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Substantivul

A. Tipuri de substantive
1. Substantive comune
2. Substantive proprii

1. Substantivele comune desemneaza fiinte (oameni si animale) si obiecte / lucruri.


Exemple:
- fiinte: man, woman, grandmother, teacher, brother, pupil, doctor, nurse
- obiecte (lucruri): pencil, school, car, hotel, medicine, shop, power, health

2. Substantivele proprii desemneaza nume de familie si prenume, nume de munti, orase, tari,
ape etc.
Exemple:
- nume de familie si prenume: Ewing, Brown, Sawyer, John, Mary, Helen
- nume de munti: Alps, Himalaya, Everest
- nume de orase: Bucharest, Paris, Venice
- nume de tari: France, Italy, Croatia
- nume de ape: Mississippi, Danube, Thames

B. Genul substantivelor
1. Genul masculin (care se inlocuiesc cu pronumele personal he)
Exemple: man, doctor, driver, father, boy
2. Genul feminin (care se inlocuiesc cu pronumele personal she)
Exemple: woman, mother, girl, actress, sister.
3. Genul neutru (nume de lucruri, obiecte si animale; se inlocuiesc cu pronumele personal it)
Exemple: cat, dog, pencil, butterfly, car, notebook.

C. Numarul substantivelor
Substantivele pot fi la singular sau la plural.

Formarea pluralului:

a) pluralul cu "-s"
Exemple:
a dog ---> two dogs
a school ---> two schools
a car ---> two cars
a book ---> two books

b) pluralul cu "-es" (pentru substantivele care au terminatia in -s, -x, -z, -ch, -sh)
Exemple:
a bus ---> two buses
a fax ---> two faxes
a church ---> two churches
! Atentie:
a tomato ---> two tomatoes
a potato ---> two potatoes
dar
radio ---> radios
photo ---> photos

c) pluralul cu "-ies" (pentru substantivele care au terminatia in -y)


Exemple:
- substantive terminate in y precedat de consoana:
lady ---> ladies
baby ---> babies
fly ---> flies
dar:
- substantive terminate in y precedat de vocala:
day ---> days
boy ---> boys

Reguli:
- pentru substantivele care se termina in y precedat de o consoana, pluralul se va face in -ies
- pentru substantivele care se termina in y precedat de o vocala, pluralul se va face in -s

d) pluralul cu "-ves" (pentru substantivele care au terminatia in -f sau -fe)


Exemple:
leaf ---> leaves
calf ---> calves
shelf ---> shelves
wife ---> wives
wolf ---> wolves
Exceptii:
chief ---> chiefs
proof ---> proofs
belief ---> beliefs

e) pluralele neregulate
Exemple:
child ---> children
man ---> men
woman ---> women
foot ---> feet
goose ---> geese
mouse ---> mice
tooth ---> teeth

f) substantive invariabile (uncountable) care nu primesc "-s"


Exemple:
deer (cerb)
duck (rata)
sheep (oaie)
trout (pastrav)
fish (peste)
fruit (fructe)
g) substantivele cu sens colectiv (uncountable) care nu au forma de plural
Exemple:
advice (sfat)
baggage (bagaj)
luggage (bagaje)
information (informatii)
furniture (mobila)
people (oameni)
crowd (multime)
police (politie)

h) pluralul substantivelor proprii


Exemple:
the Browns
the Johnsons
the Thompsons

D. Substantive compuse
Exemple:
classroom
schoolboy
schoolgirl
blackboard
dining-room
breakfast
Exercitii:
1. Alcatuiti pluralul urmatoarelor substantive:
table --->
clock --->
leaf --->
gentleman --->
baby --->
tooth --->
friend --->
city --->
life --->
chief --->

2. Inlocuiti substantivele urmatoare cu pronumele personal potrivit:


the girl ---
the dog ---
the actor ---
the schoolboy ---
the pencil ---
the grandmother ---

3. Alcatuiti cat mai multe substantive compuse cu ajutorul urmatoarelor cuvinte: dining, bird,
school, class, kinder, mate, room, boy, father, black, book, girl, board, living, garden, note,
exercise, parents, grand.