercise 4.5
I don’t have any time today
I have some problems to solve
I have some bills to pay
Do you have any time to play?
I have some places to go
I have some people to see
Do you have any advice for me?
Yes, I do. “Slow down!”
Exercise 4.6
Answers will vary.
Exercise 4.7
1. any; 2. any; 3. any; 4. any/x; 5. any; 6. some/x; 7. x/some; 8. any.
Exercise 4.8
All begin with "Excuse me, do you have..."
1. ... any pencils?
2. ... a telephone?
3. ... any fountain pens?
4. ... any basketballs?
5. ... any restrooms?
6. ... a photocopier?
7. ... any T-shirts?
8. ... any notebooks?
9. ... any computer disks?
10. ... any comic books?
Exercise 4.9
2. She doesn't have a house.
3. He doesn't have a TV set.
4. He isn't rich.
5. She doesn't have children.
6. Does she have a sister?
7. Is she an Inuit?
8. Excuse me, do you have any change?
Exercise 4.10
Answers may vary.

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Exercise 4.11
Answers may vary.

READING DIGEST 5
Exercise 5.1
1. c; 2. e; 3. f; 4. a; 5. g; 6. d; 7. b.
Exercise 5.3
1. G.; 2. D.; 3. F.; 4. A.; 5. H.; 6. B.; 7. C.
GRAMMAR DIGEST 5
Exercise 5.1
1. star's; 2. Madeline's; 3. friends'; 4. brother's; 5. husband's; 6. husband's; 7. parents';
8. sister's; 9. children's; 10. grandparents.
Exercise 5.2
2. more than one; more than one; 3. one; one; 4. more than one; more than one; 5. more than one; one;
6. one; more than one; 7. more than one; one; 8. more than one; more than one.
Exercise 5.3
2. His; 3. hers; 4. his; 5. Their; 6. Its' 7. Its; 8. our; 9. Its/His; 10. His/Its; 11. His/Its;
12. our.
Exercise 5.4
Answers may vary.
Exercise 5.5
1. My; 2. My; 3. your; 4. our; 5. Her; 6. our; 7. My; 8. His; 9. his; 10. your; 11. My;
12. my;
Exercise 5.6
1. The truck is his.
2. The fire hose is theirs.
3. The wrench is his.
4. The music is his.
5. The dog leash is hers.
6. The police badges are theirs.
7. The book bag is hers.
8. The cash register is his.
9. The plans for a house are his.
10. The football is his.
Exercise 5.7
1. This is Jim's magazine.
2. Sara is his wife.
3. That computer is hers.
4. Is Jim Charles' brother?
5. Whose son in law is Charles?
6. Jake and Emily are their children.
7. What's that man's name?
8. Larry's dog is small.
9. Who's hungry?
10. These dogs are cute.
11. Yes, it is.
12. The teacher has chalk on his face.
Exercise 5.8
1. b; 2.a; 3. b.
Exercise 5.9
1. there's; 2. there are; 3. there's; 4. there are; 5. there's; 6. there are; 7. there are;
8. there's; 9. there are.
Exercise 5. 10
Answers may vary.

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Exercise 5.11
2. There's public transportation.
3. There's no crime. /There isn't any crime.
4. There are museums.
5. There are no traffic problems. /There aren't any traffic problems.
6. There are universities.
7. There's no noise. /There isn't any noise.
8. There are jobs.
9. There are parks.
10. There are no poor people. /There aren't any poor people.
Exercise 5.12
2. there aren't any/there are no; 3. there are; 4. there are; 5. there are; 6. there are no/there aren't any;
7. there is no/there isn't any; 8. there are no/there aren't any; 9. there is no/there isn't any; 10. there is
no/there isn't any; 11. there are; 12. there is; 13. there is; 14. there are; 15. there is; 16. there is; 17.
there is.
Exercise 5.13
1. Is there any... No, there isn't; 2. Are there... No, there aren't. There are one billion...;
3. Are there... No, there aren't. There are 50...; 4. Are there any... Yes, there are; 5. Are there... Yes,
there are; 6. Is there any... Maybe, I don't know; 7. Are there any... No, there aren't; 8. Is there a... No,
there isn't.
Exercise 5.14
1. There's no...; 2. There aren't any... 3. There is no...; 4. There is no...; 5. There aren't any...; 6. There is
no...; 7. There is no...; 8. There is no...; 9. There aren't any... 10. There is no...
Exercise 5.15
1. a; 2. The; 3. a; 4. a; 5. a; 6. the; 7. an; 8. the; 9. a; 10. the; 11. the; 12. The; 13. a; 14. a; 15. a; 16. a.
Exercise 5.16
1. The; 2. The; 3. a; 4. The; 5. a; 6. the; 7. an; 8. an; 9. a; 10. the; 11. the; 12. a; 13. a; 14. the; 15. the;
16. the; 17. a.
Exercise 5.17
1. There's a picture on the wall.
2. There's a bathroom, a kitchen, and a living room... (the rule governing item 2 states that the verb be
generally agrees with the first noun phrase that follows it.)
3. There are three bedrooms and two bathrooms...
4. There's a good restaurant...
5. There isn't any milk in... / There is no milk in...
6. In my picture there is one woman and two men.
7. Are there any homeless people...
8. Is there jewellery in...
9. ... Really! Where is the restaurant?
10. Are there any museums in your town? Yes, there are.
11. Excuse me, is there a men's room...
12. Do you have any children? Yes, I have a daughter.
13. Is there any pollution...
14. There are no women in...
15. There are no poor people... / There aren't any poor people...

READING DIGEST 6
Exercise 6.2
1. g; 2. e; 3. a; 4. h; 5. b; 6. f; 7. c; 8. d.
Exercise 6.3
1. No, they don’t. (… how it works is still being unpuzzled out.)
2. People generally laugh less then before. (… the French laughed on average for nineteen
minutes per day. By 1980 this had fallen to six minutes.)
3. Yes, there is. (… Fry has proved that laughter produces endorphins.)

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Exercise 6.4
1. H.; 2. D.; 3. G.; 4. A.; 5. B.; 6. E.; 7. C.
VOCABULARY
Exercise 6.5
1. time on his hands = a lot of free time.
2. put words in my mouth = anticipate what someone is going to say.
3. on the tip of my tongue = can’t quite remember it.
4. to have a sweet tooth = to be (excessively) fond of sweets.
5. have/has (got) cheek = is rude or disrespectful.
6. get off on the wrong foot = start a relationship or conversation badly.
7. get it off your chest = tell someone else about a worry or problem.
8. his heart is in the right place = has good intentions.
Exercise 6.6
1. surgery; 2. pain; 3. prescription; 4. heal; 5. temperature; 6.twisted; 7. injections;
8. sore; 9. stretcher; 10. over; 11. bruises; 12. plasters.
GRAMMAR DIGEST 6
Exercise 6.1
... are friends... Fran is... She takes care... she loves her job. She starts work... and finishes at...
She visits her patients... Then she hurries... She often skips... but she eats...
Janice is an... She works in... She's not very... she often eats snacks... she plays tennis. Then she
goes home and prepares...
Fran comes home... an eats dinner... They talk, listen to music together, and relax. Then Fran
goes... Janice watches television. Janice and Fran feel hungry... They enjoy some... Then they go...
Exercise 6.2
The word that should be circled is:
1. takes, 2. works, 3. loves, 4. starts, 5. eats, 6. prepares, 7. exercise, 8. plays, 9. goes,
10. relax, 11. enjoy, 12. go.
Exercise 6.3
1. live, 2. likes, 3. walks, 4. works, 5. goes, 6. walks, 7. goes, 8. thinks, 9. prefers,
10. enjoys, 11. camp, 12. complains, 13. hates, 14. want, 15. work.
Exercise 6.4
1. d, 2. e, 3. a, 4. f, 5. c, 6. h, 7. b, 8. g.
Exercise 6.5
1. hurries, 2. enjoys, 3. worries, 4. has, 5. works, 6. tests, 7. has, 8. empties, 9. looks,
10. plays, 11. tries, 12. sees, 13. does, 14. writes, 15. says, 16. tells, 17. sends.
Exercise 6.6
Sentences will vary.
Exercise 6.7
1. at, 2. every, 3. on, 4. On, 5. at, 6. in, 7. In, 8. In, 9. at, 10. On, 11. at, 12. at, 13. on.
Exercise 6.8
Answers may vary.
Exercise 6.9
Answers may vary.
Exercise 6.10
Answers may vary.
Exercise 6.11
Answers may vary.
Exercise 6.12
1. Ron doesn't work inside.
2. Don doesn't live in a house.
3. Don and Ron don't smoke.
4. Ron doesn't have a sports car.
5. Don doesn't play volleyball.
6. Don and Ron don't jog/don't like jogging.
7. Ron doesn't like team sports.

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8. Don doesn't drive a pick up truck.


9. Ron doesn't live in an apartment.
10. Don and Ron don't like movies.
11. Ron doesn't like basketball.
Exercise 6.13
2. don't eat; 3. sit; 4. drinks; 5. doesn't like; 6. doesn't sleep; 7. worries, 8. cares;
9. don't like.
Exercise 6.14
2. work; 3. work; 4. has; 5. doesn't have; 6. don't take; 7. don't have; 8. keeps; 9. gives;
10. doesn't help; 11. wear, 12. use; 13. don't take; 14. stay; 15. go shopping; 16. get.
Exercise 6.15
1. no; Good parents don't let their children...; 2. yes; Good parents...; 3. yes; Good parents...; 4. no;
Good parents don't...; 5. no; Good parents don't...; 6. no; Good parents don't...; 7. yes; Good parents...;
8. yes; Good parents...; 9. yes; Good parents...; 10. yes; Good parents... buy their children bicycles.
Exercise 6.16
3. Do children go to school five days a week?
4. Do children go to school on Saturdays?
5. Do they go to school from 8:30 A.M. to 3 P.M.?
6. Do they wear uniforms in school?
7. Do children study religion in public schools?
8. In high school, does a student take difficult exams to enter college?
9. Does a private school cost a lot of money?
10. Does the government pay for private colleges?
11. Do parents pay for their children's education?
12. Do students work after school to help pay for college?
Exercise 6.17
Answers are personal and will vary.
Exercise 6.18
Answers will vary.
Exercise 6.19
1. f, 2. g, 3. d, 4. e, 5. c, 6. h, 7. a, 8.b.
Exercise 6.20
1. Where does Denisa come from?
2. What does Denisa want to be?
3. Does Denisa speak English?/ How well does Denisa speak English?
4. How does Denisa feel when...?
5. Why does Denisa...?
6. Why does Denisa feel...?
Exercise 6.21
1. who; 2. who; 3. who; 4. whom; 5. whom; 6. who; 7. whom; 8. who; 9. who.
Exercise 6.22
1. who; 2. who; 3. whom; 4. whom; 5. who; 6. who; 7. who; 8. who.
Exercise 6.23
1. I; 2. F; 3. F; 4. I; 5. I; 6. I; 7. F; 8. I.
Exercise 6.24
1. Whom do Mandy and Jill share an apartment with?/ With whom do Mandy and Jill share an
apartment?
2. Who goes to school?
3. Who drives the car?
4. Whom do Mandy and Joy ride with?/ With whom do they ride?
5. Who cooks dinner on Tuesday?
6. Who prepares dinner on weekends?
7. Who takes out the trash?
8. Who puts out the recycling?
9. Who washes Jill's car?

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10. Whom do they meet on Saturday night?


11. Who plays tennis?
12. Whom does Jill play tennis with?/ With whom does Jill play tennis?

READING DIGEST 7
Exercise 7.1
1. B.; 2. D.; 3. A.; 4. B.; 5. D.; 6. B; 7. A.
VOCABULARY
Exercise 7.2
1. guardian; 2. fainted; 3. disturbance; 4. riot; 5. tread; 6. resumed; 7. incidents; 8. bolt.
Exercise 7.3
1. A.; 2. B.; 3. A.; 4. B.; 5. C.; 6. D.
Exercise 7.4
1. behave; 2. treat; 3. behave; 4. treat.
Exercise 7.5
1. to place; 2. to watch; 3. growing; 4. went; 5. to fall; 6. to lean; 7. to put out;
8. the need; 9. resumed;
Exercise 7.6
1. behaviour; 2. possibility; 3. disturbance; 4. nervously; 5. cautiously; 6. amazement,
7. doubtlessly; 8. interruption; 9. courageous; 10. arrangements.
Exercise 7.7
1. out; 2. through; 3. to; 4. forth; 5. away; 6. off; 7. on; 8. up.
Exercise 7.8
1. do; 2. do; 3. make; 4. do; 5. make; 6. make; 7. do; 8. make; 9. do; 10. make; 11. do;
12. make; 13. make; 14. do; 15. make; 16. make; 17. make; 18. do; 19. make; 20. make.
GRAMMAR DIGEST 7
Exercise 7.1
Answers that should be underlined are underlined; those that should be circled are italicised:
1. give; 2. Have; 3. Don't ask; 4. Don't throw; Pick (it) up; 5. Go; Turn; 6. Watch
Exercise 7.2
1. Be; 2. Look; 3. Use; 4. Obey; 5. Leave; 6. Wear; 7. Don't drive; 8. Don't drink;
9. Use; 10. Keep
Exercise 7.3
1. d; 2. j; 3. a; 4. h; 5. b; 6. c; 7. f; 8. e; 9. i; 10.g
Exercise 7.4
1. No; 2. Yes (the two students are equals and are friends); 3. No; 4. No; 5. Yes (in this situation, it is
understood that it is an emergency and the driver probably wouldn't be offended); 6. Yes (the father has
the authority to tell his son to do something)
Exercise 7.5
1. Yes; 2. No; 3. Yes; 4. depends; 5. No; 6. Yes; 7. Yes
Exercise 7.6
2. Please, tell me the answer.
5. Please, give me the report.
Exercise 7.7
1. Giving directions.
2. Giving a warning when there is danger.
3. Giving an order.
4. Politely offering something.
5. Making a polite request.
6. Giving advice.
Exercise 7.8
1. out of; 2. on (to); 3. to; 4. off (of); 5. away from; 6. into
Exercise 7.9
1. across; 2. through; 3. over/across; 4. up; 5. around; 6. down; 7. past; 8. along/down/up.

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Exercise 7.10
1. C.
2. (I) Debbie's office is on the seventh floor.
3. (I) Every morning she is late for work so Debbie runs out of her house.
4. C.
5. C.
6. (I) Debbie gets off the freeway when she gets downtown.
7. C.
8. (I) She runs to the elevator.
9. C.
10. (I) When her boss arrives, Debbie is at her desk.
Exercise 7.11
1. Yes; 2. Brad; 3. Billy's and Juanita's; 4. Yes (cereal = 80 calories; orange juice = 80; non-fat milk = 85;
banana = 130); 5. Billy = 576 milligrams; Brad = 0 milligrams; Juanita = 49 milligrams; 6. Cereal, orange
juice, non-fat milk, bananas; 7. cereal, orange juice, non-fat milk, bananas; 8. eggs, sausages, (whole)
milk.
Brad has a healthy breakfast. Answers may vary. Possible answers:
1. He eats a few calories.
2. He has very little fat.
3. He has no cholesterol.
Exercise 7.12
Count nouns: eggs, sausages, muffin, banana, pancakes, milkshake, doughnuts.
Noncount nouns: milk, cereal, juice.
Exercise 7.13
1. a few; 2. many; 3. a little; 4. much; 5. many.
Exercise 7.14
1. a lot of/ many; 2. few; 3. a lot of; 4. a lot of; 5. a little/ very little; 6. some; 7. a lot of; 8. a lot of; 9.
some; 10. no; 11. a little/ very little; 12. a lot of.
Exercise 7.15
2. little; 3. little; 4. little, 5. a few; 6. a few; 7. a little; 8. a little; 9. a little; 10. few.
Exercise 7.16
1. How many; 2. How much; 3. How many; 4. How much; 5. How many; 6. How much; 7. How much; 8.
How many; 9. How many; 10. How much.
Exercise 7.17
1. a. How much; b. a lot of; c. some/ a little.
2. a. How much; b. how many; c. how many; d. how many.
Exercise 7.18
a pound of coffee, a quart/half gallon of milk, a bag of rice, (two) cans of soup.
a tube of toothpaste, a bag of candy, a dozen eggs, a half-pound of butter.
a quart/gallon of oil, a bottle of soda, a loaf of bread, one bar of soap.
a head of lettuce, (two) rolls of toilet paper, a pound of beef, a jar of peanut butter.
Exercise 7.19
2. John has many/ a lot of friends.
3. How much money do you have?
4. My teacher gives us a lot of homework.
5. Her hair is black.
6. ... She runs a few miles a day.
7. We don't sell any newspapers here.
8. There are many/ a lot of stores...
9. I would like some information, please.
10. My best friend gives me some/ a lot of advice.
11. This school has a few students.
12. We have little time to finish this book.

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Exercise 7.20
1. some; 2. some; 3. a lot of; 4. much; 5. some/a little; 6. some/a little; 7. a little; 8. a lot of; 9. some/a lot
of; 10. some/a few; 11. some/a lot of; 12. any; 13. some/a little; 14. some/a little; 15. some/a few; 16.
some/a little.
Exercise 7.21
1. How many cups of coffee did she drink?
2. How many hot dogs did she have for lunch?
3. How much orange juice did Wendy drink for breakfast?
4. How much did she eat for breakfast?
5. How much vegetable soup did she have?
6. How many apples did she eat for lunch?
7. How many grapes did she eat for lunch?
8. How much soup did Sarah have for lunch?
9. How much yoghurt did she eat for breakfast?
10. How much milk did she have at lunch?
Exercise 7.22
a little; a little; little; a few; a little; a little; little; little; few; a few; a little; a little; a little; a few.
Exercise 7.23
1. F; 2. F; 3. F; 4. T; 5. I don't know; 6. F; 7. T; 8. T; 9. I don't know; 10. T.
Exercise 7.24
Adjectives are underlined and adverbs are italicised.
1.careful; 2.moderately; 3.slowly; 4.heavy; 5.hard; 6.carefully; 7.big; 8.fast; 9.neatly; 10.heavy.
Exercise 7.25
1. c, k, n; 2. b, i, m; 3. d, g, l; 4. e, h, o; 5. a, f, j.
Exercise 7.26
1. happily; 2. sadly; 3. quickly; 4. incorrectly; 5. politely; 6. impolitely; 7. angrily;
8. nervously; 9. shyly; 10. kindly.
Exercise 7.27
1. ... dances gracefully; 2. ... runs fast; 3. ... smokes heavily; 4. ... speaks effectively;
5. ... sings beautifully; 6. ... work diligently; 7. ... writes incorrectly; 8. ... learn quickly; 9. ... work sloppily;
10. ... thinks quickly/ clearly.
Exercise 7.28
1. (b) She pronounces words clearly. (c) She prepares carefully.; 2. (a) He types fast. (b) He answers
the phone politely. (c) He takes messages accurately.; 3. (a) He drives slowly. (b) He responds quickly.
(c) He works hard.; 4. (a) She sings well. (b) She dances fantastically.; 5. (a) She studies hard. (b) She
guesses accurately. (c) She asks questions constantly.
Exercise 7.29
early; terribly; enthusiastically; well; terrifically; loosely; tightly; carelessly; carefully; anxiously; shyly;
gladly; unsuccessfully; bravely; calmly; neatly; quickly.
Exercise 7.30
1. Person; 2. Action; 3. Action; 4. Person; 5. Person; 6. Action; 7. Person; 8. Action; 9. Action; 10.
Person.
Exercise 7.31
Answers will vary. Possible answers:
1. He's a heavy smoker / He smokes heavily. 2. She's a great cook / She cooks well. 3. She's a hard
worker. / She works hard. 4. He's a fast driver. / He drives fast. 5. He's a good/great performer. / He
performs well.
Exercise 7.32
Answers will vary. Possible answers.
1. Harold's a slow driver. / He drives very slowly.
2. Bruce speaks very fast. / He doesn't speak very clearly.
3. Patricia cooks very well. / She prepares food creatively.
4. Rose types very fast. / She checks her work carefully.
5. Lucia studies hard. / She guesses intelligently. / She speaks fluently.
6. Ms. Lee manages people fairly. / She works hard.

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Exercise 7.33
1. She dresses elegantly. 2. Melanie speaks French fluently. 3. He studies hard. 4. They always come
very late. 5. Johan plays the piano very well. 6. She speaks slowly. 7. She's a lovely singer. She sings
sweetly/beautifully.
Exercise 7.34
Sentences will vary.
1. A model is attractive. / ... wears clothes attractively.
2. A waitress is quick to serve customers. / ... serves customers quickly.
3. A nurse is calm in an emergency. / ... handles emergencies calmly.
4. A truck driver is careful on the road. / ... drives carefully.
5. A mechanic does messy work. / ... works messily.
6. A race car driver is fast. / ... drives fast. (quickly)
7. A scientist is systematic in the laboratory. / ... works systematically in the laboratory.
8. A pilot is cautious when he flies. / ... flies cautiously.
9. A construction worker is often noisy. / ... often works noisily.
Exercise 7.35
Sentences will vary. Possible answers:
1. Michael Jordan jumps very high. 2. Gabriela Szabo runs very well. 3. ... reads very quickly. 4. ...
works very sloppily. 5. Placido Domingo sings very beautifully. 6. A cactus grows very slowly. 7. ... shops
very carefully. 8. ... speaks very softly. 9. You can buy food at ... very cheaply. 10. ... writes very
poetically. 11. A cheetah runs very quickly.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

▪ Acklam, R., 1996, First Certificate Gold, Longman


▪ Badalamenti, V., Stanchina, C.H., Larsen-Freeman, D. (Series Director), 1997, Grammar
Dimensions Book One Second Edition, Heinle & Heinle Pulishers, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
▪ Badalamenti, V., Stanchina, C.H., Larsen-Freeman, D. (Series Director), 1997, Grammar
Dimensions Instructor’s Manual Sec. Ed., Heinle & Heinle Pulishers, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
▪ Benz, C., Kennard, M.L., 1994, Grammar Dimensions Workbook One, Heinle & Heinle Pulishers,
Boston, Massachusetts, USA
▪ Eastwood, J., 1992, Oxford Practice Grammar, OUP
▪ Evans, Virginia, Dooley, Jenny, 1996, Mission, FCE 1, Express Publishing.
▪ Haines, Simon, Stewart, Barbara, 1994, First Certificate Masterclass, OUP
▪ Murphy, Raymond, 1995, English Grammar in Use, CUP
▪ O’Connell Sue, 1996, Focus on First Certificate, Longman
▪ Veres, G., Cehan A., Andriescu, I., 1998, A Dictionary of English Grammar, Polirom, Iaşi

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