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UNIVERSITATEA Titu Maiorescu

Facultatea de Psihologie

TITLUL CURSULUI:
CURS PRACTIC – LIMBA ENGLEZĂ
Fundamente de gramatică şi vocabular

Limba engleză - “English for Social Sciences”

Curs pentru învăţământ la distanţă

Asist.univ. DANIELA NICULESCU- ZDRENGHEA

2005
INTRODUCERE

1.Coordonatorul cursului este asist.univ.Daniela Niculescu-Zdrenghea, titular la Facultatea de


Psihologie a Universităţii Titu Maiorescu, autoare a numeroase traduceri a numeroase studii de
specialitate.

2.Tutorii : asist.univ. Mihaela Ştefănică, asist.Daniela Niculescu.

CURSUL

1.Introducere

♦ 111 este un curs de un semestru şi este cotat cu 3 credite.

2.Prescriere

♦ Cursul constă în prezentarea unor modalităţi de comunicare şi interpretare în limba engleză.

3.Conţinut

♦ În acest curs vor fi studiate prin intermediul unor fişe – numerotate de-a lungul cursului –
modalităţi de comunicare în limba engleză, structuri gramaticale, topică, prin numeroase
exemplificări utile studiului individual.

4.Obiectivele cursului

♦ Cursul de limba engleză pentru învăţământ la distanţă îşi propune să sedimenteze elemente de
limba engleză dobândite în formarea preuniversitară a studentului ID, elemente lingvistice şi de
interpretare necesare unei deschideri a studentului ID către lumea ştiinţifică internaţională. Pentru
o analiză gramaticală şi interpretarea de texte, sunt folosite tematici cu predilecţie din psihologie
(inclusiv psihologie socială, psihologia comunicării etc.). De asemenea, prin acest curs se
urmăreşte formarea deprinderilor orale şi scrise utile în activitatea socio-profesională, în vederea
căpătării unei autonomii valide de informare şi comunicare în limba engleză .

♦ Cerinţe :
1.demonstrarea unor abilităţi de analiză, sinteză şi interpretare ;
2.participare la activităţile anunţate în calendaruldisciplinei.

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I.OBIECTIVE ALE CURSULUI

OBIECTIVE GENERALE:

Dezvoltarea de competenţe în utilizarea limbii engleze pentru comunicare şi informare în general , ca


şi în domeniul ştiinţelor sociale şi în special al psihologiei, astfel încât studenţii să fie capabili :
 Să înţeleagă după auz enunţuri în flux verbal;
 Să înţeleagă enunţuri, texte citite în limba engleză;
 Să comunice verbal un mesaj, enunţ în limba engleză;
 Să exprime în cuvinte proprii în limba engleză, în scris, un mesaj/enunţ.

OBIECTIVE APLICATIVE:

1.pronunţarea de diverse enunţuri cu intonaţia corectă;


2.înţelegerea sensului global al unui mesaj ascultat;
3.raportarea informaţiei ascultate la limbajul şi experienţa culturală proprie;
4.adaptarea formulelor conversaţionale la contextul dat (formal, informal);
5.susţinerea de dialoguri referitoare la sine şi la universul propriu;
6.descrierea de persoane, locuri, activităţi;
7.identificarea unităţilor de conţinut ale unui text;
8.exprimarea înţelesului global al unui text;
9.recunoaşterea şi utilizarea formelor speciale de corespondenţă;
10.valorificarea deprinderilor acumulate pentru perfecţionarea competenţelor de limbă engleză.

II. EXIGENŢE ŞI CRITERII DE EVALUARE PARŢIALĂ ŞI FINALĂ

Se vor practica următoarele forme de evaluare:

 Test predictiv la începutul cursului


 Teste de progres (lunar)
 Teste pentru evaluarea semestrială (semestrul I, redactarea unui eseu în care să fie descrisă o
persoană; semestrul II, traducerea unui text de aproximativ 200 cuvinte în limba română şi
examen oral).

CRITERII DE EVALUARE:
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Pentru eseu
a. Utilizarea de adjective care descriu caracterul persoanei
(outspoken,shy,unsure,approachable,poised,self-
confident,reticent,thick-
skinned,outgoing,vulnerable,sensitive,outstanding,remarkable,
tough, a.s.o.)
b. Utilizarea timpurilor prezente şi a trecutului simplu (verbe
sugerate: take part, learn, become, attend, be formed, work)
c. Format: 1.brief summary of life, 2. childhood and/or teenage
years, 3. first success,4. family life,5. career development, 6.
conclusion.
d. Expresii de legătură: As a result of…,As well as, It was
through…, Having…, After…, By…, Not only…, Despite…

Pentru examinarea orală – tipuri de subiecte


 Conversaţie de 5 minute pe o tematică dată (jobs,
hobbies, habitual activities, future career, a.s.o.)
 Verbe modale (fill in the gaps using the right modal
verb)
 Utilizaţi “make” sau “do” în următoarele propoziţii…
 Corectaţi greşelile din următorul text (grammar,
vocabulary, spelling, a.s.o.)

III. STRUCTURA CURSULUI. SINOPSIS TEMATIC.

Unit 1 WHY PSYCHOLOGY ?


Unit 2 DEVELOPING RELATIONSHIPS
Unit 3 INTERESTS AND ATTITUDES
Unit 4 PARADOXICAL BEHAVIOUR
Unit 5 CAREER DEVELOPMENT
Unit 6 ON BECOMING A PERSON
Unit 7 FUTUROLOGY, THE SCIENCE OF TOMORROW
Unit 8 POWER
Unit 9 EMPATHY
Unit 10 WHAT SHOULD I DO ?
Unit 11 DECISION MAKING
Unit 12 GONE WITH THE WAVE

OBSERVAŢII PRIVIND STRUCTURA CURSULUI

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 Activităţile de prezentare de noi conţinuturi (reactualizare) sunt combinate cu activităţi
practice, participarea activă a studenţilor deţinând un rol fundamental.

 Fiecare capitol (unit) este alcătuit din două cursuri.

 Fiecare curs conţine text(e) din domeniul ştiinţelor sociale şi aplicaţii pe text(e) pe probleme de
vocabular, gramatică, ortografie şi pronunţie, elemente de cultură şi civilizaţie britanică şi
americană.

UNIT 1 WHY PSYCHOLOGY?


COURSE 1: WHY STUDYING PSYCHOLOGY?

Text 1: from “GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY”, Littlefield, Adams & Co., New Jersey, 1963, pages 4-6
Why We Study Psychology
“Interest in the study of psychology grows out of a felt need to gain a better understanding of
people. The purpose of an elementary or first course in psychology is to give the student an
opportunity to become acquainted at first hand with the functional aspects of psychological principles,
to correct misconceptions he may have had concerning his own and other people’s attitudes and
behaviour, and to come to appreciate the various areas of psychological study.
Functions of psychological study
An individual of any age is faced with problems that have psychological implications. From
early childhood through old age, everyone experiences situations involving one or more specific form
of relationship. His abilities, motives and mode of thinking may be inadequate for success-achieving
behaviour unless he is helped to gain a better understanding of all the factors inherent in the situation.
The primary concern of psychology is human adjustment. An individual is stimulated to action
by forces within or outside himself. He experiences needs, wants, or interests, and seeks ways of
fulfilling them. People and objects in his environment become motivators of the kind of behaviour
which he exhibits. A person’s entire life consists of series of responses that are either satisfying or
unsatisfying to himself and that earn either approval or disapproval from his associates. In other words,
as a child, an adolescent, or an adult, a person constantly is engaging in the process of adapting himself
or adjusting to inner strivings or outer demands.
Without some knowledge or understanding of a situation, the individual by chance makes a
good adjustment; too often the adjustment is bad and may even become serious maladjustment. The
psychologist’s functions are to discover the basic principles of good adjustment and then to help
people apply these principles in every phase of human relationships so that they become well-adjusted,
constructive members of their various groups. A further responsibility of psychologists is to recognize
the overt symptoms of maladjustment, trace its causes, and utilize such methods as may seem
appropriate to effect an improved adjustment.
AREAS OF RELATIONSHIP. An individual’s problem of adjustment may concern the
relationship of,
1. One person with another, e.g., teacher-child, husband-wife,
2. One person with a group, e.g., worker-fellow workers, child-siblings (fraţi sau surori cu un părinte
comun),
3. Group with group, e.g., adolescent gang with rival gang, nation with nation,
4. Person with object, e.g., driver with automobile, scientist with atom,
5. Object with object, e.g., earth with moon, fiber glass with curtain,
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6. Self with self, e.g., personal honesty with loyalty, immediate desire with long range goal.
Each of the foregoing problems-arousing relationships represents many influencing factors. It is
the function of psychology to assist the individual to analyse these factors, recognise their relative
significance, and pattern his behaviour in such way as to solve the problem satisfactorily.”

Pre-reading
I. Discuss the following questions in groups:
1.Why do you want to study psychology?
Suggested motives:
• Because we like the domain;
• Because we can get good jobs;
• Because we can earn a good living;
• Because I’d like to understand myself and the others better.
Give at least five motives, and group them under the right heading: 1. extrinsic motives; 2. intrinsic
motives.
2.Has anyone (a family member, a friend, …) influenced you in making such a decision ?

Reading
LANGUAGE FOCUS
New Vocabulary: gain, earn, win; purpose, goal, aim, target; to become acquainted; (in) adequate; to
trace; to achieve, accomplish, to fulfil; area, domain, field; foregoing; to arouse; (mal)adjustment;
(dis)approval; to approach, to tackle; average; (un)skilled; peers; further; hence; thoroughly, in detail;
concern; regard(less); thus; to evolve; in terms of.

Practice
Group Work: Decide upon 3-7 key words in the text you have read. Try to give your personal meaning
to these words. Discuss the meanings you have assigned to them.

STRUCTURES
The Noun:
 irregular plural of nouns (child – children, ox—oxen, man—men, woman—women, foot—feet,
tooth—teeth, goose—geese, louse—lice, mouse—mice; …);
 spelling irregularities (Nouns which receive “-es” at the plural form, end in :
a)-sh: flash–flashes;
b)-ss: kiss-kisses;
c)-ch: watch-watches;
d)-x: box-boxes;
e)-z: buzz-buzzes;
f f)-consonant + «o»:tomato-tomatoes;
g)-consonant + “y” (y→i):fly-flies;
h)-f/-fe (f→v): wife-wives, leaf-leaves.
 nouns borrowed from Latin and Greek (datum-data, addendum-addenda, thesis-theses, synthesis-
syntheses, analysis-analyses, basis-bases, focus-foci, genius-genii, stimulus-stimuli, trauma-
traumata, schema-schemata, phenomenon-phenomena, criterion-criteria, matrix-matrices,
appendix-appendices); nouns that have the same form both in the singular and in the plural: series-
series, species-species, means-means.
Practice:
Insert the missing noun forms (either plural or singular) in the table below:
SINGULAR PLURAL
a) analysis …
b) … addenda
c) … diagnoses
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d) priority …
e) process …
f) hypothesis …
g) … foci
h) … phenomena
i) genius …, …
j) schema …
k) … appendices
l) datum …
m) life …
n) … teeth
o) woman …
p) … children
q) stimulus …
r) phone-booth …
s) letter-box …
t) … series
u) millenium …

Irregular Verbs: understand, be, make, give, think, have, read.

PRONUNCIATION: inherent, coherent

GRAMMAR FOCUS
Auxiliaries BE, DO, HAVE
I)BE
SIMPLE PRESENT SIMPLE PAST
I am I was
You are You were
He/She/It is He/She/It was
We are We were
You are You were
They are They were

II.)DO
SIMPLE PRESENT SIMPLE PAST
I do I did
You do You did
He/She/It does He/She/It did
We do We did
You do You did
They do They did

III.)HAVE
SIMPLE PRESENT SIMPLE PAST
I have I had
You have You had
He/She/It has He/She/I had t
We have We had
You have You had
They have They had

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The Simple Present
Use:
• Habitual, repeated actions in the present;
• Permanent situations;
• General truths;
• Timetables/ official programmes (with future meaning).
Time Expressions: (expressing frequency) never, always, sometimes, often, usually, seldom (rarely);
every day/week….

Practice
Arrange the expressions of time in the right place on an axis which has “0%” marked at one end, and
“100%” at the other end, to express frequency.
100% always
………
………
……...
……...
………
………

0% ………

Form: Affirmative (no auxiliary !): Add “-s” or “-es” to the short infinitive of the verb, at the 3rd
person singular.
Verbs which receive “-es” at the 3rd person singular, end in :
a)-sh: wash–washes;
b)-ss: miss-misses;
c)-ch: search-searches;
d)-x: mix-mixes;
e)-z: buzz-buzzes;
f)-consonant + «o»:do-does;
g)-consonant + “y” (y→i):fly-
flies.
Give the simple present third person singular form of the following verbs:
a) Smile; g) Cry; m) Scratch;
b) Fix; h) Pray; n) Try;
c) Travel; i) Teach; o) Admit;
d) Match; j) Crash; p) Deny;
e) Go; k) Fry; q) Say;
f) Caress; l) Do; r) Hiss.

Practice (bibliography)
Grammar exercises from: G. Gălăţeanu, Exerciţii de gramatică engleză, Editura Albatros, 1980 (sau
reeditări mai recente), paginile 6-7, sau V. Evans, Round-up 4, Longman, 1993, paginile 3-8, sau

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N.Coe, Grammar Spectrum 3, Oxford Univ. Press, 1995, paginile 6-7, sau alte volume cu exerciţii de
gramatică.

1.Choose the most appropriate words underlined:


a) A person’s life consist/consists of series of responses to stimuluses/stimuli.
b) Each area of human relationship requires/require intensive and extensive study based on some
hypothesis/hypotheses.
c) The psychologist’s functions is/are to discover the basic principles of psychological
phenomena/phenomenons.
d) The research datums/data shows/show overt symptoms of maladjustment.

COURSE 2: THINKING LIKE A PSYCHOLOGIST

Pre-reading
Word-web: A psychologist has to deal with: (Brainstorming)

Stages of growth Interests and attitudes

Perception PSYCHOLOGIST Affectivity/ Feelings

………………. Personality Positive thinking ………………..

Therefore he needs some:

Creativity Empathic approach Critical thinking

SKILLS

……………… Problem solving Ability to investigate ……………..

Reading
Text: WHAT IT TAKES TO THINK LIKE A PSYCHOLOGIST
(From December 1995 American Psychological Association Monitor)
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Some psychology educators fear that graduate programs neglect to teach the critical thinking skills
students need to succeed.
Imagine practitioners who are so sure they know what causes patients’ troubles, they search
automatically the diagnostic categories, automatically tying anxiety to childhood trauma or depression
to a bad marriage.
It’s a disturbing prospect, yet an entirely possible one for someone whose academic training
was strong on facts, but weak on critical-thinking skills needed to ”think like a psychologist,” says
Boston College psychologist Peter Gray, PhD.
A psychology student with the proper training knows to view the anxiety or depression as a
scientific problem – to consider a broad range of possible causes and treatments, says Gray, who writes
on critical thinking and how to teach it.
Thinking like a psychologist is thinking scientifically, says George Stricker, PhD, of Adelphi
University’s Institute of Advanced Psychological Studies. It’s approaching every problem as a new
one. Problem-solving skills transfer into practice, while facts and theory often change, Stricker points
out.
But not all of today’s psychology students are encouraged to think scientifically, say Gray,
Stricker and other psychology professors. These educators are concerned that unless more emphasis is
put on thinking critically and scientifically—the fundamental traits of what’s needed to be a good
psychologist—the field runs the risk of producing bad-prepared professionals.
To ensure that they’re turning out critical thinkers, educators should focus on the logic and
evidence behind the concepts they teach instead of treating them as premises for memorisation, they
advise.
Most importantly, educators should teach students to always approach problems with an
inquiring and skeptical attitude,Stricker says.
“We need to convey a message that thinking like a psychologist means always asking yourself
how you know something,” he says.
Looking for contradictions
Teaching students to practice scientific thinking at all levels of psychology enables them to
become more competent professionals, says psychologist Diane Halperne, PhD, of California State
University—San Bernardino. Halperne served as critical thinking consultant to the National Education
Goals Panel, Which in 1992 charged educators with increasing the number of college graduates with
advanced skills in critical thinking and problem-solving.
Halperne weaved critical thinking into her teaching by encouraging students to look for both
evidence and lack of evidence. Investigators should always seek information that contradicts their
Hypothesis or that’s easily overlooked or omitted, Halperne teaches.
If a student were writing a paper on whether exercise reduces depression, she would advise the
student to also consider whether exercise increases depression, and to look for data supporting both
arguments.
Consistent with the scientific method, which is essentially the application of logic, scientific
thinkers constantly question their own assumptions and look for alternative conclusions and
disconfirming evidence, she says.The method involves the basics of any scientific experiment, such
as hypotheses, control variables, methodology, systemic observations and statistical analysis.
Theory vs. facts
In undergraduate psychology, educators can help students think like psychologists by
centering classes around theories and ideas , rather than facts and technical terms, says Gray.
“It’s not the accumulation of facts that makes people educated, it’s whether they can ask the right
questions and use evidence to answer them,,” he said. “If they haven’t learned that, they haven’t
learned anything useful.”
In his introductory classes, even the tests are theory-based. He may, for example, ask students
to critique Piaget’s stages of children’s intellectual development from an evolutionary psychology
perspective.

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At the graduate level, students often find critical thinking difficult because they’ve grown
accustomed to memorising facts, says William Halikias, PhD, a psychology instructor at Antioch New
England GraduateSchool. They learn the material to pass the test and forget it just as fast.
Halikias believes psychology professors can break students from narrow-minded thinking and
prepare them for practice by teaching them to:
Organise inferences—Students need to look at all possible reasons for a problem’s occurrence
instead of being drawn in by the most emotionally compelling one. For example, if a child refuses to
attend school, it could be difficulty learning to read rather than separation anxiety from the mother,
that is causing the problem.
Distinguish the level of certainty—Educators must teach students how to separate known
facts from speculation, instead of jumping to conclusions. For example, in a sex-abuse case, a child’s
anxiety is not necessarily evidence of abuse; it may be due to the trauma of being removed from the
home and interviewed by strangers.
Manage the data collection process—Students must learn to collect all relevant data about the
client, instead of taking shortcuts. For example, neglecting to take a complete medical history from a
client with a memory disability means neglecting the role of the client’s past alcoholism in the
disorder.
Use knowledge of groups to understand behaviour of the individual—Educators should
teach students how to assess clients, without generalising and stereotyping the client’s behaviour. For
example, the belief that most divorcing spouses are hostile to one another is unfounded because most
divorcing couples are willing to negotiate out of court.
“The good psychologist has two faces,” says Halikias. “One is pointed to the individual and
the other to the group.”

LANGUAGE FOCUS:
New Vocabulary: (under)graduate; to neglect; to succeed vs to fail; practice (word family); broad vs.
narrow; to tie, to connect, to link; weak, feeble vs. strong; proper, suitable; to jump to conclusions ; to
be due to; shortcut; to focus ; evidence (cognate); to grow accustomed; to inquire; (dis) order; to occur-
occurence; to assess(to evaluate); to weave; to overlook; to miss the mark; to challenge; to engage in;
faculty; tool; trial; to put on the stand; spouse(wife or husband); debiasing; forensic work; lack of; to
lack; to run a risk; to enable (word family).

PRONUNCIATION:
Alcoholism; skepticism; hostile; doubt.

Practice
I.Match the abbreviations in column A to their explanations in column B:

A . B
BBC Bachelor of Arts
TB General Meeting
LP Doctor of Philosophy
UN Television
FBI The United Nations Educational, Scientific &
Cultural Organisation
TV Very Important Person
BA British Broadcasting Corporation
UNESCO Long-playing record
MSN Program Information File
IBM The Microsoft Network
Hi-Fi Basic Input/Output System
PIF International Business Machines

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BIOS Tuberculosis
VIP The United Nations
GM The Federal Bureau of Investigation
PhD High fidelity
URL Portable Document Format
OLE Uniform Resource Locator (address of a
document on the web)
PDF Object Linking and Embedding

II. Group Work


Imagine a situation in which a patient/client needs help from a person who graduated from the
School of Psychology. One of the students in each group presents the situation. The others try to
establish what kind of job should have the person who can better serve the patient’s needs (see the list
below)
List of jobs related to psychology: human resource manager; psychiatrist (shrink); psychotherapist; job
counsellor; family counsellor; school counsellor.

GRAMMAR FOCUS

Simple Present
Form: Interrogative: Do/Does + Subject + Verb……?
Negative: Subject + do/does + not + Verb (short form: don’t/doesn’t).

Practice
Write/Say at least four things that you usually, often, always do, and other four that you don’t do/never
do.

Exercises
1.Make up affirmative, interrogative or negative sentences as suggested by the hints below:
a) She/always/approach/a hypothesis/thoroughly.
b) …/his parents/approve of/ his behaviour?
c) What kind of data …/she/obtain/whenever/she/apply/such a test?
d) A child/…not evolve/normally in an aggressive environment.
e) He/seldom/speak/in terms of/his own life experience.
f) A researcher/usually/show/special interest in the adjustment problems.

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UNIT 2 DEVELOPING RELATIONSHIPS
COURSE 1 HUMAN ATTACHMENT

Speaking
A student draws a family (as he/she imagines it) on the blackboard. The other students are asked to
write sentences (in the present progressive tense: am/ is/ are + verb-ing) to describe the mimic and the
gestures of the student at the blackboard as he/she is drawing.
Words at the students’ disposal:
Smile, frown, withdraw, sad, happy, shocked, hidden, hold hands, keep at a distance, warm, cold,
indifferent, look forward, look at one another, look downwards, have fun, together, stay isolated, in
front of, behind, next to, become tense, become relaxed, frustrated, smug(arrogant) undecided, hurt,
thoughtful, puzzled, confident, joyful, relieved, frightened, guilty, miserable, open-hearted, suspicious,
indifferent, childish, generous, egoistic, impulsive…

Then the student at the blackboard is asked to describe his/her drawing using the present progressive.
Such tests are applied in psychotherapy and counselling.

Practice
I. LIKING AND LOVING Test (from Social Psychology; page 260, table 6.2.)
Answer each of the following questions on a scale from 1=not at all, to 10=totally. Answer them
first with a good friend in mind and then thinking of a possible partner.
STATEMENT FRIEND PARTNER
1.This person is one of the most
likable people I know.
2.I feel I am confident in this
person about virtually
everything.
3.This person is the sort of
person I would like to be.
4.I would forgive this person for
practically anything.
5.I have great confidence in this
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person’s good judgment.
6.I would do almost anything for
this person.
A. Sum of your responses to
questions 1+3+5=
B. Sum of your responses to
questions 2+4+6=
Which is greater? A or B?

What kind of relationships have you been thinking about: (tick the right answer)
 Casual dating …
 Exclusive dating…
 Engaged couple…
 Married couple…
I. RUBIN’S CONCLUSIONS Short text (page 260)
“They found that casual daters reported more liking than loving. But among those in more
committed relationships, liking and loving did not differ.”
Do these conclusions apply to our situation/context ?

GRAMMAR FOCUS
The Present Progressive
Use: The present progressive is used to express:
 an action in progress at the moment of speaking;
 a temporary action in the present (I am attending an English course.);
 fixed arrangements in the near future (She’s flying to Paris the day after tomorrow.)
 annoyance or criticism (with “always”): He’s always talking too much.
Time Adverbials: now; at the/this moment.
Form:
Affirmative: Subject + am/is/are + verb-ing….
Interrogative: Am/is/are + Subject + verb-ing..?
Negative: Subject + am/is/are + not + verb-ing…(short form: isn’t/aren’t).

Practice:
1. Talk about things that are happening now.
2. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verb in brackets:
a) We (go)…………… on a camp to the mountains next weekend.
b) The birds (sing)……………., the sun (shine), and I (feel)………….intoxicated now that I
(think)…………..about the upcoming holidays.
c) Some neighbours …….always (make)………. too much noise.
d) She (work)…………..at the new project this month.

Reading;

Text HOW DO I LOVE THEE ? (Part 1, page 261-263, Social Psychology)

Different Types of Love : How Do I Love Thee ?


Both Rubin and Clark see an important difference between a relationship that is not love
(liking, exchange relationships) and one that is (loving, communal relationships). But love itself is
not some simple, unitary, psychological state.
As Elizabeth Barrett Browning expressed it her famous poem, we experience many kinds of
loving: « How do I love thee? Let me count the ways. » Apparently, the count can be quite high.
George Levinger (1988) notes that love has more entries in Bartlett’s Familiar Quotations than any
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other word except man. Poets, novelists, philosophers, and theologians—among others—have all
tried to define love and count its varieties. So have social psychologists.
The most common approach in social psychology divides all love into two types: the intensely
romantic passionate love, and the more stable partnership of companionate love (Hatfield, 1988;
Peele, 1988). Passionate love is a state of high arousal: being loved by the partner is ecstasy; being
rejected is agony. Companionate love, on the other hand, is a secure, trusting attachment. This
basic dichotomy runs throughout several more elaborate classifications.
In their perspective on love, Philip Shaver and his colleagues (1988) propose that the way in
which a person interacts with significant others, called attachment style, may be relatively
constant across the life span. A person’s attachment to a romantic partner should, therefore,
resemble the sort of attachment he or she experienced as a child in relation to parents. Basing their
approach on research examining parent-child relationships (Ainsworth et al., 1978). Cindy Hazan
and Shaver (1987) asked adult subjects which of three attachment styles best described their
experiences and feelings. The three alternatives subjects chose from are listed in the table below.
Subjects also responded to a variety of more specific questions about the nature and quality of their
romantic relationships.

Table: Attachment Styles


Which of these descriptions best characterises your adult attachments?
Question: Which of the following best describes your feelings?
A. I find it relatively easy to get close to others and am comfortable depending on them and
having them depend on me. I don’t often worry about being abandoned or about someone
getting too close to me.
B. I am somewhat uncomfortable being close to others; I find it difficult to trust them
completely, difficult to allow myself to depend on them. I am nervous when anyone gets too
close, and often, love partners want me to be more intimate than I feel comfortable being.
C. I find that others are reluctant to get as close as I would like; I often worry that my partner
doesn’t really love me or won’t want to stay with me. I want to merge completely with
another person, and this desire sometimes scares people away.

The first type of attachment style is described as “secure,” the second as “avoidant,” and the third as
“anxious/ambivalent.”

LANGUAGE FOCUS
Archaic forms of the personal pronoun: thee, thine, thou, thy, etc.
Suffixes: “-ship”, as in “relationship“. Give other examples.
Expressing similarities: “Both…and…”(see also Penny Ur, page 9, Comparing things)

Practice:
Use the structure “Both …and…,” and the hints below to make comparisons:
a) I / my fellow students / study at university.
b) A shrink / a psychotherapist / have studied psychology.
c) A cat / a dog / are mammals.
d) Freud / Jung / are well-known psychoanalysts.

New Vocabulary: entry (about dictionaries); arousal; attract vs reject; (in)secure; dichotomy; span;
respond, answer, reply.
Prepositions: BETWEEN (when we refer to two things) vs AMONG (when we refer to more than
two things). Give examples.
Adjectives: TOO + ADJECTIVE (table above) E.g.: “too close”. Give at least three examples.
15
Practice:
Match the definition in the first column to the right concept in the second column (concepts:
passionate love, attachment style, companionate love) by drawing arrows to connect them.
Definition Concept
 a secure, trusting attachment Attachment style
 the way in which a person interacts with Passionate love
significant others, may be relatively constant
across the life span.
 a state of high arousal: being loved by the Companionate love
partner is ecstasy; being rejected is agony

COURSE 2 FEELINGS AND THE SELF

Pre-reading
I. Fill in the blanks with the suitable words from the box below:

Which , the, metaphor, truly, emphasis, secondary,


love, other, according to, like

For John Lee (1977), love is ________1 a “many splendored thing,” with the ____________2 on
many. Lee uses color as a _____________3 for love. Three types of love -- ______________4 he
calls eros, ludus, and storge – are ________5 primary colors; they form the basis for _________6
combinations. Lee also describes three ________________7 types – called mania, agape, and
pragma – although ______8 potential number runs much higher. _______________9 Lee, “How
many colors of __________10 are there ?As many as there are possible mixtures and
combinations, as in color itself”.(Lee, 1988, p.49).

Reading:
II. Text (part 2)
Of the adults who participated in this research, 56 percent indicated that the secure style of
attachment best described the experiences and feelings. Around 25 percent of subjects chose
the avoidant description, and about 20 percent selected the anxious/ambivalent characterisation.
This distribution is within the range of that obtained for children in a number of different
cultures (van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg , 1988). Among children, however, the secure
attachment style is usually a more prevalent, and the anxious/ambivalent style more rare.
Adults who reported a secure style of attachment described their romantic relationships as
involving happiness, friendship, and trust. Those with the avoidant style emphasised a fear of
closeness. Individuals with an anxious/ambivalent attachment style reported a love life full of
emotional extremes, obsessive preoccupation, sexual attraction, desire for union with the
16
partner, desire for reciprocation from the partner, and love at first sight. Thus, the
anxious/ambivalent attachment style in adults resembles passionate love, while the secure adult
attachment style is similar to companionate love.
LANGUAGE FOCUS
New Vocabulary: to avoid, avoidant, avoidance, avoidable; at first sight; label; bottom vs top; to
depend on; to manage, to merge, to combine, to ”become one”; to scare away; reluctant, unwilling,
disinclined to; to partake; storge; to commit to, make oneself responsible for; commitment, pledge,
(un)commited, promise; undertaking; to focus (verb) – focus – foci/focuses (noun); according to,
as X puts it/suggests; to consist of + enumeration, be made up of: to consist in, have as the chief or
only element – E.g.: “The happiness of a country consists in the freedom of its citizens.”; to
involve vs to evolve; to depict, to present, to deal with; major vs minor; pattern, structure, model.

PRONUNCIATION:
Beloved [bi′ lΛ vid]

Practice:
Match the concepts in column A to their right definitions in column B (table 6.5, page 264, Social
Psychology).

GRAMMAR FOCUS recycling


g Present Simple vs Present Progressive
h 1. Put the verbs in brackets into the present simple or the present continuous (progressive):
a) Young people (become)……………..less willing to assume commitment through marriage.
i b) According to Philip Shaver and his colleagues (1988) the way in which a person (interact)
………...with significant others (be)….. called attachment style.
c) He … always (avoid)………… people who don’t look up to him and praise him excessively.
d) The documentary “Focus on Attachment Styles” (begin) …………tomorrow at 5 p.m..
e) Jerry (work)…………. at a psychological research institute in Vienna.
f) But this week he (participate)……………… to an international colloquium in Berlin.
g) We (go)………………. to the library for the next couple of days.
h) As John Lee (put)………..it, there are three types of love.
2. Match the expressions below --that denote the use of each verb tense-- in the sentences in
exercise 2 above to the letter of the sentence and specify what verb tense (present simple or present
continuous/progressive) is used (as in the example):
A. temporary situation/action;
B. annoying repeated situation/action;
C. changing situation;
D. commentaries, reviews, narratives;
E. general truths, laws of nature;
F. officially programmed actions/future meaning;
G. informally planned actions/future meaning;
H. permanent situations/actions.
E.g.:
Sentence Use Simple Present
(see exercise2) Present Continuous
a) C. -- v
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)

17
h)

Bibliography: G. Gălăţeanu, Exerciţii de gramatică engleză, p.52 sau “Grammar Spectrum 3”,
p.10-11, or other grammar books.

Additional Activities:
I. Describing people’s appearance. (see also B.J. Thomas, Advanced Vocabulary & Idiom,
Longman 1989, p.71-72 – What are they wearing ? for further practice)
Complete each passage below with the correct words from the list above it to make an accurate
description of one of the people in the illustration.

Picture1 Picture2 Picture 3

Picture 1
He’s a tall…………….1man. He has grey hair and a …………2nose. He’s wearing a blue…………
3
suit and a red………...4 His trousers aren’t …………. 5An inch of ……….6shows from each of his
……………7 His grey shoes are……………. 8 From the way he’s bending, he seems to be looking
for something.
single-breasted crooked sleeves
slim cuff polished
well-pressed tie

Picture 2
He’s a ……….1man with…………2shoulders and a slim………3 He has no beard or moustache;
he’s……………..4 He’s wearing a light blue………….5, pink………….6, grey………….7and light
blue……………..8 He has got a ……9round his head and sports cuffs at his…………10as tennis
players have. He’s holding a tennis racket in his right hand.
broad young wrist band
waist trainers shorts
T-shirt clean-shaven socks

Picture 3
She’s young, maybe…………..1 She has a …………..2 …………….3 Her short ………….4hair is
light brown. She is…………….5dressed. She’s wearing a……………6yellow……………7and
a……………8dark green skirt. She’s standing in front of her business colleagues.
plain thirtysh wavy
blouse neatly short-sleeved
slender figure

II. Re-arrange the lines of the following poem from “Sonnets from the Portuguese” XLIII to make
up another poem.
“How do I love thee? Let me count the ways,
I love thee to the depth and breadth and height
18
My soul can reach, when feeling out of sight
For the ends of Being and Ideal Grace.
I love thee to the level of every day’s
Most quiet need, by sun and candlelight.
I love thee freely, as men strive for Right;
I love thee purely, as they turn from Praise;

I love thee with the passion put to use


In my old griefs, and with my childhood’s faith;
I love thee with a love I semed to lose
With my lost saints, -- I love thee with the breath,
Smiles, tears, of all my life! – and, if God choose,
I shall but love thee better after death.
(Elizabeth Barrett Browning)

Replace the underlined words/phrases with other words of your choice to follow in Elizabeth
Browning’s footsteps.

19
UNIT 3 INTERESTS AND ATTITUDES
COURSE 1 DIVERGENCE OF INTERESTS

Speaking:
Chain Story (simple past) Students choose a word from the recently learnt vocabulary. Each
student contributes to the telling of a story started by the teacher. The sentence must contain the
chosen word.

Reading:
Text “Danger of Too Great Divergence of Interests”, General Psychology, page 165
Although a person should have more than one interest which has become habitual with him,
there is danger in the possession of too many interests, in that none of them can be developed
successfully. An illustration of this danger may be seen in the story of a man who was extremely
versatile.
This man painted a little,; he sang a little; he took part in several successful motion pictures; he
was one of the first to explore artistic photograhy; he was deeply religious, and he devoted time freely
to boys’ organisations. He seemed intensely interested in each of these activities at the time of
engaging in it, but he was unable to stay with any one of them long enough to develop more than
moderate success. This man is now old and disillusioned, without any definite interest for his old age.
Often a bright student is interested in so many fields that he finds it difficult to decide upon his
vocation or his major in college. He may choose one field of interest and switch to another. For a
student of this kind the advisable thing to do might be to choose a vocation or profession which is in
line with his abilities and interests, and which also represents a definite occupational need of his
community. He then can specialise in that field, and direct some of his other interests into a-vocational
or leisure-time activities.
Other Interest Factors
Sometimes our interests are influenced by community, national, or world conditions. In
wartime, for example, a person may develop an interest which would be completely lacking during
peacetime. Recently, many women have developed interests in an expanding list of vocational
activities. Among these are such as air hostessing, research, and various armed service activities.
These interests represent a changed attitude of women toward the world of work and their place
in it. Earlier, many of these interests were held by a few women or were completely lacking. In like
manner, many persons who in the past were only moderately interested in political, economic, or
international matters, have developed, as a result of recent world conditions and problems, a keen and
enlightened interest in many of these areas.

20
LANGUAGE FOCUS
New Vocabulary: bright, intelligent, clever; deep vs shallow; versatile, interested in and clever at
many different things, having various uses; success vs failure; leisure-time activities; avocation,
occupation that is not a person’s ordinary business, improperly, vocation; to switch to, to move to.

Practice Expressing (dis)like.


1. What are you interested in ? (use the gerund forms: verb-ing)
I’m mostly Interested in Reading books
mainly Collecting stamps,…
2. I’m very fond of + verb-ing
I like Verb-ing
Enjoy
Love
Dislike
hate
3.Express like or dislike regarding the following activities:
a) playing soccer;
b) studying psychology;
c) watching TV;
d) playing chess;
e) collecting things;
f) gardening.

GRAMMAR FOCUS

The Adjective

1.Irregular Adjectives
Positive Comparative Superlative
good better (than) (the) best
ill/bad Worse worst
much More most
many More most
little Less least
far further/farther furthest/farthest
old Older/elder oldest/eldest
near nearer nearest/next

2.Short Adjectives (1-2 syllables)


Positive Comparative Superlative
fast Faster (than) (the) fastest
nice Nicer nicest
heavy Heavier heaviest
thin Thinner thinnest

3..Adjective + “enough”
Long enough
Big enough
Strong enough

21
4.“Than” versus “then”
E.g.: “more than”, “better than” (the comparative); “then” – to express time (afterwards)

5..Adverbs which end in “-ly”


Adjective + “-ly”: beautifully, successfully; freely; deeply.
Practice
1.Provide the required forms (as specified above the arrow) of the following:

comparative 1
a) old

b) old comparative 2

superlative
c) ill

comparative
d) many
superlative
e) many
comparative
f) hot
superlative
g) easy
superlative
h) little
adverb
i) improper
noun
j) occupy
adverb
k) good
superlative
l) good
adjective
m) success
adverb
n) success
adjective
o) use
adverb
p) use
past (second form)
q) do
past (second form)
r) have
past (second form)
s) be
past participle (third form)
t) be

2.Match the words in the two columns below to make up the appropriate set phrases (structure: as +
adjective + as + noun):
22
as adjective as a noun
a) Mad 1) Lightning
b) Proud 2) Toast
c) Quick 3) Feather
d) Light 4) Ice
e) Heavy 5) Hatter
f) Warm 6) Lead
g) White 7) Peacock
h) Sweet 8) Snow
i) Cold 9) Gold
j) Good 10) Honey

Example:
(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j)
5

1) 6.Simple Past
Use:
• Activities in the past;
• Past state or habit;
• Past actions which happened one after the other.

Time Expressions:
• (the day before) yesterday;
• last Sunday/week/month/July/year;
• three years/a fortnight ago;
• in 1985; on the 1st of December 1918;
• then;
• “When…?”; “How long ago…?”

Form:
Affirmative:
 Regular verbs: Subject + verb-ed (spelling: short verbs; verbs which end in cons. + y)
 Irregular verbs: Subject + verb at the 2nd form
Interrogative: Did + S + verb(short infinitive)…?
Negative:S + did + not (didn’t) + verb…

Practice
I. Find (by skimming through the text) the verbs in the Past Tense and write them under the right
heading :
Regular Verbs Irregular Verbs
…………………. ……………………
II. Answer the questions :
How do yo Usually/often/sometimes/always spend Your weekends?
u
did --------------------------------------- Spen Last weekend?
d

23
III. Put the time expressions in italics under the right heading in the table below (to say what verb tense
each is used with):

Usually; a fortnight ago; now; seldom; rarely; in 2000; nowadays; the day before yesterday; never;
on April the first 1992; When…?; these days; How long ago...?; often; every other day; now and then;
sometimes; last Sunday; at the moment, then.
PRESENT CONTINUOUS PRESENT SIMPLE PAST SIMPLE

IV. Ask questions and give answers according to the hints below (add any necessary words):

1) When / meet / Carly ?


Fortnight ago.
2) You / have a good time / together?
Yes,…
3) Helen / join you?
No, …/ can / because / have to / baby-sit / for her nephews.
4) How long ago / last / go to a fair?
Long enough. / 1995 / when / graduate from high school.

COURSE 2 AGGRESSION

Pre-reading
I.Match the concept/phrase to its definition:
Concept Definition
Longitudinal research Behaviour intended to injure another person
Angry aggression Behaviour intended to injure another person to obtain something of value
Aggression Impulsive, emotional behaviour intended to injure another person
Instrumental Regarding someone as less than human and therefore not deserving of
aggression compassionate treatment (Bandura, 1975)
Cycle of family Studying the same subjects over a period of time so that changes in behaviour
violence can be observed
Dehumanization The transmission of aggressive behaviour across generations

II.Vocabulary Steps
Arrange the following nouns (to show that they gradually differ in terms of meaning) on imaginary
steps: fury, anger, cruelty, rage, grudge, resentment, outburst (of anger).

Reading
Text: “Child Abuse”, from “Social Psychology”, pages 381-382

24
Child Abuse
When six-year-old Lisa Steinberg died in the fall of 1987, the whole country reacted with
outrage. Illegally adopted by Joel Steinberg, a disbarred attorney, Lisa lived with Steinberg and Hedda
Nussbaum, a former editor of children books. According to Nussbaum, Steinberg terrorized both her
and Lisa by repeated beatings. After one vicious attack, Lisa was left lying on the bathroom floor for
nearly twelve hours. By the time Steinberg and Nussbaum called for medical assistance, Lisa’s brain
injuries were irreversible. She died. On January, 30, 1989, Steinberg was convicted of first-degree
manslaughter.
The amount of media attention given to Lisa’s death is unusual. Unfortunately, the tragedy of
child abuse is not. The abuse of children is widespread in the United States, as indicated by the result
of two surveys conducted by Straus and his colleagues. Although levels of overall violence toward
children have remained stable across the decade, the incidence of both severe and very severe violence
has declined. This decline does mean, however, that we should expect reduced reports of child abuse
to police and social agencies. Increased reporting and decreased incidence, at least of extreme abuse,
are likely to go hand in hand as people become more aware of the problem and more determined to do
something about it.
The Conflict Tactics Scale used in Straus’s two surveys examines only a limited number of
abusive behaviors towards children. It does not, for example, ask about sexual abuse. There are some
important differences between physical and sexual abuse. Mothers are more likely than fathers to
physically abuse their children, and most victims are boys (Straus et al., 1980). In contrast, fathers are
more likely than mothers to sexually abuse their children, and most of these victims are girls (Russell,
1984). Despite these differences, certain factors are associated with both types of abuse: stress, social
isolation, marital conflict, and having been abused as a child (Russell, 1984: Straus et al., 1980; Wolfe,
1985).

LANGUAGE FOCUS
New Vocabulary: outrage; disbarred attorney; (the) former vs (the) latter; vicious (attack); to convict;
manslaughter; amount; widespread; survey; graph; overall, global; increase vs decrease; inflate vs
deflate; to be/become aware of...; determined; to injure, to wound, to hurt; “lay” vs “lie” (see B.J.
Thomas, Advanced Vocabulary and Idiom, Longman, 1989, pages 44-45, exercises 6 & 7).

GRAMMAR FOCUS
I.HABITUAL PAST “used to” + verb
Use: to talk about things we did in the past, but we no longer do in the present.

Practice:
Write about, and then tell the other students at least three things that you used to do in the past, but no
longer do.
E.g.: “When I was a child I used to …”

II.FREQUENTATIVE “WOULD”
Use: to talk/write about habitual/frequent activities in the past

Practice:
I. Underline the frequentative “would” forms of the verbs in the text below.
II. Write a short composition (of 50-100 words) about Christmas and/or Easter.
(See “Thanksgiving on the Farm”, from Patricia Wilcox Peterson,“Changing Times, Changing
Tenses”, U.S.Information Agency, Washington D.C., 1992, page 90).

THANKSGIVING ON THE FARM

25
I remember our Thanksgivings on the farm. When I was growing up, we lived on a farm near
the town. There were many other relatives who lived near us. Every year they would all come, from
other farms and from the town to be with us.
We’d work for days to prepare for the holiday. Mother and the girls would clean every part of
the house, and they’d get all the extra rooms ready for the relatives. Then they’d wash all our best
clothes—we call these dresses and suits our “Sunday best.” The men would cut extra wood for all the
cooking, for we had an old wood-burning stove. Father would always kill the biggest turkey, and then
he’d clean the bird. Finally, the whole family would drive into town to buy the food that we couldn’t
produce on the farm, like coffee and sugar.
On Thanksgiving morning the women would get up early to begin cooking. Mother would stuff
the turkey with bread and onions, and then she’d roast it. Aunt Ellen would make a dozen pumpkin
pies. Aunt Ann would pick autumn flowers from the garden for the center of the table. She’d also bring
in vegetables to eat with the turkey and the pies.
The older children would help set the table while the twin babies played in their high chair. But
I liked to play with the cat, waiting for somebody to give me pieces of food. All this time our old dog
would lie under the warm stove, watching the activity.

UNIT 4 PARADOXICAL BEHAVIOUR


COURSE 1 THE UNHELPFUL CROWD

Pre-reading:
Listening to Sounds (see Penny Ur, op. cit., page 46) Students close their eyes and listen to the sounds
they may hear; then they write and tell (using the simple past and the past progressive).
E.g.: There was a car. It was going past, accelerating. Somebody dropped something. Somebody
closed a door…….

Reading:
Text (part 1) “The Unhelpful Crowd”, from “Social Psychology”, pages 314-315.
Kitty Genovese, Andrew Mormille, and the eighteen-year-old switchboard operator were at a
serious disadvantage in needing spontaneous emergency help in urban environment. Bibb Latané and
John Darley (1970) were not convinced, however, that the stresses and strains of city life fully explain
why these individuals didn’t get the help they needed. So, these researchers set out to see if they
produce unresponsive bystanders in the cool, calm environment of a psychology laboratory. One study
went this way.
When a subject arrived, he or she was taken to one of a series of small rooms located along a
corridor. Speaking over an intercom, the experimenter explained that he wanted subjects to discuss
personal problems that college students often face. Subjects were told tat to protect confidentiality the
group discussion would take place over the intercom system and the experimenter would not be
listening. Participants were required to speak one at a time taking turns. Some subjects were assigned
to two-person dyads; others to larger groups of three or six people.
Although the opening moments of the conversation were uneventful, one participant did
mention that he had a seizure disorder that was sometimes triggered by study pressures. But soon an
unexpected problem developed. When it came his turn to speak again, the person who suffered from a
seizure disorder stuttered badly, had a hard time speaking clearly, and sounded in a serious trouble.
I could really-er-use some help so if somebody would-er-give me a little h-help-uh-er-er-er-er c-could somebody-
er-er-help-er-uh-uh-uh (choking sounds)….I’m gonna die-er-er-I’m…gonna die-er-help-er-er-seizure-er (chokes, then
quiet).

26
What would you do? Would you interrupt the experiment, dash out of your cubicle, and try ti
find the experimenter?
As it turns out, subjects’ responses to this emergency strongly influenced by the size of their
group. Actually, all subjects were participating alone, but tape-recorded material led them to believe
that others were present and that there was a crisis. All the subjects who thought they were involved in
a two-person discussion left the room quickly to try to get help. In the larger groups, however, subjects
were less likely and slower to intervene. Among subjects in the six-person groups, 38 percent never
even left the room and those who did go for help took longer to get out the door than subjects in
smaller groups. This research led Latané and Darley to a chilling conclusion: the more bystanders
there are, the less likely the victim will be helped. In the bystander effect, the presence of others
inhibits helping.
Before the pioneering work of Latané and Darley, most people would have assumed just the
opposite. Isn’t there safety in numbers? Don’t we feel more secure rushing in to help when others are
around to lend their support? Latané and Darley overturned this common-sense assumption and
provided a careful step-by-step analysis of the decision-making process involved in emergency
interventions.

LANGUAGE FOCUS
New Vocabulary: environment, setting; urban vs rural; stress and strain; to set out; bystanders; cool
and calm; to face something; event, eventful , uneventful, eventfully; to assign; to take turns; seizure;
disorder; triggered by, to trigger, a trigger; to stutter; to choke; to dash (out)of; cubicle; to turn out;
lead-led-led, leading, leader, leadership; crisis, crises; chilling (conclusion); to be likely/probable; to
lend-lent-lent vs to borrow; to rush; assumption, to assume; to overturn; to provide; to make a decision.
Cognates (false friends): actually, eventually.

GRAMMAR FOCUS
Prepositions: along, over. Prepositions that show time, place and manner. (see Virginia Evans, Round
up 4, Longman 1992, pages 122-125; or Grammar Spectrum, O.U.P., 1995, pages 84-86 or other
similar books).
Emphatic “do” in affirmative sentences (imperative, simple present, simple past).
E.g.: “Please, do come in!”
Practice:
Give the emphatic form of:
a) He prefers playing on the computer.
b) Help yourselves, please.
c) They liked their new neighbourhood.
“The + comparative … the + comparative…”:
E.g.: “the sooner, the better.”; “The more, the merrier.”

The Past Progressive:

Use: to express:
 an action in progress at a certain moment in the past;
 an action that was in the middle of happening at a stated time in the past;
 two or more actions which were happening at the same time in the past (simultaneous actions);
 to describe the background to the events in a story.

Time Expressions:
 yesterday at 5 p.m.;

27
 at this time last Monday;
 then;
 at that time;
 the day before yesterday, from 10 to 12 a.m..

Form:
Affirmative: Subject + was/were + verb-ing….
Interrogative: Was/Were + Subject + verb-ing…?
Negative: Subject + was/were + not + verb-ing….(short form: wasn’t/weren’t).

Practice
Bibliography: Grammar exercises from the already mentioned volumes.
1. Fill in the blanks with the right forms of the words in brackets:
Kitty Genovese’s case supports the theory that the (many)………..1 the bystanders, the (little)
………2 likely to help the victim.
When she (be attacked)…………………..3 in the middle of the street, while she (cry out)
………..4for help, and the criminal (stab) ……………..5 her, many bystanders (watch)
………………….6 passively. Eventually, the victim (be killed)…………. 7
It (turn out)……………. 8 that whenever such things (happen)………………. 9 no one would take
the responsibility of helping because everybody (expect) ………….10 others to act.

2. What were the bystanders thinking? (express at least three ideas)


They were thinking that: 1……………..
2……………..
3……………..

COURSE 2 NOTICING THAT PEOPLE NEED HELP

Pre-reading: What did/was doing Mrs. Brown yesterday ? (G.Gălăţeanu, op. Cit. exercise 99, page
71).

Reading
Text (part 2), «Social Psychology», page 315-316.
The first step is to notice that someone needs help or, at least, that something out of the
ordinary is happening. Clearly, subjects in the seizure study could not help but notice the emergency.
In many situations, however, the problem isn’t always perceived. The presence of others can be
distracting and can divert attention away from indications of victim’s plight. As noted earlier, people
may fail to notice that someone needs help when they are caught up in their own self-concerns.
Consider the Biblical parable of the Good Samaritan (Luke 10:25-37). On the road from Jerusalem to
Jericho, three people passed a man lying half-dead by the roadside: a priest, a Levite, and a Samaritan.
The only one who helped was the Samaritan, a social and religious outcast in Jewish society of that
time. The story points out that people with low status are sometimes more virtuous than those with
high status and prestige. Why? Perhaps in part because high-status individuals tend to be busy people,
preoccupied with their own concerns. Such self-concerns may prevent them from noticing a victim in
need of assistance.
John Darley and Daniel Batson (1973) put this interpretation of the Biblical parable to an
ingenious test. They asked seminary students participating in their study to think about what they
wanted to say in an upcoming talk was to be based on the parable of the Good Samaritan; the other
half was expected to discuss the jobs seminary students enjoy most. All subjects were then instructed
to walk over to a nearby building where the speech would be recorded. At this point, subjects were told

28
either that they were running ahead of schedule, that they were right on time, or that they were already
a few minutes behind schedule. On the way to the other building, all subjects passed a research
confederate slumped in a doorway, coughing and groaning. Which of these future ministers stopped to
lend a helping hand? Surprisingly, the topic of the upcoming speech had little effect on helping. The
pressure of time, however, made a real difference. Of those who thought they were ahead of schedule,
63 percent offered help—compared with 45 percent of those who believed they were on schedule and
only 10 percent of those who had been told they were late. In describing the events that took place in
their study, Darley and Batson noted that “on several occasions a seminary student going to give his
talk on the parable of the Good Samaritan literally stepped over the victim as he hurried on his way!”

LANGUAGE FOCUS
New Vocabulary: to notice vs to observe a rule; at least; ordinary, common, usual, customary,
habitual; to perceive, perception; to distract; to divert attention;plight(of a victim); to be caught up in;
an outcast; to point out vs. to underline; to emphasize; upcoming, following; to cough; to groan; to
slump; be/run right on time/behind schedule/ahead of schedule.

The “self” concept


1. Give examples of compounds with “self”(e.g.: self-concern; self-awareness; self-hood; self-
preservation; self-assertion; self-esteem; self-dependence; self confidence; self aggrandizing attitudes;
self-control.
2. Briefly discuss about the Freudian interpretation of PERSONALITY: the three selves: the id,the
ego, the superego (the ideal self).
3. Match the concepts in column A to their appropriate definition in column B:

CONCEPT DEFINITION
A. self-actualization 1. unique identity, individuality
B. self-assertion 2. reliance on one’s capacities
C. self-composed 3. the process of understanding oneself and
developing one’s own capacities and talents
(coined by Abraham Maslow)
D. self-confidence 4. having one’s emotions under control
E. self-esteem 5. the ability to exercise the will so as to prevent
oneself from expressing strong emotion or
acting impulsively
F. selfhood 6. behaviour asserting one’s claims or rights,
expressing confidence in one’s proper merit or
aggressively asserting the superior quality of
one’s own mind and body
G. self-control 7. one’s good opinion of one’s dignity or worth

E.g.:

A. B. C. D. E. F. G.
3.

Practice
1.Word-web
Try to design a word-web for the key concept PSYCHIC PROCESSES.
2.Human Sounds (see B.J.Thomas, Intermediate Vocabulary, page 40).

GRAMMAR FOCUS
1.The Reflexive and the Emphatic Pronoun

29
SINGULAR PLURAL
Myself ourselves
yourself yourselves
Himself/herself/itself themselves

2.Past Simple vs.Past Progressive -recycling.


Formative Evaluation.

UNIT 5 CAREER DEVELOPMENT


COURSE 1 JOBS AND EMPLOYMENT

Pre-reading
Talk about the advantages and disadvantages of the jobs you are being prepared for.

Reading
Text:
Jane Smith has been out at the supermarket, to do the shopping. She’s just come back home. She’s
bought a new blouse to cheer herself up because the firm she’s been employed at is almost bankrupt.
She hasn’t removed the tag from the backside of the blouse, and she rushes to tear it away. She has
already put the blouse on when the postman rings at the door.
Five minutes later.
Jane is upset. She’s just opened a letter which has brought her bad news. She’s lost her job!
For the past year she’s worked as a bookkeeper at a firm. Now the majority of the firm shares have
been bought by another firm. The manager has kindly suggested looking for another job. Being given
the pink slip so soon, has taken her by surprise. She has recently bought some furniture and hasn’t paid
for it yet. Now she may not be able to pay at all, because she hasn’t saved any money lately.

LANGUAGE FOCUS
New Vocabulary: tag; bankrupt(cy); to tear –tore –torn (away); upset, sad, grieving; bookkeeper;
account(ancy), accountant, to account for, accountable for; share (B.E.)/stock (A.E.), shareholder;to be
given the pink slip, to be given the axe, to be fired; pay-paid-paid; to save (money/time).

GRAMMAR FOCUS
1.The verb look + preposition:
 to look for…= try to find;
 to look up/down to somebody = to respect, admire/to despise;
 to look after = to take care, protect…;

30
 to look out = to be careful.
Fill in the correct particle(s):
My sister-in-law is looking …..1a good baby-sitter who would look …..2her two-year-old daughter.
She looks …….3 to irresponsible people even if they looked …. 4to her.
2. Uncountable nouns: furniture; news; information; advice; luggage;
bread; soap; flour…
3.Partitive phrases used with uncountable nouns: an item of; a piece of; a bar of; a loaf of…
4.The Present Perfect
Use: to express:
 an action before another present action or moment;
 a completed action whose results are effective in the present;
 actions which happened at an unstated time;
 personal experiences or changes which have happened;
 emphasis on number ;
 a recently completed action.
Time Adverbials: ever, never, just, already, yet, lately, recently, so far, up to/till now, this
month/year…, for…,since…,
How long…? Questions.
Form
Affirmative: S + have/has + 3rd form of the verb…
Interrogative: Have/Has + S + 3rd form of the verb…?
Negative: S + have/has + not + 3rd form of the verb…(short form: haven’t/hasn’t).

Practice
1.Identify the present perfect forms of the verbs in the text and the expressions of time which
accompany (and require) such verb forms.
2.Jobs
What does a policeman do? Gives fines,…
lawyer
reporter
football player
physicist
physician

3.What has just happened ? (Penny Ur, page 92)


Make up sentences to match the cues:
 Oh!
 Oh?
 Congratulations!
 Welcome!
 Good bye!
 Thank goodness!
4.Write a resume using the Resume(hints)below.

RICH ANDREWS

OBJECTIVE

31
[Click here and type objective]

EXPERIENCE
1990–1994 Arbor Shoe Southridge, SC
National Sales Manager
 Increased sales from $50 million to $100 million.

 Doubled sales per representative from $5 million to $10 million.

 Suggested new products that increased earnings by 23%.

1985–1990 Ferguson and Bardell Southridge, SC


District Sales Manager
 Increased regional sales from $25 million to $350 million.

 Managed 250 sales representatives in 10 Western states.

 Implemented training course for new recruits — speeding


profitability.

1980–1984 Duffy Vineyards Southridge, SC


Senior Sales Representative
 Tripled division revenues for each sales associate.

 Expanded sales to include mass market accounts.

 Expanded sales team from 50 to 100 representatives.

EDUCATION
1971–1975 Southridge State University Southridge, SC
 B.A., Business Administration and Computer Science.

 Graduated Summa Cum Laude.

INTERESTS
Southridge Board of Directors, running, gardening, carpentry,
computers.

TIPS
Select text you would like to replace, and type your information.

5.Cover Letter (hints).

Company Name Here

12345 MAIN STREET • ANY CITY, STATE OR PROVINCE 12345-6789 • PHONE (123) 456-7890
FAX (123) 098-7654 • E-MAIL ME@MYCOMPANY.COM
32
[Click here and type return address]

23 March, 2011

[Click here and type recipient’s address]

Dear Sir or Madam:

Type your letter here. For more details on modifying this letter template, double-click (. To return to
this letter, use the Window menu.
Sincerely,

[Click here and type your name]


[Click here and type job title]

Letter Jumble (page 21, Practise Advanced Writing, Mary Stephens, Longman, 1997).
5.Write a cover letter to a human resource manager job entry advertised by the Coca Cola Company in
“Cotidianul” a week ago.
6.Write a fax (mind the format!) to the Central European University, Nador u. 9, Budapest, Hungary
1051, Tel: (361)3273069, Fax: (361)3273124, to Mrs. Gabriella Ivacs, to ask for information about the
summer courses organised in the year 20__ for postgraduate students.

COURSE 2 SELF-ESTEEM AND SOCIAL SUCCESS

Pre-reading
1.Express your agreement/disagreement to the 10 statements of the Rosenberg “Self-Esteem Scale”
(1965) below.

Statement Agree Disagree


1.I feel that I am a person of 1 2
worth, at least on an equal plane
with others.
2.I feel that I have a number of 1 2
good qualities.
3.All in all, I am inclined to feel 1 2
that I am a failure.
4.I am able to do things as well 1 2
as most other people.
5.I feel I do not have much to be 1 2
proud of.
6.I take a positive attitude 1 2
toward myself.
7.On the whole, I am satisfied 1 2
with myself.
8.I wish I could have more 1 2
respect for myself.
33
9.I certainly feel useless at 1 2
times.
10.At times I think I am no good 1 2
at all.

Text: “How Is Your Self-Esteem?”, Sociology, page 142.

Questions to consider
1.List three or four of your major roles and imagine yourself a failure in each of them in turn. What
steps could you take to protect your self-esteem? Are there any roles where failure could not be
rationalised, where failure would damage your self-esteem?
2.Where do you stand on the self-esteem scale? (Students calculate their score and compare them to
those obtained by other students in their group).

Supplementary Question
What is your opinion about the quality of the test?

Reading
Text: “How Is Your Self-Esteem?”, Sociology, page 142.

“The ten questions in the box above make up the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (1965), widely
used by psychologists and sociologists to measure self-esteem (Bohrenstedt & Fisher, 1986; Shamir,
1986).
Some have criticised the scale because it was high social desirability bias; people may distort
their answers to provide more positive images. This is not a problem, however, because the question at
issue is not whether people really do have anything to be proud of or whether they really are a success
or failure. Rather our concern is how they feel about themselves. Since we are asking about subjective
interpretations rather than objective facts, this is one scale in which everybody really can be above
average.
Some of the more important research findings on self-esteem are the following:
1.We always think better of ourselves than others do (Wylie, 1979). In this sense, the looking-
glass self is always a little distorted in our own favour.
2.Self-esteem turns out to be very stable. Even blows to major role identities, such as the loss of
a high status job, may not result in much loss of self-esteem (Shamir, 1986). This stability of self-
esteem testifies to the skill most of us have in negotiating our self-concepts.
3.People with high self-esteem are more confident and hence more open to new ideas and new
relationships. People with low self-esteem, on the other hand, are defensive and anxious, afraid to
challenge themselves or others (Michener et al., 1986).
__________________________________________________________________________________

When others’ responses are ambiguous—and they usually are, we just believe
what we want to.
__________________________________________________________________________________

We cannot all be above average. Yet studies on topics from intelligence to physical
attractiveness show that hardly anybody thinks he or she is below average and large majorities think
they are above average. How do people manage to protect their self-esteem ? They do so by:
1) Using the identity salience hierarchy to emphasise roles they do well;
2) Being very careful about their choice of looking glasses (Rosenberg, 1979); and
3) Simply interpreting others’ responses in ways that support a positive self-image. When others’
responses are ambiguous—and they usually are, we just believe what we want to (Felson, 1985).”

34
LANGUAGE FOCUS
New Vocabulary: bias; to distort; scale; average; rather; above vs below; looking glass, mirror;
confident; hence; to challenge; yet (in various contexts); salient, salience; to support; ambiguous.

Practice
Uses of MAKE versus DO.
MAKE DO
An attempt Lessons
Mistakes Homework
Noise Housework
A complaint An exercise
A fuss One’s best
Coffee/tea With(out) something
Breakfast (meal) A favour
Furniture (an object) Justice
One’s bed The washing up
A decision The shopping
An excuse One’s correspondence
Up one’s mind One’s hair
An offer Good/harm
A mess The cooking
A phone call One’s duty
A fortune Business with someone
Money The carpets
Trouble One’s room
Plans The dishes
A living Fine/well
arrangements The grand/polite
damage “Do as you would be done.”
progress “How do you do”
Someone rich/poor
wonders
sense
A speech
An impression
A will
A wish
A remark
Room for…
A trip/journey/voyage
A gesture/a discovery
Somebody angry/happy
A fresh/new start
It one’s business
A guess at
Oneself at home

35
Sure of
“To make a mountain out of a molehill.”
“To make both ends meet.”
“To make haste slowly.”
“Make hay while the sun shines.”

Practice
Fill in the blanks using either MAKE or DO at the right tense.
1. She has already…………..dinner.
2. It’s hard to ……….a decision at such short notice.
3. Patience ……….wonders (miracles).
4. You shouldn’t………….the polite if you don’t feel that way.
5. I hate……………the washing up.
6. …….as you would be done.
7. I haven’t …………up my mind as to what I should……next.
8. She……..her hair at the hairdresser’s last Wednesday.
9. Why haven’t you………your homework.
10. ………the housework is equivalent to chores (A.E.) / chares (B.E.).
11. She ……always……….a mountain out of a molehill.
12. ………hay while the sun shines.
13. ………haste slowly.
14. ………yourselves at home.
15. Don’t……such a fuss!

PRONUNCIATION : hierarchy.

Follow-up activities: Sociology, page 142, (Questions to Consider).


1. List three or four of your major roles and imagine
yourself a failure in each of them in turn. What
steps could you take to protect your self-esteem?
Are there any roles where failure could not be
rationalised, where failure would damage your
self-esteem?
2. Where do you stand on the self-esteem scale?

GRAMMAR FOCUS
1.The verb turn + preposition:
 Turn against = start disliking someone/something;
 Turn down = 1.reduce the volume of…; 2.refuse a request;
 Turn off = make something stop working;
 Turn on = make something work;
 Turn up = increase the volume of…
Practice
Fill in the correct particles:
The way Jim turned.…….1the offer, eventually made the boss turn………….2him. He didn’t either
listen or at least turn……….3the volume of the CD player while the boss was talking to him. On
the contrary, after a few minutes he even turned………4the volume.

36
The boss got angry and turned the player……..5 Yet, Jim immediately did the opposite, turned
it…….6and declined the offer.
2.The structures “Whether…or not/Whether…or whether”(see the text). Briefly comment on “What a
distressing contrast between the radiant intelligence of the child and the feeble mentality of the average
adult.” (S. Freud) using these structures (“Whether…or not/Whether…or whether”).

3.Long Adjectives
Degrees of Comparison
Positive Comparative Superlative
careful More careful than The most careful of/in
expensive Expensive expensive
demanding demanding demanding

Cross out the unnecessary words:


a) He is as very absent minded as his sister.
b) His insight on the issue was more deeper than expected.
c) The environment was the many most comfortable one available at the time.
d) The side effects were the less important for the chemical reaction.
e) The sooner the upcoming session the more faster the problem is worked out.

4.The Present Perfect Progressive vs the Present Perfect


Use: to express:
 an action which has started before another present action/moment, and has continued up to the
moment of speaking, and may continue even afterwards;
 a finished action before another present action/moment, to emphasise the idea of duration;
 actions which have visible results in the present;
 irritation, anger, annoyance, explanation or criticism.
Choose the right item:
1. Aunt Ellie is out of breath because she……………………in the orchard for a couple of hours.
a. worked; b. has worked; c. has been working.
2. She……………….many dozens of fruit so far.
a. picked; has picked; has been picking.
3. She still…………………….to lean the ladder against a tree, though she is tired.
a. want; b. wants; c. wanted.
4. Dropping out is not her style. So, she……….still………………her best to finish the job.
a. has done; b. has been doing; c. is doing.
Time Expressions:
for, since, how long.
Form:
Affirmative: Subject + have/has + been + verb-ing…
Interrogative: Have/Has + Subject + been + verb-ing…?
Negative: Subject + have/has + not + been + verb-ing….

Practice
Write a letter to a friend telling him/her about the things that have changed in your life over the last
year.

37
UNIT 6 EDUCATION AND THE SELF
COURSE 1 HUSKY HAD BEEN VERY HEALTHY

Pre-reading
Talking about health and diseases (contagious, chronic, common disease). The human body.
Reading
Text: HUSKY HAD BEEN VERY HEALTHY, pages108-111, Changing Times, Changing Tenses.

Husky Yellowhair is a little boy on the Navajo Indian Reservation in Arizona. It’s difficult for
his family to get to a doctor, because they don’t have a car or a telephone. Their closest neighbours
live ten miles* away.
Last month Husky had caught a cold. He’d felt sick for three days, so his mother wanted to
bring him to a doctor. She’d kept him in bed the whole time, and she’d given him medicine every day
for three days. Still, he didn’t feel any better. On the third day, he developed a fever. At that time,
Husky’s parents asked some friends to take them to the hospital.
At the hospital, Husky tried to sleep. He put his head in his mother’s lap. From time to time he
looked for the doctor, but he didn’t really want to see him. Husky had always been afraid of doctors
and hospitals. Up to that time, Husky had been very healthy, so he hadn’t seen many doctors. As he
was waiting, he grew more afraid. The family had waited for an hour when the doctor came.

38
The young doctor found the problem immediately. The cold had gone to Husky’s ears, and
he’d developed an ear infection. Although it wasn’t a serious disease, it had caused the pain and the
fever. With stronger medicine, Husky would be well soon.
* 1, 609. 3 metres

LANGUAGE FOCUS
Vocabulary: sick, disease, ill(ness); a fever, hay fever, feverish; lap, laptop; health(y); to catch (a cold);
to pick up an infection.

GRAMMAR FOCUS
1.The verb catch + preposition.
To catch Up = Become equal to others
with
on = become popular
On to = understand
Up on = bring/come up to date
2.The verb bring + preposition.
To bring along = to fetch with
on = cause
out = produce
up = educate/rear/raise children
3.The verb keep + preposition.
To keep up = Go forward
on = continue
off = maintain a distance
In(with somebody) = remain on good terms with
out = avoid

Practice
Fill in the blanks with the suitable prepositions (mind the explanations in bold in the brackets):
One strange happening caught…..(became popular) with dozens of people.
Two tomatoes were jogging in the street. One of them, some steps behind the other, cried…….
(exclaimed), “Keep…….(continue) jogging! I’ll keep…….(maintain a distance) for a few seconds.
And keep…………(avoid) trouble. I’m a bit out of breath. I’ll catch…………….(reach the same
stage) you.”
The tomato ahead couldn’t keep……(remain in good terms) with the one behind--after their
recent make up—because a bike ridden astray brought……..(caused) a horrible accident that simply
smashed the latter. [play on words: “ketch up” vs “catch up”].

4.The Article: Definite (“the”); Indefinite (“a”/”an”); Zero. (see grammar reference).
Fill in the blanks with “a”/”an”/”the” where an article is necessary:
1) He is …….1undergraduate student.
2) He goes to…….2university in …….3morning every day from Monday to Friday.
3) His friend came to ……4university yesterday to bring him …….5keys that he had forgotten
at…..6home.
4) Fortunately, ……7”T.M.” University is not very far from ……8district they live in.

5.The Past Perfect Tense


Use: to express an action before another past action/moment.
Time Expressions: before, for…, since…, after , just, already, yet, ever never, till/until, when, by, by
the time.
Form:
39
Affirmative: S + had + 3rd form of the verb ….
Interrogative: Had + S + 3rd form of the verb ….?
Negative: S + had + not + 3rd form of the verb ….(short form: hadn’t).

Choose the appropriate verb form:


1) He………………..away the old worn out hat two weeks before he went shopping for another one.
a. has thrown; b. had thrown; c. threw.
2) The client said he……..already………a shrink before.
a. had seen; b. saw; c. has seen.
3) We……cranky because of the bad weather yesterday.
a. are; b. was; c. were.
4) The ozone layer………………..thinner and thinner.
a. gets; b. is getting; c. get.

COURSE 2 BALANCING EQUITY AND EXCELLENCE

Pre-reading:
Group Work: Mention at least 5 shortcomings of the Romanian educational system in terms of equity
(equal opportunities and access) and excellence (competitive process and results, creativity). Briefly
comment on this issue.

Reading:
Text: Sociology, page383.

BALANCING EQUITY AND EXCELLENCE


In 1983, an 18-member National Commission on Excellence in Education issued a report that
was extremely critical of U.S. education. The report indicated that 13 percent of all 17-year-olds and as
much as 40 percent of minority youths are functionally illiterate. In a comparison of U.S. students with
students from 21 other nations, Americans scored the worst on 7 of 19 achievement tests and never
came in either first or second. The commission argued that the problem was caused not by factors
beyond our control but simply by lack of insight and will. The solutions recommended included:
1) a more demanding sequence of basic courses;
2) longer school days and school years, and
3) higher standards for school achievement.
Generally, the call for excellence in education has been well received. By 1984, 17 states had
instituted competency testing for high school graduation and 7 more were in the process of
implementing it. Increasingly, however, policy makers are facing the dilemma posed by the potentially
conflicting demands of equity and excellence (Alexander et al., 1985).
THE DROPOUT PROBLEM
Despite the sharp expansion in education in the last decades, a substantial minority of the
population has not graduated from high school. In 1984, fully 14 percent of all young adults 25-29 had
not graduated from high school; this figure is 21 percent among blacks and 41 percent among Hispanic
young adults.
These dropouts pose a potentially major social and economic problem. As one study
summarised the issues:
“Dropping out of high school is associated with an array of individual and social costs. For
the individual, failure to complete high school is associated with limited occupational and economic
prospects, disenfranchisement from society and its institutions, and substantial loss of personal
income over his or her lifetime. For society, premature school-leaving is associated with increased
40
expenditures for government assistance to individuals and families, higher rates of crime, and
maintenance of costly programmes for purposes such as employment and training. (Steinberg et al.,
1984:113).”
For all these reasons, the dropout problem is a social policy issue. It is an issue that the reports
on excellence ignore altogether. An important question for policy makers is whether steps made to
increase excellence—higher standards, more basics, longer school years or school days—will increase
the dropout problem. If imposition of higher standards increases the SAT scores of those students who
remain but doubles the dropout rate, especially among minority or disadvantaged students, will we
have gained? Or, as one recent report claims, will this be a “blueprint for failure”? (McDill et al.,
1986:139).

LANGUAGE FOCUS
To issue, an issue; (il)literate, (il)literacy; achieve(ment); youth(s); to argue, argument; beyond; lack of
insight and will; will, testament; demanding; sequence; call for excellence; politics vs. policy; to pose;
to drop out, a dropout; array; disenfranchisement; loss vs. gain; income; expenditure; to maintain,
maintenance; costly, expensive, dear; altogether; to impose, imposition; to take the floor; compulsory;
eel; squirrel; nervous breakdown; to double vs. to treble; to claim; blueprint; to sweep (over) –swept –
swept; tide; mediocre, mediocrity; tough; trend, tendency; to attempt; sharp expansion; despite, in spite
of.

Punctuation marks:
 comma ,
 full stop .
 semicolon ;
 colon :
 inverted commas “ ”
 hyphen -
 question mark ?
 exclamation mark !
 dots …

GRAMMAR FOCUS
I. The Present Perfect and the Past Perfect (recycling).

Practice
1.Identify the present perfect and the past perfect forms of the verbs in the text above.
2.How much freedom should children have? (B.J. Thomas, Advanced Vocabulary and Idiom,
Longman, 1989, page 6).
II. The Past Perfect Progressive
Use: to express:
 an action continuing up to a specific time in the past;
 a continuous, past action which had visible results or effect in the past.
Time Expressions: before, for.., since…, after , just, aready, yet, ever never, till/until, when, by, by
the time.
Form:
Affirmative: S + had + verb -ing….
Interrogative: Had + S + verb -ing….?
Negative: S + had + not + verb -ing….(short form: hadn’t).

Choose the correct item:


1) She……………in a stable family before she got married in 2000.
41
a. has been brought up; b. was brought up; c. had been brought up.
2) Harry………..an ugly accident a couple of years before they moved house.
a. had; b. had had; c. has had.
3) He is weary. He………………….at the boring project all day.
a. has been working; b. has worked; c. had worked.
4) They were worried. The police……………….for their kidnapped children for a fortnight without
finding a clear lead.
a. had looked; b. has been looking; c. had been looking.
5) He……………..all the possible assumptions until yesterday morning when he had that illumination.
a. had exhausted; b. had been exhausting; c. has exhausted.

Listening
Listen to “The Animal School” fable and find the flaws that such a school has, from the points of
view of equity and excellence (see the tape script).
Also comment on “The family that learns together, earns together.”
Tape script
The Animal School

Once upon a time, an animal meeting was held in the forest. The issue at stake was animal
education. The animals were going to set up a school. An Animal School Board was elected.
Despite some stifled protest, the Animal School Board decided on a common curriculum for all
the animals. The four compulsory curriculum areas were: Running, Climbing, Swimming, and Flying.
There were no optional subjects. All the animal students had to attend all these four types of classes.
But, no matter how dedicated efforts the students made, some difficulties were encountered.
The duck was very good at Swimming, even better than the teacher, but it got poor grades at
Flying; and the Running classes were a disaster as the duck hurt its legs because of over-exercise so
that even the performance at Swimming got lower.
The squirrel was excellent at Climbing but had some problems with taking off from the ground
at Flying as it expressed preference to fly down from a tree. Because of the stress of all the Swimming
lessons it had a nervous breakdown and dropped out.
Some similar experiences had the rabbit—though it was a brilliant student at Running.
Eventually, it had to see an animal psychotherapist because of the enormous effort made at the other
classes.
Anyway, by the end of the school year, a common eel ended up valedictorian as it could swim
well, was able to climb, crawl and fly a little, no matter how small and insignificant it was.
(adapted from the fable quoted by Stephen Covey)

42
UNIT 7 FUTUROLOGY – THE SCIENCE OF TOMORROW
COURSE 1 THE FUTURE OF OUR WORLD IN THE NEXT MILLENIUM

Pre-reading:
1.Word Web: words related to the key word “FUTURE” (E.g.: anticipate, forecast, foretell, predict,
prognosis,…).
2.Dialogue between an optimist and a pessimist (pages 123-124, Changing Times, Changing Tenses).
Fill in the dialogue (use the right replies).

Reading
Text “The Car of the Future”, (Changing Times, Changing Tenses, pages 120-121).

LANGUAGE FOCUS
New Vocabulary: to be in trouble, ask,/look for trouble, troublesome, troublemaker/shooter, to get
someone into trouble, troublous, disturbed, to fish in troubled waters; air conditioning; gas (A.E.) vs
petrol (B.E.); lights, headlight, light vs darkness, light/dark colour (blue), light (adj.) vs heavy; foot –
feet (goose, tooth); 1 mile = km; to be short of, shortage; supply, to supply.

43
GRAMMAR FOCUS
1.Expressing comparison with: “as + adj….as + noun”:
(see Penny Ur, op. cit., page 57). E.g.: “as thin as ice”, “as white as snow”.
2.Expressing future time
I. The Simple Future
Use: to express:
 an action we are not sure about (use of “probably”);
 hopes, fears, threats, on-the-spot decisions, offers, promises, warnings, predictions,
comments (with expect, hope, believe, I’m afraid, I’m sure, I know, I think probably);
 a prediction or a future action or event which may or may not happen.
Time Expressions: tomorrow, tonight, next week/year/.., in two days, the day after tomorrow, soon,
in a week/fortnight, on the 1st of June, in 2003, a.s.o..
Form:
Affirmative: S + shall/will + verb ….(short form: ‘ll).
Interrogative: Shall/will + S + verb ….?
Negative: S + shall/will + not + verb ….(short form: shan’t/won’t).
3. The verb “take” + preposition:
after = to resemble
down = to write/record
for = to mistakenly assume that sb/sth. Is sb./sth. else
For granted = to assume as a fact that does not need any confirmation
In = to receive, admit; to reduce the size of; to include/comprise
off = to remove; to depart (aeroplanes)
over = to take control/possesion of…
to = to adopt as a habit/practice/hobby

Practice
Grammar exercises (G. Gălăţeanu, op. cit., Ed. Albatros, 1980, - v. şi alte ediţii, pag. 216-228) from
various grammar books or from the suggested references.

Speaking
Briefly express (in approximately 200 words) how you imagine the future of psychology in the next
millenium. (group or individual work, as best suitable).
Suggestions: machinery development and human brain, coping with physical impairments: deafness,
dumbness, blindness, mental retardness, a.s.o..

COURSE 2 WOMEN – PAST AND FUTURE

Pre-reading
In which way do you think the condition of women has changed lately (for better/worse)? Give
arguments.

Reading
Text “Psychoanalysis and Women”
44
(Book Review on “The Psychology of Women: Psychoanalytic Perspectives,” by Arnold Richards and
Phyllis Tyson)
This book compares Freud’s theories with then—contemporary theories about the mind of
women. Valuable history is contained in the pages of this book –both the history of Freud and his
relationships with women and the history of various theoretical trends in examining the psychology of
women. Other topics include object choice in women, bisexuality, the meaning of perineal activity,
and genital anxiety. More than 24 analysts contributed to the 20 chapters in the book; most of the
contributors are from the US, but the book also includes 2 chapters from British training analysts
associated with the British Psychoanalytical Society. This volume reflects a relatively homogeneous
perspective about certain women. It describes women who are troubled with conflicts about desire,
where desire is misunderstood as dangerous.
Which women are described? Janice Lieberman answers this question in her commentary on
the art chosen to illustrate in 6 sections of the book—Freud and the Feminine, The Theory of the
Psychology of Women, The Body in the Psychology of Women, Motherhood, The Psychology of
Homosexuality, and Women and Training and Research. Lieberman states, “These art works for the
most part show women still in conflict at fin de siècle, not completely resolved as to the acceptance of
their bodies or roles”. It is these troubled women whom the authors describe in their clinical
observations.
What is the perspective of the authors? Their predominant psychoanalytic perspective presents
women as having “primary feminity,” that is, ”female development proceeds along lines that generate
anxiety [called female genital anxiety] about damage and loss similar to the fear of castration that
troubles males”. Disappointing is the fact that this perspective and the “re-formulations and more
innovative new formulations of Freud’s major theories of female psychology” recapitulate Freud’s
basic misunderstanding of desire. In other words, the authors know that Freud’s psychology of women
is inaccurate, and they argue against Freud’s perspective. However, their contributions do not further
the reader’s understanding of the psychology of women. Instead, they perpetuate old views by
applying Freud’s misunderstanding to troubled women.
Freud’s misunderstanding of desire, for example, is expressed in his conceptualisation of the
Oedipus complex: Freud proposed that a soon at the age of 3 to 5 years passionately desires his mother
and views his father as a competitor. Out of his own innate aggression, Freud’s theory continues: the
son wishes to destroy his father. When the son recognises that his father’s superior strength could turn
against him, he suffers the castration anxiety. This anxiety, according to Freud, causes the child to
give up his desire for his mother, to reconstruct his desire as dangerous, and finally to identify with his
father’s aggression.
An alternative interpretation, one emerging from an understanding of attachment behaviours
and from early mother-infant observation research, is that the son reaches out in innocence to his
mother, loving out of his own nature the one that his father also happens to love. The son has neither
sexual desire for his mother nor murderous rage for his father. […]
Applying the alternative interpretation of desire to the daughter, the daughter reaches out in
innocence to her mother, loving out of her own nature the one whom her father loves. Furthermore,
she reaches out in innocence to her father, loving out of her own nature the one whom her mother
loves. “In initial attunement, both identification and affection are united and focused on the primary
caregivers regardless of the gender of the caregivers or the infant… Undifferentiated experiences
within the caregiver’s/infant’s attunement are experienced as physical or bodily events and thus are
internalised without awareness of separateness or conflict and are maintained with a strong sense of
security.”
If the daughter’s tenderness is fostered, she will strengthen her identification with mother and
her bond of affection with father. “In differentiation after 18 months of age, boys retain affection for
the first caregiver (mother) but shift identification to the father. Girls retain identification with the first
caregiver but shift affectional ties to the father. The shifted function, whether it is the shift of
identification or the shift or affection, must rely on mental images. Mental images are developed with
greater awareness of separateness between the child and the parent… The function (identification or
affection) that is shifted becomes more highly invested and more vulnerable to shame because it is
45
experienced as less secure than the earlier state where the functions were fused and experienced
without awareness of emotional separateness. Although the child gives up a degree of emotional
security, differentiation and the shift of function increase psychological autonomy… For girls, then,
gender identity occurs through the integration of ongoing identification with mother. For boys, gender
identity is established as being different from mother.

LANGUAGE FOCUS
New Vocabulary: to reach out attunement; caregiver, caretaker; “regardless of” vs “regarding”; to
shift, a shift, shifted; to rely on/upon, reliable weather/person; to fuse; to give up; to foster;
tender(ness); strong, strength, to strengthen; gender; degree vs rank or grade; to occur, occurrence;
ongoing (adj.).

GRAMMAR FOCUS
1.The verb give + preposition
in = to hand in/give smth to an authorized person/surrender
off = to release/produce (vapour)
out = to become exhausted (supplies,power); to announce; to fail/collapse
up = to leave/abandon/surrender; to no longer protect.

2.The Future Progressive


Use: to express:
 an action in progress at a certain time in the future.
Time Expressions: tomorrow at 5 p.m., tonight from 7 to 9 p.m., a.s.o..
Form:
Affirmative: S + shall/will + be + verb -ing….(short form: ‘ll).
Interrogative: Shall/will + S + be + verb -ing….?
Negative: S + shall/will + not + be + verb -ing….(short form: shan’t/won’t).

Practice
1.Finish up the following text (from a teenager’s point of view, using the simple future and the future
progressive).
When My about to Divorce Parents Will Be in Court
My parents have received a subpoena for their first divorce session. So, tomorrow at 10 a.m., they will
be trying to reach a consensus, and their lawyers will be bargaining the terms of divorce……
2.The Career Woman
Fill in the table below to describe the existential situation of career women nowadays:
Issue at stake Drawbacks Advantages
Building a family life
Children – upbringing and education
Supporting their husbands
a.s.o.

46
UNIT 8 POWER
COURSE 1 POWER AND LEADERSHIP

Pre-reading
What is a leader going to do if he prefers using:
CONCEPT DEFINITIO FAVOURITE REPLY
N
Power 1. a.
Coercion 2. b.
Authority 3. c.
Traditional authority 4. d.
Charismatic authority 5. e.
Rational-legal authority 6. f.
Influence 7. g.
Match the concepts to their corresponding definitions and to their suitable replies (see the two
columns below).

47
DEFINITIONS REPLIES
Exercise of power through force or threat of force. “I know you’ve been wondering how you might
serve me, …”(unlikely).
Authority based on sanctity of time-honoured “I don’t feel very well today; would you help me
routines. mow the lawn?”
Authority based on submission to a set of “Do it or else.”
rationally established rules.
Ability to get others to act as one wishes in spite “I’m your father and I told you to mow the
of their resistance; includes coercion and lawn.”
authority.
Not power, but ability to persuade others to “It is your turn to mow the lawn; I did it last
change their decisions. week.”
Authority based on extraordinary characteristics “It is your duty to mow the lawn.”
of leader.
Power supported by norms and values. “I know you don’t want to mow the lawn, but you
have to do it anyway.”

Reading
Text page 391, Sociology
Political Institutions
“Power inequalities are built into almost all social institutions. In institutions as varied as the
school and the family, roles associated with status pairs such as student/teacher and parent/child
specify unequal power relationships as the normal and desirable standard.
In a very general sense, political institutions are all those institutions concerned with the
social structure of power. This general definition includes many of the institutions of society. The
family, the workplace, the school, and even the church or synagogue have structured social inequality
in decision making. The most prominent political institutions, however, is the state.
The State as the Dominant Political Institution
The state is the social structure that successfully claims a monopoly on the legitimate use of
coercion and physical force within a territory.
Legitimacy of the State
The stability of any political system, democratic or authoritarian, depends on the degree to
which it is supported by society’s norms and values. If the legitimacy of the system is widely
supported, then it can govern by authority.
Lack of legitimacy can be a problem for both democratic and authoritarian systems. Many of
the democratic governments of South America, for example, have foundered because their citizens did
not share strong norms about the superiority of rational-legal authority. Lacking these norms, they
offered little support for democratic governments and little resistance when military juntas or other
dictators took the reins of government.”

LANGUAGE FOCUS
New Vocabulary: (in)equality; similes; a pair of; coercion; charisma; threat, menace; to submit to,
submission; to persuade, to convince; to mow the lawn; duty, to be on duty, to do one’s duty, duty-
free; one’s turn.

GRAMMAR FOCUS
1.Expressing intention about the future: “be going to” future.

Practice
What are you going to do when you graduate from university ?
(Mention at least three things).
2.Expressing actions in the immediate future:”be about to” future.
48
Follow up Activity:
Pictures from Magazines
What are they about to do?
He’s/she’s about to…..
3.Expressing formally planned future actions with the Simple Present.
4. Expressing informally planned future actions with the Present Progressive.

COURSE 2 ADVERTISEMENTS

Pre-reading
Discuss about the quality and the psychological impact of advertisements on ordinary people. (in
groups or individually).

Reading
Advertisements (see the texts below).

LANGUAGE FOCUS
New Vocabulary: tuition; staff; range; accomodation; outstanding, remarkable; effective; race (speed
contest; categories of people and animals with the same physical traits).

To praise
Price
Prize

To advertise
Advertisement = ad

Clipped words
Refrigerator – fridge
Autobus – bus
Advertisement - ad
Laboratory - lab
Practice
1.Identify the verb forms that express future time in the advertisements below and talk about their use.
Text 1 RUN FOR THE MONEY
Every year at least 1000 runners begin their marathon race around cities in the world. Most of them
usually stay in the race to the end. The prize is money.
The runners will finish the race at different times. Some will have run for three hours; some will
have run for three and one-half hours; and some will have run for much longer.
Each runner will have used his own special method to keep going. There are old athletes who will
have run every marathon race for thirty years. They haven’t ever won any prizes for speed, but they’ll
have finished more races than other participants.

2.Ask questions starting with:


When will……..………………………………………………………………?
How long……………………………………………………………………...?
How often……………………………………………………………………...?

Text 2 RIPOFF COLLEGE CENTRE FOR ENGLISH


49
ORGANIZES COURSES FOR JUNIORS (aged 6-17) AND ADULTS (18+)
4 hours tuition mornings
highly qualified staff
wide range of teaching techniques
excellent family accomodation
Courses start on June, the 15th.

Text 3. Objects in virtual reality are produced by a computer, and they appear three-dimensional.
Virtual reality in video games and cartoons is already widely used. In the future, we will see
more serious uses of it.
An outstanding surgeon is planning to practise an operation on a virtual patient. Virtual-patient
surgery is about to become a method for the effective training of medicine students and for research in
this field or in the related ones.
Engineers and architects are going to use virtual reality to make their own projects to work
better.
Follow-up activity
Write an essay about the impact which virtual reality will have on the social sciences
(psychology) of the future.

UNIT 9. EMPATHY
COURSE 1 DOES ALTRUISM EXIST ?

Pre-reading
What do you think “empathy” actually refers to?
Reading
Text DOES ALTRUISM EXIST ? , Social Psychology, p.302 (Part 1).

50
LANGUAGE FOCUS
New Vocabulary: welfare; to confine, to limit; an account; downtrodden, to tread; to stress, to
emphasise; to draw a bottomline; nevertheless; to empathise; to assist, assistance, assistant; plight;
distress; instead of.
Practice
Make up at least five sentences with “out of….”. (E.g.: She helped him out of pity.)

GRAMMAR FOCUS
1.Adjectives describing character: (un)selfish, altruistic, sociable, (un)reliable, easy-going, cheerful,
friendly, surly, withdrawn, optimistic, pesimistic, fun-loving, bossy, shallow; open-hearted, tight-
fisted, narrow-minded,….
2.Modal Verbs
Expressing ability (skill and achievement).
Modal verb To express Examples
CAN Ability in the present or How well can you speak German?
future
COULD/WAS ABLE TO Ability in the past Two years ago, Jane could hardly speak
Ability in the past for German, but now she can speak it very
repeated actions well.
He could/was able to swim a lot when he
was young.
COULDN’T/WASN’T For repeated or single actions Grandma couldn’t/wasn’t able to find her
ABLE TO wallet.
I WILL/WON’T BE Skill and achievement in the I can’t use the computer very well yet,
ABLE TO future but by the end of the university year I’ll
be able to use it perfectly.
If you keep up learning throughout the
course, you’ll be able to master English.
COULD + PERFECT For past ability, when the I could have given you a helping hand.
INFINITIVE action was not performed; Why didn’t you let me know in due time?
When we don’t know The cake has “vanished”! Who could
whether it was performed or have taken it ?
not; You could have anticipated it !
To express irritation at or
reproach for the non-
performance of an action.

Practice
1.Identify the modal verbs in the given text and specify what they express.
2.How many things can you think of that:
 Impressed you?
 Made you happy?
 Bothered you?
 Annoyed you?

COURSE 2 DOES ALTRUISM EXIST ? (Part 2).

Pre-reading
Match the jumbled phrases to restore the proverbs:
No news is… Is lost.
Out of sight,… Without fire
51
All that glitters… Grow fonder.
Where there is a will… Leap.
Look before you… Before the horse.
When in Rome… Sorry.
Make hay while … Out of mind.
Don’t put the cart… Good news.
You can’t have your cake and… The best teacher.
Better safe than… Is not gold.
Experience is… Run deep.
The more you have,… Eat it.
There’s no smoke… The more you want.
Absence makes the heart… There is a way.
Still waters… While the sun shines.
He who hesitates…. Do as the Romans do.

Reading
Text, p.302, Social Psychology (Part 2).

LANGUAGE FOCUS
New Vocabulary: to state, to assert, to affirm, to insist, to maintain, to claim; “Out of sight, out of
mind.”; sympathy; puzzle (verb & noun), puzzled; proposition, to propose, proposal; so long (leave-
taking formula).
Practice
Give suitable leave-taking formulas for the following contexts (mind the formal and informal ways of
addressing to people).
 You’ve been talking to a Professor at the University; you’re in a hurry because you have
an appointment and you’re leaving.
 You’re in another room in the students’ hostel; it’s late at night, and you want to go to your
own room.
 You need to leave the auditorium earlier than you should, and you have to apologize for
that and to say good-bye to your peers (fellow students).

GRAMMAR FOCUS
Expressing possibility and probability
MAY Perhaps, very possible John may be back tomorrow.
MIGHT Slight possibility They might come here for Christmas this year.
MAY/MIGHT + Possibility in the present He may/might visit his parents next summer.
Present Infinitive or future
MAY/MIGHT + In speculations about past She may/might have gone on a trip to Ireland.
Perfect Infinitive actions
COULD possibility Frank could still be in the library . He is a
bookworm.
COULD BE As an alternative of I wonder the cat is. It may/might/could be in the
MAY/MIGHT BE kitchen with its paw in the fish bowl.
CAN possibility I can’t plunge in the swimming pool. There isn’t
enough water in it.
CAN Occasional possibility Scarlet fever can be quite dangerous.
CAN’T It does not seem You have rested a lot lately. You can’t be
possible./I don’t think. weary.
MUST It is almost certain./I He looks cross. He must have problems at
think. home.
Practice
52
1.Abstract picture.
What May Be?
Might
Could
Can

2.Invisible object.
Drawing in the air an object and then guessing what it:
 May/
 Might/
 Can/
 Could be.

3.Rearrange the lines of the poem “Death Sweet”, by Thomas Lovell Beddoes, in a logical order, to
reconstruct the poem:
JUMBLED LINES No./LOGICAL ORDER
A. . Getting a length beyond our tedious selves;
B. Is it not sweet to die ? for, what is death, 1.
C. Spilling our woes, crushing our frozen hopes,
D. Then, if the body felt, what were its sense;
E. But sighing that we ne’er may sigh again,
F. But trampling the last tear from poisonous sorrow,
G. Turning to daisies gently in the grave,
H. In love and the enamelled flower of song ?
I. And passing like an incense out of man ?
J. If not the soul’s most delicate delight
K. When it does filtrate, through the pores of thought,
Insert numbers under the heading “No./LOGICAL ORDER”. The first line has been already
identified for you, as an example. You may get several logically valid ways of reconstructing the
poem. This may mean that you have your own poetic skills and outlook, id est (=that is), you are
creative yourself. However, you may find out the order of the lines of the poem, as the poet himself
imagined them from the table below.
A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K.
3. 1. 5. 7. 2. 4. 8. 11 6 9 10.
. . .

53
UNIT 10 WHAT SHOULD I DO ?

COURSE 1 PROFESSIONAL ETHICS

Pre-writing
Mention a few things that you are/are not allowed to do when you perform your profession of
psychologist/psychotherapist/shrink, a.s.o.. Give further suggestions (added to those in the table
below).
You may do/should do/must do You may not do
Thorough investigations; Divulge your patients’ secrets;
Gain the patients’ confidence; Harm your patient’s self through your actions;
Transfer your patient’s affection towards Engage into close affective relationships with your
another object if he/she clings too much to patients;
you;
Do your best to arouse your patient’s Recommend/advise ways of actions, according to
responsibility for his/her own choices; your will, to your patients;
Be balanced; Lose temper;
Be neutrally benevolent. Talk too much yourself, instead of creating conditions
for your patient to talk about his/her problems.

54
Rearrange the courses of actions listed in the table above (including those you have added), under the
right heading in the chart below:
COURSE OF ACTION
PERMITTED DESIRABLE NECESSARY COMPULSORY(MANDATORY) PROHIBITED
…… …. ….. ….. …..

GRAMMAR FOCUS
Expressing permission
Formal and informal ways of expressing permission.

MODAL VERB USE EXAMPLES


CAN Informal. Can I borrow your car, Dad ?
COULD More polite Could I borow your car, Dad ?
MAY Formal May I use your phone ?
MIGHT More formal Might I see your identity card,
Sir ?
COULD/WAS,WERE Permission in the past On weekends we were allowed to
ALLOWED TO stay up late.
MUSTN’T Denying permission by You mustn’t stop your car here !
law/norms/rules
CAN’T Refusing permission You can’t enter unless you are
wearing a tuxedo.

Practice
1.Writing: You are in a university campus. Describe your life in the campus. Mention at least five
things you may do in the campus, and five that you may not/mustn’t do.
2.Situational Dialogue
Draw an ideal/imaginary university campus. Place yourself somewhere in the campus. Then, ask your
peers to give you directions to another place in the campus. Use the phrases in the box below.

Asking for directions Giving directions


 Excuse me, how can/could I get to…  You may go straight ahead
 I can’t find my way in the campus. Could you tell me  Turn right/left after the …
how to get to……..  It’s opposite the…
 It’s nearby the…
 It’s on the right/left side of
the street.
 …until you get to….

COURSE 2 HABIT FORMATION


Pre-reading
Match the definitions in column B to the phrases with “habit” in column A.
55
No. Column A. Column B.
1. “Don’t let yourself get/fall into bad habits!” A To have the habit of…
2. “It’s hard to get out of a habit!” B. To acquire a habit(about oneself)
3. “Don’t get your child into the habit of waiting C. To abandon a habit
until someone else works out his problems!”
4. “We almost always act from force of habit.” D. To make someone acquire a habit
5. “He is in the habit of talking too much when he E. To do things because habit has become
isn’t supposed to.” more powerful than one’s will.

Reading
Text “Habit Formation”, from “General Psychology”, pp.204-205.
Habit Formation
Many forms of behaviour have become so automatic through practice that they appear to be
natural. Habit formation begins early in life. By the time an individual reaches adulthood he has
“learned” the habit.
The Functioning of Habit. Many everyday habitual forms of behaviour serve an individual
well as time and energy savers. From the hour he arises until he goes to bed he proceeds from one
activity to another. In ways acceptable to his particular cultural environment, he engages in certain
habitual activities, such as walking, talking, dressing, working, eating, driving an automobile, reading
the newspaper, listening to a radio programme or watching television.
It is only when a new situation arises or an emergency occurs requiring non-habitual behaviour
approaches that habit fails to function adequately. Then conscious and specific reactions are needed.
Psychological Principles Involved. Many habits are attained unconsciously through imitation;
others represent planned and practised skills. In general, the habits utilised in everyday living are
valuable to the individual in that they free him from concern about petty details. He is enabled thereby
to devote his time and energy to creative activity.
Some habits represent unpleasant, non-constructive behaviour that may be harmful for the
individual possessing the habit as well as for his associates who become the victims of his bad habit.
Some “bad” habits are: excessive use of hard liquor, swearing, laziness, lying, non-planned stealing,
proneness to outbursts of rage without cause.
The psychologist William James offered suggestions for the building of habits. These
suggestions are especially adaptable to the breaking of undesirable habits and the acquiring of new
ones. The important principles include:
1. Launch the new habit with as strong and decided initiative as possible.
2. Never permit an exception to occur till the new habit is securely rooted in your life.
3. The need for securing success at the outset is imperative.
4. Abrupt acquisition of the new habit is the best way, if there is a real possibility of
carrying it out.
5. “Seize the very first possible opportunity to act on every resolution you make, and on
every emotional prompting you may experience in the direction of the habits you aspire
to gain.”
6. “Keep the faculty of effort alive in you by a little gratuitous exercise every day.”
The suggestions given by James can be supplemented by three others.
1. Utilise voluntary practice to break an involuntary habit.
2. Utilise the conditional response method to substitute a new habit for an old one.
3. Establish definite mental specifications for the new habit.

LANGUAGE FOCUS
New Vocabulary: habit, habitual, habitat, habitable (fit to be lived in), habitation (living in), to
habituate oneself, to attain a habit; to proceed; to arise; petty; thereby; to save (1.to rescue; 2.to keep
money; 3.to spend time); to be prone to, proneness to; outburst; outbreak; root (noun and verb); outset
(noun); to prompt; resolution, resolute.
56
Practice
Add the suitable negative prefixes (un-, in-, il-, im-, non-, dis-) to the following words: desirable,
constructive, definite, possible, legible, literate, pleasant, important, known, probable, relevant,
responsible, formal, persistent.

GRAMMAR FOCUS
1.The verb “carry” + preposition
Carry + … Meaning
Out Fulfil, achieve
On Continue, conduct, manage
Away Cause to lose self control
Off Win, succeed
Through Help (through difficulties)
Fill in the sentences with the right verb phrases of the verb “carry”.

2.Expressing advice
MODAL VERB USE EXAMPLES
Should/ought to/had better Advice You should see a dentist.
Shouldn’t Criticism He shouldn’t swim in the sea at such a low
temperature.
Should(n’t) have/ought(not) to Criticism after the You shouldn’t have gone to that party!
have event

Practice
The psychologist William James (see last paragraph, page 204 in the text), named some principles
of breaking undesirable habits. Rephrase them by using the modal verb structures: “should + verb” or
“ought to + verb”, in order to express advice.

UNIT 11 DECISION MAKING


COURSE 1 INTERESTS AND DECISION MAKING

Pre-reading
When you make decisions are you mainly interested in their effects:
 in the short run ?
 in the long run ?
Reading
Text Decision Making and Duration of Interest, from General Psychology, pp.163-164. (Part 1).
LANGUAGE FOCUS
New Vocabulary: to delay, to cancel, to postpone, to put off (“Never put off till tomorrow, what you
can do today.”); to reveal, to unravel, revelation; part-time, full-time activity; to deny, denial; remote,
far off/away; to vary with.
Practice
Fill in the suitable verb forms/tenses of “make” and “do”. (recycling).
GRAMMAR FOCUS
Expressing obligation and necessity
MODAL USE EXAMPLES
VERB
Must Strong obligation or personal All citizens must observe the laws of a country.
feelings of necessity
57
Have to External necessity I have to attend all the lectures and seminars.
(others decide it is necessary).
I’ve got to Informal, it’s necessary I’ve got to finish my assignment today.

Exercises (suggested reference: Mike Watkins, Practise Your Modal Verbs, Longman, 1996).

COURSE 2 INTERESTS AND PERSONALITY

Pre-reading
In what kind of terms can you see the relationship between personal interests, micro-group interests,
macro-group interests ? What part do laws play within such a context ?
Reading
Text (Part 2).
LANGUAGE FOCUS
New Vocabulary: science, scientist, man of science, scientific(al)(ly); under circumstances; to
interfere; outcome, result; great vs big vs large; anxious, anxiety.
Practice
Fill in “great”, “big”, or “large”, as required by the contexts below:
1.She did………in her exams and everybody congratulated her.
2.The room was so ……… that we wondered how they could possibly heat it in winter.
3.Suddenly, a …….bear came up right behind them.
4.He made a …….mistake to let her down in such a way.
5.She was a ……..skier and she enjoyed the …….spaces that rolled up in front of her in the mountains
while she was skiing.
GRAMMAR FOCUS
Expressing absence of necessity or prohibition
Mustn’t Prohibition You mustn’t do drugs.
Can’t Prohibition You can’t enter the room if you are not a member of the
club.
Needn’t It is not necessary You needn’t put on thick clothes. It’s getting warm.
Don’t It is not necessary in the You don’t need/have to finish the job right away.
need/have to present/future
Didn’t It was not necessary in the He didn’t need to go to university yesterday because
need/have to past they didn’t have any lectures or seminars.

Practice
1.Tick or cross in the slots under the right modal verb heading from the grid below for each of the
following phrases which refer to the rights of children:
Phrases which refer to the rights of children:
1. be forced to work in order to earn a living;
2. spoil me;
3. express warmth, honesty, and understanding;
4. encourage me when I seem terribly scared of something;
5. be forced to beg in order to earn money;
6. punish me too hard;
7. relate to me as if I were one of your friends;
8. teach me not to have the feeling that I’m good for nothing;
9. be given to adoption unless in his/her own interest;
10. overprotect me from the consequences of my deeds;
11. avoid patronizing me;
12. be punished for anything, unless proved guilty;
13. answer to my silly questions;

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14. be physically abused;
15. be pushed to doing drugs;
16. learn from my own experience;
17. use verbal force to convince me;
18. make promises and then forget to keep them;
19. make me feel that my mistakes are “sins”;
20. make me do things myself, in order to become a responsible person.
Tick and cross in the grid next to the number of the phrase (the numbers from 1. to 20. which you
may notice in front of each of the phrases above):
No. Must Should Mustn’t Shouldn’t
1. x x v x
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

UNIT 12 “GONE WITH THE WAVE”


COURSE 1 GROUP THINK

Pre-reading
Give as many words as you can which are formed with the prefix “over”.
E.g.: overrule, overestimate, overdo, overcome, overreact, overdraw, overflow, overlook, overload,
overpay, overtake, overwhelm, overwork, a.s.o..

Reading
Text: Group Think, from Social Psychology, p.506, (from “Janis diagnoses…” to “…cut out of
the loop”).
…Janis diagnoses the causes of groupthink in terms of three major factors: group cohesiveness,
group structure, and the situational context. Since highly cohesive groups are more likely to reject
members with deviant opinions, they are more susceptible to groupthink than more fragmented
groups that can tolerate a wider range of opinion among their members. Group structure is also
important. Groups that are composed of people from similar backgrounds, isolated from other,
directed by a strong leader, and lacking in systematic procedures for making and reviewing
decisions are particularly likely to fall prey to group-think. Finally, stressful situations can provoke
groupthink. Under stress, urgency overrules accuracy, and the reassuring support of other group
members becomes especially desirable. Individuals differ in how susceptible they are to groupthink
in the face of stress, with some being more resistant than others (Callaway et al., 1985).
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Once groupthink begins to dominate the decision-making process, a rash of behavioural
symptoms breaks out. These symptoms can be classified into three major categories.
 Overestimation of the group: Members maintain an illusion of invulnerability and an
exaggerated belief in the morality of the group’s positions. Did Kennedy and his advisers
sufficiently question the wisdom of the invasion plan they had inherited from the
Eisenhower administration? Or did they think that, as the “best and brightest,” they could
surely pull off a little invasion?
 Closed-mindedness: Members rationalise the correctness of the group’s actions and
believe stereotypes about the characteristics of the targets of these actions. Did Nixon and
his advisers ever think realistically about what was appropriate for political activities in a
democracy? Or were they convinced that anything goes against “the enemy”?
 Increased pressures toward uniformity: The pressures to sustain group cohesiveness
grow increasingly strong. Group members censor their own thoughts and act as “mind-
guards” to discourage deviant thoughts by other group members. Those who refuse to
conform are expelled from the group. Did Reagan and those who supported the Iran
exchange seriously listen to those who opposed it? Or were officials (like the Secretaries of
Defense and State” who wouldn’t join the team and support the policy simply “cut out of
the loop”?

LANGUAGE FOCUS
New Vocabulary: cohesive(ness), cohesion =tendency to stick together; to cohere = to stick
together, coherence, coherency, coherently; deviant=different in moral and social standards from
what is normal and accepted, to deviate, deviation (from), deviationist, deviationism;
background=setting; to fall prey; accuracy, accurate; insure, ensure, assure, reassure; rash; pull vs.
push; inherit, inheritance, heritage, heredity; proper, appropriate; enemy=foe; to sustain; to
censor(ship); to expel(-l-) from; to cut out of the loop; to join in/up* (*the army).

PRONUNCIATION: cohesion, coherent, inherent, to deviate, heritage.

GRAMMAR FOCUS:
1.Expressing advice, conclusions, and predictions
MODAL VERB USE EXAMPLES
Must Drawing conclusions, They must be twins.
deductions
Must have Conclusions about the past, Helen must have left the keys there.
deductions
Should, ought to, had Advice or warning You should do more gymnastics!
better You had better leave this place at
once!
Can’t Conclusions Therefore, the hypothesis can’t be
verified.
Will Predictions The bread will go stale if you keep it
too long.

2.The verb “break” + preposition


BREAK Meaning
+
Away Escape, run away from; give up ideas, family tradition.
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from
Down Knock or smash to the ground; suffer a physical or mental weakening; cease to
function (through some mechanical or electrical failure).
In Interrupt/join in (a conversation); accustom smb to a new routine; enter by force.
Off End abruptly, and discontinue; take a break/pause; stop talking.
Out Start suddenly (fire, epidemic disease, rioting, and quarrel).
Through Make a way through (an enclosure, obstacles); overcome (shyness, reserve); make
discoveries.
Up Smash, demolish, disintegrate; become weak; finish school before a holiday; to
scatter/disperse (a demonstration); come to an end (about a relationship).
With Separate from; end association with.

3.The verb “pull” + preposition


PULL + Meaning
Apart Demolish, destroy, or criticise severely.
Aside Move to one side (curtain, mask, or veil).
Down Demolish, destroy; cause to fall to a lower position.
In Earn; fetch to the police station for questioning.
Off Remove, or succeed in achieving/gaining smth.
Out Extract, draw out (tooth, nail).
Out of Retire, or withdraw.
Through Help to recover from illness/faint; succeed in avoiding difficulties.
Together Combine efforts.
Up Cause (car, bike) to stop; improve the position of smb.

Practice

1.Practise the modal verbs above to:


 draw conclusions using the “Antecedents”, Fig.1.
 make predictions using the “Consequences”, Fig.1.
 give advice and warn using the “Consequences”, Fig.1.
Figure 1. Groupthink: Antecedents, Symptoms, and Consequences.
According to Janis, highly cohesive groups with like-minded members working under stressful conditions run a
particularly high risk of groupthink. In groupthink, agreement within the group has a higher priority than gathering
accurate information and making careful decisions. Groupthink creates creates a defective decision-making
process that increases the probability that a bad decision will result. [Based on Janis, 1982.]
Antecedents
 High cohesiveness
 Group structure
Homogeneous members
Isolation
Directive leadership
Unsystematic procedures
 Stressful situations

Groupthink

Symptoms
 Overestimation of the group
 Closed-mindedness
 Increased pressures toward uniformity
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Consequences
 Defective decision-making
Incomplete survey of alternatives
Incomplete survey of objectives
Failure to examine risks of preferred choice
Failure tore-appraise initially rejected
alternatives
Poor information search
Selective bias in processing information at hand
Failure to work out contingency plans
 High probability of a bad decision

2.Give examples of words formed with the suffix “-dom”.


E.g.: wisdom, freedom, kingdom, boredom, a.s.o..

COURSE 2 “THE SPECKLED BAND”

Pre-reading
Give your own examples of verbs that express a slight movement caused by certain feelings or cold,
a.s.o..
E.g.: shiver/tremble with cold/fear.
Reading
Text (adapted from “The Speckled Band”, by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle).
Read the text below and fill in the gaps using suitable words (mind the grammar structures):

Helen Stoner……………1. shivering while she was talking with Sherlock Holmes. The detective
thought she …………….2. be cold, so he invited her to sit……..3. the fire.
Helen was a young woman, about thirty years old, but her hair was already……...…….4. grey with
…….……..5. She started telling Holmes that her twin sister had died under …………….6.
circumstances.
Helen explained that her mother had been a rich woman, and when she married Dr. Roylott an
agreement was…………….7. about that money. He ……………………8. inherited one thousand
pounds only if Helen and her sister Julia hadn’t got married.
Their stepfather was a very…………….9. man and he ……………….10. get angry quickly. Dr.
Roylott ………………11. killed Julia, but Sherlock Holmes ……………….12. prove that.

GRAMMAR FOCUS
Verb Phrases which express change of state.
1.The verb “turn” + preposition
PREPOSITION MEANING
away Move towards a different direction; stop facing or looking at; refuse help/hospitality.
down Refuse to accept, reject (candidate/offer); reduce the loudness, brightness, force of
(light, gas, sound).
in Hand in, deliver (essay, exercise, article);) (informal) inform on, report upon;
surrender (to the police, authorities); (informal) go to bed.
Inside out Make the inside of something face outwards; search thoroughly.

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into (cause to) become; change into; be changed into.
off Disconnect, switch off; change direction.
on Connect, start the flow of; switch on (light, gas, radio); depend on/upon.
out Extinguish (light, lamp); appear, be present, attend; develop, progress; empty the
contents from; make, produce; expel (smb.) drive out.
to Apply to (for advice, help, information); begin to work vigorously.
up Find, expose, make visible (especially by digging); appear, arrive, be found suddenly
or unexpectedly; improve, rise, increase.

2.The verb “grow” + preposition


PREPOSITION MEANING
Away from Cease to have an easy, loving relationship with.
from (about flowers, vegetables), germinate.
On/upon Become more attractive, gain influence over, increase as a habit (of smb.); become
more interesting to/liked by.
Out of (about clothes, shoes), become too big for; abandon, lose (bad habits) with the
passage of time; have as its origin or cause.
Up Increase in size or height; become adult.

3.The verb “get” + preposition


PREPOSITION MEANING
about Move from place to place with the implication of overcoming difficulties, walk,
travel; (rumour, news) spread, circulate;
across (help to) cross (bridge, river, street).
Across to Make clear, transmit (to), become clear to;
Along (with) Make progress (with); agree, co-operate;
Around/round Avoid (an obstacle), find a way of not doing or obeying; escape from; gain the
favour of somebody for a special purpose;
at Learn, discover (truth, intentions, facts); reach, gain access to; set to work on smth.;
(informal) criticise, find fault with;
Away with (informal) go unpunished, not suffer for (slander, impudence and indiscipline);
by Pass an obstacle; (informal) be successful, be accepted;
down Bring down, descend, dismount; write, record; depress, break the spirit of smb.;
swallow with difficulty medicine, pill, drink, food;
in Enter; enter the station, arrive (train); (cause to) be elected

into Get dressed in, put on; seize smb.’s possessions, thoughts, emotions;
off Come down (horse, bus train, bike); leave, start a journey; remove, take off;
On Make progress, advance; mount (horse, bus);
out (news, information, secret) become known, leak, speak, utter;
over Cause to cross/climb; pass over, surmount difficulties; recover from illness, surprise,
disappointment;
through (help to) be successful in, pass; manage to do, read, write.
up Awaken, rise from bed; stand up; carry up, climb.

Practice
Use the following verbs to write an essay based on a real or an imaginary situation/event/happening:
“To amaze, to astonish, to astound, to flabbergast, to surprise,” and some of the verb phrases above.
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IV. GRILA DE EVALUARE

Test predictiv: format “multiple choice”


Orientativ, neinclus în calcul la nota finală, cu rol de diagnostic pedagogic;
Elemente de pronunţie, substantivul (forme de plural, defectiv), adjectivul (grade de
comparaţie), verbul (timpurile indicativului), adverbe (de timp), prepoziţii.

Evaluare formativă (de progres): se notează răspunsurile studenţilor pe parcursul fiecărui curs
practic pe un tabel centralizator, obţinându-se un punctaj care va fi luat în calcul la nota finală.

Evaluare la sfârşitul semestrului I: se notează, reprezentând aproximativ 30% din nota finală.

Evaluare la sfârşitul semestrului al II-lea: se notează, reprezentând aproximativ 30% din nota
finală.
Portofoliul conţinând aplicaţii pe teme de gramatică şi vocabular şi scurte eseuri, va reprezenta de
asemenea aproximativ 30% din nota finală.

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V.BIBLIOGRAFIE OBLIGATORIE:

 Adamson, Donald, Practise Your Tenses, Longman, 1996;


 Bădescu, Alice, Gramatica limbii engleze, Editura Ştiinţifică şi Enciclopedică, Bucureşti,
1984 (sau alte lucrări de gramatică a limbii engleze);
 Gălăţeanu, Georgiana, Exerciţii de gramatică engleză, Editura Albatros, 1979;
 Gălăţeanu, Georgiana, Exerciţii de gramatică engleză, Editura Albatros, 1987;
 Watkins, Mike, Practise Your Modal Verbs, Longman, 1996.

VI.BIBLIOGRAFIE FACULTATIVĂ:
 Conan Doyle, Arthur, The Speckled Band and Other Stories, Heinemann, 1999;
 De Devitiis, G., English Grammar for Communication, Longman, 1991;
 Evans, Virginia, Round up, Longman, 1996;
 Galea, Ileana, Criveanu, I., Ivaş, A., Voia, M., Dicţionar englez român de expresii verbale,
Ed. Echinox, Cluj, 1991;
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 Groza Filip, A., Synonyms in Practice, Ed. Dacia, Cluj, 1996;
 Hewings, M., Advanced Grammar in Use, C.U.P., Cambridge, 1999;
 O’Dell, F., McCarthy, M., English Vocabulary in Use, C.U.P., Cambridge, 1994;
 Peterson Wilcox, Patricia, Changing Times, Changing Tenses, U.S. Information Agency,
1992;
 Plant, P., Everyday English, VEB Verlag, Leipzig, 1978;
 Stancu, Victoriţa, Engleza intensivă, Ed. Niculescu, 1997;
 Thomas, B.J., Intermediate Vocabulary, Longman, 1995;
 Thomas, B.J., Advanced Vocabulary and Idiom, Longman, 1995.

PREDICTIVE TEST (DIAGNOSTIC TEST)

1.Cross the odd-pronunciation word (its pronunciation is different from that of the other three
words) out:
a.tear; b.care; c.beer; d.bear.
2. Cross the odd-pronunciation word out:
a.calf; b.half; c.scarf; d.cart.

Choose the right answer (only one answer is the right one):
3.Please, go and buy two……….
a.breads, b.loafs of, c.loaves of, d.kilos of.
4.I’d like a ……………….
a.soap, b.tin of soap, c.soaps, d.bar of.
5.Pollution has determined strange…………..all over the planet.
a.phenomena, b.phenomenons, c.phenomeni, d.phenomenas.
6.Throughout the experiment, some guinea pigs are exposed to various types of………………….
a.stimulus, b.stimuluses, c.stimuli, d.stimula.
7.The scientists noticed a ………..of side effects that followed the treatment.
a.serie, b.series, c.seria, d.serieses.
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8.She is feeling………….than yesterday.
a.good, b.bad, c.ill, d.worse.
9.You should be…………..while crossing the road.
a.most careful, b.more careful, c.carefully, d.more carefully.

10.The scientist………….the solution to the problem.


a.know, b.knowing, c.is know, d.knows.
11.Susan…………..to the disco tonight.
a.go, b.is going, c.has gone, d.went.
12.It ………a lot last night.
a.rain, b.will rain, c.has rained, d.rained.
13.When he came in, I…………on the phone.
a.was talking, b.were talking, c.talked, d.am talking.
14.Here’s my essay. I ……….it at last.
a.has finished, b.have finished, c.had finished, d.finished.
15.We haven’t seen this movie ……………
a.just, b.already, c.never, d.yet.
16.She……………. English for five years.
a.have study, b.studied, c.has been studying, d.will study.
17.Mary was sighing because she …………….a lot of trouble with her children.
a.had had, b.has had, c.is having, d.has.
18.They……………a new supermarket downtown.
a.open, b.are open, c.will open, d.shall open.

19……………you control your heartbeat with your mind ?


a.may, b.can, c.should, d.must.
20.I ………… go to the dentist.
a.am allowed, b.am able, c.must, d.would.
21.You…………..take an umbrella. It isn’t raining.
a.should, b.must, c.have to, d.needn’t.

22.The results you get, depend to large extent……….the efforts you make.
a.to, b.on, c.by, d.in.
23.Look…… A car is coming. !
a.on, b.in, c.out, d.off.

24.Cross the word which has an odd meaning (its meaning is different from the meaning of the
other three words below) out:
a.to release, b.to unchain, c.to set free, d.to rephrase.
25. Cross the word which has an odd meaning out:
a.to show, b.to emphasize, c.to stress, d.to elicit.
26. Cross the word which has an odd meaning out:
a.come around, b.occur, c.happen, d.take place.
27. Cross the word which has an odd meaning out:
a.power, b.strength, c.strong, d.force.
28. Cross the word which has an odd meaning out:
a.preeminence, b.prerequisite, c.premise, d.assumption.
29. Cross the word which has an odd meaning out:
a.stage, b.period, c.phase, d.framework.
30. Cross the word which has an odd meaning out:
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a.concord, b.purpose, c.aim, d.goal.

Note: the test will be scored with 30 points (1 point for each correct answer). The total score is
divided to 3 to get the final grade.

LISTĂ CU TITLURILE LUCRĂRILOR ŞTIINŢIFICE PUBLICATE

1.Rătăcită printre ariile curriculare, consilierea dă bătaie de cap profesorilor în şcoli, articol
publicat în săptămânalul Tribuna Învăţământului , din 4 octombrie 1999;

2.The European Dimension in the Educational System in My Country, Romania, articol apărut în
volumul III din Primary Goes Europe, volum publicat în urma Colocviului Internaţional Primary
Goes Europe, Viena, Austria, 1999;

3.Danube, the European River, articol apărut în volumul III din Primary Goes Europe, volum
publicat în urma Colocviului Internaţional Primary Goes Europe, Viena, Austria, 1999;

4.Engleza pentru Studenţii la Ştiinţe Sociale, curs pentru studenţii anului I, coautor: Doina Daniela
Niculescu Zdrenghea, volum publicat de Editura Universităţii Titu Maiorescu, Bucureşti, 2000.
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