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CLIMATOLOGY RESEARCH AND TRAINING AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BUCHAREST (19002000)

VOLUM DEDICAT CENTENARULUI


NVMNTULUI GEOGRAFIC
DIN UNIVERSITATEA DIN BUCURETI (19002000)
52 DE ANI DE LA APARIIA REVISTEI ANALELE
UNIVERSITII BUCURETI GEOGRAFIE
10 ANI DE LA NFIINAREA FACULTII DE GEOGRAFIE DIN
UNIVERSITATEA DIN BUCURETI

STERIE CIULACHE

CLIMATOLOGY RESEARCH AND TRAINING AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BUCHAREST (19002000)

ANALELE
UNIVERSITII
BUCURETI
GEOGRAFIE
2000
SUMAR

SOMMAIRE CONTENT

ANIVERSARE
MIHAI IELENICZ, A Century of Geographical Learning at Bucharest University
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
5
MIHAIL GRIGORE, Geomorphology Research and Training at the University of
Bucharest
(19002000)
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
11
STERIE CIULACHE, Climatology Research and Training at the University of Bucharest
(19002000)
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
15
ION MARIN, Regional Geography Studies at Bucharest University (A Retrospective
View:
19002000)
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
21
EMIL VESPREMEANU, Un secol de hidrologie i oceanografie la Facultatea de
Geografie
din
Bucureti
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
27
VASILE CUCU, GEORGE ERDELI, Dezvoltarea geografiei umane i economice n
cadrul
Facultii
de
Geografie
din
Bucureti

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.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
31
STUDII
MIHAI IELENICZ, NELA BURCEA, Suprafeele de nivelare din Dobrogea de Nord
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
37
MIHAIL GRIGORE, Caracterizare geomorfologic general i a degradrilor de teren
din
cadrul
vii
Bughea
(bazinul
Argeului)
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
51
NICOLAE POPESCU, FLORINA FOLEA, Rolul nivelelor de baz locale i regionale n
evoluia reliefului depresiunilor intramontane din Carpaii Meridionali
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
61
MIHAI GEANANA, Contribuii privind distribuia vegetaiei n Munii Retezat
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
67
STERIE CIULACHE, NICOLETA IONAC, Mean Annual Rainfall in Romania
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
77
ION PIOTA, Regimul termic i de nghe al rurilor din Cmpia Romn
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
85
ION
MARIN,
MARIAN
MARIN,
Analiza
secvenial
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
91
MARIA PTROESCU, SIMONA TOMA, LIDIA SASAKI, GABRIELA APOSTOL,
Priorities in the Re-habilitation and Re-naturation of Rural Landscape of the
Romanian
Plain,
Southern
Romania
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
95
NICOLETA IONAC,
Thunderstorm
Hazard

Impact
and
Safety
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
103
STERIE
CIULACHE,
Mediul
i
supravieuirea
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
109
GHEORGHE VIAN, Le potentiel humain de la zone frontalire de la valle du Danube
roumain

entre
Drobeta
Turnu
Severin
et
Clrai

CLIMATOLOGY RESEARCH AND TRAINING AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BUCHAREST (19002000)

.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
117
ILEANA PTRU, Suggestions for Landscape Arrangement within the Bran-RucrDragoslavele
Corridor
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
123
MIHAIL-GHEORGHE DUMITRACHE, Categories and Types of Data that Can Be
Obtained by the Aerophotointerpretation of the Photosensible Materials
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
129
GABRIELA OSACI-COSTACHE, Principalele hri ale Munteniei din perioada 18601980,
cu
privire
special
asupra
Mucelelor
Argeului
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
133
MARIAN ENE, Dinamica reliefului bazinului Rmnicu Srat ca rezultat al presiunii
antropice
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
143
MIHAI-GHEORGHE DUMITRACHE, Photometrical Conversions that Can Be Used in
Remote
Sensing
and
Geographical
Aerophotointerpretation
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
149
GABRIELA OSACI-COSTACHE, Unele aspecte privind oiconimia zonei subcarpatice
dintre
Topolog
i
Olt
(17901980)
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
152
CORNEL TUDOSE, Arc View GIS Interface and Data Base
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
159
CRISTINA HUM, Bazinul Visa caracterizarea suprafeelor de bazin
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
167
MIHAIL-GHEORGHE DUMITRACHE, Photometric Transformations and Chromatic
Correspondences in Remote Sensing and Geographical Aerophotointerpretation
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
175
FLORIN ACHIM, Balta Borcea peisajul geografic regional, ca integralitate funcional
dintre componentele naturale i componentele de umanizare
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
179

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RECENZII
MIHAI IELENICZ, Geografia Romniei. Mic enciclopedie, Editura Corint, Bucureti,
2000, 288 pagini, 267 fotografii alb-negru, 42 hri reprezentnd judeele i
municipiul
Bucureti,
4
hri
color
(Mihail
Grigore)
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
183
ION MARIN, Geografie regional Europa i Asia, Editura Fundaiei ,,Romnia de
Mine, 1999, 244 pagini, 70 figuri, 20 tabele (Mihail Grigore)
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
183
ION MARIN, MARIAN MARIN, NICOLAE MOCANU, SUA Geografia fizic,
uman i economic, Editura Universitii din Bucureti, 1999, 256 pagini, 53
figuri,
10
tabele
(Mihail
Grigore)
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
184
IOAN FRCA, Clima urban, Editura Casa Crii de tiin Cluj-Napoca, 1999,
124
pagini,
112
figuri
(Sterie
Ciulache)
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
184
NICOLETA IONAC, Clima i comportamentul uman, Editura Enciclopedic, Bucureti,
1998
(Sterie
Ciulache)
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
185
NICOLETA IONAC, Mic tratat de geografie medical, Editura Univesitii din
Bucureti,
2000,
428
pagini,
49
figuri
(Sterie
Ciulache)
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
186
XXX, Centrul Romn de Reconstrucie a Rurilor, o structur nou n sprijinul
reabilitii
mediului
(Sterie
Ciulache)
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
187

CLIMATOLOGY RESEARCH AND TRAINING AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BUCHAREST (19002000)

A CENTURY OF GEOGRAPHICAL LEARNING AT BUCHAREST


UNIVERSITY
MIHAI IELENICZ

The framework for organised study and research was set by the existence of Bucharest
University the foundation of the Romanian Academy (1866) and of the Romanian Geographical
Society (1875), one of the first profile institutions in the world. In time, a number of scientific
desciplines were added in line with developments worldwide. One of these desciplines was
Geography, which was to train school teachers of geography. The education reform initiated by
Spiru Haret (1898) stipulated the development of a modern culture-based outlook in pupils.
In view of it, on March, 18, 1899 the Romanian Geographical Society solicited the
Ministry of Public Instruction to approve the establishment of a Geography Chair at the
University of Bucharest, a request met in April 1899. The Chair was to function within the
Faculty of Letters and Philosophy.
The then Minister, the reputed Academician Titu Maiorescu, nominalised Simion
Mehedini as head of department (May, 17, 1900). Simion Mehedini held a B.A. degree from
the Bucharest Faculty of Letters. He undertook post-graduate studies at Leipzig University under
a Romanian Geographical Society grant. His six-year-study-term in Germany (18931899) gave
him the chance to learn with Profs. Fernand Richthofen and Frederich Ratzel, and in 1890 he
took his Ph.D. degree.
On November 3, 1900, Professor Mehedini opened his course in the presence of
outstanding personalities of Romanian culture and science: Titu Maiorescu, Ovid Densusianu,
George Lahovari, P.P.Negulescu, Ioan Bogdan, Dimitrie Onciul, Eugen Lovinescu, D. Burileanu
and others.
His dissertation on The object and definition of Geography marks the beginning of
academic geographical education in Romania, also constituting the conceptual outline of his
course, Introduction to Geography as Science, held over several decades the groundwork of
his fundamental achievement, the volume Terra published in 1931. It is an exceptional
geography treatise in which outlook, demonstration and reasoning combine to make a
valuable Romanian contribution to the international geographical repository, on the line of the
German and French schools.
In 1999, at the same Faculty, Mehedini opened a Seminar of Geography which,
together with the Chair, was a nursery of study into this discipline. Some of the custodians or
assistants were the Professors own desciples, e.g. Constantin Brtescu, George Vlsan, Nicolae
Gheorghiu and Vasile Meruiu. In 1910, they edited the first academic geographical periodical,
Anuarul de geografie i antropologie (Yearbook of Geography and Anthropology) which made a
*
Presented at the Jubilee Session devoled to the anniversary of this event, November,
23, 2000.

STERIE CIULACHE

substatial contribution to the lore of information in this area.


The characteristic features of the first pioneering decade of geographical instruction at
the Bucharest University were to stamp their mark on the subsequent evolution of the Bucharest
geographical school. What characterised that period was:
good organisation with focus on several activities discharged by the staff within the
Chair and at seminars: elaboration of high-profile courses (General Geography,
Geographical Anthropology, Geographical Teaching etc.), applied works of
geography, geology and cartography, analyses of geographical terminology, the
establishment of a geography library, collections of maps and geographical research
tools, colloquia and conferences on geographical topics, and contributions made to
the annual congresses of the Romanian Geographical Society;
elaboration of a modern conception of geography as science;
initiation of detailed field investigations which swiftly changed the content of
geographical works from descriptive to analytic, based on the elements recorded and
tested on the ground;
training future secondary and high-school teachers, who at class would have to pursue
the development of an understanding of relationships between geographical facts
rather than mere presentation of these facts;
elaboration of text-books with focus on three directions: explicitation of geographical
facts, definition of interrelationships and the use of an easily accessible language for
pupils;
help meritorious graduates to continue studying in France and Germany; some of
them would later rank among the Faculty staff.
The basic directions of academic geographical instruction laid down by Simion Mehedini were
pursued over the next decades, and acquired a larger scope and breadth.
In 1915, George Vlsan submitted his doctoral thesis, The Romanian Plain, the first such theme
treated in a Romanian work. The next thesis was Brtescus in 1921.
In 1919, as an acknowledgment of their scientific and teaching merits, professors Vlsan and
Brtescu werw elected members of the Romanian Academy, a position held by Mehedini since
1915.
In 1929, on the request of Simion Mehedini, a Chair of Physical Geography was set up at the
Faculty. Head of Chair was assigned Prof. George Vlsan from Cluj, where he had been active
since 1919, contributing substantively to the assertion of academic geography.
The Chair of Physical Geography pursued in-depth knowledge of the physical components (the
relief, in particular) of geographical systems, promoting field investigations and the elaboration
of new courses (Morphology of the Earth, Continental Bodies of Water, Climatology, Physical
Geography of Romania, Urban Geography etc.).
A major organisational shift took place (the Law of November 4, 1938) when the Chairs of
Geography headed by Vlsan and Mihilescu, after Prof. Simion Mehedini had passed away,
and C. Brtescu had retired, fell into the structure of the Bucharest University Faculty of
Sciences, their names changing to Chair of Physical Geography of Romania and Chair of
General and Human Geography, respectively.
Apart from the late Prof. Mehedinis disciples, a new generation of reputed geographers
emerged, e.g. Nicolae Popp, Dimitrie D. Burileanu, Petre Cote, Alexandra Bunescu and Raul
Constantinescu. Each Chair was headed by a professor and had one or two associate professor,
lectures and several assistants. The students four-year training term included a two-cycle basic
courses (Mathematical Geography, Geomorphology, Climatology, Geography of Waters,
Geography of Romania, Anthropological Geography, Economic Geography etc.) and special

CLIMATOLOGY RESEARCH AND TRAINING AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BUCHAREST (19002000)

courses on certain topical issues addressed either to all the students, or to a certain academic
year. Three more elements completed the training programme:
discussions and raports seminars in the first two study-years and presentation of field
work-based reports and projects in the last two years;
bi-monthly colloquia on various geomorphological topics attended by faculty staff,
school teachers and students;
special courses for Ph. D. candidates.
In 1944, Prof. Vintil Mihilescu set up the Institute of Geographical Research (within the
Faculty) grouping professorial staff and the best students.
The 1948 Reform of Education led to the establishment of several faculties and chairs at the
University and to a considerable increase in the number of students. A Faculty of HistoryGeography would function for one year, but relations whith Geology strengthening over the past
decades, a Faculty of Geology-Geography with two distinct departments emerged instead (1949).
Until 1962, teaching and research in the Geography Department were performed within two
Chairs of Physical Geography and of Economic Geography. Between 1962 and 1973, each of
the two dividing, four Chairs appeared, with working teams organised by research desciplines
and student training classes. Subsequently, only two Chairs were left and, as from 1978, no
more than one, because the number of students was arbitrarily reduced.
The Faculty merged with the Faculty of Biology, and all the students of the Dept. of Geography
had to acquire also a foreign language and literature.
There were four types of geographical courses: general geography (General Geography,
Geomorphology, Hydrology, Meteorology and Climatology, Biogeography, Geography of Soils,
Geography of Population and Settlements); regional geography (the Continents and Romania);
specialist courses delivered to the upper grades (three-four packages elaborated
on the students request), and optional courses (two-three in each study year). Beside the
supply of permanently updated information to create a theoretical basis for the logical
explanation of phenomena and the whole of relations between the geographical components,
the stress was also laid on the applied aspects.
The curriculum provided for seminars, practical works in the seven laboratories of the Faculty,
at meteorological and hydrological stations, practical semestrial applications, geographical field
practice at Orova Geographical Station (set up in 1966) or elsewhere in the country. After 1960,
the publishing activity got momentum: courses for most of the desciplines, treatises,
encyclopedias, numerous articles, syntheses and special materials, as well as international
symposia volume were elaborated.
The year 1990 witnessed the establishment of the Faculty of Geography. So, another jubilee ten
years of existence. Until 1993 there were two departments: Geography and the Science of the
Environment. Subsequently its structure was enlarged in terms of the social-economic demands,
and the possibilities of the professorial staff to provide adequate training. Present chairs are:
Geography and a Foreign Language, Geography of Tourism and three colleges: Cartography and
Cadastre, Hydrology-Meteorology, Environmental Quality Surveillance and Geography of Tourist
Activities. Distance Learning and six M.A. training programmes are also in place.
Whatever the students specialisation choice, curricula contain fundamental, optional and
facultative desciplines, in line with Western trends and the credit system.
A high-profile teaching and research body comprises 64 members assigned to four Chairs, five
research centres and 14 well-equipped test laboratoires.
The main research themes entail complex analyses of the mountain, hill, tableland and plain
relief; an integrated study of the coastal environment a study of present-day risk-inducing
geomorphic processes climate and water-related phenomena; a study of surface and

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subterrainean waters; ecological studies of industrial ecosystems; pilot studies for the
restructuring and ecological rehabilitation of some urban ensembles; environmental studies of
Bucharest city and its metropolitan zone; the impact of human activity on the biodiversity of
national parks; the chemism and quality of surface waters; optimisation of urban and rural
settlement systems; cultural tourism, agro-tourism and rural tourism; balanced and imbalanced
rural-urban systems etc. Notable results have been obtained. Financing came from various
agents: the Ministry of Education, the National Agency for Science Technology and Innovation,
The Ministry of Waters and Environmental Protection, The Institute for Environmental Research
and Engineering, the European Community, the World Bank, UNESCO, CWS etc.
The results of investigations are reported in foreign and domestic specialist journals, books,
academic courses, atlases and thematic maps, and included in national and regional investment
projects.
Apart from the Analele Universitii din Bucureti journal, Geography series, which has been
published for the past 52 years, the Faculty of Geography has edited several volumes of papers
presented at jubilee sessions, or focusing on certain geographical areas.
Remarkable science works of reference in geomorphology, hydrology, climatology, human
geography, political geography, tourism etc. have been authored by the professorial staff and put
out by outstanding publishing-houses: Academiei, tiinific, Tehnic, Universitii, Fundaiei
Romnia de Mine, Humanitas, Corint etc. Some staff members have co-authored fundamental
works of Romanian geography, or elaborated text-books.
In the course of time many of the Facultys geographers have been prized by the Romanian
Academy and the Ministry of Education for their contribution to the promotion of geography at
home or abroad.
Prestigious representatives of the Faculty of Geography have membership in some national
bodies or commissions (Geographical Society of Romania, Professional Association of Urban
Planners in Romania) or international organisms (International Geographical Union, World
Meteorological Organisation etc.).
Students research achievements are reported within five scientific circles, as well as at national
and international meetings organised by the Faculty. The best are published in student journals
(Biosfera, Buletin tiinific and Columna), or in the specialist publications of the Faculty of
Geography.
Post-university courses for the continuous education of geography teachers with a view to their
promotion to a definitive position in school, to higher teaching grades, or to improving their
methodological and scientific skills are organised by the Facultys Centre for Furthering the
Knowledge of Life and Earth Science Teachers.
The Geographical Station at Orova is part of the students European training system, being a
basic component of the Danube Defile and the southern Banat Mountains environmental
protection programme.
The Faculty of Geography entertains relations of cooperation in science and teaching with
similar faculties or research institutes from Romania, Great Britain, France, Germany, Republic
of Moldova, Italy, Switzerland etc.
In the last six years, the Faculty has organised bilateral symposia with France, Great Britain and
Italy, the IGU Conference on Urban Development and Urban Life (1998), students practice
jointly with British and French groups. Several students and young geographers have attended
training sessions in France, Belgium, Great Britain, Italy and Germany (under Tempus, Socrates
etc. international programmes).
In March, the Students National Scientific Session is to be held under Faculty auspices, a Young

CLIMATOLOGY RESEARCH AND TRAINING AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BUCHAREST (19002000)

11

Geographers Session is scheduled for June and the Teachers Scientific Session, with natural
and international participation, is due to be held in November.
The Faculty of Geography is presently delivering instruction to over 2,200 students,
M.A. and Ph. D. candidates. The teaching staff assigned to this activity numbers 64 members of
its own personnel, 11 auxilliary cadres, 60 specialists and teachers from other research or
learning institutions. Thirteen of the Facultys professorial staff members and ten researchers
from the Romanian Academys Institute of Geography, covering all desciplines, are acting as
major professors for doctoral candidates.
The period spanning the interval between November 3, 1900 and November 3, 2000 witnessed
the progression from a Chair with a few students, to a large Faculty with modern student
training programmes and research centres appreciated by the scientific community at home and
abroad.
The Faculty of Geography has extended relations with European geography schools,
implementing and developing their theoretical and practical achievements in keeping with the
Romanian reality.

12

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CLIMATOLOGY RESEARCH AND TRAINING AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BUCHAREST (19002000)

13

GEOMORPHOLOGY RESEARCH AND TRAINING


AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BUCHAREST (19002000)
MIHAIL GRIGORE

The Romanian school of geomorphology was first occupied with the study of the variability of
the landscape at the beginning of the 20 th century, when theoretical training pioneered by the
works of famous geologists (L. Mrazec 18991900; R. Sevastos 1903;
G. Munteanu Murgoci 1898, 1907, 1912) was further expanded by studies of prestigious
geographers (Emm. de Martonne; G. Vlsan 1916; C. Brtescu 1920, 1921, 1923; Al.
Dumitrescu Aldem 1910; N. Popp 1938; V. Mihilescu 1936, 1939, 1941; V. Tufescu 1940; D.
D. Burileanu 1941 etc.). Successive studies of general and regional geomorphology certainly
progressed the corollary concerns of normal erosion and peneplanation cycles all through the
interval between 1900 and 1940, when special emphasis was laid on the identification of
peneplaned surfaces and on the understanding of the cyclic peneplanation in the Carpathian
mountains. Aside from their close connections with other distributions on the territory of the
country, the geographers at Bucharest focused their attention upon landforms as topics for
special study, such as V. Mihilescu who studies the unfolding of natural events on the higher
plateau lying west of Botoani (1929) and C. Brtescu who analyzes the seaward shore between
Eforie and Costineti (1935) or the paleogeographical evolution of the Black Sea (1943).
After the Second World War (19451948), Romanian geomorphologists expanded their research
programmes to the territory of the whole country and this situation was conducive not only to a
wide variety of studies, but also to a high specialisation on essential or related topics that
eventually yielded substantial paperworks and detailed maps. The geomorphology department at
the University of Bucharest retains its primacy once again since numerous
Ph. D. thesis included actual observations of regional or local geomorphological processes, and
this was a prerequisite to interpretation that is not only one of the major aims of any theoretical
approach, but also the main operating method in practical training. Obviously, the fundamental
works to come helped to blend the two requirements: Accelerated Gradation and Natural
Shaping of Relief Forms (V. Tufescu, 1966); Transversal Valleys in Romania (N. Orghidan,
1969); Romania's Geomorphology (P. Cote, 1973) Romania's Landforms (Gr. Posea,
N. Popescu, M. Ielenicz, 1974); Landforms and Soils in Romania (C. Chiu, 1975), but they also
urged for a thorough knowledge of geomorphological processes by detailed mapping and
statistical analysis that may ultimately contribute to an enlightened view on the building and
evolution of landforms as the result of the interaction of a number of forces over time. In this
respect, more efficient working methods are applied dealing essentially with the explanation and
interpretation of the peneplanation or gradation processes in the Carpathian, Subcarpathian and
Plateau areas. In the beginning, researchers primarily operated interrelations between the forces
internal to the earth and underlying geologic structure, thus explaining the formation and
evolution of piedmont, pediment and alluvial fan forms associated to the Alpine orogeny in

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Romania (V. Mihilescu, 1946, 1957; P. Cote, 1956, 1969; Gr. Posea, Valeria Velcea, 1964), but
later on, they shifted their attention to energy gradients that, in turn, set other processes in
motion, thus obtaining proper and comprehensive knowledge of areal variation due to the
operation of external forces in the Quaternary period. The resulted regional and national studies
on stream-gradated relief forms (terraces and floodplains) also provided substantial arguments in
favour of understanding the direction and speed of neotectonic movements and, therefore, they
helped to develop specific research methodologies. Moreover, the impact of Quaternary
glaciation on main relief forms, which is readily observable in the Carpathian mountains, has
largely been analyzed by means of maps at high or low scales that revealed the unequal
distribution of glacier gradation processes (Valeria Micalevich, 1959; Silvia Iancu, 1960; P.
Cote, 1966; Gr. Posea, 1981).
The keen interest for a better understanding of relief dynamics broadly continued the bias on
applied geomorphology and subsequent mapping of present-day geomorphological processes
were, therefore, extremely useful in land planning and bonitation (V. Mihilescu, 1947;
V. Tufescu, 1966; Gr. Posea, M. Ielenicz, 1976). Furthermore, some studies even focused on
potential hazards, such as the subsidence processes in loess-like material that were minutely
mapped on all plain areas in our country (V. Tufescu, 1966). But laboratory investigation and
statistical analysis on patterns in the physical landscape didn't prove enough, so that researchers
had to provide detailed accounts on the interference of stationary landforms with the free
movement of air and, consequenthy, they started an intensive field-work on erosional processes
on rocks of varying degrees of resistance, such as the areas with Neogene igneous intrusions in
the Eastern Carpathians (P. Cote, 1960; Tr. Naum, E. Butnaru, 1967) or the areas with
conglomerate, sandstone, clay and especially limestone formations in adjacent Subcarpathian
hills or plateaus (I. D. Ilie, 1970, 1978).
Since the complex interaction of forces and processes gradating landforms is seldom apparent,
special emphasis was laid on the methodology of geomorphological mapping and, in this respect,
many scientific paper-works were dedicated to specific issues in the field (Gr. Posea, 1962; M.
Grigore, 1972, 1979, 1981; M. Ielenicz, 1984; Gh. Niculescu, 1965; N. Popescu, 1990;
Gr. Posea, N. Popescu, M. Ielenicz, 1974; Al. Rou, 1967; Valeria Micalevich-Velcea, 1961;
Florina Grecu, 1998). While most Ph.D. theses necessarily insist on topical mapping, some
essential works improved systematic approaches and opened new directions and techniques of
geomorphological mapping, such as the Geographical Monography of the Popular Republic of
Romania (1960); Geography of the Danube Valley in the Romanian Sector (1969); The Iron Gates
Atlas (1973); Geographical Atlas (1974); Atlas of the Socialist Republic of Romania (19721979);
Geographical Encyclopedia of Romania (1982). However, factual observations could best be
systematized and analyzed on a unitary basis only by using real topographic plans or remotesensing pictures so that remote-sensing of geomorphological processes immediately evolved not
only as alternative and complete research method, but also as distinct scientific field within
geographical remote-sensing
(M. Grigore, 1980, 1994, 1997). Consequently, the primary concern of geomorphologists to locate
phenomena and to map their distribution urged them to complete various topical maps for the
Romanian territory (Gr. Posea, N. Popescu. M. Ielenicz, 1990).
Ever since the Station of Geographical Research was founded at Orova in the early 1960, field
research (based on long-term observations on the Danube's Defile in the Iron Gates area) and
professional training in geomorphology were mainly oriented to practical applications and much
dedication was given to the study of peneplaned surfaces, glacial relief, wind and streamgradated landforms, superficial and correlated deposits, slope dynamics, present-day
geomorphological processes, land degradation and, eventually, the geomorphological hazards.

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15

Specialisation has also greatly increased by the emergence of particular fields of research such
as the climatic geomorphology and the evolutionary relief forms. In the first case, interpretation
of climatic influence on rock types and structural variations worked back to the explanation of
main processes and phenomena associated to gradation by glaciers and snow, especially in the
Quaternary period. In the second case, the studies on relief evolution (referring to the formation
of distinct morphogenetic relief forms such as the high peneplaned surfaces, the piedmont and
alluvial fans or the pediment accumulations) deal mainly with proper and accurate analysis of
present-day geomorphological processes, rather than with the impact of tensional and
compressional forces (Gr. Posea, 1963; V. Mihilescu, Gh. Niculescu, 1967). Moreover, new
approaches have largely expanded the already existing data and major synthetical works on
Romania's relief were subsequently published (V. Mihilescu, 1963, 1966; P. Cote, 1973;
Gr. Posea, N. Popescu, M. Ielenicz, 1974). All this knowledge was particularly important in
mapping, but it was also considered in the creation of a standardized system of location so that
general geomorphological maps of different scales were soon issued (Gr. Posea, N. Popescu,
1964; L. Badea, Gh. Niculescu, 1972) and mapping elements and techniques were highly
improved (M. Grigore, 1972, 1979, 1994).
Nevertheless, the main concerns of geomorphologists at the University of Bucharest shortly
turned to the development and diversification of various morphometric indices that have a high
theoretical and practical value, as so many research contracts with numerous collaborators and
end-users have proved so far. But if initial studies mainly oriented to the overall analysis of
main landforms in Romania, latest investigations applied to local and regional phenomena,
requiring minute evaluation of any potential risk factor, as most Ph.D. thesis actually do.
The effect of neotectonic movements on relief forms in the Quaternary period was another main
concern of geomorphologists at the Universith of Bucharest, because their works of regional
geomorphology completed in the last 2530 years not only revealed important interrelationships, but also provided efficient methods and means of assessment (I. Rdulescu, H.
Grumzescu, 1962; P. Cote, 1973; Gr. Posea, N. Popescu, M. Ielenicz, 1974). At first, the
impact of such neotectonic movements has minutely been studied in the Carpathian and
Subcarpathian areas (including intermontane and foothill depressions), but later on, it has also
been investigated in the plateau, piedmont and plain areas, as well as in the Danube Delta and
the Black Sea shore
(E. Vespremeanu, 1987). Most of these studies focused mainly on problems concerning the
emergence and evolution of peneplaned surfaces, fluvial and maritime terraces and subsidence
areas, but they also analyzed representative situations such as those in basins lying in the Getic
Subcarpathian hills, over Romanian and Villafranchian formations that had been folded into
large syncline structures (Ocnia-Edera and Valea Larg drained by the Cricovul Dulce River)
which, at the beginning of the Quaternary period, have functioned as active areas of deposition.
Though it is possible to attribute differences in landforms mainly to tectonic forces, this distinction
can be carried only so far because operating with unequal impact on different parts of the country
and at different times, the tectonic movements not only create the framework of the major
landforms, but also determine differences in rock types and provide the detailed structural
variations in the earth's crusts. Therefore, studies on various forms and aspects related to geologic
structure have immediately been initiated for larger geographical areas or smaller relief forms in all
kind of Ph.D. thesis, research contracts, scientific paper-works, monographies and reviews, which
provide an objective interpretation of the role played by rock structure on the emergence and
evolution of some relief forms. Moreover, researchers investigating the forms linked to the kind of
rock on which they developed, have also given a comprehensive account of the main gradation
agents and processes of structural relief in the Carpathian and plateau or piedmont areas, focusing

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on the direct relationship between geologic and rock structure, that is between structural and
petrographic relief. In this respect, geomorphological studies carried out complete inventories of
relief forms emerged and gradated on crystalline bedrock; limestone, sandstone and conglomerate
formations; sand, marl and clay deposits loess cover, igneous intrusions and volcanic ejecta etc.,
clearly showing that changes in the other landforming factors may completely alter the relative
resistance to weathering and erosion of any given rock. But these werent sole directions of
research and training since valuable paper-works on stream, glacier and snow-gradated landforms,
debris accumulation in alluvial fan and piedmont areas, present-day geomorphological processes
and man-made relief forms have largely been issued ever since the 1960s.
Nowadays, the anniversary year 2000 marks not only a century of geographical research and
education at the University of Bucharest, but also a continuous development of
geomorphological theoretical and practical training. In fact, geomorphology, as main teaching
topic in the geographical higher education, has broadly continued the bias on practical training
pioneered by some important geomorphologists ever since the turn of the 20 th century (G.
Vlsan, C. Brtescu, M. David, V. Mihilescu), but if the initial concept of geomorphology had
mainly a descriptive character (starting from W.M. Daviss primary theory), it gradually shifted
to the explanation and interpretation of emergence and evolution of main landforms (as in the
studies of Emm. de Martonne, G. Vlsan, C. Brtescu, V. Mihilescu), in order to lately
concentrate on its potential applications (Gr. Posea, N. Popescu, M. Ielenicz, M. Grigore) that
have greatly been expanded into consistent scientific works and universitary courses of General
Geomorphology and Romania's Geomorphology providing valuable and standardized sets of
theoretical concepts and mapping methods which are widely used in any geomorphologic
research and education programme. However, the previously-mentioned courses have been
considered as priority topics in all geographical curricula ever since 1930, when G. Vlsan
became Head of the Geographical Dept. in the University of Bucharest and opened new
opportunities of geomorphological research. Next, starting with 1936, V. Mihilescu largely
expanded geomorphological approaches in all his paper-works of physical geography, and he
eventually published two major scientific books on Romanian landforms: South-Eastern
Carpathians on the Territory of the Popular Republic of Romania (1963) and Romania's Plains
and Hills (1966).
Important contributions to the development of geomorphological professional training and
education at the University of Bucharest are also attributable to P. Cote (1941); Tr. Naum (1950);
Gr. Posea (1961); M. Grigore (1986); N. Popescu (1997) and M. Ielenicz (1998) who completed
highly-specialised courses and paper-works of geomorphology for various faculties, colleges and
departments, while tutors and junior lecturers assisted in indispensable practical works and field
trips. After 1990, the setting up of the Geomorphology-Pedology Department at the Faculty of
Geography in Bucarest has substantially increased the importance of geomorphological activities
not only because it provided important technical equipment (two workshops with experimental
basins) for students to practise, but also because it coordinated the publishing activity of main
Romanian geomorphologists: Gr. Posea, I. Ilie, M. Grigore, N. Popescu (1970) General
Geomorphology
(591 p); Gr. Posea, M. Grigore, N. Popescu, M. Ielenicz (1976) Geomorphology (535 p);
Tr. Naum, M. Grigore (1974) Geomorphology (502 p).

CLIMATOLOGY RESEARCH AND TRAINING AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BUCHAREST (19002000)

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CLIMATOLOGY RESEARCH AND TRAINING


AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BUCHAREST (19002000)
STERIE CIULACHE

Like many other geographical disciplines, climatology might generally be considered to have
emerged as main educational topic when the first Department of Geography in Romania was
founded at the University of Bucharest, at the beginning of the academic year 19001901.
Actually, the activity of this department started on the 3 rd November 1900, when the young
geographer Simion Mehedini first gave his opening lecture on Geography to a large audience
including well-known personalities, such as Titu Maiorescu, Ovid Densuianu, George Lahovari,
P.P. Negulescu, Dimtrie Onciul and the ineffable Calinderu, the guarding angel of Geography,
as well as other important people which have later become famous and witnessed on this
magnificent pledge for Geography, as did the literary critic and historian Eugen Lovinescu.
Since nobody could imagine that geographical processes and phenomena might be fully
understood or analyzed independent of climatic conditions, the first Romanian geographers have
integrated climatic approach into the wider context of general geography, especially after the
Department of Physical Geography, lead by George Vlsan, had been set up in 1929.
Vintil Mihilescu, another foremost representative of Romanian geographers and head of the
Department of Physical and Romanian Geography from 1938 to 1944, broadly continued the
bias on the development of climatology at the University of Bucharest not only by giving regular
lectures on climatology, but also by expanding programmes that pioneered climatic research,
such as Draft of Romanias Topoclimatic Map (1957) and La carte climatique et topoclimatique
de la Roumanie (Romanias Climatic and Topoclimatic Map) (1960) mapped with the
contribution of tefan Stoenescu. Important contributions to the professional training and
research in climatology are also attributable to Nicolae Al. Rdulescu (who wrote the valuable
study on Geographical Aspects of Drought in Romania), Mircea Peah and other outstanding
geographers dedicating most of their lives to the University they had taught in for many years.
However, climatology was first introduced as main educational topic in the curriculum of the
University of Bucharest only in 1950, when students could attend the lectures on Meteorology
and Climatology given by the 33 years old tefan Stoenescu, who is nowadays unquestionably
considered to have retained the primacy in teaching and expanding climatologic programmes.
Actually, he was a gifted man, with outnumbered physical, intellectual and moral qualities that
made him look like a genuine lord in the blossom of his life, due to his tall, athletic (yet not
massive) and upright port and conduct which could have never been interpreted as signs of
excessive pride. In fact, aristocracy, in the proper meaning of the term, made full part of his

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appearance since his serene and luminous face pointed to an active mind occupied itself in long
and energetic musings, and his eyes behind tasteful gold-rimmed spectacles surely had the vigor
not only to seize hold of interlocutors, but also to understand and admit any hesitation or error.
His intense vitality surely kept unaltered from youth, when he took part in the Olympic Games
at Berlin in 1936, to adulthood, when he used to stroll and climb the mountains. Moreover, as
descendant of the family of Barbu tefnescu Delavrancea writer, he also proved real artistic
inclinations, especially for music, since softness and sensitiveness opened deep perceptory
dimensions to his already great cultural aptitudes. For indeed, tefan Stoenescu was a bright
spirit and a witty man, endowed with both vocation and talent in whatever he was doing, but
especially when teaching or researching, because he always seemed to cut things short by
clearing up obscure details and explaining ambiguous effects. And if they say that memories die
with those who have actually known him, then all his scientific papers entirely reveal his
personality. Discreet, kind and elegant in his much-envied behaviour, tefan Stoenescu was a
strong and humane personality that would irresistably attract anyone, but unfortunately, his
academic career suddenly stopped in the summer of 1968, after 18 years of hard work as doctor
and reader in Climatology, and a year later, in 1969, he exiled himself and turned into legend
since no news could ever reach his homeland again, except the uncertain and late news of his
non-being.
Nevertheless, the geographers at the University of Bucharest and the meteorologists or
climatologists at the National Institute of Meteorology (where he worked as manager from 1954
to 1956 and head of the Climatology Department from 1956 to 1969) fully appreciate and
appraise his valuable contribution to the development of climatology in Romania.
His Ph. D. thesis about The Climate of the Bucegi Mountains, which was publicly presented in
1948 and published at the Technical Publishing House in 1958, is not only a model of systematic
approach and scientific rigour, but also a consistent work that has inspired many researchers in
Romania and the neighbouring countries at the time because it retained its primacy as the first
climatic monograph in Romanian climatology. Its great scientific value, stemming out of a huge
volume of climatic data which have been accurately processed and analyzed so that to minutely
assess the interaction of meteorological processes and phenomena with the various mountain
forms, has kept unaltered so far and, therefore, his climatic study may still be considered a
successful analysis and major work of reference in the field.
Moreover, tefan Stoenescu also substantially contributed to the theoretical development of
climatology at the Faculty of Geology and Geography and in the University of Bucharest by
publishing the first manual on Romanias Climatology at the National Publishing House for
Education, in 1950, which is nowadays considered of utmost importance not only from a
chronological point of view, since it really pioneered research in the field, but also from a
scientific and educational point of view, because it provides essential and clear patterns of
analysis to best blend the theoretical and practical approaches in climatology. In fact, all the
other subsequent manual works dealing with the climate of Romania originate in this major
work of academic reference despite the fact that later authors have introduced new data and
resorted to modern methods of climatologic research and analysis.
Even the Climate of the Popular Republic of Romania (volumes 1 and 2 ), edited by the
National Institute of Meteorology in 1961 and 1962 seems to come out from the previouslymentioned paper work since one of its main authors and coordinators was the very tefan
Stoenescu, head of the Climatology Department in the well-known institute. But Professor
tefan Stoenescus major study was the chapter Climate included in volume 1 of the
monumental work The Geographical Monograph of the Popular Republic of Romania, printed
by the Publishing House of the Romanian Academy, in 1960.

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19

Another fundamental achievement of the Romanian school of climatology, published by the


National Institute of Meteorology and designed by the same main initiator, author and
coordinator tefan Stoenescu, was the Atlas of Climatology (1965) that successfully completed
and illustrated phenomena which had previously been described in the Climate of the Socialist
Republic of Romania, so that both complementary works are major sources of documentation on
Romanias climate. But tefan Stoenescus contribution is far from being complete if we dont
take into account his many studies and articles on climatological issues published between 1950
and 1968, while he was teaching at the University of Bucharest and working in the National
Institute of Meteorology, so that his double professional activity, but especially his remarkable
scientific and educational potential undoubtedly recommend him as the founder of the Romanian
school of climatology and many of the most important contemporary climatologists in Romania
are proud of having been taught or trained by him.
The first of his many disciples was Elena Dumitrescu, who had formerly been professor tefan
Stoenescus assistant (19511968) and later became lecturer on Meteorology Climatology
and Romanias Climatology (19681976). Naturally, she broadly continued her professors
bias on educational training and scientific research, by publishing a substantial volume of
Meteorology in 1973, and a personal approach on Romanias Climate in 1976, comprising long,
elaborate annexed lists of climatological data (collected from numerous representative weather
stations in the country) which nowadays provide an excellent and ready source of documentation
for students and researchers alike.
Her Ph. D. thesis on The Climate of Bucharest, which had been publicly presented in 1971, but
unfortunately hadnt been published, may be considered as a model of analysis and
interpretation on urban climatology since the role of the built in active surface within the great
city has minutely been studied both from climatic and topoclimatic or microclimatic
perspectives. Moreover, helped by Maria Glja, she also worked and published, in 1972, a first
Romanian manual on Methods of Processing Climatological Data which has been indispensable
in any climatic survey undertaken by geographers or specialists in auxiliary fields of research.
As far as the latter contributor is concerned, we feel bound to mention that Maria Glja was not
only co- author of the previously-mentioned methodological work, but also main lecturer on
practical issues in Climatology, and her professional and educational activity in the University of
Bucharest, from 1963 to 1974, should best be characterized by seriousness, vocation, distinction
and dedication which seemed to be perfectly fit for the academic spirit and atmosphere created
by her previous master tefan Stoenescu.
The author of the present retrospective survey is another disciple of professor tefan Stoenescu.
Despite his strong desire of fulfilling his own personality, specific of all those who really want
to reach major achievements in the field they work, Sterie Ciulache cannot deny the beneficial
influence that the Magister has exerted upon him ever since he was his assistant from 1963 to
1968. On the contrary, he even takes great pride and gratitude in having been taught and trained
by such an enlightened spirit as that of tefan Stoenescu who actually laid the bases of
Climatology at the Faculty of Geology and Geography in the University of Bucharest. All
through the 37 years of hard work dedicated to the study of Meteorology Climatology and to
the continuous specialisation and expansion of climatological teaching programmes (1963
2000), he tried to follow the example of his mentor both in general human behaviour and in
specific educational and research activities.
Out of his personal contributions to the improvement of climatological research and training at
the University of Bucharest, he considers suffice it to mention only the most important ones. For
instance, his keen observations and research studies on Topoclimatology and Micro-climatology,
included in his consistent paperwork of Topoclimatology and Microclimatology published in

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STERIE CIULACHE

1971, greatly contributed to the systematisation of the various climatological subdivisions.


Moreover, his special turn and interest for the climate of depressions eventually drove him to
complete a valuable Ph. D. thesis on the Climate of the Sibiu Depression, which had been
publicly presented in 1976 and published in 1997. Confined to a climatologically interesting and
representative area and based on long series of meteorological data, Sterie Ciulaches work not
only minutely presented specific meteorological elements and processes, but also synthetically
concluded on major climatic issues for any depressionary area in the country.
As result of the contractual research work requested by the Ministry of Tourism in Romania, he
also published, in 1979, a four-dimensional scale of climatic conditions favourable for tourism,
so that the general influence of climate on seasonal touristic activities could easily be quantified
by simply establishing the share of influence exerted by each climatic element on various types
of landforms and by including specific units of measure into a general pattern of assessment.
Moreover, Sterie Ciulaches research work in the field of urban climatology was conducive to a
pioneer paper work about The Town and the Climate, published in 1980, which thoroughly
analyzes not only the influence of urban areas on climate, but also the reverse impact of climate
on built in spaces.
Special emphasis was also laid on climatic classifications, so that the same researcher, who
produced a map of worlds climates at the scale of 1: 22, ooo, ooo (published in 1982, under the
head-title of The Climatic Map of the World), devised not only the first and single Romanian
classification of the worlds climates, but also a unitary system of assessing regional climates on
the Romanian territory according to the accepted standards worldwide (1988) so that the
countrys climatic regions be fully compatible to global climatic types.
By deeply- analyzing the problems referring to climatic changes, which are considered to be
processes in full progress all over the surface of the Earth, Sterie Ciulache also initiated studies
on the long term ranges of air temperature and rainfall march and distribution in Romania
(1993, 2000) and concluded that the potential threat of climatic heating is not at all obvious and
sure. On the contrary, aware that weather phenomena often going to extremes may easily disrupt
natural and social balances, he also accomplished a complete inventory of Climatic Hazards
(1995), by minutely analyzing not only violent and spectacular hazards, such as tornadoes and
tropical cyclones, but also common phenomena, like frosts and droughts, that produce huge
damages only because of their recurrent character. Next, his attention turned to further fields of
investigation, like biometeorology and social meteorology, and focused on the influence of
climatic conditions on human behaviour, which is minutely presented in the paper work
Behavioural Climatology, published in 1998, together with Ionac Nicoleta. Since air pollution is
intimately connected to atmosphere composition and motion, the two authors also considered
that a survey of all kinds of air pollutants (inorganic, organic, biologic, radioactive etc.) and of
their distribution, concentration and evolution in atmosphere might also be useful in practical
activities in order to assess the air quality in a given environment, as well as in educational
training, in order to simply point to their harmerful effects, so that they published a
comprehensive paper work on Air Pollution (2001), which also retains its primacy in the
Romanian climatology.
In fact, the professional training of students has long been one of professor Sterie Ciulaches major
concerns and, consequently, he compiled a short methodological guide on climatologic research;
providing ready and easy access of students and young specialists to the most important issues to
be debated within any Climatic Monograph (2000). Besides this, the author also collected all the
Romanian papers on climatology in one single book of reference called Romanian Meteorological
References (1976); shot a documentary on Climatic Types and Regions in Romania (1980); wrote a
great number of articles included in the Concise Encyclopedic Dictionary (1972) and Romanias

CLIMATOLOGY RESEARCH AND TRAINING AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BUCHAREST (19002000)

21

Geographical Encyclopedia (1982); completed highly-consistent and systematic academic courses,


such as Practical Works in Meteorology (1973); Meteorology and Climatology (1985, 1988, 1994)
and Meteorology in Graphs (1995); published many articles and studies in various geographic
magazines etc. and his activity is far from getting to end, but the sharp and permanent
confrontation between the unavoidable effects of time that passes and the vocation for knowledge
improvement, shared by all those who really submit to science, urged him to start preparing the
next generation of specialists, so that a new contributor to the development of climatology at the
University of Bucharest has appeared in the 90 s.
Therefore, starting with 90, a new researcher contributed to the expanding and improving
climatologic research and educational activities in the University of Bucharest. Together with the
author of the present survey, Ionac Nicoleta completed and published important climatologic
works, such as Meteorology in Graphs (1995), Atmospheric Hazards (1995) and Behavioural
Climatology (1998), and numerous study papers which are extremely useful for the professional
and practical training of students at Geography.
But her most consistent and remarkable original contribution to the development of Romanian
climatology is her Ph. D. thesis called Climate and Human Behaviour, which had been publicly
presented in 1996 and published in 1998. This is a highly intellectual construction, characterized
by originality and complexity, dealing with the impact of climate on the anthropogenetic process,
the influence of climatic conditions on mans biological and cultural behaviour, the role of
climatic changes in the development of human society, human behaviour in cases of weather
hazards etc. By its multi-dimensional approach, Climate and Human Behaviour is a progressive
paper work at least at national scale since it makes a step forward in the expanding of the
climatologic research area by providing a model of modern scientific analysis of the various
inter-relationships between climatic conditions and other segments of objective reality.
Moreover, this paper work also proves the authors capacity of opening new research
opportunities in climatology, and especially on the frontier area with other scientific fields. And
this capacity has already been confirmed by her substantial latest Treatise of Medical
Geography (2000) which analyzes the influences of meteorological and climatic conditions on
the evolution and distribution of various human diseases.
Since October 1997, other two young graduates, tefan Iordache and Adrian Ticovschi, have
fully committed themselves to climatologic research, promising to get great achievements in the
near future. However, the list of main contributors to the development of climatic research at the
University of Bucharest is certainly much longer, including prestigious names of Romanian
climatologists and meteorologists, such as: Bzc Gheorghe, Bogdan Octavia, Dragot Carmen,
Iliescu Maria-Colette, Ion Bordei Ecaterina, Neaca Osvald, Neamu Gheorghe, Niculescu Elena,
Patrichi Silvia, Sabu Alexandru, Sabu Raluca, Stncescu Ioan, Stoian Rodica, Struu
Margareta, Teodoreanu Elena, Tuinea Paul, Vasenciuc Felicia etc.
The meteorological and climatological topics included in the curricula at the Faculty of
Geography in the University of Bucharest also reflect the ever-increasing expansion of the field
from the turn of the 20 th century until now, but they come secondly on this survey for the simple
reason that it was people first who created and introduced these scientific disciplines and not the
other way round.
Nevertheless, as we have already previously mentioned, Climatology was first taught in the
higher education system by tefan Stoenescu, starting with 1950. During 19541959, a first
major progress in developing climatology took place at the Faculty of Geography in the
University of Bucharest, when a new specialisation group was created in order to provide the
qualified personnel for the expansion of national meteorological network and climatologic
research. By intensely combining practical and theoretical training, most of the graduates in the
respective generation have shortly turned into valuable specialists who have been much
appreciated by all climatologists in Romania. A second series of specialisation groups worked in

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the same faculty from 1961 to 1969, but unfortunately it provided only four generations of
specialists in Meteorology and Climatology. However, the main curricular area in both periods
included not only fundamental geographical disciplines, but also a large number of
meteorological aud climatological topics: Agrometeorology, Synoptical Meteorology, Weather
Forecasts, Aerology, Radiometrics, Meteorometry, Microclimatology etc.
The termination of the second specialisation group in 1969 didnt necessarily mean the
elimination of this research direction for it has kept as a training group in Climatology and
Meteorology, comprising students that had to attend both fundamental lectures on Meteorology
Climatology and optional courses on Romanian Climatology, Topoclimatology and
Processing Methods in Climatology.
In 1990, as specialisation groups have largely diversified in the geographical system of higher
education, a new training group emerged at the University of Bucharest. Initially designed for a
four years study module and called Environmental Studies, the new profile has lately (1994)
expanded to a five years study module. Moreover, the initial specialisation series that trained
three generations of graduates (19901993) also included a specialisation group for Meteorology
and Climatology that attended highly-specialised topics such as: Romanias Climate, World
Climates, Agrometeorology, Topoclimatology, Aeronautical Meteorology, Maritime Meteorology,
Synoptical Meteorology, Weather Forecasts, Thermodynamics, Meteorological Statistics,
Information Systems, Biometeorology, Weather Hazards etc. At present, the optional topics
included in the curricula for the Geography, Environmental Studies, Geography Foreign
Lanquage, Geography Tourism profiles and Meteorology Hidrology
or Geography of Touristic Activities colleges refer to Topoclimatology, Agrometeorology,
Synoptical Meteorology, Weather Hazards, Climate Resources, Balneoclimatology, Biometeorology etc., that all reiterate the large modernisation and specialisation of climatology research
and education at the Faculty of Geography in the University of Bucharest.
On graduation, the students who had previously attended these lectures may further attend the
Master courses in Applied Climatology and Atmospheric Protection that started in 1995 with
Technical Meteorology, Information Systems, Modern Research Methods, Medical Climatology,
Air Pollution and Behavioural Climatology as main topics. In 1990, Ph. D. training in
Climatology has also been introduced at the University of Bucharest. For the first time in
Romania, professor Sterie Ciulache, who has been the initiator and leader of these Ph. D.
courses, trained more than 20 attendands, out of which 8 researchers have already completed
their Ph. D. paper works in Climatology (including two foreign attendants that have studied The
Climate of Israel and The Climate of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan) and 12 more are still
training by working on various and complex issues ranging from climatic monographs of natural
or administrative areas, to relationships between climate and environmental pollution, tourism,
population health, air or maritime navigation etc.
The large development of geographical training at the University of Bucharest refers not only to
a quantitative improvement (since the number of students rapidly increased from 200 to 2,000),
but also to qualitative achievements (since the number and scientific value of the paper works
that had been published or the research projects that had been completed, as well as the research
work that had largely been recognized abroad, greatly increased lately). And climatologists at the
Faculty of Geography in the University of Bucharest have tremendously contributed to this
difficult, but fruitful endeavour and achievement. At the same time, they also belong to the
larger community of meteorologists and climatologists in Bucharest and Romania, by
maintaining close research and educational relationships. For instance, in the last 10 years (from
1990 to 2000), many meteorologists and climatologists, who had previously been trained at the
University of Bucharest, have finally contributed, as associate lecturers and professors, to the
best meteorological and climatological training of the students at Geography. And dr. Alxandru

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23

Sabu, dr.tefan Gheorghe, dr. Elena Teodoreanu, dr. Steliana Ni, dr. Gheorghe Stnclie, dr.
Rodica Povar, Dumitru Balt, Anton Geicu, Elena Soare are only some of them. After all, the
continuous increase of the number and value of climatologists, on one side, and the excellent
cooperation among them, on the other side, is the best warrant that Climatology is in full swing
at the Faculty of Geography in the University of Bucharest.

REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY STUDIES AT BUCHAREST UNIVERSITY


(A RETROSPECTIVE VIEW: 19002000)
ION MARIN

The first representatives of the Romanian school of Regional Geography were


influenced by the French and German schools. The foundations of this discipline in Romania
were laid by high-profile geographers like Simion Mehedini, Alexandru Dumitrescu-Aldem,
George Vslan, Constantin Brtescu and Vintil Mihilescu during the first four decades of the
20th century. They took over the concept and metods of Regional Geography, at the same time
making substantive contributions to the scientific explanations of its object, notions, principles
and analysis methods.
S i m i o n M e h e d i n i concueired Regional Geography as a unitary system developing
and interacting with other sciences rather than a summation of knowledge acquired by the
natural sciences. His work on the Baragan Plain is conclusive in this respect. An outstanding
personality, he succeeded to further researches in this area, that identifying the regions calls for
the coordination of the elements of factic material.
Al e x a n d r u D u m i t r e s c u - A l d e m considered that true geography is Regional
Geography. He upheld the priority of Regional Geography as environmental syntheses which
man and his concerns are part of.
G e o rge V l s a n was interested in the fundamentals of Regional Geography which, in
his view, was the study of natural complexes, of the way in which geographical factors
intertwine and mutually condition one another. In his opinion General Geography and Regional
Geography are equally important because they have mutually developed and supported each
other.
C o n s t a n t i n B r t e s c u had studied nearly all the geographical disciplines, with
remarkable contributions in the field of Regional Geography. In his work The Land of Dobrogea
(1928) he lays down the guidelines of this science. A characteristic feature of most of his works
is the regional highlight, even though their titles do not always suggest it, e.g . The Danube
Delta, A Monographic Sketch (1912), The Eastern Coast of Constana City, What is Dobrogea?
(1940), Contributions to the Knowledge of the Dobrogea Valley (1941). Besides dealing with
natural conditions, his studies also address the historical and human issues in a transition from
General Geography to Regional Geography which was dearest to his heart. Geographers must
begin with regional studies, on smaller scale, before passing on to characterise the whole Earth.
His is harmonious blend between Regional and General Geography (Black The Sea Level
Oscillations during the Quaternary), giving each of them its rightful place.
Vin t i l M i h i l e s c u made substantive contributions to the Science of Geography,
which deals with a complex of factors yielding a partial or overall image of limited regions or of

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STERIE CIULACHE

the whole Earth Several of his works attest to the existence of a regional analysis model in
the Romanian geographical literature: The Town of Calarai (1922), Vlsia and Mostitea (The
Evolution of Two Towns in the Romanian Plain) (1925), Botoani Hrlu Depression at its
Contact with the High Plateau Facing the Siret River (1928 1929); Bucharest. A Geographical
Outline (1935); Romania (Physical Geography) (1936), Dorna Land, Geographical
Background and Settlement Boundaries (1944); Olt Land, A Geographical Characterisation
(1947); The South-Eastern Carpathians in Romania (1963). Some of his works are purely
theoretical, eg. Theoretical Geography. Fundamental Principles. A General Guide to the
Geographical Sciences (1968); Geography-Ecology, Geographical Region-Ecosystem (1970),
etc, but they also contain assessments of Regional Geography, (starting from the basic territorial
unit-the geographical region) to recentmore assertions found in the specialist literature,
although, in theory, he makes a distinction between geographical region, natural region,
anthropic region and landscape.
As early as the years 19281935, Io n Co n e a appeared to have an in-depth knowledge
of Regional Geography, even though the title of his first works does not suggest it: In the Lotru
Mountains (1928), Human Settlement in the Subcarpathian Depression of Oltenia (1931), A
Geographical Study of Chestnut Trees in Oltenia (1931). His works with regional focus are:
Lovitea Land Historical Geography (1935), The Geographical and Historical Background of
Bucharest (1937), Man and Nature in Haeg Land (1939) etc. Some of his geographical insights
are not easily detectable by everybody. Conea would put forward new viewpoints on the human
society geographical environment relation, on place names and geographical terms, etc.
N . Al e xa n d r u R d u l e s c u makes regional approaches in his studies, whatever the
title reads, eg. A Guide to Focani Town (1932), Geographical Research in Moldavia: The
Cain Fair, Vegetal Wealth in Rmnicu Srat County; Vrancea, a Political Formation (1938),
etc. His main work, Vrancea Physical and Human Geography (1937), is a reference study and
a fairly comprehensive approach for his time. As noteworthy is his article on Development
Directions and Research Fields in Regional Geography (1975) which is a synthesis and
projection of some trends in geographical research in this domain.
Vic t o r Tuf e s c u , an outstanding Romanian geographer and regional researcher, had a vast
and selective outlook on all our surroundings eg. On the Location and Development of Iai City
(1932), Dealu Mare Hrlu. Observations on the Evolution of Landforms and Human Settlements
(1937); A Monograph of Piatra Neam Town Planning Project (1948); A Monograph of Timioara
City (1949); A Monograph of Botoani Town (1950); The Subcarpathians and Marginal Depressions
of Transylvania (1966); A Complex Study of the Prut Valley between Mitoc and tefneti (1975). He
provides data, assessments, comments, fresh viewpoints on the elements and structure of Regional
Geography, which usually constitute references or starting points for further analyses.
Another member of that notable generation of geographers keen on regional approaches
was N . N . P op p . Many of his studies, eg. A Few Geographical Observations in Petrosani
Basin (1930); La zone subcarpatique en Muntenia (1934); A Course in Regional Geography,
vol I, II (1943); North-American, European etc. Horizons; The Danube Basin: Nature and Man
(1988), made of him a noteworthy forerunner and analyst of this discipline.
Ia n c u M i h a i , former member of the Regional Physical Geography Chair, was a
devoted and passionate researcher. His focus of interest were the depressions, the defile
corridors and the lowlands, with special reference to natural conditions (Uzonca Depressions,
Intorsura Buzaului, Mountains and Depression, Braov Depression, Geographical
Contributions to the Creation of Agreement Sites in the Rucr-Bran Cooridor, The Olt Defile,
Mure Toplia Defile etc. Trgovite Plain). For almost two decades he held a Course in
Romanias Physical Geography at the Faculty of Geography, Bucharest University. In the last
quarter of the 20th century, together with Ion Rdulescu, he wrote a first synthesis: Regional
Physical Geography, highly appreciated by specialists.
A close collaborator of Prof. Iancu Mihai was Prof. Ion R d u l e s c u intermittently
head of the Chair of Regional Physical Geography during the 19521976 interval. His studies
deal with geographical regionalisation (Points de vue dans le problme de la rgionalisation

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25

gographique 1966) and with the physical-geographical regions (Dobrogea, Trgovite Plain,
urban centres etc.), making new assessments on the environmental components and their
interrelationship. He held the course in the Regional Physical Geography of Continents at the
Faculty of Geography, Bucharest University, continued by the author of this paper.
Contemporaneous with the above geographer were Prof. H e r b s t - R do i At t e n a and
H e r b s t C on s t a n t i n who took up the study of Romanias Economic Regional Geography, and
the Regional Economic Geography of Continents, respectively. They produced county studies,
town monographs and theoretical elaborations, e.g. On the Content of General and Regional
Economic Geography (Herbst C., Leea I. 1965)
A new generation of researchers would contribute to identifying the place of Regional
Geography within the system of geographical sciences. Let us mention Prof. Val e r i a Vel c e a
from the Chair of Regional Geography (titled so since 1990) for her substantive development of
the concept of region, also attested by her course in Regional Geography of Romania, and
discussed at large in a number of works: New Geographical Problems of the Romanian
Carpathians (1977); Carpathian Subdivisions (1981); An Attempt at a Geographical
Regionalisation (1979);The Prahova Valley (1965), etc.
N . B a s a r a b e a n u a former staff member of the Regional Geography Chair who, alone
but moreover in collaboration, broached the subject of the physical-geographycal regionalisation
of Dobrogea, e.g. Geographical Considerations on the Danube Settlements Between Rasova and
Hrova (1972); Scarps and Soils in Dobrogea (1970) etc.
Other members of the Chair, who had Regional Geography a secondary specialisation,
were S i l v i a L u p u , Ia nc u S i l vi a and Ia n a So fi a . A first paper by S i l vi a Lu p u and
M a r i n Ion The Complex of Physical-Geographical Profiles in Regional Geography
Researches was published in Probleme de Geografie journal in 1967, and A Complex
Geographical Profile (1987), authors C a l o i a n u N . , Il i e , I. M a r i n Ion , appeared in
Sinteze geografice , lucrri practice .
Another contributor to Regional Geography studies is M i h a i Ie l e n i c z . Some of his
works have a theoretical character: A Regionalisation of the Banat Carpathians (1973); The
Baiul Mountains (1985); The Buzau Plain (1986); The Barlad Plain (1990); The Western Hills
Physical-Geographical Particularities (1992); The Hills and Tablelands of Romania (1999);
Zone-Zonation, Region-Regionalisation, Type-Typisation (1998), etc. Studies of Economic
Geography are due to Ion Velcea: Oa Land (1963), Braov Region, Economic-Geographical
Outline (1967), The Getic Piedmont, A Study of Economic Geography (1971) etc.
N i c o l a e C a l o i a n u author of several courses elaborated some of the first courses in
Regional Geography of the World, contributed to Romanias Regional Geography, highlighting
the significance of geographical profile for Regional Geography in the work Regional Economic
Geography (1967, 1970, 1974). Other authors dealing with these problems are G h . D r a gu in a
Geography of the World; Ion Leea in the Geography of Continents Geography of North and
Central America (1977); Ion P o povic i Main Geographical Features of the Danube Delta
(1966); Tulcea County A Geographical Outline (1969); Dobrogea Plateau and the Danube Delta
(1984). He also addressed some issues of Economic Geographical Regionalisation (1966) etc.
Regional Geography applies a wide range of means and methods of investigation some
are strictly geographical, others certain to related disciplines but are applicable to this area.
Methodological diversity is the result of the interdisciplinary character of regional studies given
that the complex space problems call for the participation of specialists from different fields:
economists, sociologists, planners, etc. The outcome of this collaboration should yield a
complete and complex image of the geographical regions investigated.
The range of methods is varied, basically classical ones are used (dialectical, inductive,
deductive, analysis, synthesis, historical, cartographic, experimental, comparative), but also
some of the latest: modelling, sequential analysis, etc. Technological advances enhanced the

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STERIE CIULACHE

reliability of statistical-mathematical, mathematical modelling and like procedures. High


capacity computers and satellite data (continuous flux) were used to follow up the dynamic of
regional geographical processes and phenomena. Beside a wider range of methods, the means of
investigation multiplying and becoming more sophisticated, the degree of testing precision
increased, too.
Approaches to Regional Geographical research have in the course of time suffered
significant quantitative and moreover qualitative mutations. Present approaches are expected to
assess, that is to quantify, quality changes in the landscape in the environment generally, to
estimate a territorys potential as source of stability, make prognoses for and elaborate models of
sustainable development.
Prospectively, Regional Geographical research should focus on two main directions:
1. fundamental, of putting to account all of the regions potential, and 2. applied, foreseeing
evolution trends in different components under the impact of human action, and analysing inter
and intra regional relationships. Scientific activity is dependent on societal requirements,
therefore Regional Geography research should strive to meet current demands for social and
economic development and find answers to specific issues. The elaboration of such concepts as
ecodevelopment (type of prospective development which should bear in mind the limited
charactere of resources) sustainable development (present developments should not jeopardise
the progress of future generations) etc. seem to be a reasonable answer to the above demands.
Topical concerns (even though classical monographic surveys have not been abandoned
altogether) are targeting, or should be doing so vulnerable geographical spaces, swift changes
recently recorded or situations calling for rapid and consistent intervention to ensure sustainable
development. In line with this reality, several concepts have been put forward, e.g. development
regions, influence regions, conversion regions, regressing or expanding regions, regional
disparities, cross-border regions, or regional cooperation. 1
These concepts do meet present desiderata but may be short-lived in case the conditions
they have been fitted to are changing. The major permanent goals of analysis are the following:
The region as object of geographical approach in the present conditions;
Priority geographical areas for regional geographical analysis;
Sequential analysis a tool for identifying evolution stages, regionalism and
regionalisation, functional regions.
As a matter of fact, whatever the moment of analysis, Regional Geography, and
implicitly the geographical region in its classical acceptation, has in view two
variables: extension and content (Marin Ion, 1991)
Extension (sizes)
traditional size within conventional limits overlaps some physical-geographical,
economic-geographical and other elements;
current size still falls into the notion of region: Dobrogea, South-Eastern Europe,
Balkan Region, Caspian Sea Region, etc. In this case the elements of the natural
environment are secondary to the definition of region, the geo-economic, strategic and
functional elements being used instead. The question is whethever or not the size of
geographical region must be changed or possibly reassessed. Could its boundanes
suffer some changes in the future.
Today, in the light of economic integration, the relationship between culture and regionalism is
becoming ever more apparent (Hungtington, S.P., 1998).
The four inter-country economic association levels (free-trade zone, customs union, common
market and European Union) are acknowledged as targets or common points of civilisation and
regional organisation. It follows that size is an increasingly more embracing element, its
coverage becoming gradually synonymous for functionality.
1
Problems shared and developed by the Chair of Regional Geography, Regional
Geography Team.

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27

The content of the Geographical Region stricto-sensu comprises: natural conditions in the form of
landscapes, human resources and activities, exchanges, links with closer or remoter regions etc.
Since the human factor is the one who, in terms of instruction level, proceeds to exchanging values,
stimulates regionalisation (ever more obvious nowadays), the content becomes very
comprehensive, surpassing regional boundaries proper. Sometimes external economic influences
are paramount in the evolution of a region (J. Thunen) anyhow in the future the region, the
geographical regionalisation must necessarily surpass not only present sizes, but contents, too.
There is too much stress placed on regionalism and regionality for us not to accept such an idea at
least. Perhaps the previously accepted name must be changed to meet the new conditions. The very
existence of such notions as development is region an alarm bell. Embodying culture in strictosensu to the regional concept has now become a must. It is not culture but the capacity of people
and society to have a correct temporal and spatial perception of the exploitation of cultural
resources, virrespective of their nature and place of origin, to maximise opportunities and have an
objective, acceptable viewpoint on how to organise the cultural space, the cultural geographical
space. On the other hand, the populations belonging to a certain culture stamp their mark on the
space they occupy (constructions, means of transport and communication, the parcelling of land
and its use etc.) an exception making the nomad populations.
This mosaic of human imprints on the surface of the Earth is also designated by the term
cultural landscape. B . J a c ks o n (1984) enlarged the definition as follows a built-up of man
created or modified spaces to serve as infrastructure or background for collective life.
The regions are geographical political or cultural entities. But whenever geography coincides
with culture they could form a basis for interaction.
In the course of time, the regions have acquired certain qualities that shape their regional
character and personality.
In his work A Geography of Europe, J e a n G o t t m a n n contends that: in order to distinguish
itself from it surroundings, a region needs essentially a strong faith based on religious beliefs, a
social stand point, or the moulds of political memories, often enough a combination of the three.
The groundwork of this type of regionalism resides in the fact that each community has found
for itself a symbol differing slightly from the symbols inherited by its neighbours.
The question is how much and how far are the geographical and cultural regions overlapping
whethever the boundaries objectively encompassing conventional elements are vulnerable and
whethever a region can modify its specificity yet not primarily its natural environment.
Cultural identity within the new world (Hungtington, S.P., 1998) is the main factor shaping a
countrys associations and antagonisms, perhaps not of a region, because the latter depends on
its hierarchical rank.
Regional geographical analyses of territories, states and continents succeeded their discovery.
Their aim was to find out geographical potentials. Investigations covered preferentially little
known, or unknown territories. Present economic social and political circumstances call for
the analysis to focus on vulnerable regions, whose dynamic may sometimes have or induce
hardly controlable sates of affair. Such an analysis should be sequential the only one capable
to single out progression or regression, or stability phenomena inclusive of permanent
adjustment to new situations.
Regions could be vulnerable (in tension or crisis) for the following reasons:
economic (monofunctional regions);
social (economic restructuring);
political (border issues, water or fishing resources etc.);
ecological (environment) affected or liable to being affected by desertification,
deforestation, erosion, major pollution etc.
Current and prospective researches also cover cross-border regions with the whole range of
relations established between them, and expanding regions whose development may induce
major changes in the closer or remater geographical landscape.

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STERIE CIULACHE

Sequential analysis. Until recently, a regions evolution in terms of the role played by the
economic factor was established by statistical means associated with some assessments (Marin
Ion, Marin Marian).
In the light of contemporany conditions such an analysis should reveal the followings:
phenomena that played a decisive role in shaping a certain stage even though these
phenomena must be sought at a very great distance from the respective region;
statistics marks the quantitative momentous evolution, failing to explain all the
influences impacting this evolution over the studied interval; influences are indeed
hardly detectable on first sight.
Therefore, sequential analysis, which should not be confused for a succession of maps,
data and values, nor for the inevitable account of development of a phenomenon, can grasp and
explain moments and states of major inflexion, of determination and influence.
This analysis must necessarily be an extensive (spatially) one, because a series of
phenomena do not originate in the adjacent space, but much farther away, sometimes
ynexpectedly far. For exemple, it may happen that the accidental discovery of a water source is a
crucial moment in the development of a region, a territory, etc. Today, it is imperative to have
sequential analysis linked with sustainable development, as a superior step of assessment.
Regional studies of sustainable development have been attracting the interest of ever
more researchers. Like studies have in view the following: to inventory a regions resources
capable to sustain a long-term development programme; selective development, that is, the
identification of regions or units liable to being listed under these programmes or aspects that
need be managed; and last but not least, the elaboration of a legislation to set a legal, stable
framework for intervention.

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UN SECOL DE HIDROLOGIE I OCEANOGRAFIE


LA FACULTATEA DE GEOGRAFIE DIN BUCURETI
EMIL VESPREMEANU

Actul de natere al hidrologiei i oceanografiei la Facultatea de Geografie din Bucureti


a fost chiar prelegerea inaugural prezentat de Simion Mehedini la 3 noiembrie 1900. Dup ce
arat modul formrii hidrosferei ca nveli specific al Terrei, relevnd importana mrilor i
oceanelor pornind de la un exemplu apropiat (Marea Neagr), autorul traseaz lapidar sarcinile
oceanografiei i hidrologiei: nti vom considera nveliul lichid din punct de vedere static al
distribuiei apei n mri, lacuri, ruri, omt, gheari etc., apoi vom face un pas mai departe i
vom examina cum se mic apa n curenii mrii, n ruri, n gheari, ploi, neguri i vom cuta
normele dup care se mplinete aceast circulaie continu ntre ocean i prile uscate ale
hidrosferei.
n cursul su de geografie general, S. Mehedini acord importana cuvenit celor dou
ramuri care cerceteaz hidrosfera. Dar nu numai att. n anul 1903, organizeaz prima excursie
n Delta Dunrii la care particip un grup de studeni de la Facultatea de Litere i Filosofie.
ntlnirea de la Sulina cu Gr. Antipa i cu specialitii Comsiunii Europene a Dunrii prilejuiete
discuii fascinante privind raporturile fluviului cu marea i geneza mirificului spaiu de la gurile
Dunrii. Este prima aplicaie practic a studenilor n delt, continuat, cu scurte perioade de
ntrerupere, pn n zilele noastre.
Bazele hidrologiei i oceanografiei n Romnia sunt puse n magistrala sintez a lui
S. Mehedini, Terra, aprut n anul 1931. n volumul II, dedicat analizei nveliurilor planetei,
autorul trateaz problemele oceanografiei pe parcursul a 58 pagini, iar cele ale hidrologiei, n 49
pagini. Ilustraiile bogate, documentarea la zi din literatura mondial de specialitate, stilul
precis, clar i concis, fac din aceste capitole fundamentul pe care se vor cldi n viitor hidrologia
i ocenografia romneasc.
Elemente de hidrologie i oceanografie apar i n cursurile de geografie fizic prezentate
studenilor de ctre V. Mihilescu, G. Vlsan, C. Brtescu, N. Popp.
Primul curs de hidrologie general este prezentat studenilor de N. Al. Rdulescu n
perioada 1948 1954. n anul 1950, I. Piota este numit preparator, iar din 1951, asistent, la
disciplina Hidrologie, n scurt timp publicnd primul caiet de lucrri practice (1956). Dup
ndeprtarea din nvmnt a profesorului N. Al. Rdulescu, cursul este preluat de P. Cote (anul
colar 1954 1955). n paralel, I. Piota a predat (1955 1956) cursul de ,,Geografia mrilor i
lacurilor.
Dezvoltarea hidrologiei la Facultatea de Geografie din Bucureti este datorat
profesorului I. Piota care, timp de 40 ani (1956 1996), a predat anului I un curs amplu,
dezvoltat pe dou semestre. n aceast perioad ndelungat lucrrile practice de hidrologie au
fost conduse de V. Trufa (1956 1991), G. Ciumpileac (1962 1968), Liliana Zaharia (din

30

STERIE CIULACHE

1992) i I. Srbu (din 1995). Dup pensionarea titularului (1996) cursul a fost preluat de lector
univ. dr. Liliana Zaharia. Pe lng disciplina de baz au fost predate, dup 1950, mai multe
cursuri destinate studenilor din anii superiori, grupa de specializare meteorlogie-hidrologie. Aa
sunt cursurile de ,,Hidrochimie (V. Trufa), ,,Msurtori i calcule n hidrologie. Probleme
speciale de hidrologia Romniei (V. Trufa n perioada 19601974; E. Vespremeanu n
perioada
19901998), ,,Lacuri de acumulare (Aurora Posea n perioada 19751982, E. Vespremeanu,
19921995), ,,Limnologie i hidrobiologie (E. Vespremeanu), ,,Hidrobiologie (E. Vespremeanu din 1999) ,,Dunrea i Marea Neagr (E. Vespremeanu, 19931995).
Planul de nvmnt actualizat n 1996, diversific activitatea didactic hidrologic. La
profilul Geografie, n afara cursului de baz de Hidrologie se predau, la grupa de specializare
meteorologie i hidrologie, cursurile opionale: ,,Hidrometrie i sinteze hidrologice, ,,Apele
Romniei, ,,Modificri globale ale hidrosferei, ,,Limnologie general i hidrobiologie,
,,Riscuri hidrologice. La profilul tiina mediului se pred, la anul I, cursul obligatoriu de
,,Hidrologie i limnologie, iar din anul III cursurile opionale ,,Hidrogeologie,
,,Hidrometrie, ,,Bazine hidrografice, ,,Gospodrirea apelor, ,,Hidrobiologie. La profilul
Geografie o limb strin se pred cursul obligatoriu de ,,Hidrologie n semestrul I din anul I.
La profilul Geografia turismului se pred un curs obligatoriu de ,,Hidrologie la anul I.
Oceanografia a avut, din pcate, o evoluie mult mai modest. Dup cursul de
,,Geografia mrilor i lacurilor predat n anul colar 19551956 de I. Piota, toate problemele
Oceanului Planetar au fost tratate, timp de decenii, n cadrul cursului de hidrologie general.
Muli ani oceanografiei i sau acordat numai 13% din volumul cursului, dei Oceanul Planetar
ocup 98% din totalul hidrosferei. Abia n anul colar 1973 1974 se introduce un curs de
,,Oceanografie desfurat pe un semestru, predat pn n anul 1989 de lector univ. dr. Aurora
Posea.
Reorganizarea nvmntului geografic bucuretean din primvara anului 1990 a inut
cont de marea importan a cunotinelor despre Oceanul Planetar i a restructurat n consecin
planurile de nvmnt.
ncepnd cu anul colar 19901991, cursul de ,,Oceanografie devine obligatoriu la anul
I profilul Geografie i se desfoar pe dou semestre cu 2 ore curs i 2 ore lucrri practice pe
sptmn. ncepnd cu anul III, studenii se pot nscrie la cursurile opionale ,,Geografia
mrilor i oceanelor, ,,Oceanografie medical i ,,Interaciuni ocean-atmosfer.
La profilul tiina mediului, anul I se pred cursul obligatoriu de ,,Mediu oceanic, cu 2
ore curs i 2 ore lucrri practice pe sptmn, timp de un semestru. Se introduce, de asemenea,
cursul facultativ de ,,Mediu costier, la anul II, cu dou semestre, 2 ore curs i 1 or lucrri
practice, ca i cursul facultativ de ,,Oceanografie medical, cu 2 ore curs.
Lucrrile practice de oceanografie se desfoar ntr-un laborator specializat, ,,Laboratorul
de Oceanografie i Protecia Mediului (LOPM), dotat cu aparatur de profil i cu tehnic de
calcul performant (6 calculatoare Pentium II racordate la INTERNET, scanner i imprimante).
Cercetarea tiinific n domeniile hidrologie i oceanografie a avut, de asemenea,
traiectorii i aprofundri diferite.
n domeniul hidrologiei coala bucuretean abordeaz majoritatea cmpurilor de
cercetare: ape subterane, potamologie, limnologie. Dintre probleme sunt abordate: analiza
complex a bazinelor hidrografice, hidrochimia, hidrobiologia, resurse de ap, gospodrirea
apelor, calitatea apelor, protecia apelor.
Se remarc cercetrile asupra apelor subterane efectuate de V. Trufa n regiunile
Orova-Jupalnic-Tufri, Bazia-Turnu Severin, bazinul superior al Jiului, Deva, M. Sebe,
bazinul Siret i n alte pri ale rii, cercetrile asupra izvoarelor efectuate de I. Piota, care a

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31

realizat primele sinteze i regionri ale izvoarelor minerale din Romnia, precum i cercetrile
efectuate asupra proceselor hidrologice, resurselor de ap, chimismului i calitii apelor n
Dunre i n unele bazine hidrografice (I. Piota, V. Trufa, Aurora Posea, Gh. Ciumpileac,
Maria Ptroescu, Liliana Zaharia, I. Srbu, D. Diaconu).
Cercetrile limnologice au reprezentat o prioritate la Facultatea de Geografie din
Bucureti, rezultatele fundamentnd direcii noi de abordare la nivel naional. Menionm astfel
cercetrile asupra lacurilor alpine i subalpine (I. Piota, V. Trufa), asupra lacurilor carstice i
pseudocarstice (V. Trufa), asupra lacurilor din lunca i Delta Dunrii (E. Vespremeanu), asupra
lacurilor de acumulare (I. Piota, V. Trufa, E. Vespremeanu, Maria Ptroescu, Aurora Posea,
Liliana Zaharia, I. Srbu).
Dintre problemele hidrologice abordate de coala bucuretean se cuvin menionate
hidrochimia, hidrobiologia i calitatea apelor. Cercetrile hidrochimice au vizat cunoaterea
chimismului apelor subterane, rurilor i lacurilor din majoritatea regiunilor rii (V. Trufa,
Maria Ptroescu, I.Piota). Din pcate nu a existat preocuparea pentru nfiinarea i dezvoltarea
unui laborator propriu de hidrochimie. Cercetrile hidrobiologice au vizat cunoaterea structurii
i funcionrii ecosistemelor lacustre din lunca i Delta Dunrii, precum i a ecosistemelor din
lacul de acumulare Porile de Fier I (E. Vespremeanu).
n domeniul oceanografiei se remarc preocupri pentru prezentarea unor probleme ale
Oceanului Planetar i ale Mrii Negre pe baza datelor din literatur i din anuare (I. Piota,
V. Trufa, Aurora Posea). ncepnd cu anul 1970, E. Vespremeanu demareaz un program de
cercetare a litoralului i apelor costiere romneti ale Mrii Negre, care se continu i n
prezent. In cadrul acestui program a fost nfiinat, n anul 1971 Laboratorul de testare a calitii
mediului, care a asigurat, pn n anul 1977, determinrile chimice, fizice i biologice ale
probelor colectate n mediul costier romnesc. n 1980, acesta s-a transformat n Laboratorul de
cercetri litorale, iar n 1995 a fost nfiinat Centrul de Cercetri Costiere pentru Protecia
Mediului. n prezent, sunt abordate teme de cercetare privind morfololgia i morfodinamica
rmului, vulnerabilitatea mediului costier la riscurile naturale meteo-marine, schimbarea
ecosistemelor litorale, potenialul eolian al litoralului, evoluia deltelor secundare, analiza
mediului costier ca suport al apariiei i dezvoltrii culturilor i civilizaiilor, perceperea
mediului costier, protecia i managementul zonei de coast (E. Vespremeanu, A. VespremeanuStroe, t. Constantinescu, Georgeta Bandoc, Bianca Simion, Daniela Strat).
Dup 100 de ani de dezvoltare continu, hidrologia i oceanografia de la Facultatea de
Geografie din Bucureti se afl n plin avnt. Activitatea didactic i de cercetare desfurat de
cadrele didactice i numrul mare de cadre tinere ne dau siguraa continurii pe coordonate
superioare a activitii att de meritorii desfurate pn n prezent.

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DEZVOLTAREA GEOGRAFIEI UMANE I ECONOMICE


N CADRUL FACULTII DE GEOGRAFIE DIN BUCURETI
VASILE CUCU, GEORGE ERDELI
coala de geografie uman i economic bucuretean are rdcini trainice.
Condiionrile istorice de la sfritul secolului al XVIII-lea i nceputul secolului al XIX-lea au
influenat apariia unor lucrri de mare sintez istoric i geografic 1, elemente revelatoare
asupra fundamentelor sociale i economice ale poporului romn.
n preajma naterii Societii Romne de Geografie (iunie 1875), apar de asemenea
lucrri cu profil social de deosebit notorietate 2.
Asemenea contribuii favorizeaz organizarea pe trepte superioare a nvmntului
geografic romnesc.
Se afirm nc din acel timp n coala geografic bucuretean o etap de formare a
premiselor unei coli socio-geografice nu mai puin geodemografice (n accepiunea actual a
noiunii) cu valene de competitivitate internaional. Se poate vorbi deasmenea despre un
curent statistico-economic 3.
Conceptele de geodemografie i geoeconomie, care stau la baza a ceea ce numim
astzi ,,geografie uman i ,,geografie economic, s-au manifestat n aceast perioad
independent (dar nu autonom).
Pe plan mondial se afirmau n acest timp colile de ,,Antropogeografie i ,,Geografie
politic (Fr.Ratzel) i ,,Geografie uman (Paul Vidal de la Blache), coli care aveau la baz o
geografie a ,,locurilor i a ,,oamenilor fr o distincie clar ntre structurile populaie aezri i geoeconomie. De altfel acest lucru, atunci, nici nu era actual deoarece conceptul
de ,,geografie economics-a conturat mult mai trziu.
De reinut, de asemenea, c n pragul secolului al XIX-lea geografia trecea printr-o
perioad de criz adnc, definiia i numele acestei tiine erau destul de variate
(Alex.Humboldt utiliza cuvntul ,,Cosmos, Karl Ritter pe cel de ,,geografie comparat;
alii oscilau ntre geognoz, geologie, geofizic, geomorfologie, fisiografie, geografie general
etc.).

1
Istoria rii Romneti (Viena, 1806), Geografia Romniei (Leipzig, 1816) a lui
DIMITRIE PHILIPIDE, Istoria Vechii Dacii (DIONISIE FOTINO Viena, 18181819).
2
Terra Nostra (P. S. AURELIAN, 1875), La Roumanie conomique dapres les donnes
les plus recents (M. G. OBEDENARU Paris, 1876), Dicionarul topografic i statistic al
Romniei (DIMITRIE FRUNZESCU 1872), operele lui ION IONESCU DE LA BRAD:
Agricultura judeelor Dobrogea, Dorohoi, Mehedini, Putna.
3
Dei lucrrile fundamentale n aceti ani marcheaz o evident ncurajare a curentului
naturalist n geografie (Gr. Coblcescu, L. M. Mrazec, St. Hepites), o analiz corespunztoare
relev c lucrrile cu profil socio-uman i economic sunt totui preponderente n aceast
perioad (Buletinele Societii de Geografie, lucrri remarcabile ca: Romnia considerat sub
punctul de vedere fizic, administrativ i economic a lui Emanoil Cretzulescu sau Marele
dicionar geografic al Romniei (18821897) .a.

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n acest context, apreciem contribuia colii geografice bucuretene, prin personalitatea


lui Simion Mehedini care se impune dintr-un nceput cu o serie de lucrri ca: Locul geografiei
ntre tiine (Bucureti, 1894), Die Kartographische Induktion (tez de doctorat, Leipzig, 1899),
Etero-genitatea celor patru sfere (Bucureti, 1900), Obiectul i definiia geografiei (Bucureti,
1901).
Elev al lui Paul Vidal de la Blache, Fr. Ratzel i F. Richtofen dar i bun cunosctor al
operei lui Al. von Humboldt, S. Mehedini a nceput prin a-i lmuri n primul rnd siei, sensul
geografiei ca tiin.
Formulat n definiie clar chiar din prelegerea de deschidere a cursului universitar
(1900), concepia profesorului Simion Mehedini a fost pus i a rmas la baza geografiei
moderne din Romnia. Definind obiectul geografiei ca tiin, el precizeaz obiectul program
al fiecreia dintre ramurile ei, lsnd s se neleag c nveliul geografic este un tot unitar
legat organic, n schimb caracterizat printr-o diversitate de laturi care se deosebesc calitativ
unele de altele i totodat se ntreptrund.
Profesorul Simion Mehedini argumenteaz astfel locul celor care ,,se ocup de litosfer,
biosfer, antropogeografie, geografie economic, geografie politic etc., deasemenea prefer
denumirea de ,,Antropogeografie. Manualul pentru clasa a VI-a (anul 1924) se numete
,,Antropogeografiesau ,,Geografia omului definit drept ramur a geografiei care cerceteaz
legturile dintre om i Pmnt (adic influena planetei asupra omului i reacia omului asupra
planetei). Fr a face structurare pe discipline tiinifice, ajunge s defineasc obiectivele
studiului geografic al aezrilor omeneti, menionnd c, nu este destul s lum n
considerare numai conturul grupului de locuine, ci trebuie s mai inem seama i de arin i
pune, adic de locul de unde locuitorii i scot hrana lor.
n acelai timp, d i o definiie Geografiei Economice. Acesta nu numai c o recunoate,
dar o i definete: Geografia Economic (Terra, vol. I) arat cum atrn omul de pmnt, att
n ce privete procurarea mijloacelor de trai ct i distribuirea lor pentru consum.
Gheorghe Arghirescu ntregete conceptul de geografie economic preciznd: Geografia
economic este tiina care studiaz fenomenele economice, adic activitatea economic a
diferitelor pri din omenire, n legturile, n dependenele cauzale pe care aceste fenomene,
aceast activitate le are cu mediul nconjurtor (subl. ns.), omul i reacia omului asupra
planetei (1913: curs de ,,Geografie Economic la A.S.E.).
Este deosebit de clar c la nceputurile geografiei moderne n Romnia, reprezentanii
geografiei bucuretene nu ofer nici un indiciu de ,,asimilare a noiunilor de Geografie Uman
cu cele de Geografie Economic.
n plus, ntr-un gen de replic, Nestor V. Urechea (fiul unuia din fotii fondatori ai
Societii Romne de Geografie) fundamenteaz conceptul de Geografie Social. Prin
lucrarea Un proiect de geografie social a Romniei (1902) adic tocmai n perioada
confruntrilor dintre Antropogeografie i Geografie Uman, Nestor V. A. Urechea atrage atenia
asupra faptului c atunci cnd ,,mpreunnd geografia cu tina social, vrea s se fac oper de
geografie social, faa chestiunii se schimb. Fr doar i poate trebuie s ai o norm, trebuie s
adopi o ordine n seria faptelor studiate, s lucrezi cu metod. Aceast metod, aceast ordine,
ordinea natural dupa care se leag unele cu altele faptele asociate, este dat de tiina social.
Orientri similare gsim la Al. Dimitrescu-Aldem, George Vlsan (1920), Vintil
Mihilescu (1940), Ion Conea, N. Al. Rdulescu, Mara Popp .a.
nsumnd asemenea preocupri din primele decenii ale secolului XX, observm faptul c
n timp ce pe plan mondial ,,se caut poziia omului, a colectivitii umane ntr-o
geografie uman global, n Romnia direcionarea geografic nc de la nceputurile
fundamentrilor ei moderne, se concretizeaz n domeniile de geografie fizic, geografie
uman i economic.
n acest spirit se prezint prevederile din primele programe analitice elaborate de
George Vlsan pentru predarea geografiei n liceu (1920 profesorul program manual i

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elevul; Reforma nvmntului geografic 1931); lucrarea Introducere n Antropogeografie a


prof. N. Al. Rdulescu.
Dup cel de-al doilea rzboi mondial i n coala bucuretean se resimt efectele
crizei metodologice n geografie n general. Vintil Mihilescu ncearc (n 1945) o justificare
Confuzii ntre obiect i domeniu de cercetare. Cu toate acestea remarcm apariia, n cadrul
catedrei de geografie uman i economic a unui prim curs de ,,Geografie Economic a
Romniei (prof. univ. dr. Ioan Popovici), a unor studii semnificative fundamentrii conceptelor
i metodologiei Geografiei Economice.n primele decenii att terminologia, ct i metodologia a
ceea ce se definea ,,Geografie uman au fost nlturate din conceptele geografice. Mai mult, s-a
atentat chiar la individualizarea Geografiei Economice, situaie culminat prin organizarea, n
anul 1963, la nivel naional, a analizei strii geografiei romneti.
n acest cadru conceptul prezentat de profesorul Ion andru de la Iai, susinut i de
colaboratorii bucureteni a dus la fundamentarea metologic a geografiei economice (de
geografie uman nici vorb atunci) , n spiritul ,,un sistem geografic unitar.
Evoluiile pe plan mondial, ndeosebi Congresele UIG de la Montreal (1972) i Moscova
(1976), dar mai ales participarea efectiv a unor membrii din catedr la Congresul Mondial al
Populaiei de la Belgrad (1965) i la Conferina Mondial a Populaiei (Bucureti, 1974) au dat
un impuls semnificativ orientrilor spre Geografia Uman i Economic. Prin cursurile de
,,Geografia Populaiei i Aezrilor Umane, ca discipline de baz iniiate la Facultatea de
Geografie din Bucureti, s-au meninut elementele fundamentale ale Antropogeografiei (parial
Geografiei Umane) promovate nainte de cel de-al doilea rzboi mondial. S-au creat condiiile
necesare pentru organizarea Catedrei de Geografie Uman i Economic, la Facultatea de
Geografie din Bucureti. n volumul II al Tratatului de Geografie, intitulat ,,Geografie Uman i
Economic a Romniei s-a inserat prefaa elaborat de prof. univ. dr. Vasile S. Cucu,
intitulat ,,Promovarea conceptului de geografie uman i economic. S-a format treptat o
valoroas coal de geografie uman i economic fundamentat de activiti de larg
recunoatere naional i internaional (Colocviile Naionale de Geografie a Populaiei i
Aezrilor Umane, Organizarea Comisiei Naionale de Geografie a Populaiei i Aezrilor
Umane din cadrul Societii de Geografie din Romnia .a.). Un rol semnificativ l-a avut i
reprezentarea catedrei n fosta Comisie Naional de Demografie din Romnia.
n Catedra de Geografie Uman i Economic s-a creat ,,Laboratorul Dezbatere
-Populaie Aezri Umane Dezvoltare Economic care a polarizat cadre didactice i
cercettori tiinifici de notorietate (din cadrul catedrei, Institutul de Geografie i institutii de
profil). S-a concretizat astfel o metodologie geografic nobilat de lucrri de mare sintez
geografic, de lucrri de doctorat, studii de cercetare de amploare. O serie de lucrri de mare
sintez publicate n ultimii ani de cadre didactice ale catedrei de geografie uman i economic,
respectiv prof. univ. dr. George Erdeli, prof. univ. dr. Iano Ioan, prof. univ. dr. Cndea Melinda
sau lect. univ. dr. Braghin Cristian .a. s-au nscris pregnant n patrimoniul geografic al
Romniei.
Remarcabile n aceast direcie sunt contribuiile cadrelor din generaia geografic n
formare ca Silviu Costachie, Liliana Dumitrache, Daniela Dumbrveanu .a. care se afirm prin
lucrri i activiti didactice ce fundamenteaz bazele geografiei umane i economice.
Manifestrile tiinifice naionale i colaborrile internaionale la care membrii catedrei
s-au evideniat constituie un argument indubitabil al evoluiei ascendente al rolului catedrei
bucuretene n formarea colii de geografie uman i economic.
Un cadru larg de recunoatere al activitii din catedra de geografie uman i economic
l-a constituit n mod deosebit colocviile romno-britanice iniiate de catedr i Liverpool Hope
University College din Liverpool, manifestare permanentizat i diversificat prin eforturile

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colectivului de geografie uman i economic. Volumele publicate n comun, aplicaiile de teren


organizate n Marea Britanie i Romnia, dau o not de recunoatere real a valenelor colii
geografice romneti n ansamblu.
De importan prioritar n afirmarea conceptelor de geografie uman i economic sunt
contribuiile membrilor Catedrei de Geografie Uman i Economic n publicaii de notorietate
pe plan mondial cum sunt Enciclopedia Britanic, Geoforum sau alte reviste de geografie din
Marea Britanie, Frana, Germania, Polonia, Italia etc. Contactele recente ale membrilor catedrei
cu personaliti i instituii similare din: Marea Britanie, Frana, Germania (ndeosebi stagiile
prof.dr.Erdeli George, prof. dr. Melinda Cndea, prof.dr.Iano Ioan, lect. univ. Dumbrveanu
Daniela, lect. univ. Dumitrache Liliana, asist. univ. Zamfir Daniela, asist. univ. Suditu Bogdan
.a.participarea la congresele UIG i alte manifestri internaionale), constituie contribuii de
valoare deosebit n afirmarea imaginii reale a Romniei peste hotare.
Semnificativ este prezentarea de ctre cadrele didactice ale Facultii de Geografie din
Bucureti a noilor orientri n cadrul Academiei Romne. Redm n acest sens un fragment din
nota de prezentare a profesorului Vintil Mihilescu:
,,n ziua de 18 noiembrie 1976 s-a inut, n sala Prezidiului Academiei Romne,
simpozionul cu tema Gndirea geografic romneasc, organizat de Comitetul romn de
istoria i filosofia tiinei de sub preedenia academicianului tefan M. Milcu.
Din prima comunicare, la care particip i membri ai catedrei Facultii de Geografie,
coala geografic romneasc (Vintil Mihilescu, Tiberiu Morariu, Ioan Popovici), a reeit
c la baza colii geografice romneti st concepia structuralistic i sistemic a lui
Simion Mehedini formulat de acesta nc din 1901 (geografia este studiul relaiilor dintre
nveliuri, relaii care asigur echilibrul prilor, transformrile i unitate a ntregului). n
aplicarea acestui principiu, geografii romni, pn la urm, au biruit sau sunt pe cale s
biruiasc criza specializrii excesive, pstrnd caracterul unitar al disciplinei lor.
n comunicrile lor: Vasile Cucu i Nicolae Caloianu (Geografia uman i economic pentru care autorii prefer denumirea Geografie social), s-a urmrit, evoluia gndirii
geografice romneti n mersul ei general: raportarea prii la ntreg, difereniere cu tendin
de frmare a obiectului revenire la caracterul unitar al acestuia, considerat ca un sistem
(aa cum l concepuse i Simion Mehedini).
S-a ncercat o valorificare a conceptului romnesc de geografie social iniiat nc la
nceputul sec. al XX-lea.
S-a argumentat astfel ideea c geografia s-a transformat treptat ntr-o tiin complex,
cu ramuri specifice de Geografie Fizic (geosferele naturale) i Geografie Social
(sociosferele).
La baza acestor determinri metodologice a stat ideea fundamental a recunoaterii
legturilor inseparabile ntre geografia economic i celelalte componente ale sistemului
tiinelor geografice. Ori este arhirecunoscut faptul c ,,materialul oferit de sfera fizicogeografic constituind suportul firesc al economiei, la nivelul oricrei ri sau regiuni
geografice, impunnd geografiei economice principii, metode de investigaie i analiz specifice,
care ntregesc baza conceptual att a geografiei umane ct i a geografiei fizice.
,,Globalizaarea geografiei economice ar duce implicit la negarea relaiilor concrete
reale dintre geosferele naturale i cele ale sociosferei.
n plus, este un fapt incontestabil c n faza actual de dezvoltare social-economic
asistm la un proces accentuat de ,,umanizare a societii, un proces n cadrul cruia rolul
geografiei, prin poziia ei de tiin formativ, este primordial.
n acest context, n ultimii ani, n structura nvmntului geografic se afirm, dei nc
n insuficient msur, factorii umani, economici i politici care au dat expresia unui ir de
discipline geografice ca geografia populaiei, geografia aezrilor rurale, geografia aezrilor
urbane, geografia politic, geografia social, geografia cultural, toponimie, etnografie,
geopolitic .a.

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S-a confirmat astfel necesitatea acceptrii unei viziuni unitare dar nu globale al celor
dou laturi omul i activitatea sa, viziune care n final contureaz ceea ce numim Geografie
Social, adic reuniunea forelor creatoare, funciile i structurile habitatului respectiv:
a. geografia uman: colectivitatea omeneasc n raporturile cu nsuirile spaiului cu
ramurile ei de baz (geografia populaiei, aezrilor i alte discipline);
b. geografie economic: respectiv munca produsul activitii colectivitilor omeneti
concretizate n domeniile industriei, agriculturii, comunicaiilor etc. i relaiilor
lor cu comportamentele fizico-geografice corespunztoare;
c. geografia politic: incidena politic asupra consolidrii temeliilor naionale.
n acest fel obiectivul fundamental al cunoaterii i cercetrii geografice n etapa actual
de dezvoltare l constituie necesitatea recunoaterii tradiiilor pozitive n geografia romneasc
precum i a realitii nscrise i n tema fundamental a Congresului UIG inut n Coreea n
august 2000: ,,Vivre dans la diversit. Este expresia cea mai clar a diversitii fireti n
geografie bazat pe nsuirile structurilor principale existente n realitate i anume: structurile
naturale, umane (geodemografice) i economice, structuri bine individualizate n diferite stadii
de dezvoltare i n strnse legturi de ntreptrundere i interdependen.
Pe aceast baz se consider c geografia, n mod obiectiv, i remodeleaz fundamental
unele din poziiile i conceptele sale teoretice, ntr-un proces ireversibil de specializare,
afirmndu-se treptat ca o tiin experimental, cu valene transformatoare i de prognoz.

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SUPRAFEELE DE NIVELARE DIN DOBROGEA DE NORD


MIHAI IELENICZ, NELA BURCEA

Dobrogea de Nord include spaiul desfurat ntre Dunre (V, N), Marea
Neagr (E) i Podiul Casimcei (S), extins pe cca. 2733 km2. Aproape peste tot
contactul cu unitile vecine este precis ntruct dealurile i podiurile care o
compun domin altimetric spaiul din jur, respectiv lunca i Delta Dunrii,
cmpia fluvio lagunar, litoral, de care se deosebete structural, petrografic i
ca peisaj. Doar n sud limita are caracter structural, falia Peceneaga Camena
marcnd trecerea de la o unitate prehercinic (Casimcea, cu isturi verzi
proterozoiccaledoniene) la una paleozoic superior mezozoic (Podiul
Babadag).
Evoluia structural a Dobrogei de Nord din a doua parte a
paleozoicului i din mezozoic a condus la individualizarea mai multor uniti
deosebite ca alctuire i structur:
Unitatea Mcin, desfurat la vest de falia Luncavia Consul,
corespunde unui mozaic petrografic. Pe suprafee restrnse afloreaz roci
cristaline (paragnaise, cuarite, amfibolite, filite etc.) rezultate la finele
precambrianului i nceputul paleozoicului, prin metamorfozarea deosebit ca
intensitate a unor formaiuni sedimentare i magmatice. Se adaug roci
sedimentare paleozoice (gresii, argile, calcare etc.), care au suferit un
metamorfism incipient i roci magmatice, dominant paleozoice (granite,
granodiorite, riolite), care strpung isturile cristaline i sedimentarul aprnd
sub forma unor corpuri cu dimensiuni variabile.
Dac plmdirea tectonic s-a nfptuit nc de la nceputul paleozoicului
(poate chiar mai timpuriu), dar cu un maxim de manifestare n fazele orogenezei
hercinice, definitivarea structural, inclusiv dobndirea caracterului de pnz, s-a
realizat n mezozoic, prin micrile kimerice trzii.
Unitatea Niculiel se desfoar ntre liniile de falie Luncavia Consul,
n vest i Sarica, n est. Este alctuit dominant din formaiuni sedimentare (n
baz conglomerate, microconglomerate, gresii peste care urmeaz serii groase de
calcare i dolomite i apoi depozite grezoase flioide) i magmatice (dominant
bazalte consolidate submarin i riolite). Regiunea a evoluat iniial ca fractur
intracontinental, de funcionarea creia sunt legate curgerile bazaltice din
triasic. Caracteristicile structurale ale unitii au fost impuse de cutarea

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sedimentarului, dezvoltarea ariajului peste unitatea Tulcea, de o serie de ridicri


sau coborri cu consecine n tipul de sedimentare.

Fig. 1. Unitile morfostructurale ale Dobrogei

Unitatea Tulcea are cea mai mare dezvoltare, ea continundu-se i pe


platforma Mrii Negre. Fundamentul este constituit din formaiuni paleozoice
slab metamorfozate peste care se desfoar roci sedimentare triasice (facies
flioid, calcare, dolomite etc.) i jurasice (depozite grezoase variate), toate cutate
n mai multe sinclinale i anticlinale (orientate NV SE), faliate. Acestea sunt
strpunse de corpuri magmatice triasice (curgeri de bazalt, riolite).
Caracteristicile formaiunilor acumulate indic existena, n prima parte a
triasicului, a unui relief exondat n vest, cu altitudini nu prea mari, din care au
fost aduse pietriuri, nisipuri slab rulate; ctre triasicul superior mediul marin
este favorabil acumulrilor calcaroase i n jurasic se revine la depuneri de tip
fli, cu nisipuri, pietriuri mici i argil. Caracteristicile depozitelor reflect

STERIE CIULACHE

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manifestarea micrilor tectonice kimerice ce au ridicat sacadat regiunile din


vest, au produs ariaje, cutri i falieri.
Unitatea Babadag are fundamentul constituit din formaiunile unitilor
anterioare (isturi cristaline, sedimentar paleozoic slab metamorfozat, granite,
riolite vechi, calcare triasice, fli predominant grezos, calcare i vulcanite
jurasice etc.). Relieful creat de tectonica hercinico kimeric a fost denudat n
intervalul jurasic superior cretacic inferior. n cretacicul mediu superior
regiunea devine bazin de sedimentare, atunci acumulndu-se o cuvertur groas
de roci carbonatice (calcare, gresii calcaroase, la margini conglomerate
calcaroase, marne etc.), care formeaz un larg sinclinoriu.
Caracteristici morfologice
Dobrogea de Nord este regiunea cu altitudinile cele mai mari din ntreg
podiul (Vf. uuiatu 467 m i nc cinci vrfuri depesc 400 m), cu gradul de
fragmentare cel mai ridicat (peste 1,5 km/km2), cu valori ale energiei de relief
care ajung la 350m. n cadrul ei se mbin, pe suprafee restrnse, culmi
deluroase prelungi i cu coam rotunjit, cu creste ascuite ce au versani cu
pant mare i vrfuri proeminente, cu dealuri izolate ce au versani concavi
prelungi, cu depresiuni variate ca origine (tectonice, de eroziune), dimensiune i
form, cu vi n care luncile sunt extinse i albiile nguste, cu maluri slab
evideniate i cu ap extrem de puin n cea mai mare parte a anului.
Alctuirea structural complex i evoluia ndelungat au impus
diversitatea formelor de relief, care se grupeaz i nregistreaz un anumit
specific n cadrul fiecrei uniti morfostructurale.
Munii Mcin, situai n nord-vest, se remarc prin cea mai complex
alctuire petrografic i structural, care se reflect ntr-un sistem orografic
format din trei aliniamente de culmi separate de dou iruri de depresiuni, toate
desfurate NV-SE. n centru se afl irul principal, Bugeac Pietrosu
uuiatu Carapcea Carapelit, care se impune prin masivitate, fiind slab
fragmentat, cu vrfuri care depesc 400m, cu ei nalte i versani cu pant
mare; n vest exist un ansamblu de culmi (Orliga, Pricopan, Megina, Priopcea)
i inselberguri (Iacobdeal, Bujoarele, Piatra Roie, Carcaliu etc.), cu pedimente
largi, acoperite n cea mai mare parte de loess; n sud-est se desfoar culmile
Colugea Boclugea, mai joase, rotunjite, cu fizionomie tipic de dealuri.
Depresiunile din vest (Jijila Greci Cerna Mircea Vod) au vatra la altitudini
sub 50 m i se nscriu ca sectoare joase, coborte tectonic sau ca poriuni
marginale ale unor pedimente ntre inselberguri. Depresiunile Luncavia Taia
superioar Horia formeaz un culoar tectono-eroziv, care se lrgete ctre
extremiti, la contactul cu Podiul Niculiel i Podiul Babadag; se impun
luncile largi, continuate lateral prin pedimente acoperite cu o ptur de loess i
depozite loessoide care depete 10 m grosime.

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Podiul Niculiel ocup sectorul central-nordic i este alctuit, pe de o


parte, n nord, dintr-o ntins mas de bazalte, iar pe de alt parte, n sud i est,
din mai multe aliniamente de roci cristaline, magmatice i sedimentare. Ca
urmare, eroziunea diferenial a pus n eviden, n nord, un platou la
200300 m ce domin printr-un abrupt de 100200 m glacisurile loessoide care
coboar spre Dunre. Ctre est i sud, mai multe vi, n lungul crora sunt mici
bazinete depresionare i ngustri (n funcie de roc), separ culmi rotunjite sau
netede, cu vrfuri ascuite doar pe ivirile de roci cu rezisten mare (Trestenic
365 m i Consul 363 m).
Dealurile Tulcei reprezint o unitate mai joas, doar cteva vrfuri
depind 200 m. Orografic, se distinge un aliniament de culmi deluroase (la 200
m) separate de ei cu altitudini de 50150 m, orientat vest-est. Acesta se termin
spre nord printr-un abrupt tectonic nscris n lungul faliei Sf. Gheorghe, care
domin lunca Dunrii cu 150200 m. Versanii sudici ai culmilor coboar prin
ntinse pedimente spre Depresiunea Nalbant, a crei vatr neted i acoperit de
loess este dominat local de inselberguri conice, cu altitudini variabile (Denis
Tepe, 267 m, este cel mai nalt).
Podiul Babadag aflat n sud, ntre Dunre i mare, prezint caracteristici
morfostructurale evidente: platouri structuralo erozive ntinse, fronturi de
cuest cu denivelri de mai muli zeci de metri, inselberguri dezvoltate pe calcare
i roci eruptive, bazinete depresionare i ngustri; coboar altimetric din vest
(300401 m) spre est (n jur de 100 m), ajungnd deasupra mrii la civa zeci
de metri (Capul Iancila i Capul Doloman).
Treptele de relief
Elementelor orografice specifice fiecrei uniti li se adaug unele cu
caracter general, ce decurg din evoluia comun pe care au avut-o ncepnd din
cretacicul superior. Rezultatele acestei evoluii apar nscrise n relieful regiunii
sub form de suprafee de eroziune, pedimente, terase de abraziune.
Suprafeele de nivelare. De-a lungul anilor ele au fost identificate, descrise
de diveri autori, unii stabilind (sau numai presupunnd) condiiile de modelare i
vrsta lor.
Primul care a pus problema existenei unei suprafee de nivelare n
Dobrogea a fost G. Murgoci (1912), care vorbete de peneplena dobrogean.
Emm. de Martonne, n excursia din 1912, separ n partea de nord a podiului
dobrogean Platforma Niculiel, la 300m (n Dealul Sarica, unde intersecteaz
formaiuni paleozoice i triasice i nclin spre sud-est) i Platforma superioar a
Tulcei (n est), la 150m, ns afirm c un studiu mai amnunit ar identifica cu
siguran trei sau patru nivele de eroziune. n 1928, C. Brtescu identific cele
dou nivele indicate de Emm. de Martonne. Suprafeei Niculiel, creia i spune
Platforma Taia (ei i-ar aparine i culmea Greci), i sunt specifice aspectul
masiv, podurile interfluviale tabulare i coborrea de la 450 m, n nord-vest pn
la 300 m, n sud-est; s-a realizat n sarmaian i a fost nlat de micrile n

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STERIE CIULACHE

bloc ale masivului din pliocen i cuaternar. A doua suprafa, numit Platforma
Tulcea, este foarte neted (ceea ce-l face pe C. Brtescu s o considere mai
degrab ca rezultat al abraziunii pliocene), dominat de conuri rzlee (Betepe
242 m) i fragmentat de vi scurte, mature, fr ap. Se adaug Platforma
Teliei (la vest de o linie Tulcea Babadag) i Platforma Dunavului (la est); ele
au rezultat n ponian superior levantin.
A. Nordon (1929) menioneaz o platform la 400 m (Greci), pe culmea
apusean a horstului dobrogean i alta la 300 m (Niculiel) de vrst
postsarmaian, pe care le pune n paralel cu nivelele stabilite de Bowling n
sudul Franei i n bazinul Parisului; sub acestea se desfoar nivelul de 180
200 m (Tulcea), levantin, i cel de 80100 m, de vrst cuaternar. Pentru
precizarea vrstei apeleaz la urmtoarele elemente: suprafaa cea mai joas este
acoperit cu o manta de loess, ceea ce nseamn c toate platformele trebuie
socotite ca preloessiene. Pe de alt parte, toate sunt nedeformate, deci mai noi
dect ultima formaiune pliat, sarmaianul. Platforma de 180200 m suport o
cuvertur de argile roii de decalcifiere, continentale, care trec lateral n depozite
lacustre i este de vrst levantin. Platformele de 300 i de 400 m sunt probabil
de vrst pliocen mediu, n timp ce suprafaa de 80100 m, acoperit cu loess,
este cuaternar.
n 1965, E. Nedelcu i . Dragomirescu descriu trei suprafee de nivelare,
situate la altitudini de 380420 m, 280320 m i 180220 m i nivele de
abraziune nalte la 90160 m.
Al. Rou (1968) prezint pe latura de nord a Dobrogei cinci terase de
abraziune pleistocene (1520 m, 3045 m, 5565 m, 7585 m, 95110 m) i
dou holocene (810 m i 35 m), pe care le leag de evoluia n cuaternar a unui
bra marin care ajungea la lacul din Cmpia Romn. Terasele de abraziune nu sau putut forma n cuaternar ntruct, exceptnd cele dou momente cnd nivelul
mrii a fost ridicat, ajungnd pn la Galai, n rest acesta s-a situat mult la est
fa de poziia actual.
n Dobrogea Central i de Sud, I. Rdulescu (1965), P. Cote (1968),
N. Basarabeanu i I. Marin (1973) disting mai multe etape de nivelare intercalate
ntre fazele n care micrile tectonice au ridicat diferit compartimentele
dobrogene.
Grigore Posea, n urma cartrii pedimentelor din Dobrogea de Nord i
Central (1981, 1983) consider c modelarea ndelungat a reliefului s-a
materializat printr-o pediplen; micrile valahe de la finele pliocenului au ridicat
difereniat acest uscat (mai accentuat n nord); n villafranchian i pleistocen s-a
realizat nu numai fragmentarea acestuia, ci i o evoluie de tip pediment,
favorizat de roc, climat (uscat, uneori cu caracter deertic) i nivelul de baz
cobort. Evoluia a fost activ i n fazele periglaciare din pleistocenul superior
cnd dominau dezagregrile i se continu foarte slab i astzi datorit climatului
de step.

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N. Popescu (1988) carteaz i analizeaz complexul de pedimentaie din


vestul Dobrogei de Nord format din dou trepte (treapta pedimentelor
intermediare, aflate sub peneplena dobrogean de la 300 m i treapta
pedimentelor terminale, acoperite de loess); au fost formate n intervalul miocen
superior romanian, dar perfectarea i definitivarea lor a continuat i n timpul
cuaternarului.
Mihai Ielenicz (1996) consider c n Dobrogea se poate vorbi de o
pediplen, rezultat al unei ndelungate evoluii policiclice i poligenetice, care
reteaz formaiuni de diverse vrste. Pediplena are nlimi variate ca urmare, pe
de o parte, a ridicrii cu intensitate deosebit a compartimentelor Dobrogei n
pliocen i cuaternar, iar pe de alt parte, datorit rezistenei diferite a rocilor la
atacul eroziunii romanian pleistocene. n Dealurile Tulcei carteaz dou trepte
(200300 m, 120180 m) i un pediment ce coboar de la 100 m.
Pe baza analizelor din teren, a cartrilor i interpretrii profilelor longitudinale de interfluviu, n Dobrogea de Nord au fost separate: suprafaa Mcin,
situat la altitudini de 280350 m, suprafaa Niculiel, la 180260 m i un nivel
de pediment acoperit la poale cu depozite loessoide.
Suprafaa Mcin (280350 m)
Se afl numai n cele dou uniti din nord-vestul Dobrogei, cu dezvoltare
mai mare n Munii Mcinului, de unde i numele. Cuprinde cele mai nalte
platouri, dar apare pe suprafee restrnse.
n Munii Mcinului suprafaa se desfoar n special pe granitele din
partea central a culmii Greci (Dl. Teica i Dl. Negoiul), acolo unde prezint i
cele mai mari altitudini, n unele sectoare meninndu-se n jurul valorii de
380 m. Mai la sud, datorit eroziunii regresive puternice exercitate de un afluent al
Taiei (arap), dar mai ales de prurile Plopilor i Cerna, care prezint un nivel de
baz mai cobort, aceast suprafa este redus ca extindere, dei roca este
aceeai. De asemenea, suprafaa reapare n Dl. Vinului, pe formaiunea
sedimentar paleozoic (de Carapelit), la altitudini de 300350 m. Martori din
aceast suprafa se ivesc n sudul culmii Greci, n Dl. Crapcea, dar i n
extremitatea nordic a culmii, precum i pe culmea secundar mbulzita ce face
legtura cu Dl. Pricopanului. Suprafaa este dominat de o serie de vrfuri ascuite
(uuiatul) sau rotunjite (Chietrosul Mare, Moroianu, Ioaneul), ce o domin cu
3050 m. De asemenea, suprafaa apare pe areale restrnse n culmea Priopcea i
Dl. Boclugea (sub forma unor vrfuri rotunjite) i la nord-est de Vf. Moroianu.
Totodat, toate vrfurile i crestele din vestul i nordul Munilor Mcin, care se
desfoar n intervalul hipsometric 280350 m, pot fi considerate martori rezultai
din fragmentarea i degradarea acestei suprafee.
Ea se dezvolt n mare parte pe granite hercinice, dar i pe formaiunea
sedimentar slab metamorfozat de Carapelit, ce constituie umplutura
sinclinalului Mcinului. Suprafaa apare la altitudini mai mari pe leucogranitele
din Dl. Teica i Dl. Negoiul, iar valoarea altimetric ncepe s scad (pn n

46

STERIE CIULACHE

jurul valorii de 280 m) spre SV, unde suprafaa este modelat pe formaiunea de
Carapelit.
n Podiul Niculiel suprafaa este conservat pe platoul de bazalte de la
sud-vest de localitatea Niculiel, n dealurile Breazu, Piscul Mrului,
Cooperativei, n Dealul Dumitra i Dl. Mare. Cu altitudini de 300 m, martori din
suprafaa superioar sunt conservai de rocile mai dure (magmatice) ce strpung
fliul triasic din sud, sud-est, n vrfurile Edirlen, Carpenului, Trestenic,
Techeaua.
Suprafaa Mcin domin treapta imediat inferioar prin denivelri brute
de 4060 m.
Suprafaa Niculiel (180260 m)
Sub nivelul suprafeei Mcin se desfoar culmi prelungi, care coboar
lin spre exterior de la 250260 m ctre 180m i formeaz o treapt n toate
unitile nord dobrogene, dar cu cea mai mare desfurare n Podiul Niculiel. n
aceast unitate, suprafaa constituie interfluviul principal ce separ bazinele
hidrografice ale Taiei i Teliei, la o altitudine de 230260 m (Dl. Prlita,
Dl. Bujorilor, Piscul Prului, Dl. Carpenului, Dl. Mare etc.); se continu i ntre
afluenii mai importani ai acestora formnd culmi plate (ntre prul Taia i
Covandria, Covandria Prlita, Cilic Telia). i n partea de sud a podiului
relieful este format dintr-o succesiune de culmi plate, prelungi, la 250200 m
(Dl. Lodzova la 250 m, Dl. Colugea la 230 m, Dl. Muchia Lung la 220m etc.)
i de mguri rotunjite, la 180220 m. Dac n nordul i n centrul podiului
suprafaa este mult mai unitar, nregistrnd i extensiune deosebit, n sud i
mai ales n est, datorit fragmentrii accentuate realizate de afluenii Taiei i
Teliei, aceasta a fost redus la martori i culmi rotunjite separate de ei largi.
Aici intervin varietatea litologic i prezena a numeroase linii de falie.
n Munii Mcin suprafaa de 180260 m apare bine conservat n culmea
Megina, unde reteaz ortognaisele precambriene i unde este dominat de
resturile suprafeei superioare (ex. Vf. Arheuziu ajunge la 313,4 m) i n sudul
culmii Greci (zona La Carapelit Dl. Negru), pe sedimentar paleozoic.
Suprafaa se regsete n sudul culmii Pricopan, la altitudini ce coboar de la
250 la 180 m, n timp ce pe isturile cristaline din culmile Boclugea i Colugea
apar umeri de vale la altitudini de 200230 m.
n Dealurile Tulcei, suprafaa se afl pe latura de nord, n lungul
intefluviului desfurat din vestul Dl. Sarica pn n colinele Betepe. Dei n
ansamblu altitudinea ei scade spre est, totui n cea mai mare parte se menine n
jurul valorii de 200m. Dac spre nord se termin printr-un versant cu pant mare
i denivelare accentuat, rezultat prin evoluia (postsarmaian) a planului de
falie Sf. Gheorghe, spre sud suprafaa coboar prin platouri i culmi rotunjite

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pn la 160180 m. Ei i aparin mai multe inselberguri din Depresiunea Nalbant


i din nordul Babadagului. Suprafaa reteaz formaiuni geologice variate
(cristalin i sedimentar paleozoic, calcare i gresii triasice, mguri magmatice
triasice etc.).
n Podiul Babadag suprafaa are o dezvoltare deosebit i este n
ntregime sculptat n formaiunile sedimentare cretacice. Caracteristice sunt
platourile largi situate n general la 200260 m, dar care coboar din centru i
vest (de la 280 m spre 180 m); ele sunt dominate de vrfuri structurale cu
caracter de inselberguri. n centrul podiului, rurile din bazinele Slava Rus i
Slava au modelat bazinete de obrie largi i puin adncite; spre est i vest vile
sunt adnci, largi i mult mai dense, nct interfluviile sunt rotunjite.
Pedimentul
Reprezint o ntins suprafa periferic, dar care ptrunde i n interiorul
podiului n lungul vilor principale sau al culoarelor depresionare.Treapta reteaz
toate tipurile de roci existente i coboar de la 100120 m (n vecintatea culmilor
principale) spre Dunre i Marea Neagr. Planul general al pedimentului apare, pe
de o parte dominat de creste (ex. Pricopan, Priopcea, Colina Dlchi etc.), de
vrfuri izolate (inselberguri precum cele de pe latura dunrean sau Denis Tepe,
din Depresiunea Nalbant) sau de abrupturi tectono-structurale (Niculiel,
Mahmudia etc.), iar pe de alt parte se termin brusc, fie retezat de eroziune (mai
ales n lungul Dunrii), fie acoperit de aluviunile luncii Dunrii ori cmpiei litorale.
Are cteva caracteristici impuse de modul n care s-a desfurat formarea sa, n
condiiile marii varieti litologice specifice Dobrogei de Nord. Prima caracteristic
este alctuirea lui din suprafee netede i inselberguri, de unde impresia unei
discontinuiti generale i a unei asocieri de pante ce converg ctre anumite direcii,
unele corespunznd unor linii de falie sau contactelor structurale, litologice
(ndeosebi n vest, ntre Dunre i culmea Mcinului unde se pot identifica trei
aliniamente de inselberguri, separate de tot attea culoare pe care s-au
individualizat depresiuni). O a doua caracteristic se refer la faptul c, sub raport
structural, pedimentul este o mbinare a dou sectoare. Sectorul superior (cel din
vecintatea culmilor, vrfurilor sau abrupturilor) este nalt i la acest nivel apare
evident suprafaa pedimentului care secioneaz diverse structuri i pe care, local,
sunt conuri de dejecie mici sau poale subiri de grohotiuri ce au rezultat prin
evoluia recent. Sectorul inferior are o mare extindere, dar este acoperit de o
manta de depozite loessoide i loessuri ce au grosimi mari (de la civa metri la
peste 30 m). Aceste materiale fosilizeaz i anuleaz, n bun msur, denivelrile
rezultate din mbinarea poalelor inselbergurilor. n unele situaii ele acoper
inselbergurile n ntregime sau pn aproape de vrf (la nord de lacurile Babadag
Razelm, ntre Luncavia i Jijila, n depresiunile Greci, Cerna, Nalbant etc.).

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STERIE CIULACHE

O situaie interesant decurge din raporturile evolutive ale pedimentului cu


unitile vecine, ndeosebi cu Dunrea, marea i lacurile din cmpia litoral.
Pedimentul iniial era mult dezvoltat lateral, naintnd n unitile limitrofe; el a
constituit suprafaa pe care au naintat apele mrii de la finele pleistocenului i
mai ales n holocen, att pe latura de est ct i de nord (n spaiul actual al Deltei
Dunrii i n culoarul predeltaic pn la Galai); de asemenea, n vest, marginile
sale au fost afectate de lacul pleistocen din Cmpia Romn i ulterior de
formarea i evoluia Dunrii. Ca urmare, prile sale periferice, acoperite de
loess la finele pleistocenului, au fost erodate de apele mrii, lacurilor sau
fluviului n holocen, n poziii deosebite, rezultnd maluri cu nlimi diferite
(vezi cele indicate forat de Al. Rou, 1988) continuate spre interiorul podiului
prin pante line, care urc pn la 80100 m. Ulterior, evoluia pe bazine
toreniale combinat cu sufoziunea, exhumarea unor inselberguri de sub mantia
de loess au multiplicat numrul de maluri abrupte i de trepte. Interpretarea celor
57 trepte ca terase de abraziune pleistocene este fals ntruct, n cuaternar,
doar n intervalul Mindell Riss i la mijlocul holocenului marea a naintat mult
spre vest, ptrunznd cu un bra pn la Galai. n prima faz a fost afectat
baza pedimentului n formare, iar n cea
de-a doua, formaiunea loessoid ce l acoperea.
Oscilaiile nivelului Mrii Negre produse n timpul transgresiunii flandriene
(ridicarea la +5 m, retragerea la 1 m i revenirea la poziia actual)
s-au transmis n evoluii distincte n zonele de rm dar i n lungul vilor. n prima
situaie au fost tiate maluri abrupte, care s-au pstrat mai ales la 35 m, pe roci
dure i a fost modelat, n suprafaa pedimentului de la contactul cu apele mrii,
platforma litoral. n a doua situaie rurile s-au adncit n suprafaa pedimentului
cu 12 m (Telia, Taia, Slava), iar n a treia faz au avut loc aluvionri n albie i
dezvoltarea unor sectoare mltinoase n cadrul luncilor.
Suprafaa de eroziune fosilizat (Babadag)
n Podiul Babadag exist o suprafa de eroziune la nivelul formaiunilor
precretacice specifice nordului Dobrogei. Ea s-a realizat n intervalul jurasic
superior cretacic mijlociu cnd regiunea era uscat, ulterior fiind acoperit de
apele mrii. Suprafaa se continua n nordul i sudul Dobrogei (Casimcea), se
prelungea i spre bazinul pontic (spre est), dar i spre vest (pe Platforma valah),
reprezentnd o ntins pediplen. Prin transgresiunea din cretacic Dobrogea s-a
transformat n dou mari insule (nordul i Casimcea), iar aici, pe cmpia de
eroziune, au continuat procesele de nivelare. Dup cretacic, insulele se reunesc, au
loc nlri uoare, care determin fragmentarea uscatului (n nord i sud continu
modelarea peneplenei anterioare, iar n regiunea Babadag, ncepe modelarea
reliefului alctuit din formaiunile cretacice).

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Evoluia general a Dobrogei de Nord i detaarea treptelor de eroziune


Interpretarea datelor geologice (coloane stratigrafice i evenimente
tectonice) permite conturarea principalelor caracteristici ale evoluiei regiunii i a
raporturilor cu unitile vecine.
Dobrogea de Nord a reprezentat o parte dintr-o unitate geosinclinal, care
a evoluat n acest regim din paleozoic i pn ctre finele jurasicului, dar
difereniat ca procese, pe compartimente. n paleozoic s-au acumulat sedimente,
au avut loc metamorfozri cu intensiti variate, iar activitatea magmatic a creat
corpuri diferite ca dimensiune i alctuire, ce au strpuns att formaiunile
metamorfozate ct i pe cele sedimentare; de asemenea, au fost create sau
rejucate diverse linii de fractur adnci. Finalul paleozoicului este marcat de
micrile hercinice, care creeaz stilul tectonic i ridic cel puin sectorul vestic
al regiunii ce va fi supus erodrii. Ca urmare, n prima parte a triasicului, n
bazinele vecine se vor acumula depozite cu caracter flioid n care abund
pietriuri i nisipuri slab rulate, dovad, pe de o parte, c proveneau din erodarea
unui relief nu prea nalt, iar pe de alt parte c acestea se aflau n imediata
vecintate. Deschiderea unor fracturi profunde n bazinul marin (considerate
rifturi continentale) a determinat, n mai multe faze, activiti magmatice bogate,
ce au dat curgeri bazaltice (unitile Nalbant i Tulcea) i erupii acide. n a doua
parte a triasicului procesele magmatice slbesc, adncimea bazinului marin scade
(probabil ca efect al micrilor tectonice kimerice vechi), situaie care
favorizeaz realizarea unor acumulri mari de calcare i dolomite. Tot ca urmare
a acestor micri tectonice regiunea Mcin se ridic, fapt susinut de depunerile
dominant grezoase (fli) din jurasicul inferior n bazinul marin aflat la est de
aceasta i lipsa sedimentelor triasice din unitatea Mcin, ntruct au fost erodate.
Micrile tectonice kimerice noi (jurasic superior) determin definitivarea
stilului tectonic pentru cea mai mare parte a Dobrogei de Nord. n acest sens, se
produc ariajele ntre cele trei uniti i individualizarea pnzelor Mcin i
Niculiel, desvrirea cutrii i falierii formaiunilor sedimentare din unitatea
Tulcea, ridicarea difereniat ca intensitate a celor patru uniti (n cadrul
acestora unele compartimente vor suferi ridicri mai intense; ex. n Dealurile
Tulcei partea nordic n raport cu cea sudic i estic), care vor fi supuse
eroziunii i coborrea spaiului de la nord de falia Sf. Gheorghe, conturndu-se
Depresiunea Predobrogean ca bazin de sedimentare.
Uscatul nord dobrogean va fi erodat unitar pn la mijlocul cretacicului
cnd sectorul sudic (Babadag) va cobor devenind bazin de sedimentare pn
aproape de finalul acestei perioade geologice. Aici se acumuleaz materiale
provenind din unitile limitrofe. Faptul c primele serii de sedimente sunt
dominant calcaroase indic pentru apian albian nu numai un bazin puin adnc

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STERIE CIULACHE

ci i un relief limitrof deja nivelat. Astfel se poate ntrevedea c anterior


cretacicului superior relieful prealpin este transformat de eroziunea nceput din
triasic n vest i din jurasicul superior n rest, ntr-o cmpie de eroziune.
Dei pe ansamblu ntreaga Dobroge de Nord devenise nc din cretacic un
craton, ea va reaciona la impulsurile tectonice alpine prin ridicri difereniate ca
intensitate pe vertical. Au loc rejucri ale faliilor i se produc uoare cutri ale
masei sedimentare din unitatea de Babadag, care se va transforma ntr-un larg
sinclinoriu.
Deci, la nceputul paleogenului, prin exondarea unitii Babadag i
ridicarea celorlalte uniti se va intra ntr-o ndelungat etap de modelare care se
va concretiza ntr-o nou suprafa de eroziune. Vechea peneplen a rmas la
nivelul suprafeei de discordan dintre fundamentul prealpin i suprastructura
sedimentar din unitatea de Babadag. n regiunile Mcin i Niculiel ea mai poate
fi legat, ntr-o oarecare msur, de platourile desfurate n prezent la 300m i
care sunt alctuite din granite, bazalte, roci cristaline. Duritatea rocilor a limitat
fragmentarea i nlturarea complet a acesteia. Aici eroziunea a produs
atenuarea nlrii i transformarea vechii suprafee n culmi cu poduri netede i
vrfuri rotunjite, separate de culoare de vi i mici depresiuni axate pe linii de
fractur sau contacte petrografice distincte. Nu acelai lucru s-a petrecut n est i
sud unde rocile sedimentare opuneau o rezisten mai mic. Aici este realizat n
intervalul paleogen romanian o suprafa care cuprinde bordura regiunii Mcin
Niculiel extinzndu-se mult n est (Dealurile Tulcei) i mai ales n sud, unde
niveleaz n ntregime Podiul Babadag. Ea se menine n jurul valorii de 200
m, urcnd spre contactul cu crestele principale i scznd spre culoarele de vale
i ctre est. Depozitele acumulate n regiunile de bazin limitrofe indic secvene
cu pietriuri mrunte i nisipuri ce alterneaz cu argile, ceea ce denot un relief
nu prea nalt, dar i mai multe momente de ridicri uoare, rezultate n fazele n
care naintrii platformei dobrogene spre nord vest i se opuneau ridicri i
revrsri ale Carpailor (ex. n paleogen, sarmaian etc). n villafranchian
pleistocen, n condiiile unui climat secetos, cald sau rece, ale unei nlri inegale
ca intensitate (maxim n vest, nord-vest), ale existenei unui fond structural i
petrografic variat, s-a produs o intens pedimentaie, care a creat ntre axele
vilor i versanii culmilor suprafee slab nclinate. Aceste axe au o desfurare
larg n depresiuni (Greci, Cerna, Mircea Vod, Nalbant etc.), n culoarele vilor
principale (Taia, Telia, Slava, Topolog etc.) i ctre lunca Dunrii (n nord, la
baza abrupturilor tectonice i petrografice; n vest, la marginea culmilor i
inselbergurilor). Crearea acestor pedimente a nsemnat spargerea tiparului
morfologic al suprafeei anterioare, care a fost redus pe alocuri la boturi de deal
sau martori de eroziune. Pedimentele, la rndul lor, alctuiesc o treapt general
periferic, cu naintri spre interior pe culoarele tectono-erozive.

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Sfritul pleistocenului i nceputul holocenului corespund att cu poziia


liniei de rm a Mrii Negre la mai muli kilometri spre est (regresiunea
neoeuxinic), dar i cu un climat rece, arid. Vnturile puternice au spulberat
particulele fine de pe cmpiile fluvio glaciare din sud estul Europei, de pe ntinsa
platform litoral i din luncile rurilor i le-au depus pe cea mai mare parte a
pedimentelor dobrogene. S-a realizat o groas ptur loessoid, care ptrunde
tentacular de la periferia regiunii pe toate culoarele de vale i n depresiuni,
nregistrnd grosimi uneori de peste 20 m. Climatul a permis continuarea
pedimentrii, ce determina retragerea versanilor culmilor i acumularea
elementelor mai grosiere la baza lor. Multe inselberguri izolate vor fi necate n
masa de loessuri i de materiale dezagregate, nct astzi apar doar ca vrfuri abia
schiate. Ca urmare, pedimentul va prezenta dou sectoare distincte unul
superior, lng culmi i inselberguri unde are caracter eroziv tipic, i altul inferior,
unde este acoperit de ptura loessoid cu grosimi variabile.
Transgresiunea flandrian, Marea Neagr Nou, nceput la finele
pleistocenului, ajunge n timpul optimului climatic la +5 m, astfel nct apele mrii
invadeaz regiunile joase pe care le transform n golfuri. Prin abraziune produs n
loess sau n rocile mai vechi au rezultat maluri abrupte (faleze) cu nlimi deosebite,
vizibile astzi n jurul Lacului Babadag, n vestul Podiului Babadag sau pe laturile
de nord ale culoarului dobrogean al Dunrii. De asemenea, a rezultat o platform de
abraziune ngust, identificat n nord-est i est. Coborrea nivelului mrii la 1 m i
revenirea la poziia actual au fost nsoite de adncirea rurilor n cmpiile loessoide
i pedimente, urmat de crearea unor lunci largi (ridicarea nivelului de baz a
stimulat eroziunea lateral), dezvoltarea sistemelor de grinduri i cordoane litorale
care vor bara golfurile facilitnd individualizarea Deltei i a complexului lagunar
Razelm Sinoe, dezvoltarea luncii Dunrii nsoit de pendulri active ale albiei, n
urma crora extremitile pedimentelor au fost secionate, rezultnd maluri de la 1,5
2 m la peste 20 m.
n prezent, pe fondul general al unui climat arid, cu numai 450 mm
precipitaii anuale, distribuite neuniform i cu frecvent caracter torenial,
modelarea implic o diversitate de situaii determinate de varietatea petrografic,
de diversitatea valorilor de fragmentare i pante, de modul de folosin al
terenurilor. Se impun: o pedimentare mai slab pe versanii dezgolii, ravenri i
sufoziuni profunde pe formaiunile loessoide, acumulri bogate n lunci unde la
ploile toreniale (seluri) se produc i eroziuni laterale, nmltinirea lacurilor etc.

52

STERIE CIULACHE

BIBLIOGRAFIE
COTE P., GTESCU P., ILIE D. ION (1963), ,,Probleme de geomorfologie cuaternar n
Dobrogea (cu privire special asupra versantului nordic), Peuce, III, St. i comunic. de
t. Naturii, Muzeul Deltei Dunrii, Tulcea.
IANCU M. (1968), ,,Dobrogea, structura fizico-geografic, Comunicri de botanic la a VI-a
Conferin Naional de Geobotanic.
IANOVICI V., GIUC D., MUTIHAC V., MIRU O, CHIRIAC, N. (1961), ,,Privire
general asupra geologiei Dobrogei, n Ghidul excursiilor. D. Dobrogea, Congresul al
V-lea al Asociaiei Geologice Carpato Balcanice, 419 sept. Bucureti.
IELENICZ M. (1993), ,,Suprafeele de nivelare din regiunile de deal i podi, A.U.B. Geogr.,
XLII.
(1995), ,,Depresiunea Nalbant, caracterizare geomorfologic, n Studii i cercetri de
geografie, tom XLII;
(1996), Dealurile i podiurile Romniei, Ed. Fundaiei Romnia de mine, Sibiu.
IONESI L. (1994), Geologia unitilor de platform i a Orogenului Nord dobrogean, Editura
Tehnic, Bucureti.
MARTONNE EMM. DE (1924), ,,Excursions gographiques de lInstitut de gographie de
luniversit de Cluj. Lucr. Inst. Geogr. Univ. Cluj, vol. I (1922), Cluj.
MIHILESCU V. (1966), ,,Dobrogea din Dealurile i cmpiile Romniei Studiu de geografie
a reliefului, Edit. tiinific, Bucureti.
(1936), Asupra geomorfologiei Dobrogei, BSR, t. LV, vol. ,,Jub. Dobrogea.
MUTIHAC V. (1964), ,,Zona Tulcea i poziia acesteia n cadrul structural al Dobrogei, An.
Inst. de Geol., XXXIV, p. I.
NEDELCU E., DRAGOMIRESCU . (1965), ,,Influene litologice i structurale n Dobrogea de
Nord, SCGGG Geografie, XII, 1.
NORDON ANDR (1930), Questions de morphologie Dobrogenne, Bibl. de LInst. Fr. de
Hautes tudes en Roumanie, vol. III, Paris.
ORGHIDAN N. (1967), ,,Dobrogea. Consideraii geomorfologice, Lucrrile Inst. de Speologie
Emil Racovi, t. VI, Editura Academiei R.S.R.
POPESCU N. (1988), ,,Relieful de pedimentaie din partea de vest a Munilor Mcin, A.U.B.
Geogr., XXVII.
POSEA GR. (1983), Pedimentele din Dobrogea n Sinteze geografice, Editura Didactic i
Pedagogic, Bucureti.
ROU ALEXANDRU (1969), ,,Observaii geomorfologice pe latura de nord a Dobrogei,
St. geogr. asupra Dobrogei.
*** (1969), Geografia vii Dunrii romneti, Instit. de Geol. i Geogr. al Acad. R.S.R., Editura
Academiei R.S.R., Bucureti.

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54

STERIE CIULACHE

CARACTERIZARE GEOMORFOLOGIC GENERAL I A


DEGRADRILOR DE TEREN DIN CADRUL VII BUGHEA
(BAZINUL ARGEULUI)
MIHAIL GRIGORE

1. Cadrul geomorfologic de ansamblu


Afluent al Rului Trgului, aparinnd bazinului hidrografic Arge,
Bughea reprezint un curs de ap desfurat pe direcia general nord-sud,
traversnd treapta sudic a Munilor Fgra, n perimetrul culmilor Iezer i
Ppua, dup care coboar pe nivelul subcarpatic al Muscelelor Argeului,
ajungnd pn n Piemontul Getic (Dealurile Argeului).
Ctre nord, est i sud, cumpna de ape dintre bazinul Bughea i Rul
Trgului este marcat de o serie de vrfuri, dintre care citm: Boldul (1531
m) i Znoaga (1659 m) n nord, Muntele Lalu (1547), Mgura Cmpulung
(892 m), Ciuha Teiului (750 m), n est, Piscul Lat (906 m), arina Neului
(783 m), Vrful Ciocanul (886 m), Vrful Ghilan (682 m), Vrful Oarbei
(634 m) i Dealul Prislop (690 m), n vest, unde cumpna de ape desparte
bazinul Bughea de Bratia. Locul de confluen cu Rul Trgului se afl la
aproximativ 420 m altitudine. n sectorul nordic al bazinului Bughea sunt
amplasate comunele Albeti de Muscel i Lereti; n partea central,
comunele Bughea de Jos i Godeni; n sectorul estic al regiunii se afl oraul
Cmpulung (cuprinznd partea vestic a cartierelor Mgura, Grui i
Mrcu), iar ctre sud, exist marginea nordic a comunei Mihileti.
Bazinul morfohidrografic Bughea este delimitat: la vest de localitile
Berevoieti, Aninoasa i Vldeti; la sud comuna Miheti; la est se afl
Schitu Goleti i Cmpulung; la nord comuna Lereti. ntre limitele
geografice menionate, bazinul Bughea nsumeaz circa 90 km2 (din cei
1079 km2 ai Rului Trgului) i reprezentnd aproximativ 1,4% din
suprafaa bazinului rului arge (12.592 km2).
O serie de particulariti i efecte sunt condiionate de aceast aezare
geografic a bazinului Bughea.
n fundamentul bazinului sunt formaiunile cristaline, deasupra crora se
afl roci sedimentare, acestea din urm predominnd n perimetrul
Muscelelor i Dealurilor Argeului. n nordul bazinului morfohidrografic,
unde i relieful este mai nalt i mai frmntat (900-1500), exist

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conglomerate paleogene i miocene. Rocile argilo-nisipoase poniene i


daciene ocup preponderent partea central a regiunii, unde relieful i
pstreaz altitudini ntre 700 i 900 m, iar la sud sunt frecvente pietriurile
de Cndeti (romanian-villafranchiene), relieful existnd la nlimi sub 700,
n spaiul de confluen altitudinile fiind de circa 410-420 m. Acestea sunt i
formaiunile geologice pe suportul crora s-au declanat intens i
degradrile de teren.
Barajul montan orientat est-vest n nordul bazinului limiteaz ptrunderile de
aer rece dinspre nord. De asemenea, relieful influeneaz circulaia maselor
de aer, determinnd etajarea i diferenierea nuanelor topoclimatice cu
pregnante manifestri de autonomie local, de depresiuni subcarpatice,
intracolinare, de versant adpostit fa de circulaia de vest, de pdure i
pajiti deluroase, de culmi montane i deluroase, de culoare depresionare etc.
Arealul bazinului morfohidrografic este influenat de un regim termic a crei
amplitudine medie anual este de 65-68oC; temperatura medie anual
nregistreaz valori de 4-9oC; temperatura maxim, foarte rar depete
valoarea de 30oC, iar numrul de zile tropicale este cuprins ntre 5 i 15.
Cantitile medii anuale de precipitaii ating valori de 700-1200 mm. Legat
de acest aspect, se constat c o cantitate important de precipitaii
atmosferice se infiltreaz, alimentnd astfel pnzele de ap freatic, resursele
de ap fiind normale cantitativ.
Bazinul vii Bughea aparine tipului de regim hidrologic care se
caracterizeaz prin debite mari primvara i la nceputul verii i prin
debite mici, toamna i iarna.
Vegetaia este condiionat n ansamblul ei de particularitile,
pedogeografice, formele de relief, elementele climatice generale, topo- i
microclimatice, alturi de care se resimte intervenia factorului uman. n
constituia ei se afl pduri de conifere i de amestec cu fag, pduri de fag,
pduri de gorun cu carpen i de fag cu carpen, pajiti secundare i terenuri
agricole. Presiunea antropic a condus la faptul c suprafaa terenurilor
agricole i a punilor a crescut n detrimentul spaiului forestier.
2.

Morfologia specific

Trsturile de ansamblu n interiorul bazinului sunt marcate de


prezena categoriilor morfologice de interfluvii. De exemplu, interfluviul
dintre Bughea i Rul Trgului are un aspect relativ neted, scznd
altimetric de la peste 850 m (Dealul Mgura, 892 m), pn n cartierul
Mgura din oraul Cmpulung, de unde se menine aproximativ la aceeai
altitudine, cu aspect de platou (Platoul Grui). Aspectul relativ montan al
reliefului este condiionat n principal de prezena rocilor mai puin rezistente
i care nlesnesc aciunea de modelare a agenilor externi. Interfluviul dintre
Bughea i Bratia se desfoar printr-o scdere n altitudine pe direcia nordsud, respectiv de la 906 m n Piscul Lat ctre Plior, n apropiere de

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STERIE CIULACHE

Cndeti, unde msoar 700 m. O cretere altimetric se constat n Dealul


Ciocanului (886 m). Numeroase organisme toreniale au obriile pe
marginea acestui interfluviu, genernd serii aproape paralele i
perpendiculare pe axa vii, de interfluvii secundare (Strigoi ntre valea
Bughii i Prul Strigoi; interfluviul secundar Ureanca, ntre vile Strigoiul
i Brezoiului .a.
n marginea de ansamblu a bazinului Bughea, se observ c altimetria
reliefului scade din direcia nord ctre sud, iar n privina repartiiei
difereniate a nlimilor, cele mai mari valori se ntlnesc n jumtatea
nordic a bazinului morfohidrografic (vrful Boldu, 1531 m) i cele mai mici
n partea sudic, fiind cuprinse ntre 450 i 500 m. Valorile hipsometrice ne
ofer i posibilitatea individualizrii unor principale trepte ale reliefului.
Ca urmare, nivelul morfologic cu altitudinea cea mai mare, depind 1000
m se desfoar n extremitatea nordic a bazinului morfohidrografic
(aproximativ 7,2 % din suprafaa acestuia). ntre 800 i 1000 m (circa 14%
din arealul regiunii), se definete o alt treapt hipsometric acoperind
partea central-nordic a bazinului. De la 720 la 800 m, se contureaz al
treilea nivel altimetric ocupnd sectoarele central i extrem vestic al
spaiului bazinal i acoperind aproape 22% din arealul acestuia.
Un nivel altimetric de circa 620-710 m acoper cea mai mare suprafa din
cadrul bazinului vii Bughea (circa 36,2%), remarcndu-se prin poziia sa n
sectoarele central i sudic din regiune. De la 510 la 600 m o suprafa
altimetric cu nfiare de fii sau benzi flancheaz culoarul de vale,
acoperind aproximativ 15% din spaiul acestuia. Nivelul altimetric cel mai
cobort (sub 500 m i ajungnd la 420 m n perimetrul de confluen),
constituie suprafaa morfologic cea mai joas, aceasta acoperind 5,6% din
arealul regiunii.
Fragmentarea orizontal a reliefului se caracterizeaz prin valori medii de
1,4 km/km2 pentru ansamblul bazinului morfohidrografic. Cele mai mici
valori (0,00,5 km/km2) corespund spaiilor interfluviale i poduri de terase
i lunc. Valorile de 0,61,5 km/km2 sunt caracteristice, local, n centrul,
sudul i n poriuni central-nordice i central-sudice. Densiti de la 1,6 la
2,5 km/km2
se constat, tot pe spaii reduse, n nordul, estul, sudul, centrul i n
poriunile central-nordice. Fragmentarea orizontal a reliefului cuprinznd
valori
ntre 2,6 i 3,5 km/km2 caracterizeaz sporadic mici poriuni din nordul,
centrul i extremitatea sudic a bazinului morfohidrografic. Cele mai mari
valori ale fragmentrii orizontale a reliefului reprezentnd intervale de la
3,6 la 4,5 km/km2 constituie un aspect cu totul izolat n partea de nord a
bazinului. Ca un element de generalizat sintez, se remarc faptul c pe
ansamblul bazinului, cu un oarecare grad de continuitate, valorile mari ale

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57

acestui indice morfometric caracterizeaz culoarele de vale ale rului Bughea


i ale afluenilor si. Tot ca o trstur specific este i faptul c valori
relativ mari i foarte mari definesc arealele unde se extind organisme
toreniale. De asemenea, pe suprafee interfluviale i n sectoare de funduri
de vale, densitatea fragmentrii este foarte mic, ori tinde ctre valoarea
zero.
Adncimea fragmentrii, exprimnd cuantumul energiei de fragmentare n
paln vertical al reliefului, prin valorile sale specifice influeneaz degradrile
de teren care afecteaz potenialul natural din cadrul vii Bughea, ct i al
sectoarelor unde se afl afluenii acestui ru. ntr-o apreciere global, se
constat c acest indice morfometric prezint cele mai mari valori n nordul
bazinului morfohidrografic. Valorile minime, 1025 m/km2 sunt caracteristice
unor sectoare mici din sud-vestul i sud-estul regiunii. Arealul central al
bazinului se remarc prin valori de la 26 la 75 m/km2, de unde se trece
relativ gradat n spaiul sudic, unde adncimea fragmentrii depete 76 m
tinznd ctre 130 m/km2. n perimetre destul de mozaicat repartizate,
adncimea fragmentrii depind
130 m/km2 i ajungnd la 225 m/km2, este prezent n prile central-nordic,
central-sudic, estul i vestul bazinului rului. Spaiul nordic al bazinului mai
prezint valori ale adncimii fragmentrii reliefului cuprinse ntre 226 i
325 m/km2 i 326-400 m/km2, de fapt acest din urm interval caracteriznd i
un spaiu nordic foarte redus. Valoarea medie pentru ntregul bazin al rului
Bughea, de aproximativ 145 m/km2, nu reprezint o expresie valabil pentru
oricare dintre compartimentele bazinului hidrografic, ci o trstur de
imagine extins mai mult teoretic la ansamblu regional, avnd deci un caracter
mai mult de probabilitate. Aa cum se prezint intervalele de valori ale
adncimii fragmentrii, un fapt rmne concludent pentru regiune i, anume c
specificul, unele laturi ale condiiilor genetice i multiple aspecte de regim
dinamic pentru degradrile de teren din regiune sunt dependente i mult
influenate de acest element morfometric. De asemenea, considerm c unele
dintre procesele i formele degradrii reliefului sunt prioritar determinate n
manifestarea lor de valorile acestui indice morfometric. Totodat, valorile
difereniat repartizate pe compartimentele bazinului morfo-hidrografic
dovedesc i o anumit variabilitate n modul de manifestare al regimului
degradrilor de teren. De exemplu, deschiderea mai rapid a unor aliniamente
de rpe de desprindere, se constat a fi mult nlesnit de valori critice ale
adncimii fragmentrii reliefului. Astfel, pentru extremitatea nordic a
bazinului morfohidrografic, frecvena rpelor de desprindere este influenat
de intervalele valorilor de 226325 m/km2 i cele care sunt mai mari de 326
m/km2, tinznd ctre 380 m/km2.

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STERIE CIULACHE

Valorile pantelor, nelegnd n mod distinct pe acelea ale cror limite de


intervale de grade devin cauze iminente ale declanrii unor procese i forme
de degradare a terenurilor, respectiv ale reliefului din bazinul rului Bughea,
ofer o imagine destul de mozaicat, n principal acestea marcnd poziii
evidente de versani, suprafee de racord, aliniamente de poduri
interfluviale, culoare de vi etc. n interiorul bazinului Bughea exist
suprafee practic orizontale i componente morfologice cu valori ale
declivitii depind 65o i chiar mici abrupturi. Pantele care depesc 10o
constituie, n esena lor, limita posibil a manifestrii eroziunii liniare
genernd organisme toreniale, ogae i ravene. Pantele care depesc n
general 20o determin condiii pentru declanarea alunecrilor de teren, n
general puin profunde. Alunecrile care disloc pachete de roc i depozite
de pante cu grosimi mari, reprezentnd deplasri profunde de materiale
sunt nlesnite de pante care n ansamblul lor depesc 25 o, tinznd, uneori,
ctre 40o. Sintetiznd gruparea valorilor de pante n raport de principalele
trepte ale reliefului se constat c spaiul montan din arealul bazinului
Bughea se caracterizeaz printr-un interval al declivitilor de
4570o; n spaiul subcarpatic, aceste valori sunt cuprinse frecvent ntre 36
i 55o, asemenea decliviti fiind prioritare pentru declanarea frecvent a
porniturilor de teren, dezvoltarea organismelor toreniale i a ogaelor. n
acest sector de spaiu subcarpatic bazinal, dinamica accelerat a degradrii
reliefului i deci i a terenurilor este meninut i de aceast interrelaie dintre
valorile adncimii fragmentrii reliefului i acelea ale pantelor.
3. Principalele componente morfogenetice
Acestea sunt reprezentate de procesele i formele de relief fluviatil, morfologia
petrografic, relieful structural i anumite forme de relief antropic. Morfologia
fluviatil specific este alctuit din nivele de terase i lunci. Lunca are o
desfurare discontinu, n unele locuri depind circa 200 m lime; ea se dezvolt
nc din nordul localitii Bughea de Sus, ajungnd la aproximativ 350 m pe
amplasamentul comunei Bughea de Jos, respectiv n arealul de confluen a prului
Bloaica cu Bughea. De asemenea, mai jos de confluena cu torentul noroios Priboiul
n punctul denumit ''Strmtoarea'', lunca msoar puin mai mult de un kilometru
lime. Mici praie i organisme toreniale depun pe suprafaa luncii numeroase
conuri de dejecie, unele dintre acestea fiind deosebit de complexe (suprapuse,
etajate). Terasele sunt prezente n sectorul depresionar subcarpatic, ct i n arealul
piemontan. Se disting: t1 = 46 m, t2 = 1012 m i t3 = 3545 m. Exceptnd aceste
trei nivele de terase, bine reprezentate i mai extinse, local mai pot fi identificate
terase, bine reprezentate i mai extinse; local mai pot fi identificate terase de lunc
(12 m altitudinea relativ), o alt teras de 6-7 m, aa cum se observ n perimetrul
comunei Bughea de Jos, dar i pe unele pruri mai mari afluente vii Bughea, ca de
exemplu pe Valea Strigoiului, Valea Mare etc. Sectoare din terasele principale

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59

ndeplinesc i rolul de interfluvii, iar nivelul de 46 m se prezint frecvent ca teras


de confluen. Pentru terasele mai nalte, gradul de fragmentare orizontal i n plan
vertical este destul de accentuat datorit numeroaselor rigole, ravene, ogae, dar i a
unor poriuni de organisme toreniale.
Morfologia petrografic, de care sunt legate, ndeosebi, o serie de procese
i forme ale degradrilor de teren, este relativ diversificat reprezentat. n
coninutul ei, aceasta este redat de specificul modelrii reliefului pe unele
formaiuni geologice de tipul isturilor cristaline, calcare numulitice, granite,
argile, marne, pietriuri, nisipuri. Dintre toate aceste tipuri de reliefuri
petrografice, procesele i formele generate de prezena argilelor i a marnelor au
frecven i diversitate mai mare, inclusiv o dinamic de evoluie mai accelerat,
treapta subcarpatic din interiorul acestui bazin morfohidrografic fiind deosebit
de specific n acest sens. Totodat i imaginea peisajului geomorfologic se
prezint oarecum haotic, aspect generat n principal de prezena frecvent a
ravenelor, ogaelor, torenilor i alunecrilor de teren. n astfel de condiii i
versanii au un grad ridicat de instabilitate. Dinamica de evoluie accelerat
determin faptul c este relativ dificil de indentificat i separat alunecri de
teren masive, de cele superficiale, n trepte, sub form de brazde i de cuib.
Morfologia petrografic corespunztoare sectorului piemontan este modelat
aproape n integralitatea ei pe formaiuni geologice de pietriuri i nisipuri,
procesele de degradare afectnd inclusiv nivelele de terase de ctre rigole, ravene
i ogae, dar i de bazine toreniale uneori bine dezvoltate, care au depus conuri
de dejecie simple, etajate i ngemnate. Relieful dezvoltat pe calcarele
numulitice ocup suprafee foarte mici (perimetrul localitii Albeti), unde sunt
prezente rzle lapiezuri i doline cu dimensiuni mici. Ct privete isturile
cristaline, morfologia lor petrografic este reprezentat n general prin versani
abrupi i conveci, sectoarele de vi cu profil transversal ngust i relativ adnci,
aceast imagine de peisaj geomorfologic caracteriznd extremitatea nordic a
bazinului rului Bughea.
Morfologia structural este specific subcarpailor i piemontului din
bazinului rului Bughea, fiind mai expresiv reprezentat prin cueste, sectoare de
suprafee structurale i de vi structurale (n diferite poziii cu structura
geologic). Cele mai numeroase cueste se desfoar pe versantul nordic al
anticlinalului Ciocanul unde aceste forme structurale sunt i etajate. O serie de
aflueni ai rului Bughea pun n eviden pe versanii lor fruni de cueste.
Remarcabil este i faptul c, frecvent, frunile i fronturile de cueste sunt afectate
de alunecri obsecvente, unele dintre acestea manifestndu-se sub form de
curgeri noroioase n perioadele cu ploi abundente i n intervalul de topire mai
rapid a zpezilor abundente. Rpele de desprindere instalate obsecvent pe
fronturile unor astfel de cueste, depesc adeseori 20 m nlime, duritatea
capetelor de strat ale rocilor (de exemplu, unele gresii masive), contribuind ntr-o
msur apreciabil la amplitudinea acestor rpe. De asemenea, poriuni de
suprafee structurale sunt bine reprezentate n arealul localitii Godeni, iar n

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STERIE CIULACHE

aval de aceast aezare uman, versantul stng al vii Bughea corespunde unei
suprafee structurale orientat aproximativ nord-sud, alunecrile consecvente de
pe suportul acesteia dndu-i o nfiare uor vlurit. Versantul drept al
aceleeai vi pune n eviden o succesiune de suprafee structurale mici i de
cueste etajate, cu orientarea n direcia nord. O imagine asemntoare o are i
versantul stng al vii Bughea, n aval de localitatea Coteti, n perimetrul satului
Cmpu Piscului, unde exist o succesiune de suprafee structurale i sectoare de
fruni de cueste. n alctuirea reliefului structural, intr i sectoare de vale cu
anumite moduri specifice de evoluie pe astfel de suporturi geologice. Din acest
punct de vedere, n arealul ocupat de bazinul rului Bughea exist sectoare de
vi consecvente adncite pe suprafee de strat a cror nclinare uneori depesc
cu puin 5o; n alte situaii declivitatea este mai mare i, ca urmare, n raport i de
rezistena rocilor adncirea talvegurilor este cu mult mai accentuat i accelerat.
Poriunile de vi subsecvente sunt deosebit de expresive n relieful regiunii,
att prin dimensiunile cuestelor, ct i a lungimii traseului acestora. Vile
obsecvente sunt cu dimensiuni mici, instalarea lor fiind caracteristic frunilor de
cueste, acestea corespunznd n mod predominant unor cursuri de ap temporare,
din categoria ogaelor i a ravenelor i, mai rar, n cazul torenilor.
Relieful antropic are o relativ diversivitate a formelor sale, dar n cazul
unora dintre acestea se constat i dimensiunile mai importante pe care le au. n
structura genetic a reliefului antropic se pot individualiza forme de acumulare
i forme de excavare. Din prima categorie fac parte halde de steril situate n
arealul minelor de crbuni de la Godeni i Coteti, cldite din sterilul rezultat din
procesul de exploatarea lignitului. Rambleele reprezint alte forme de relief
pozitive, frecvena acestora fiind legat efectiv de amenajarea cilor de
comunicaie rutiere. Exceptnd rolul funciei lor tehnice pentru transporturi,
aceste ramblee ndeplinesc, parial i, calitatea unor diguri de protecie i
limitare a efectelor posibile de risc, n situaia creterii debitelor de ape n
sectoare de albii i a potenialelor inundaii care s afecteze localiti cum sunt
Bughea de Jos i Albeti. Formele de relief negative sunt reprezentate, n
principal, prin galeriile din minele de crbuni; o serie de excavaii deschise n
orizonturi de argile, pentru exploatarea de materie prim n scopul fabricrii de
crmizi, plci de teracot, dar i pentru utilizarea formaiunilor argiloase pentru
baraje hidrotehnice de arocamente. Forme de relief negative sunt i n spaiul
localitii Albeti, generate de exploatarea calcarului. Sectoare reprezentnd
deblee (ca de exemplu, ntre Capu Piscului i localitatea Lazreti), fac parte tot
din categoria formelor de relief antropic negative. Interferena unor elemente
antropice cu forme de relief naturale se constat n situaiile canalizrii unor
talveguri de organisme toreniale i chiar de ogae, situaii existente la Valea
Calului, Valea Caselor, Valea Bisericii, Valea Mierlei, Valea Negrei .a.
Agroterasele amenajate pe sectoare de versani i, mai frecvent, n sectorul de
sud al bazinului morfohidrografic Bughea, se ncadreaz tot n tipologia formelor

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61

de relief antropic de interferen cu formele naturale (propriu-zise) ale acestor


suprafee morfologice cu nclinare moderat.
4. Modelarea actual a reliefului i degradrile de teren
O serie de ageni exogeni, mpreun cu un complex de condiii
poteniale constituie fondul genetic i dinamic evolutiv al proceselor actuale de
modelare a reliefului i de manifestare a degradrilor de teren din interiorul
bazinului morfohidrografic Bughea. Ablaia, iroirea, aciunea torenial,
dezagregarea, alterarea, gravitaia, scurgerea permanent n albiile de ru i
interveniile antropice constituie gama principalelor procese de modelare actual a
reliefului i a degradrilor de teren. Hipsometria, adncimea fragmentrii reliefului,
pantele, tipurile de roci, unele condiii prezentate de structura geologic, gradul de
acoperire cu vegetaie i soluri constituie ali factori poteniali pentru modelarea
geomorfologic actual i degradrile de teren. Splarea areolar (n suprafa)
este cel mai simplu proces de modelare actual i afecteaz sectoare n general
lipsite de vegetaie, acionnd pe sectoare orizontale i pe acelea cu nclinri foarte
mici (45o), afectnd parial, ptura de sol. iroirea difuz definete o eroziune
liniar incipient, puin perceptibil, pentru ca tipurile de iroire concentrat s
genereze primele categorii de forme sculpturale, ncepnd de la dimensiunile
enuleelor i trecnd la acelea reprezentate de rigole i ravene. Evoluia formelor
din urm nlesnete dezvoltarea tipurilor de organisme de eroziune avnd
dimensiuni mai mari: ogae (de obicei nrmurate sau ramificate) i organismele
toreniale care depesc n lungimi sute de metri, atingnd ntre 1 i 3,2 km, mai
puin frecvent. ntr-o msur apreciabil aceste procese i forme de relief se
dezvolt pe suportul unor groase depozite eluviale, deluviale, deluvio-coluviale,
coluviale i proluviale, care sunt reprezentative n spaiul regional, n unele locuri
fiind afectat i roca n loc, mai ales n cazul alunecrilor de teren mai profunde i
a organismelor toreniale cu dezvoltare mai mare. Condiiile litologice i regimul de
precipitaii atmosferice nlesnesc mult aceste manifestri ale modelrii actuale i
mai ales ale degradrii terenurilor, mpreun cu o deosebit de activ intervenie
antropic i pe fondul efectelor generate prin defriri de proporie. Organismele
toreniale sunt frecvente pe versantul de pe dreapta vii Bughea, conurile lor de
dejecie cu dimensiuni mari, prin cantitile importante de materiale i depunerile
repetate de proluvii determinnd pe unele aliniamente i devieri laterale ale albiei
minore a rului. Numeroasele drumuri i poteci au slbit considerabil echilibrul i
rezistena versanilor ale cror valori medii de pante depesc relativ frecvent 20 o.
Astfel, n perimetrul Dealului Ciocanul i n arealul Culmii Plea, organismele
toreniale se extind repede prin eroziune regresiv, aa cum demonstreaz vile
toreniale Ciocanul, Valea Caselor, Valea Calului, Valea Negrei, Valea Bisericii,
Valea Chiii .a. Aciunea combinat a torenilor, ogaelor, alunecrilor de teren,
prbuirilor, rezult o imagine de asamblu cunoscut local prin termenul de
''hrtoape'' i ''rpe''. Pietriurile n alternan cu nisipuri i argile aparinnd
romanianului constituie un suport litologic deosebit de propice pentru astfel de

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STERIE CIULACHE

procese i forme de relief. Reprezentative i expresive sunt unele rpe de


desprindere ale alunecrilor de teren, ca de exemplu n spaiul satului Malu din
comuna Godeni, nlimea acesteia avnd aproximativ 115 m; privit de la distan
are nfiarea unui abrupt propriu-zis, dar care n ultimii 78 ani au mai atenuat
din nclinare. Aceast rp de desprindere a declanat cu circa 36 de ani n urm o
masiv i profund alunecare de teren, care s-a canalizat pe culoarul vii
Priboiului, reactivndu-se n repetate rnduri i ca o curgere noroioas, barnd
temporar apele din albia minor a rului Bughea. n acest fel, fruntea ei a
determinat mpingerea albiei minore a rului. Iniial, corpul porniturii cuprindea un
foarte mare val de alunecare, ulterior decupat n forme monticulare, iar n prezent
transformat ntr-o suprafa puin vlurit acoperit cu vegetaie ierboas, arbuti
i chiar arbori. Lungimea acestui impresionant val depea cu peste trei decenii n
urm, 400 m. n acest corp de alunecare, prezentnd i valuri secundare orientate
pe cteva aliniamente, se afl intercalate orizonturile de gresii, nisipuri compacte i
parial uor cimentate, pachete de marne-argile. Patul de alunecare este alctuit din
formaiuni argilo-marnoase. Ansamblul sectoarelor interfluviale ncadrate bazinului
morfohidrografic al rului Bratia se carac-terizeaz prin existena unor rpe de
despridere vechi, fixate cu vegetaie, mpreun cu alte alunecri destul de masive,
serii de valuri grupate, ori valuri de alunecare izolate. Rezult c n regiune s-au
produs i exist condiii pentru iminente alunecri viitoare, unele superficiale,
iar altele de profunzime, ct i curgeri noroioase, care se declaneaz i se
canalizeaz pe amplasamentul unora dintre organismele toreniale i chiar ale
ogaelor mai mult dezvoltate. Dinamica acestor curgeri noroioase sau toreni de
noroi este dependent de regimul precipitaiilor atmosferice; de obicei n anii mai
secetoi, aceste deplasri plastice de noroi se prezint ca mase de materiale uscate,
cu vluriri i zbrcituri secionate de crpturi destul de adnci. Alunecrile
profunde, mai vechi ori relativ mai recente, mai vechi ori relativ mai recente,
afecteaz n mod deosebit versanii Dealului Ciocanul i ai Dealului Ciuha Teiului,
Dealul Ghilan etc.
ncercnd o clasificare morfogenetic i n corelaie cu anumite criterii
preponderent de factur morfodinamic, n acest spaiu bazinal se pot
individualiza: alunecri masive (profunde); alunecri superficiale; alunecri
sub form de monticoli (movile); alunecri sub form de cuib (lenticulare);
alunecri strangulate; alunecri-rostogoliri; rostogoliri-alunecri; valuri de
alunecare. Tocmai o asemenea diversitate de tipuri de alunecri, crora le este
interferat o intens aciune torenial, condiioneaz, n acest fel, prezena
degradrilor de teren cu elemente de risc specifice acestora.
Caracteriznd, n linii generale, rspndirea degradrilor de teren n
interiorul bazinului morfohidrografic Bughea, se pot concretiza cteva aspecte
mai importante. Distribuirea, pe ansamblu, a degradrilor de teren pune n
eviden o difereniere n raport de cele trei trepte principale de relief-munte,
subcarpai, piemont. n arealul montan, domin o eroziune liniar intens,
amplificat n mod deosebit de eroziunea regresiv care acioneaz deosebit de

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63

intens n sectoarele de obrii ale apelor curgtoare (n mod excepional ale


torenilor i ogaelor). Coeficientul de mpdurire limiteaz acest proces de
degradare a reliefului mai ales n parchetele forestiere cu o consisten masiv.
Roca apare la zi, pe sectoare abrupte (sub vrfuri), dar i pe aliniamente de
tranziie (de contact) dintre munte i subcarpai. n prezena rocilor calcaroase,
chiar i unde exist pdure, se afl doline, n general cu dimensiuni mici
(diametre ntre 1,5 i 3 m); cu mult mai puin sunt observate uvale. Sectorul
subcarpatic din arealul bazinului vii Bughea ofer cea mai mare diversitate i
frecven pentru gama de procese i forme ale degradrii reliefului i deci a
terenurilor existente pe suportul acestuia. Alunecrile de teren asociate cu
organismele toreniale i ogaele reprezint imaginea caracteristic pentru
degradrile existente n acest areal subcarpatic. Gama diversificat de
alunecri i organisme toreniale este vizibil mai ales n prile central i de est
a bazinului Bratia. n legtur cu aceste forme exist i frecvente tipuri de rpe
de desprindere, de prbuire i rostogolire de materiale, dar i rpe generate
n mod specific prin eroziune regresiv de ctre toreni i ogae n puncte de
obrii. n deschiderile determinate de aceste rpe i, n special, cele ale
alunecrilor apar la zi succesiuni de pachete de roci i unele indicii privind
elemente structurale, geologice. Pe suportul acestor forme ale degradrii majore
se suprapune o multitudine de procese i forme minore dependente de tipuri de
iroire difuz i mai ales concentrat, n funcie de care rezult: anuri, rigole i
ravene. n spaiul piemontan amploarea proceselor, dimensiunile formelor de
degradare se modific substanial, n sensul diminurii acestora, chiar dac n
unele poriuni densitatea acestora este relativ mai mare. Aici, marnele, gresiile,
pietriurile de Cndeti, depozitele deluvio-coluviale, coluviale, proluviale creaz
un cmp larg de aciune proceselor de iroire mpreun cu efectele aciunii
antropice de genurile defririlor, drumurilor de crue, a diferitelor tipuri de
poteci etc. dei valorile pantelor se menin, n medie, ntre 6 i 18 o, iar valorile
adncimii fragmentrii sunt n general mici (sub 35 m/km2); exist condiiile
poteniale i pentru aciunea unor organisme toreniale i ogae, dar care au
dimensiuni mici i foarte mici. Sunt prezente i alunecri de teren superficiale,
care au dimensiuni mici, fiind mai frecvente cele sub form de cuib
((lenticulare), ori exist numai valuri de alunecare.

ROLUL NIVELELOR DE BAZ LOCALE I REGIONALE


N EVOLUIA RELIEFULUI DEPRESIUNILOR INTRAMONTANE
DIN CARPAII MERIDIONALI

64

STERIE CIULACHE

NICOLAE POPESCU, FLORINA FOLEA

Nivelele de baz sunt controlate, n general, de doi factori: tectonici i


climatici, tectonica avnd rolul prioritar. Aceti doi factori, legai direct de
sistemele energetice majore (endogene i exogene), s-au implicat permanent n
evoluia reliefului. Ei au avut o evoluie temporal relativ activ i au impus
schimbarea sau meninerea constant, pe perioade determinate de timp, a
nivelelor de baz din depresiunile intracarpatice.
Nivele de baz generale, regionale i locale au reglat, n primul rnd,
parametrii hidrodinamici, evoluia sistemelor fluviatile, echilibrele i dezechilibrele
morfodinamice din spaiile depresionare. Rolul acestor nivele de baz generale,
regionale i locale a fost diferit n timp, n funcie de nsi evoluia morfotectonic
a depresiunilor i a masivelor montane care le ncorporeaz.
Cele trei mari depresiuni din cuprinsul Carpailor Meridionali (Lovitea,
Petroani i Haeg) sunt de natur tectonic, evoluia lor fiind permanent
controlat de evenimentele tectogenetice ale spaiului montan nconjurtor
(fig. 1). De aceea, n definirea lor spaial i reliefogen pot fi identificate dou
etape majore cu tendine i implicaii morfogenetice diferite: etapa fracturrii
tectonice i a formrii cuverturii sedimentare i etapa sculptrii cuverturii
sedimentare (etapa reliefogen). n cele dou etape, cele trei tipuri de nivel de
baz au avut implicaii diferite.
1. Etapa fracturrii tectonice i a formrii cuverturii sediemntare
(Paleogen-Miocen-Pliocen inferior), care a durat circa 5060 milioane ani, a
condus la definitivarea spaial a bazinelor de sedimentare prin delimitri
tectonice clare (fali, flexuri) fa de unitile cristalino-mezozoice carpatice,
definitivate i ele structural n urma micrilor laramice. Astfel, golfurile i
bazinele marine sau lacustre intracarpatice au fost legate de bazinele
Transilvano-Panonic (Petroani i Haeg) i Getic (Brezoi-Titeti) i ncor-porate
Parathetysului central i est-european. n acest timp (Paleogen i Miocen, uneori
chiar Pliocenul inferior), aceste golfuri interioare, relativ izolate i cu ntreruperi
temporare fa de bazinele extracarpatice, se constituiau ca nivele de baz
generale sau regionale (n perioadele de ntrerupere a legturilor) n raport cu
spaiul carpatic nconjurtor. Aceste nivele de baz, generale sau regionale, au
controlat, timp de circa 50 milioane ani, activitatea morfogenetic a reelei
hidrografice ce se contura i se dirija convergent ctre bazinele acvatice
intracarpatice.
Cuvertura sedimentar, cu unele diferenieri lito-stratigrafice n cele trei
bazine, nregistreaz att micrile tectonice, ct i tendinele ciclice de
modelarea a reliefului montan nconjurtor. Acestea din urm (procesele
morfogenetice) au fost dirijate, ns, i de condiiile climatice. Ca evenimente mai
importante ale acestei etape, n care golfurile intracarpatice au funcionat ca
nivele de baz generale sau regionale, menionm:

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65

a. definitivarea pediplenei carpatice surprins prin predominarea n cele trei


bazine a depozitelor detritice (conglomerate, gresii, argile) eocene i oligocene, de
culoare roie;
b. fragmentarea eroziv a pediplenei carpatice, impulsionat de micrile savice,
i formarea suprafeei medii carpatice consemnat n sedimentarul bazinelor
intramontane prin suita de conglomerate, gresii, marne i argile miocene;
c. ncheierea funciei de nivel de baz general sau regional a bazinelor
intramontane Lovitea, Petroani i Haeg ctre sfritul Miocenului impus de
nlarea general a Carpailor Meridionali de ctre micrile atice, de
colmatarea i exondarea acestora.
1

10km

Fig. 1. Depresiuni intramontane n Carpaii Meridionali


1-Uniti carpatice; 2-Depresiuni intramontane (A-Depresiunea Lovitei, B-Depresiunea
Petroani, C-Depresiunea Haeg); 3-Defilee; 4-neuri

2. Etapa reliefogen a celor trei depresiuni intramontane ncepe imediat


dup exondarea acestora, timp n care are loc organizarea reelei hidrografice
transcarpatice i nceputul formrii defileelor Oltului, Jiului i a micului defileu al
Streiului de la Subcetate. Pe fondul nlrilor rhodanice, dar mai ales a celor valahe,
aceste ngustri ale vilor se constituiau ca nivele de baz locale pentru sistemele
fluviatile i pentru morfogeneza de ansamblu a depresiunilor intramontane.
Aceste defilee, tiate n roci dure i plasate n aria de nlare accentuat a
Carpailor Meridionali, au meninut tot timpul Pliocenului i Cuaternarului un
nivel de baz constant ridicat. Acesta a controlat activitatea major a proceselor
morfogenetice, diminuarea sau accentuarea eroziunii fluviatile i dinamica
versanilor. De asemenea, a favorizat conservarea n spatele defileelor a formelor
de relief rezultate
Astfel, n interiorul depresiunilor intramontane, relativ izolate fa de
nivelul de baz general, s-au constituit sisteme de modelare regionale dirijate n

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STERIE CIULACHE

activitatea lor n primul rnd de micrile tectonice, dar i de condiiile climatice,


petrografice i structurale proprii fiecrei depresiuni.
n toate cele trei depresiuni (Lovitea, Petroani i Haeg) relaia
temporal dintre nivelul de baz, micrile tectonice i condiiile climatice poate
fi surprins n cteva secvene morfogenetice comune:
Pliocenul inferior, anterior micrilor rhodanice, timp n care nivele de
baz regionale (Bazinul Transilvaniei i Bazinul Getic) erau nc n apropierea
depresiunilor intramontane, iar cele trei defilee nc nu se conturaser, a fost
favorabil proceselor de pedimentaie. Acestea au condus, n condiiile unui nivel
de baz stabil (calm tectonic relativ), la formarea suprafeei carpatice de
bordur. Procesele reliefogene s-au extins cu aceleai tendine i n aria
depresiunilor intramontane, care pstreaz fragmente, mai coborte altimetric,
din aceast suprafa de nivelare;
Pliocenul superior, anterior micrilor valahe, cu condiii similare (nivel
de baz, climat) secvenei anterioare, a generat intense procese de pedimentaie n
spaiul depresionar. n aceast secven de timp se contureaz planul general i
limitele geomorfologice ale depresiunilor;
Pleistocenul inferior consemneaz organizarea reelei hidrografice
transcarpatice (Olt, Jiu, Strei, Mure) ctre care gravitau i rurile din interiorul
depresiunilor. De acum, culoarele fluviatile transcarpatice ncep s se impun
evident ca nivele de baz locale pentru reeaua fluviatil din depresiuni i s
coordoneze activitatea lor hidrodinamic pe fondul oscilaiilor climatice care au
impus tipul i intensitatea proceselor morfogenetice:.
1.n defileul Oltului se formeaz primele terase fluviatile (250150 m)
care trec spre sud n depozitele Piemontului Getic;
2. concomitenet, n Depresiunea Lovitei se formeaz glacisul piemontan
din culmile Mlaca, Boioara i Scuelul, n Depresiunea Petroani,
glacisul piemontan din culmile Mlaia i Sltruc, iar n depresiunea
Haeg nivelele piemontane predominant erozive (Cornelia Grumzescu,
1975); acest complex, de glacisuri piemontane i glacisuri de eroziune,
rmne suspendat fa de nivelul actual al vilor transversale cu cca.
150-200 m, fapt ce pune n eviden constana mai ndelungat a
nivelului local de baz.
n Depresiunea Haeg, cu poziie marginal fa de masivele nalte Retezat
i arcu, unde defileul de la Subcetate s-a impus mai puin ca nivel de baz
local, rolul acestuia a fost preluat ulterior de Mure.
Pleistocenul mediu i superior, marcat de nlrile Carpailor
Meridionali impuse de micrile valahe i pasadene, reprezint timpul n care
Oltul, Jiul, Streiul i Mureul s-au adncit cu cca. 150200 m i au format
defileele actuale. n spatele lor, rurile care drenau depresiunile Lovitea i
Petroani au fragmentat plafonul iniial al acestora, urmnd ndeaproape nuvelele
de baz locale. Diferenierile care apar n cele trei depresiuni sunt determinate de
modul n care oscilaiile climatice (glaciarele i interglaciarele carpatice) s-au

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impus n morfogeneza acestora (aportul direct de aluviuni, mrimea i locul de


obrie ale reelei hidrografice).
n aceast parte a Cuaternarului cele trei mari ruri (Olt, Jiu, Mure) nu
au mai fost influenate de modificrile nivelelor de baz regionale sau locale
(Bazinul Pontic sau Bazinul Panonic), ele meninndu-i un nivel de baz
altimetric constant (foarte apropiat de cel actual). Adncirea lor, formarea i
etajarea teraselor a fost determinat n exclusivitate de oscilaiile climatice care
s-au desfurat pe fondul general de nlare a Carpailor cu o amploare mai
mare, dar i a regiunilor extracarpatice, impuse de micrile valahe i pasadene.
n aceste condiii de realtiv stabilitate a nivelelor de baz, adncimea vilor i
altitudinile relative ale teraselor reflect amplitudinea micrilor neotectonice. n
tot acest timp defileele i cheile s-au impus ca nivele de baz locale, favoriznd
conservarea reliefului din bazinetele i depresiunile situate n spatele lor. Nu este
exclus ca tot timpul Cuaternarului talvegurile acestor vi s se fi meninut la
altitudinea absolut actual, relativ constant, prin adncirea lor concomitent i
n acelai ritm cu nlrile neotectonice.
Concluzii:
Depresiunile intramontane au reprezentat n prima etap (de bazin

intramontan) nivele de baz generale sau locale care au dirijat


activitatea morfogenetic a sistemelor hidrografice aferente
spaiului montan;
n a doua etap (Pliocen-Cuaternar) morfogeneza depresiunilor
intramontane a fost impus de nivelele de baz locale constituite de
vile transcarpatice n spatele crora evoluau;
n Pleistocenul mediu i superior consemnm poziia altimetric relativ
constant a nivelelor de baz, ntreaga evoluie rmnnd sub controlul
micrilor tectonice i condiiilor climatice.
BIBLIOGRAFIE
CHARLEY R.J. (1962), Geomorphology and general syistem theory, U.S. Geol. Survey Prof.
Paper, 500-B.
GRUMZESCU CORNELIA (1975), Depresiunea Haegului. Studiu geomorfologic, Edit.
Academiei Romne, Bucureti.
POPESCU N., POPESCU DIDA (1966), ,,Unele aspecte privind evoluia reelei secundare de
vi n cadrul complexului de terase, Anal.Univ.Buc., Geografie, an XV, nr. 2.
POSEA GR., GRIGORE M., POPESCU N., IELENICZ M. (1976), Geomorfologie, Edit.Did. i
Ped., Bucureti.
SELBY J.M. (1996), Earths changing surface. An introduction to Geomorphology, Clarendon
Press, Oxford.
SMALL J.R. (1972), The study of landforms, Combridge Univ. Press.
STRAHLER A.N. (1980), ,,Systems theory in physical geography, Phys.Geogr., 1.

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70

STERIE CIULACHE

CONTRIBUII PRIVIND DISTRIBUIA VEGETAIEI


N MUNII RETEZAT
MIHAI GEANANA

Din analiza fitogeografic a Munilor Retezat putem conchide c


distribuia vegetaiei acestor muni este de natur esenial climatic. Datorit
modificrii verticale a climei i a neuniformitii condiiilor edafice, ncepnd de
la contactul ramei muntoase cu depresiunile nconjurtoare i pn la nlimea
maxim a masivului (Vrful Pelega, 2509 m) se ntlnesc toate etajele de
vegetaie cunoscute n Carpaii Romneti.
Semnalm ns c, spre deosebire cu alte masive din ar, comparabile ca
altitudine, n Retezat, etajele de vegetaie au limitele superioare mai ridicate.
Chiar fa de limitele cunoscute pentru acest masiv noi am constatat diferene
altitudinale de 50 pn la 100 m.
Ansamblul condiiilor geomorfologice, climatice, litologice i edafice a
Munilor Retezat a favorizat, ntr-un lung proces evolutiv, instalarea unui covor
vegetal format dintr-un mare numr de specii. Modificarea treptat pe vertical a
condiiilor enunate fac posibil corelarea distribuiei vegetaiei n raport cu
altitudinea. Aceast corelare apare ct se poate de clar n figura de mai jos, n
care se constat existena unor etaje distincte de vegetaie natural. Pentru a oferi
o imagine despre aceste etaje de vegetaie, prezentm succint, n cele ce urmeaz,
o descriere sumar a fiecrui etaj n parte.
a. Etajul alpin propriu-zis (Etajul pajitilor alpine)
Se localizeaz n partea cea mai nalt a Munilor retezat (peste 2300
2400 m). Aici se ntlnesc temperaturi medii sub 0, zpad abundent i
ndelung persistent (mai ales n excavaiuni i n prile de sub vnt ale
crestelor), vnturi puternice, sezon de vegetaie scurt (12 luni), soluri foarte
scheletice i acide. Aceste condiii nu permit dezvoltarea unei vegetaii lemnoase.
Fac excepie slciile pitice (Salix reticulata, S. Herbaceea), Rhodoretele
altitudinilor mari i grupele de Azalee pitic (Loiseluria procubens) care, prin
adaptarea la condiiile locale, reuesc s ptrund n regiunea celor mai mari
vrfuri (Peleaga 2509 m, Retezat 2484 m, Bucura 2436 m, etc.). n schimb, au o
larg rspndire plantele erbacee ce exceleaz printr-o bogie de genuri i specii,
toate nzestrate de natur cu mecanisme proprii de adaptare, ce le fac posibil

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existena n aceste locuri cu climat alpin (Enculescu P., 1924). Ele contribuie la
formarea peisajului montan nalt, unde rareori se constituie n asociaii tipice de
Carex curvula, Juncus trifidus, Oreochloa disticha, etc. Cel mai frecvent, flora
teritoriilor de peste 2300 m altitudine este alctuit dintr-un mozaic al
elementelor care aparin diferitelor asociaii tipice (Nyrdy I. E., 1958). Dintre
aceste elemente amintim: Campanula alpina, Cerastium alpinum, Geniana
frigida, Geum montanum, Chrysanthemum alpinum, Doronicum carpaticum,
Hieracium alpinum, Primula minima, Saxifraga bryoides, S. Cymosa,
Soldanela pusilla, etc. Se ntlnesc i unele specii de licheni: Cetraria islandica,
Cladonia nivalis, C. rangiferina etc. n partea superioar a vrfului Custura,
apare Dryas octopetala, iar pe muchia nordic a vrfului Lazru, poate fi
observat Leontopodium alpinum.
Datorit prezenei pereilor abrupi, stncoi, grohotiurilor i cmpurilor
de sfrmturi lipsite de sol, precum i deflaiei intense, covorul vegetal al
acestui etaj prezint repetate discontinuiti.

Fig. Succesiunea etajelor de vegetaie n Munii Retezat

b. Etajul subalpin (Etajul jnepeniurilor)


Altitudinal (de la 17001800 m pn la 23002400 m) se ncadreaz, ca i
pajitile alpine, n clima munilor nali, cu deosebire c trsturile climatului
alpin sunt mai atenuate.
O caracteristic climatic a etajului o constituie cantitatea mare de
precipitaii (> 1200 mm) ce cad ntr-o proporie nsemnat sub form solid, ceea
ce face ca stratul de zpad s se menin mai mult de 6 luni de zile pe an. n

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STERIE CIULACHE

regiunea circurilor glaciare i a vilor glaciare, zpada este frecvent troienit de


viscol i rezist uneori pn n luna august (Circul glaciar Judele, Stnioara,
Custura, Valea Rea etc.). Dup 1970, semnalm chiar meninerea unor petice de
zpad, de la un an, la altul. Sezonul de vegetaie este de 23 luni.
Temperatura medie anual la altitudinea de 2 000 m se menine n jurul
valorii de 1C.
Solurile acestui etaj sunt foarte scheletice, cel mai frecvent de tipul
podzolului humuco-feriiluvial al solului humicosilicatic sau al litosolului (pe
pantele mari).
Tufiurile de jneapn cresc pe cmpurile de blocuri i pe soluri
superficiale ori scheletice, pe grohotiuri i n jurul stncilor goale, ocupnd o
mare parte din feele masivului, situate mai sus de limita superioar a pdurii,
unde constituie un etaj distinct. Formeaz asociaii compacte pe culmile
Aradeului, esele, Piciorul Retezatului, Stnioara, Pietrele, Valea Rea, Gale,
Lnci, Stroanele, etc. i apare n insule izolate sau tufe pe celelalte culmi,
contribuind din plin la aspectul peisagistic al zonelor nalte din Munii Retezat.
Aceste jnepeniuri prezint dou variante ecologice (St. Csrs, 1971):
Pinetum mughi calamagrostetosum caracteristic pe pantele nsorite,
puternic nclinate ori n locuri svntate . Locurile libere dintre jnepeniuri sunt
ocupate masiv de Calamagrostis villosa, alturi de care pot fi ntlnite i alte
mezofite alpine.
Pinetum mughi myrtilletosum, ce crete n staiuni mai umbrite, n
general umede avnd caracter oligotrof. Suprafeele libere sunt dominate aici de
afin (Vaccinium myrtillus). Printre plantele nsoitoare amintim rotunjeii
(Homogyne alpina), vulturica (Hieracium pisaturense) i muchiul de turb
(Sphagnum).
Jnepeniurile din Munii Retezat cresc bine sub altitudinea de 2000 m,
unde formeaz desiuri greu de strbtut, cu nlimi de 2 pn la 3 m. Vile
glaciare largi i locurile care pot reine zpada le asigur condiii favorabile de
dezvoltare. Pe msur ce altitudinile cresc iar pantele devin mai nclinate i nu
pot reine zpada, ce asigur umezeal n sol i protecie n timpul iernii,
asociaiile compacte de jneapn se frmieaz mai nti n plcuri, alternnd cu
suprafee ierboase, mri de blocuri sau grohotiuri, iar apoi n tufe rslee.
Acestea din urm se car pe vrfurile Retezat, Custura i Judele pn n jurul
altitudinii de 2400 m (2380 m pe vrful Custura, 2400 m pe vrful Judele i
2400 m pe vrful Retezat).
Ctre partea superioar a etajului, culoarele de avalane i grohotiurile
mobile fragmenteaz deseori, n fii paralele, suprafeele ocupate de jneapn.
Pe versanii nordici ai masivului, cmpurile de blocuri coboar cu mult
mai mult sub limita climatic a pdurii i, fiind lipsite de sol, formeaz un
obstacol n calea urcrii ei naturale. Singura specie lemnoas ce se instaleaz cu
relativ uurin pe aceste blocuri, este jneapnul. Din aceast cauz se constat
o extindere a arealului jnepeniurilor spre altitudini inferioare, unde ptrund n

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arealul ecologic al molidiurilor. Se observ totui c n formaiunile de


jnepeniuri, care au ptruns sub limita climatic a pdurii, ncep s apar mai
nti rzlei, iar apoi n biogrupe, molizii, ceea ce nseamn c extinderea spre
altitudini inferioare a jneapnului reprezint un proces temporar. Jneapnul, prin
sistemul su radicular, se poate ancora n substratul cmpurilor de blocuri, lipsite
de particule fine, alimentndu-se cu apa de la baza blocurilor.
Sistemul radicular i aportul de resturi organice faciliteaz alterarea chimic
i biochimic a rocilor, grbete formarea scoarei de alterare i a solului,
pregtind astfel condiia edafic pentru instalarea vegetaiei arborescente.
Molizii instalai depesc nivelul jnepeniurilor, i ncheag treptat
coroanele provocnd uscarea tufiurilor de jneapn iubitoare de lumin.
Prezena tufelor uscate de jneapn sub pdurea ncheiat demonstreaz faptul c
timpul lucreaz n favoarea solului i vegetaiei arborescente i c pdurea se
gsete, n acele locuri, ntr-un stadiu progresiv.
Vegetnd deasupra molidiurilor, tufiurile de jneapn sunt foarte
folositoare pdurilor de limit, pe care le apr mpotriva lavinelor, iar seminiul
l ferete de insolaia puternic i uneori de aciunea duntoare a vntului.
Totodat, jnepeniurile ndeplinesc i rolul de fixare a grohotiurilor mobile. n
regiunea limitei superioare a pdurii, mobilitatea relativ a grohotiurilor
reprezint o condiie nepropice dezvoltrii arborilor nali, n schimb este
indiferent pentru jepi, care au posibilitatea s se extind n suprafa i s fixeze
treptat grohotiurile. Nu trebuie trecut cu vederea, de asemenea, c jnepeniurile
furnizeaz lemn pentru stne i ofer adpost vitelor, ferind n felul acesta
pdurea, acolo unde se gsete pe suprafee mari, de anumite aciuni duntoare.
La jnepeniuri, ce formeaz partea principal a compoziiei lemnoase a
etajului se adaug: ienuprul (Juniperus nana), aninul de munte (Alnus viridis)
mai ales pe culoarele de avalane ori n poriunile umede cu scurgeri temporare
scoruul de munte (Sorbus aucuparia).
Frecvent n acest etaj, n locurile dintre jnepeni, se ntlnesc tufriurile
pitice de afin (Vaccinium myrtillus), merior (Vaccinium vitis idaea), smirdar
(Rhododendron kotschyii), azalee pitic (Loiseleuria procubens) i coacz de
munte (Bruckenthalia spiculifolia). Azaleea pitic poate fi observat n eile
largi (aua Retezat, de exemplu) i n general n locuri btute de vnt, unde iarna
zpada e spulberat.
n pajitile secundare din cadrul etajului, rspndite mai ales pe platforma
de eroziune Borscu din sud-vestul masivului, se dezvolt asociaii de Nardus
stricta, Agrostis rupestris, festuca supina etc. Alturi de aceste plante,
dominante n puni, se mai gsesc: Potentila ternata, Geum montanum,
Soldanella pusilla, Pulsatila alba, Poa media, Primula minima, Hieracicum
alpinum, Silene alpina etc.

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STERIE CIULACHE

n zonele cu izvoare, unde scurgerea se face greoi, se dezvolt, din cauza


stagnrii apei, procesele de nmltinire cu formare de turbrii. Pajitile turboase
prezint, pe lng muchiul de ap (Sphagnum cuspidatum) i alte plante ca:
Saxifraga stellaris, Carex canescens, C. dacica, Alopecurus laguriformis etc.
Poriunile ierboase dintre plcurile de jneapn din zona superioar a
etajului sunt dominate de trestioar (Calamagrostis villosa). Pe pajitile cu
trestioar se ntlnesc i: ghinura (Geniana punctata), lptuca (Scorzonera
rosea), glbenuii (Crepis viscidula), ovsciorul (Avenastrum versiculor),
sisineii de munte (Pulsatilla alba) etc., cnd asociaia se dezvolt pe pantele
nclinate luminate mai mult i cu soluri scheletice.
Atunci cnd pantele se domolesc i umezeala crete n cadrul asociaiei de
Calamagrostis, se observ i plante cu caracter mai higrofil: iarba ciutei
(Doronicum austriacum), rotunjioara (Homgyne alpina), steregoaia (Veratrum
album), mcriul ciobanului (Rumex arifolius). Tot n aceste locuri mai umede
poate fi ntlnit i aiul de munte (Allium victorialis), aa cum se constat pe
drumul dintre hornuri i Lacul Gemenele din cadrul rezervaiei tiinifice.
Din cele prezentate se poate observa c jnepeniurile au posibiliti ecologice
foarte largi. Coboar mult n etajul pdurilor de molid, pe pantele stncoase ori pe
culoarele de avalane i urc la nlimi de peste 2400 m pe vrfurile nalte. Drept
urmare, n regiunea cercetat, limea altitudinal a jnepeniurilor compacte este de
aproape 600 m i de peste 800 m n cazul tufelor izolate.
c. Etajul pdurilor de conifere
Etajul superior al pdurii l formeaz coniferele. n Retezat, molidul
(Picea abies) este specia care domin suveran aceste ntinderi forestiere. El
formeaz o fie altitudinal bine individualizat, care se extinde, n medie, ntre
1300 pn la 1750-1850 m, formnd aproape n tot masivul, limita superioar a
vegetaiei forestiere.
Condiiile climatice pe aceste nlimi sunt n general mai aspre dect n
celelalte etaje:
Temperaturi medii anuale de 16C, iar n timpul verii pentru zonele de
cretere viguroas a molidului (12501600 m), aproximativ trei luni cu
temperaturi medii zilnice de peste 10C; ctre limita superioar a etajului,
numrul acestor zile se reduce la 60-80.
Cantitile anuale se precipitaii de 9001100 mm, sunt mai frecvente n
timpul verii (circa 60% din totalul precipitaiilor), cnd umezeala solului
favorizeaz creterea molidului. Numrul zilelor cu strat de zpad este mare
(140-150 pe an), stratul de zpad meninndu-se aproape permanent n perioada
ianuarie-martie.

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Viteza vntului, mult influenat de relieful local, atinge 46 m/s n zona


median a etajului i se intensific pe culmile neadpostite, nregistrndu-se
cderi de aer n bazinul Lpunucului Mare i Rul Brbat.
Relieful zonelor ocupate de molidiuri este foarte accidentat. Vile au
form de V cu versani puternic nclinai i culmi despritoare relativ nguste.
Drept urmare desimea fragmentrii reliefului are valori accentuate.
Natura substratului litologic pe care se gsesc rspndite molidiurile,
nu este uniform. Ele se suprapun n cea mai mare parte peste zona granitic a
masivului, dar se ntlnesc i pe isturile sericitoase, pe isturile seriei de
Drcan, pe filite i nu lipsesc nici de pe calcare.
Pe depozitele de suprafa alterate ale acestor roci s-au format soluri
variate ca tip, mujlociu-profunde, scheletice.
Acolo unde pantele devin repezi, iar produsele alterrii au fost n mare
parte ndeprtate, se ntlnesc soluri superficiale, scheletice, pn la excesiv
scheletice.
Pdurile de conifere se constituie ntr-o fie altitudinal de mare
continuitate, ce mbrac pe toi versanii, vile i interfluviile desfurate
deasupra pdurilor de fag i sub etajul jnepeniurilor. Aceast band de pduri
dominat de molidiuri este mai lat pe versantul nordic (10501750) i mai
ngust pe versanii situai la este de Valea Buii (16001850 m).
n funcie de condiiile ecologice ce se realizeaz la diferite altitudini,
molidiurile Munilor Retezat au fost ncadrate n dou uniti geobotanice
(tefan Csrs, 1971):
Molidiuri montane (Piceetum excelsae montanum transsilvanicum);
Molidiuri de limit (Piceetum excelsae subalpinum).
Molidiurile montane se localizeaz sub altitudinea de 1600 m unde, ca
urmare a optimului staional existent, se dezvolt mai viguros vegetnd pe toi
versanii i pe toate expoziiile. Tipul de pdure cel mai frecvent, pe care l
constituie aceste molidiuri, este cel cu Oxalis acetosella. Individualitatea
tipologic i larga reprezentare a acestor molidiuri sunt indicii c ele reprezint, n
cadrul procesului de succesiune a vegetaiei, asociaii stabile i de durat.
n cadrul molidiurilor montane apar diseminate i unele specii de foioase,
dintre care menionm: scoruul de munte (Sorbus aucuparia), paltinul de munte
(Acer pseudoplatanus), mesteacnul (Betula pendula), plopul tremurtor
(Populus tremula), socul de munte (Sambucus aecemosa) salcia (Salix silesiaca,
Salix capraea).
Ptura erbacee cuprinde, alturi de Oxalis acetosella i alte elemente
specifice molidiurilor: Vaccinium Myrtillus i V. Vitis idaea, Polytrichum
juniperinum, Polypodium vulgare, Luzula silvatica, Hieracium transilvanicum.
Molidiurile de limit (Picetum excelsae subalpinum) se gsesc la
altitudini de peste 1600 m, ctre limita superioar a regiunii forestiere. Se
caracterizeaz prin staiuni de versani puternic nclinai, cu soluri superficiale,
scheletice, foarte acide. Pdurile au arborete de productivitate mai sczut, n

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STERIE CIULACHE

mare parte acoperite cu muchi sau licheni i cu coroane rrite. Aproape pe toi
versanii din interiorul molidiurilor de limit apar suprafee de grohotiuri i
zone stncoase unde molidul nu reuete s constituie starea de masiv, din care
cauz concurena cu alte specii se manifest mai slab. Drept urmare, pe aceste
insule pietroase se instaleaz tufe de jneapn i alte specii iubitoare de lumin
(mesteacnul) ce nu sunt ameninate cu eliminarea de ctre molid, condiiile
edafice actuale defavoriznd molidul n lupta de concuren.
Paralel cu modificrile mediului geografic n direcie vertical, se observ
schimbri i n cadrul pdurilor din etajul coniferelor. n apropierea zonelor
modelate n trecut de gheari apare zmbrul (Pinus cembra). Primele exemplare
sunt semnalate alturi de molid, nc de la altitudinea de 1500 m. Ele devin mai
numeroase la peste 1650 m i realizeaz frecvena maxim la nlimea de 1750
1850 m (Zeno Oarcea, 1966), unde relieful generat de ghearii montani se pare c
i ofer cele mai propice terenuri de dezvoltare. Arbori izolai de zmbru au fost
ntlnii n rezervaia tiinific din Retezat i la nlimi ce depesc 2 000 m.
Lund n considerare numai numrul staiunilor actuale cu populaie deas de
Pinus cembra, s-ar prea c acest conifer prefer expoziiile nordice i nordvestice. Este prezent ns i pe expoziiile sudice (Valea Judele, Piciorul
Slveiului, Valea Bucurei, versantul stng al vii Rului Brbat, Culmea
Stroanele), reducerea numrului de exemplare fiind aici n strns legtur cu
activitatea antropic din regiunea limitei superioare a pdurii.
Dei zmbrul se afl instalat ctre limita superioar a molidiurilor, lsnd
impresia unei benzi mai ales pe versanii umbrii, el nu constituie n prezent, un
etaj deasupra molidiurilor.
N-ar fi exclus ca asociaiile de Pinus Cembra s reprezinte resturile unei
fii de limit situat altitudinal deasupra molidiurilor actuale. n prezent ns
zmbrul se asociaz cu molidul, formnd populaii mixte, dominate uneori de
zmbru. Ca arbore solitar, nu depete limita climatic a molizilor izolai. Este
ns mai frecvent n vile i cldrilor glaciare i lipsete aproape complet n
sectoarele n care omul a distrus pdurea prin foc i punat. n comparaie cu
molidul, se instaleaz mult mai uor pe grohotiuri sau n zonele stncoase.
n Munii Retezat, molidul i zmbrul formeaz, pe poriuni restrnse,
un tip specific de pdure cunoscut n literatura de specialitate sub numele de
molideto-cembret de limit (V. Stnescu, 1967). Prile superioare ale acestor
pduri se rresc, iar n locurile libere, lsate de arbori, se instaleaz tufe de
jneapn. n raritea de molid i zmbru cu jneapn, particip pe faa
Retezatului i pinul silvestru, aceast din urm fitocenoz fiind descris pentru
prima dat la noi n ar n Retezat de V. Stnescu, M. Geanana,
St. Vcaru, I. Florescu (1972).
Procentele de participare a diverselor specii forestiere ce contribuie la
structura general a asociaiilor de limit nu sunt ns bine definite. Menionm,
n acelai timp, existena speciilor cu rol de pionierat (jneapnul) precum i
prezena proceselor geomorfologice actuale (avalanele, grohotiurile mobile) ce

CLIMATOLOGY RESEARCH AND TRAINING AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BUCHAREST (19002000)

77

dau natere la suprafee pe care se instaleaz fitocenoze simple. Toate acestea ne


ndreptesc s credem c asociaiile din regiunea limitei superioare a pdurii din
Munii Retezat nu par s fie stabile. Le putem considera mai mult stadii ale
procesului de succesiune a speciilor forestiere. Tendina acestor succesiuni este
de a realiza pe msur ce apar condiii favorabile (sol mbogit cu elemente fine,
substane organice, microclim ce avantajeaz dezvoltarea pdurii: temperaturi
mai moderate, umiditate mrit i insolaie redus i mai ales protejarea de ctre
om a formaiunilor forestiere din regiunea limitei), pe toi versanii, tipul natural
de pdure (molideto-cembreto de limit), ce se gsete n echilibru cu condiiile
actuale. Arealul molideto-cembretelor de limit poate depi climatic, n Munii
Retezat, pe anumite expoziii, altitudinea de 1950 m. Dovada cea mai sigur o
constituie arborii izolai de molid i zmbru, relativ nali, ce depesc altitudinea
de 1900 m. La peste 1850 m, se ntlnesc frecvent exemplare de molid de 1012
m nlime. Principalii factori care se opun tendinei de realizare a tipului natural
de pdure rmn prin urmare condiiile edafice i activitatea omului.
Dintre plantele ierboase ce nsoesc arborii pdurilor de limit, trebuie
menionate speciile de Hieracicum, care, n zona de ntreptrundere a coniferelor
cu jnepeniurile, sunt extrem de variate cu muli taxoni endemici (E. I. Nyarady,
1958). Ea reprezint de fapt una din comorile floristice ale Retezatului. Se
observ de asemenea i alte specii ierboase ce vegeteaz n condiii
asemntoare: iarba ciutei (Doronicum austriacum), susaiul de munte (Cicerbita
alpina), ochiul boului (Chrysanthemum rotundifolium), iar n locuri uscate
trestioara (Calamagrostis arundinacea).
Rezumnd constatrile noastre asupra extinderii pdurilor de conifere din
Munii Retezat se poate spune c dei arealul potenial al molidiurilor este
condiionat de clim, rspndirea pe vertical este n mare msur influenat i
de condiiile edafice.
Imensele cmpuri de blocuri lipsite de pmnt fin opresc urcarea
altitudinal a pdurii, cauznd o mare variaie pe vertical a limitei superioare a
coniferelor.
d. Etajul pdurilor de fag
Prile mijlocii i inferioare ale Munilor Retezat reprezint domeniul de
dezvoltare al pdurilor de fag. Dup St. Csrs (1971) pdurile de fag se
constituie n acest masiv ntr-un etaj bine individualizat, cuprins, n general, ntre
7001200 m. Acelai autor constat c pe versanii nsorii, limita superioar a
fagului se gsete la altitudini mult mai mari: 1440 m pe pantele sudice ale Culmii
Slvei i 1564 m pe versanii estici ai Vrfului Buta. Informaii similare gsim la la
E. I. Nyarady (1958), care d urmtoarele limite superioare pentru unele populaii
compacte de fag: 1104 m n Valea Proi, 1249 m n Valea Lpunicului Mare i
1560 m pe creasta de sud-est a Vrfului Buta.

78

STERIE CIULACHE

Verificrile fcute de noi cu altimetru Paulin de 3 000 m ne permit s


apreciem c pe creasta de sud-est a Vrfului Buta, populaiile compacte de fag
urc pn la altitudinea de 1610 m.
Condiiile climatice ale etajului se caracterizeaz prin temperaturi mai
ridicate i precipitaii mai reduse dect n etajul coniferelor. Lipsesc ngheurile
trzii sau timpurii, iar umiditatea atmosferic, ce poate compensa precipitaiile,
atinge valori de 7080%. Relieful prezint pante destul de nclinate, uneori
abrupte. Solurile caracteristice sunt cele brune acide montane destul de profunde
i biologic active.
Pe toi versanii, fgetele urc mai mult pe pante i mai puin pe vi,
neptrunznd pe acestea n interiorul masivului. Astfel, pe Valea Nucoarei,
fgetele urc pn la altitudinea de 950 m, iar pe pantele nvecinate pn la
11501200 m. Pe Valea Lpunicului Mare, pdurile de fag se opresc la 1100 m,
iar pe pante urc pn la 1300 m. Pe Valea Buii, fgetele se opresc la 1150 m,
iar pe pantele nsorite urc pn la 1600 m, unde determin laminarea
progresiv a etajului coniferelor. Aceast laminare e de altfel caracteristic
pentru versanii de la est de Valea Buii.
Limita superioar a pdurilor de fag nu apare destul de net din cauza
amestecului lor cu coniferele. La interferena foioaselor cu coniferele se observ
un mozaic forestier, n cadrul cruia se pare c se clarific procesul genetic de
stabilizare dinamic a limitelor acestora.
Se observ o retragere progresiv a limitei inferioare a coniferelor, n timp
ce limita superioar avanseaz ctre golul alpin, retragerea n funcie de care se
creeaz condiii pentru urcarea limitei superioare a foioaselor. Acest proces
natural poate fi grbit de om prin nlturarea exemplarelor de conifere. Acolo
unde s-au extras coniferele din zona de amestec, fgetele sunt instalate definitiv
i domin suveran.
De aceea, zona de interferen dintre fgete i molidiuri nu poate fi
considerat ca etaj aparte de vegetaie, dinamica asociaiilor demonstrnd aici o
instabilitate evident. Ea nu are un coninut ecologic specific (lipsesc elementele
ecologice caracteristice). n raport cu alctuirea floristic i cu predominarea
speciei reper, ea poate fi ncadrat fgetelor sau molidiurilor.
O situaie aparte o reprezint arealele n care bradul se amestec cu fagul,
constituind veritabile asociaii de rang inferior, n cadrul etajului fgetelor.
BIBLIOGRAFIE
ANTONESCU P., (1926), Contribuii la studiul distribuiei geografice a coniferelor din
Romnia, Tip. Naional, Bucureti.
ANTONESCU P., (1933), ,,Asupra staiunilor de Pinus Cembra din Carpaii Romniei, Revista
Pdurilor, XLV.
CSRS ST., (1971), Excursii n Munii Retezatului, Ed. Did. i Ped., Bucureti.

CLIMATOLOGY RESEARCH AND TRAINING AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BUCHAREST (19002000)

79

DONIT N., (1964), ,,Zonalitatea vegetaiei n R.P.Romn i unele probleme ale tipologiei
forestiere, Revista Pdurilor, 79, nr. 11.
ENCULESCU P., (1924), ,,Zonele de vegetaie lemnoas n raport cu condiiile orohidrografice,
climatice, de sol i subsol, Memoriile Inst. Geol. Rom., I, Bucureti.
GEANANA M., (1972), ,,Influena altitudinii i masivitii asupra limitei superioare a pdurii
n Carpaii Romneti, Lucrrile Simpozionului de geografie fizic a Carpailor.
NYARADY E.I., (1968), Flora i vegetaia munilor Retezat, Edit. Acad. R.P.R., Bucureti.
OARCEA ZENO, (1966), ,,Contribuii la cunoaterea rspndirii vegetrii pinului cembra n
Retezat, Revista Pdurilor, nr. 9, Bucureti.
STNESCU V., GEANANA M., VCARU GH., FLORESCU G.I., (1972) ,,Pinul comun (Pinus
sylvestris) de mare altitudine din Retezat, Revista Pdurilor, nr. 2.

MEAN ANNUAL RAINFALL IN ROMANIA


STERIE CIULACHE, NICOLETA IONAC

80

STERIE CIULACHE

Mean annual rainfalls are essential weather characteristics that give an


overall picture on the potential water resources in any geographical region.
Nevertheless, other meteorological factors such as high air-temperatures and
winds with high frequencies and speeds may often greatly increase the effective
evapotranspiration, consequently diminishing the pluviometric potential. Some
geomorphological and geological factors, such as steep slopes and stone
structures respectively, may also have similar consequences in favouring the
rapid runoff of rainwater or its massive infiltration to deep soil-levels, ultimately
greatly decreasing the water resources intensely used in various economic
activities. But as a rule, the mid-latitude lying territories, receiving higher mean
annual rainfalls, generally have greater amounts of water and this is also true for
Romania.
The spatial distribution of mean annual rainfall in Romania shows great
regional disparities, despite the reduced latitudinal extent (between 433707
and 481506 Northern latitude or 201544 and 294124 Eastern longitude)
of its not too great total area (over 237,000 square kms).
These disparities are due to the fact that, on one hand, Romania lies in a
European region characterised by intense and frequent advections of air-masses
originating in the main pressure systems of atmospheric dynamics (such as the
Azores High, the Iceland Low, the Eurasian High and the Mediterraneean Low)
and on the other hand, its major landforms are extremely complex (since the
Carpathian Mts. Arc encloses, as in a natural triangle, the greatest low-lying
tableland area in Europe) and very close to the Black Sea.
As anywhere else, rain water usually falls either from frontal clouds,
emerging in the mobile cyclones that pass over the Romanian territory, or from
those emerging by thermal convection (cumulus clouds) and radiative cooling
(stratus clouds).
The table, listing the mean annual rainfalls recorded from 1956 to 1980 in
a number of 113 weather stations representative for the Romanian territory,
clearly shows the decisive role of atmosphere-land interaction; major spatial
disparities owing mainly to various and complex landforms lying in the area.
Consequently, the first conclusion, that wholly represents a general rule of
rainfall distribution, refers to the fact that mean annual rainfall amounts decrease
as absolute relief altitudes get lower. But this is only a general statement, valid
for major landforms, such as mountains, hills and plains, because a closer look at
the altitudinal distribution of mean annual rainfall amounts will reveal noticeable
deviations from the previously- mentioned rule. Such deviations are fairly
frequent and consistent in the higher mountainous areas and they don, t occur at
random. For instance, according to the rule, the Vf. Omul station (2504 m)
should record the highest mean annual rainfall amount, but its actual value
(1131.5 mm) is exceeded both by the Vldeasa Mt. station (1246.1 mm) and the
Iezer Mt. station (1375.0 mm) lying at 1838 m and 1785 m altitudes

CLIMATOLOGY RESEARCH AND TRAINING AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BUCHAREST (19002000)

81

respectively. A similarly high annual mean value is also specific for the Semenic
Mt. station (1210.0 mm), lying at an altitude of only 1432 m, that is 1072 m
lower than the Vf. Omul station. Such deviations may, however, seem quite
normal since all the three weather stations lying at lower altitudes are located in
more western areas than the Vf. Omul Station and, moreover, they are located on
the leeward slopes of the mountains directly exposed to frequent advections of
humid air-masses from the Atlantic Ocean or the Meditterranean Sea.
The frontal activity induced by the mobile cyclones developing over the
Mediterranean Sea or northern Atlantic Ocean is obviously more intense in the
Romanian sectors directly influenced by their passage and, therefore, their more
active dynamic movements of atmospheric pressure systems produce, by
combining orographic and frontal convection, extensive cloud formations and
high rainfall amounts. But these general statements may often be unreliable since
there are many exceptions from the rule. For instance, the highest mean annual
rainfall amounts ever recorded in Romania occur at the Iezer Mt. station (1785
m) and not at the arcu Mt. station (2180 m) which is not only closer to the area
where Mediterranean cyclones activate, but also more frequently affected by their
passage. Moreover, the Sinaia weather station, lying at 1500 m altitude, records
mean annual rainfalls (1080 mm) higher than those in Pltini-Sibiu station
(947.4 mm), although the latter one is located at almost the same altitude (1478
m), but much more westwards. Besides, the Pltini-Sibiu weather station is
located on the leeward slope of the Cindrel Mts., mainly oriented to northwestern and northern advections, while the Sinaia 1500 weather station lies on
the leeside slopes of the Bucegi Mts. Similar conclusions are also obvious when
comparing the mean annual rainfall amounts recorded in Bioara (1380 m) to
those in Fundata (1371 m) and Predeal
(1090 m) since actual values recorded at the former westerner higher station
(Bioara 865.1 mm) are lower than those recorded at Fundata (912.0 mm) or
Predeal (949.5 mm) .
As far as 2000 m high weather stations are concerned, we may also say
that the 21.5 mm rainfall excess recorded at Vf. Omul station (2504 mm) in
comparison to that one recorded at arcu Mt. station (2180 m), which is usually
not higher than 1110.0 mm a year, is totally insignificant because the latter
weather station lies in the south-western sector of the Romanian territory under
the influence of most frequent trajectories of Mediterranean cyclones. Another
possible explanation referrs to the fact that the Vf. Omul weather station is
located higher than the maximum pluviometric level of the surrounding area, but
it may also be true for the arcu Mt. station to lie over this kind of level as well,
otherwise its mean annual rainfalls would have been greater than on the Semenic
Mts.
The intramountaineous lowland areas in Romania generally record mean
annual rainfall amounts lower than those on the surrounding mountainous slopes,

82

STERIE CIULACHE

never exceeding 600750 mm a year. And there also occur many exceptions
from the general rule that rainfall amounts usually decrease with height, but if we
take into consideration the position of different weather stations in various
Carpathian areas that greatly and differently alter the trajectory and frequency of
humid air advections, well finally reach the conclusion that all rainfall data
observe the logical pattern of weather and climatic processes developing in the
enclosed lowland areas.
The highest mean annual rainfalls are recorded in Petroani (793.3 mm),
where the south- western advections of subtropical humid air and the western
flows of polar maritime air are most frequent; in Ocna-ugatag (743.5 mm)
because of all-year round flows of polar maritime air from the Baltic and North
Seas, and in Braov (744.8 mm), due to a local convergence of western air
masses that climb up the internal Curvature Carpathians in order to flow
downwards, to the lowland areas extending along the external Curvature
Carpathians. The greater frequencies of maritime-polar advections from western
and northern regions are also responsible for high annual mean rainfall amounts
in other intracarpathian depressions, such as in ebea-Brad
(678.1 mm) or Cmpulung Moldovenesc (697.1 mm ).
Values below 600 mm a year are quite usual at Trgu Secuiesc
(528.5 mm), and Sfntu Gheorghe (579.2 mm) in the Braov Depression or at
Joseni (580.0 mm) and Miercurea Ciuc (596.5 mm) in the Giurgeu-Ciuc
Depression. The main cause of this decreasing trend is represented by the intense
adiabatic processes that determine the rapid cooling of air when climbing up the
western slopes of the Eastern Carpathians (always associated to cloud
development and rainfall) and next, its sudden warming when flowing down
along the western and north-western slopes adjoining the previously mentioned
depressions. The higher frequency of thermal invervions at night, especially in the
coldest months of the year, may also greatly contribute to a sharp decrease of
mean annual rainfalls in the most extensive lowland areas within the Eastern
Carpathians. Otherwise, the other hilly and tableland regions in Romania do not
experience more than 550650 mm of rainfall amounts a year. In fact, according
to their altitude, when referring to the stations located in the same sector, or
proper location, when taking into account the various hilly or tableland sectors,
in which they lie, the mean annual rainfall amounts widely range off the limits,
usually exceeding 650 mm or decreasing under 550 mm. For instance, the highest
annual mean values are specific for the Boia (790.1 mm), Fgra (681.2 mm)
and Bistria (688.9 mm) stations, located in the immediate proximity of the
Meridionali and Eastern Carpathians bordering the great Transylvanian
Tableland, that force air to cool and condensate when rising above their ridges;
and the lowest mean annual rainfalls are often recorded at Turda (537.l mm),
Alba-Iulia (537.0 mm), Sebe-Alba (563.2 mm) and Deva (578.6 mm) stations,
located on the bottom of a long valley that channels and warms up the humid air

CLIMATOLOGY RESEARCH AND TRAINING AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BUCHAREST (19002000)

83

climbing over the western slopes of the Apuseni Mountains.


The influence of exposition on prevalent circulation of humid air- masses
is mostly evident when comparing the mean annual rainfall amounts recorded in
the Transylvanian Tableland to those recorded in the Criana and Banat hilly
regions. When talking about the latter ones, the actual values often exceed the
upper limit of 650 mm a year, only because they border the Apuseni Mts. in the
Western Carpathians that make up the first serious orographic obstacle for the
western humid air-masses to climb; and the rising movement of the air is already
initiated in the former hilly regions. That is why the annual rainfall amounts
exceed 895.0 mm in Oravia, 745.1 mm in Caransebe, 715.1 mm in Borod and
675.1 mm in Berzasca .
Although it may seem intriguing the relatively high rainfall amounts
recorded in the Banat and Criana hilly regions keep unchanged in the southern
hilly regions as well. Moreover, the mean annual totals recorded here exceed the
650 mm limit at most weather stations taken into consideration in the region. In
fact, these high totals in Cmpina (779.0 mm), Cmpulung
(775.7 mm), Rmnicu Vlcea (743.3 mm), Polovragi (879.9 mm) and Trgu Jiu
(766.7 mm) are entirely due to the location of the weather stations at the feet of
the Meridionali (Mid-) Carpathians, which, support strong rising and cooling airprocesses. But getting farther from the influence of the mountains, the mean
annual rainfall amounts decrease steadily in order to quickly equal the specific
values of the surrounding plain regions.
A particular case among the hilly and tableland regions in Romania is that
of the Moldavian Tableland because of its mean annual rainfall amounts below
the 650 mm limit, excepting the Rdui station (654.9 mm), located in the
northernmost part of the country, influenced by frequent cold advections from the
Baltic Sea, and the Piatra Neam station (652.4 mm), located on the eastern
border of the Eastern Carpathians. Instead, rainfall amounts below the lower 550
mm limit are much more frequent here as in the surrounding dry plain regions,
the actual values reaching 534.8 mm in Cotnari, 530.8 mm in Iai, 520.8 mm in
Negreti, 524.0 mm in Hui and even 484.7 mm in Brlad. In fact, all data
referring to the Moldavian Tableland, included in Table 1 clearly show a steep
altitudinal decrease of mean annual rainfalls from west to east and a gradual
latitudinal decrease from north to south.
The lowest-lying plain regions in Romania record, according to the rainfall
law of altitudinal decrease, scarce rainfall amounts in comparison to mountain
and hilly regions. But there are great disparities not only between the two main
plain sectors in Romania, but also between their different inner compartments,
because of specific local factors. Thus, in the Western Plain, the mean annual
rainfall amounts exceed 600 mm in most areas. The figures are, however, higher
in the northern part of the plain (630.5 mm in Satu Mare; 670.0 mm in Scuieni;

84

STERIE CIULACHE

613.2 mm in Oradea) and lower in the southern part (574.7 mm in Arad; 550.1
mm in Diniai). The same figures also increase from west (544.3 mm in
Snnicolau Mare) to east (683.6 mm in Lugoj ; 692.0 mm in Vrdia de Mure)
because altitudes sensibly grow to the surrounding hilly and mountain regions.
Most weather stations in the Romanian Plain record mean annual rainfall
amounts ranging from 500 to 600 mm, but values increase gradually from south
(535.0 mm in Turnu Mgurele; 537.0 mm in Alexandria) to north (655.0 mm in
Drgani; 693.5 mm in Trgovite) as altitudes get higher and higher.
The general rule of mean annual rainfall increase from west to east is
latitudinally only partially valid, since there appear anomalous decreases
southwards, to the lower areas of the Oltenia Plain and slight increases to the
central parts of the Romanian Plain; figures showing in this respect 700.0 mm in
Drobeta Turnu Severin, 570.8 mm in Calafat; 529.2 mm in Craiova; 608.4 mm in
Titu, 585.8 mm in Bucureti Bneasa, 512.9 mm in Urziceni, 461.2 mm in Viziru
and 458.2 mm in Galai. It is true that these deviations are mainly due to the joint
action of atmospheric circulation and major surrounding landforms, but the low
rainfall amounts in the Oltenian Plain, which account for the driest region in the
country, are entirely attributable to adiabatic processes that turn the humid
western air into strong foehnal winds flowing over the westernmost part of the
great lowland area of the Romanian Plain, located between the Southern
Carpathians and the Balkan Mountains.
Although Dobrogea is mostly a tableland region, with plain-like altitudes
and aspect; and partially a mountainous region, with low hilly heights, it
represents the driest area in Romania. The mean annual rainfall amounts are
almost everywhere here lower than 500 mm (455.0 mm in Adamclisi; 442.4 mm in
Tulcea); in most weather stations figures decreasing below 400 mm a year (390.1
mm in Corugea; 385.5 mm in Constana; 385.1 mm in Mangalia). Furthermore,
the Sulina weather station records the lowest mean annual rainfall amount in the
whole country (343.4 mm) and that is why Dobrogea is considered, according to
the accepted standards in climatology, a semiarid region, though less severe.
Quite contradictory, lying prior to the Black Sea, Dobrogea is not at all a region
with maritime temperate climate, not even on its narrow strip along the shore.
The explanation is, however, simple because Romanias territory, located at midlatitudes, is influenced by frequent westerlies and the mobile cyclones passing
over the country also follow south- western, western or north-western paths.
Consequently the humid air masses coming from the Atlantic Ocean and the
Mediterranean Sea gradually lose their water vapour content while blowing
eastwards after previously having climbed over high mountainous chains as the
Alps and the Carpathians.
The less frequent eastern circulation of air intensely diminish the role of
the Black Sea to provide constant humidity over the Romanian territory.

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85

Moreover, the north blowing continental arctic air and the north-east blowing
continental polar air severely diminish the chances of rainfall, especially in the
Romanian territories lying on the eastern and southern sides of the Carpathians,
so that certain geographical regions experience frequent draught episodes without
being (Dobrogea excepted) semiarid. In this particular case, and especially along
the shore line, the decrease of mean annual rainfall amounts under 400 mm is
emphasized by the presence of the nearby Black Sea maritime surface that keeps,
at day and in summer, colder than the surrounding land area, thus determining
colder air to sink down and deplete its water vapour content. Such sinking
movements developed over extensive areas, also force huge western air-masses to
advance deep into the Romanian territory so that allohtonous nebulosity and
rainfall amounts get consequently decreased.
Nevertheless, the overall picture of spatial distribution of mean annual
rainfall in Romania clearly focuses on several important features. Horizontally,
these features refer to the general decrease of mean annual rainfall amounts from
West to East (due to prevalent westerly circulation of air) and to the less
important increase of mean annual rainfall amounts from south to north (due to a
greater frequency of polar humid advections from the Baltic and North Seas).
Vertically, one can notice a gradual altitudinal increase of mean annual rainfalls
because of landform influence.
Surely, the joint action of numerous factors of influence, such as: the
presence of the Carpathian landforms with different orientations, altitudes,
expositions and forms; the presence of nearby Black Sea maritime surface; the
relative distance to the westerly originating regions; the great frequency of
humid air-masses etc., impose consistent changes of the previously mentioned
characteristics so that the actual picture of spatial distribution of mean annual
rainfall amounts in Romania is finally very complex since it includes both areas
with rainfall amounts exceeding 1200 mm a year and areas with scarce rainfall
(below 400 mm a year).
Mean Annual Rainfall Amounts in Romania (mm) (1956-1980)
Nr.
crt.

Weather Station

Annual
Mean

Nr.
crt.

Mountain Station
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Vf.Omu
arcu
Ceahlu-Toaca
Vldeasa
Iezer
Lcui
Parng
Cuntu
Sinaia 1500
Pltini-Sibiu

1131.5
1110.0
795.1
1246.1
1375.0
989.5
1014.3
1164.9
1080.0
947.4

Weather Station

Annual
Mean

Banat and Crisana


Hills
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.

Borod
tei
Caransebe
Oravia
Berzasca
Bozovici

715.1
705.1
745.4
895.0
675.1
625.2

STERIE CIULACHE

86
11.
12.
13.
14.

Semenic
Bioara
Fundata
Predeal

1210.0
865.1
912.0
949.5

Depression Regions
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.

Ocna ugatag
Cmpulung M.
Toplia
Joseni
Miercurea Ciuc
Tg. Secuiesc
ntorsura Buzului
Braov
Petroani
Bozovici
ebea-Brad
Sf. Gheorghe

Moldavian Tableland
743.5
697.1
625.3
580.0
596.5
528.5
662.7
744.8
793.2
625.2
678.1
579.2

46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.
58.

Transylvanian Tableland
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.

Bistria
Fgra
Boia
Sibiu
Sebe-Alba
Blaj
Dumbrveni
Tg.Mure
Cluj-Napoca
Turda
Dej
Zalu
Deva

Rdui
Avrmeni
Suceava
Botoani
Cotnari
Iai
Tg. Neam
Piatra Neam
Negreti
Hui
Bacu
Brlad
Tulnici

654.9
540.0
579.5
570.5
534.8
530.8
630.2
652.4
520.8
524.0
544.7
484.7
640.0

Southern Hills Region


688.9
59.
681.2
60.
790.1
61.
656.9
62.
563.2
63.
563.1
64.
611.3
615.2
589.5
537.1
643.4
695.1
578.6
REFERENCES

Cmpina
Cmpulung
Rm. Vlcea
Polovragi
Tg. Logreti
Tg. Jiu

779.0
775.7
743.3
879.9
580.1
766.7

STOENESCU ST. 1960, Curs de climatologie RPR, Editura Didactic i Pedagogic, Bucureti.
DUMITRESCU Elena, 1976, Curs de climatologie RSR, Editura Universitii din Bucureti.
***, 1962, Clima Republicii Populare Romne, vol. I, II, Institutul Meteorologic, Bucureti.
***, 1966, Atlas climatologic, Institutul Meteorologic, Bucureti.
***, 1983, Geografia Romniei, vol. I, ,,Geografie Fizic, Editura Academiei Republicii
Socialiste Romnia, Bucureti.
***, 19561973, Anuare meteorologice, Institutul Meteorologic, Bucureti.

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87

REGIMUL TERMIC I DE NGHE AL RURILOR


DIN CMPIA ROMN
ION PIOTA

Cmpia Romn, care se caracterizeaz printr-un climat temperat


continental cu nuane termice i pluviometrice variate ntre partea ei estic i cea
vestic, prezint n regimul rurilor temperaturi i fenomene de nghe ce
oscileaz de la o lun la alta i de la un an la altul.

88

STERIE CIULACHE

Bilanul caloric al rurilor este influenat de condiiile climatice locale, de


sursele de alimentare, de dinamica apelor i de debitul lor lichid. n Cmpia
Romn, temperatura aerului variaz ntre 10C n cmpiile piemontane ale
Prahovei i Rmnicului i 11,5C n limita ei sudic, pe aliniamentul localitilor
Calafat, Corabia, Turnu-Mgurele, Oltenia, Clrai, Brila. Temperatura
medie cea mai ridicat se produce n sezonul de var n luna iulie cu valori ntre
22 i 23C. n anotimpul de iarn temperatura medie cea mai sczut se
nregistreaz n luna ianuarie ntre 2 i 3C.
Sursele de alimentare au de asemenea, un rol important n evoluia
temperaturii apei din rurile Cmpiei Romne. Spre sfritul iernii i nceputul
primverii, cnd temperaturile aerului devin pozitive i stratul de zpad ncepe s se
topeasc, rurile se alimenteaz cu apa a crei temperatur este cu mult mai mic
dect cea a aerului.n sezonul cald, sursele de alimentare au temperaturi ridicate,
uneori egale sau ceva mai mari dect ale mediului nconjurtor, fapt ce influeneaz
pozitiv apa rurilor care nregistreaz temperaturi crescute, adesea de peste 22C.
Tronsoanele de ruri care sunt alimentate din izvoare i ape subterane prezint
variaii termice mai mici ntre anotimpurile extreme.
Viteza rurilor i debitul lor lichid influenez, ntr-o anumit msur,
mersul temperaturii apei att n profil longitudinal, ct i n profil transversal din
cuprinsul albiei minore. Viteza rurilor este n funcie de panta albie i de debitul
lichid. Ea imprim organismelor fluviatile o micare turbulent, n sensul c
intreaga mas de ap este n tot timpul amestecat i n consecin se realizeaz o
uniformizare a temperaturii de la suprafa i pn la adncimea maxim.
De asemenea, configuraia albiei minore, mpreun cu malurile sale
acioneaz, ntr-o msur mai mic sau mai mare, la nclzirea sau rcirea apelor.
Aceast situaie este n funcie de fiecare anotimp n parte. De regul, rurile din
Cmpia Romn prezint un grad accentuat de meandrare situaie ce se
repercuteaz i n distribuia temperaturii apei, mai cu seam n profil transversal.
De exemplu, pe un hidrocanat trasat ntre un mal convex i unul concav,
temperatura apei n zona malului convex este adesea mai ridicat cu 1 pn la 2C
n sezonul de var i cu mult mai sczut n sezoanele de toamn i de iarn.

CLIMATOLOGY RESEARCH AND TRAINING AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BUCHAREST (19002000)

89

Rurile alohtone (Jiul, Oltul, Argeul, Ialomia, Buzul, Putna, R. Srat)


care i au obria n Carpaii Curburii i n Carpaii Meridionali sau n dealurile
subcarpatice, prezint uoare diferenieri termice i n profil longitudinal. De
pild, Jiul la s.h. Filiai are o temperatur medie anual de 12C, iar la s.h.
Zvalu, situat cu mult n aval, de 13C. Oltul la Slatina evolueaz cu o
temperatur medie anual de 11,4C iar la Izbiceni realizeaz 12C. De
asemenea, Argeul la Piteti prezint o temperatur medie de 10,7C iar la
Budeti, nainte de vrsare n Dunre, are 12,3C. Rezult aadar c n profil
longitudinal rurile din Cmpia Romn pot evolua cu o diferen termic anual
de 1 pn la 2C.
Rolul cel mai important n inczirea i rcirea apelor din ruri l reprezint
temperaturile pozitive sau negative ale aerului. Din observaiile i msurtorile
de temperatur fcute pe 16 ruri la 25 de staii hidrometrice, n perioada anilor
19501980 rezult, c pe ntreaga suprafa a Cmpiei Romne rurile au
evoluat cu o temperatur medie anual cuprins ntre 10,5C (rul Rmnicu
Srat la R. Srat) i 13C (rul Jiu la Zvalu). Cu ajutorul datelor hidrotermice
de la cele 25 de staii hidrometrice (tabel) s-au putut trasa dou hidroizoterme
care strbat Cmpia Romn de la vest la est. Una este de 11C i urmrete
cmpiile piemontane i parte din Cmpia joas a Siretului. A doua hidroizoterm,
de 12,5C, se desfoar n partea sudic a cmpiei Romne legnd localitile
Calafat, Corabia, Oltenia, Clrai, Slobozia (fig.).
Temperaturile medii cu valorile cele mai mari se produc n anotimpul de
var, n perioada cea mai cald a anului adic n luna iulie. n acest sezon,
rurile, sub influena condiiilor climatice locale prezint temperaturi ce oscileaz
ntre 22 i 24,5C. Aceste valori sunt, de regul, cu 1C mai mari dect cele ale
aerului. Unele ruri, tot n luna iulie, au temperaturi ceva mai mici. Aceast

90

STERIE CIULACHE

situaie o ntlnim pe rurile Putna la Borlu (19,8C), Arge la Piteti-Strand


(20C) i pe Rmnicu Srat la R. Srat (20,9C).
n anotimpul de iarn se semnaleaz temperaturile cele mai sczute, mai
ales n ianuarie, cnd are loc i ngheul apelor. n aceast perioad, rurile din
Cmpia Romn prezint temperaturi medii de 1C sau chiar mai mici.
Temperaturile aerului sunt cu mult mai sczute (2C, 3C).
Temperaturile maxime absolute se nregistrez numai n timpul verii, n
lunile iulie i august, cnd rurile au un volum de scurgere mai mic i cnd
temperaturile aerului depesc 4042C. Temperaturile cele mai mari s-au
semnalat pe rurile Ialomia la Micuneti (38,8C, n iulie 1963), Prahova la
Adncata (38,1C) la 13 august 1959, Olte la Bal (38,2C) la 13 iulie 1979,
Vedea la Vleni (37,2C) la 24 iulie 1963 etc.
Regimul de nghe al rurilor este influenat de mersul temperaturilor
negative ale aerului. Cnd acestea coboar sub 3, 5 C i se menin pe o
durat de cteva zile ncep s apar primele formaiuni de ghea. De regul,
dup rcirea stratului superficial de ap se formeaz acele de ghea care
imprim rurilor o culoare ceva mai nchis, cu aspectul unui lichid uleios. Pe
msur ce temperatura aerului scade ia natere, n zona malurilor convexe, unde
adncimea apei este mic, o pojghi de ghea de forma unei fii nguste,
denumit ghea la mal. Acest formaiune poate s aib un caracter temporar,
de cteva zile, sau poate s se menin pe o perioad mai lung. n acelai timp,
n jurul aluviunilor n suspensie se formeaz cristale de ghea. Din acumularea
lor iau natere sloiurile care plutesc la suprafaa apei. Cnd temperatura aerului
scade sub 8C, densitatea sloiurilor se mrete i ncepe sudarea lor favoriznd
apariia podului de ghea. Pe anumite sectoare, unde apar rupturi de pant sau
unde panta albiei minore i viteza apelor sunt mari, se pun n eviden ochiuri de
ap care favorizeaz apariia nboiului.
Frecvena fenomenelor de nghe difer de la o iarn la alta. Din observaiile
fcute n perioada anilor 19511980 pe 24 de ruri, 31 de staii hidrometrice din
Cmpia Romn s-a constatat c gheaa la mal i scurgerea de sloiuri au o
frecven foarte mare cu pondere ce variaz ntre 90 i 100%. Podul de ghea, are
o frecven mult redus, n general, cu o prezen ce oscileaz ntre 40 i 80%. De
altfel, podul de ghea nu se formeaz dect n iernile geroase, iar prezena sau
absena lui sunt influenate de condiiile climatice locale i de factorul antropic prin
coninutul caloric al apeler deversate. n acest context putem meniona ruri unde
frecvena acestui fenomen de iarn are o pondere foarte mic, cum este cazul Jiului
la Podari (28%), Tesluiul la Reca (37%), Oltul la Stoeneti (38%), Argeul la
Budeti (38%) i Cricovul Dulce la Bltia (4%). Exist i cusuri de ap din
Cmpia Romn unde podul de ghea a fost prezent aproape, in toate iernile din
irul celor 30 de ani de observaii. De exemplu, Argeul la Malul Spart a avut o
frecven de 86%. Aceai frecven de 86% s-a nregistrat i pe Neajlov la
Clugreni, iar pe rurile Milcov la Goleti, Rmna la Ciorti i Clnul la

CLIMATOLOGY RESEARCH AND TRAINING AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BUCHAREST (19002000)

91

Potrnicheti, acest fenomen de nghe s-a produs n fiecare an cu frecven de


100%.
Gheaa la mal i sloiurile au ca dat medie de apariie ntre prima i
ultima decad a lunii decembrie. n toamnele mai reci, aceste fenomene de iarn
se fac prezente la dat mult mai timpurie. De regul sunt semnalate din prima
decad a lunii noiembrie. n situaia unor toamne i ierni mai clduroase,
procesul de ingheare al apelor are loc n luna ianuarie.
Dezgheul i dispariia sloiurilor i a gheii la mal de pe apele din Cmpia
Romn, au loc, n medie, la mijlocul lunii februarie. Rurile din Cmpia
piemontan a Rmnicului (Clnu, R. Srat, Rmna, Milcov) au perioada de
dezghe ceva mai prelungit, adic pn n prima decad a lunii martie. n iernile
mai puin aspre, fenomenele de nghe pot s dispar chiar din ianuarie, care este
considerat, de altfel, luna cea mai rece. Cu totul alta este situaia n iernile
geroase i prelungite, cnd gheaa la mal i sloiurile pot s se menin pn la
sfritul lui martie i nceputul lunii aprilie.
Podul de ghea, aproape pe toate rurile din Cmpia Romn, are ca
dat medie de apariie primele zile ale lunii ianuarie. Exist i unele ruri
(Cricovul Srat la Ciorani, Milcovul la Goleti, Rmna la Ciorti i Buzul la
Bnia) cnd acest fenomen se produce din a doua decad a lunii decembrie. n
iernile mai timpurii, procesul de formare al podului de ghea are loc mult mai
devreme, adic pe la sfritul lunii noiembrie. n condiiile unor ierni mai blnde
ngheul complet al apelor se produce mult mai trziu, n general, spre sfritul
lunii ianuarie i n primele zile ale lunii februarie.
Data medie n care podul de ghea dispare, prin aciunea de topire i prin
spargerea lui n buci de sloiuri care se scurg, poate fi considrat a doua decad
a lunii februarie. n condiiile unei ierni mai aspre i mai lungi, dezgheul complet
al apelor are loc n a doua sau a treia decad a lunii martie.
Durata de meninere a podului de ghea este variabil de la un ru la
altul. Cel mai frecvent acest fenomen de iarn poate s dureze de la 15 pn la
30 de zile. n condiiile unor ierni geroase i mai lungi, podul de ghea se
menine ntre 50 i 100 de zile (de exemplu, Jiul la Zvalu, Argeul la Budeti,
Neajlovul la Clugreni, Ialomia la Slobozia, Buzul la Racovia i Milcovul la
Goleti). Exist ierni, cnd, datorit unor condiii termice favorabile, ngheul
apelor poate s lipseasc n totalitate.
Dac avem n vedere toate tipurile de formaiuni de ghea (ace de ghea,
nboi, sloiuri, ghea la mal i pod de ghea) acestea au o durat medie cu mult
mai mare, ntre 40 i 50 de zile, iar n iernile friguroase, ngheul apelor poate s
se menin ntre 80 i 120 de zile.
Grosimea gheii difer n decursul lunilor de iarn de la un ru la altul,
fiind n funcie de temperatura aerului, de sursele de alimentare i de debitul de
ap. Din observaiile fcute pe 25 de ruri din Cmpia Romn s-a constatat c

STERIE CIULACHE

92

podul de ghea a avut grosimi mai mari de 50 cm pe rurile Jiu, Teslui, Olt,
Arge, Prahova, Ialomia, Clmuiul Brilean, Rmna i Buzu. Pe rurile cu
debit mic de ap gheaa are grosimi sub 40 cm (Desnui, Olte, Sabar,
Colentina, Cricovul Dulce etc). Pe rul Arge, la Malul Spart s-a nregistrat cea
mai mare grosime a podului de ghea (70 cm).
Temperatura medie anual a apei i temperatura acesteia n luna cea mai rece i cea mai
cald a anului de pe rurile din Cmpia Romn
Nr.
Crt.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

Rul
Drincea
Jiu
Jiu
Jiu
Olte
Olt
Olt
Vedea
Vedea
Teleorman
Teleorman
Arge
Arge
Arge
Neajlov
Dmbovia
Ialomia
Prahova
Ialomia
Ialomia
Clmui
Putna
Rmnicu Srat
Buzu
Siret

Staia
Hidrometric

Luna
Luna
ianuarie iulie
(C)
(C)
Cujmir
2.6
20.8
FiliaI
1.1
23.3
Podari
0.9
24.7
Zvalu
1.2
24.2
Bal
0.7
24.1
Slatina
0.9
21.8
Izbiceni
1.0
22.5
Vleni
0.4
23.3
Alexandria
0.7
24.2
Ttrti de Sus
0.9
22.1
Teleorman
0.9
23.3
Pitetitrand
0.9
20.2
Malu Spart
0.5
22.8
Budeti
0.5
24.0
Vadu Lat
0.7
23.3
Conteti
0.9
21.0
Micuneti Mari
0.4
23.6
Adncata
1.4
23.4
Coereni
1.1
24.0
Slobozia
0.6
24.5
Cireu
0.4
22.7
Borlau
2.8
19.8
Rmnicu Srat
0.4
20.9
Bania
0.4
22.1
Lungoci
0.4
22.2
BIBLIOGRAFIE

Media
anual
(C)
12.1
12.3
12.9
13.0
12.5
11.4
12.0
12.2
12.7
11.9
12.4
10.7
11.7
12.3
12.2
11.1
12.2
12.4
12.6
12.5
11.5
11.3
10.5
11.5
11.1

Temperatura
maxim anual
(C)
30.0 (01.08.1962)
37.0 (24.06.1980)
35.2 (09.07.1968)
35.2 (09.07.1968)
38.2 (13.07.1979)
29.0 (20.07.1963)
30.2 (01.07.1963)
37.2 (24.07.1963)
35.6 (26.07.1965)
32.4 (19.07.1965)
35.2 (21.08.1958)
30.5 (07.07.1968)
36.0 (09.07.1968)
34.0 (09.07.1968)
31.4 (17.07.1974)
38.8 (01.07.1963)
38.1 (13.08.1959)
31.1 (26.07.1965)
32.0 (15.07.1966)
34.0 (14.08.1957)
29.8 (17.06.1962)
35.0 (15.07.1967)
35.0 (15.07.1967)
32.5 (01.08.1977)
29.2 (05.07.1969)

BUTA I., ANIAN I. (1965) ,,Fenomene de iarn pe rurile bazinului Some. Bulet. Univ.
Babe-Bolyai, seria Geografie, fascic.l, Cluj-Napoca.
DUMITRESCU V., STAN M. (1965) ,,Prognoz de scurt durat a ngheului i dezgheului pe
rurile interioare din Romnia, Studii de hidrologie, Vol. XIII, INMH, Bucureti.
MI POMPILIU (1986) ,,Temperatura apei i fenomenele de nghe pe cursurile de ap din
Romnia, Studii i cercetri hidrologice, INMH, Bucureti.
PIOTA I. (1995) Hidrologie, Editura Universitii din Bucureti.
*** (1971) Rurile Romniei. Monografie hidrologic, IMH, Bucureti.

CLIMATOLOGY RESEARCH AND TRAINING AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BUCHAREST (19002000)

93

ANALIZA SECVENIAL
ION MARIN, MARIAN MARIN

Utilizarea analizei secveniale ca metod de cercetare n geografia


regional poate oferi o imagine clar a evoluiei fenomenului geografic n
ansamblul su. Nu de multe ori aspectele particulare ale peisajului au oferit

94

STERIE CIULACHE

condiiile necesare desfurrii activitilor umane, cum de asemenea, acestea la


rndul lor au dus la apariia unor modificri n cadrul peisajelor.
Analiza secvenial presupune realizarea unei legturi foarte strnse cu
discipline, ce la prima vedere ar putea prea inutilizabile n domeniul geografic,
dar care la rndul lor pot susine evoluia unei regiuni, zone, stat etc.
n aceasta prezentare se va ncerca realizarea unui model cu ajutorul
analizei secveniale, pe o perioad determinat de timp, model ce va ncerca s
surprind cteva aspecte legate de prioritile la un moment dat, precum i
efectele surprinse la nivelul peisajului geografic, generate de aceste prioriti.
Dezvoltarea industrial a spaiului european a presupus individualizarea
ctorva etape importante:
I. Teritoriile negre Black Country, reprezint primul stadiu al
dezvoltrii industriale. Ele au avut drept cauz principal descoperirea motorului
cu aburi de ctre James Watt, n 1783, descoperire ce a dus la utilizarea pe scar
larg a acestuia. Se impunea deci dezvoltarea unor zone extractive care s
satisfac necesarul de materie prim aprut. Apariia acestor bazine extractive a
dus la migraii direcionate din spaiul rural ctre acestea, la apariia unor
fenomene de depopulare pe suprafee mai mari sau mai mici i implicit la
suprapopulri, la dezvoltarea infrastructurii. Totodat au aprut modificri n
ceea ce privete psihologia societii i anume schimbarea opticilor cu caracter
rural (copilul privit ca ajutor n munc). Din punct de vedere al calitii mediului
este clar c avem de-a face cu defriri masive, poluri ale cursurilor de ap,
degradri ale terenurilor, solurilor. n paralel cu dezvoltarea industriei extractive
s-au dezvoltat industria siderurgic i, industria textil. Aceasta din urm a avut
dou direcii principale de dezvoltare i anume: una care se suprapunea pe
vechile centre manufacturiere iar cea de-a doua dezvoltat n zonele caracterizate
de prezena industriei extractive, influenat de existena unui surplus de for de
munc soiile minerilor i de energia termic obinut n timpul prelucrrii
crbunilor sau minereurilor.
1. Extracia crbunelui defriri masive, realizare unor ci de acces,
infrastructura.
2. Industria siderurgic asociate zonelor carbonifere sau dezvoltate n
strns colaborare cu acestea (Wales, Ruhr).
3. Industria textil n zona bazinelor carbonifere (Lyon-St.Etienne)
energie i mn de lucru disponibile.
asociat zonelor ce au caracterizat revoluia agrar.
Pas de Calais n bazinul Bethune exploatarea huilifer a nceput n 1870.
Peisajul pstreaz foarte multe urme: terenuri goale la nord de Noeuxles-Mines;
Terenuri fixate de vegetaie lng Cit du Dpt (natural sau antropic);
Birmingham, Roubaix i-au mrit de 4 ori populaia ntre 18501914.
Essen-Ruhr trece de la 9000 la 300000 de locuitori.

CLIMATOLOGY RESEARCH AND TRAINING AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BUCHAREST (19002000)

95

II. Sec. XIX XX


Aceast etap este caracterizat de apariia celor doi concureni principali
ai crbunelui, electricitatea i petrolul. Pe lng importana extrem de mare n
ceea ce privete apariia unor noi ramuri industriale, acetia doi au determinat
schimbri n structura i pregtirea forei de munc. Au aprut astfel
specializrile mai stricte, deplasrile din sectorul extractiv ctre sectoarele noi
genernd pentru prima oar probleme n ceea ce privete acoperirea locurilor de
munca din acesta. Se pun bazele dezvoltrii viitoarelor platforme industriale.
Apariia unor implanturi industriale, orae muncitoreti, n regiuni
montane zone de vale, au favorizat poluarea acestor areale (lipsa curenilor
de aer ascendeni emanaiile de gaze).
Au loc transformri ale profilului populaiei din zon rani
muncitori stoparea exodului rural.
III. Regiuni n criz cum era de ateptat, reducerea activitilor din sectorul
extractiv, ca urmare a apariiei a noi piee de materii prime (Africa, America de
Sud, Asia, Australia), a dus la creterea omajului i la nchiderea multora
dintre exploatri.
Vechile regiuni industriale, care timp de un secol au atras investiii att
financiare ct i umane, au suferit modificri ale peisajului, s-a distrus
specificul local i natural al zonei.
Creterea omajului 1015%.
1986 West Midlands omaj 50%, din cadrul populaiei active;
Birmingham i mprejurimile sale deineau 1,5 milioane de omeri;
Concurena petrolului i a importului de crbune de pe pieele externe au
dus n Belgia la restructurri masive n regiunea industrial SambreMeuse:
siderurgia n 1976 deinea 22000 angajai, 1985 11000, iar n 1992 nu mai
exista siderurgie la cald.
Situaia actual este dominat de procese de reconversie industrial i
reechilibrri regionale. Se pune tot mai mult accentul pe ramuri ce implic
specializri superioare de tip High Tech.
Caracteristici:
Suplee;
Capacitatea de a deschide noi piee;
Reacie rapid la semnalele pieii;
Apariia companiilor transnaionale libertate de diversificare i
adaptare foarte rapide;,
Creterea calitii relaiilor umane din cadrul unei companii Criterii
de eficacitate;

96

STERIE CIULACHE

Crearea parcurilor industriale;


Investiii n protecia mediului.
Se remarc de asemenea apariia unor materii prime alternative cum ar fi:
aluminiul, masele plastice, materialele compozite, acestea ducnd la rndul lor
la impulsionarea dezvoltrii unor ramuri noi precum: robotica, electronica,
informatica, biotehnologiile.
Rezultate:
Deconcentrarea urban ca rezultat al dezindustrializrii, de la centru
spre periferie, de la periferie spre platforme special amenajate (Citroen
platforma industrial Aulnay-sur-Bois, la 20km nord de Paris).
Glisarea spre zonele litorale reconversia industrial este foarte greu
de realizat n vechile zone industriale, rezultatul fiind migrarea acestora spre
zonele litorale, cu grad ridicat de accesibilitate (se reduc costurile privind
transporturile = retehnologizri).
Avantaje:
Spaiu i ap;
Importul direct de minereuri, investiie pe termen lung i foarte lung,
biotehnologii;
Exportul de produse se realizeaz fr intermedieri (Dunkerque, Le
Havre, Rotterdam, zonele industriale ale Japoniei).
Perspective:
Orae universitare susinute financiar de zone economice puternice.
Grenoble, Utrecht, Uppsala, Heidelberg.
Descentralizarea industrial:
Au loc reechilibrri ale zonelor modificri sensibile ale vechilor zone
industriale. Ex SUA i Frana, reechilibrri n avantajul zonelor sudice i
vestice.

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98

PRIORITIES IN THE RE-HABILITATION AND RE-NATURATION OF


RURAL LANDSCAPE OF THE ROMANIAN PLAIN,
SOUTHERN ROMANIA
MARIA PTROESCU, SIMONA TOMA,
LIDIA SASAKI, GABRIELA APOSTOL

1. Introduction
Contemporary rural landscape is a result of the interaction between natural
(physical) environment, biological exploitation and human activities
(G. Bertrand, 1968), spanning a few thousands years of evolution.
Important structural and functional changes of the Romanian rural
landscape occurred during the past two centuries, with the advent of
technological progress: still it is the evolution during the past 50 years (2 major
political shifts, accompanied by new socio-economic priorities and strategies,
urbanization, industrialization, etc.) that had the most severe impacts and
resulted in environmental disfunctionality, degradation.
Nowadays, considering the vulnerability of contemporary rural landscapes,
ecological rehabilitation and regeneration should become priority policies, as
means to restaure the ecological balance and optimal ecological functionality,
guarantee of the sustainable development of local rural communities.
2. Rural landscape, result of natural and social internalities and
externalities
At broad scale, Romanian Plain can be considered, in terms of both space
and time, a relatively homogenous geographical region due to relatively uniform
natural potential and similar historical evolution.
Still, local scale analysis unveils peculiarities, generated by the subtle
variation of natural features (geology, morphology, climatic patterns, soils) and
particular historical evolution of local rural communities, agricultural practices.
On the backdrop of vulnerable natural environment, with limiting factors
ranging from precipitation unreliability, aridity due to water inaccessibility
(Brgan and Oltenia), to soil vulnerability (risk of deflation in Oltenia, with
250000 ha sandy soils and parts of Baragan, with 36000 ha; erosion on slopes in
the higher plains, Piteti, Trgovite, Ploieti), agrarian systems had to adapt, as

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to cope best with such environmental constraints; these systems traditionally


combined finely tuned mosaic land-use patterns and appropriate agricultural
practices (environment-friendly).
3. Rural landscape between peasant wisdom and productivist demagogy
The radical political change that swept the country after the second world
war was followed by new national development strategies, pursuing economic
development at any cost: usually, it is the social and environmental costs that are
the highest, and the consequences difficult to ignore.
From the very beginning, central planninig strategies gave priority to urban
and industrial development: with this begins the offensive against the rural world,
and as a consequence, some rural landscapes suffer irreversible changes.
The most severe landscape degradation occured around major cities, where
a combination of urban/industrial aggressive development and intensive
agriculture generated a pattern of conflicting land uses with direct impacts on the
rural landscapes.
On the other hand, indirect negative impacts are caused by the massive
rural exodus, which drains human resources, leaving increasingly isolated rural
communities with an unbalanced demographic ans social structure and depressed
economies.
Agriculture is also subject to deep change, with the creation of socialist
agricultural structures: state and co-operative farms; family farming sector
collapses; land loses its patrimonial value, while peasants, from active land
managers, become an amorphous mass of rural proletariat, losing motivation,
spirit of enterprise.
Often ignoring environments carrying capacity and natural potential,
production and productivity are enhanced by increased technological inputs: huge
land consolidation projects and land reclamation programs are launched, their
main consequence being a steep decline of natural areas both as extensions and
quality; forest recedes, under the accumulated effect of mismanagement,
pollution, illegal cutting and grazing, recreational use.
Vast land reclamation projects (between 19501980 639000 ha reclaimed)
hand positive aspects: sandy soils in Oltenia stabilised by forest and vineyard
plantation; creation of water ponds (reservoirs) with environmental as well as
agricultural functions; vast irrigation systems in Brgan (Ialomia and Clrai
415000 ha), where aridity has been a major limiting factor; terraces on slopes
at risk of erosion in the higher piemontan plains; draining along major
floodplains; rectification works of major rivers.

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Still, along with such improvements, long-term negative environmental


impacts are present: overdone irrigation generated soil salinisation in some areas
(Brgan), excessive draining affected the underground water level, irrigation
with polluted waters caused soil and corps infestation.
Land consolidation on the other hand, was the cause of rural landscape
uniformity and as a result, decline of (bio)diversity and complexity; ignoring
their environmental value, low productive patches of forest, hedgerows and
isolated trees are cleared, minor morphology is flattened.
Agricultural intensification by increased technological inputs is another
major cause of environmental stress: mechanisation of operations leads to soil
compaction; pollution is generated by overuse of chemical inputs;
monocultivation on large plots explains the decline in biodiversity; giant animal
farms, with high animal concentrations are the cause of organic pollution; farm
buildings and other giant structures and infrastructure, made of materials alien to
local environment, proliferate.
In the 80s, rural restructuring (systematisation) process creation of
concentrated civic centres, is another important tool of landscape transformation;
lacking basic infrastructure, such concentrations resulted in higher pollution.
The result of 50 years of communist development is a development is a
multifaced rural crisis, best reflected by environmental devastation.
4. Romanian Plain rural landscape between productivist discourse and
the transition chaos
Started in 1989, transition to democratic development and market
economy proved to be a long and painful process.
The radical economic restructuring deepened the inherited socio-economic
crisis, and environment unfortunately remains a low priority on the list of urgent
intervention.
The year 1989 found the rural word into a deep crisis: demographic and
social structure disorted by decades of rural exodus, depressed local economies,
impoverished communities, devastated environment.
In the agricultural sector, legislative change (land reform law 18/1991),
had as immediate consequence the de-collectivization: collective farms are
disbanded and land reverts to its lawful owners; still, due to flaws in law text,
confusing procedures the re-possesion was not a smooth process.
In spite of its drawbaks, the land reform helped impel the worst depressed
economic sector, offering chances of survival to many families, which return to
their rural roots to revive family farms, on the backdrop of massive industrial
unemployment and social insecurity.
Private family farming had a difficult start, impeded by a broad range of
factors: land fragmentation (atomization) 2-2,5 ha/ family on average, barely
sufficient for subsistence, not at all for performant, modern agriculture; meager

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gouvernmental support (subsidies,credits, etc.); acute lack of financial means,


sometimes of basic managerial know-how; a severe lack of human resources all
major reasons of the return to the traditional subsistence-oriented agriculture that
preceded collectivization; general decline in farming intensity, with sharp decline
of inputs and return to traditional farming practices; important land-uses
changes.
The land-use reverts, due to land fragmentation, to the mosaic patterns;
the crop structure suits the increased subsistence demands, with grains (corn,
wheat) and sunflower leading; vineyards also return, on traditional locations;
vegetable gardening and diary farming and revived in areas of tradition (around
large cities); this contrasts with the sharp decline of areas under industrial and
specilized crops.
Agricultural practices also revert to the traditional know-how: laborintensive, but, due to prohibitive costs, low input levels (chemical fertilizers are
replaced by organic fertilizers, mechanical operations replaced by animal power
and manual operations). Animal husbandry suffers a sharp decline in numbers
and densities, followed by gradual, slow recovery in the private sector. While
such evolution is undoubtly positive from the environmental point of view, some
other aspects are a threat to the long term agricultural development: under the
subsistence pressures, crop rotations are often abandoned, generating soil
degradation, while decline in the use of certified seeds is the cause of crop
contamination. A vacuum of authority at all levels allowed the destruction of
important rural assets; it is the case of irrigation systems, abandoned and
gradually looted; forests continue to suffer the impact of illegal cutting and
clearing (plantations in areas at risk of aridisation).
While there is no denial that general productivity declined, some of these
changes have positive environmental impact (decline of intensity, reversion to
mosaic land-use patterns and to environmental-friendly practices).
A controversial aspect of recent evolutions is the rising proportion of idle
land (mostly social fallow); some areas, in peripheral locations, revert so seminatural states, with positive environmental consequences, recommending their
abandonment from cultivation; some others, especially around large cities, are
anticipating imminent urban encroachement; still, in many situations, valuable
agricultural land is abandoned by lack of means of exploitation, and the longterm consequences seem still difficult to predict.
Causes extrinsic to agriculture and the rural world which also generate
important rural landscape changes; among them, the most important is urban
sprawl, difficult to control due to private land ownership; it generates patterns of
ribbon development along major transportation routes, with new non-agricultural
(sometimes incompatible) functions creeping into the countryside: industry,
services, wholesale centers, residential projects, recreational facilities still the
infrastructure level is low and many of these uses put new burdens on

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environment.
As a consequence, we are facing today a situation of rural soci-economic
underdevelopment, clearly reflected by the severe environmental crisis.
5. Priority areas for environmental reconstruction by restauration and
nature regeneration in the Romanian Plain
Rural landscape restauration and regeneration become priorities in coping
with the above mentioned environmental disfunctions.
Re-habilitation is meant as a reversion to a state of structurally and
functionally stable, balanced environment, while renaturation/ nature
regeneration means operations aiming at increasing the proportion of seminatural areas (forest, wetland, natural pastures).
Bearing in mind the synergetic nature of forces of environmental
degradation, a ranking list of areas for priority intervention has been drawn:
1. Immediate intervention is needed in Oltenia, where a major cause of
concern has been forest clearing on sandy soils and an alarming drop in area
of artificial ponds; the two re-activate aeolian erosion and are also cause of
quick aridisation, loss of agricultural land;
2. The higher, piedmountain plains (Ploieti, Trgovite, Piteti) are
subject to natural degradation processes (soil erosion on slopes stripped of
their vegetation), and underground water pollution with oil from drilling
industry;
3. In the central part of Romanian Plain, important agricultural land is
affected by a sharp decline in forest area, density and quality; another
problem is the degradation of man-made terrace systems and destructions of
irrigation system (fig.1 and 2);
4. Areas around large cities are affected by uncontrolled urban sprawl
loss of valuable agricultural land, environment/ landscape degradation.
6. Priorities of environmental reconstruction of rural landscapes of the
Romanian Plain
The imperative need for government involvement in such projects becomes
o priority in itself; state intervention can take various forms, from the general
social and regional development strategies, to the particular agricultural and
environment policies.
Objective no.1 of any such strategy should be to ease the burden of
subsistence, as a mean to ease environmental pressures and make sustainable
development possible.
The following priorities have been set in direct relation to the degree of
human impact on environment in various areas and diversity and particularities
of local agrarian structures (natural potential, size of exploitations, traditional
specialization).

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The list of general priority actions includes:


Government support, direct subsidies for private family farming;
Government involvement in organizing the upstream and downstream
sectors directly related to farming: agricutural inputs, produce collecting,
marketing;
A system of reliable and profitable contracts between farmers and state
agents, to ensure marketing of produce;
Government support to encourage associative forms of agriculture, as a
means to achieve land consolidation, for improved productivity and
profitability;
Subsidies for specialized consultancy at local level;
Encourage environmental-friendly agricultural practicies, the
development of organic agriculture; improved land-use structure, adjusted the
natural potential,
Government support for forms of training farmers have to be not only
producers of agricultural goods, but, for their own sake, also good environment
and resource managers;
Stimulate the creation of new, compatible functions (recreation and other
services, traditional crafts etc.) to supplement rural incomes and
attract/stabilize population;
At the local level, specific actions should focus on:
Government support and subsidies for land improvement projects, as
means of improved productivity and environment quality restauration of
hedgerows, reaforrestation;
Government subsidies for restauration and maintenance of irrigation
systems; subsidized access of private farmers to such resources;
Government subsidized restauration and maintenance of land
improvement works (terraces);
Control and regulation of idle land; subsidized abandonment from
cultivation in areas at risk of environmental degradation;
Control urban sprawl strict functional zoning to prevent conflicting land
uses; enforce environmental legislation, ban polluting activities from countryside.
7. Conclusions
Whatever the mutations in the structure and functional hierarchy of rural
landscapes of Romanian Plain, agriculture remains the main component on any
restauration and nature regeneration program. It is imperative that these actions
focus on the development of a multi-functional, environment-friendly type of
agriculture, sound basis for the sustainable development of rural communities.
Identify sensitive areas and setting priorities for ecological re-construction
would enable a holistic approach to the strategies and policies of rural development.

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SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY
BERTRAND G. (1968), Paysages et gographie physique globale. Esquisse mthodologigue,
Revue gographique Pyrnes et S.O., 39, 3, Toulouse.
HIRSCHHAUSEN von BEATRICE (LECLERC) (1997), Les nouvelles campagnes roumaines:
les parodexes dun retour paysan, Ed. Belin, Paris.
HIRSCHHAUSEN von BEATRICE, PTROESCU MARIA, REY VIOLETTE (1999), Les
paysages agraires temoins des dilemmes de la transition roumaine , n Paysages
agraires et environnement. Principes ecologiques de gestion en Europe et au Canada ,
sous la direction de Stanislas Wichereck, CNRS Editions.
GERVAIS PH. et DUFAUX FR. (1994), Afrique noire et lEurope de lEst Regards croises,
Paris, Geostrophiques Karthala.
LHOMEL Edith (1995), Transition conomique lEst (19891995), Notes et tudes
Documentaires, La documentation franaise, no. 5023, Paris.
MINK G. (1997), Structures sociales en Europe de lEst. Les paysanneries , Notes et tudes
Documentaires, Paris.
OTIMAN P. I. (1997), Dezvoltarea rural n Romnia, Ed. Agroprint, Colecia Agricultura
secolului XXI, Timioara.

STERIE CIULACHE

106

THUNDERSTORM HAZARD IMPACT AND SAFETY


NICOLETA IONAC

1. Introduction
In a mans lifetime there appear many crisis moments that require adequate
approaches,
But very few of them are really extreme so that they claim radical
decisions. However some weather hazards challenge mans power of endurance
by claiming prompt and proper reactions, even if desperate. In such extremelytrying circumstances, the limits of human behaviour reach inconceivably flexible
and high standards, favouring his fast adaptation and integration in the everchanging structure of the environmental system.
The absence of past similar experiences and, more often, the lack or
scarcity of knowledge regarding natural phenomena act like negative
psychological factors, dictating improper or disproportionate reactions that lead
to behavioural failure which may ultimately produce many casualties. In such
risky and dangerous circumstances, the individual or public human behaviour
may reach desperate proportions because the physical and psychological
potential of adjustment is limited enough to ensure defence against the huge
atmospheric energies on the run. In most such cases, the first-hand impulsive
reactions prevail over the long thought of ones and individuals behave in very
different manners, but all in all, their reactions seem to concentrate exclusively
on their primary intent of self-defence.
Watches, warnings, public statements, advisories and similar products are
issued for major meteorological hazards by national meteorological agencies
around the world. In Romania, such forecast products are issued for only one of
the four most important causes of storm-related injuries floods. Nevertheless,
lightning, hail and gales represent most frequent injurers, if not killers, but
national weather services constantly underreport and underestimate their
destructive potential. That is why, this paper will summarise recent findings
relating to thunderstorm casualties and damage, and how they affect education
efforts related to the lightning, hail and gale threat.
2. Thunderstorm profile

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It probably comes as no surprise that a thunderstorm is merely a storm


containing lightning and thunder. Sometimes it produces gusty surface winds
with heavy rain and hail. The storm itself may be a single cumulonimbus cloud, a
cluster of them, or even a line of clouds that in some cases extends for more than
100 km.
The birth of a thunderstorm occurs when warm, humid air rises in an
unstable environment. The trigger needed to start air moving upward may be the
unequal heating of the surface, the effect of terrain or the lifting of warm air
along a frontal zone. Diverging upper-level winds also provide a favourable
region for thunderstorm development, as they tend to draw air upwards beneath
them, but usually, these mechanisms work together to generate severe
thunderstorms.
Scattered thunderstorms that form in summer are often referred to as
air-mass thunderstorms because they tend to develop in warm, maritime tropical
air-masses away from weather fronts. These storms are usually short-lived and
rarely produce strong winds and large hail, because they go gradually through a
cycle of development from birth to decay. Thus, this first stage is known as the
cumulus stage because, as humid air rises, it cools and condenses into a single
cumulus cloud or a cluster of clouds that grow upward only a short distance,
then they dissipate. As the cloud builds, the transformation of water vapour into
liquid or solid cloud particles releases large quantities of latent heat which keeps
the air inside the cloud warmer than the air surrounding it. The cloud continues to
grow in the unstable air as long as it is constantly fed by rising air from below.
As the cloud builds well above the freezing level, the precipitation particles grow
larger and become heavier so that, eventually, the rising air is no longer able to
keep them suspended, and they begin to fall. As they descend, they drag some of
the air along with them, creating a downdraft movement that chills the air,
making it both colder and heavier than the air around it. This is, in fact, the
mature stage of the thunderstorm, when it gets most intense as updrafts and
downdrafts reach their greatest strength in the middle of the cloud, creating
severe turbulence. Lightning and thunder are also present and heavy rainfalls or
even hailstones reach the surface in an instant. About fifteen minutes to half an
hour after the storm enters the mature stage, it begins to dissipate. The
dissipating stage occurs when the falling precipitation causes downdrafts to form
throughout the cloud. Now, deprived of its rich supply of warm, humid air, cloud
droplets no longer form and the storm dies. A single air-mass thunderstorm may
go through these three stages in an hour or less because the storm's own
precipitation produces the downdrafts that cut off the storms fuel supply by
destroying the humid updrafts.
On the other hand, the severe thunderstorms that form in a long line may
produce high winds, flash floods, damaging hail and even lightning. Just as the
air- mass thunderstorms, they form as moist air is forced to rise into unstable air,

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or in areas with a strong vertical wind shear, that causes the updraft to tilt in the
mature stage. This is very important to the development, continued existence and
propagation of the storm system. When the precipitation becomes too heavy for
the updrafts to support, it falls into the downdrafts rather than into the updrafts,
as in the air-mass thunderstorm. Because the updrafts flow unabated, they may
reach speeds of more than 80 km/ hr and may be so strong that the cloud top is
able to intrude into stable stratosphere.
The violent updrafts keep hailstones suspended in the cloud long enough
for them to grow to considerable size and once they are large enough, they either
fall out the bottom of the cloud with the downdraft or a strong updraft may toss
them out the side of the cloud. The downdraft is usually fed by the frictional drag
of the precipitation, but when the drier air surrounding the cloud is sucked into
the system, some of the precipitation evaporates, further cooling the air and
enhancing the downdraft. The cool air reaching the ground acts like a wedge,
forcing warm, moist surface air up into the system. Thus, the downdraft helps to
maintain the updraft and vice versa, so that the severe thunderstorm is able to
maintain itself for many hours.
3. Impacts of thunderstorms on people
The scope of the thunderstorm hazard is better understood now than in the
past. Thunderstorms develop in virtually every location of the country, every
year. They occur every day in summer and on all but a few days the rest of the
year, therefore, thunderstorms are the most dangerous, frequently- encountered
weather hazards that most people experience each year.
Since thunderstorm-related hazards such as lightning and hail strike the
ground in such large numbers and are so widespread, it is not possible to warn of
every thunderstorm episode for each person, and specific public warnings are
also rarely issued in Romania because of their almost instantaneous development.
No study ever summarised the number of thunderstorm injuries or deaths in
Romania, but when population is taken into account, there is an obvious steady
decrease with time in the rate of casualties.
The decrease in the number of injuries, as well as the injury rate, parallels
a decrease in the percentage of people living in rural areas. The portion of the
population outdoors during farming activities in Romania was much greater a
century ago than it is now. In addition, structures and vehicles currently used
during most farming practices are more protective against the hail and lightning
threat than before.
Some socio-economic changes linked to urbanisation during this century may
also have resulted in decreased thunderstorm casualties. The introduction of
plumbing and wiring into homes and buildings has helped ground structures which
were built ever more solid. Better communications and transportation allow medical
staff faster access to possible victims who, subsequently, may be injured rather than

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109

killed. Moreover, medical advance may help people survive a thunderstorm strike.
Other socio-economic changes are also likely to have influenced the
decrease in thunderstorm casualties and it would be of much interest to have a
better understanding of thunderstorm episodes around the country. While
industrialised regions may tend to have decreases in thunderstorm-related
casualties, farming and agriculture regions may continue to have high injury
rates. As rural structures become more substantial with concrete and plumbing,
the rate of injuries due to lightning strike inside buildings should decrease. In
addition, the number of casualties during farming activities decreases with
mechanisation, but, on the whole, the main factors that may influence these
trends are the number of people outside during the day, their activities and the
time and space distributions of thunderstorms.
The distribution of thunderstorms in Romania is not precisely known yet, and
a survey of the national meteorological agency would be of much use. However, it
seems that the highest rates are in the mountainous regions and in several plain
agriculture related areas, where they develop almost instantly, exposing lots of
people to lightning and hail threat. In a study made on 101 individuals permanently
living and working or occasionally hiking and sporting in some hazardous areas, in
the Braov and Timi counties, we have established six main cathegories of
thunderstorm injuries according to activity and location (Table).Out of all types of
activity, the outdoor and neutral ones account for the greatest number of people
injured, showing that recreation groups generally seem to ignore the actual
thunderstorm dangers and, therefore, more educational information should be
provided so that direct responsability for personal safety from the thunderstorm
hazard be taken by each individual. Of course, the orders within cathegories were
ranked by number of options ticked by individuals on the questionnaire sheet,
according to their own past climatic (thunderstorm) experience.
4. Profiles of thunderstorm victims
The current study of thunderstorm victims in the Braov and Timi
counties has shown several highly vulnerable situations and tendencies:
Recreational and sporting activities have increased in recent decades;
Only one person is a thunderstorm victim at a time in most cases;
Taking shelter under tree is a dangerous activity at all times and in all
locations because of lightning threat;
Many people are not struck by lightning or hit by hail during the most
intense portions of a storm. Instead, they occur before and after the peak rate in
a storm and in less intense storms.
For instance, in the same survey on human behaviour to thunderstorm hazard,
we have established that, by taking into account the time of injury relative to
peak storm rate, most casualties occur before (35%) or after (52%) the storm,
while only 14% are direct result of storm instant effects (lightning and hail).

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However the before casualties are produced mainly by the intense gusts of
wind that distort and tear up branches, wires and poles, spreading them all
over. On the contrary, the after casualties, more frequent and damaging, are
mainly produced by incredible downpours in the hilly and mountainous regions,
that may receive up to 3040 cm of rain within a few hours and thus, flash
floods not only turn small creeks into raging torrents, but they also trigger
extensive landslides. The less frequent peak- casualties occur mainly in open
spaces, when isolated individuals are struck by lightnings or hit by hailstones.
Out of all time events, the subsequent flash floods are the most dangerous since
they account not only for huge damage, but also for high death tolls.
Main types of thunderstorm-sensitive activities
Injuries
37%
37 injuries

27%
28 injuries

15%
15 injuries

7%
7 injuries

7%
7 injuries

7%
7 injuries

5. Safety

Activity
NEUTRAL
Standing
Walking
Sitting
Watching thunderstorm
Hiding from rain
OUTDOOR
Mtn. Climbing
Camping
Picnicking
Fishing
Boating
Hiking
Hunting
Sightseeing
SPORTS
Playing
Football
Bicycling
Amusement games
FARM
Farming

WORK
Working

URBAN
Gardening
Housework

Location

In the open
Along streets
On ground
Near powerline
In improvised shelters

Summit of mts.
Summit of ridge
Open
Lake
Foot of mts.
Grassy areas

Park
Playground
On bicycle
Amusement park

Field
In wagon
On tractor

Construction camp
Scaffolding
At work
On roof

Yard
Clothesline
On porch
In streets

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Additional understanding is needed about what constitutes safe shelter


from thunderstorms. Similarly, better understanding is needed of how lightning
currents travel along the ground and through water. Planning and awareness are
the main features of thunderstorm protection. A pro-active plan for a
thunderstorm sensitive hike or sporting event, for example, comprises several
stages, as shown in the box below.
Box
A pro active plan for thunderstorm activities Days before activity
Days before activity
Be aware of the possibility of thunderstorms several days in advance
from forecasts or climatologies for the area.
Day of activity
On the day of the event, be aware of where shelter is located.
When thunderstorm develops
Compare the following:
1. How long will it take to reach shelter ?
2. How resistant is the shelter you chose ?
Thunderstorm nearby
Go inside a substantial building or a vehicle with a solid metal top. In a
place far from buildings or vehicles there may be no better action than to take
the least risky alternative since there is not total safety.
Last minute
If you are in the open, don't lie flat on the ground and consider placing
your hands over your years, while crouching on the balls of your feet with
head down.
The results of this survey make it difficult to give a practical
recommendation regarding the safe shelter. The best conclusion may be the
development of rules that take care of the vast majority of situations. Therefore,
studies with thunderstorm network data need to be expanded to other locations to
be certain of their implications.
REFERENCES
AHRENS C. D. (19888): Meteorology Today, West Publishing Co, NY.
CIULACHE S. i IONAC NICOLETA (1995): Fenomene atmosferice de risc, Editura tiinific,
Bucureti.
IONAC NICOLETA (1998): Clima i comportamentul uman, Editura Enciclopedic, Bucureti.

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MEDIUL I SUPRAVIEUIREA
STERIE CIULACHE

n tiin, ca i n activitatea practic, indiferent de natura acesteia,


pesimismul obtuz este la fel de nociv ca i optimismul naiv. Am luat n
considerare extremele pentru c, orict ar prea de ciudat, polarizrile i
exagerrile apar ntodeauna chiar i cnd e vorba de ipoteze i teorii tiinifice
despre care omul comun se ateapt, n general, s se bazeze, pe date obiective,
experiene de laborator etc. i ca atare s nu interpreteze realitatea cercetat n
termeni diametral opui. Omul de tiin tie ns c omul comun se neal i c
orice problem poate i este abordat din unghiuri extrem de diferite, cu rezultate
adesea n total contradicie. Iar problemele extrem de complexe i de importante
ale mediului i supravieuirii nu fac excepie de la regul.
Toi cei care, ntr-un fel sau altul, s-au ocupat de aceste probleme, chiar
dac nu le-au analizat pn la ultima consecin, au trebuit s ncline, dac nu s
opteze net, pentru una sau alta dintre poziiile diametral opuse, cu privire la ceea
ce ne ateapt ntr-un viitor mai mult sau mai puin ndeprtat. n chip logic,
aceste poziii s-au materializat ntr-un sistem de idei pesimiste, susinute de
cassandrele de tot felul i ntr-un altul, de idei optimiste, susinute de pollyannele
de diferite nuane.
Este evident c toate marile descoperiri tiinifice ajung, mai devreme sau
mai trziu s influeneze pe ci directe sau mijlocite, mediul i supravieuirea. i
ca atare s conduc la apariia de opinii contrare n legtur cu consecinele lor
asupra mediului i supravieuirii speciei umane. Meninerea controverselor iscate
i ntreinute cu privire la utilizarea energiei nucleare i ingineriei genetice sunt
deosebit de relevante n acest sens.
Cum era de ateptat, cele mai numeroase i mai viu disputate teme sunt
cele legate de omul nsui. Iar constatarea c spaiul fizic al planetei Pmnt este
limitat, n timp ce creterea populaiei este, cel puin teoretic, nelimitat,
n-a ntrziat s se impun.
Creterea nelimitat a populaiei terestre a ajuns aadar problema
fundamental, din care deriv mai toate celelalte probleme care privesc mediul i
supravieuirea speciei umane.
Polarizarea s-a produs. La unul din poli se situeaz pesimistele Cassandre
care avertizeaz c sporirea nencetat a populaiei va duce n mod inevitabil la
catastrofe, iar la cellalt optimistele Pollyanne, care, contiente c omenirea va

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avea de rezolvat probleme dificile, consider totui c ea are anse reale de a le


soluiona.
Cassandrele, care de obicei sunt biologi, privesc fiecare natere ca
aducnd pe lume nc o gur nfometat.
Pollyannele, care sunt de obicei economiti, argumenteaz c ,,odat cu
fiecare gur flmnd vine pe lume i o pereche de mini (Ch. C. Mann).
i totui, cea mai mare dintre Cassandre a fost un economist, Thomas
Malthus, care n celebrul su Essay on Population (1798), afirm c ,,Potenialul
populaiei depete categoric potenialul Pmntului de a oferi hran.
Dimpotriv, filosoful raionalist francez Condorcet exprima, cu patru ani
naintea lui Malthus, opinia c tehnologia era capabil s rezolve problema
respectiv, instrumente, maini i unelte noi continund s apar, suprafee mici
de teren putnd produce cantiti foarte mari de bunuri, atunci cnd nevoile
societii impun acest lucru.
Malthus i Condorcet au conturat cei doi poli ai unei dispute care continu
i astzi, disput ce se regsete n fiecare dintre problemele globale ale lumii
contemporane.
Cassandrele moderne vorbesc despre catastrofe ecologice i avertizeaz
mpotriva posibilitii depirii acelui ,,potenial al planetei dincolo de care
aceasta nu mai poate ntreine viaa. Invocnd ,,cedrile brusce care se produc
atunci cnd populaiile de veverie, fluturi de noapte, reni etc. depesc potenialul
de ntreinere a vieii, pesimitii prezic pentru specia homo sapiens, aceeai soart.
Pollyannele constat dimpotriv, c asemenea ,,cedri n-au avut loc niciodat n
istoria omenirii i c dezvoltarea tehnologiei va creea posibiliti de asigurare a
hranei pentru multe miliarde de oameni, lumea mbogindu-se suficient de mult
pentru a realiza aa numita ,,tranziie demografic (tendina familiilor din
societile prospere de a avea mai puini copii).
Optimitii aduc, de asemenea, argumentul c dei din 1968 cnd populaia
globului era de 3,4 miliarde locuitori, pn n 1993 cnd aceasta a ajuns la 5,3
miliarde de locuitori, a avut loc cea mai important i mai rapid cretere a
populaiei nregistrat vreodat n istoria omenirii, nu s-a nregistrat totui o
,,cedare, ci dimpotriv, producia de bunuri alimentare pe cap de locuitor a
crescut cu 10 % ntre 1968 i 1990.
Pesimitii susin c ,,omenirea deja folosete, distruge sau coopteaz
aproape 40% din produsele fotosintezei terestre. Dublarea populaiei ne va face
s ne luptm cu insectele pentru ultimele fire de iarb. Acest lucru s-ar datora
progreselor tehnologice de pn acum, care ne-au adus periculos de aproape
de ,,plafonul ecologic.
Optimitii, din contr, consider, conform unui studiu ntreprins de FAO n
1982, c utiliznd mijloace i metode agricole moderne, lumea a treia ar putea
produce hran pentru peste 30 de miliarde de oameni. Ba mai mult, unii tehnofili
consider c prin inginerie genetic se poate produce hran n cantiti nelimitate.

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Pesimitii par a ti c efectul de ser datorat eliminrii antropice n


atmosfera terestr a unor cantiti din ce n ce mai mari de bioxid de carbon, va
spori ntr-att nct va determina nclzirea global a climei i implicit consecine
de-a dreptul dramatice pentru societatea omeneasc.
n replic, optimitii susin c sistemul atmosferic terestru este mult prea
vast i prea robust pentru a putea fi influenat de societatea omeneasc ntr-un
viitor previzibil. Ei argumenteaz c erupiile vulcanice au introdus n atmosfer
cantiti de bioxid de carbon infinit mai mari dect activitatea antropic, ceea ce
nu a dus la schimbri climatice dramatice precum cele prognozate de pesimiti ca
urmnd a fi provocate de activitatea omului.
Cassandrele ecologice sunt poate cele mai numeroase. Ele dezvolt un fel
de ,,teorie a balaurului. ncepnd cu anii 6070, mercurul, DDT-ul, fluoroclorocarbonaii, bioxidul de carbon, zaharina, experienele genetice i chiar gunoiul,
urmau s ne duc la catastrof. Dar, pe msur ce se constata c primejdia poate fi
stpnit sau controlat, alte ameninri i luau locul. Din nefericire, numrul
ameninrilor posibile este infinit. i desigur, profeiile apocaliptice pot avea
consecine nefaste deoarece tind s induc n noi ideea pernicioas c trebuie s fim
inexorabil pedepsii pentru rul fcut naturii (filosoful american R. W. Emerson
scria, nc n secolul trecut c ,,Istoria omenirii e un lung ir de conspiraii menite s
smulg naturii anumite avantaje, fr a plti pentru ele). Cci odat acceptat,
profeia se poate autoadeveri, deoarece oamenii i reduc eforturile pentru
mbuntirea condiiilor lor economice.
Cassandrele i Pollyannele s-au manifestat de-a lungul ntregii istorii a
omenirii, chiar dac n-au fost ntotdeauna numite aa. Filosofii Chinei antice, de
exemplu, propuneau transferuri masive de populaie ctre regiunile subpopulate.
La rndul lor, cretinii venii in Orient sftuiau oamenii s se nmuleasc. Platon
considera c polys-urile cu mai mult de 5040 de proprietari de pmnt (un numr
care nu permite bnuiala aproximrii) erau prea mari. n schimb, Martin Luther
era de prere c oamenii n-ar putea fi nicicnd prea muli, cci Dumnezeu i-ar
hrni pe toi.
n epoca noastr Cassandrele cele mai cunoscute se numesc Paul Erlich,
Dennis Meadows i Lester Brown.
n 1968, biologul Paul Erlich, de la Universitatea Stanford, publica
lucrarea sa The Population Bomb prognoznd c numrul locuitorilor de pe
Pmnt va crete cu 50% n urmtorii 25 de ani, ridicnd probleme grave n
legtur cu oferta de hran.
Dennis Meadows, i grupul su de cercettori de la ,,Massachusetts
Institute of Technology, au elaborat n 1972 lucrarea The Limits to Growth,
care argumenta pe baza unor modele electronice, iminena unei penurii mondiale
de resurse naturale, cauzate de creterea rapid a populaiei. Dou zeci de ani
mai trziu, n 1992, Meadows, aflat la Universitatea New Hampshire, public
mpreun cu doi colaboratori, o urmare a lucrrii respective, intitulat Beyond

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the Limits. Aceasta chiar mai pesimist dect prima. Concluzia ei este c ,,Noi
ncercm s realizm o cretere fizic pe o planet finit i c ,,Aceast cretere
va fi ntrerupt nc n timpul vieii noastre, foarte probabil din cauza unui
colaps ecologic.
Lester Brown, preedintele lui Worldwatch Institute, o organizaie de
cercetri ecologice din Washington i coordonatorul cunoscutelor volume
privitoare la Problemele Globale ale Omenirii, este, poate, cel mai important
dintre cercettorii ngrijorai de dificultile datorate creterii populaiei.
Recunoscnd c n prezent majoritatea populaiei lumii ,,este mai bine
hrnit dect era n 1950, Brown constat c, aceast perioad de mbuntire
ia sfrit destul de brusc i c din 1984, producia de cereale a sczut anual cu
1% pe cap de locuitor, n condiiile n care fermierii din rile cu agricultur
avansat nu mai pot face mare lucru pentru sporirea produciei (deoarece au
fcut deja totul sau aproape totul).
n opinia Cassandrelor ecologice degradarea solului este una dintre cele
mai clare i mai grave consecine ale suprapopulrii unei regiuni. Degradarea are
loc att prin eroziune fluviatil i deflaie, ct i prin poluarea provocat de
reziduurile urbane i administrarea pesticidelor, formarea srurilor prin irigarea
inadecvat etc.
Aceast opinie se sprijin i pe concluziile la care a ajuns ,,Soil Reference
and Information Center din Olanda, care apreciaz c, din 1945, omenirea a
degradat 17% din solurile lumii.
Brown arat c eroziunea mpuineaz solurile lumii cu 24 de milioane de tone
pe an, cifr pe care optimitii, de orientare economic, o consider irelevant.
n SUA se realizeaz cele mai exacte msurtori privitoare la stratul fertil
al solului. La fiecare cinci ani, ,,U.S. Department of Agriculture evalueaz
starea solurilor arabile, pe baza aa-numitei ,,ecuaii universale a pierderii
solului. Dar prin mijlocirea acestei ecuaii se stabilesc mai curnd schimbrile
din stratul fertil al solului dect dispariia concret a acestuia. Rezultatele, par a
spune Pollyannele, nu disting ,,ntre solul care ajunge pe fundul oceanului i cel
care este mutat pe ogorul vecin, unde contribuie la mrirea recoltei. Iar uneori,
ogoarele vecine se afl la distane foarte mari. Astfel, cercetri fcute la
Universitatea Virginia au condus la concluzia, surprinztoare, c anual, peste 13
milioane de tone de sol fertil african sunt purtate de vnt n regiunea
Amazonului. Studiile ntreprinse pe baza acestor date au condus la concluzia
optimist c pierderile reale de sol pe care le suport agricultura american prin
eroziune i deflaie sunt neglijabile.
Dar, desigur, optimismul trebuie s se raporteze la o scar temporal.
Pentru ce perioad de timp pierderile de sol pot fi considerate neglijabile
i apoi, dac 13 milioane de tone de sol african ajung anual n regiunea
Amazonului, cte milioane de tone cad pe suprafaa Oceanului Atlantic, ajungnd
n cele din urm pe fundul lui Ba mai mult, dac 13 milioane de tone de sol din

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Africa Ecuatorial, permanent umed i acoperit n cea mai mare parte cu


vegetaie forestier, sunt duse pn n Amazonia de vnturile de est cu o constan
nu tocmai remarcabil, nu s-ar putea conchide c vnturile de vest caracteristice
latitudinilor temperate, mai constante, transport n sens invers cantiti de sol
substanial mai mari, n condiiile n care solurile regiunilor respective sunt mai
uscate i, n anumite perioade, lipsite de vegetaie. i din aceast perspectiv, nu
s-ar putea trage concluzia c pesimistul Brown avanseaz, n legtur cu pierderile
anuale de sol, o cifr (24 de milioane de tone) mai optimist (fiind mai mic) dect
este ea n realitate
Controversa dintre Cassandre i Pollyanne este la fel de ireconciliabil i
n cazul deertificrii.
Pesimitii susin c zona subsaharian n care rata naterilor este foarte
mare, suprapoluarea a determinat o grav deteriorare a solului prin deforestare,
suprapunare, eroziunea i salinizarea solului (din cauza renunrii la regulile
tradiionale de utilizare a terenurilor i trecerii la culturi i sisteme agricole
moderne) pe fondul unei secete severe care a durat mai bine de 15 ani. n
consecin, deertul nainteaz ctre sud cu o vitez de 10 km pe an, iar foametea
a alungat din regiunea menionat circa 2 milioane de oameni.
Optimitii nu neag ,,situaia disperat n care se afl Africa, dar consider
c aceasta se datoreaz lipsei de noroc, timpului prost i proastei planificri.
Un observator obiectiv nu poate ns lua n serios argumentul ,,lipsei de
noroc, iar argumentul ,,timp (secet grav) este contrazis de nii optimitii
care invoc studiile conform crora marginea sudic a Saharei se afl pe linia de
acum 80 de ani, adic deertul se extinde i se strnge indiferent de numrul
locuitorilor.
Scepticul Meadows observ c ,,ntotdeauna poi da vina pentru o
problem anume, pe altceva dect pe suprapopulaie. Nimeni nu moare de
suprapopulaie. Oamenii mor de foame, de boli i din cauza rzboaielor. Exist
ntotdeauna o cauz imediat. El i muli ali sceptici consider c, n cele din
urm, creterea numrului de locuitori care atrage dup sine folosirea unor
cantiti mai mari de resurse, sporirea polurii, diminuarea biodiversitii etc.
trebuie s nceteze, deoarece, orict de ingenioi am fi, planeta pe care trim este
finit, iar noi facem parte din urzeala ei i nu ne putem sustrage legilor care o
guverneaz. O atitudine care poate fi taxat drept obtuz, defetist, descurajant.
Pollyannele susin ns c rolul oamenilor n respectiva urzeal este unul
deosebit. Alte specii se autocondamn i dispar cnd se nmulesc att de mult nct
i distrug propriul mediu de via. Oamenii ns, prin natura lor, au capacitatea de a
rezolva problemele care se ivesc. Cci, aa cum spune George Gilder, ,,cea mai mare
resurs de care dispunem este miracolul creativitii umane.
O atitudine care poate fi taxat drept naiv, infatuat, iresponsabil.
Dar, capacitatea imaginativ i creativitatea uman sunt ele suficiente
pentru a asigura supravieuirea, promovnd un optimism exagerat, adesea naiv,
n dispreul pesimismului exagerat, adesea obtuz

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Evalurile fcute de diveri analiti asupra ecuaiei de la Green Bank au


condus la concluzia, aproape unanim, c termenul ,,t desemnnd durata medie
de via a unei civilizaii este valoarea care se estimeaz cel mai greu.
Printre acetia, Isaac Asimov consider c o civilizaie ajuns la nivelul
tehnologic al zborurilor cosmice, are toate ansele s existe cel puin un milion de
ani. Alii cred ns c autodistrugerea ar interveni n circa un secol de la atingerea
nivelului respectiv, ntruct nelepciunea politic rmne n mod fatal, cu mult n
urma dezvoltrii tehnologice. n acest sens, avertismentele oamenilor de tiin
privitoare la scderea alarmant a concentraiei ozonului atmosferic, la creterea
efectului de ser, la degradarea ireversibil a mediului etc., ca i cele referitoare
la rzboiul nuclear declanat deliberat sau accidental sunt deosebit de elocvente.
La rndul lor, astrofizicienii I. Sklovski i C. Gogan estimeaz c, 99%
dintre civilizaiile tehnologice nu sunt n stare s supravieuiasc mai mult de
1000 de ani. Supravieuirea ar presupune rezolvarea problemelor ecologice i a
celor legate de un rzboi nuclear distrugtor, precum i de colonizarea altor
planete. Desigur, ea nu ia n considerare probabilitatea ciocnirii cu alte corpuri
cosmice, cum sunt asteroizii.
Dar nu despre aceasta este vorba. i nici despre butada conform creia
,,cele mai mari pericole vin ntotdeauna din direcii neateptate.
Bunul sim comun ne oblig s lum n considerare, cu prioritate, ameninrile
reprezentate prin procese n curs de desfurare, despre a cror evoluie i consecine
avem deja un volum de cunotine suficient de mare pentru a putea reaciona ntr-un
mod adecvat. i acestea sunt desigur schimbarea compoziiei atmosferei i oceanului
planetar, deforestarea accelerat, degradarea solurilor, diminuarea drastic a
biodiversitii etc. ntr-un cuvnt, mediul.
Pe aceast coordonat, optimismul i pesimismul trebuie s se limiteze
reciproc n efortul comun de elaborare a unor soluii echilibrate pentru ntreaga
problematic a mediului, pe ntreaga suprafa a planetei. Cci rezolvrile
pariale, mai ales cele care se refer la regiuni, sunt susceptibile s adnceasc
disparitile i aa foarte mari, dintre rile bogate i srace ale lumii, favoriznd
izbucnirea conflictelor care exercit presiuni asupra mediului att prin
intensificarea exploatrii resurselor, ct i prin degradarea nemijlocit decurgnd
din folosirea diferitelor categorii de arme.
Se pot formula, desigur, ipoteze optimiste n legtur cu ingineria genetic,
apt s asigure hran n cantiti nelimitate. i chiar au fost formulate. Dar, aa
cum se tie, alimentele obinute pe aceast cale, (implicnd utilizarea masiv de
steroizi i hormoni) nu pot avea calitile celor numite deja ecologice ci,
dimpotriv, pot avea surprize neplcute. i chiar dac problema ofertei de hran
ar fi rezolvat, rmn multe alte cerine (energie, spaiu de locuit etc.) care ar
exercita presiuni uriae asupra mediului finit al planetei Pmnt, n cazul unei
suprapopulri excesive.

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i, cum experiena arat c prosperitatea conduce la scderea sporului


natural al populaiei, cea mai neleapt soluie a problemei ar fi generalizarea
unui nivel de trai superior, n toate rile lumii, nainte ca suprapopularea s
determine procese negative ireversibile.
Dac nu cumva o atare soluie, simplist, este doar o utopie.
BIBLIOGRAFIE
BROWN L. (1991), Opiuni dificile: confruntarea cu perspectiva crizei alimentare, Editura
Tehnic, Bucureti.
BROWN L. (1992), Probleme globale ale omenirii: starea lumii (19891990), Editura Tehnic,
Bucureti.
BROWN L. (1997), Probleme globale ale omenirii: starea lumii (1996), Editura Tehnic,
Bucureti.
MEADOWS S. and al. (1972), The limits to Growth, Universe Books, NY.
MESAROVICI M. (1975), Omenirea la rspntie, Editura Politic, Bucureti.