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Lector univ. dr.

Alina Minea

ENGLISH FOR MARINE ENGINEERING


Course book, 1st year of study

Academia Naval Mircea cel Btrn, Constana, 2004

Referenti: Conf. dr. Delia Lungu Conf. dr. Cornel Moroianu


Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Naionale a Romniei MINEA ALINA English for marine engineering : course book, 1st year of study / lect. univ. dr. Alina Minea Constana : Editura Academiei Navale Mircea cel Btrn, 2004 Bibliogr. ISBN 973-8303-50-8 811.111:629.5 Discutat n Comisia didactic a Catedrei de Limbi Straine din cadrul Departamentului de limbi strine n edina din 23 septembrie 2004, n noua form mbuntit.

Prefa

Cursul de limba englez pentru electromecanici contribuie la nsuirea termenilor de specialitate din domeniul de activitate al viitorilor ofieri din marina militar i civil. n prezent pe navele companiilor romneti i strine, toate informaiile privind compartimentarea navei, indicatoarele, denumirile locurilor de dispunere a materialelor precum i modul de utilizare a echipamentelor sunt n limba englez. De asemenea, cunoaterea, n limba englez, a termenilor de specialitate este util pentru redactarea rapoartelor trimise periodic de eful mecanic la companie, rapoarte care privesc: lucrrile de ntreinere executate i consumul de materiale, solicitri de piese de schimb i reparaii. Navele, asumndu-i responsabilitatea respectrii normelor ISM, sunt supuse inspeciilor IMO n cadrul crora dialogul se poart n limba englez, documentele care se prezint sunt redactate n aceeai limb, de aceea cunoaterea terminologiei este o necesitate n vederea conlucrrii cu personalul IMO. Cursul conine texte originale n limba englez din domeniul naval general care ofer posibilitatea studenilor s-i nsueasc vocabularul n domeniu. Cursul conine o parte destinat nvrii gramaticii limbii engleze cu exerciiile necesare pentru o bun asimilare a teoriei, care se regsesc la fiecare unitate n parte.

Nota autorului Acest curs este destinat studenilor din anul I, specialitatea electromecanic naval precum i celor interesai de mbogirea cunotinelor n domeniul naval n general i n special cel al mecanicii navale. Manualul conine nu numai texte i terminologie de specialitate ci i informaii de gramatic a limbii engleze conform programei de nvmnt. Cursul conine 8 capitole/ uniti, corespunztoare orelor de predare: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Ship Operation; Noun and noun phrase. Ports; Determiners and quantifiers. Different Types of Merchant Ships; Pronoun; Numeral. Organization on Board; Adjectives; Adverbs. Safety and Emergency Situations; Verb Phrase; Present Simple and Present Continuous. 6. Alarms on Board; Present Perfect Simple and Continuous. 7. Fire Fighting; Past Simple and Past Continuous. 8. Medical Care and Man Overboard; Past Perfect Simple and Continuous. Fiecare capitol cuprinde informaiile teoretice necesare pentru ca viitorul ofier mecanic s se poat descurca n orice condiii la bordul diferitelor nave pe care i va desfura activitatea. Textul selectat pentru fiecare capitol/unitate faciliteaz mbogirea cunotinelor de specialitate legate de domeniul naval n general i mai ales cele de electromecanic naval. La sfritul fiecrui curs este adugat vocabularul de baz din capitolul respectiv. Unitile cuprind i probleme de gramatic ale limbii engleze, amplu dezvoltate i prezentate, care permit studenilor s neleag i s fixeze unele structuri dificile. Aceste probleme de gramatic se refer la grupul nominal i nlocuitorii acestuia, recunoaterea adverbelor i adjectivelor i diferenierea celor dou pri de vorbire, gradele de comparaie ale adjectivelor i adverbelor, structura grupului verbal, exprimarea timpurilor prezente i trecute n limba englez i diferenele dintre acestea. Am inclus aceste probleme gramaticale deoarece cunoaterea lor temeinic duce la dezvoltarea abilitilor de comunicare, de receptare i nelegere a mesajelor, regulamentelor, documentaiei de specialitate att de necesare viitorilor ofieri mecanici pentru o desfurare ct mai bun a activitii lor la bordul navelor.

Cursul cuprinde i probleme de vocabular de specialitate deoarece nvarea limbii engleze n acest domeniu implic tocmai nvarea, pe ct posibil facil, a numeroi termeni i a unor structuri i expresii fixe. Cursul este destinat predrii n clas dar i studiului individual i este recomandat celor care au un nivel ntre nceptor i mediu de cunoatere a gramaticii limbii engleze.

Contents 1. Ship operation; Noun ................................................................................ 13 1.1. Ship operation............................................................................................. 13 1.1.1. Definitions.................................................................................................. 13 1.1.2. Short history............................................................................................... 13 1.2. Nouns and noun phrases............................................................................. 14 1.2.1. Nouns ......................................................................................................... 14 1.2.2. Noun phrase ............................................................................................... 14 1.2.3. Countable and uncountable nouns ............................................................. 15 1.2.3.1. Mass nouns................................................................................................. 16 1.2.4. The plural of nouns .................................................................................... 16 1.2.5. Case of nouns: genitive .............................................................................. 18 1.2.6. Compound nouns ....................................................................................... 18 1.3. Agreement .................................................................................................. 19 1.3.1. Singular and plural verbs ........................................................................... 19 1.3.2. Singular and plural subjects ....................................................................... 19 1.3.3. Nouns with a plural form ........................................................................... 20 1.3.4. Pair noun .................................................................................................... 20 1.3.5. Group nouns............................................................................................... 21 1.4. Vocabulary ................................................................................................. 21 1.5. Grammar practice noun; Ex 1-15, 20 Asist. univ. drd. Raluca Mate ...... 22 1.6. Answer key grammar practice noun........................................................... 27 2. 2.1. 2.2. 2.2.1. 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.3. 2.3.1. 2.3.2. 2.3.3. 2.4. 2.5. 2.5.1. 2.5.2. 2.5.3. 2.5.4. 2.6. 2.6.1. 2.6.2. 2.6.3. 2.6.4. Ports; Determiners and quantifiers ......................................................... 31 Ports............................................................................................................ 31 Determiners ................................................................................................ 32 Articles ....................................................................................................... 32 Possessives ................................................................................................. 34 Demonstratives .......................................................................................... 35 Quantifiers .................................................................................................. 35 Large and small quantities ......................................................................... 35 Whole and part quantities .......................................................................... 36 Other quantifiers ........................................................................................ 37 Vocabulary ................................................................................................. 38 Grammar practice ....................................................................................... 38 Grammar practice article; Ex. 1-12 Asist. univ. drd. Raluca Mate .......... 38 Grammar practice possessives .................................................................... 46 Grammar practice demonstratives............................................................... 46 Grammar practice quantifiers...................................................................... 46 Answer key Grammar practice.................................................................... 47 Answer key Grammar practice article......................................................... 47 Answer key Grammar practice possessives ................................................ 49 Answer key Grammar practice demonstratives .......................................... 49 Answer key Grammar practice quantifiers.................................................. 49

3. 3.1. 3.1.1. 3.1.2. 3.1.3. 3.1.4. 3.1.5. 3.1.6. 3.1.7. 3.1.8. 3.1.9. 3.2. 3.3. 3.3.1. 3.3.2. 3.3.3. 3.3.4. 3.3.5. 3.3.6. 3.4. 3.4.1. 3.4.2. 3.4.3. 3.4.4. 3.5. 3.6. 3.6.1. 3.6.2. 3.7. 3.7.1. 3.7.2.

Different types of merchant ships; Pronoun; Numeral......................... 51 Different types of merchant ships .............................................................. 51 Bulk carrier ................................................................................................ 51 Container ship ............................................................................................ 51 Tanker ........................................................................................................ 51 Gas tanker .................................................................................................. 52 Chemical tanker ......................................................................................... 52 Ro-Ro ferry ................................................................................................ 52 Passenger car ferry ..................................................................................... 52 Ro-Ro ship ................................................................................................. 52 Passenger ship ............................................................................................ 53 General design of a merchant ship ............................................................. 53 Pronoun ...................................................................................................... 53 Personal pronoun........................................................................................ 54 Reflexive pronouns, emphatic pronouns and each other ........................... 55 Indefinite pronouns .................................................................................... 56 Possessive pronouns................................................................................... 57 Relative pronouns ...................................................................................... 57 Interrogative pronouns ............................................................................... 57 Numbers ..................................................................................................... 58 Cardinal numbers ....................................................................................... 58 Ordinal numbers......................................................................................... 59 Fractions, decimals and percentages .......................................................... 60 Number of times......................................................................................... 60 Vocabulary ................................................................................................. 60 Grammar practice....................................................................................... 61 Grammar practice pronoun; Ex. 1-9 Asist. univ. drd. Ana Ion ................. 61 Grammar practice numeral; Lector univ. drd. Dana zechia ...................... 64 Answer key Grammar practice................................................................... 66 Answer key Grammar practice pronoun .................................................... 66 Answer key Grammar practice numeral..................................................... 67

4. Organization on board; Adjectives; Adverbs ........................................ 69 4.1. Organization on board................................................................................ 69 4.2. Adjective..................................................................................................... 70 4.2.1. Qualitative adjectives................................................................................. 70 4.2.2. Classifying adjectives ................................................................................ 71 4.2.3. Colour adjectives........................................................................................ 72 4.2.4. Adjectives in -ing and ed, participial adjectives ...................................... 72 4.2.5. Compound adjectives .72 4.2.6. The order of adjectives............................................................................... 73 4.3. Adverbs....................................................................................................... 73 4.3.1. Adverbs of manner..................................................................................... 74

4.3.2. 4.3.3. 4.3.4. 4.3.5. 4.3.6. 4.3.7. 4.4. 4.5. 4.6. 4.6.1. 4.6.2. 4.6.3. 4.7. 4.7.1. 4.7.2. 4.7.3. 4.8. 4.9 5. 5.1. 5.2. 5.2.1. 5.2.2. 5.3. 5.3.1. 5.3.2. 5.3.3. 5.3.4. 5.4. 5.5. 5.6. 5.6.1. 5.6.2. 5.6.3. 5.7. 6. 6.1. 6.2. 6.3. 6.4. 6.5. 6.6.

Adverbs of degree ...................................................................................... 75 Adverbs of place ........................................................................................ 76 Adverbs of time.......................................................................................... 76 Adverbs of frequency................................................................................. 76 Sentence adverbs........................................................................................ 77 Linking adverbs.......................................................................................... 77 Comparison................................................................................................. 78 Vocabulary .................................................................................................. 79 Grammar practice........................................................................................ 79 Grammar practice adjective Ex. 1-12 Lector univ. drd. Dana Zechia ....... 79 Grammar practice adverb; Lector univ. drd. Dana Zechia ........................ 83 Grammar practice adjective & adverb; Lector univ. drd. Dana Zechia ..... 85 Answer key ................................................................................................. 85 Answer key grammar practice adjective ..................................................... 85 Answer key grammar practice adverb......................................................... 86 Answer key grammar practice adjective & adverb ..................................... 87 Self-test paper ............................................................................................. 89 Answer key self-test..................................................................................... 94 Safety and Emergency Situations; Verb Phrase, Present Simple and Present Continuous .................................................................................. 95 Safety and emergency situations................................................................ 95 The verb phrase.......................................................................................... 96 Action verbs and state verbs ...................................................................... 98 Verb patterns .............................................................................................. 98 Verb tenses: present simple...................................................................... 101 Verb group, introduction.......................................................................... 101 Present simple .......................................................................................... 102 Present continuous ................................................................................... 103 Verbs not normally used in the continuous tenses ................................... 105 Present Simple versus present continuous .............................................. 105 Vocabulary ............................................................................................... 106 Grammar practice; Asist. univ. drd. Ana Ion .......................................... 106 Grammar practice present continuous ..................................................... 106 Grammar practice present simple............................................................. 107 Grammar practice present continuous & simple ...................................... 109 Answer Key Grammar practice present continuous & simple ................. 110 Alarms on Board; Present Perfect Simple and Continuous ................111 Alarms on board........................................................................................111 Present perfect simple ...............................................................................113 Present perfect continuous ........................................................................114 Present perfect simple versus present perfect continuous.........................115 Present perfect continuous versus present continuous ..............................116 Vocabulary ................................................................................................116

6.7. 6.7.1. 6.7.2. 6.7.3. 6.8. 7. 7.1. 7.2. 7.3. 7.4. 7.5. 7.6. 7.7. 7.7.1. 7.7.2. 7.7.3. 7.8. 7.9 7.10.

Grammar practice Asist. univ. drd. Ana Ion ............................................117 Grammar practice present perfect .............................................................117 Grammar practice present perfect continuous...........................................119 Grammar practice present perfect simple & continuous ...........................120 Answer Key Grammar practice present perfect ........................................121 Fire Fighting; Past Simple and Past Continuous..................................127 Fire Fighting..............................................................................................127 Past simple. ...............................................................................................128 Past continuous .........................................................................................129 Past simple versus past continuous ...........................................................130 Past simple versus present perfect simple .................................................130 Vocabulary ................................................................................................131 Grammar practice Lector univ. drd. Carmen Astratinei .........................132 Grammar practice past simple...................................................................132 Grammar practice past simple and past continuous ..................................133 Grammar practice past simple and present perfect continuous & simple .136 Answer Key The Past tense Simple and Continuous................................136 Test Paper..................................................................................................138 Answer key test paper ...............................................................................139

8. Medical Care; Past Perfect Simple and Past Perfect Continuous........141 8.1. Medical Care ..............................................................................................141 8.1.1. Medical Care .............................................................................................141 8.1.2. Man overboard .........................................................................................142 8.2. Past perfect simple ....................................................................................142 8.3. Past perfect continuous .............................................................................143 8.4. Past simple and past perfect simple ..........................................................144 8.5. Past perfect simple versus past perfect continuous144 8.6. Past perfect continuous versus present perfect continuous144 8.7. Vocabulary ................................................................................................145 8.8. Grammar Practice past perfect simple and continuous Lector univ. drd. Dana Zechia ...........................................................................145 8.9. Grammar practice answer key...148 8.10. Self-test 2...150 8.11. Answer key self-test 2154 List of irregular verbs..........................................................................................155 Bibliography .........................................................................................................160

Unit 1 Ship operation Noun Unitatea ofer noiuni de baz, introductive, n legtur cu termenii folosii pentru denumirea generic a navelor n limba englez urmate de un scurt istoric ce cuprinde evenimentele cele mai semnificative din istoria nvigaiei, multe dintre acestea fiind n legtur direct cu modificri ale sistemului de propulsie al navelor, ajungnd n finalul textului la modul de operare al navelor comerciale moderne. Partea de gramatic definete noiunea de substantiv cu opoziiile concret-abstract, singularplural, feminin-masculin, genitiv sintetic-analitic cu aplicaii directe n exercitii. Obiective: 1 Memorising the vocabulary in the unit in English and making connections with the Romanian terms. 2. Understanding and practicing the grammar: the noun and the agreement. 3. Learning how to use the dictionary for the unknown words from the specialty text and the exercises. 4. Checking the knowledge through self-evaluation tests. 1.1. Ship operation 1.1.1. Definitions Ships and shipbuilding means the types and construction of any large buoyant-type vessel in which people travel or transport goods over the surface of water. The term boat usually denotes smaller vessels, but no criterion of differentiation is generally accepted. The term ship means a large seagoing vessel. The term shipbuilding is applied to the construction of large vessels. 1.1.2. Short history The Greeks, Phoenicians, Romans and Vikings used ships extensively for trade, exploration and warfare. The fourteenth century was the era of European exploration by sailing ships, largely aided by the invention of the compass. In the fifteenth century Britains Royal Navy was first formed, but in the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries Spanish and Dutch fleets dominated the shipping lanes of both Atlantic and Pacific. The ultimate sailing ships, the fast US and British tea clippers, were built in the nineteenth century. Also in the nineteenth century, iron was first used for some shipbuilding instead of wood. Steam-propelled ships of the late nineteenth century were followed by compound engine and turbine-propelled vessels from the early twentieth century. Nowadays the worlds merchant fleet consists of nearly 100,000 vessels, of which cargo-carrying ships account for roughly half. The rest are employed in non-trading activities like fishing, supporting the offshore industry and providing general maritime services such as towage, dredging and surveying. New types of cargo-carrying ships, many of them highly specialised and very large, have been introduced to meet the needs of expanding and more diverse international trade.

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As ships have become bigger, they have also become more complex. Automation and other technological developments, particularly in computers and communications, have had a profound effect on the way ships are operated. Crews have become smaller, labour productivity has increased greatly and many traditional navigation and seafaring skills no longer have a place in the operation of modern vessels. 1.2. Nouns and noun phrases 1.2.1. Nouns are words like: ship, sailor, freedom, London that do not have special endings to identify them or to show they are subjects or objects. They can be classified in several groups according to their meaning: Concrete nouns things: craft, vessel, harbour, boat etc. Abstract nouns ideas: time, space etc. - qualities: security etc. Actions: landing, sailing, fishing etc. Role: pilot, seaman, mechanic etc. Name: Constantza, Amsterdam, New York etc. Most nouns have no special endings but there are some suffixes used to form nouns from other words: movement, intention, difference, kindness, punctuality, landing etc. Most nouns do not have gender. There are a few word pairs used for people and animals: man woman (and all their compounds); father mother (and all their compounds); husband wife; son daughter (and all their compounds); uncle aunt; nephew niece; boy girl; lord lady; host hostess; steward stewardess; hero heroine; bridegroom bride; widower widow; male female; stallion mare; cow bull etc. 1.2.2. Noun phrase

The noun phrase can be a word (Planes take off from here.) or a combination of a noun with other words: the sea, our crew, an interesting book etc. The noun can be preceded by determiners, quantifiers and modifiers, each of them in a fixed order. A noun phrase can contain: Determiners: articles (a, the), demonstratives (this, that, these, those) and possessives (my, your etc.), which are placed before the noun. Quantifiers: a lot of, many, much, a few, every, each, most, both, half, some, any, no etc. Modifiers: adjectives or nouns. In the sentence a noun phrase can be a: Subject: Security guards set a trap. Object: The mechanic alerted the Captain. Complement: The cost of a ticket was 5 pounds. Adverbial: That day something unusual happened. Prepositional object: The passengers left in a hurry through fire exits.

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1.2.3.

Countable and uncountable nouns

Countable nouns can be singular (a, an) or plural: boat-boats, student-students, engine-engines etc. Uncountable nouns are neither singular (a, an) nor plural; they have only one form. We cannot use numbers with them. Generally they include: substances, materials, abstract ideas, activities, human qualities and feelings. Some uncountable nouns can be countable in other languages. Here is a list of the most frequently used uncountable nouns in English: accommodation advice applause baggage behaviour bred camping cash clothing countryside crockery cutlery damage education English equipment evidence fruit fun furniture gossip harm health help homework housework housing jewelry knowledge land laughter machinery money news pay permission pollution progress proof rain research rice rubbish scenery shopping sightseeing stuff thunder toast traffic transport travel violence weather work

Uncountable nouns cannot be counted directly. However, we can count them using phrases like: a piece of, a bit of, an item of, a cup of, a glass of, a bottle of, a kilo of, a barrel of, etc. Some nouns can be countable or uncountable with different meanings: glass - a glass of water - some glass for the window (material) - my glasses (spectacles) paper my papers (documents) some writing paper a daily paper (newspaper) an ice (cream) ice on the road

ice

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tin iron hair dress time

a tin of beams tin (substance) an iron for ironing clothes iron (metal) dye your hair a hair/hairs on your collar a red dress wearing evening dress (clothing) lots of times (occasions) much time an interesting experience experience in job a small business (company) do business a property some property (belongings)

experience business property -

1.2.3.1. Mass nouns Some uncountable nouns can be called mass nouns because they are often used to refer to quantities of a particular kind of solid and liquid substances. Mass nouns referring to different types of substance are mainly used in technical contexts. For example steel is nearly always an uncountable noun, but in contexts where it is important to distinguish between different kinds of steel it can be a mass noun: They increased the import of European steel. It is known the use of small amounts of nitrogen in making certain steels. The following is a list of frequently used mass nouns in your specialty: adhesive coal detergent disinfectant dye fuel glue ink insecticide iron medicine metal oil ore paint plastic poison soap steel wood wool

1.2.4. The plural of nouns The plural is used for more than one object, for countable nouns.

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a. b.

The basic rule for making the plural in English is by adding an -s at the end of the noun: seas, sharks, pumps, boilers, walls, heads etc. Another rule is applied when the noun ends in one of these letters: -s, -ss, sh, -ch, -x, -o, -z and y (if there is a consonant before it). The plural is made by adding an -es and the last letter y is changed into i: bus buses; dress dresses; brush brushes; watch watches; box boxes; potato potatoes; fly flies etc.

c. About 15 nouns ending in f/fe change f/fe into v and es is added; the most frequently used nouns of this type are: life lives wife wives knife knives half halves calf calves shelf shelves self selves wolf wolves loaf loaves thief thieves leaf leaves scarf - scarves d. There are some nouns with the plural form different from singular: - man men (and compounds), woman women (and compounds); - child children, ox oxen; - foot feet, tooth teeth, goose geese; - mouse mice, louse lice. e. Foreign plurals are preserved with some borrowed nouns, especially Greek and Latin. The examples given here are some that you may encounter in courses and manuals: - on a: criterion criteria; - um a: medium media, stratum strata; - us i: stimulus stimuli; - a ae: formula formulae; - is es: analysis analyses; basis bases. There are some nouns with the same form for the singular and the plural: sheep, fish, fruit, Chinese, Portuguese, Swiss, means, series, species etc. After a year or an abbreviation the plural ending can be s/s: MPs, MPs etc.

f. g.

For compound nouns s/es is usually added to the last element: weekend weekends; breakdown breakdowns; check-up check-ups etc., or it can be added to the first element: passer-by passers-by, son-in-law sons-in-law etc.

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1.2.5.

Case of Nouns. The Genitive

From the point of view of form there are two types of genitive. a. The analytical genitive with the structure: the + noun + of + the + noun, is used with things: the end of the course, the bulkheads of the ship etc. b. The synthetic genitive with s for singular and plural nouns that do not end in s: my friends name, the childrens names, and for plurals in s: my friends names, is used with people. Both genitives can be used for places, companies or newspapers: the companys head office/ the head office of the company, the companys political views/the political views of the company. In some genitive structures including the word shop or house, these words are not mentioned any more: Is there a bakers (shop) nearby? I go to my parents (house). 1.2.6. Compound nouns

A compound noun is a fixed expression which is made up of more than one word and which functions in the clause as a noun. Most of the compound nouns are formed of two words. The first noun modifies the second one telling us the kind or what it is for: a phone bill = a bill for using the phone; a microwave oven = an oven functioning with microwaves; customs regulation = regulation for passing through customs; an oil can = a can for holding oil; a bookshelf = a shelf for holding books; (a shelf of books = a shelf with books on it); a sea accident investigation team = a team for investigating accidents at sea. Compound nouns may be countable, uncountable, singular or plural. Here is a list of the most important compound nouns used in your specialty: countable air conditioner assembly line personal computer uncountable air conditioning central heating data processing first aid remote control stainless steel washing-up liquid singular labour force plural industrial relations licensing laws

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1.3. Agreement 1.3.1. Singular and plural verbs

Generally if we want to talk about one thing we use a singular noun/pronoun and a singular verb-form: This is the new engine. The engine/It works very well. If we talk about more than one thing we use a plural noun/pronoun and a plural verb-form: Have you seen the new engines? The new engines/They work very well. Subject-verb agreement means choosing the correct singular or plural verb after the subject for present. An uncountable noun takes a singular verb-form: Seawater is getting colder and colder in winter. 1.3.2. Singular and plural subjects

Two or more phrases linked by and take a plural verb: Jamie and Emma go sailing at the weekends. Wheat and maze are exported. When the two words express something that we see as a whole we use a singular verb: Bread and butter was all we had. When two phrases are linked by or the verb usually agrees with the nearest: Either my sister or my neighbours are looking after the dog when Im at sea. A phrase of measurement takes a singular verb: Ten miles is too far to walk. Thirty pounds seems a reasonable price. Titles and names also take a singular verb when they refer to one thing: Star Wars was a very successful film. A phrase with as well as, with, and, in brackets or between commas takes a singular verb: George, together with some of his friends, is buying a yacht. After not only...but also, the verb agrees with the nearest phrase: Not only George but also his friends are buying the yacht. If a phrase comes after a noun, the verb agrees with the first noun: The ship between the two ferries is damaged.

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After a subject with one of the verb is singular: One of these messages is for you. When a plural noun is preceded by: a number of, majority of, a lot of the verb is in the plural: A large number of letters were received. We use a singular verb after a subject with every and each, and compounds with every, some, any, no: Every student has to take a test. Nothing ever happens in this place. All and some with a plural noun take a plural verb: Some passengers were sitting on the deck. We use a singular verb after who or what: Who knows the answer? After what/which + noun, the verb agrees with the noun: Which day is convenient? After none of/ either of/ neither of/ any of + plural noun phrase we can use either a singular or a plural verb. The plural is more informal. I dont know if either (of the batteries) is/are good. After there, the verb agrees with its complement: There was an accident. There were some accidents. 1.3.3. Nouns with a plural form: a plural noun takes a plural form

Some nouns are always plural: belongings, clothes, congratulations, earnings, goods, odds, outskirts, particulars, premises, remains, riches, surroundings, thanks, troops, tropics etc.: The goods were found to be defective. Some nouns have a plural form but a singular meaning: news; subjects (of study); sports; games: billiards, darts; illness: measles, mumps etc. therefore the agreement is made with the singular verb. Billiards is a game. 1.3.4. Pair nouns: binoculars, glasses, jeans, pants, pincers, pliers, pyjamas, scales, scissors, shorts, spectacles, tights, trousers, tweezers etc. A plural noun takes a plural verb. Where are the pliers?

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1.3.5. Group nouns, also called collective nouns, can take a verb in the singular or plural, depending whether we see the noun as a whole or as a number of individuals: The crew was/were in a cheerful mood. Some group nouns are: army, association, audience, board, choir, class, club, college, committee, community, company, council, crew, crowd, enemy, family, firm, gang, government, group, jury, majority, navy, orchestra, party, population, press, public, school, staff, team, union, university etc. The names of institutions, companies and teams are also group nouns: Brazil is/are expected to win. 1.4. Vocabulary shipbuilding = construcie de nave buoyant = plutitor vessel = nav boat = barc seagoing = de mare/larg trade = comer sailing ship = nav cu pnze compass = busol fleet = flot shipping lane = rut navigabil clipper = cliper, nav cu pnze steam-propelled ship = nav propulsat cu abur engine = motor turbine-propelled vessel = nav propulsat cu turbine merchant fleet = flot comercial cargo-carrying ship = nav de mrfuri non-trading activity = activitate necomercial offshore = n larg towage = remorcare dredging = dragare surveying = supaveghere / patrulare seafaring skills = deprinderi / aptitudini marinreti

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1. 5. Grammar Practice Noun Exercise 1. Use a collective noun for the following: 1. father, mother, sons and daughters; 2. the eleven players in a game of football; 3. a multitude of persons; 4. the group of sailors working on a ship or boat; 5. scores of sheep together. Exercise 2. Use a compound noun to illustrate: 1. a desk for writing at; 2. an engine driven by steam; 3. a wall made of stone; 4. a man who makes a wall by laying bricks one on top of the other; 5. a machine for washing clothes; 6. a box for holding matches; 7. a room in which you sleep; 8. a room in which you wash; 9. a pen containing ink in it; 10.a railway carriage in which people can take their meals. Exercise 3. Give the plural of the following nouns .Use them in sentences. a) bus, town, woman, box, fly, key, bee, Englishman. tooth, wish, goose, city, potato, book, child, leaf, life, foot, apple, toy, ball, wolf, safe, ox. b) brush, thief, Chinese, German, donkey, shelf, fish, cliff, Swiss, inch, sheep, louse, bamboo, handkerchief, axe, proof, phenomenon, dynamo, means, piano. c) echo, loaf, niece, half, chief, volcano, Japanese, deer, mouse, knife, birth, daughter, buffalo, atlas. Exercise 4. Give the plural of the following nouns; explain the differences between the two forms and use them in sentences: fruit, fish, damage, air, compass, pain, color. Exercise 5. Fill in the gaps with the most suitable noun: Model: a . . . of cards; a pack of cards: 1. a ... of boots; 2. a of sheep; 3. a of cattle; 4. a of hounds; 5. a of birds; 6. a of mosquitoes; 7. a of fish; 8. a of trousers; 9. aof swine; 10. a of robbers; 11. a of stockings; 12. a of whales; 13. a of footballers; 14. a of wolves; 15. an at a concert; 16. a of flowers; 17. a of lies;

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Exercise 6. Give the feminine correspondents of the following masculine nouns: a) man, father, brother, milkman, Englishman, son-in-law,. sportsman, nephew, boy, Mr., husband, uncle, chairman. b) widower, wizard, waiter, bachelor, lord, king, bridegroom, hero, dog, bull, horse, gander, ram, peacock ,drone. c) duke, prince, actor, god, host, waiter, manager, tzar, sultan, poet, nephew, vixen. Exercise 7. Form nouns by adding the appropriate noun-forming suffixes to the following adjectives: SUFFIX -ness -ism -th -dom -(i)ty/iety 1 short cruel sane gay free 2 existential foolish social short wide 3 mean childish anxious long strong

Exercise 8. Give the corresponding nouns for the following verbs and adjectives: o To bleed, to bath, to sing, to believe, to breethe, to feed, to lose, to live, to prove, to choose; o Broad, deep, long, strong, wide, new. Exercise 9. Use the saxon genitive (s) in the following sentences: 1. He knows nothing about the climate of this country. 2. Do you know the name of the typist of the manager? 3. The new car of the friend of his cousin is a Dacia 1300. 4. Jane doesnt know the time table of her daughter. 5. She does not doubt the good intentions of the parents of her husband. 6. You can easily notice die first signs of spring. 7. The dresses of the shop-girls are the best advertisment. 8. They all welcomed the protection of the police. 9. These are the best plays of 0.8. Shaw. 10. He has been studying the folklore of Scotland for several years. 11. The parents of all the children are present at the meeting. 12. She wont say a word about the purpose of her life. 13. The industry of Romania is in full swing. 14. The high note of the nightingale can be easily heard. Exercise 10. Translate into Romanian: 1. Weve run out of orange juice; youd better go to the grocers and buy some. 2. My husbands new suit is not ready yet; it is still at the tailors. 3. When you go to UK dont miss the chance to go to Madame Tussauds. 4. They usually buy fresh fruits at the greengrocers every Monday morning. 5. Have you ever seen St. Jamess?

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6. They decided to go to the lawyers tomorrow at noon. 7. On your way home you might stop at the tobacconists and buy some cigarettes for me. 8. I have been an employee at Fords for twenty years. 9. Ill go to the hairdressers later. 10. Before my coming back home, I dropped into the bakers where I bought a loaf of soft bread and these delicious rolls. Exercise 11. Translate into English paying attention to the genitive case: 1. Strzile acestui ora sunt foarte largi. 2. Cstoria copiilor prietenilor mei a avut loc acum dou sptmni. 3. Acesta este noul profesor de matematic al fiului meu. 4. nainte de a ncepe orele, am fcut o plimbare de douzeci de minute. 5. Personalul acestei companii este format din treizeci de oameni. 6. In intervalul de o lun care urmeaz, terminm toate examenele. 7. La vrsta lui, o cltorie de zece ore cu trenul trebuie s fie foarte obositoare. 8. Nu trebuie s uitm niciodat de drepturile celor sraci. 9. 0 ateptare de cinci minute nu mai conteaz. 10. Ziarul de ieri a publicat multe tiri interesante. Exercise 12. Form derivative nouns from the following Verbs: 1. to decide 2.to approve 3. to discuss 4. to refer 5. to discover 6. to teach 7. to weigh 8.to grow 9. to pay 10. to perform 11.to limit 12. to betray. Adjectives: 1.national 2.wise 3. likely 4. free 5. great 6. weak 7. kind 8. happy 9. true 10. deep 11.high 12.warm Nouns: 1.dictator 2. friend 3. scholar 4. leader 5. child 6. piano 7. music 8. mathematics 9.science 10. host 11. widow 12. waiter. Exercise 13. Rewrite in the plural: 1.This is a box. 2. Thats a lorry. 3. Wheres the knife? 4. Is it your watch? 5. This is a new house.6. Thats an old chimney. 7. That isnt my dress. 8. Thats a shoe. 9. Whos this man? 10.Hes a farmer and this is his wife. 11. Thats a row of people. 12. Is it a new bridge?13.There is a match in the box. 14. Theres no child in their family.15. Is there a dictionary on his desk? 16. Is there a desk in that room? 17. The face of that woman is attractive. 18.The house isnt large but its comfortable. 19. Whos that person? 20. Which book is yours?

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Exercise 14 Put into the singular: 1. Balls are round. 2. Houses have roofs. 3. These are phonemes. 4. Foxes are animals.5. Roses are beautiful flowers. 6. Watches are small clocks. 7. Dogs have tails. 8. Those boys are good friends. 9. These are simple sentences. 10. These arent boxes. 11. The children are at school. 12. These are my notebooks. 13. My friends want to study German. 14.His brothers work hard all day. 15. Housewives have to work very hard. 16. Children receive a lot of pleasure from this game. 17. They live in small houses. 18. The postmen bring letters three times a day. 19. The boys wake up at six. 20. There are some pictures on the walls. Exercise 15. Match A and B in order to obtain compound nouns. Use them in sentences: arm sitter bottle pages fast heating Yellow chair lawn directory telephone mower chewing conditioner central bag air opener tea food alarm gum post clock baby stop heart tale burglar attack fairy office credit lenses bus card bank alarm contact account Exercise 16 Underline the nouns in the texts and put the plural ones in the singular: 1. Thieves stole the cameras and videos from two shops in Stapleton Road yesterday. They also took several boxes of video cassettes and hundreds of audio cassettes. 2. Two police officers were injured in a fight last night. One policeman lost four teeth. Three other people were also injured. The police were called to the Central car park where there was a fight involving about two dozen young men and women. Dozens of cars and two buses were damaged. Example: pl. thieves = sg. thief

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Exercise 17. Complete the sentences with the plural form of the words in brackets: My hotels a bit primitive. Ive seen (1 mouse)_____ in my room! And there are (2 fly)_____ everywhere during the day and (3 mosquito) _____ at night. But the (4 beach) _____ are beautiful. There are a lot of old (5 church) _____ on the island and Ive taken lots of (6 photo) _____ of them. Every day I buy two small (7 loaf) _____ of bread and some (8 fruit) _____ , usually (9 peach) _____ , (10 orange) _____ and (11 tomato) _____ . but the (12 shelf) _____ in the shops are almost empty, so yesterday I went fishing and caught two (13 fish) _____ for my lunch. There arent any (14 bus) _____ so I walk everywhere. My (15 foot) _____ really hurt. I want to go into the mountains. They say there are (16 wolf) _____ there. The (17 person) _____ are very friendly. Sometimes (18 family) _____ come out to say hello when I walk past. The (19 man) _____ have two or three (20 wife) _____ and dozens of (21 child) _____. I dont think their (22 life) _____ have changed for (23 century) _____. Its certainly one of the most unspoilt (24 country) _____ Ive ever been to. Exercise 18 Which are the 15 countable nouns in this news report? Hi! Youre listening to GWR Radio. What a terrible morning! There have been several accidents on the roads. A number of people were hurt in an accident on the M 32 motorway when two cars crashed near Junction 4. And there are a few problems for rail travellers. Many trains between cities in the west and London are running twenty to thirty minutes late. Exercise 19 What are the eight uncountable nouns in the news report of the explosion at Brislington? An explosion has destroyed a chemical factory in Brislington. Thanks to the courage of the firefighters no one was hurt. The air around the factory is still thick with smoke, and for their own safety, residents have been told not to drink the water. Residents are worried about their childrens health and the damage to the environment caused by the explosion. Noun + verb agreement Exercise 20. Choose the right form of the verbs in brackets: 1. His family (is/ are) in Bucharest now. 2. The news (was/ were) a great surprise for all of us. 3. People (rush/ rushes) home when the days work is over. 4. Our football team (plays/ play) this evening. 5. Your group (is/ are) made up of thirty students.

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6. The audience (is/are) listening to the piano player. 7. The cattle (is/are) entering the ranch yard. 8. The committee (agrees/agree) with all the changes. 9. The furniture in my daughters room (is/are) new and modern. 10. The crew of the ship (was/were) gathered on the upper deck. 11. The parliament (is/are) voting a new law. 12. The luggage (was/were placed) on the luggage rack. 13. Where (is/are) my glasses? 14. Mathematics(is/are) his favourite subject at school. 15. My cousins trousers (is/are) very expensive. 16. Proceedings of the conference (is/are) published within a week. 17. The particulars of the witness (is/are) taken down by a young policeman. 18. There (is/are) enough money in the drawer. 19. Measles (is/are) a very dangerous catching disease. 20.The customs (is/are) not far from here. Exercise 21. Choose the correct form of the verb: 1. Clothes (isnt/ arent) cheap nowadays. 2. People (doesnt/ dont) buy clothes that are too expensive. 3. 60 pounds (is/ are) a lot of money for a pair of jeans. 4. The government (is/ are) trying to keep prices low. Exercise 22. Choose the correct verb forms: His clothes (1 are/ is) _____ very old. His trousers (2 has got/ have got) _____ holes in them and his glasses (3 are/ is) _____ broken. All his belongings (4 is/ are) _____ in a bag on his back. The police often (5 stops/ stop) _____ him and (6 asks/ ask) _____ him questions. People (7 avoid/ avoids) _____ him in the streets. His earnings (8 are/ is) _____ very small. He gets 40 pounds a week from social security. For him 40 pounds (9 is/ are) _____ a lot of money. Im not interested in possessions, he says, mathematics (10 are/ is) _____ my passion. 1.6. Answer Keys of the exercises Exercise 1. 1 family, 2 team, 3 crowd, 4 crew, 5 flock. Exercise 2. writing-desk, steam-engine, stone wall, bricklayer, washing machine, mach-box, bedroom, bathroom, fountain-pen, dining car. Exercise 3. a) buses, towns, women, boxes, flies, keys, bees, Englishmen, teeth, wishes, geese, cities, potatoes, books, children, leaves, lives, feet, apples, toys, balls, wolves, safes, oxen.

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b) brushes, thieves, Chinese, Germans, donkeys, shelves, fishes, cliffs, Swiss, inches, sheep, lice, bamboos, handkerchiefs, axes, proofs, phenomena, dynamos, means, pianos. c) echoes, loaves, nieces, halves, chiefs, volcanoes, Japanese, deer, mice, knives, births, daughters, buffaloes, atlases. Exercise 4. fruits (varietati de fructe), fishes (soiuri de pesti), damages (despagubiri), airs (aere), compasses (compas), pains (osteneala), colours (steag, drapel). Exercise 5. pair, flock, herd, pack, flight, cloud, shoal, pair, herd, gang, pair, school, team, pack, audience, bunch, pack. Exercise 6. a) woman, mother, sister,milkwoman, Englishwoman, daughter-in-law, sportswoman, niece, girl, Mrs., wife, aunt, chairwoman. b)widow, witch, waitress, spinster, lady, queen, bride, heroine, bitch, cow, mare,goose, sheep, hen, bee. c)duchess, princess, actress, goddess, hostess, waitress, manageress, tzarina, sultana, poetess, niece, fox. Exercise 7. 1. shortness, cruelty, sanity, gaiety, freedom 2. existentialism, foolishness, socialism, shortness, wideness, 3. meanness, childishness, anxiousness, lenght, strenght. Exercise 8. blood, bath, song, belief, breath, food, loss, life, proof, choice, Breadth, depth, length,strength, width, novelty. Exercise 9 1.He knows nothing about this countrys climate. 2. Do you know the name of the managers typist? 3. The new car of his cousins friend is a Dacia 1300. 4. Jane doesnt know her daughters time table. 5. She does not doubt the good intentions of her husbands parents. 6. You can easily notice the springs first signs . 7. The shop-girlsdresses are the best advertisment. 8. They all welcomed the polices protection. 9. These are G.B. Shaws best plays . 10. He has been studying Scotlands folklore for several years. 11. All the childrens parents are present at the meeting. 12. She wont say a word about her lifes purpose. 13. Romanias industry is in full swing. 14. The nightingales high note can be easily heard. Exercise 10. 1. Nu mai avem suc de portocale; mai bine te-ai duce la bcnie sa cumperi. 2. Costumul cel nou al soului meu nu este gata nc; se afla la croitorie. 3. Cnd mergi in Regatul Unit, sa nu pierzi ocazia sa mergi la muzeul Tussaud. 4. De regul, ei cumpr fructe proaspete de la aprozar in fiecare luni dimineaa. 5. Ai vzut vreodata palatul St. James? 6. Ei s-au decis sa mearg la biroul de avocatura mine la amiaza. 7. In drumul tu ctre casa, te-ai putea opri la tutungerie sa-mi cumperi nite igri.

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8. Sunt angajat al firmei Ford de 20 de ani. 9. M voi duce la coafor mai trziu. 10. nainte de a m ntoarce acas, am trecut pe la brutrie, de unde am cumprat o pine proaspt i aceste delicioase cornuri. Exercise 11. 1. The streets of this town are very large. 2. The marriage of my friends children took place two weeks ago. 3. This is my sons new teacher of mathematics. 4. Before starting my classes, Itook a twenty minutes walk. 5. The staff of this company is made up of thirty people. 6. In the next months interval we are going to finish all our exams. 7. at this age, a ten hours travel by train must be tiresome. 8. We must never forget about the poors rights. 9. A five minutes wait does not matter any longer. 10. The yesterdays newspaper published many interesting news. Exercise 12. o Decision, approval, discussion, referral, discovery, teacher, weight, growth, payment, performance, limitation, betrayal, o Nationalism, wisdom, likelihood, freedom, greatness, weakness, kindness, happiness, truth, deep height, height, warmth o dictatorship, friendship, scholarship, leadership, childhood, pianist, musician, mathematician, scientist, hospitality, widowhood, waiting. Exercise 13. 1. These are boxes. 2. Those are lorries. 3. Where are the knives? 4. Are they your watches? 5. These are new houses. 6. Those are old chimneys. 7. Those arent my dresses. 8. Those are shoes. 9. Who are these men? 10. They are farmers and these are their wives. 11. Those are rows of people. 12. Are they new bridges? 13. There are matches in the boxes. 14. There are no children in their family. 15. Are there dictionaries on his desk? 16. Are there desks in that room? 17. The faces of those women are attractive. 18. The houses arent large, but they are comfortable. 19. Who are those persons? 20. Which are your books? Exercise 14. 1. The ball is round. 2. The house has a roof. 3. This is a phoneme. 4. The fox is an animal. 5. The rose is a beautiful flower. 6.A watch is a small clock. 7. The dog has a tail. 8. That boy is a good friend to the other one. 9. This is a simple sentence. 10. This isnt a box. 11. The child is at school. 12. This is my notebook. 13. My friend wants to study German. 14. His brother works hard all day. 15.A housewife has to work very hard. 16. A child receives a lot of pleasure from this game. 17. He lives in a small house. 18. The postman brings letters three times a day. 19. The boy wakes up at six. 20. It is a picture on the wall.

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Exercise 15. armchair, bottle- opener, fast-food, yellow pages, lawn mower, telephone directory, chewing gum, central heating, air conditioner, tea bag, alarm clock, post office, babysitter, heart attack, burglar alarm, fairy tale, credit card, bus stop, bank account, contact lenses. Exercise 16. 1. camera, video, shop, box, cassette, hundred. 2. officer, tooth, person, man, woman, dozen, car, bus.

Exercise 17. 1 mice, 2 flies, 3 mosquitoes, 4 beaches, 5 churches, 6 photos, 7 loaves, 8 fruit, 9 peaches, 10 oranges, 11 tomatoes, 12 shelves, 13 fish, 14 buses, 15 feet, 16 wolves, 17 people, 18 families, 19 men, 20 wives, 21 children, 22 lives, 23 centuries, 24 countries Exercise 18. radio, morning, accidents, roads, people, accident, motorway, cars, junction problems, rail, travellers, trains, cities, minutes. Exercise 19. courage, air, smoke, safety, water, health, damage, environment. Exercise 20. 1. are, 2. was, 3. rush, 4. play, 5 .is made up, 6. are listening to, 7. are entering, 8. agree, 9. is, 10. were gathered, 11. are voting, 12. was placed, 13. are, 14. is, 15. are, 16. are published, 17. are taken down, 18. is, 19. is, 20. is. Exercise 21. 1 arent, 2 dont, 3 is, 4 is/ are trying, Exercise 22. 1 are, 2 have got, 3 are, 4 are, 5 stop, 6 ask, 7 avoid, 8 are, 9 is, 10 is.

Unit 2 Ports Determiners and quantifiers I. Unitatea ofer noiuni n legtur cu portul n general, fcnd distincia de sens ntre cele dou noiuni din limba englez: port i harbour. Partea de gramatic trateaz problema prilor de vorbire care stau pe lng substantiv i l determin sau i pot modifica sensul. Exerciiile de la articol, mai ales, pot fi considerate o recapitulare a substantivului, deoarece aceste dou pri de vorbire apar mpreun n propoziii. II. Obiective: 1 Memorising the vocabulary in the unit, in English and making connections with the Romanian terms. 2. Understanding and practicing the grammar: the determiners and quantifiers. 3. Learning how to use the dictionary for the unknown words from the specialty text and the exercises. 4. Checking the knowledge through self-evaluation tests from the end of unit 4. 2.1. Ports Definition: A port is a place where goods, passengers, and mail are transferred to, from, or between carriers of the same or different modes. Nearly all ports include portions of one or more harbours where the configuration of the shore, either naturally or with artificial improvement, offers protection to vessels. A harbour may serve a single port or, as in the case of a large harbour, such as San Francisco Bay, several ports, or, as in the cases of London, Chicago, and Sydney, several harbours may serve one port. Ports are gateways leading to and from inland areas, or hinterlands, connecting them with other areas, sometimes called forelands, by means of ocean and inland waterway carriers. Associated with the water front terminals are complexes of services and facilities ashore, such as local roads, railway terminals, ship repair facilities, and numerous offices concerned with the operation and maintenance of vessels and the movements of cargoes and passengers, all of which are also included within port areas. Many industries located in and near the port areas are wholly or largely dependent upon the port for receipt of raw materials and fuels and for shipment of their products; other industries and commercial establishments depend upon a port-related labour force as part of their markets. Because all of these activities require large labour forces in or near the port areas, ports are usually associated with cities. The primary objective of port development and operation is to move traffic through the port quickly and economically. Large ports, with a greater variety of routes and services, will offer the shipper greater frequency of ship sailings and will generate sufficient traffic to justify a larger number of calls by vessels. The volumes of cargo and

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of ship services, therefore, are reciprocally related, and the larger and more efficient ports, because of economies of scale, tend to grow more rapidly than smaller ones with traffic volumes less able to justify the efficiency and variety of services and facilities. An important measure of port efficiency is "turnaround time": the time a vessel or a shipment spends in port. In the case of a vessel, this includes the time required for it to move from the harbour entrance to its berth, to process the various documents associated with the movement of the vessel and its cargo and passengers, to take on fuel and load, and to proceed out of the harbour on its return or subsequent leg of its voyage; in the case of cargo, the turnaround time is the time required for the shipment to arrive at and depart from the port area. A port with a good harbour and with adequate physical equipment and services will attract traffic from a hinterland that is also served by competitive ports even though inland distances and rates may be somewhat disadvantageous. In many industrialized and urbanized regions such as northwestern and central Europe and the northeastern United States, port competition is intense, and to secure an increasing share of the traffic many port organizations maintain extensive trade development and promotional activities, as well as staffs to protect and enhance their competitive position with respect to inland and overseas rate structures and services. 2.2. Determiners 2.2.1. Articles Articles are determiners. Other determiners are the possessives, the demonstratives, some, and any. Two determiners cannot usually be used together. So it is not possible in English to say: the my uncle or a that man. The articles are a, an, (indefinite article) and the (definite article). a. A/an can be used only with singular countable nouns. We do not put a/an in front of plural or uncountable nouns, because a means one. A is used before a consonant sound: a ship, a horse and an before a vowel sound: an elephant, an hour, an umbrella. A/an is used when we dont know the person or the thing. There is a yacht in the marina. A/an is used in some other cases: - before someones job or profession: He is a sailor. - in certain expressions of measurement: twice a week, 50p. a kilo, 30 miles an hour etc. The cruising speed is 6 miles an hour. - in phrases: to be in a hurry, to have a headache, all of a sudden, as a matter of fact, to take an interest in, etc. All of a sudden the sea became black. - with proper nouns denoting an unknown person, a member of a family, or a person with certain characteristics: He is a Don Juan.

Ports; Determiners and Quantifiers 33

b. The is used with singular and plural nouns. It can be used with nouns already mentioned or known: Youll see a shop with ropes in the window. (the window of the mentioned shop) The is used in some other situations: - when there is only one object or person in a certain area, so that it is considered unique: the equator, the north pole, the stars, the weather, the world etc. The captain is anxious to see the new computer. - with adjectives in the superlative degree: This is the oldest shipyard in the country. - with nouns converted from adjectives, denoting a class or nationality to make a generalization: The English are good sailors. - with only, next, last, same, right and wrong: You are the only friend Ive got. - in time phrases: in the past, at the moment; in the future; in the morning/afternoon/evening; the 1960s; the 21st century etc; - with proper nouns in the plural denoting a family: The Jonsons are on voyage. - with proper nouns denoting countries, if they represent a union: the Netherlands, the United States, the Great Britain etc; - with proper nouns denoting rivers, seas, oceans, channels, canals, straits: the Pacific Ocean, the Black Sea, the Thames, the English Channel, the Suez Canal, the Straits of Dover, etc; - with proper nouns denoting groups of islands, chains of mountains, deserts: the Bahamas, the Alps, the Sahara etc; - with proper nouns denoting hotels, shops, institutions: the Hilton, the Harrods, the British Museum etc; - with proper nouns denoting ships, trains, planes: the Queen Mary, the Titanic etc; - in phrases: to tell the time, by the way, to play the fool, on the whole etc; - in most phrases with of: the Houses of Parliament etc. c. The zero article. This is the situation when article the is not used: - with nouns used in a general sense: Oil is lighter than water. Ships are floating. - with nouns denoting months, festivals, days of the week:

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We are leaving on Monday. with nouns denoting meals and seasons: I usually have lunch at seven oclock. with nouns denoting languages: He speaks English and French. with nouns denoting a profession or an office held at one time by one person: They appointed him manager. with proper nouns denoting bays and lakes: He worked as a tugboat man on San Francisco Bay. in phrases: day by day, in case of, by sea, at sunset, at night, to be in trouble, by mistake, in silence, on foot etc. with proper nouns names of persons: James, Captain Cook, Professor Smith etc with proper nouns denoting continents, countries, regions, towns, and cities: Europe, England, London, York etc. with proper nouns denoting mountains, lakes, and capes: Mount Everest, Lake Superior, Cape Cod etc. with proper nouns denoting buildings, streets, bridges: Covent Garden, Oxford Street, Waterloo Bridge etc.

2.2.2. Possessives Person I II III m III f III n Possessive adjective Sg. Pl. my our your your his their her its Possessive pronoun Sg. Pl. mine ours yours yours his theirs hers -

We use possessives to express a relation, often the fact that someone has something or that something belongs to someone. There are possessive determiners (my, your etc.) and possessive pronouns (mine, yours etc). Possessive determiners or possessive adjectives come before a noun: my job, our mates, their watch. We normally use a possessive with peoples heads, arms, legs etc, and their clothes, even if it is clear whose we mean: He just stood there with his hands in his pockets.

Ports; Determiners and Quantifiers 35

There are also some idiomatic expressions with possessives: Ill do my best. We took our leave. It was your fault we got lost. Ive changed my mind. 2.2.3. Demonstratives We use demonstratives to show a certain thing or person in a special situation. This and these refer to something near the speaker. That and those refer to something further away. This and that are singular. These and those are plural. When we are in a place or situation or at an event, we use this, not that, to refer to it: How long is this weather going to last? We can use this or that to refer to something mentioned before: I havent got time. This/That is the problem. We can use that/those to replace a noun phrase with the to avoid repeating the noun: The temperature of cooling water is lower than that of the seawater. In informal English, you can use that or those in front of a noun to refer to people or things that are already known to the person you are speaking to: That idiot Antonio has gone and locked our cabin door. 2.3. Quantifiers A quantifier is a word like many, a lot of, both, all, enough etc. They can express the whole or a part of a quantity, or they can have more meanings. 2.3.1. Large and small quantities a. A lot of/lots of, many and much express a large quantity. Many is used only before plural nouns and much before uncountable nouns. As a general rule, we use a lot of/lots of in positive statements and many and much in negatives and questions: There are a lot of shipping companies in our city. There arent many shipping companies in our city. How many shipping companies are there in our city? We also use much and many after very, so, too, as and how (a great many is rather formal): There is too much noise in the engine room when the ship is under way. A great many ships are in the roadstead.

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b. (A) few, (a) little and a bit of, express a small quantity. We use them mainly in positive statements. A few is used only before plural nouns and a little before uncountable nouns. A bit of is more informal than a little: There are a few ships in the Romanian fleet. Fortunately, Ive still got a little /a bit of money. We can also use few and little without a; the meaning is negative in comparison with a few and a little: There are a few ships in the Romanian fleet. (enough) There are few ships in the Romanian fleet. (not enough) Fortunately, Ive still got a little money. (enough) Ive got little money, I cannot go on holiday. (not enough) c. Other expressions for large/small quantities Large quantities: a large number of, a great deal of, a large/huge/tremendous amount of, numerous; masses of/ heaps of/ loads of: A ship uses a great deal of electricity. Numerous difficulties were put in my way. Weve got heaps of time. Small quantities: several, a handful of, a small/tiny amount of: Several ports cannot offer shelter. A computer uses only a small amount of electricity. 2.3.2. Whole and part quantities These quantifiers refer to the total quantity or part of it, and are usually placed before a noun: all, most, both, either, neither, every, each, some, any, no. All and most can be used with countable nouns in the plural and uncountable nouns for generalization. Both (used for two things, meaning the one and the other) can be used with countable nouns in the plural. Either (used for two things, meaning the one or the other), neither (used for two things, meaning not the one or the other), every (meaning all the members of a group) takes a singular verb, and each can be used with countable nouns in the singular. Some, any, no can be used in all cases: All the systems on board are functioning. Most (ships) have two decks. Most pollution could be avoided. The ferry has doors in both ends. You can use either pumps/either of the pumps. Neither pump/neither of the pumps is working properly. There were flags flying from every/each ship. Every ship is classified. We cannot use a negative verb after every/each. But not every means less than all: Not every door was locked. Some of them were open.

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Some, any and no a. Some + plural or uncountable noun is equivalent to a/an +singular noun. Youll need a hammer, some nails and some wood. b. Some expresses a positive quantity in comparison with any (means that the quantity may be zero) that is used mainly in negatives and questions: Ive got some tools. Have you got any tools? I havent got any tools. We can use some in questions to express a more positive tone, especially when making an offer or a request: Would you like some coffee? Could you lend me some money? c. No is a negative word so we should use it with a positive verb: There is no alternative. / There isnt any alternative. d. Some can express part of a quantity: Some ships carry both cargo and passengers. (but not all) e. Any can be sometimes used with the meaning it doesnt matter which: The delegation will be here at any minute. We can use any in a main clause to express a condition: Any problems will be dealt with by our agent. 2.3.3. Other quantifiers a. Enough can be used before a plural or an uncountable noun: There arent enough people to make a crew. b. Plenty of means more than enough: There will be plenty of people to lend a hand. c. Another and some more express an extra quantity. We use another with a singular noun and some more with a plural or an uncountable noun: Have another cup of coffee. Have some more soup. Another can mean either an extra one or a different one: We need another generator. (an extra one) The engineer is going to ask for another generator because this one is broken.

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d. Other is an adjective meaning different: You are supposed to go out through the other door. We can use other/others without a noun to refer to things or people: Some sailors suffer from seasick, others dont. 2.4. Vocabulary port = port carrier = nav de mrfuri harbour = port inland areas = zone interioare hinterlands = zone apropiate/ nconjurtoare ship repair facilities = reparaii de nave maintenance = ntreinere shipment = transport, ncrctur shipper = transportator call = oprire turnaround time = staionare berth = dan 2.5. Grammar Practice 2.5.1. Grammar Practice Article Exercise 1. Put the following sentences into singular: 1. Nouns are words. 2. Cities are big towns. 3. Horses are animals. 4. Roses are beautiful flowers. 5. Tables are pieces of furniture. Exercise 2. Fill the blanks with the requested articles and translate the text: LITTLE TOMMY AND ... HORSE Tommy: Father, . . . teacher does not know what horse is. Father: Why do you think so, Tommy? Tommy: You know, I drew ... horse yesterday and showed it to ... teacher and he asked me what it was. Exercise 3. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate article: 1. Would you like ... cup of ... tea and ... cake? 2. It is better to tell . . . truth than tell . . . lies.

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3. Where is ... hat I bought yesterday? 4. Smith, ... man I told you about, is ... very man. 5. I like to eat . . . bread and ... butter in . . . morning. 6. Little Tommy goes to ... school only in morning. 7. He went to . . . bed with . . . bad cold. 8. He crossed ... lake in ... record time. 9. He collects . . . butterflies, . . . stamps, and matchboxes. 10. In ... autumn of ... 2003 we went on ... excursion to . . . Danube Delta. Exercise 4. Fill the gaps with the appropriate articles: 1. Take... little tea; it will do you ... lot of good. 2. Out ofsight, out... mind. 3. l like lot of. . . sugar in my tea. 4 ... supper is... last meal of... day. 5. ... bad drivers are punished by law. 6. Take ... chair and make yourself at home; he will be back in ... minute. 7. This is . . . answer to ... problem ... teacher gave us. 8. There wont be another train for at least hour. 9. We had ... dinner together at ... good restaurant yesterday. 10. ... Danube, ... Rhine and ... Thames are three important European rivers. Exercise 5. Put the articles a, an, the into the gaps: 1. He came to see me ... last week and brought English handbook with him. 2. good dictionary is . . . great help to . . . students. 3. ... last night I met Tommy; he said he would come here today if . . . weather were fine. 4. Come to see me on ... Saturday at ... latest. 5. He works hard by day and sleeps soundly at night. 6. ... help came at ... last and ... swimmer was rescued. 7. He works every ... day from . . . early morning till late at . . . night. 8. He went into ... inn and asked for ... bread and butter. 9. By ... way, he said, where is ... shop you told me about? 10. What is matter? Have you had ... accident? Exercise 6. Put the articles into their correct places: Our sun is enormous body with diameter about 108 times that of earth. It would take train, moving at 60 miles hour; over five years to travel round its circumference. But those little pinpoints of light we call stars are also suns, and some of them are very much larger and brighter than one which warms our earth. One of them has diameter three hundred times greater than that of our sun. Of thousands of millions of stars, which can be seen through powerful telescope, only six thousand or so are visible to naked eye, and their distance from earth is so tremendous that their combined light is only about hundredth of that shed by full moon. (The Childrens New Illustrated Encyclopedia)

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Exercise 7. Fill in the blanks with the right articles: When ... sea was not too rough we were often out in little rubber boat ... taking photographs. I shall not forget ... first time ... sea was so calm that two men felt like putting ... balloon-like little thing into water and ... going for ... row. They had hardly got clear of raft when they dropped ... little oars and sat ... roaring with ... laughter. And as ... waves lifted them away and they disappeared and reappeared among seas, they laughed so loud ... every time they caught glimpse of us that their voices rang out over ... desolate Pacific. We looked round us with ... mixed feelings, and saw ... nothing comic but our own ... bearded faces; but as ... two in ... boat should be accustomed to those by now; we began to have ... suspicion that they had suddenly gone mad. Sunstroke, perhaps ... two fellows could hardly get back on ... board ... Kon-Tiki for sheer laughter, and gasping, with tears in their eyes, begged us just to go and see for ourselves. Two of us jumped down into ... dancing rubber boat, and were caught by ... sea which lifted us clear. We sat down at ... once and roared with ... laughter. We had never before had ... outside view of ... ourselves in open sea. ... raft looked exactly like old Norwegian hay-loft lying helpless, drifting about in ... open sea, hay-loft full of ... sunburnt bearded ruffians. If anyone had come paddling after us at ... sea in ... bath we should have felt ... same spontaneous urge to ... laughter. (Thor Heyerdahl) Exercise 8. Fill in the spaces with the definite article wherever necessary: 1. She is not ... Mrs. Smith I am looking for. 2. My parents live on ... upper floor of an old house; when ... wind blows, all ... windows rattle. 3. ... Carpathians are not so high as ... Alps. 4. ... Danube is Romanias longest river. 5. ... clock in ... dining room is just striking 6. ... room Helen rushes into as soon as she arrives home is ... kitchen. 7. Spring is ... first season of ... year. 8. Id like to see Mr. Smith, please. Do you mean ... Mr. Smith who works in our department or ... Mr. Smith ... sales manager? 9. ... British Library is one of ... largest libraries all over ... world. 10. What is... French for ... boy? 11. ... Mike you met at my place yesterday was not ... Mike I was talking about a week before. 12. I have never feared ... death but ... death of my father was ... greatest loss of my life. 13. Ask them to come downstairs when ... breakfast is ready. 14. ... Eatons have also been invited to ... diner at ... Ritz. 15. She goes to school in ... morning and plays tennis in ... afternoon. 16. She has always said that ...English language is difficult. 17. On ... Sundays I like to stay in ... bed till ... noon and spend ... time reading ... Sunday papers and magazines.

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18. 19. 20. 21.

Up to a point, Creang is Mark Twain of ... Romanian literature. I have always appreciated ... sublime of ...landscapes in ... Alps. If you leave ... home at 7 you can reach ... school in ... time. My mother comes to ... school sometimes to speak to ... headmaster.

Exercise 9. Put the indefinite article a or an in the blanks wherever necessary: 1.We usually have ... lunch at 1 oclock, which, as ... rule, consists of three courses: ...salad, ... dish and ... sweet. 2.Go to the grocers and buy ... dozen oranges and ... pound of coffee beans. 3.The Smiths I am talking about live in ... wonderful house and drive ... new Ford. 4.... old man suffering from ... cold should be given hot tea three times ... day. 5.What ... name to give to ... cat! 6.There was once ... lonely old woman who lived in ... hut in the outskirts of ... large town. 7. What ... hot day for November! Its such ... pity we cant go for ... hike or take ... long walk in the wood. 8.Jack! ... Mr. Thomson wants to see you at once! 9.Our friends gave us ... wonderful supper at the ambassador. 10.She needs ... moments peace after such ... bad piece of news. 11.The youngster was driving with sixty miles ... hour when all of ... sudden ... deer crossed the motorway. He stopped ... few moments later and fled in ... panic without taking ... back look. 12.He was puzzled that he should be in his office at ... time when the General Manager was so busy. 13.During the installation of ... newly selected government there may appear many ... surprise. 14.Mr. Sydney did not appear to be ... man who was making ... joke. 15.He was not ... addicted smoker but, now and then, late at ... night, he was longing for ... cigarette. Exercise 10. Fill in the spaces with the definite, indefinite or zero article wherever necessary: 1.Good ... morning ..., uncle, said ... boy with ... large smile on his face. 2. From ... photos of ... friends and ... relatives, Mr. Abbot selected ... picture of ... Nick Price, ... man who had come to visit them, sometime in ... early 50. 3. She put ... book back on ... piano and went to look out of ... window. 4. His voice was low and carefully modulated ... voice of ... man self-conscious about ... impression he made. Have you ever been to ... Argentine? he asked with ... undertone of ... regret in his voice. . 5. Most ... critics admit that ... writer we are talking about is ... new Shaw of ... English literature. 6. Let me offer you ... cup of ... coffee, Professor. 7. He speaks ... French and ... English quite fluently but he has never been to ... France or

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... United Kingdom. 8. ... sky was starry, ... moon was shining brightly and ... night was so warm and lovely that all ... guests decided, all of ... sudden, to take ... bath in ... cool waves of ... Atlantic 0cean. 9. That was not ... sort of ... remark expected of ... right sort of ... chap who studied at ... UCLA. 10. Nick was reminded of ... joke he had heard at his club at ... lunch. 11. He had ... terrible feeling that ... operation was going to be ... Waterloo of his career. 12. You may go either to ... National Theatre to see ... play or to ... Capitol Cinema to see ... film. 13. ... Prime Minister picked up ... telephone and changed his days appointments to make ... time to see ... deputy secretary in ... Cabinet Office. 14. ... few days later we went to ... Henrys dinner at ... Ritz where we met ... old Mr. Snow who claimed to be ... uncle of my wife. 15. Such ... power and ... freedom of ...decision had only five times before been given to ... American president. Exercise 11. Here are some expressions with the noun hand, preceded by the definite, indefinite or zero article: a. to bite the hand that feeds one; to give smb. the glad hand; the hidden hand; by the left hand; to have/get the upper hand; the skips hand; a picture by the same hand; on the right hand; on the one hand; on the other hand; at the best hand; to be on the growing hand. b. to have a free hand; to have an open hand; not to lift a hand; with a heavy hand; a hand for; an old hand at; a good hand at/in; a poor/bad hand at; to have a hand like a foot; a cool hand; to have a hand in smth.; to take a hand at a game; to make a (good/ fine/fair) hand. c. hand in hand; the matter in hand; to take in hand; light in hand; at hand; by hand; to bind hand and foot; supplies on hand; to have a free hand; to have an open hand; to shake hands; clean hands; off hand; hand and glove; hand over; from hand to mouth; out of hand; at first hand; second hand; from good hands. A. Choose some of them and make sentences of your own. B. Find some more new set expressions and build up sentences of your own. Exercise 12. Put the definite or the indefinite article into the blank spaces where necessary. Translate the jokes. A) (1. ...) landlord was sitting with his shephard on (2. ...) hill commanding (3. ...) fine view of (4. ...) valley. Seeing (5. ...) flock of (6. ...) sheep at (7. ...) rest in (8. ...) shadiest nook, he observed to his companion, John, if I were (9. ... ) sheep, I would prefer to lie in(10. ...) sun. Ah, my lord, retorted (11. ...) shepherd, were you (12. ...) sheep, you would have more sense. B) If (1. ...) earthquake engulfed England, (2. ...) English would manage to meet among

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(3. ...) ruins and organize (4. ...) dinner just to celebrate (5. ...) painful event. Thats what (6. ... ) people of (7. ... ) other nationalities are apt to say about (8. ...) English. Should (9. ...) English be consulted on (10. ...) subject they would say (11. ...) same thing about (12. ...) French and their love of (13. ...) good dinners. C) (1. ...) outside temperature being ten degrees below (2. ...) zero, it was unusually cold in (3. ...) school room. What is (4. ...) Latin for cold? asked (5. ...) school-master addressing one of his boys, who seemed to be suffering from cold more than (6. ...) others. Oh, sir, answered (7. ...) lad, his hands thrust in his trousers pockets, I cant tell you for (8. ...) moment, although I have it at my fingers ends. D)Dr. Crisp was invited to (1. ...) party in (2. ...) country place. (3. ...) dinner being late and(4. ...) company not quite to his taste, (5. ...) doctor strolled out into (6. ...) garden and then to (7. ...) nearby churchyard. When (8. ...) dinner was served at last and (9. ...) doctor had not yet returned, one of (10. ...) guests wondered where he could have gone. (11. ...) master of (12. ...) house, annoyed by Dr. Crisps (13. ...) absence, explained that (14 ) churchyard being not far from there, (15. ...) doctor had gone to visit his former patients. E)(1. ...) Englishman, driving in (2. ...) hackney-coach through France, was annoyed at (3. ...) slowness of (4. ...) pace. He tried to make (5. ...) coachman drive faster but all in vain. (6. ...) man couldnt understand either his English or his broken French. Then it occured to (7. ...) Englishman, both his English and his French being Greek to (8. ...) coachman, to use (9. ...) high-sounding words that might frighten (10. ...) fellow. So he roared into his ear. Westmorland, Cumberland, Northumberland, Durham! which had (11. ...) desired effect, (12. ...) coachman taking these words for some terrible threat. F) In 1870 Mark Twain was walking along (1. ...) streets of Boston when he noticed in (2. ...) shop window (3. ...) machine he had never seen before. He entered (4. ...) shop,asked (5. ...) shop-assistant how (6. ...) ,,monster functioned and bought it for 125 dollars. He brought home (7. ...) machine he had nicknamed (8. ...) monster and started practising on it at once. (9. ...) machine was (10. ...) typewriter and Mark Twain typed (l1. ...) whole book on it. When he brought his manuscript to (12. ...) editor, (13. ...) latter was delighted. He made Mark Twain promise him to bring everything he would write later on typed, on this wonderful machine. (14. ...) Tom Sawyer was (15. ...) first book Mark Twain had typewritten. G) You certainly know that (1. ...) waterproof coat is often called (2. ...) mackintosh. But perhaps you dont know that (3. ...) word is (4. ...) surname. In (5. ...) year 1823 in (6. ...) Scotland there lived (7. ...) man whose (8. ...)name was Charles Mackintosh. (9. ...) climate of his country being rainy, he would often get drenched to (10. ...) skin and heartily disliked it. One day, having some rubber at his disposal, he decided to rubberize his coat. Now he could walk outdoors in any weather, his rubberized coat protecting him from (11. ...) rain. Most of his friends and (12. ...) friends of his friends admired (13. ...) waterproof coat and wanted to have their own coats

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rubberized likewise. Soon (14. ...) tradesmen took up his invention. (15. ...) Waterproof coats became all (16. ...) fashion and (17. ...) staple product of (18. ...) town, (19. ...) name of (2o. ...) inventor, though not (21. ...) inventor himself, getting (22. ...) worldwide popularity. Exercise 13. Fill in the gaps with the where necessary. I hate 1 ___ November! It doesnt get light till 2 ___ 8 oclock in 3 ___ morning. Then its dark again as early as 4 ___ 4 oclock in 5 ___ afternoon. After 6 ___ Christmas, 7 ___ days start to get a bit longer, but 8 ___ weather starts to get colder. On 9 ___ Friday 10 ___ last week, 11 ___ temperature was minus 10 C. 12 ___ next week 13 ___ weather forecast is 14 ___ same. Exercise 14. Put a or an before these words: 1 job, 2 union, 3 unusual name 4 enormous ice cream 5 holiday, 6 honest man. Exercise 15. Put in a/ an where necessary: 1. She works in restaurant in street near the station. 2. For lunch she only has apple and glass of milk. 3. Anys friend works in pub. Shes barmaid. She works three evenings week. She earns 4.50 hour. Exercise 16. Match the two parts of the sentences. a. I normally go to the dentist once 1. a dozen b. These roses cost $20 2. a litre c. The car was doing 150 kilometers 3. a year d. Lamb is selling at 7.50 4. a week e. The Sunday Mail is published once 5. a metre f. Electric cable costs 50 cents 6. a kilo g. How much is the oil? ~ 2.50 7. a day h. The mail is delivered twice 8. an hour Exercise 17. Complete the sentences with a/ an or the. 1. ___ taxi they phoned for arrived late at their house. 2. ___ taxi-driver didn't say he was sorry. 3. ___ traffic jam was caused by ___ accident on___ motorway. ___ car had collided with ___ lorry. Exercise 18. Put in the where necessary: 1. We had ___ breakfast at ___ home in London before we left. 2. ___ bus station was on 38th Street. 3. We went to ___ hotel by ___ taxi. 4. We're flying home ___ next Thursday.

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Exercise 19. Complete the sentences, using the where necessary. 1. Our hotel manager went to ___ school in England, then went to ___ university in the States. 2. The New York police arrested a man for the shooting. He was a cleaner at ___ university. 3. He'll appear in ___ court next week. He'll definitely go to ___ prison. Exercise 20. There are seven examples of the in this text. How do you know which thing or person the writer is referring to, in each case? a. because it is only one in the immediate situation; b. because it is only one anywhere; c. because it has been referred to before, in the text; d. because the writer is specifying which one, by adding extra information. Neil Armstrong was the first person to set foot on the surface of the moon. The words that he said are famous: 'That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for the mankind.' He and his co-pilot Buzz Aldrin then planted a flag and collected rocks. The flag is probably still there. The rocks have helped the scientists understand the history of the solar system. Exercise 21 Complete the sentences with a or an, the or no article. 1. 'How much are the leeks?' 'They're 80 pence a pound.' 2. I went to ___ wonderful concert by ___ London Symphony Orchestra. 3. ___ local school is soon to be closed. 4. I usually go to ___ work by ___ train. 5. Is ___ meat in ___ oven? 6. Is this ___ first time you've been to ___ Isle of Man? 7. He's ___ art teacher and she's ___ electrician. 8. A lot of people give ___ money to ___ charity at this time of the year. 9. What ___ beautiful face that child's got! 10. ___ British usually have ___ butter on their bread. 11. ___ life is very difficult for ___ unemployed these days. 12. ___ Leader of ___ Opposition is in danger of losing her seat at ___ next election. 13. I like to have ___ cup of ___ tea when I wake up in ___ morning. 14. I saw ___ fox this morning. I think it must have been ___ same one that I saw last week. 15. Can I have ___ apple? 16. Have you ever seen ___ Acropolis in ___ Athens? 17. ___ police have had a lot of support from ___ general public over this issue. 18. ___ shirts on ___ washing-line should be nearly dry now. 19. ___ people don't like him because of his selfish life. 20. I bought my sister ___ book and ___ bottle of ___ perfume for her birthday but I don't think she liked ___ perfume.

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2.5.2 Grammar Practice Possessives Exercise A. Put the correct possessive adjective or pronoun: 1. I cant play tennis because Ive forgotten _____ tennis shoes. 2. Jessica cant play because shes forgotten _____ too. 3. Amy cant play because hes broken _____ arm. 4. Rachel and Amanda cant play because theyve forgotten _____ rackets. 5. Jilly and Laura have lost _____ ! 6. Clares at home. Shes looking after her cat. Its broken _____ leg. 7. Can you play Lee? Or have you forgotten _____ racket? 2.5.3. Grammar Practice Demonstratives Exercise A Complete this dialogue with this, these, that or those: Customer: Can I have half a kilo of 1_____ tomatoes on the shelf behind you? Assistant: 2 _____ here, do you mean? Customer: Yes, thats right. And have you got any of 3 ______ oranges you had last week? Assistant: No, we havent got any of 4 _____ but 5 _____ here are just as nice. Customer: All right, Ill have a kilo of 6 _____ please. Assistant: Anything else? Customer: Yes, can I have a cabbage please? Assistant: How about 7 _____ one? Customer: Yes, 8 _____ looks fine. Assistant: Anything else? Customer: No, 9 _____ s all thanks. Assistant: 10 _____s 3.45 altogether. 2.5.4. Grammar Practice Quantifiers Exercise 1. Complete the sentences, using very little or very few and a little or a few. 1. I know that a lot of coffee is not good for you. So I drink _____ coffee. 2. I eat _____ cooked vegetables. I prefer raw vegetables. 3. Foe brakfast I have _____ orange juice and _____ grapes. 4. For lunch I have _____ cheese and _____ raw vegetables. 5. For dinner, I have _____ rice, perhaps some fish, and drink _____ wine. 6. In general I eat _____ sugar, _____ fat and _____ snacks like crisps or biscuits or chocolate. Exercise 2. Complete the sentences using all, very, and each. Sometimes more than one answer is possible:

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The government is planning to build a new road round the village of Melcombe. Theyre going to cut down 1 _____ the trees in Melcombe wood. Theyre going to demolish 2 _____ house on the route. The Department of Transport has written to the owners of 3 _____ the houses to say that it will give 4 _____ of them a good price for their house. But the families dont want to sell their homes and theyve 5 _____ written to the Department to protest. 6 _____ time the government plans to build a new road, people ask: What about 7 _____ the pollution? Doesnt 8 _____ new road just create more traffic? Exercise 3. Complete the sentences with some and any: 1. Doctor: Take the tablets and if there are ____ ploblems, come and see me immediately. 2. Teacher: If theres ____ more noise, Ill give you ____ extra homework. 3. Car salesman: You can put ____ petrol in it super or regular, leaded or unleaded. 4. Hotel receptionist: You can have ____ room you like. 5. Shopkeeper: There are ____ oranges over there. Choose ____ you like. Exercise 4. Match the two correct halves of the sentences. 1. How much A potatoes did you buy? 2. There isnt much B information did you get? 3. There are very few C time left. 4. We didnt buy any D waiters in the restaurant. 5. How many e fruit last week. 6. Ive prepared some 7. He has found little 8. Shes invited a lot of 9. Have you got any 10. John hasnt eaten many 2.6. Answer Keys for Grammar Practice 2.6.1. Answer Keys for Grammar Practice Articles Exercise 1: 1.A noun is a word. 2.A city is a big town. 3.A horse is an animal. 4.A rose is a beautiful flower. 5.A table is a piece of furniture. Exercise 2: the, the, a, the. Exercise 3: 1.a ,-, a. 2. the ,-. 3. the 4. the, the 5.-, -, the 6.-, the 7.-, a 8. the, - 9.-, -, 10. the, -, an, the. Exercise 4: 1.a, a 2.-, - 3.a, - 4.-, the, the 5.-, the 6.a, -, a 7. the, the, the 8. an 9.-, a, -10. the, the, the. Exercise 5: 1.-, the(an) 2.a, a, the 3.-, the 4.-, the 5.-, - 6.-, -, the 7.-, -, - 8. an, -, - 9. the, F work so far. G sandwiches, has he? H food with you? I delicious soup for you. J friends to dinner.

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the 10 .the, an. Exercise 6. an enormous, a diameter, the earth, a train, an hour, the stars, the one, a diameter, the thousands, a powerful, the naked, the earth, a hundredth, the full. Exercise 7. the, the, -, the, the, -, the, the, -, a, the, the, -, -, the, the, -, a, the, -, -, -, the, the, a, the, -, -, the, the, a, -, -, an, -, the, the, an, the, a, -, -, a, the, -. Exercise 8. 1. the 2. the, the, the 3. the, the 4. the 5. the, the 6. the, the 7. -, the, the 8. the, the, the 9. the, the, the 10. the, - 11. the, the 12. -, the, the 13. - 14. the, -, the 15. -, the, the 16. the 17. -, -, -, the, the 18. the, the 19. the, the, the 20. -, -, - 21. -, the. Exercise 9. 1 .-, a, a, a, a 2. a, a 3. a, a 4. an, a, a 5. a, a 6. a, a, a 7. a, a, a, a 8. a 9. a 10. a, a 11. an, a, a, a, a, a 12. a 13. a, a 14. a, a 15. an, -, a. Exercise 10. 1. -,-,the, a, 2. the, the, -, a, -, a, the 3. the, the,the 4. the, a, the, the, an, -5. -, the, the,the 6. a, -, 7. -, -, -, the 8. the, the,the , the, a, a, the, the 9. the, -, the, -, -10. the, - 11. the/ a,the, the 12. the, a, the, a 13. the, the, -, the, the 14 a ,the, the, the/an, the/an 15. -, -, -, an. Exercise 12 : A)1.a, 2.a, 3.a, 4.the, 5.the, 6.-, 7.-, 8.the, 9.a, 10.the, 11.the, 12.a. B)1.an, 2.the, 3.the, 4.a, 5.the, 6.-, 7.-, 8.the, 9.the, 10.the, 11.the, 12.the, 13.-. C)1.the, 2.-, 3.the, 4.the, 5.the, 6.the, 7.the, 8.the D)1.a, 2.a, 3.the, 4.the, 5.the, 6.the, 7.the, 8.the, 9.the, 10.the, 11.the, 12.the, 13.-, 14.the, 15.the. E)1.an, 2.a, 3.the, 4.the, 5.the, 6.the, 6.the, 7.the, 8.the, 9.-, 10.the, 11.the, 12.the. F)1.the, 2.a, 3.a, 4.the, 5.the, 6.the, 7.the, 8.the, 9.the, 10.a, 11.a, 12.the, 13.the, 14.-, 15.the. G)1.a, 2.a, 3.the, 4.a, 5.the, 6.-, 7.a, 8.-, 9.the, 10.the, 11.the, 12.the, 13.the, 14.-, 15.-, 16.the, 17.a, 18.the, 19.the, 20.the, 21.the, 22.a. Exercise 13. 1 -, 2 -, 3 the, 4 -, 5 the, 6 -, 7 the, 8 the, 9 -, 10 -, 11 the, 12 -, 13 the, 14 the, Exercise 14. 1 a, 2 a, 3 an, 4 an, 5 a, 6 an Exercise 15. 1 a restaurant, a street 2 an apple, a glass, 3 a pub, a barmaid, a week, an hour Exercise 16. a-3, b-1, c-8, d-6, e-4, f-5, g-2, h-7 Exercise 17. 1. The, 2. The, 3. The, an, the, A, a. Exercise 18. 1. -, -, 2. the, -, 3. the, -, 4.-

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Exercise 19. 1. -, -, 2. the, 3. -, Exercise 20. d, d, d, c, c, d, b Exercise 21. 1. the, a 2. a, the 3. the 4. -, -, 5. the, the, 6. the, the, 7. an, an, 8. -, -, 9. a, 10. the, -, 11. -, the, 12. the, the, the, 13. a, -, the, 14. a, the, 15. an 16. the, -, 17. the, the, 18. the, the, 19. -, 20. a, a, -, the 2.6.2. Answer Key Grammar Practice Possessives Exercise A. 1 my 2 hers 3 his 4 their 5 theirs 6 its 7 your 2.6.3. Answer Key Grammar Practice Demonstratives Exercise A. 1 those 2 These 3 those 4 these 5 these 6 those 7 this 8 that 9 that 10 That 2.6.4. Answer Key Grammar Practice Quantifiers Exercise 1. 1 a very little 2 very few cooked 3 a little orange juice 4 a few grapes 5 a little rice, a little wine 6 very little sugar, very little fat, very few snacks Exercise 2. 1 all 2 every 3 all 4 each of 5 all (each) 6 every (each) 7 all 8 every/ each Exercise 3. 1 any 2 any, some 3 any 4 any 5 some, any Exercise 4. 1-B, 2-C, 3-D, 4-E, 5-A 6-I, 7-F, 8-J, 9-H, 10-G

Unit 3 Different types of merchant ships Pronoun Numeral I. Unitatea ofer noiuni n legtur cu tipurile de nave cele mai des ntlnite pe mrile i oceanele lumii n prezent. Sunt prezentate caracteristici importante ale acestor tipuri de nave cu cte un exemplu de nave faimoase (foste sau prezente) din categoria respectiv. Partea de gramatic se ocup de studiul pronumelor, nlocuitori ai substantivului n propoziii, i al numeralelor, pri de vorbire eseniale pentru un inginer, care se presupune c va lucra mai ales cu cifre. II. Obiective: 1 Memorising the vocabulary in the unit, in English and making connections with the Romanian terms. 2. Understanding and practicing the grammar: the pronouns and the numerals. 3. Learning how to use the dictionary for the unknown words from the specialty text and the exercises. 4. Checking the knowledge through self-evaluation tests from the end of unit 4. 3.1. Different types of merchant ships 3.1.1. Bulk carrier This type of ship carries cargo such as iron, ore, coal, grain, etc. that is loaded in bulk and not in containers. An example is the Norwegian bulk carrier, Yeoman Burn launched in October 1990, her builders entering into a 20-year contract with a British company. The vessel carries iron ore, limestone, salt, and grain in bulk. The hull has nine separate holds and is double-skinned and double-bottomed. Yeoman Burn has completely automated loading and unloading equipment and carries a crew of 25. 3.1.2. Container ship This type of ship is designed to carry standard-sized containers both in the cargo holds and as deck cargo. An example is Ever Globe launched in 1984. She has three holds for containers plus a massive deck area where more could be stacked up to five deep. Container ships of this kind, which revolutionized cargo handling and transportation, were first introduced in the 1960s, although the concept of container transport is much older than that. 3.1.3. Tanker This type of ship carries oil in huge tanks. With deadweight of almost 152,400 tonnes, the Swedish tanker Landsort was by no means the biggest crude oil and oil products carrier of the day. She was, however, the first built to conform to new International Maritime Organisation rules laid down after the grounding of the Exxon Valdez off

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Alaska, which caused huge devastation to local ecosystems. She was double-hulled throughout, with wing tanks filled with water ballast. Her cargo space was divided into nine self-contained tanks, each one with its own discharge pump capable of delivering 1500 cubic metres per hour. 3.1.4. Gas tanker This kind of ship carries gas under high pressure in liquid form. The Northwest Sanderling, which entered service in 1995, was designed specifically to carry natural gas in liquid form. Gas is pumped to a shore station and subjected to a temperature of minus 160 degrees Celsius, at which point it becomes liquid and its volume reduces to one sixhundredth of the original. At its destination the cargo is brought back to its original state for normal consumption. 3.1.5. Chemical tanker This type of ship carries different chemicals in liquid form in tanks. The Netherlandsregistered Theodora is one of a relatively small number of specialist chemical products tankers designed to carry high-temperature cargoes which solidify on cooling and therefore become impossible to unload. Cargoes are carried in three separate steel tanks which rest on flexible foundations welded to the ships hull, thereby allowing for expansion or contraction of the material. The temperature of the tanks is controlled by pumps and heat exchangers. Theodora has a double hull with 13 ballast tanks; these being completely separate from the cargo system. Like most chemical product carriers, she operated to a schedule which was prepared months in advance and so she had no need for powerful machinery. 3.1.6. Ro-Ro ferry This kind of ship carries passengers, cars, busses and lorries and sometimes railway wagons. The train and vehicle ferry Tycho Brahe was built to operate across the 5-km straits separating Denmark and Sweden. She is the largest double-ending ferry in the world, with room for 260 trucks, 240 cars and nine railway passenger carriages. This double-ended construction ensures the fastest possible turnaround on what is one of the worlds shortest international ferry routes. One of her most important features is the ability to accelerate and decelerate to and from her 14-knot service speed over a very short distance. 3.1.7. Passenger car ferry This kind of ship carries passengers as well as cars and buses. An example is the Serenade that has accommodation for more than 2500 people and 450 cars and a service speed of 21 knots. She features a ballroom big enough to hold 650 guests, a five-storey atrium running three-quarters length of the ship, swimming pools and a show lounge, as well as the normal run of restaurants, discotheques and shops. 3.1.8. Ro-Ro ship There are several different types of Ro-Ro ships depending on what they are used for. Some transport only cars. The Ferry Lavander is a typical of the third generation of

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ferries, able to carry around 800 passengers and up to 300 light vehicles. The stern ramp gives access to the two-storey car deck, wide enough to allow U-turn drive-through loading and unloading, which simplifies docking procedures considerably. The first roll-on, roll-off freight transport service was introduced on May 1948 between Preston in Lancashire, England, and Larne, Northern Ireland. A roll-on, roll-off service was inaugurated between Tilbury, London, and Antwerp, Belgium, in March 1957. 3.1.9. Passenger ship Nowadays this type of ship is mostly used for cruises with passengers. At the close of the twentieth century, Voyager of the Seas was the worlds biggest passenger ship. She is equipped with facilities that include an ice rink big enough for hockey games, a 1500 square meter fitness center, a climbing wall and even a wedding chapel, not to mention six restaurants and five bars. She has 2221 guest and crew staterooms and enormous public recreational areas on a total of 14 decks, with three others given over to the ships services. The ship has a crew of 1180 to look after the needs of her 3880 passengers.

3.2. General design of a merchant ship Forecastle, anchor, bulbous bow, bow thruster, rudder, propeller, engine control room, deck crane, mess, bridge, mast, satellite communications, antenna, funnel, cabin, galley, poop, jackstaff, ladder, windlass, capstan, radar, auxiliary engines.

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3.3. Pronoun Person Sg. I II III m III f III n I II III Personal pronoun in N (subject pronoun) I you he she it we you they Personal pronoun in D/Ac (object pronoun) me you him her it us you them Possessive pronouns mine yours his hers ours yours theirs Reflexive pronoun myself yourself himself herself itself ourselves yourselves themselves

Pl.

3.3.1. Personal pronoun The subject pronoun is used to talk about the speaker(s) I, we; the person(s) we are speaking to, you; or the person(s) [or thing, it], we are speaking about he, she, they. We can use you, we, and they to refer to people in general: Theyre putting up the prices. You cant predict what these things are going to do. Uses of it: It is normally used for a thing or an animal whose sex we do not know, and sometimes for a baby or a small child: Where is my map? I left it on the table. Look at that dolphin. It always swims by the ship. It can be used for people in sentences like: Who is it? Its me. It is used in expressions of time, distance, weather, temperature, tide: What time is it? Its ten. Whats the date? Its the 21st of May. How far is it to Bucharest? Its 300 kilometres. How long does it take to get there? It takes three hours. It is snowing. / Its frosty. / Its a glorious day. Its high/low tide. It can introduce cleft sentences: It was him who lent us the money (not her). It is today that hes going (not tomorrow). When an infinitive is subject of a sentence, we usually begin the sentence with it:

Different Types of Merchant Ships; Pronoun; Numeral 55

It is easy to criticize. / To criticize is easy. It is better to be early. / To be early is better. When the subject of a sentence is a clause, we usually begin the sentence with it: Its odd that he hasnt sent a message. / That he hasnt sent a message is odd. It struck me that everyone was so silent. It can act as a subject for impersonal verbs: it seems, it appears, it looks, it happens etc.

Object pronouns refer to the same sets of people or things as the corresponding subject pronouns. Send us a card so well know where you are. 3.3.2. Reflexive pronouns, emphatic pronouns and each other a. Reflexive pronoun We use a reflexive pronoun as object or complement when it refers to the same thing as the subject: I fell over and hurt myself. We suddenly found ourselves in the middle of a storm. He didnt look himself/his usual self. We use myself etc. rather than me etc. after a prepositional verb: If you are going to succeed in life, you must believe in yourself. There are some idiomatic uses of a verb + reflexive pronoun: I hope you enjoy yourself. Behave yourself. Help yourself with some more cake. Some verbs do not take reflexive pronouns in English (as they do in other languages): afford, approach, complain, concentrate, feel + adjective, get up, hurry up, lie down, relax, remember, rest, sit down, stand up, wake up, wonder, worry. He cant remember what happened. b. Emphatic pronoun We use an emphatic pronoun to emphasize a noun phrase: The company itself is ordinary, but its got two modern ships. The pronoun can also mean without help: Did you do all the electrical wiring by yourself?

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c. Each other / one another These are sometimes called reciprocal pronouns. They refer to an action going in one direction and also back in the opposite direction. There is little difference between each other and one another. They can both be used to refer to two or more people or things, although some people prefer the use of each other when there are only two people or things, and one another when there are more than two. The students help each other/one another with their projects. They often wear each others/one anothers uniforms. 3.3.3. Indefinite pronouns When you want to refer to people and things but you do not know exactly who or what they are, or their identity is not important, you can use an indefinite pronoun. The indefinite pronouns are compounds made with every/some/any/no and one/body and thing (there are also compound adverbs ending in where). anybody anyone anything everybody everyone everything nobody no one nothing somebody someone something

One and body have the same meaning in compound pronouns and they are used for people. Everybody/everyone means all (the) people, somebody/someone means a person and nobody/no one has a negative meaning no person (it is used with a positive verb). Everyone has heard of Titanic. Someone broke the computer. There is nobody in there. The cabin is empty. The indefinite pronouns are used with singular verbs. However, if you want to use a pronoun to refer back to an indefinite pronoun, you use the plural pronouns they, them, their or themselves. Ask anyone. Theyll tell you how difficult it is. Everybodys enjoying themselves. Pronouns compound with one/body have a possessive form: I need everyones name and address. That was nobodys business. When you want to give more information about the person or thing referred to by an indefinite pronoun, you can do so by using a qualifier. I decided to accept everyone capable for the job. If you have already mentioned a person or a thing and you want to refer to a different person or thing, or give an additional one, you can use else after an indefinite pronoun. Somebody else will have to go out there on the deck.

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3.3.4. Possessive pronouns Possessive pronouns indicate that something belongs to someone or is associated with them. They are usually placed at the end of the sentence and used on their own. My marks were higher than his. This suggestion was mine. Possessive pronouns are often used to contrast two things of the same type, which belong to or are associated with different people. It was his fault, not theirs. I lost his equipment, not mine. Possessive pronouns can be used in prepositional phrases beginning with of to qualify a noun group. This structure suggests that you are talking about one of the group of things: He was an old friend of mine. The chemical carrier was one of the most modern ships of theirs. 3.3.5. Relative pronouns Relative pronouns refer to somebody or something that has already been mentioned and they are also conjunctions because they join clauses together, introducing a relative clause. They are: who, whom, whose, which and that. Whom and who always refer to people. He is the man who/whom I saw last night. There was a man there whose name Ive forgotten. If the relative pronoun has a preposition, in informal speech, the preposition is moved at the end of the sentence: The friend who I was traveling with spoke French. Which always refers to things while that can refer to things and people: The stairs that lead to the engine room are slippery. The ladder that I was standing on began to slip. 3.3.6. Interrogative pronouns The interrogative pronouns are who, whose, whom, what and which. They refer to the information you are asking for. Who, whom and whose are used for people. When the pronoun is the subject of the sentence we do not use the auxiliary verb do. What went wrong? Who pays the damage? There is a dog on the deck. Whose is it? Whom do you count on for solving the dispute with the shipper?

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Interrogative pronouns are also used to introduce reported questions: I asked him who he had been talking to. 3.4. Numbers Numbers can be written as symbols (7) or words (seven). In formal writing we use symbols for large amounts and words for everything else. Numbers are divided into two main classes: cardinal numbers (for counting): one, two, three, etc. and ordinal numbers (for putting things in a sequence or order): first, second, third, etc. 3.4.1. Cardinal numbers When you want to refer to an exact number of things, you use cardinal numbers or cardinals. For 0 there are three different pronunciations: - zero especially in mathematics and for temperature; - nought especially in sports (Great Britain); - oh especially when reading out long numbers like 018352. Number + teen 1. one 2. two 3. three 4. four 5. five 6. six 7. seven 8. eight 9. nine 10. ten 11. eleven 12. twelve 13. thirteen 14. fourteen 15. fifteen 16. sixteen 17. seventeen 18. eighteen 19. nineteen 20. twenty Number + ty 30. thirty 40. forty 50. fifty 60. sixty 70. seventy 80. eighty 90. ninety 31. thirty-one 32. thirty-two 33. thirty-three 34. thirty-four 35. thirty-five 36. thirty-six 37. thirty-seven 38. thirty-eight 39. thirty-nine

We can use a or one before hundred (100), thousand (1,000), million (1,000,000), billon (1,000, 000,000) etc. We use and between hundred and the rest of the number: 7,830 seven thousand eight hundred and thirty, 596 five hundred and ninety-six etc. A dozen can be used for 12, half a dozen for 6, and a couple for 2. Well have to wait a couple of minutes. To express a large but indefinite number we can use dozens of, hundreds of, thousands of and millions of. A drop of water consists of millions of atoms. To approximate a number we can use words like: about, around, approximately:

Different Types of Merchant Ships; Pronoun; Numeral 59

We covered about 6,000 miles in our voyage. Other ways of modifying a number are: more than, over, less than, below, under, only, at least, up to. After less than ten miles the main engine failed. For long numbers like passport numbers, telephone numbers, credit card numbers each figure is read separately: 0723 739924 (oh seven two three, seven three double nine two four). Years are read by two figures: 1991 (nineteen ninety-one). One is used as a number in front of a noun to emphasize that there is only one thing, to show that you are being precise, or to contrast one thing with another. This treaty was signed one year after the Suez Crisis. It was positive in one respect but negative in another. Cardinal numbers can be used as part of a compound adjective. The cardinal number is used in front of a noun to form a compound adjective which is usually hyphenated: He took out a five-dollar bill. Cardinal numbers are sometimes used with general time words such as month and week if you want to describe something by saying how long it lasts. If the thing is referred to with an uncountable noun, the possessive form of the general time word should be used. Hes already had seven months experience. Sometimes the apostrophe is omitted: They want four months holiday and seven months pay. The determiner a is usually used when we are talking about a single period of time, although one can be used instead if you want to be more formal: He was given a/one weeks notice. 3.4.2. Ordinal numbers Ordinal numbers describe something by indicating where it comes in a series of sequence. Most of them are formed by adding th to the cardinal number: ten tenth (10th) etc., first (1st), second (2nd) and third (3rd) are irregular. Ordinal numbers are usually preceded by the. Note: Be careful with the spelling of: fifth, eighth, ninth, twelfth, twentieth etc. An ordinal number usually comes before a cardinal one: The first four tankers built at this shipyard were the best. Ordinal numbers are usually used to express the date: the 15th of August/August the 15th; the third of May/May the third etc.

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3.4.3. Fractions, decimals and percentages a. Fractions In fractions we use half, quarter or an ordinal number: a half, a quarter, three quarters, 15/16 fifteen sixteenths/fifteen over sixteen etc: Two thirds of the ship was under water. We waited one and a half hours / an hour and a half. The word before the noun is singular: three quarters of a mile / three quarter miles. b. Decimals We use a decimal followed by a point (not a comma). After the point we say each figure separately: 0.2 (nought/zero point two), 7.45 (seven point four five), 15.086 (fifteen point oh/nought eight six). c. Percentage To express percentage we use the number and per cent/percent: 13 per cent of the total, 10% (ten per cent) etc. 60% (sixty percent) of the planets surface is covered with water. 3.4.4. Number of times To express how many times something happens we use: once, twice, three times, four times etc. The electrical appliances on board should be tested once a week. 3.5. Vocabulary accommodation = spaiu de cazare ballast = balast bulk = vrac bulk carrier = vrachier cargo handling = manevrarea mrfii contraction = contractare, micorare crew = echipaj cruise = croazier deadweight = tone deadweight decelerate = a ncetini deck = punte discharge pump = pomp de descrcare/refulare double-bottomed = cu dublu fund double-ending ferry = feribot cu pori n pupa i n prova double-hulled = cu dublu corp double-skinned = cu nveli dublu expansion = dilatare flexible foundation = baz/fundament flexibil

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grounding = euare heat exchanger = schimbtor de cldur hold = magazie hull = corpul navei knot = nod launch = a lansa load = ncrctur loading and unloading equipment = echipamente de ncrcare-descrcare solidify = a (se) solidifica straits = strmtoare weld = a suda wing tank = tanc lateral

3.6. Grammar Practice 3.6.1. The Pronoun Exercise I. Complete the sentences. Use I/ me /you/ she/ her etc. 1. I want to see her but she doesnt want to see me 2. They want to see him but doesnt want to see 3. She wants to see him but doesnt want to see .. 4. We want to see them but dont want to see 5. He wants to see us but dont want to see 6. They want to see her but doesnt want to see.. 7. I want to see them but dont want to see . 8. You want to see her but doesnt want to see Exercise II. Write sentences beginning I like .. , I dont like , or Do you like? 1. I dont eat tomatoes. I dont like them. 2. George is a very nice man. I like 3. This jacket isnt very nice. I dont .. 4. This is my new car. Do ? 5. Mrs Clark isnt very friendly. I 6. These are my new shoes..? Exercise III. Complete the sentences. 1. I want that book. Can you give it to me? 2. He wants the key. Can you give ? 3. She wants the key. Can you ..? 4. I want that letter. Can you..? 5. They want the money. Can you.? 6. We want the photographs. Can you?

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Exercise IV. Finish the sentences. 1. Im going to wash my hands. 2. Shes going to wash .. 3. Were going to wash 4. Hes going to wash .. 5. Theyre going to wash . 6. Are you going to wash? Exercise V. Complete the sentences. Use my/his/ their etc with one of these words: coat homework house husband job key name 1. Jim doesnt enjoy his job .It s not very interesting. 2. I cant open the door. I havent got 3. Sally is married works in a bank. 4. Its very cold today. Put on .when you go out. 5. What are the children doing? Theyre doing.. 6. Do you know that man? Yes, but I dont know. 7. We live in Barton Street. ..is at the end on the left. Exercise VI. Finish the sentences with mine/ yours, etc. 1. Its your money. Its yours. 2. Its my bag Its 3. Its our car .Its 4. Theyre her shoes. Theyre . 5. Its their house. Its . 6. Theyre your books. Theyre . 7. Theyre my glasses. Theyre . 8. Its his coat. Its . Exercise VII. Complete the following sentences with they, them ,their. 1. Has everybody collected their luggage? 2. Tell everyone Ill wait for .here. 3. If somebody has called,..would have left a message. 4. Nobody offered to help.probably didnt have the time. 5. If anybody wants to know, tell..to phone this number. Exercise VIII. Complete the sentences with some or any. 1. We didnt buy any flowers. 2. This evening Im going out with friends of mine. 3. Have you seen . good films recently? No, I havent been to the cinema for ages. 4. I didnt have money, so I had to borrow..

Different Types of Merchant Ships; Pronoun; Numeral 63

5. Can I have .milk in my coffee, please? 6. I was too tired to do.work. 7. You can cash these travellers cheques at. bank. 8. Can you give meinformation about places of interest in the town? 9. With the special tourist train ticket, you can travel on..train you like. 10. If there are words you dont understand ,use a dictionary. Exercise IX. Fill the gaps with each other, ourselves, yourselves or themselves. 1. They spent the whole evening arguing with each other. 2. Their house is very beautiful; they designed it themselves 3. Mary met John in April, but they didnt see.again until July. 4. Theyre not friends; in fact, they dont like .. at all. 5. Dont ask me to help you. You must do it .. 6. We didnt buy it . A friend bought it for us. 7. I could hear two people shouting at .. 8. Were working in the same office now, so Ron and I see ..every day. Exercise X. Complete the sentences using both/either/ neither + of + us/ them (e.g. neither of us). 1. I went to the concert with Mary, but neither of us enjoyed it very much because it was very boring. 2. There are two flights we can catch to New York. Both flights cost the same amount, so we can choose.. . 3. I played two games against Harry, and I lost because he is a much better player than me. 4. I saw Jane and Alison walking down the street and I waved at them, but..saw me because they were talking. 5. I looked at George, and George looked at me. Thenstarted to laugh because it was such a funny situation. 6. A man spoke to us but.could understand him, so we didnt answer. 7. Tim and I wanted to go to the game, butcould get tickets, so we didnt go. 8. I wanted to buy a new camera. There were two cameras in the shop that I liked, but they were very expensive. I couldnt afford ., so I didnt buy anything. Exercise XI. A Spanish student is in England, learning English. She is talking to a French friend. Complete the text with reflexive pronouns or each other. A funny thing happened to me yesterday. Juan and I were sitting in a restaurant, speaking Spanish to 1 _____ , of course. I noticed that the English couple at the next table were listening. After a few minutes they introduced 2 _____ and we started talking to 3 _____ . The English couple said they were trying to teach 4 _____ Spanish. They were finding it difficult because they could only speak to 5 _____ and they knew they were making a lot of mistakes. So we arrange to give 6 _____ language lessons. I would teach

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them Spanish and they would teach me English! Its very difficult to teach 7 _____ a language, because you dont get a chance to speak it, unless you talk to 8 _____ of course. Exercise X. Complete the sentences with the correct relative pronoun. 1. Thats the man ____ helped me yesterday. 2. Please dont tell him ____I said. 3. The house ____ overlook the sea is Naylas. 4. Thats the village ____ my mother was born. 5. Did you see the people ____ money we found? 6. Anyone ____ arrives late will be punished. 7. Did he explain _____ went wrong? 8. Hes the painter _____ last exhibition was such a failure. 9. I read the magazine ____ was lying on the table. 10. It was my teacher ____ told me to do the exercise. 3.6.2. The Numeral Exercise 1. Tick () the correct form in each pair. 1. (49) fourty-nine forty-nine 2. (600) six hundred six hundreds 3. (4th) fourth forth 4. (12th) twelvth twelfth 5. ($2,000) two thousand dollars two thousands dollars 6. (23rd) twenty-three twenty-third 7. (78) eighty-seven seventy-eight 8. (8th) eightth eighth 9. (17) seventeen seventeenth 10. (5th) fiveth fifth 11. (7,000,000) seven million seven millions 12. (9th) ninth nineth thirteenth thirtieth 13. (30th) 14. (395) three hundred and ninety-five three hundred ninety-five Exercise 2. Write out the following numbers. 1. (211) 2. (462)... 3. (20th) 4. (1st). 5. (12th).. 6. (9,000,000) 7. (310)..

10. (14). 11. (2nd) 12. (5,000) 13. (68). 14. (34th) 15. (150) 16. (3rd).

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8. (8th) 9. (111)..

17. (25th)... 18. (19th)...

Exercise 3. Fill in the gaps in this interview, using the dates and years in brackets ( ). A. When were you born? B. I was born on the thirteenth of October, nineteen sixty-five. (13.10.65) A. When did you go to secondary school? B. In(1976) A. And when did you leave secondary school? B. Seven years later. My final exam was on..(16.6.83) A. Did you start university in the same year? B. Yes, on.(29 September) A. Did you spend three or four years there? B. Well, I left in(1987). Thats four years. A. And your first job? When was that? B. I started work in an office on(10.1.88) A. Did you enjoy it? How long did you stay? B. It was terrible! I left two months later, on.(9th month) A. What did you do then? B. I went to America. I spent two years in New York. I returned to England in(1990) Exercise 4. Complete the following with a number. Write your answer in words. 1. We live in a .................... dimensional world. 2. There are................players in a football team. 3. Im sorry things are a bit untidy. Were all at................ and ..................at the moment. 4. This train seems to be late................ times out of........................ 5. At first I was confused, But then I put................ and ...................together. 6. ....................s company,...................s crowd. 7. Hes a great player. He gives...................... percent in every game. 8. Protests flooded in from the............................ corners of the world. 9. We split the prize money....................., and Ive already spent my half. 10. Life begins at..................... Exercise 5. Complete the following with ordinal numbers (third, sixth etc.). Write your answers in words. 1. I believe the Government should increase its aid to the ....................World. 2. We shouldnt treat immigrants as.....................- class citizens. 3. The Americans celebrate Independence Day on the ......................of July. 4. More progress has been made in the ....................century than in the whole of history.

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5. In the last sixty years the Olympic 100m record has improved by four...................of a second. 6. Theyre good friends. Theyve been on ......................name terms for years. 7. Applications will be dealt with on a .........................come,...................served basis. 8. Most people have a special party for their.......................birthday.

3.7. Answer key Grammar Practice 3.7.1. The Pronoun Exercise I. 2 .he.them 3. he..her 4. they..us 5. wehim 6. .she..the 7. .they.me 8. ..sheyou Exercise II. 2. him 3. like it. 4. you like it? 5. dont like her? 6. Do you like them? Exercise III. 2.. it to him ? 3. ..give it to her? 4.give it to me? 5. ..give it to them? 6. give them to us? Exercise IV. 2..her 3. our 4.his. 5.their 6. your.. Exercise V. 2. my key 3. Her husband 4. your coat 5. their homework 6. his name 7. our house Exercise VI. 2. mine ; 3.ours ; 4. hers ; 5. theirs; 6. yours; 7.mine; 8 his . Exercise VII. 2. them ; 3.they; 4. they; 5. them; Exercise VIII. 2. some 3. any 4.any, some 5. some 6. any 7. any 8. some 9. any 10. any Exercise IX. 3. each other 4.each other 5. yourself 6. ourselves 7. each other 8. each other Exercise X. 2. Either 3. both of them 4. neither of them 5. both of us 6. neither of us 7. neither of us 8. either of them Exercise XI 1. each other 2 themselves 3 each other 4 themselves 5 each other 6 each other 7 yourself 8 yourself Exercise X 1 who 2 what 3 which/that 4 where 5 whose 6 who 7 what 8 whose 9 which/that 10 who

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3.7.2. Answer key: The Numeral Exercise 1. forty-nine, six hundred, fourth, twelfth, two thousand dollars, twenty-third, seventy-eight, eighth, seventeen, fifth, seven million, ninth, thirtieth, three hundred and ninety-five. Exercise 2. four hundred and sixty-two, twentieth, first, twelfth, nine million, three hundred and ten, eighth, a hundred and eleven, fourteen, second, five thousand, sixty-eight, thirty-forth, a hundred and fifty, third, twenty-fifth, nineteenth. Exercise 3. 1. nineteen seventy-six 2. the sixteenth of June/June the sixteenth, nineteen eighty-three 3. the twenty-ninth of September/September the twenty-ninth 4. nineteen eighty-seven 5. the tenth of January/January the tenth, nineteen eighty-eight 6. the ninth of March/March the ninth 7. nineteen ninety. Exercise 4. Most of the examples are idioms and worth learning. 1. three 2. eleven 3. sixes and sevens 4. nine times out of ten 5. two and two 6. Twos company, threes a crowd. 7. one hundred 8. four 9. fifty-fifty 10. forty (do you agree?) Exercise 5. 1. Third 2. second 3. fourth 4. twentieth 5. tenth 6. first 7. first come, first served 8. eighteenth (perhaps twenty first, and in some countries twenty fifth and fiftieth)

Unit 4 Organization on board Adjectives Adverbs I. Unitatea ofer noiuni n legtur cu organizarea la bordul navei i familiarizarea cu funciile pe care le ndeplinesc membrii echipajului n general, pe o nav de dimensiuni medii, care transport mrfuri generale. Partea de gramatic ofer informaii despre adjective i adverbe, ordinea acestora n propoziie, care ste alta dect n limba romn, gradele de comparaie ale adjectivelor i adverbelor (regulile de baz i formele neregulate. Am inclus n aceast unitate i tabele cu cele mai folosite adjective i adverbe deoarece multe sunt necesare i n limbajul de specialitate. II. Obiective: 1 Memorising the vocabulary in the unit, in English and making connections with the Romanian terms. 2. Understanding and practicing the grammar: the adjectives and the adverbs and the rules for the degrees of comparison. 3. Learning how to use the dictionary for the unknown words from the specialty text, tables and exercises. 4. Checking the knowledge through self-evaluation tests from the end of unit 4. 4.1. Organization on board The ship is a world of its own when at sea, and a strict organization is needed to make it run smoothly. The master of the ship has the overall responsibility of the ship and all who sail in her. He is an experienced sailor. The chief officer is responsible for the cargo, loading and discharging operations, and all personnel on board. He does watch-keeping on the bridge together with other mates. The second mate is responsible for navigation and navigational equipment on board. He also does watch-keeping on the bridge. The third mate is responsible for covering general work at deck and watch-keeping on the bridge. The boatswain or coxswain or bosun is the leading hand on deck. The chief engineer is responsible for all the technical parts of the ship, including main engines, auxiliary engines, electrical and electronic systems. The second engineer is responsible for all mechanical engineering on board. He also does watch keeping in the engine control room. The third engineer is responsible for all electrical matters on board. He also does watch keeping in the engine control room. The engine ratings do all the daily work and maintenance in the engine room. This is a typical crew on a merchant vessel. On different types of ships several other crewmembers may be needed, e.g. on ferries, passenger vessel, tankers etc.

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4.2. Adjective Adjectives identify or describe nouns in more detail. They are placed before the noun in attributive position (nice weather) or in predicative position (The weather is nice.) and they do not change their form except for comparison. Adjectives can express qualities, origin, place, frequency, degree, necessity, degrees of certainty, opinion, attitude etc. 4.2.1. Qualitative adjectives Qualitative adjectives identify a quality that someone or something has such as: sad, pretty, small, healthy, wise etc. The usual way in which you can indicate the amount of quantity is by using sub modifiers like very and rather. Another way in which you can indicate the amount of quality is by using comparatives and superlatives. A list of qualitative adjectives is given below: active angry anxious appropriate attractive bad beautiful big brief bright broad busy calm careful cheap clean clear close cold comfortable common complex cool curious dangerous dark dear deep determined different effective efficient expensive fair familiar famous fast fat fine firm flat frank free fresh friendly frightened funny good great happy hard heavy high hot important interesting kind large late light lovely low lucky narrow nervous new nice obvious odd old pale patient plain pleasant poor popular powerful pretty proud quick quiet rare reasonable rich rough sad safe sensible serious sharp silly simple slow small soft special steady strange strong stupid successful suitable sure surprised sweet tall terrible thick thin tight tiny tired typical understanding useful violent warm weak wet wide

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difficult dirty dry easy

likely long loose loud

shocked short sick significant

wild worried young

4.2.2. Classifying adjectives Classifying adjectives are those used to identify the particular class that something belongs to e.g. daily shower, equal partnership etc. They do not have comparatives and superlatives and are not normally used with sub modifiers. A list of classifying adjectives is given below: absolute active actual agricultural alternative annual apparent available basic central chemical civil commercial communist conservative cultural daily democratic direct domestic double due east eastern economic educational electric empty external female financial foreign free full general golden historical human ideal independent industrial inevitable intellectual internal international legal local magic male medical mental military modern moral national natural negative north northern nuclear official open original personal physical political positive possible potential private professional proper public raw ready real religious revolutionary right royal rural scientific separate sexual single social solid south southern standard straight sufficient theoretical traditional urban west western wooden wrong

Adjectives, which indicate nationality or origin, are also classifying, and start with capital letters because they are related to names of countries: British Classification Society, American citizen, Australian cities etc. Some adjectives can be either qualitative or classifying according to the meaning that you want to convey: an emotional person (qualitative), the emotional needs of people (classifying). Some adjectives used both as qualitative and classifying are: academic, conscious, dry, educational, effective, emotional, extreme, late, modern, moral, objective, ordinary, regular, religious, revolutionary, rural, scientific, secret, similar.

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4.2.3. Colour adjectives They are used to identify a colour: black, blue, brown, cream, green, gray, orange, pink, purple, red, scarlet, violet, white, yellow. If you want to specify a colour more precisely, you can use a sub modifier like: light, dark, pale, deep, and bright. If we want to talk about an indefinite colour we can use the suffix ish: Hes got light brown hair. The cabin has greenish furniture. 4.2.4. Adjectives in -ing and -ed, participial adjectives Adjectives in -ing express what something is like, the effect it has on us. For example a book can be: amusing, interesting, boring etc. Adjectives in ed express how we feel about something. For example the reader can be: amused, interested, bored etc. Some pairs of adjectives that can be used according to the meaning with -ing or ed are: alarming/alarmed amusing/amused annoying/annoyed confusing/confused depressing/depressed disappointing/disappointed 4.2.5. Compound adjectives Compound adjectives are made up of two or more words, usually written with hyphens between them. The most common patterns for forming compound adjectives are: Adjective or numeral + ed: grey-haired; Adjective or adverb + past participle: low-paid; Adjective, adverb or noun + present participle: long-lasting. There are some other patterns that are less common and more restrictive: Noun + past participle: wind-blown; Noun + adjective: trouble-free; Adjective + noun: deep-sea; Past participle + adverb: run-down; Number + singular countable noun: four-door. Here is a list of some compound qualitative adjectives used in marine engineering: clear-cut, labour saving, long-lasting, low-cut, one sided, stuck-up, thick-skinned, trouble-free, two-edged, two-faced, well-balanced etc. exciting/excited fascinating/fascinated puzzling/puzzled relaxing/relaxed surprising/surprised tiring/tired

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Here is a list of some compound classifying adjectives used in marine engineering: air-conditioned brand-new broken-down built-up bullet-proof burnt-out deep-sea double-barrelled drip-dry 4.2.6. The order of adjectives When two or more adjectives come before a noun, there is usually a fixed order: opinion (nice, awful); size (large, short); quality (clear, famous); age (old, new); shape (narrow, thin); colour (red, white); participle forms (covered, broken, running); origin (British, Romanian); material (iron, brick); type (chemical, electronic); purpose [alarm (panel), walking (boots)]: two small round brown discs, a new improved formula, increasing financial difficulties, cheap clean energy source. In general, the adjective closest to the noun has the closest link in meaning with the noun and expresses what is most permanent about it. When two adjectives have similar meanings, the shorter one often comes first: a soft, comfortable chair etc. We use and when the adjectives refer to different parts of something: a black and white cap, and we use but when the adjectives refer to two qualities in contrast: a cheap but effective solution etc. 4.3. Adverbs Adverbs are words that modify a word, a phrase or a whole sentence. Some adverbs have their own form which is not related to other words: always, soon, very etc. Many adverbs are formed from adjectives by adding ly e.g. quick quickly etc. There are some spelling rules for adverbs formed with ly: y is changed into i: easy easily; le after consonant is changed into ly: probable probably; ally must be added after -ic: automatic automatically. Some adverbs have the same form as adjectives: fast, long, early etc. I had an early night. (adjective) I went to bed early. (adverb) full-blown full-length full-scale long-distance long-range made-up north-east north-west nuclear-free one-way open-ended record-breaking remote-controlled right-angled see-through silver-plated worn-out

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Sometimes the adverb can appear with or without ly, and the most common adverbs of this type are: cheap/cheaply, loud/loudly, quick/quickly, slow/slowly, direct/directly, tight/tightly, fair/fairly. However the form without ly is more informal. Do you have to talk so loud/loudly? There are some pairs of adverbs with different meanings: hard hardly, near nearly, late lately, high highly, deep deeply, free freely, most mostly. Youve worked hard. Ive got hardly any money (almost no). I wake up late. I havent heard from him lately (recently). There is a bank near. Weve nearly finished (almost). Submarines can go very deep. He was deeply offended (serious). If you win, you can travel free. Animals cant move freely on board (uncontrolled). The plane flew high. The theory is highly controversial (very). This leg hurts the most. We mostly stay in the engine room (usually). Some time adverbs are related to nouns and they can be both adjectives and adverbs: day daily, hour hourly, week weekly, year yearly: Its a monthly magazine (adjective). It comes out monthly (adverb). There are several types of adverbs: adverbs of time, adverbs of frequency, adverbs of place, adverbs of manner, adverbs of degree, linking adverbs, sentence adverbs, negative adverbs. 4.3.1. Adverbs of manner Adverbs of manner give more information about the way in which an event or action takes place. They modify verbs and most of them are formed from adjectives. They are usually placed after the verb or after the object. He speaks English fluently. He smelled the fuel suspiciously. Here is a list of the most common adverbs describing the way in which something is done. abruptly accurately awkwardly badly beautifully brightly brilliantly briskly carefully carelessly casually economically effectively efficiently evenly explicitly faintly faithfully fiercely finely firmly fluently peacefully peculiarly perfectly plainly pleasantly politely poorly professionally properly quietly rapidly steadily steeply stiffly strangely subtly superbly swiftly systematically tenderly thickly thinly

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cheaply clearly closely clumsily comfortably consistently conveniently correctly dangerously delicately differently discreetly distinctly dramatically easily

formally frankly freely gently gracefully hastily heavily honestly hurriedly intently meticulously neatly nicely oddly patiently

readily richly rigidly roughly ruthlessly securely sensibly sharply silently simply smoothly softly solidly specifically splendidly

thoroughly thoughtfully tightly truthfully uncomfortably urgently vaguely vigorously violently vividly voluntarily warmly widely willingly wonderfully

4.3.2. Adverbs of degree Adverbs of degree are used when we want to give more information about the extent of an action or the degree to which an action is performed. They can modify an adjective, an adverb or a verb. They are usually placed before the word they modify: I had almost forgotten about maintenance. A change of one word can radically alter the meaning of the statement. Im so tired. I saw him quite recently. Enough follows the adjective or adverb: He didnt work quickly enough. Some common adverbs of degree are: full degree: completely, totally, absolutely, entirely, quite; large degree: very, extremely, really, awfully, terribly; medium degree: rather, fairly, quite, pretty, somewhat; small degree: a little, a bit, slightly; negative: hardly, scarcely; others: so, as, too, more, most, less, least. We use so and such for emphasis. So is used with adjectives and adverbs. Such a is used with adjective + singular noun. Such/so many/so few are used with plural nouns. Such/so much/so little are used with uncountable nouns: The meeting finished so quickly. It was such a quick meeting. You have so many friendly colleagues. It was such good advice.

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4.3.3. Adverbs of place Adverbs of place give information about place, position, destination and direction. They can be placed after the verb e.g. He lives abroad; after an object e.g. I looked for it everywhere; at the beginning of the sentence e.g. Here it comes. Here is a list of words that are used as adverbs to indicate position. abroad ahead aloft ashore away close to downstairs downstream downtown downwind eastward halfway here indoors inland midway nearby next door northward offshore outdoors out of doors overhead overseas southward there underfoot underground underwater upstairs upstream uptown upwind westward

Some adverbs indicate destination or direction in relation to a particular position of the person or thing you are talking about: ahead, along, back, backward, forward, left, on, right, sideways etc. Other adverbs can indicate movement: in different directions: back and forth, backwards and forwards, from side to side, in and out, round and round, to and fro, up and down; away from someone or something: aside, away, off, out, outward; across or past something: across, by, over, overhead, past, round, through. 4.3.4. Adverbs of time Adverbs of time give information about the duration or the moment an action takes place. The most common adverbs of time are: afterwards, before, eventually, immediately, lately, now, recently, since, soon, then, today, tomorrow, yet. They can be placed either in end position or initial position. The office is closed for two weeks. Yesterday the main generator failed. Still is placed after the verb be but before other verbs: He is still in the engine room. He still doesnt understand. Most adverbs of time are used with certain verb tenses and they are going to be mentioned when discussing about tenses. 4.3.5. Adverbs of frequency Adverbs of frequency indicate approximately how many times something happens. Their position in the sentence is different according to the adverb and the meaning, however they can be placed in mid position, at the beginning or at the end.

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She never goes abroad. Normally I tip taxi-drivers. I go on long trips sometimes. Here is a list of adverbs and adverbial expressions: again and again a lot all the time always constantly continually continuously ever frequently from time to time hardly ever infrequently intermittently much never normally occasionally often once periodically rarely regularly repeatedly seldom sometimes sporadically twice usually

Adverbs like: hardly ever, rarely, scarcely ever can be placed at the beginning of a sentence, but inversion of the following main verb then becomes necessary: Hardly ever did they manage to meet unobserved. 4.3.6. Sentence adverbs Sentence adverbs (truth or comment adverbs) modify the whole sentence/clause and normally express the speakers opinion. Some sentence adverbs express degrees of certainty: actually, apparently, certainly, clearly, definitely, evidently, obviously, perhaps, possibly, presumably, probably, surely, undoubtedly. They can be placed after be, before simple tenses of the other verbs, after the first auxiliary in a compound verb, at the beginning or at the end of a sentence. He is obviously intelligent. They certainly work hard. Surely you could pay $ 2,000? Other sentence adverbs are: admittedly, fortunately, frankly, honestly, luckily, naturally, officially, unfortunately, unluckily etc. They are usually placed in initial position though the end position is also possible. They are normally separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma. Many of them can also be adverbs of manner: Honestly, he didnt get the money. 4.3.7. Linking adverbs A linking adverb relates to the previous clause or sentence. Most often it goes in front position but it can go in mid or end position. The linking adverbs are: also, as a result, as well, consequently, furthermore, however, instead, in addition, likewise, nevertheless, on the other hand, otherwise, therefore, too: He was forced to work to support himself. However, he still found time to review for his exams.

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4.4. Comparison Both adjectives and adverbs have degrees of comparison, but not all of them. To express the fact that things are equal we use the pattern as + adj./adv. + as. In negative statements we can use either so or as. We use as with the second item in the comparison. A gas turbine is as powerful as a steam turbine. I dont drink as/so much coffee as you do. Copper isnt as valuable as gold. To compare two things that are not equal we can use two patterns: a. to express inferiority: less + adj./adv. + than; the + least + adj./adv.: Some ships are less comfortable than others. This is the least interesting book Ive ever read. b. to express superiority there are two structures according to the length of the adjective or adverb. Adverbs made of one syllable or two syllables ending in y, -ow, -er form the comparative by adding er, and the superlative by adding -est: softer, the softest; wider, the wisest; nicer, the nicest; prettier, the prettiest; narrower, the narrowest; simpler, the simplest, higher, the highest; quicker, the quickest; bigger, the biggest etc: Which is the biggest ship in the world? Traditional fuel is cheaper than nuclear fuel. Adverbs made of more than two syllables and the rest of two syllables adjectives and adverbs form the comparative with more and the superlative with the most: more useful, the most useful; more afraid, the most afraid, more expensive, the most expensive etc: Passenger liners are the most expensive of all ships. Automation is more useful than mechanization. There are some adjectives and adverbs with irregular forms of comparison: Positive good/well bad far little much/many old near late Comparative better worse further/farther less more older/elder nearer later Superlative the best the worst the furthest/farthest the least the most the oldest/eldest the nearest/next the latest/last

Special patterns with comparative and superlative Comparative + and + comparative expresses a continuing increase: The problem is becoming worse and worse. Ships are made bigger and bigger.

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the + comparativethe + comparative expresses that a change in one thing goes with a change in another: The longer the journey (is), the more expensive the ticket (is). The further you travel, the more you pay. The older you get, the more difficult it becomes to find a job.

4.5. Vocabulary master = comandant chief officer = secund loading and discharging operations = operaiuni de ncrcare-descrcare watch-keeping = cart second mate = ofier unu navigation = navigaie navigational equipment = echipamente de navigaie third mate = ofier doi boatswain = ef de echipaj coxswain = ef de echipaj bosun = ef de echipaj chief engineer = ef mecanic main engine = motor principal auxiliary engine = motor auxiliar electrical system = sistem electric electronic system = sistem electronic second engineer = ofier mecanic unu mechanical engineering = mecanic engine control room = control camer motoare third engineer = ofier mecanic doi engine rating = marinari din sala mainii maintenance = ntreinere 4.6. Grammar Practice 4.6.1. Grammar Practice Adjective Exercise 1. There are twelve adjectives in this story. Underline them. I went for a long walk in the countryside yesterday. It was a hot day, and soon I was tired and thirsty. There was a small house by the side of the road, and I decided to ask for a glass of cold water. I rang the bell and an old lady opened the big, wooden door. She looked kind and she offered me a glass of fresh juice. It tasted great!

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Exercise II. Choose from the following adjectives to fill in the sentences below: hungry, new, terrible, expensive, sad, wonderful, Italian, fresh, difficult. 1. Gold rings are normally expensive. 2. This food smells.................! I love fish and chips. 3. It was a ................exam. Im sure I havent passed. 4. Ive just bought a ...............sports car. 5. I met my wife in Rome, but she isnt................ 6. He looks................. I dont think he likes his job. 7. Are you....................? Shall I buy some sandwiches? 8. This orange juice tastes..................Is it....................? Exercise III. Look at these sentences. If you think the adjectives are in the wrong order, change the order. If you think the order is correct, put a tick (). 1. She lost a gold, small ring at the disco yesterday night. 2. I have an old, Italian painting in my living room. 3. Im looking for my cotton, green shirt and my brown, leather shoes. 4. George has a Spanish, modern villa near the sea. He goes there every summer. 5. I live in an old, white house near the river. Ive got a black, large dog! 6. I had an interesting talk with a Polish, young student last week. 7. We are having lunch in a big, Japanese, new restaurant in the centre of town. 8. I left my books in a red, plastic bag on the bus. I was so stupid! Exercise IV. Write the comparative form of these adjectives: cold, big, careful, expensive, good, fat, famous, new, modern, young, cheap, delicious, rich, long, hungry, nice, happy, difficult, old, beautiful, friendly, hot, bad, small, sad. Exercise V. Put the words in brackets ( ) in the right order to make sentences. 1. (the world Antarctica coldest is place the in) 2. (city the Manchester in England is friendliest) 3. (in New York expensive restaurant The Manhattan the is most) 4. (is river the world the The Nile longest in) 5. (town most in Spain Granada beautiful is the) 6. (painting The Mona Lisa the famous in is most the world) 7. (the Europe mountain in highest Mont Blanc is) Exercise VI. Use the words in brackets ( ) to write sentences. Use the + superlative, and the Present Perfect + ever. 1. (Its/ cold/ place/ I/ visit) Its the coldest place Ive ever visited. 2. (Its/ big/ shop / I/ see) 3. (Hes/ rich/ man/ I/ meet) 4. (Its/ difficult/ exam/ I/ do)

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5. (Its/ sad/ film/ I/ see) 6. (Shes/ happy/ person/ I/ meet) 7. (Its/ modern/ flat/ I/ see) 8. (Its/ hot/ country/ I/ visit) 9. (Its/ small/ dog/ I/ see). Exercise VII. Complete the sentences using the comparative form of the adjectives in brackets and than. 1. I think that golf is more interesting than (interesting) tennis. 2. This question is......................(easy) the last one. 3. Im a good player, but Eric is ........................(good) me. 4. The groups first record was.........................(successful) their second record. 5. We both played well, but he was.....................(lucky) me. 6. Your car is......................(powerful) mine. 7. This computer is....................(useful) that one. Exercise VIII. Complete the sentences using the superlative form of the adjective in brackets. 1. Anna is the youngest (young) person in her class. 2. We stayed in ......................(bad) hotel in the whole city. 3. People say that it is ...............(funny) film of the year. 4. What is........................(tall) building in the world? 5. Her teachers say that she is ....................(good) student in the school. 6. This is........................(expensive) camera in the shop. 7. Many people say that Venice is..................(beautiful) city in the world. Exercise IX. Complete each sentence so that it means the same as the one above it. Use as + adjective/adverb + as. 1. Sweden is bigger than Britain. Britain isnt as big as Sweden. 2. The other students learn more quickly than me. I dont learn....................................the other students. 3. Youre very angry and Im angry also. Im........................................you. 4. The seats at the front are more expensive than the seats at the back. The seats at the back arent.................................the seats at the front. 5. Central Park in New York is bigger than Hyde Park in London. Hyde Park in London isnt........................Central Park in New York. 6. Her last film was very good and her new film is also very good. Her new film is.......................her last film. 7. The other students work harder than him. He doesnt work........................the other students.

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Exercise X. Join each pair of sentences in brackets ( ), using as much......as, or as many......as. 1. (Ive got 50 books. Jacks got about 100.) I havent got as many books as Jack. 2. (Youve done a lot of work. Ive done a lot of work also.) Ive done ............................you. 3. (Alan earns a lot of money. Sheila only earns a little.) Sheila doesnt earn...........................Alan. 4. (George has been to five countries. Ive also been to five countries.) Ive been to...............................George. 5. (Youve had five jobs. Ive only had two.) I havent had...........................you. 6. (Tom has a lot of luggage. Jane has a lot of luggage too.) Lane has............................Tom. 7. (Mary answered most of the questions. I only answered about half.) I didnt answer.............................Mary. 8. (Ruth spent $50.I also spent $50.) I spent...........................Ruth. Exercise XI. Choose the correct adjective in brackets ( ) to put in the gaps. 1. It was a terrible play and I was bored (bored/ boring) from start to finish. 2. Im very..................(excited/ exciting) because Im going to New York tomorrow. 3. Are you................(surprised/ surprising) or were you expecting this news? 4. Im reading a very.................(interested/ interesting) book at the moment. 5. Ive had a very..............(tired/ tiring) day at work today and I want to go to bed. 6. Most people were...................(surprised/ surprising) that he won the championship. 7. Im.......................(bored/ boring). Lets go out for a cup of coffee somewhere. 8. Visit our...................(excited/ exciting) new shop! 9. His speech was very long and very...................(bored/ boring). Exercise XII. Complete the sentences using too or enough and the words in brackets ( ). 1. I cant eat this soup because its too hot (hot). 2. We couldnt buy the tickets because we didnt have enough money (money). 3. We didnt buy the car because it wasnt big enough (big). 4. I couldnt see her because it was...................(dark). 5. I cant decide what to do because I havent got..................(information). 6. You cant change the situation now. Its..................(late). 7. Have you had..................(food), or would you like some more? 8. He did badly in the exam because he was....................(nervous). 9. Slow down! Youre driving ...................(fast). 10. He shouldnt play in the team because he isnt.................(good). 11. I havent got ................(clothes). I must buy some more.

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l2. Robert didnt go to work because he didnt feel.................(well). 13. I couldnt lift the suitcase because I wasnt...................(strong). 14. We didnt go swimming because the water was................(cold). 15. Mary couldnt post all the letters because she didnt have..............(stamps). Exercise XIII. An estate agent is describing a house to a client. Are the adjectives in the right order? Write Yes, or rewrite the sentences, using the correct order. Add and if necessary. 1. Its an old lovely 18th century house. __________ 2. It was built by an English famous architect. __________ 3. Its at the end of a narrow country long lane. __________ 4. Its near to a little pretty village. _________ 5. Its got a lovely large garden. _________ 6. And there are two beautiful old stables. _________ 7. The kitchen is modern, well equipped. __________ 8. The bedrooms are painted green white. ___________ 9. Theres an old stone interesting fireplace in the living room. __________ 10. The house is solid, well-maintained and reasonably priced. __________ 4.6.2. Grammar Practice Adverb Exercise 1. Rewrite these sentences using an adverb instead of an adjective. 1. Peter is a bad tennis player. Peter plays tennis badly. 2. Hes a dangerous driver. He drives..................... 3. Shes a fast swimmer. She swims................... 4. Martin is a good cook. ................................... 5. Im a slow writer. ................................... 6. Shes a wonderful dancer ................................... 7. Sheila is a hard worker. .................................... 8. They arent quick learners. .................................... Exercise II. Complete the sentences. Put in the adverb form of the adjective in brackets ( ). 1. She read the message quickly (quick). 2. Read the instructions ...............(careful). 3. He looked at her.....................(angry), but he didnt say anything. 4. She passed all her exams....................(easy). 5. Iran as ....................(fast) as I could. 6. He thinks that he did the test.................(bad) and that hell fail. 7. Ive been studying very..................(hard) recently. 8. She was working.................(busy) when I arrived. 9. She sang the song..................(beautiful) 10. He was playing................(happy) when I came into the room. 11. He was concentrating...............(hard) on his work.

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12. Have I filled this form in ................(correct)? 13. I wasnt in a hurry, so I walked...................(slow) through the park. 14. I closed the door................(quiet) when left. Exercise III. Complete the dialogues by putting a suitable adverb into the gaps. Use an adjective from the following ones: slow, fast, hard, good (x2), easy, bad. 1. A: Were the questions difficult? B: No, I answered them easily. 2. A: Does she speak English.....................? B: No, she only knows a few words of English. 3. A: Hurry up! Im waiting! B: Just a minute. Im coming as .....................as I can. 4. A: Did you lose at tennis again? B: Yes, I played.......................and I lost. 5. A: Have you been working.................today? B: No, Ive done nothing all day! 6. A: Have you finished that book yet? B: No, I always read very...................It takes me a long time to finish a book. 7. A: Is he a bad student? B: No, he does all his work very...................... Exercise IV. Put in the comparative adverb form of the adjective in brackets. 1. You must do your work more carefully (careful) in future. 2. He has run the 100 metres......................(fast) than any other athlete in the world this year. 3. Everyone else did the test....................(good) than me. 4 You can travel......................(cheap) at certain times of the year. 5. He plays.................(confident) than he did in the past. 6. Im sorry Ive made so many mistakes. Ill try...............(hard) in future. 7. You will be able to sit...................(comfortable) in this chair. Exercise V. Complete these sentences using really or quite. 1. The film was really good. I enjoyed it a lot. 2. Its....................cold outside, but not very cold. 3. It isnt a wonderful book, but its..................good. 4. The tickets were...............expensive they cost much more than I expected. 5. The programme is................popular in my country; millions of people watch it. 6. Hes..............good at his job, but sometimes makes bad mistakes. 7. The meal was..............nice, but it wasnt very good. 8. Its.............dangerous to drive fast in such terrible weather conditions. 9. Im not a very good tennis player, but I am.................good. 10. Theyre all..............intelligent students, and they will all pass their exams easily. 11. The company that I work for is.................big, but its not enormous.

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Exercise VI. Put the words in brackets ( ) in the right place in these sentences 1. I work late at the office. (often) I often work late at the office. 2. You must lock the front door when you leave. (always)............................... 3. Steve and Jill play golf. (twice a month)................... 4. I eat a sandwich for lunch. (usually)............................. 5. I go to jazz concerts at the weekend. (sometimes).................... 6. My teacher gives me a lot of homework. (every day).......................... 7. We see our Mexican friends. (hardly ever)....................... 8. They go to Morroco for their holidays. (often)................................. 9. Bill and Marie go to the theatre. (four times a year)............... 10. They are at home in the evening. (rarely)................................. Exercise VII. Complete the sentences by choosing an ending from the following ones: - the road carefully, - their homework well, - the piano badly, - his car fast, - her breakfast slowly, - Arabic perfectly, - an hour late 1. He drives................................. 2. She plays................................. 3. Maria ate................................. 4. They speak.............................. 5. You must always cross........... 6. They all did............................. 7. The plane arrived.................... 4.6.3. Grammar Practice Adjective + Adverb Miscellaneous Exercise I. In these dialogues underline the adjectives and circle the adverbs 1. A: I think hes a good worker. What do you think?

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B: Im not sure. He works carefully, but he makes some bad mistakes. 2. A: Hes a wonderful skier. He skis quickly and beautifully. B: In my opinion, he skis dangerously. Hes a stupid skier. 3. A: Hes a rich and powerful man. He lives expensively. B: Yes, but he spends money carefully. He buys valuable objects. 4. A: Paul, Jane, Diana and Mark live in a big, old house in Scotland. They live happily together. B: I know they are happy, but the house is expensive and so they live cheaply 5. A: This bread tastes awful. Did you cook it correctly? B: If you think its horrible, why are you eating it so hungrily? 6. A: Shes very young, but she sings and dances beautifully. B: Shes a wonderful singer, but she dances badly in my opinion. Exercise II. Put in the adjective or adverb in brackets ( ). 1. The train was very slow (slow/slowly) and I arrived late. 2. The journey took a long time because the train went very...............(slow/slowly). 3. Mrs. Green went..................(quick/quickly) back to her office. 4. Im afraid I cant give you an ................(immediate/immediately) answer; I need to think about it first. 5. The work that the builders did for us was very.................(bad/badly). 6. The builders did the work for us very....................(bad/badly) 7. She organized the party...............(good/well), and everybody enjoyed it. 8. Everybody said that the party was very................(good/well). 9. She wrote a ..............(polite/politely) letter asking the company to give her the money back. 10. She wrote the company and asked them ..............(polite/politely) to give her the money back. 4.7. Answer Key 4.7.1. Grammar Practice Adjective Answer key Exercise I. hot, tired, thirsty, small, cold, old, big, wooden, kind, fresh, great. Exercise II. wonderful, difficult, new, Italian, sad, hungry, terrible....fresh. Exercise III. small, gold; old, Italian; green, cotton; modern, Spanish; large, black; young, Polish; big, new, Japanese; red, plastic. Exercise IV. colder, bigger, more careful, more expensive, better, fatter, more famous, newer, more modern, younger, cheaper, more delicious, richer, longer,

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hungrier, nicer, happier, more difficult, older, more beautiful. friendlier, hotter, more wonderful, worse, smaller, sadder. Exercise V. 1. Antarctica is the coldest place in the world. 2. Manchester is the friendliest city in England 3. The Manhattan is the most expensive restaurant in New York. 4. The Nile is the longest river in the world. 5. Granada is the most beautiful town in Spain 6. The Mona Lisa is the most famous painting in the world. 7. Mont Blanc is the highest mountain in Europe. Exercise VI. 1. Its the biggest ship Ive ever seen 2. Hes the richest man Ive ever met. 3. Its the most difficult exam Ive ever done. 4. Its the saddest film Ive ever seen. 5. Shes the happiest person Ive ever met. 6. Its the most modern flat Ive ever seen. 7. Its the hottest country Ive ever visited. 8. Its the smallest dog Ive ever seen. 1. easier than 2. better than 3. more successful than 4. luckier than 5. more powerful than 6. more useful than

Exercise VII.

Exercise VIII. 1. the worst 2. the funniest 3. the tallest 4. the best 5. the most expensive 6. the most beautiful Exercise IX. 1. as quickly as 2. as angry as 3. as expensive as 4. as big as 5. as good as 6. as hard as Exercise X.1. as much (money) as 2. as many countries as 3. as many jobs as 4. as much luggage as 5. as many questions as 6. as much (money) as Exercise XI. excited, surprised, interesting, tiring, surprised, bored, exciting, boring. Exercise XII. too dark, enough information, too late, enough food, too nervous, too fast, good enough, enough clothes, well enough, strong enough, too cold, enough stamps. Exercise XIII 1 a lovely old 2 a famous English architect 3 long narrow country lane 4 a pretty little village 5 Yes 6 Yes 7 modern and well-equipped 8 green and white 9 an interesting old stone fire place 10 Yes 4.7.2. Grammar Practice Adverb Answer key I. 1. dangerously 2. fast

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3. Martin cooks well. 4. I write slowly. 5. She dances wonderfully. 6. Sheila works hard. 7. They dont learn quickly./ They learn slowly. II. carefully, angrily, easily, fast, badly, hard, busily, beautifully, happily, hard, correctly, slowly, quietly. III. well, fast, badly, hard, slowly, well. IV. faster, better, more cheaply, more confidently, herder, more comfortably. V. quite, quite, really, really, quite, quite, really, quite, really, quite. VI. 1. You must always lock the front door when you leave. 2. Steve and Jill play golf twice a month. 3. I usually eat a sandwich for lunch. 4. I sometimes go to jazz concerts at the weekend. 5. My teacher gives me a lot of homework every day. 6. We hardly ever see our Mexican friends. 7. They often go to Morroco for their holidays. 8. Bill and Marie go to the theatre four times a year. 9. They are rarely at home in the evening. VII. 1. his car fast 2. the piano badly 3. her breakfast slowly 4. Arabic perfectly 5. the road carefully 6. their homework well 7. an hour late 4.7.3. Grammar Practice Miscellaneous Answer key I.1 good, carefully, bad 2. wonderful, quickly, beautifully, dangerously, stupid 3. rich, powerful, expensively, carefully, valuable 4. big, old, happily, happy, expensive, cheaply 5. awful, correctly, horrible, hungrily 6. young, beautifully, wonderful, badly II. slowly, quickly, immediate, bad, badly, well, good, polite, politely.

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4.8. Self-test paper I 1 A. Vocabulary

Complete the sentences with the best term. Only one answer is correct. 1. A smaller vessel is called a . a. submersible b. ship c. boat d. carrier d. shipment d. sailing ships

2. The term is applied to the construction of large vessels. a. shipbuilding b. shipyard c. shipping 3. The ships used in the fourteenth century were . a. tea clippers b. steam ships c. cargo ships

4. A is a place where goods, passengers and mail are transferred to, from or between carriers. a. port b. harbour c. shore d. pier 5. A place that offers protection to ships is called a . a. berth b. port c. harbour d. gateway

6. A ship that carries loose iron, ore, coal, grain etc. is called a . a. bulk carrier b. container ship c. cargo carrier d. cruise ship 7. A is a ship that carries passengers, cars, buses, lorries and railway wagons. a. passenger ship b. Ro-Ro ferry c. Ro-Ro ship d. passenger car ferry 8. A/an is double-hulled, with wing tanks filled with water ballast and it is the most common type of the class. a. oil tanker b. gas tanker c. chemical tanker d. wine tanker 9. The double-ended construction ensures the fastest possible on what is one of the shortest international ferry routes. a. go-around b. come-around c turnaround d. movearound 10. One of the biggest passenger ships has a of 1180 members. a. team b. crew c. group d. board 11. The invention of the helped navigation in the 14th century. a. engine b. turbine c. compass d. oars

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12. is a general maritime service performed by tugs. a. dredging b. stowage c. surveying

d. towage

13. The action of putting a vessel on sand, mud or rocks is called . a. landing b. grounding c. falling d. dropping 14. The body of the ship is called the . a. stern b. hull c. bow d. hold d. fitted

15. When a ship is ready she is by a personality. a. sent b. launched c. flooded


B. Reading Comprehension

Read the text and answer the following questions. Only one answer is correct. The primary objective of port development and operation is to move traffic through the port quickly and economically. Large ports, with a greater variety of routes and services, will offer the shipper greater frequency of ship sailings and will generate sufficient traffic to justify a larger number of calls by vessels. The volumes of cargo and of ship services, therefore, are reciprocally related, and the larger and more efficient ports, because of economies of scale, tend to grow more rapidly than smaller ones with traffic volumes less able to justify the efficiency and variety of services and facilities. An important measure of port efficiency is "turnaround time": the time a vessel or a shipment spends in port. In the case of a vessel, this includes the time required for it to move from the harbour entrance to its berth, to process the various documents associated with the movement of the vessel and its cargo and passengers, to take on fuel and load, and to proceed out of the harbour on its return or subsequent leg of its voyage; in the case of cargo, the turnaround time is the time required for the shipment to arrive at and depart from the port area. A port with a good harbour and with adequate physical equipment and services will attract traffic from a hinterland that is also served by competitive ports even though inland distances and rates may be somewhat disadvantageous. In many industrialized and urbanized regions such as northwestern and central Europe and the northeastern United States, port competition is intense, and to secure an increasing share of the traffic many port organizations maintain extensive trade development and promotional activities, as well as staffs to protect and enhance their competitive position with respect to inland and overseas rate structures and services.

16. The main aim of a port is a. to develop quickly b. to have facilities c. to operate efficiently d. to have personnel

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17. The efficiency of a port can be measured by the time required for a vessel a. to get to its berth b. to process the various documents c. to take on fuel and load d. to perform all the activities from entering to leaving the port 18. The efficiency of cargo handling is measured by the time required for the shipment a. to arrive b. to depart c. to transit d. to wait 19. A disadvantage of on operative port can be a. the number of ships b. the services c. the equipment d. the rates 20. There is a continuous struggle among ports in order to get a. a big share of traffic b. a big lot of equipment c. a good harbour d. a good position
C. Grammar

Complete the sentences with the best word or phrase. Only one answer is correct. 21. I cant see very well. Will you bring . a. my glass b. some glass c. my glasses glasses 22. She asked whether she really wanted to take the exam. a. anyone else b. each other c. herself d. some

d. one

23. Are John and Liz in love? Theyve been looking into eyes all evening. a. each others b. the others c. their d. their own 24. The burglar moved so quietly that no one heard . a. anything b. everything c. nothing 25. Where is electric heater? I cant find it. d. something

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a. a

b. an

c. the

d. d. d. d. shes d. I d. us d. yourselfs d. the iron d. countryes d. mens d. known d. a lot of d. little d. that

26. Im thinking of buying new pair of trousers. a. a b. an c. the 27. most people thought you were right. a. a b. an c. the 28. She met a friend of in the street. a. her b. hers 29. The equipment is . a. my b. mine 30. We havent brought books with us. a. our b. ours c. hers c. me c. ours

31. You do all by and its difficult when you are single. a. your own b. yourself c. yourselves 32. This is a bulk carrier for carrying . a. an iron b. iron 33. We have visited many . a. country b. countries 34. Usually there are only in a crew. a. man b. mans 35. Who the answer? a. knows b. know c. some iron c. countrys c. men c. knowing

36. How shipping companies are there in our city? a. much b. many c. lots of 37. Fortunately, Ive still got money. a. a few b. few 38. He is the man I saw last night. a. who b. whose c. a little c. what

39. The company needs seamen for the ship.

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a. threeteen

b. threteen

c. thirteen

d. thirten

40. Ive been working here since . a. nineteen ninety-nine b. one nine nine nine c. one thousand nine hundred ninety-nine d. one thousand nine hundred and ninety-nine 41. Several cars, owners had parked them under the trees, were damaged. a. their b. of which c. whom d. whose 42. How do you pronounce 1.75? a. one seven five b. one point seventy-five d. one hundred and seventy-five 43. We write 21 May but we read: a. twenty-one of May b. twenty-first May May 44. We write 3,000,000 and we read: a. three million b. three millions c. one point seven five

c. twenty-first of May d. twenty-one

c. three billions

d. three billion

45. We write 1 and we read: a. one and three on four b. one and three quarters d. one and four under three 46. In telephone numbers 0 is read: a. oh b. zero c. nought

c. one three quarters

d. nil

47. She told us to take out a blank of paper, then write our names at the top. a. piece b. packet c. box d. sheet 48. I buy of bread every day. a. a piece of b. a slice of 49. The hat was very unusual. a. policemans b. policemans 50. Nobody tells me . a. anything b. something c. a loaf of c. policemens c. nothing d. a bit of d. policemens d. everything

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4.9. Answer Key Self-test Paper 1-c, 2-a, 3-d, 4-a, 5-c, 6-a, 7-b, 8-a, 9-c, 10-b 11-c, 12-d, 13-b, 14-b, 15-b, 16-c, 17-b, 18-c, 19-d, 21-c, 22-c, 23-a, 24-a, 25-c, 26-a, 27-d, 28-b, 29-b, 31-b, 32-b, 33-b, 34-c, 35-a, 36-b, 37-c, 38-a, 39-c, 41-d, 42-c, 43-c, 44-a, 45-b, 46-a, 47-d, 48-c, 49-a,

20-a 30-a 40-a 50-a

Curs 5 Safety and Emergency Situations

Verb Phrase
Present Simple and Present Continuous I. Unitatea ofer noiuni n legtur cu sigurana navei, a echipajului i a mrfii de la bord n caz de avarie sau incendiu conform regulamentelor IMO, care se studiaz n anul I. Echipamentele de protecie i siguran sunt enumerate. Partea de gramatic ofer informaii amnunite cu privire la verbe, clasificarea acestora dup mai multe criterii, situaiile n care poate aprea verbul mpreun cu alte pri de vorbire i situaiile n care poate forma predicatul propoziiei. Datorit importanei verbului n cadrul propoziiei i al comunicrii n general, am acordat un spaiu mai mare informaiilor referitoare la aceast parte de vorbire. n continuare se trece la studiul a dou dintre timpurile verbale prezente: Present Simple i Present Continuous. II. Obiective: 1 Memorising the vocabulary in the unit, in English and making connections with the Romanian terms. 2. Understanding and practicing the grammar: the verb phrase, the tenses: Present Simple and Present Continuous. 3. Discriminating between Present Simple and Present Continuous. 4. Learning how to use the dictionary for the unknown words from the specialty text, tables and exercises. 5. Checking the knowledge through self-evaluation tests from the end of unit 8. 5.1. Safety and emergency situations Safety is of the utmost importance and involves everyone on board. Safety on board covers: Safety to personnel; Safety to environment; Safety to properties. It is secured by: The design of the ship; Modern equipment for navigation, communication and safety; Well-trained professional crew. Everyone on board shall be trained to give first aid. One officer on board will be responsible for medical care. In emergency situations, consultations can be given by doctors via radio communication.

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To protect from fire you will find: Smoke and heat detectors; Fire-proof materials; Compartmentalisation; Smoking restrictions. To fight fires there are: Sprinkler systems; Fire extinguishers; Well-trained fire-fighting personnel; Advanced fire-fighting equipment. To protect the ship if water comes in for any reason, the ship is divided into watertight compartments. She has watertight doors and hatches. There are also built-in pump systems, movable submersible pumps and on-board systems for stability calculation. If, in an emergency, it is necessary to abandon ship, there are life-boats and life-rafts available on board. A Global Maritime Distress and Safety System ensures that this information reaches other ships and Rescue Centres. Suitable rescue resources can be sent to assist. When a ship has been abandoned, every effort possible will be made to rescue the personnel. 5.2. The verb phrase Verbs are divided into two main groups: auxiliary verbs and main verbs. Auxiliary verbs go before main verbs in verb phrases and they do not have a meaning so, in the cases when in Romanian there is no equivalent, they are not translated. Main verbs refer to an action or a state. Verbs are either regular or irregular. The forms of regular verbs can be known by the rule while the forms of irregular verbs should be learned from the lists of irregular verbs. Verb forms are either finite (has) or non-finite (having). The non-finite verbs are infinitive, gerund and participle. The most common verbs in English are be, do and have. There are two types of auxiliary verbs: primary auxiliaries (be, have, do) and modal auxiliaries (can, may must, would etc.) The structure of the verb phrase In the verb phrase there is always a main verb and there may be one or more auxiliaries in front of it.

Safety and Emergency Situations; Present Simple & Present Continuous 97

subject You The inspector Someone They He The boiler I

auxiliary verb(s) will have was should have must have been

main verb work arrived understand done looking functioned. dreaming.

object too much. with him. it. their task. for his tools.

There are some rules you have to take into consideration to form and use correctly the verb phrase in English: If there is no auxiliary, the verb is in a simple tense in present (work) or past (arrived). The order of the auxiliary verbs is the following: modal verb + have + be (continuous) + be (passive). Anyway the perfect, the continuous and the passive do not usually all come in the same phrase. So that a sentence like It could have been being understood. is possible but unusual. The auxiliary verb modifies the form of the next verb (whether auxiliary or main verb): - modal + base form: will understand, should have understood; - have + past participle: have done, have been doing; - be + active participle: was looking, has been looking; - be + passive participle: were filled, had been stolen. The first word of the verb phrase is present or past. The exceptions are the future tenses and the modal verbs, which do not usually have a tense. I go on voyage every year. They went to the muster point. He hasnt been so proud for a long time. The first auxiliary is important in negatives and questions. Some of the verb forms have more than one use: Base form imperative Work more! - present tense You work very hard. - infinitive We want to work. Past form - past simple They worked last week. Ing-form - gerund Working is important. - present participle He is working a lot. Past participle - perfect tenses I have never worked. - passive voice

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5.2.1. Action verbs and state verbs Verbs can express actions or states. An action means something happening, something changing. Action verbs are those like: do, go, buy, play, take, say, ask, decide etc. He went to Istambul. Im changing the pump. I lent him five pounds. Most action verbs refer to physical actions, but some are verbs of reporting (say) or verbs of thinking (decide). These verbs can be used with the continuous. A state means something staying the same, unchanged. The state verbs are: adore, be, believe, belong to, consist of, contain, depend, deserve, desire, despise, detest, dislike, doubt, envy, exist, hate, intend, know, lack, like, love, matter, mean, need, owe, own, pity, possess, prefer, resemble, seem, understand, want, wish. I love my job. We need a new pump. State verbs express meaning such as being, having, opinions and feelings. These verbs are not normally used with the continuous. Some verbs have different meanings. One meaning can be an action and another one can be a state: Actions Im having breakfast. (eating) Were thinking about leaving. (deciding) He tasted the food. I expect trouble. Can you imagine the future? Many people care for the sick We admire the view. (looking) Look at that picture! Smell the powder! He appeared in a film. They measure the deck. Weigh the cargo. The electrician fit a new switch. 5.2.2. Verb patterns The main verb of a clause can be followed by various elements which complete its meaning. These elements form the verb patterns. The patterns can be divided into three groups according to what can be placed after the verb: States I have a big cabin. (own) I think he is right. (believe) The food tasted like sand. I dont know, I expect so. (believe) I imagine so. (believe) I do not care what happens. I admire someones courage in such a situation. (approve of) It looks lovely! It smells strange! He appeared perfectly calm. (looked) The deck measures 50 meters. It weighs 2,000 tones. It fit perfectly.

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A. Patterns with no element after the verb (N + V). Such verbs need no element to follow them and are called intransitive verbs. Some of the intransitive verbs are: arrive, begin, come, drink, drive, fall, go, happen, help, lie, matter, occur, rise, wait, work, write etc. It doesnt matter. His son is working. B. Patterns with one element after the verb (N + V + X). According to the elements there can be the following types of patterns: N + V + N with the verbs: believe, bring, carry, clean, cut, do, enjoy, find, get, hear, hold, keep, lay, like, love, make, raise, remember, say, take, use, want etc. that need a noun phrase and are called transitive verbs. He was cleaning the floor. Everyone enjoyed the voyage. N + V + N/adjective with the verb be or verbs that can replace it like become etc. He is my mate/busy. N + V + adverbial with the verb be or verbs that can replace it like become etc. Usually the adverbial is an adverb or prepositional phrase of place, but an adverbial of time can also be used. The mechanic is below deck. The briefing lasted for several hours. N + V + that-clause with verbs of speaking or verbs of thinking. The scientists have predicted (that) the ships will get bigger. People used to think (that) the earth was flat. N + V + wh-clause with the verbs: ask, (not) care, choose, discuss, find out, forget, know, (not) mind, point out, prove, see, wonder etc. No one realizes how hard we work. The customs officer asked what we had to declare. N + V + wh-to-clause with the verbs: ask, (not) care, choose, discuss, find out, forget, know, (not) mind, point out, prove, see, wonder etc. Everyone should learn how to swim. I dont know which of these springs to choose. N + V + to + verb with many different verbs. The verb is followed by a toinfinitive clause. They have been trying to improve the mechanism. The ship seems to be deserted.

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N + V + verb where the first verb can be a modal: can, could, may, might, must, should, would, and ought to, a verb idiom: had better, would rather, and the verb help/help to. You can do it. You had better leave now. This liquid will help (to) operate the machinery. N + V + verb-ingwith many different types of verbs. I like looking at the sea at night. We must avoid making too much noise. N + V + past participle () with the verbs be and get and a passive meaning. The thief was/got arrested by the police.

C. Patterns with two elements after the verb (N + V + X + X). According to the elements there can be the following types of patterns: N + V + N1 + N2 (N1 is the indirect object and N2 is the direct object): Could you lend me your spanner? He owes his friend $1,000. We wish all our friends a happy New Year. We can also include here verbs which take a preposition between N1 and N2 that are called prepositional verbs: accuseof, comparewith, congratulateon, convictof, depriveof, introduceto, preventfrom, protectfrom, remindof, robof, sentenceto, suspectof, thankfor, treatof, warnof etc. They accused him of laziness. Let me introduce you to my friend. N + V + N + N/adjective with verbs like: call, declare, drive, elect, get, hold, keep, leave, make, prefer, report, send, think, turn etc. The navy left the barracks empty. We all thought him an excellent Captain. N + V + N + adverbial after verbs like: bring, drive, get, keep, lay, lead, leave, place, put, see, send, show, sit, stand, take etc. Most of the adverbs in this pattern are adverbs of motion or place. I always keep my eyes on the road. They are sending the cadet home. N + V + N + that-clause after verbs like: advise, assure, bet, convince, inform, persuade, promise, remain, satisfy, teach, tell etc. These verbs are mainly introducing indirect statements because they are verbs of speaking. We assure you (that) we are doing our best. The company informed the engineer (that) the invoice was found.

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N + V + N + wh-clause after verbs like: ask, advise, assure, bet, convince, inform, persuade, promise, remain, satisfy, teach, tell etc. the pattern can be used especially in questions and negatives. I didnt tell anyone where I had gone. N + V + N + wh-to-clause after verbs like: advise, ask, instruct, remind, show, tell, teach etc. The pilot taught me how to get into the port safely. Remind them what to wear. N + V + N + to + verb with many kinds of verbs: They dont like us to arrive late. You must get them to clean their cabins. They reported the car to be missing. N + V +N + verb The basic form of the verb follows the object. The verbs used in this pattern are: feel, have, hear, help, know, let, make, notice, observe, see, watch, etc. Did you see anyone leave the watch? The judge had the witness repeat his statement. Let me help you tidy these maps. N + V + N + verb-ing The pattern is used with verbs like: bear, dislike, feel, find, hear, hate, love, mind, notice, see, smell, stop, watch etc. He cant bear anyone interfering with her work. The driver stopped his bus crashing into the wall. N + V + N + past participle () Can you get this pump repaired? The Captain wants these letters typed before tomorrow. Id like my room cleaned now, please.

5.3. Verb tenses: Present Simple 5.3.1. Verb group. Introduction The point in time is indicated by verb group used in the clause. A set of verb forms that indicate a particular point in time or period of time in the past, present or future is called a tense. The set of forms is usually obtained by the addition of inflections to the base form of the verb (worked), or by the inclusion of auxiliaries (was working, will work) or modals (may work) in the verb group. Sometimes the point in time that the clause relates to is indicated only by the verb group, but if you want to specify the time

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you have to use an adjunct of time that can be an adverb, a noun, or a prepositional phrase: He is leaving tomorrow. The leaves were announced last week. He was better after undergoing surgery on Saturday. 5.3.2. Present Simple The verb to be is very much used in the present, so we need to know the forms of this verb: Person Sg. I II III m f n Pl. I II III Affirmative I am/Im you are/youre he is/hes she is/shes it is/its we are/were you are/youre they are/theyre Interrogative Am I? Are you? Is he? Is she? Is it? Are we? Are you? Are they? Negative I am not/Im not You are not/you arent He is not/he isnt She is not/she isnt It is not/it isnt We are not/we arent You are not/you arent They are not/they arent

All the other verbs use the following pattern for present simple: The positive is made from the short infinitive of the verb. The only different form is for the 3rd person singular where we add s: works, lands, runs, plays, tries (-y is changed into -ie when there is a consonant before it). If the verbs end in s, ss, sh, ch, x and o we add es: dresses, brushes, watches, does, boxes etc. I work hard. He works hard. We watch TV every evening. She watches TV every evening. The negative form is also made with the auxiliary verb do/does + not, and the verb at short infinitive. In speaking the short forms dont and doesnt are used: I dont work hard. He doesnt work hard. We dont watch TV every evening. She doesnt watch TV every evening. The interrogative (question) is made with the auxiliary verb do, does for the 3rd person singular, placed at the beginning of the sentence and followed by the subject and the verb in short infinitive. Short answers to yes/no questions repeat the auxiliary. Do you work hard? Yes, I do/No, I dont. Does he work hard? Yes, he does/No, he doesnt. Do we watch TV every evening? Yes, we do/No, we dont. Does she watch TV every evening? Yes, she does/No, she doesnt.

A verb that can form interrogative and negative with or without do is have. If we use the form have got, the auxiliary is not used.

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person Sg.I II III m f n Pl. I II III

Affirmative I have You have He has She has It has We have You have They have

Interrogative Do I have? /Have I? Do you have? /Have you? Does he have? /Has he? Does she have? /Has she? Does it have? /Has it? Do we have? /Have we? Do you have? /Have you? Do they have? /Have they?

Negative I dont have/I havent You dont have/You havent He doesnt have/He hasnt She doesnt have/She hasnt It doesnt have/It hasnt We dont have/We havent You dont have/You havent They dont have/They havent

We can use the Present Simple to express the following: a. Repeated actions such as routines and habits, things that happen again and again. We usually use adverbs of frequency in this situation: always, usually, often, sometimes, rarely, seldom, never. The adverbs of frequency are usually placed before the verb, but after the verb be: I always drink coffee in the morning. He is never late. Adverbial phrases like every day, once a year, most of the time, from time to time, now and then, are placed at the end (or at the beginning) of the sentence: They keep watches every day. b. Present states: feelings, opinions and relations: Who knows the answer? Silicon is a chemical element. c. Actions as they happen, and are considered to be instant for example in a commentary or instead of the past to tell a story: He passes the ball to his goalkeeper. Macbeth murders the King of Scotland. d. Future actions and events that are part of a timetable: The ferry gets into Rotterdam at six oclock tomorrow morning. e. We also use the present simple after these future time expressions: when, after, before, unless, in case, as soon as, until, by the time, the next time. They will announce the next port of call when they arrive to Amsterdam. 5.3.3. Present Continuous Form: The present continuous tense is formed with the present tense of the auxiliary verb be + verb + ing (the present participle). Only the verb be has different forms while the verb + ing remains unchanged. Questions are formed by inverting the subject and the

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auxiliary be. Short answers to yes/no questions repeat the auxiliary. Negatives are formed with the verb be + not. Positive I am/Im working You are/Youre working He is/Hes working We are/Were working They are/Theyre working Interrogative Am I working? Are you working? Is he working? Are we working? Are they working? Negative I am not/Im not working You are /Youre not/arent working He is / Hes not/isnt working We are/Were not/arent working They are/Theyre not/ arent working

Spelling rules for present participle: When a verb ends in e, this is dropped before ing: lose-losing, come-coming, arrive-arriving etc. There are some verbs ending in e that remain unchanged: be-being, age-ageing, dyedyeing, singe-singeing. When a verb ends in ee, they are not dropped: agree-agreeing, see-seeing etc. When a verb ends in a consonant that is preceded by a short and stressed vowel, the consonant is doubled: run-running, stop-stopping, admt-admitting, begnbeginning etc. When a verb ends in y, this is not changed: carrying, trying, enjoying etc. We use Present Continuous in the following situations: a. For a present action over a period of time, something that we are in the middle of now. The action has started but it hasnt finished yet: What are you doing? Its raining. Im reading an interesting book. b. For a series of actions that take place for a period of time and if you want to emphasise that the action is temporary: He is working at Lloyds at the moment but they may be moving him to another company. c. For changes, trends, development and progress: World energy demand is increasing at a rate of about 3% per year. Its getting cold. d. With always, meaning very often or too often (implying discontent): Im always losing things. This engine is always breaking down. e. For arranged actions in the future. The time of action must be mentioned: She is coming to work with us next week.

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The present continuous is often used with these time expressions: now, at the moment, nowadays, currently, these days, right now. 5.3.4. Verbs not normally used in the continuous tenses The continuous tenses are used for deliberate actions therefore some verbs cannot be used in the continuous and can have only simple tenses. A. Verbs of the senses: feel, hear, see, smell, taste. They can be used with the modal verb can to express the fact that the action is taking place at the moment of speaking. Im watching but I dont see anything unusual. I can hear a strange noise. B. Verbs expressing feelings and emotions: admire (respect), adore, appreciate (value), care for (like), desire, detest, dislike, fear, hate, like, loathe, love, mind (care), respect, value, want, wish: Do you like your new job? I hate it. Its boring. C. Verbs of mental activity: agree, appreciate (understand), assume, believe, expect (think), feel (think), forget, know, mean, perceive, realize (understand), recall, recognize, recollect, remember, see (understand), suppose, think (have an opinion), trust, understand: What do you think about the new Chief Engineer? D. Verbs of possession: belong, have, owe, own, possess: How much do I owe you? E. Other verbs: appear (seem), concern, consist, contain, hold (contain), keep (continue), matter, seem, signify, sound (seem): This box contains spare parts. 5.4. Present Simple versus Present Continuous Action: Present Simple permanent: I live in London. habits and routines: I have breakfast at 8 am. facts that are always true: Pumps pump liquids. general situations He speaks three languages. Present Continuous temporary: I am living in London. (for a period) in progress now: Im having breakfast now. events happening at the moment: The main pump is functioning. a particular situation He is speaking to a stranger.

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5.5. Vocabulary safety = siguran first aid = primul ajutor smoke detector = detector de fum heat detector = detector de cldur fire-proof material = material termo-izolant compartmentalisation = compartimentare sprinkler system = sistem de stropire fire extinguisher = extinctor watertight compartment = compartiment etan watertight doors = ui etane hatch = gur de magazie pump system = sistem de pompe movable submersible pump = pomp mobil submersibil life-boat = barc de salvare life-raft = plut de salvare Global Maritime Distress and Safety System = sistem maritim global de salvare n caz de pericol Rescue Centre = centru de salvare

5.6. Grammar Practice 5.6.1. Grammar Practice Present Continuous

Exercise I. Complete the sentences. Use am/ is/ are + one of these verbs building coming cooking playing standing studying swimming 1. Listen! Pat is playing the piano. 2. They.a new hotel downtown
3. Look! Somebody .. in the river. 4. Youon my foot. Oh I m sorry. 5. Hurry up! The bus .. 6. Where are you Sam? In the kitchen . I .. dinner. 7. (on the phone) Hello. Can I speak to Ann please? She .for an exam right now. Can she call you back later?

Exercise II. Whats happening right now? Write true sentences.


1. 2. 3. 4. (I/ wash/ my hair). Im not washing my hair. (it/ snow) (I/ sit/ on a chair) (I/ eat)

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5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

(it/ rain ) (I/ do/ this exercise). (I/ listen/ to the radio) (the sun/ shine) (I/wear/ shoes ) (I/ read/ a newspaper)

Exercise III. Write positive or negative short answers (Yes, I am/ No, it isnt, etc.)
1. Are you watching TV? No, Im not. 2. Are you wearing shoes? 3. Are you wearing a hat? 4. Is it raining? 5. Are you eating something? 6. Are you feeling all right? 7. Is the sun shining? 8. Is your teacher watching you?

5.6.2. Grammar Practice Present Simple Exercise IV. Write the he/ she/ it form of these verb:
1. read ..reads 2. repair. 3. watch. 4. listen.. 5. love. 6. have. 7. push. 8. do. 9. think. 10. kiss.. 11. buy. 12. go..

Exercise V. Complete the sentences. Use the correct form of these verbs. boil close cost cost drink go have have like meet open teach wash
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Shes very smart. She speaks four languages. Steve . four cups of coffee a day . We usually. Dinner at 7 o clock. I ..movies. I often . to the movies with friends. Water at 100 degrees Celsius.

speak

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6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

In my home town the banks . at 9:00 in the morning. The City Museum . at 5 o clock on Saturdays. Food is expensive. It .. a lot of money. Shoes are expensive. They . a lot of money. Sue is a teacher. She math to young children. Your job is very interesting. You a lot of people. Peter . his hair every day. An insect . six legs.

Exercise VI. Write the opposite. (positive or negative).


1. I understand. I dont understand. 2. She doesnt drive. She drives. 3. They know. They .. 4. He loves her. .. 5. They speak English. . 6. I dont want it. . 7. She doesnt want them. .. 8. He lives in Taiwan.

Exercise VII. Complete the sentences. All of them are negative. Use dont/ doesnt + one of these verbs. cost drive go have know play see sell smoke wash wear
1. Have a cigarette. No, thanks. I dont smoke. 2. They newspapers in that store. 3. She has a car, but .. very often. 4. I like plays, but I ..to the theatre very often. 5.My car is usually dirty because I .. it very often. 6. Its a cheap hotel. It .. much to stay there. 7. He likes soccer, but he very often. 8. I .. much about politics. 9. Shes married, but she .. a ring. 10. He lives next door, but we.. him very often. 11. Can you lend me five dollars? Sorry, I ..any money.

Exercise VIII. You are asking somebody questions. Write questions with Do/ Does.?
Example: I work hard . How about you? Do you work hard? 1. I play tennis .How about you? . you ..? 2. I play tennis. How about Ann? .. Ann . ? 3. I know the answer. How about you? .. the answer? 4. I like hot weather. How about you? .? 5. My father drinks coffee. How about your father ? ?

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6. I exercise every morning. How about you? ..? 7. I speak English. How about your friends? ..? 8. I want to be famous. How about you? ..?

Exercise IX. These questions begin with Where/ What/How ?


1. I wash my hair every day. ( how often/ you ?) How often do you wash your hair? 2. I live in Mexico City. (where/ you?) Where .? 3. I watch TV every day. (how often/you?) How ..? 4. I have lunch at home. (where/ you ?) .? 5. I get up at 7:30.(what time/ you?) .? 6. I go the movies a lot. (how often/ you?) ? 7. I go to work by bus. (how/ you?) ..? 8. I always have eggs for breakfast. (what/ you?) .?

5.6.3. Grammar Practice Present Continuous & Present Simple Exercise X. Put the verb in the present continuous (I am doing) or simple present (I do) 1. Excuse me, do you speak .. (you/ speak) English? 2. Tom (is taking) (take) a shower at the moment. 3. They dont watch . (not/ watch) television very often. 4. Listen! Somebody .. (sing). 5. Shes tired. She .. (want) to go home now. 6. How often . (you/ read) the newspaper. 7. Excuse me, but you . (sit) in my place. Oh, Im sorry. 8. Im sorry, I .. (not/ understand). Please speak more slowly. 9. Where are you Dan? Im in the living room. I . (read). 10. What time . (she/ finish) work every day? 11. You can turn off the radio. I.. (not /listen) to it. 12. He ( not/ usually/ drive) to work.. He usually (walk). Exercise XI. Complete the sentences with the Present Simple (I do) or the Present
Continuous (I am doing)`. 1. I leave (leave) home at 7 o clock every morning. 2. She usually .. (work) in the sales Department in London, but at the moment she (do) a training course in Bristol. 3.He . (try) very hard in every game that he (play). 4. Excuse me. I think you (sit) in my seat. 5. . (you/ listen ) to the radio very often? 6. Dont talk to me now. I . (write) an important letter. 7. Why .. (they/ drive) on the left in Britain? 8. It (not/ get) dark at this tome of year until about 10 o clock.

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9. It usually .. (rain) here a lot, but it . (not/ rain) now. 10. A: What are you doing? B: . (bake) a cake. Why..(you/ smile) ?.(I/do) something wrong? 5.7. Grammar Practice Answer Key Present Simple and Present Continuous

Exercise I. 2.are building 3.is swimming 4.are standing 5.is coming 6.are cooking 7.is
studying

Exercise II. 2.It is/it is not snowing 3.I am /I am not sitting 4. I am /I am not eating 5. It
is/ it is not raining 6. I am / I am not doing the exercise 7. I am / I am not listening to the radio 8. The sun is/ the sun isnt shining 9. I am / I am not wearing shoes 10.I am / I am not reading a newspaper

Exercise III. 2. Yes, I am / No, Im not. 3. Yes, I am / No I m not. 4. Yes, it is / No it


isnt. 5.Yes, I am / No, Im not. 6. Yes, I am / No Im not. 7. Yes, it is/ No it isnt. 8. Yes, she is/ No she isnt.

Exercise IV. 2. repairs; 3.watches; 4. listens; 5. loves; 6. has; 7.pushes; 8. does; 9. thinks;
10. kisses; 11. buys; 12. goes.

Exercise V.2. drinks; 3. have; 4. like; 5. go; 6. open; 7. closes; 8. costs; 9. cost. 10.
teaches; 11. meet; 12. washes; 13. has.

Exercise VI. 3. they dont know 4. He doesnt love 5. They dont speak English 6. I want
it 7. She wants them 8. She doesnt live in Taiwan

Exercise VII. 2. dont sell 3. doesnt drive 4. dont go 5. dont wash 6. doesnt cost 7.
doesnt play 8. dont know 9. doesnt wear 10. dont have

Exercise IX. 2. do you live? 3. often do you watch TV? 4. Where do you have lunch? 5.
What time do you get up? 6. How often do you go to the movies? 7. How do you go to work? 8. What do you usually have for breakfast?

Exercise X. 4. is singing 5. wants 6. do you read 7. are sitting 8. dont understand 9. are
reading 10. does she finish 11.am not listening 12.He doesnt usually drive

Exercise XI. 2. Works; is doing3. 3. tries; plays 4. tries; are sitting 5. Do you listen 6.
Am writing 7. Do they drive 8. Doesnt get 9. Rains; is not raining 10. Im baking; are you smiling; Am I doing

Curs 6 Alarms on Board. Present Perfect Simple and Continuous I. Unitatea ofer noiuni n legtur cu sigurana navei, a echipajului i a mrfii de la bord n caz de avarie sau incendiu conform regulamentelor IMO, care se studiaz n anul I. Sunt enumerate modalitile n care se d alarma la bord n caz de avarie sau incendiu. Partea de gramatic ofer informaii amnunite despre alte dou timpuri prezente:

Present Perfect Simple and Continuous. Cele dou timpuri perfecte sunt printre cele mai dificile din limba englez datorit faptului c nu au corespondente n limba romn.
II. Obiective: 1 Memorising the vocabulary in the unit, in English and making connections with the Romanian terms. 2. Understanding and practicing the grammar tenses: Present Perfect Simple and Present Perfect Continuous. 3. Discriminating between Present Perfect Simple and Present Perfect Continuous. 4. Learning how to use the dictionary for the unknown words from the specialty text, tables and exercises. 5. Checking the knowledge through self-evaluation tests from the end of unit 8. 6.1. Alarms on board It is important to know which different kinds of alarms there are on board a ship and how to respond to them. All alarm signals and indicators must be clearly understood by everyone on board. A general emergency alarm is only given in the case of an emergency to all persons on board. All passengers and crew must get their life-jackets and go as quickly as possible to their Muster and Boat Stations. They have to follow the direction indictors to the Muster Stations. At the Muster and Boat Stations wait for further instructions from the ships Master. The fire extinguishing alarm warns of the imminent release of the fire-extinguishing material into the space in question: CO or halon. If you are in that room, leave immediately because CO halon or something similar will be released. The watertight door-closing alarm is a warning signal for the closing of the poweroperated doors. On the bridge there are panels and positions for a number of individual visual alarms and indicators. In the engine room there are panels and positions for a number of visual alarms and indicators concerning the main engines and power failures.

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The vessels rescue-boat crew will be notified by alarm over PA system. If you belong to the rescue-boat crew upon hearing the alarm you must get your life-jacket and go as quickly as possible to the rescue-boat. When a helicopter is going to land on a ship, the alarm will be announced over the PA system. The end of an emergency will be announced over the public address system: All hands! All hands! Emergency over. Return to duties. Some usual phrases used when raising alarm are: Operate the general emergency alarm. General emergency alarm operated. Inform the Master/Chief Engineer. Master/Chief Engineerinformed. Inform coast radio station/vessels in vicinity. coast radio station/vessels in vicinity informed. Send an urgency message/distress message. Urgency message/distress message sent. This is your Captain speaking: A minor fire has broken out in There is no immediate danger to crew or vessels and there is no reason to be alarmed. For safety reasons we request the crew to go to the assembly stations. Leave the engine room/the superstructure/your stations/your cabins immediately and close all opening. Take your equipment with you according to muster list. Do not go to your lifeboat stations before you are ordered to do so. Do not embark the lifeboats/liferafts. The order to embark the lifeboats/liferafts will be given from the bridge. The following department/crew members will (temporarily) disembark for safety reasons. Roll call: Check the presence of all persons/passengers/crew members and report. All persons/passengers/crew members at assembly stations. All persons/passengers/crew members outside the danger area. persons/passengers/crew members missing. Search for missing persons/passengers/crew members and report. Missing persons/passengers/crew members recovered. Missing persons/passengers/crew members not recovered yet, search is going on.

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6.2. Present Perfect Simple The present perfect is almost a kind of present sense. If you want to mention something that happened in the past but you do not want to state a specific time, you use present perfect tense. You cannot use words that place the action at a definite time in the past with the present perfect. Form: Present Perfect Simple is formed with the present tense of the auxiliary verb have + past participle of the verb. Past participle means the 3rd form of the irregular verbs: e.g. go-went-gone, and for regular verbs the form with ed: e.g. arrived, worked. For interrogative the auxiliary verb have/has is placed in the first position. In negative sentences the negation not is placed after the auxiliary verb, the short forms are: havent, hasnt: I have worked hard today. He has arrived late on board. Have you been to Canada? I havent read the instructions. Present Perfect Simple implies a strong connection with the present and it is chiefly used in conversations, letters, newspapers and television and radio reports. Generally, the present perfect is used for: an action in a period leading up to the present: The crewmembers have arrived. repeated actions: Weve often talked about emigrating. for states: Ive always liked engineering. We can use this tense in the following situations according to the adverbials used: a. For recently completed actions, with the adverb just that is placed before the verb: He has just repaired the centrifuge. Have you just come back? b. For actions that were completed or should have been completed until present, with already and yet. Already is placed before the verb in positive and interrogative sentences. Yet is placed at the end of interrogative and negative sentences: Ive already heard the news. Have you already heard the news? I havent heard the news yet. Have you heard the news yet? c. For actions that happened in the past but we can see the result in the present: I have lost the manual. (I cannot find it.) I have forgotten his name. (I do not know it now.) He has had a bad accident. (He is in hospital.)

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d. For actions that occurred in the past, provided connexion with the present is still maintained, that means the action could be repeated in the present or future: My friend has written two course books for mechanics. (He can write more) e. For actions occurring in an incomplete period of time: today, this morning (up to one oclock)/evening/ afternoon (up to five oclock)/week/ month/ year/ century etc. Have you seen him today? It has been windy this morning. (The morning is not over yet) f. For actions occurring in an indefinite period of time: lately, recently, till now, until now, so far, before, ever, never etc: There have been some changes in the structure of the crew recently. Have you ever seen a cruiser? Ive never seen such a huge tanker.

g. For actions that started in the past and continue till the present: since and for. For is used to express the period of time: for three days, for eight hours, for a long time etc. Since is used to express the point in time when the action started: since five oclock, since 1990, since last week, etc. Theyve worked for twelve hours. I havent been on a ship since last summer. h. For actions that repeated a number of times until the moment of speaking: Hes been to Japan twice. This is the third time the engine has broken this month. i. With superlatives: Its the biggest container ship Ive (ever) seen.

Been (to) and gone (to) If we have been to a place, we went there and have now returned. If we have gone to a place we went there but have not returned yet: Hes been to visit our suppliers. Everything seems to be OK. (he has come back) Hes gone to visit our suppliers. I hope everything will be OK. (he is still there) 6.3. Present Perfect Continuous Form: Present Perfect Continuous is formed with the present perfect of the verb be + present participle of the notional verb (have/has + been + verb-ing): I have been waiting for an hour. Have you been waiting long? I havent been waiting very long.

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The tense is used in the following situations: a. For an activity or situation that started at some time in the past, continued, and is still happening now. We can use since and for in the same manner as for Present Perfect Simple: Ive been sailing for ten years. How long have you been studying English? b. For a recent event if we want to emphasize the duration: Shes been crying. His clothes are dirty. Hes been welding the pipes. c. For repeated actions up to now: He has been writing letters to the shipping company. Ive been going to evening classes in French. Typical time expressions that are used with the present perfect continuous include: all day, for months, for ages, lately, recently, over the last few years, since, for. 6.4. Comparison of the Present Perfect Simple and Continuous Present Perfect Simple Have/has + verb (past participle) I/you/we/they have worked/done He/she/it has worked/done Question Have I/you/we/they worked/done? Has he/she/it worked/done? Negative I/you/we/they havent worked/done He/she/it hasnt worked/done Present Perfect Continuous Have/has + been + v-ing (present participle) I/you/we/they have been working/doing He/she/it has been working/doing Question Have I/you/we/they been working/doing? Has he/she/it been working/doing? Negative I/you/we/they havent been working/doing He/she/it hasnt been working/doing

An action that began in the past and is still continuing or has just finished can be expressed, with certain verbs, by either the present perfect simple or the present perfect continuous. Verbs that can be used in this way include: expect, hope, learn, lie, live, look, rain, sleep, sit, snow, stand, stay, study, teach, wait, want, work etc: He has worked for eight hours. He has been working for eight hours. a. When we use Present Perfect Simple we are interested in the number of times the action was made or the quantity. If we use Present Perfect Continuous we are interested in the duration of the activity: He has repaired three pumps today. He has been repairing pumps all day.

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b. Interrogative sentences usually begin with how much, how many when we use Present Perfect Simple and with how long when we use Present Perfect Continuous: How many pages of the manual have you read? How long have you been reading? c. When we use Present Perfect Simple we expect the action to be completed. When using Present Perfect Continuous we are interested in the action that began in the past and is still taking place: I have lubricated the machine. (the work has been completed) I have been lubricating the machine. (the work has just been interrupted) 6.5. Present Perfect Continuous versus Present Continuous The present perfect continuous describes an action in progress from the past up to the present. The present continuous is used for a temporary action happening now: He has been fitting the new fire-fighting system. (in progress up to now, and may or may not continue) He is fitting the new fire-fighting system. (in progress now, and will continue) 6.6. Vocabulary alarm = alarm alarm signals and indicators = semnale i indicatoare de alarm/de avertizare general emergency alarm = alarm general de urgen/pericol life-jacket = vest de salvare Muster Station = punct de adunare Boat Station = punct al brcilor de salvare fire extinguishing alarm = alarm de incendiu fire-extinguishing material = material de stins incendiul watertight door-closing alarm = alarm/semnalizare de nchidere a uilor etane warning signal = semnal de avertizare power-operated door = u acionat automat panels and positions = panouri i puncte visual alarms and indicators = indicatoare i alarme vizuale power failure = cdere de tensiune rescue-boat crew = echipajul brcii de salvare public address system/PA system = sistemul de anunare general

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6.7. Grammar Practice Present Perfect 6.7.1. Grammar Practice Present Perfect Simple Exercise I. You are writing a letter to a friend. In the letter you give news about yourself and other people. Use the words to make sentences. Use the present perfect. Dear Chris, Lots of things have happened since I last wrote to you. 1.I/ buy/ a new car. Ive bought a new car. 2. my father/ start/ a new job . 3. I/ give up/ smoking 4. Charles and Sarah/ go/ to Brazil .. 5. Suzanne/ have/ a baby . Exercise II. Complete the sentences. Use already + present perfect simple 1. What time is Paul arriving? Hes already arrived. 2. Do Sue and Bill want to see the film? No, they.. 3. Dont forget to phone Tom. I.. 4. When is Martin going away? He. 5. Do you want to read the newspaper? I 6. When does Linda start her new job? She .. Exercise III. You are asking Helen questions beginning Have you ever? Write questions. 1. (London?). Have you ever been to London? No, never. 2. (play/ golf?) ..Have you ever played golf? Yes, many times. 3. (Australia?).. Have No, never. 4. (lose /your passport?) .. Yes, once 5. (fly/ in a helicopter?).. No, never. 6. (eat/ Chinese food?).. Yes, a few times. 7. (New York?). Yes, twice. 8. (drive/ a bus?).. No, never. 9. (break/ your leg?). Yes, once. Exercise IV. Write sentences about Helen. (Look at her answers in exercise III) 1. (New York) ..Helen has been to New York twice. 2. (Australia)Helen 3. (Chinese food) 4. (drive/ a bus). Now write about yourself. How often have you done these things? 5. (New York) I. 6. (play/ tennis) 7. (fly/ in a helicopter)..

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8. (be/ late for work or school).. Exercise V. Complete the sentences. 1. Jill is in hospital. Shehas been in hospital since Monday. 2. I know Sarah. I have knownher for a long time. 3. Linda and Frank are married. They married since 1989. 4. Brian is ill. He. ill for the last few days. 5. We live in Scott Road. We there for ten years. 6. Catherine works in a bank. She. in a bank for ten years. 7. Alan has a headache. He .. a headache since he got up this morning. 8. Im learning English. I. English for six months. Exercise VI. Which is right? 1. Mark is/ has been in Canada since April. has been is right 2. Jane is a good friend of mine. I know/ have known her very well. 3. Jane is a good friend of mine. I know/ have known her for a long time. 4. Sorry, Im late. How long are you/ have you been waiting? 5. Martin works/ has worked in a hotel now. He likes his job very much. 6. Tom is/ has been in Spain at the moment. He is/ has been there for the last three days. Exercise VII. Read the situations and write sentences with just, already, or yet. 1. After lunch you go to see a friend at her house. She says Would you like something to eat? You say: No, thank you. ..Ive just had lunch. (have lunch) 2. Joe goes out. Five minutes later, the phone rings and the caller says Can I speak to Joe? You say: Im afraid .(go out) 3. You are eating in a restaurant. The waiter thinks you have finished and starts to take your plate away. You say :Wait a minute!(not/ finish) 4. You are going to a restaurant this evening. You phone to reserve a table. Later your friend says Shall I phone to reserve a table? You say: No,..it.(do). 5. You know that a friend of yours is looking for a job. Perhaps she has been successful. Ask her. You say:.? (find) 6. Ann went to the bank, but a few minutes ago she returned. Somebody asks Is Ann still at the bank? You say: No, ..(come back) Exercise VIII .Put in been or gone . 1. Jim is on holiday. Hes gone to Italy. 2. Hello. Ive just ..to the shops. Ive bought lots of things. 3. Alice isnt here at the moment. Shes to the shop to get a newspaper. 4. Tom has..out. Hell be back in about an hour. 5. Are you going to the bank? No, Ive already ..to the bank.

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Exercise IX. Complete these sentences using today/ this year/ this term etc 1. I saw Tom yesterday but . I havent seen him today. 2. I read a newspaper yesterday but I today. 3. Last year the company made a profit but this year. . 4. Tracy worked hard at school last term but.. . 5. It snowed a lot last winter but . 6. Our football team won a lot of games last season but we. Exercise X. Read the situations and write sentences as shown in the examples. 1. Jack is driving a car but hes very nervous and not sure what to do. You ask: : .Have you driven a car before? He says :.. No, this is the first time Ive driven a car. 2. Len is playing tennis. Hes not very good and he doesnt know the rules. You ask: Have. He says: No, this is the first . 3. Sue is riding a horse. She doesnt look very confident and comfortable. You ask: She says: 4. Maria is in London. She has just arrived and its very new for her. You ask: She says: Exercise XI. You are asking somebody questions about things he or she has done. Make questions for the words in brackets. 1. (ever/ ride/ horse).. Have you ever ridden a horse? 2. (ever/ be/ California). 3. (ever/ run/ marathon) 4. (ever/ speak/ famous person?) 5. (always/ live/ in this town ?).. 6. (most beautiful place/ ever/ visit ?) What.. 6.7.2. Grammar Practice Present Perfect Continuous Exercise I. Write a sentence with the present perfect continuous and for to describe each situation. Use these verbs: camp, play, read, swim, talk, travel, work. 1. The video began two hours ago, and it hasnt finished yet. Its been playing for two hours. 2. James went into the water ten minutes ago. He doesnt want to come out yet.. 3. Alice rang Peter half an hour ago, and theyre still on the phone 4. Robert picked up a book an hour ago. He hasnt put it down yet.

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5.

Ed and Jennifer started their journey around the world three months ago. Theyve gone about halfway now. 6. Sue got to the office early this morning. Ten hours later shes still there 7. The Dobsons left on holiday four weeks ago and theyre not back yet. They took their tent. Exercise II. Add a sentence with the present perfect continuous. Use the words in brackets. 1. Mr Davis has a backache. (dig / the garden)..Hes been digging in the garden. 2. Joe has no money left. (shop). 3. The girls are tired. (work hard ) 4. The boys have got a suntan. (sunbathe) 5. Emmas shoes are dirty. (walk/ in the field).. 6. Jane and Neil look annoyed. (argue). 7. The ground is wet. (rain) 8. Tim has some washing up to do (bake/ cakes). Exercise III. Read the situations and complete the sentences. 1. The rain started two hours ago. Its still raining now. It .. has been raining for two hours. 2. We started waiting for the bus 20 minutes ago. Were still waiting now. We. for 20 minutes. 3. I started Spanish classes in December. Im still learning Spanish now. I. since December. 4. Ann began looking for a job six months ago. Shes still looking now. for six months. 5. Mary started working in London on 18 January. Shes still working there now. . since 18 January. 6. Years ago you started writing to a pen friend. You still write to each other regularly now. We.for years. 6.7.3. Grammar Practice Present Perfect Simple and Continuous Exercise I. Read the situations and write two sentences using the words in brackets. 1. Tom started reading a book two hours ago. He is still reading it and now he is on page 53. (read/ for two hours).. He has been reading for two hours. (read/ 53 pages so far) 2. Linda is from Australia. She is travelling round Europe at the moment. She began her tour three months ago. (travel/ for three months) She. (visit/ six countries so far). 3. Jimmy is a tennis player. He began playing tennis when he was ten years old. This year he is national champion again for the fourth time.

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(win/ the national championship four times).. (play/ tennis since he was ten) 4. When they left college, Mary and Sue started making films together. They still make films. (make/ ten films since they left college). They. (make/ films since they left college) Exercise II. Put the verb into the more suitable form, present perfect simple (I have done) or continuous (I have been doing). 1. Where have you been? ..Have you been playing..(you/ play) tennis? 2. Look!. Somebody{break) that window. 3. You look tired. (you/ work ) hard ? 4. ..(you/ ever/ work) in a factory? No, never 5. Jane is away on holiday. Oh, is she ? Where (she go) ? 6. My brother is an actor. He..(appear) in several films. 7. Sorry Im late. Thats all right. I.( not/ wait) long. 8. Is it still raining? No, it .(stop) 9. I.(lose) my address book. ..(you/ see) it anywhere? 10. I.(read) the book you lent me but I (not/ finish) it yet. 11. I ..(read) the book you lent me , so you can have it back now. Exercise III. For each situation, ask a question using the words in brackets. 1. You have a friend who is learning Arabic. You ask: (how long/ learn/ Arabic?). How long have you been learning Arabic? 2. You have just arrived to meet a friend. She is waiting for you. You ask: (how long/ wait ?) 3. You see somebody fishing by the river. You ask: (how many fish/ catch?) 4. Some friends of yours are having a party next week. You ask: (how many people/ invite?) 5. A friend of yours is a teacher. You ask: (how long/ teach ?) 6. You meet somebody who is a writer. You ask: (how many books/ write?), (how long/ write books?) 7. A friend of yours is saving money to go on holiday. You ask: (how long/ save?)

Exercise IV. Use the words given to complete the sentences. Put the verbs in the present perfect simple or continuous. 1. Johns terribly upset. Hes broken (he/ break ) off his engagement to Megan. Apparently shes been seeing(she/ see) someone else while ..hes been (he/ be) in Africa. 2. Can you translate this note from Stockholm? I understood Swedish when I was a child, but (I/ forget) it all. 3. Whats that dent in the side of the car? ..(you/ have) an accident?

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4. Im sorry, Johns not here; ..(he/ go) the dentist(he/ have) trouble with a tooth. 5. This cassette recorder is broken. (you/ play about) with it? 6. Your Italian is very good (you/ study) it long? 7. Do you mind if I clear the table? (you/ have) enough to it ? 8. Im not surprised.(he/ fail) that exam. 6.8.1. Grammar Practice Answer Key Present Perfect

Exercise I. 2. has started 3. have given up 4. have gone Exercise II. 2. have already seen it 3. have already phoned 4. He has already gone 5. I
have already read it 6. She has already started

Exercise III. 3. Have you ever been to Australia? 4. Have you ever lost 5. Have you ever flown. 6. Have you ever eaten.. 7. Have you ever been to 8. Have you ever driven 9. Have you ever broken Exercise IV.
2. Helen has never been to Australia 3. Helen has eaten Chinese food a few times 4. Helen has never driven a bus 5.I have /I have never been to New York. 6.I have / I have never played tennis. 7.I have / I have never flown in a helicopter. 8.I have / have never been late for work or school.

Exercise V. 3. have been 4. has been ill 5. has been living 6. has been working 7. has had
8. have been living

Exercise VI. 2. Know 3. have known 4. have you been waiting 5. Works 6. is; has been Exercise VII. 2. he has just gone out 3. I have not finished yet 4. I have already done it 5.
Have you found a job yet? 6. She has just come back

Exercise VIII. 2. been 3. gone 4. gone 5. been Exercise IX. 2. havent read one 3. it hasnt made a profit / it has made a loss

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4. she hasnt worked very hard this term 5. it hasnt snowed much 6. havent won many/ any games this season

Exercise X. 2. Have you ever played tennis before? No, this is the first time Ive played tennis 3. Have you ever ridden a horse before? No, this is the first time Ive ridden a horse. 4. Have you ever visited London before. No, this is the first time Ive visited London.
XI. 2. Have you been to California? 3. Have you run in a marathon? 4. Have you spoken to a famous person? 5. Have you always lived in this town? 6. What is the most beautiful place you have visited? XII. 2. Hes been swimming for ten minutes. 3. Theyve been talking for half an hour. 4. Hes been reading a book for half an hour. 5. Theyve been travelling for three months. 6. Shes been working for ten hours. 7. Theyve been camping for four weeks. XIII. 2. Hes been shopping. 3. Theyve been working hard. 4. Theyve been sunbathing. 5. Shes been walking in the field. 6. Theyve been arguing. 7. Its been raining. 8. Hes been baking cakes. XIV. 2. have been waiting. 3. Ive been studying.. 4. Shes been looking 5. Shes been working.. 6. have been writing to each other XV. 2. She has been travelling for three months. She has visited six countries so far. 3. He has won the national championship four times. He has been playing tennis since he was ten. 4. They have made ten films since they left college. They have been making films since they left college.

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XVI. 2. has broken 3. Have you been working 4. Have you ever worked? 5. has she gone 6. has appeared?/ s appeared 7. havent been waiting 8. has stopped ? s stopped 9. have lost?/ ve lost . Have you seen 10. have been reading?/ ve been reading havent finished 11. have read?/ ve read. XVII. 2. How long have you been waiting for me? 3. How many fish have you caught? 4. How many people have you invited? 5. How long have you been teaching? 6. How many books have you written? How long have you been writing books? 7. How long have you been saving? XVIII. 2. I have forgotten it all. 3. Have you had. 4. He has gone. Hes been having 5. Have you been playing about 6. Have you been studying 7. Have you had 8. hes failed He hasnt been working Answer keys Present Perfect Simple and Continuous, and Simple Past I.2. havent really enjoyed myself since your birthday party. 3. hasnt seen his brother for nearly twenty years 4. been in Scotland since last Friday? gone to Scotland 5. since you rode a bike 6. been swimming since we were in Spain 7. weeks since you tidied this room? been weeks since you tidied II. 3. WRONG did Shakespeare write 4. RIGHT 5. WRONG was 6. RIGHT 7. WRONG My grandparents got married 8. WRONG were you born 9. RIGHT 10. WRONG was the scientist who developed

Curs 7 Fire Fighting Past Simple and Past Continuous I. Unitatea ofer noiuni n legtur cu sigurana navei, a echipajului i a mrfii de la bord n caz de incendiu conform regulamentelor IMO, care se studiaz n anul I. Sunt enumerate modalitile n care se d alarma la bord n caz de incendiu, echipamentele de lupt mpotriva incendiului la bord, fixe i mobile. Partea de gramatic ofer informaii amnunite despre dou timpuri trecute: Past Simple and Past Continuous. Acestea se

studiaz att separat ct i prin comparaie cu celelalte timpuri studiate anterior i n special Past Simple se studiaz prin comparaie i contrast cu Present Perfect Simple.
II. Obiective: 1 Memorising the vocabulary in the unit, in English and making connections with the Romanian terms. 2. Understanding and practicing the grammar tenses: Past Simple and Past Continuous. 3. Discriminating between Present Perfect Simple and Past Simple and Past Continuous and Past Simple. 4. Learning how to use the dictionary for the unknown words from the specialty text, tables and exercises. 5. Checking the knowledge through self-evaluation tests from the end of unit 8. 7.1. Fire Fighting Fire on board can be of great danger to the whole ship, even if it is a small fire. Most of the risks have already been eliminated by the design of the ship. What risk remains can only be avoided by everyone on board taking care. Prompt action is essential for effective fire-fighting, and knowledge of the location and use of fire equipment is necessary to permit immediate action. When you see a fire you should: 1. Sound the alarm; 2. Rescue people in danger; 3. Fight the fire with the available fire equipment until the fire team takes over. In the cabin you may find one or more fire detectors such as: smoke detectors; flame detectors; heat detectors which will indicate a fire. An alarm will be shown on the fire control panel. Detectors are in position around the ship in all fire-sensitive areas. A sprinkler system will spray the cabin with water to extinguish fire.

128 English for Marine Engineering There is an audio/visual fire-warning device on the bridge and in the engine control room indicating when and where a fire has occurred. There are several types of fire extinguishers suitable for different types of fires. The water fire extinguisher is used to put out fires in textiles, wood, paper etc. Never use water fire extinguishers where live electrical equipment is located. The foam fire extinguisher is used to extinguish fires in combustible liquids like oil. The powder fire extinguishers are used mainly to extinguish fires in electrical equipment, but can also be used to fight fires in combustible liquids and light metals. There are special dry chemical powders for fires of this type. Fixed fire-fighting systems using Halon and CO2 are found in the engine room and other machinery spaces. All personnel must be evacuated from these areas before the system can be activated. If someone is left in the area, he or she could be killed by the gas (CO2). On board some ships special foam monitors are available on deck to extinguish large fires. Some of the crew will be specially trained in fire fighting and be part of the fire fighting team on board. At a fire alarm the fire team will muster at the Fire Station and rapidly prepare themselves to fight whatever fire on board. 7.2. Past Simple When we want to say that an event took place and it is finished we use the Past Simple. The form of a verb in Past Simple differs according to the type of verb: regular or irregular. Regular verbs add ed at the infinitive of the verb: arrived, typed, played, tried (try), permitted (permit), worked etc. For the irregular verbs we use the second form of the verb: be-was/were-been, go-went-gone, put-put-put, build-built-built, buy-boughtbought etc. The form remains the same for all persons at affirmative. For interrogative we use the auxiliary did (the second form of the verb do) + subject + verb at infinitive. The negative is made with did + not/didnt + verb in infinitive: He worked hard yesterday. He went on voyage last month. Did he work hard yesterday? Did he go on voyage last month? He didnt work hard yesterday. He didnt go on voyage last month. Spelling rules for adding ed are the same as those when adding ing except for verbs ending y that changes into i, if before it there is a consonant: try-tried etc. Note: The only verb that has two forms for the past is the verb be. We use was for the first and the third person singular (I, he, she, it) and were for the rest (we, you, they).

Fire Fighting; Past simple & Past Continuous 129 Use of the Past Simple: a. For an event occurred at a particular time in the past. The time should be mentioned so we have to use some typical expressions like: yesterday; last week/month/year/term/ century; a week/month/year ago; that day/afternoon; the other day/week; at ten oclock; on Tuesday; in 2003 etc: He repaired the pump last week. b. For activities that took place regularly or repeatedly in the past. For this situation you can also use would and used to: He went to Australia a few times. c. For states in the past: I was very young then. In certain cases, the past simple tense can be used to refer to the present or future. After if, and other words with similar conditional meanings: If only I had more time. Suppose we spent next week at sea! After Its time, would rather, and wish: I wish I had better tools. Its time you went on sea. Dont come at the company today. Id rather you came tomorrow. In a subordinate clause depending on a conditional: If only he would do what he said, things would be better. In some expressions of attitude, politeness and respect: I thought you might need help. I wondered if you were safe up there. (I was wondering.) 7.3. Past Continuous Past Continuous tense is formed with the past of the auxiliary verb be that is was/were + verb-ing. The interrogative is formed placing the auxiliary was/were in the first position then the subject and the verb-ing. The negative is made by placing not after the auxiliary, the short forms, used mainly in conversation, are: wasnt and werent: He was working at this time yesterday. Was he working at this time yesterday? He wasnt working at this time yesterday. Use of Past Continuous: a. For continued states or repeated actions that occurred in the past but whose exact limits are not known or are not important: Everyone was begging the captain to surrender. b. Used with a point in time it expresses an action that began before that time and probably continued after it:

130 English for Marine Engineering I was keeping watch on the deck at this time yesterday. c. Used without a time expression it can indicate gradual development in the past: The wind was rising. d. For two actions that went on during the same period of time. Usually the two sentences are linked by while expressing the duration of the event: I was checking my e-mail while he was revising for the exam. e. We can use it in the expressions: I was wondering, I was hoping, and I was thinking: I was wondering if youd like to come with me. 7.4. Past Simple and Past Continuous If you want to contrast a situation with an event that happened just after that situation existed, you use the Past Continuous to describe the first situation. Then you use the Simple Past to describe and draw attention to the event which occurred after it: I was walking on the deck when I saw the plane on fire. The Past Continuous is the longer, background action (was walking), and the Past Simple is the shorter, complete action (saw). In this case the sentences are usually connected by when. When one complete action followed another, we use the Past Simple for both: He got up when the alarm rang. We can use when, while or as with the past continuous to mean during the time that something was happening. But if we mean at the time that then we only use when with the past simple. 7.5. Past Simple and Present Perfect Simple A. The choice depends on whether the speaker sees the action as related to the present or as in the past: The pump has broken. (We have no device to pump the fuel.) The pump broke last week. Then the mechanic repaired it. B. When we use the Present Perfect for a state, it means that the state still exists. If the state is over, we use the past: Ive had these tools for ten years. (I still have them.) I had those tools for ten years. (I dont have them now.) Ive been here since three oclock. (I still am.) I was there from three to five. (Then I left.)

Fire Fighting; Past simple & Past Continuous 131 C. When we use the Present Perfect for repeated actions, it means that the action may happen again. The Past Simple means that the series of actions is over. He has built about ten boats. (He still works and can build more.) He built ten boats. (He died or he doesnt work any more.) D. The Present Perfect is used to give the fact and the Past Simple for details about the time and the place: There has been a disaster on the Mediterranean coast. It happened at ten hundred near Spain when a tanker collided with a bulk carrier. We also use Present Perfect to mention a topic and then give details with Past Perfect: Ive just been on holiday. Where did you go? Have you sent in an application? Yes, I sent it ages ago. E. Adverbials of time used with the Present Perfect and Past Simple Some adverbials used with both forms are: just, recently, already, once/twice etc., ever/never, today, this morning/week etc. a. We can use today and this. with the present perfect when they include the present time. When the period is over we use the past simple: It has been windy this morning. (The morning is not over.) It was windy this morning. (It is afternoon or evening.) b. Once, twice, three times etc with the present perfect means the number of times the action has happened up to now: This is the fifth time the fire alarm has rung today. With the simple past once usually means at a time in the past: The fire alarm rang once. 7.6. Vocabulary audio/visual fire-warning device = dispozitive audio/video de prevenire a incendiilor combustible liquid = lichid inflamabil dry chemical powder = substane chimice praf electrical equipment = echipament electric engine control room = control camera mainii fire control panel = pupitru de control incendii fire equipment = echipamente/instalaie de incendiu fire extinguisher = stingtor Fire Station = punct de lupt mpotriva incendiului fire team = echipa de lupt mpotriva incendiului fire-fighting = lupta mpotriva incendiilor

132 English for Marine Engineering fire-fighting team = echip de stins incendii fire-sensitive area = zon predispus la incendii flame detector = detector de flcri foam fire extinguisher = stingtor cu spum foam monitor = monitor cu spum heat detector = detector de cldur live electrical equipment = echipamente electrice sub tensiune muster = a se aduna powder fire extinguisher = stingtor cu substane chimice uscate put out = a stinge rescue = a salva smoke detector = detector de fum sound the alarm = a da alarma sprinkler system = sistem de stropire

water fire extinguisher = stingtor cu ap


7.7. Grammar Practice 7.7.1. Grammar Practice Past Simple Exercise I Put in was/ were or wasnt/ werent 1. We werent happy with the hotel. Our room was very small and it wasnt very clean. 2. George.at work last week because he.ill. Hes better now. 3. Yesterdaya public holiday so the shops.closed. 4. .Sue and Bill at the party? Sue.there but Bill.. 5. Where are my keys? I dont know. Theyon the table but theyre not there now. 6. You.at home last night. Whereyou? Exercise II. Put the words in the correct order to form questions. 1 late/ you/ this morning/ were/ why? Why were you late this morning? 2. difficult/ your/ exam/ was? 3. last week/ Ann and Chris/ were/ where? 4. our new camera/ how much/ was? 5. angry/ you/ yesterday/ why/ were? 6. nice/ the weather/ last week/ was? Exercise III. Write the past simple of these words. 1. getgot 2. see 3. play

Fire Fighting; Past simple & Past Continuous 133 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. pay visit buy go think copy know put speak

Exercise IV. Read about Lisas journey to Madrid. Put the verbs in the correct form. Last Tuesday Lisa (1) (fly) flew from London to Madrid. She (2) (get).up at six oclock in the morning and (3) (have) a cup of coffee. At 6.30 she (4) (leave) home and (5) (drive) to the airport. When she (6) (arrive), she (7) (park) the car and then (8) (go) to the airport caf where she (9) (have) breakfast. Then she (10) (go) through passport control and (11) (wait) for her flight. The plane (12) (depart) on time and (13) (arrive) in Madrid Finally she (14) (take) a taxi from the airport to her hotel in the centre of Madrid. Exercise V. Put the verb in the correct form-positive, negative or question. 1. We went to the cinema but the film wasnt very good. We didnt enjoy it. (enjoy) 2. Tim..some new clothes yesterday-two shirts, a jacket and a pullover. (buy) 3. ..yesterday? No, it was a nice day. (rain) 4. The party wasnt very good, so welong. (stay) 5. It was very warm in the room,, so I..a window. (open) 6. Did you go to the bank this morning? No, I.time. (have) 7. I cut my hand this morning. How..that? (do) 7.7.2. Grammar Practice Past Simple and Past Continuous Exercise VI. Where were these people at 3 oclock yesterday afternoon/ And what were they doing? Use the cues below and write two sentences. 1. Ann/ home/ watch TV..Ann was at home. She was watching TV 2. Carol and Jack/ the cinema/ watch a film. 3. Tom/ his car/ drive. 4. Catherine/ the station/ wait for a train. 5. Mr. and Mrs. Hall/ the park/ walking. Exercise VII. Put the verb into the past continuous or past simple

134 English for Marine Engineering 1. A: What were you doing (you/ do) when the phone rang (ring)? B: I was watching (watch) television. 2. A: Was Jane busy when you went to see her? B: Yes, she.(study) 3. A: What time.(the post/ arrive) this morning? B: It.(come) while I(have) breakfast. 4. A: Was Margaret at work today? B: No, she(not/ go) to work. She was ill 5. A: How fast..(you/ drive) when the police.(stop) you? B: I dont know exactly but I..(not/ drive) very fast. 6. A: .(your team/win) the football match yesterday? B: No, the weather was very bad, so we..(not play) 7. A: How..(you/ break ) the window/ B: We..(play) football. I..(kick) the ball and it..(hit) the window. 8. A: (you/ see)Jenny last night? B: Yes, she(wear) a very nice jacket. 9. A: What..(you/ do) at 2 oclock this morning? B: I was asleep. 10. A: I.(lose) my key last night. B: How..(you/ get) into your room? A: I(climb) in through a window. Exercise VIII. Choose the correct form of the verbs. Thomas Edison (1) started/ was starting work on the railway when he was twelve, selling newspapers and snacks. There were long periods with nothing for him to do so he (2) build/ was building himself a little laboratory in the luggage van where he could carry out experiments when he (3) didnt/ wasnt selling things to passengers. Another way that he (4) occupied/ was occupying himself was by reading. He joined a library and (5) read was reading every single book in it. One day, when he (6) waited/ was waiting at a station he (7) noticed/ was noticing a small boy who (8) played/ was playing by the track, unaware that a train (9) approached/ was approaching. Edison (10) ran/ was running out and (110 grabbed/ was grabbing the child just in time. The childs father was so grateful that he (12) offered/ was offering to teach Edison to be a telegraph operator. Edison accepted the offer and soon he (13) had/ was having regular lessons. After a year, he was good enough to get a job in the telegraph office. He continued to read and experiment, whenever he (14) had/ was having time. At twenty-one he (15) left/ was leaving the telegraph office to devote all his time to being an inventor. He (16) went/ was going on to invent the electric light bulb, the phonograph and the movie camera. Exercise IX. Complete the description of the life of a musician, using the verbs given. Use either the past simple or the past continuous.

Fire Fighting; Past simple & Past Continuous 135 Colin Boyle was born in 1973 near Dublin, Ireland. In 1983 he became seriously ill. While he (1) was recovering (recover) his uncle (2) gave (give) him an old violin. He enjoyed playing and practiced at school every day after lessons. One day in 1987, John Leaf, the manager of several successful musicians, (3),,,,,,,,,(have) a meeting with the headmaster when he (4)(hear) Colin practicing. He immediately (5)..(contact) Colins teacher and (6)..(invite) Colin to appear in one of the concerts he (7)(organize) that year. Colin, however, (8)..(refuse) Leafs invitation, because just then he(9).(prepare) for some important school exams. Colin (10).(pass) his exams and (11).(go) to college to study engineering. At college he (12)..(meet) Kim OMalley, who (13).(study) chemistry. Kim was also a keen amateur musician. Being students, they rarely (140..(have) much money and they usually (15)..(work) as waiters at weekends. One evening in April 1992, while Colin and Kim (16).(serve) customers, the manager (17)(announce) that there would be no live music in the restaurant that night as regular band could not come. Colin and Kim (180.(persuade) him to let them play to the customers. Everyone (19)(be) amazed to hear how good they (20)(be).Six months later they (21)..(decide) to leave college because they (22).(earn) so much money as musicians. Their success has continued ever since. Exercise X. Choose the correct form of the verbs. ADAM: Hello, Mike. What (1) are you doing/ do you do in this part of London? MIKE: Well, actually, (2) Im looking/ I look at flats around here. ADAM: Flats? (3) Are you wanting/ Do you want to move? MIKE: Yes, in fact, believe it or not, Mandy and I (4) are getting/ get married. ADAM: Thats great! Congratulations. When (5) were you deciding/ did you decide? MIKE: Only last week. It was while we (6) were staying/ stayed with her family in Scotland. Now (7) we try/ were trying to find a suitable flat. ADAM: Itll be great to have you as neighbours. I hope you manage to buy one soon. MIKE; Oh we (8) arent looking/ dont look for one to buy. We (9) arent having/ dont have enough money yet. (10) Were wanting/ We want to find somewhere to rent. ADAM: Yes, of course. Thats what we (11) did/ were doing at first. Actually, in the end, my brother (12) was lending/ lent us some money. Thats how we (13) were managing/ managed to buy ours. MIKE: Really? Perhaps Ill talk to my family before (14) we choose/ were choosing a flat. ADAM: Thats not a bad idea. My family (15) gave/ were giving us quite a lot of helpful advice. Now, what about a coffee? Theres a good place just round the corner. MIKE: Oh, yes, I (16) looked/ was looking for somewhere to sit down when I bumped into you. Lets go.

136 English for Marine Engineering 7.7.3. Grammar Practice Present Perfect Simple and Continuous, and Simple Past

I. Rewrite each of the following sentences without changing the meaning, beginning in the way shown. You may need to use the present perfect or the simple past.
1. We havent been to a concert for over a year. The last time ..we went to a concert was over a year ago. 2. Your birthday party was the last time I really enjoyed myself. I. 3. Its nearly twenty years since my father saw his brother. My father. 4. James went to Scotland last Friday and is still there. James has. 5. When did you last ride a bike? How long is it .? 6. The last time I went swimming was when we were in Spain. I havent . 7. You havent tidied this room for weeks. Its .. II Are the underlined parts of these sentences right or wrong? Correct the ones that are wrong. 1. Do you know about Sue? Shes given up her job. RIGHT 2. The Chinese have invented printing. WRONG: The Chinese invented 3. How many plays has Shakespeare written? 4. Have you read any of Shakespeares plays? 5. Aristotle has been a Greek philosopher. 6. Ow! Ive cut my finger. Its bleeding. 7. My grandparents have got married in London. 8. Where have you been born? 9. Mary isnt at home. Shes gone shopping.

10. Albert Einstein has been the scientist who has developed the theory of relativity.
7.8. Answer Key The Past tense Simple and Continuous Exercise I. Put in was/ were or wasnt/ werent 2. wasntwas 3.was.were 4. Werewaswasnt 5. were 6. werentwere Exercise II. Put the words in the correct order to form questions 2. Was your exam difficult? 3. Where were Ann and Chris last week?

Fire Fighting; Past simple & Past Continuous 137 4. How much was your new camera? 5. Why were you angry yesterday? 6. Was the weather nice last week? Exercise III. Write the past simple of these verbs

2. saw 3. played 4. paid 5. visited 6. bought 7. went 8. thought 9. copied 10. knew 11. put 12 spoke
Exercise IV. Read about Lisas journey to Madrid. Put the verbs in the correct form. 2. got 3.had 4. left 5. drove 6. arrived 7. parked 8. went 9. had 10 went 11 waited 12 departed 13. arrived 14. Took Exercise V. Put the verb in the correct form-positive, negative or question. 2. bought 3. did it rain 4. didnt stay 5. opened 6. didnt 7. did you do Exercise VI. 2. Carol and Jack were at the cinema. They were watching a film. 3. Tom was in his car. He was driving 4. Catherine was at the station. She was waiting for a train. 5. Mr. and Mrs. Hall were in the park. They were walking. Exercise VII. 2. was studying 3. did the post arrivecame.was having 4. didnt go 5. were you drivingstoppedwasnt driving 6. did your team windidnt play 7. did you break the windowwere playingkickedhit 8. Did you seewas wearing 9. were you doing 10 lostdid you getclimbed. Exercise VIII. 2. built 3. wasnt selling 4. occupied 5. read 6. was waiting 7. notice 8. was playing 9. was approaching 10 ran 11 grabbed 12 offered 13 was having 14 had 15 left 16 went Exercise IX. 3. was having 4. heard 5. contacted 6. invited 7. was organizing/organized 8. refused 9 was preparing 10. passed 11. went 12 met 13. was studying 14. had 15. worked 16 were serving 17. announced 18. persuaded 19. was 20. were 21 decided 22. were earning/ earned Exercise X. 3. Do you want 4. are getting 5. did you decide 6. were staying 7. were trying 8. arent looking 9. dont have 10.We want 11. did 12. lent 13. managed 14. we choose 15. gave 16 was looking

138 English for Marine Engineering 7.9. Test Paper 1. Translate the text into English: Exist cteva tipuri de extinctoare adecvate pentru diferite tipuri de incendii. Extinctorul cu ap este folosit pentru a stinge incendiile la textile, lemn, hrtie, etc. nu folosii niciodat extinctorul cu ap pentru echipament electric sub tensiune. Extinctorul cu spum se folosete pentru stingerea incendiilor provocate de lichide inflamabile. Extinctoarele cu substane chimice uscate sunt folosite n special la echipamentele electricedar pot fi folosite n lupta mpotriva incendiilor produse la lichide inflamabile i metale uoare. 40 p. 2. Translate the following words and phrases into Romanian: general emergency alarm, life-jacket, Muster Station, fire-extinguishing alarm, watertight door-closing alarm, warning signal, power failure, rescue-boat crew, PA system, power-operated door. 10 p. 3. Put the verb in brackets in the correct tense Past Simple or Past Continuous: a. Last year I _____________(go) to Greece for my holidays. b. I __________ (decide) to fly because it is much quicker than going overland. c. On the morning I left London, it ____ (rain), but when I _____ (step) off the plane in Greece, it was a beautiful day. The sun______ (shine), and a cool wind ____ (blow) from the sea. d. I _____ (take) a taxi to my hotel. As I ______(sign) the register, someone______ (tap) me on the shoulder. It was a friend I hadnt seen for years. He _________ (stay) at the same hotel. 20 p. 4. Put the verb in brackets in the correct tense Past Simple or Present Perfect Simple: Carlos a. _____ (come) to London before Christmas. When he b______ (arrive), he c_______ (go) to stay with some friends. He d_____ (be) in London for several months, and hes going to stay until the autumn. A: Im looking for Susan. e_________ you ________ (see) her? B: I f_____ (see) her yesterday, but not today. g______ you _______ (look) in the coffee bar? A: Yes. I h_________ (go) there before I i_________ (ask) you. A: John, you know I j_____ (borrow) your bicycle last night. Well, Im afraid I k____ (lose) it. B: Thats awful! Where l______ you ______ (go)? What time m______ it ______ (happen)? A: Well, I n__________ (leave) your house at 8.00, went home and o________ (chain) it outside my house. Someone must have taken it during the night. I p________ (phone) the police, and theyre coming soon. 20 p.

Fire Fighting; Past simple & Past Continuous 139 5. Put the verb in brackets in the correct tense Present Perfect Continuous or Present Perfect Simple: a. Im exhusted. I _________ (work) all day, and I __________ (not finish) yet. b. I ________ (visit) many countries in the last five years. c. Someone _______ (take) my books. I _______ (look) for them for ages but I cant find them. d. I _________ (shop) all morning, but I _______ (not buy) anything yet. e. A: Youre filthy! What ______ you _______ (do)? B: I ________ (work) in the garden. I ________ (plant) all the vegetables for next year. 10 p. 7.10. Answer key Test Paper Exercises 1 and 2 are in the lesson. Exercise 3. a went b decided c was raining, stepped, was shining, was blowing d. took, was signing, tapped, was staying Exercise 4. a came, b arrived, c went, d has been, e Have you seen, f saw, g have you looked, h went, i asked, j borrowed, k lost, l did you go, m did it happen, n left, o chained, p phoned Exercise 5. a have been working, havent finished, b have visited, c has taken, have been looking, d have been shopping, havent bought, e have you been doing, have been working, have planted

Curs 8 Medical Care Past Perfect Simple and Past Perfect Continuous I. Unitatea ofer noiuni n legtur cu sigurana echipajului n caz de avarie sau incendiu conform regulamentelor IMO, care se studiaz n anul I. Sunt enumerate modalitile n care se d alarma la bord n caz de avarie sau incendiu. Sunt expuse modalitile de acordare a primului ajutor. Partea de gramatic ofer informaii amnunite despre alte dou timpuri trecute: Past Perfect Simple and Past Perfect Continuous. Cele dou

timpuri perfecte sunt discutate prin contrast i comparaie cu celelalte timpuri trecute i prezente studiate.
II. Obiective: 1 Memorising the vocabulary in the unit, in English and making connections with the Romanian terms. 2. Understanding and practicing the grammar tenses: Past Perfect Simple and Past Perfect Continuous. 3. Discriminating between Past Perfect Simple and Past Perfect Continuous. 4. Learning how to use the dictionary for the unknown words from the specialty text, tables and exercises. 5. Checking the knowledge through self-evaluation tests from the end of unit 8. 8.1. Medical care and man overboard 8.1.1. Medical care All crewmembers including yourself, should be prepared to administer First Aid. First Aid is the emergency treatment given to an ill or injured person before proper medical assistance can be obtained. It is given to prevent death or further injury, to counter shock and to relieve pain. On finding casualty you should: 1. Look out for your own safety; 2. If necessary, remove the casualty from the danger or the danger from the casualty; 3. Raise the alarm and send for help; 4. Start giving appropriate treatment. Be aware of the dangers in enclosed spaces. You must assume that the environment is hostile. The Rescue team must wear breathing apparatus when entering enclosed spaces. At a scene of an accident involving casualties you should: Get a general view of the situation; Restore breathing and heart beat; Control bleeding; Remove poisons;

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Prevent further injury to the patient; Prevent shock.

Certain conditions, such as severe bleeding or asphyxiation, require immediate treatment if the patient is to survive. Even a few seconds delay may mean the difference between life and death. First-aid kits are available at several places around the ship. All officers on board are trained in first aid and medical care. One officer is responsible for medical care on board. He will be responsible for the patient upon his arrival on the scene. Many ships have special sickbays to treat those who have been injured or are ill. In sickbay there are cabinets and a refrigerator to provide separate storage of the medicines needed on board. Whenever necessary a ship can get hold of medical advice from a doctor. In an emergency situation the ship can reach a doctor on alert any time around the clock via Radio Medical. To be able to act in the right way, you must be well trained. Therefore, take part in special first-aid training whenever you have the opportunity. 8.1.2. Man overboard If someone falls overboard, immediate action is necessary: 1. Shout out: Man overboard; 2. Throw out the nearest lifebuoy; 3. Inform the bridge immediately. Make sure that the watch-keeping officer gets the message Man overboard. The watchkeeping officer will act immediately: a) Manoeuvre the ship so that the person who has fallen overboard can be rescued in the shortest possible time. b) Send out a distress message to other ships in the area and the closest Rescue Centre so that they act in a search-andrescue operation if necessary. c) Alert the ships rescue boat and prepare for bringing the person who has gone overboard back on board again. Try to keep the person that has gone overboard in sight. The ship will be manoeuvred into a position to provide shelter during the rescue. A rescue boat will be sent out to pick up the person that has gone overboard. After the rescue the person that went overboard must be treated very carefully and observed continuously until recover. 8.2. Past Perfect Simple Past Perfect Simple is formed with the auxiliary verb had + verb in past participle (the third form or verb + ed). The forms for affirmative, interrogative and negative are similar to those in Present Perfect Simple with the difference that the auxiliary has the past form. In speech and informal writing had is contracted to d. They were very tired because they had worked hard.

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Theyd repaired the motors the previous day so they worked very well. Use of Past Perfect Simple If you want to talk about a past event or situation that occurred before a particular time in the past, you use past perfect simple: By midnight the gas had spread through the cabins. He had previously worked on a tanker for ten years. It may not be necessary to use the past perfect if we use before or after to make the time clear: He left/had left the engine room before we entered. The past perfect is often used with verbs of thinking in the past like: know, realize, remember, be sure, think: I thought we had already chosen the name for the new yacht. The time expressions after, once, by, already, just, never, meanwhile are often used with the past perfect. The word still is often used with negative forms. The past perfect is common in reported speech after past verbs like said, told, asked, explained etc. It is used instead of several tenses in the direct speech: present perfect, past simple or past perfect, according to the meaning: I told them I had done enough work for today. (indirect speech) I have done enough work for today. (direct speech) I thought I had sent the cheque a week before. (indirect speech) I sent the cheque last week. (direct speech) The past perfect is used in conditional sentences after if, and all the words with the same meaning, referring to past actions or events that didnt happen: If the mechanic had repaired the pump, we wouldnt have had to do this overhaul. It is also used after wish, and would rather denoting a past action: I wish I had said I wasnt good at automation. 8.3. Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous is formed with the auxiliary had + been + verb-ing. The interrogative and negative is formed in a similar way to Present Perfect Continuous, with the difference that had is used instead of have: He was tired because he had been working all day. Had you been waiting long when I came? He hadnt been waiting long when the message arrived. Use of past perfect continuous:

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a. To emphasize the recentness and the duration of a continuous activity which took place before a particular time in the past: Until now the rumors that had been circulating were exaggerated versions of the truth. b. If you want to say that something was expected, wished for, or intended before a particular time in the past, you use the past perfect or the past perfect continuous: It was the remains of a ten-rupee note, which he had hoped would last till the end of the week. I had been expecting some miraculous obvious change. 8.4. Past Simple and Past Perfect Simple a. If we talk about one action in the past, or about an action that comes straight after another, we use Past Simple. To say that someone finished one action and then did something else, we use Past Perfect Simple: When the man fell overboard, everyone tried to save him. When/After he had written the message, he went to the bridge to send it. b. Sometimes the choice of Past Simple or Past Perfect Simple can make a difference to the meaning: When he arrived the fire-fighting training began. (immediately after he arrived) When he arrived the fire-fighting training had begun. (The training began before he arrived.) 8.5. Past Perfect Simple versus Past Perfect Continuous The past perfect continuous focuses on the action going on while past perfect simple focuses on the result of the action: Period of time: Id been lubricating the moving parts all day long. I was tired. Complete action: I had lubricated the mechanisms. The engine worked. When we say how long, we normally use the continuous form. When we say how many, we do not use the continuous: The volunteers brought in their collecting boxes at lunchtime yesterday. They had been collecting money all morning. They had collected hundreds of pounds. 8.6. Past Perfect Continuous versus Present Perfect Continuous Past perfect continuous can be considered the past of the present perfect continuous: Present: How long have you been waiting? (until now) Past: How long had you been waiting when the Captain finally came?

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Both tenses have to have a certain point in time to refer to, so while present perfect continuous has as reference the moment of speaking (now), past perfect continuous should be connected to a past moment. 8.7. Vocabulary around the clock = continuu, nonstop asphyxiation = asfixiere bleeding = sngerare breathing = respiraie breathing apparatus = aparat de oxigen crewmember = membru al echipajului distress message = mesaj de sinistru, mesaj de pericol i ajutor enclosed spaces = spaii nchise environment = mediu fall overboard = a cdea peste bord first aid = prim ajutor first-aid kit = trus de prim ajutor first-aid training = antrenament de prim ajutor in sight = la vedere lifebuoy = colac de salvare manuvre = a manevra, manevr rescue boat = barc de salvare Rescue Centre = centru de salvare rescue team = echip de salvare search-andrescue operation = operaiune de cutare i salvare shelter = adpost shout out = a striga, a ipa sickbay = infirmerie storage = stocare throw out = a arunca (peste bord) watch-keeping officer = ofier de cart 8.8. Grammar Practice Past Perfect Simple And Continuous Exercise I. Underline all the 3rd forms of the verb in the following passage. The old man looked at the broken tree. There was sadness in his eyes. There had been a very bad storm during the night. The wind had almost blown the tree down. Branches lay around, the white wood like open wounds without the blood. He thought back to the day when he had planted it.......many years ago. The tree had grown taller year by year until it had reached almost as high as the roof. He remembered the day his son had climbed up and hidden in the branches and wouldnt come down. He remembered how the war had come and taken his wife and son from him. The house had burnt down. But the tree had

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survived. It had reminded him of all those other things. Until last night. What could an old man do now? Now write the words you have underlined. 1................................. 7.................................. 2................................. 8.................................. 3................................. 9.................................. 4................................. 10................................... 5................................. 11................................... 6................................. 12................................... Exercise II. Complete these situations. Number 1 is done for you. 1. I was nervous as I sat in the car waiting for my driving instructor. (drive) I had never driven before. 2. I was terrified as we waited for the plane. (fly) ............................................. 3. My knees were knocking as I stood up at the wedding. (give a speech) ............................................. 4. When I reached the top of the ski lift, I wanted to die. (ski) ............................................. 5. As I changed into my tennis things, I wished Id never agreed to be Martins partner. (play tennis) ............................................. 6. If only I had refused to go to the choir practice! (sing in public) ............................................. Exercise III. Supply reasonable previous cases in the past for these consequences, results, effects or interest. Use the Past Perfect and try to find more than one previous cause for each sentence. EXAMPLE: She knew how to bake a cake because (a) her mother had taught her. (b) she had learned at school. (c) she had read about it in a book. Use as and because as links where necessary. 1. He gave his horse a lump of sugar 2. She asked me to repeat my name 3. We asked her to sing the song again 4. They called the boy Moses 5. Father tipped the waiter very well 6. The man was out of breath 7. I sent my watch to the watchmakers 8. Our visitor was very tired 9. It was very cold outside in the garden

Medical Care; Past Perfect Simple and Continuous 147

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

We gave the patient first aid We didnt meet yesterday after all I couldnt eat the food at lunchtime Peter didnt know the answer to the question John looked very smart at his sisters wedding The tramp had a three days beard The president arrived half an hour late We called a doctor Peter wasnt very happy when we met him The Colonel had great experience of men The children were late for school

Exercise IV. Supply the Simple Past for the effect, consequence, result or interest and the Past Perfect for the previous cause. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. They (spend) all their money and (not know) where to find any more. We (finish) our work so we (sit) down to talk. The sky (be) black for some time before the rain (begin) to fall. I (give) you the work to do again because you (do)it badly. When I (thank) my hostess I (leave) the house and (go) home. Yesterday my wife (tell) me about a beautiful hat she (see) a few days earlier. Dr. Brown (just return) so they (give) him the message. One of his patients (break) his leg and (need) a doctor at once. The doctor (hope) for a quiet night. He (feel) disappointed. After the children (go) to bed the house (be) very quiet. They always (live) in a small village and (not understand) the city people. I (cant) read because I (forget) to fetch my glasses. Peter (have) dinner in town that evening as his wife (go) to visit her mother. We (never be) in Athens before so we (want) to see the sights. The child (lose) his money so he (cannot buy) sweets.

Exercise V. Supply the Simple Past to show cause and immediate effect or the Past Perfect to show previous cause. The Simple past expresses the later consequence. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. He (press) the switch and the engine (start). Peter (forget) to fill up with petrol so his car (stop) just outside the garage. We (not eat) much for breakfast so we (feel) hungry at lunchtime. John (not arrive) by seven thirty, so Mary (go) to the cinema alone. Mr. Smith (misunderstand) the question because he (not hear) it well. Professor Smith (heat) a metal bar and it (expand). His firm (give) him a better position last year because he (earn) it. As we (miss) the express from London we (travel) on a slow train. Our host (introduce) me to Mrs. Brown whom I (not meet) before.

148 English for Marine Engineering

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

Peter (sunbathe) too long and (get) blisters on his back. Mary (not be) abroad before so everything (seem) strange to her. he (refuse) to see me because I (not write) for an appointment? She (not go) out in the rain because she (not have) an umbrella. he (become) angry when you (accuse) him for stealing? As we (not have) notice of the generals arrival, naturally we (not expect) him. Something heavy (strike) me on the head and (knock) me out. she (find out) for herself or someone (tell) her? We (wake up) late because the alarm clock (not ring). The policeman (put) up his hand and the traffic (stop). Susans dinner (go) cold so Alan (warm) it up for her.

Exercise VI. Translate into English using one of the following tenses: Past Simple; Past Continuous; Past Perfect Simple and Past Perfect Continuous 1. Vntul se mai domolise iar luna strlucea deasupra mrii linitite. 2. Telefonul sun, n timp ce domnioara Marple se mbrca. 3. O auzi cum ofteaz n timp ce el citea. 4. Ultima dat l-am vzut acum zece ani. 5. Ca elev era un biat timid i srguincios. 6. Deschise sertarul, scoase un plic vechi i se aez n fotoliu, examinndu-l atent. 7. n zilele acelea venea s m vad n mod regulat i de fiecare dat mi aducea un mic dar. 8. Mereu m suna noaptea trziu. 9. Cnd predam la coala aceea, m lua n fiecare diminea cu maina. 10. Ce s-a ntmplt dup ce a plecat? 11. De trei ani locuia n satul acela mic de lng grani. 12. l ateptam de o or, cnd telefonul sun i o voce ciudat mi spuse c Richard a avut un accident. 13. Primise florile cu o or n urm, dar era nc foarte emoionat. 14. Ce fcuse oare n tot acest timp? 15. Despre ce vorbeau cnd i-ai ntlnit?

8.9. Answer Key: Past Perfect Simple and Continuous Exercise I.1. been 2 blown 3 planted 4 grown 5 reached 6 climbed 7 hidden 8 come 9 taken 10 burnt 11 survived 12 reminded Exercise II. 1. I had never driven before. 2. I had never flown before. 3. I had never given a speech before.

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4. I had never skied before. 5. I hadnt played tennis before. 6. I had never sung in public before. Exercise III. A variety of previous causes may be produced for each item e.g. 1. because it had jumped so well/ because it had a fright/ as it had always liked sugar 2. because she hadnt heard it well/ because I hadnt spoken clearly/ because she had never heard such a name before/as she had forgotten to write it down Exercise IV. 1. had spent....did not know 2. had finished.....sat 3. had been....began 4. gave.....had gone 5. had thanked....left....went 6. told....had seen 7. had just returned....gave 8. had broken......needed 9. had hoped....felt 10. had gone....was 11. had always lived....did not understand 12. could not....had forgotten 13. had....had gone 14. had never been....wanted 15. had lost....could not buy Exercise V. 1. pressed....started 2. had forgotten....stopped 3. had not eaten....felt 4. had no arrived....went 5. misunderstood....had not heard 6. heated....expanded 7. gave.....had earned 8. had missed....travelled 9. introduced.....had not met 10. sunbathed....got 11. had not seen....seemed 12. Did he refused.....had not written 13. did he go.....did not have 14. Did he become .....accused 15. had no had......did not expect 16. struck.....knocked 17. Did she find out....did someone tell /had someone told. 18. woke up.....had not rung 19. put.....stopped 20. had gone out....warmed. Exercise VI. 1. The wind had fallen and the moon was shining over the quiet sea. 2. The phone rang when Miss Marple was dressing. 3. He heard her sigh as he was reading for her. 4. She last saw him ten years ago. 5. As a pupil he was a timid hard-working boy. 6. He pulled the drawer open, took out an old envelope and sat down in the armchair inspecting it closely. 7. In those days he came to see me regularly and every time he brought me a small present. 8. He was always ringing me up late at night. 9. When I taught at that school he gave me a lift every morning. 10. What happened after he had left? 11. He had been living/had lived for three years in that small village near the border. 12. I had been waiting for him for an hour when the phone rang and a strange voice told me that Richard had had an accident. 13. She had got the flowers an hour before but she was still very excited. 14. Whatever had he been doing all that time? 15. What were they talking about when you met them?

150 English for Marine Engineering

8.10. Test Paper 2 Term


VOCABULARY

1. The of the ship has the overall responsibility of the ship and all who sail in her. a. chief engineer b. master c. chief officer d. bosun 2. The .is responsible for all the technical parts of the ship including main engine, auxiliary machinery, electrical and electronic systems. a. chief engineer b. master c. chief officer d. bosun 3. The is leading hands on deck. a. chief engineer b. master c. chief officer d. bosun

4. The engine do all the daily work and maintenance in the engine room. a. masters b. bosuns c. ratings d. crews 5. Three of the following are ways of protecting against fire. Find the one which is not. a. smoke detectors b. fire-proof materials c. smoking restrictions d. accommodation spaces 6. The fire-fighting systems using Halon and CO2 are found in the engine room and other machinery spaces. a. water b. foam c. powder d. fixed 7. The fire extinguishers are used mainly to extinguish fires in electrical equipment. a. water b. foam c. powder d. fixed 8. The fire extinguisher is used to put out fires in textiles, wood, paper etc. a. water b. foam c. powder d. fixed 9. The fire extinguisher is used to extinguish fire in combustible liquids like oil. a. water b. foam c. powder d. fixed 10. If someone falls overboard three immediate actions should be taken. Which is the odd one? a. shout out b. inform the bridge c. throw a life-buoy d. inform the engine room

Medical Care; Past Perfect Simple and Continuous 151

GRAMMAR 11. At the moment she a uniform for herself. a. makes b. is making c. has made 12. The sun in the east. a. rises b. is rising 13. Hes a vegetarian, so he . meat. a. dont eat b. isnt eating 14. What you like doing on holiday? a. do b. is c. has risen c. doesnt eat c. does

d. made d. rose d. arent eating d. are d. goes d. broke d. felt d. had done d. Have you

15. Last year I to Greece for my holiday. a. go b. went c. gone 16. What is the past tense of the verb to break? a. brake b. braked c. broken 17. What is the past tense of the verb to fall? a. falled b. fallen c. fell 18. I my homework at this time yesterday. a. was doing b. did c. have done 19. Im looking for the Chief Engineer. . him? a. Did you see b. Do you see c. Had you seen seen

20. I for the past ten minutes. Why dont you answer the door? a. have knocked b. has knocked c. have been knocking d. had been knocking 21. He the novel before he saw the film. a. has read b. read c. was reading 22. When I saw them, the boys football for three hours. a. had been playing b. has been plying c. had played 23. Im watching but I anything unusual. a. dont see b. am not seeing c. didnt see seeing d. had read d. has played d. havent

152 English for Marine Engineering

24. I havent been on a ship May. a. for b. just

c. since

d. ever d. has broken d. had repaired d. see d. are

25. This is the third time the engine this month. a. is breaking b. had broken c. was breaking 26. I was writing my paper while he his computer. a. repaired b. was repairing c. has repaired 27. I was walking on the deck when I the hatch on fire. a. saw b. was seeing c. has seen 28. They were very tired because they hard. a. work b. has worked working 29. How long when the Captain finally came? a. did you wait b. has you waited you been waiting 30. The superlative of good is a. goodest b. better 31. The comparative of bad is a. worse b. worst 32. He works on the ship in the fleet. a. most big b. biggest 33. I need information. a. furthest b. farest 34. He is the student in the class. a. laziest b. lazyest c. best c. bader c. bigest c. further c. lazyer c. had worked

c. do you wait

d. had

d. bestest d. badest d. more big d. farer d. lazier d. few d. are

35. She earns money than her sister does. a. little b. least c. less 36. What time you go to bed last night/ a. have b. were c. did

Medical Care; Past Perfect Simple and Continuous 153

37. Three of these verbs have the same form for infinitive, past tense and past participle. Which one does not? a. bet b. cast c. get d. set 38. Three of these verbs have the same form for past tense and past participle. Which one is different? a. dream b. lean c. leap d. tear 39. Three of these verbs have the same form for past tense and past participle. Which one is different? a. slide b. breed c. ride d. feed 40. Three of these verbs have the same form for past tense and past participle. Which one is different? a. see b. speed c. flee d. bleed 41. The adverb formed from the adjective automatic is a. automatic b. automatical c. automaticaly 42. The adverb formed from the adjective probable is a. probable b probability c. probably 43. How are you feeling today? better, thank you. a. More b. Much c. Very d automatically d. probablly d. Many

READING AND VOCABULARY Last year, losses from shops through shoplifting and theft by staff 44 to over $1 billion. There are many 45 for shopkeepers themselves to reduce shoplifting. As with all types of crime, prevention is better than 46 The best deterrent is the 47 of staff properly trained in how to identify potential shoplifters. There are also many security 48 now available. In clothes shops magnetic tag marking systems that set off an alarm have provided their 49 However there are many 50 measures that retailers should consider. 44. a. amounted b. accumulated c. went d. added 45. a. opportunities b. schemes c. ides d. occasions 46. a. remedy b. loss c. cure d. conviction 47. a. knowledge b. presence c. number d. importance 48. a. devices b. methods c. tricks d. machines 49. a. reliability b. worth c. valuation d. identity 50. a. better b. easier c. simpler d. bigger

154 English for Marine Engineering

Answer Key to Self test 1-b, 2-a, 3-d, 4-c, 5-d, 6-d, 7-c, 8-a, 9-b, 10-d, 11-b, 12-a, 13-c, 14-a, 15-b, 16-d, 17-c, 18-a, 19-d, 20-c, 21-d, 22-a, 23-a, 24-c, 25-d, 26-b, 27-a, 28-c, 29-d, 30-c, 31-a, 32-b, 33-c, 34-a, 35-c, 36-c, 37-c, 38-d, 39-c, 40-a, 41-d, 42-c, 43-b, 44-a, 45-a, 46-c, 47-b, 48-a, 49-b, 50-c

List of irregular verbs 155 LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS arise awake be bear beat become begin bend bet bid bind bite bleed bless blow break breed bring broadcast build burn burst buy cast catch choose cling come cost creep cut deal dig dive do draw dream drink drive dwell eat fall arose awoke was/were bore beat became began bent bet bid bade bound bit bled blest blew broke bred brought broadcast built burnt burst bought cast caught chose clung came cost crept cut dealt dug dove (Am.) did drew dreamt drank drove dwelt ate fell arisen awoken been borne beaten become begun bent bet bid bidden bound bitten bled blest blown broken bred brought broadcast built burnt burst bought cast caught chosen clung come cost crept cut dealt dug dived done drawn dreamt drunk driven dwelt eaten fallen a se ridica a (se) trezi a fi a purta a bate a deveni a ncepe a (se) ndoi a paria a ruga, a adresa (o invitaie) a porunci a lega a muca a sngera a binecuvnta a sufla; a bate a (se) sparge; a (se) defecta a crete, a educa a aduce a emite (radio, TV) a construi a arde a izbucni; a nvli; a crpa a cumpra a arunca a prinde a alege a se aga a veni a costa a se tr; a se furia a tia a trata; a se ocupa de a spa a (se) scufunda, a plonja a face a trage, a desena a visa a bea a conduce, a ofa a locui a mnca a cdea

156 English for marine Engineering feed feel fight find flee fling fly forbid forecast foresee forget forgive freeze get give go grind grow hang have hear hide hit hold hurt keep kneel knit know lay lead lean leap learn leave lend let lie light lose make mean meet mislead mistake fed felt fought found fled flung flew forbade forecast foresaw forgot forgave froze got gave went ground grew hung had heard hid hit held hurt kept knelt knit knew laid led leant leapt learnt left lent let lay lit lost made meant met misled mistook fed felt fought found fled flung flown forbidden forecast foreseen forgotten forgiven frozen got (gotten Am.) given gone ground grown hung had heard hidden hit held hurt kept knelt knit known laid led leant leapt learnt left lent let lain lit lost made meant met misled mistaken a hrni, a alimenta a (se) simi a (se) lupta a gsi a fugi a arunca; a lansa a zbura a interzice a prevedea a prezice a uita a ierta a nghea a primi; a obine; a ajunge a da a merge a mcina, a lefui a crete, a cultiva a atrna a avea a auzi a (se) ascunde a lovi a ine a lovi; a rni; a durea a ine; a pstra a ngenunchea a tricota a ti, a cunoate a pune, a aeza a conduce (oameni) a (se) apleca, a (se) sprijini a sri a nva a pleca, a lsa a da cu mprumut a lsa, a permite a sta ntins; a se afla a aprinde a pierde a face a nsemna a (se) ntlni a induce n eroare a confunda

List of irregular verbs 157 mow overcome pay put read rend rid ride ring rise run saw say see seek sell send set sew shake shear shed shine shoe shoot show shrink shut sing sink sit slay sleep slide sling slit smell sow speak speed spell spend spill spin spit mowed overcame paid put read rent rid rode rang rose ran sawed said saw sought sold sent set sewed shook sheared shed shone shod shot showed shrank shut sang sank sat slew slept slid slung slit smelt sowed spoke sped spelt spent spilt span/spun spat mown overcome paid put read rent rid ridden rung risen run sawn said seen sought sold sent set sown shaken shorn shed shone shod shot shown shrunk shut sung sunk sat slain slept slid slung slit smelt sown spoken sped spelt spent spilt spun spat a cosi a depi a plti a pune a citi a rupe, a sfia a se descotorosi de a clri; a merge cu a suna a rsri, a se ridica a fugi a tia cu ferstrul a spune a vedea a cuta a vinde a trimite a potrivi; a monta; a fixa a coase a scutura; a tremura a tunde oi a vrsa (lacrimi, snge) a strluci a potcovi a trage, a mpuca; a filma a arta a intra la ap, a se strnge a nchide a cnta a (se) scufunda a sta jos a ucide a dormi a aluneca a arunca a despica a mirosi a semna a vorbi a accelera a ortografia a cheltui, a petrece timp a vrsa a se nvrti n jurul axei a scuipa

158 English for marine Engineering split spoil spread spring stand steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear sweep swell swim swing take teach tear tell think throw thrust tread undergo understand undertake wake wear weave wed weep wet win wind withdraw wring write spit split spoilt spread sprang stood stole stuck stung stank/stunk strode struck strung strove swore swept swelled swam swung took taught tore told thought threw thrust trod underwent understood undertook woke wore wove wed wept wet won wound withdrew wrung wrote spit (Am.) split spoilt spread sprung stood stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck strung striven sworn swept swollen swum swung taken taught torn told thought thrown thrust trodden/trod undergone understood undertaken woken worn woven wed wept wet won wound withdrawn wrung written a despica a strica, a rsfa a (se) rspndi a izvor; a (r)sri a sta n picioare a fura a (se) lipi; a nfige a nepa a mirosi urt a merge cu pai mari a lovi a nira a se strdui; a nzui a jura; a njura a mtura a se umfla a nota a (se) legna a lua a nva (pe cineva) a rupe, a sfia a spune (cuiva), a povesti a (se) gndi; a crede a arunca a nfige a clca, a pi a suferi (schimbri) a nelege a ntreprinde a (se) trezi a purta a ese a se cununa a plnge a (se) uda a ctiga a rsuci; a erpui a (se) retrage a stoarce; a rsuci a scrie

160 English for marine Engineering BIBLIOGRAPHY ALEXANDER, L.G. Longman English Grammar, `Longman Group UK Limited, 1994. ISBN 0-582-55892-1 BANTAS, ANDREI. Essential English Limba engleza in liste si tabele, Editura TEORA, Bucureti, 1992. ISBN 973-601-032-5 *** Collins Cobuild English Grammar, London, HarperCollins Publishers, 1994. ISBN 0-00-375025-6 COE, NORMAN, Grammar Spectrum 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 English Rules and Practice, EASTWOOD, John. Oxford Guide to English Grammar, Oxford University Press, 1994. ISBN 0-19-431-351-4 *** Encyclopaedia Britannica, Oxford University Press, 2001 HARRINGTON, L., ROY, Marine Enginnering, Oxford University Press, 1992 HEATON,J.B.; TURTON, N.D. Dictionary of Common Errors, Longman Group UK Limited, 1993. ISBN 0-582-96410-5 LEECH, GEOFFREY, An A-Z of English Grammar and Usage, Hong Kong, 1991. ISBN 0-17-556292-X MINEA, ALINA, Dicionar de electromecanic naval romn-englez, Editura Academiei Navale Mircea cel Btrn, Constana, 2001. ISBN 973-8303-03-6 MINEA, ALINA, Dicionar de electromecanic naval englez-romn, Editura Academiei Navale Mircea cel Btrn, Constana, 2000. ISBN 973-99564-5-9 MURPHY, RAYMOND, English Grammar in Use, Cambridge University Press, 1994 MURPHY, RAYMOND, Essential Grammar in Use, Cambridge University Press, 1996 HASHEMI, LOUISE; MURPHY, RAYMOND, Supplementary Exercises, Cambridge University Press, 1995 SWAN, MICHAEL, Practical English Language, Oxford University Press, 1994. ISBN 0-19-431185-6 TAGGART, ROBERT, Ship Design and Construction, Oxford University Press, 1980 THOMSON, A.J.; MARTINET, A.V., A Practical English Grammar, Oxford University Press, 1995. ISBN 0-19-431348-4 THORNBURY, SCOTT, Natural Grammar, Oxford University Press, 2004. ISBN 019-438624-4